WorldWideScience

Sample records for reactants finely divided

  1. Finely divided, irradiated tetrafluorethylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.T.; Rodway, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    Dry non-sticky fine lubricant powders are made by γ-irradiation of unsintered coagulated dispersion grade tetrafluoroethylene polymers. These powders may also be dispersed in an organic medium for lubricating purposes

  2. Improved process for contacting finely divided solid particles with gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-07-30

    A process of contacting solids and gases of the type in which finely divided solids are maintained in a dense fluidized state in a treating zone by means of an upflowing gaseous fluidizing medium wherein solid packing in the form of a body static contiguous elements is maintained in the treating zone. The size, shape, and arrangement of the elements constituting the packing being such as to define a labyrinth of passageways in which the finely divided solids are maintained in a fluidized state, and the finely divided solids are adapted to flow freely downwardly through the passageways in the absence of a gaseous fluidizing medium.

  3. Improved process for heating finely divided carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-08-01

    A process for heating finely divided carbonaceous particles by burning a proportion of the carbon consists of passing the carbonaceous material at a temperature above 800/sup 0/F into an upwardly disposed, slender, combustion zone, suspending the particles in an upwardly-moving gas containing free oxygen so that the suspension has a density from 0.1 to 5.0 lb/cu. ft., passing the suspension upwardly through the combustion zone at a velocity of from 5 to 100 ft./sec., and injecting at least one stream of a second gas containing free oxygen at a point in the combustion zone such that at least 50% of the oxygen in the first gas has been consumed by the time the suspension reaches this point. The total quantity of oxygen is chosen so that the finely divided carbonaceous material is heated to a temperature of not less than 1,050/sup 0/F.

  4. Charge state of finely divided conducting systems in dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Yu.V.; Grishin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of the high statistic sum Z of the charged metal granules in the dielectric matrix is carried out with an account of the excess number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the granules. Application of a microscopic Hamiltonian for the energy of electrostatic interaction between the charge densities in the system makes it possible to accomplish these calculations in the average field approximation. The effect of the number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the charge state of the finely divided granules in the dielectric matrix is studied. It is supposed that the charge exchange between the composite metal elements occurs on the account of the electron overbarrier heat transfer. It is followed from the system high statistic sum calculation results that the i-granule medium charge is connected by the nonlinear ratio with the conductors V i potentials [ru

  5. Using environment friendly finely divided materials in brittle matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, S.A.; Ahmad, H.

    2005-01-01

    Material engineers the world over are increasingly recommending the use of environment friendly efficient construction materials, which otherwise would have been classed as waste materials for improving the durability of concrete. Pakistan has been blessed by nature with huge natural resources of lime, and fly-ash is also becoming increasingly available with the induction of thermal power generation plants. To introduce the benefits of such concrete modifying materials to the engineering community in our country, an investigation has been carried out on the use of locally available powdered hydrated lime, fly-ash and their combinations in making concretes with a view to evaluate their strength, workability, durability and cost effectiveness. As such there is no documented data of local materials available on the topic in Pakistan. ACI mentions powdered hydrated lime and fly-ash as finely divided admixtures which can be used to improve concrete properties at microstructure level. It is commonly believed by the engineers that the use of such materials is especially desirable for durability purposes. Moreover, lime when added in concrete absorbs CO/sub 2/ from the environment thus making it friendly flexible material. he results of investigation are encouraging especially when the two were used in combination as some weight fraction of cement to make quality and environment friendly concrete. (author)

  6. Process and apparatus for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A

    1933-09-18

    A process is described for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid and semi-solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils, whereby the mixture is first heated to a high temperature; the heated products are introduced into a coking zone, where vapors are separated from nonvaporous residue afterwards to be cracked and condensed, characterized in that the mixture is heated to a high temperature under substantially noncoking conditions and that nonvaporous residue obtained in the coking zone is coked as a relatively thin layer on an externally intensely heated surface, preferably of heat-conducting, fireproof material, such as carborundum, fused-aluminum oxide, or clay.

  7. Contribution to the study of the production and properties of finely divided solids, prepared in a flame reactor (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuer, J.P.

    1960-04-01

    Sufficiently fine particles cannot be obtained by the grinding of crystals. It is therefore logical to adopt a method whereby the solid is formed from a compound in the vapour phase notable amongst such compounds, volatile at moderate temperatures, are certain organic derivatives of metals and the metallic halides. Formation of the solid from its gaseous derivative should be possible by hydrolysis or oxidation without the dispersion of the reaction medium being modified. The simplest method seems to be to obtain the reaction in an oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe. When the gases in the blow-pipe contain a volatile metallic compound, precipitation of finely divided solid in the form of oxide is produced in the flame at high temperature. Aluminium, titanium, iron and zirconium oxides and silica, the particles of which are spherical and very homogeneous in diameter, have been prepared in this way. The specific surfaces calculated from the diameters on electron microscope photographs are in agreement with those measured by adsorption of nitrogen at 195 deg. C. The oxides thus prepared are therefore not intensely porous. The properties and size of the oxide particles are studied as a function of various operational parameters, such as flame temperature and concentration of volatile metal derivative in the reactive gases. When the blow-pipe is supplied with oxide particles of small diameter, a very marked increase in size is observed. The properties of these preparations are also examined. (author) [fr

  8. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    given partitioning of the system in physical or functional space. The most frequently ... Then, the inter-reactant equilibrium is considered. The ... Global equilibrium. Even though the chemical potential in the case of global equilibrium is equalized by definition (see (1)), we repeat here the proof, for the current needs, using.

  9. Uranium resources in fine-grained carbonaceous rocks of the Great Divide Basin, south-central Wyoming. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.A.; Roe, L.M. II; Hacke, C.M.; Mosher, M.M.

    1982-11-01

    The uranium resources of the fine-grained carbonaceous rocks of the Great Divide Basin in southern Wyoming were assessed. The assessment was based primarily on data from some 600 boreholes. The data included information from geophysical logs, lithologic logs and cores, and drill cuttings. The cores and cuttings were analyzed for chemical U 3 O 8 , radiometric U, Th and trace elements. Selected samples were examined by thin section, sieve analysis, x-ray, SEM, ion probe, and alpha track methods. The uranium is associated with fine-grained carbonaceous shales, siltstones, mudstones, and coals in radioactive zones 5 to 50 ft thick that are continuous over broad areas. These rocks have a limited stratigraphic range between the Red Desert tongue of the Wasatch Formation and the lower part of the Tipton tongue of the Green River Formation. Most of this uranium is syngenetic in origin, in part from the chelation of the uranium by organic material in lake-side swamps and in part as uranium in very fine detrital heavy minerals. The uraniferous fine-grained carbonaceous rocks that exceed a cutoff grade of 100 ppM eU 3 O 8 extend over an area of 542 mi 2 and locally to a depth of approximately 2000 ft. The uraniferous area is roughly ellipical and embraces the zone of change between the piedmont and alluvial-fan facies and the lacustrine facies of the intertonguing Battle Spring, Wasatch, and Green River Formations. About 1.05 x 10 6 tons U 3 O 8 , based on gross-gamma logs not corrected for thorium, are assigned to the area in the first 500 ft; an estimated 3.49 x 10 6 tons are assigned to a depth of 1000 ft. These units also contain a substantial thorium resource that is also associated with fine-grained rocks. The thorium-to-uranium ratio generally ranges between 1 and 4. A thorium resource of 3.43 x 10 6 tons to a depth of 500 ft is estimated for the assessment area. 5 figures, 3 tables

  10. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...

  11. The effects of combined therapy of rheumatoid arthritis on the acute phase reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Pllana, Ejup; Dragusha, Gani; Gashi, Masar; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of acute phase reactants in the 60 treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the applied treatment: group I (n = 30) was treated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine, and group II (n = 30) with methotrexate. The results of our study shows that there is a statistically significant reduction in the value of acute phase reactants and clinical parameters after treatment in both investigated groups of patients, and also a significant statistical difference between the first and second group of treated patients.

  12. Utilization of heat of finely divided solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-11-05

    A method pr preconditioning subdivided solids subjected to a high-temperature treatment in a high-temperature treating zone, comprises transferring a portion of the sensible heat of hot, subdivided, treated solids withdrawn from said treating zone, at a relatively high temperature level to said subdivided solids to be preconditioned, transferring another portion of said sensible heat at a relatively low temperature level to a material vaporizable at said low temperature level to generate a fluidizing medium and fluidizing said subdivided withdrawn solids by means of said fluidizing medium to improve the heat-transfer characteristics of said withdrawn solids.

  13. Quantum-chemical study of the geometric and electronic structure of the chromate anion CrO42- and a chromate group on the surface of finely divided silica by the CNDO/2 method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyuto, I.V.; Shpak, A.P.; Plyuto, Yu.V.; Chuiko, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study of the geometric and electronic structure of the chromate anion CrO 4 2- and a chromate group on the surface of finely divided silica (≡Si-O) 2 - CrO 2 , which was simulated by a CrO 9 Si 6 H 12 cluster, has been carried out by the SCF-MO-LCAO method in the all-valence-electron CNDO/2 approximation. The data obtained on the equilibrium geometry of the chromate group attest to the formation of a double bond between the Cr atom and each O atom (which is not bonded to Si). It has been shown that the support has a significant stabilizing in fluence on the energy of the MO's of the chromate group. The chromate group on an SiO 2 surface is characterized by partial delocalization of the frontier MO's among the skeletal bonds; however, the dominant contribution to the HOMO is made by the 2p AO of the oxygen atoms in the coordination shell of the Cr atom (∼70%), and the dominant contribution to the LUMO is made by the 3d AO of the chromium atom (∼50%). The positions and composition of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals point out the possibility of the display of electron-acceptor properties by a chromate group of an SiO 2 surface

  14. Microcanonical rates, gap times, and phase space dividing surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezra, Gregory S.; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The general approach to classical unimolecular reaction rates due to Thiele is revisited in light of recent advances in the phase space formulation of transition state theory for multidimensional systems. Key concepts, such as the phase space dividing surface separating reactants from products, the

  15. Conductive polymer layers to limit transfer of fuel reactants to catalysts of fuel cells to reduce reactant crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanis, Ronald J.; Lambert, Timothy N.

    2016-12-06

    An apparatus of an aspect includes a fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell catalyst layer is operable to catalyze a reaction involving a fuel reactant. A fuel cell gas diffusion layer is coupled with the fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell gas diffusion layer includes a porous electrically conductive material. The porous electrically conductive material is operable to allow the fuel reactant to transfer through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer to reach the fuel cell catalyst layer. The porous electrically conductive material is also operable to conduct electrons associated with the reaction through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. An electrically conductive polymer material is coupled with the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. The electrically conductive polymer material is operable to limit transfer of the fuel reactant to the fuel cell catalyst layer.

  16. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  17. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  18. Timing divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A; VanRullen, Rufin; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual attention can be divided over multiple objects or locations. However, there is no single theoretical framework within which the effects of dividing attention can be interpreted. In order to develop such a model, here we manipulated the stage of visual processing at which attention was divided, while simultaneously probing the costs of dividing attention on two dimensions. We show that dividing attention incurs dissociable time and precision costs, which depend on whether attention is divided during monitoring or during access. Dividing attention during monitoring resulted in progressively delayed access to attended locations as additional locations were monitored, as well as a one-off precision cost. When dividing attention during access, time costs were systematically lower at one of the accessed locations than at the other, indicating that divided attention during access, in fact, involves rapid sequential allocation of undivided attention. We propose a model in which divided attention is understood as the simultaneous parallel preparation and subsequent sequential execution of multiple shifts of undivided attention. This interpretation has the potential to bring together diverse findings from both the divided-attention and saccade preparation literature and provides a framework within which to integrate the broad spectrum of divided-attention methodologies.

  19. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  20. Synthesis of new thermoelectrics using modulated elemental reactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, M D; Sellinschegg, H; Johnson, D C

    1997-07-01

    A series of new, metastable ternary crystalline compounds with the skutterudite crystal structure have been synthesized using modulated elemental reactants. The initial reactants are made up of multiple repeats of a {approximately}25 {angstrom} thick unit containing elemental layers of the desired ternary metal, iron and antimony. Low temperature annealing (150 C) results in interdiffusion of the elemental layers to form amorphous reaction intermediates. Annealing these intermediates at temperatures between 200 C and 250 C results in exothermic crystallization of the desired skutterudite crystal structure. Most of the new compounds prepared are only kinetically stable, decomposing exothermically to form thermodynamically more stable mixtures of binary compounds and elements. Low angle x-ray diffraction studies show that the resulting films are exceedingly smooth. These films have an ideal geometry for measuring properties of importance for thermoelectric devices--the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity can be measured using a modification of the 3{omega} technique of Cahill. Samples can be produced rapidly, allowing for systematic screening and subsequent optimization as a function of composition and doping levels.

  1. Predicting Upscaled Behavior of Aqueous Reactants in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. E.; Hansen, S. K.; Bolster, D.; Richter, D. H.; Vesselinov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    When modeling reactive transport, reaction rates are often overestimated due to the improper assumption of perfect mixing at the support scale of the transport model. In reality, fronts tend to form between participants in thermodynamically favorable reactions, leading to segregation of reactants into islands or fingers. When such a configuration arises, reactions are limited to the interface between the reactive solutes. Closure methods for estimating control-volume-effective reaction rates in terms of quantities defined at the control volume scale do not presently exist, but their development is crucial for effective field-scale modeling. We attack this problem through a combination of analytical and numerical means. Specifically, we numerically study reactive transport through an ensemble of realizations of two-dimensional heterogeneous porous media. We then employ regression analysis to calibrate an analytically-derived relationship between reaction rate and various dimensionless quantities representing conductivity-field heterogeneity and the respective strengths of diffusion, reaction and advection.

  2. Polyimide resin composites via in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermo-oxidatively stable polyimide/graphite-fiber composites were prepared using a unique in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers. This was accomplished by using an aromatic diamine and two ester-acids in a methyl alcohol solvent, rather than a previously synthesized prepolymer varnish, as with other A-type polyimides. A die molding procedure was developed and a composite property characterization conducted with high modulus graphite fiber tow. Flexure, tensile, compressive, and shear tests were conducted at temperatures from 72 to 650 F on laminates before and after exposures at the given temperatures in an air environment for times up to 1000 hours. The composite material was determined to be oxidatively, thermally, and hydrolytically stable.

  3. The Great Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    Steps away from where a concrete wall once divided this city east from west, a group of Muslim 1st graders at E.O. Plauen Elementary School sing a phrase that is unfamiliar to most German ears. Though the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have long provided voluntary religion classes in Berlin schools, only recently have the courts allowed an…

  4. A Town Divided

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Lucas H

    2018-01-01

    Residents of rural Patagonia, AZ are bitterly divided over mining. Half of the town supports Arizona Mining Inc., a Canadian mining company that bought up land near town for vast exploratory drilling. The other half of the town is fighting the mining company at every turn, seeking to preserve the region's unique wildlife and steer the economy toward environmental restoration.

  5. Rheological Properties of Rubber Compounds with Finely Divided Carbon Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashok, Zh. S.; Prokopchuk, N. R.; Vishnevskii, K. V.; Krauklis, A. V.; Borisevich, K. O.; Borisevich, I. O.

    2018-01-01

    A study has been made of the influence of three different nanomaterials: of the starting material, and also of those functionalized by amine and oxygen-containing groups, on the properties of elastomer compositions based on rubbers for special purposes. As the elastomer matrix, use was made in one case of a rubber compound based on BNKS-18 butadiene-nitrile rubber and in the other, of a combination of two grades of butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNKS-18 + BNKS-28 in a 50:50 ratio), which differed by the amount of the bound nitrile of acrylic acid. To determine the degree of interaction between the additives and the elastomer matrix, the authors carried out multiple tests of the rubber compounds. The indices of plastoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and the qualitative characteristics of distribution of the filler (elastic modulus at small deformation amplitudes and the shear modulus under large deformation) and the difference in these indices (complex dynamic modulus) alike have been determined.

  6. Solid-state photoelectrochemical H2 generation with gaseous reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwu, Kingsley O.; Galeckas, Augustinas; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.; Norby, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Photocurrent and H 2 production were demonstrated in an all solid-state photoelectrochemical cell employing gaseous methanol and water vapour at the photoanode. Open circuit photovoltage of around −0.4 V and short circuit photocurrent of up to 250 μA/cm 2 were obtained. At positive bias, photocurrent generation was limited by the irradiance, i.e., the amount of photogenerated charge carriers at the anode. Time constants and impedance spectra showed an electrochemical capacitance of the cell of about 15 μF/cm 2 in the dark, which increased with increasing irradiance. With only water vapour at the anode, the short circuit photocurrent was about 6% of the value with gaseous methanol and water vapour. The photoanode and electrocatalyst on carbon paper support were affixed to the proton conducting membrane using Nafion ® as adhesive, an approach that yielded photocurrents up to 15 times better than that of a cell assembled by hot-pressing, in spite of the overall cell resistance of the latter being up to five times less than that of the former. This is attributed, at least partially, to reactants being more readily available at the photoanode of the better performing cell

  7. Facebook's gender divide

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David; Kassa, Yonas Mitike; Cuevas, Angel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Rahwan, Iyad; Cuevas, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Online social media are information resources that can have a transformative power in society. While the Web was envisioned as an equalizing force that allows everyone to access information, the digital divide prevents large amounts of people from being present online. Online social media in particular are prone to gender inequality, an important issue given the link between social media use and employment. Understanding gender inequality in social media is a challenging task due to the neces...

  8. Monitoring the digital divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Matthews, W.; Cottrell, R.L.

    2003-05-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low-bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste - a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent 'Recommendations of Trieste' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work. (author)

  9. Monitoring the Digital Divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-01-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent ''Recommendations of Trieste'' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work

  10. Bridging the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    The article concerns the digital divide, meaning the social inequity in the access and the opportunities for gaining competencies with ICT (information and communication technologies). Problematic issues are highlighted in relation to experiences during visits to several Computer Clubhouses......, a network of multimedia workshops for youth in the USA. There are references to the learning philosophy Constructionism, which originates from MIT Media Lab and is the basis for the Computer Clubhouse project. Abstract : The consortium for Math and Science at Learning Lab Denmark and the Ministry...... of Education have published the white book 'Life of Science - White Book on Educational Initiatives in the Natural Sciences and Technology', inconnection with a conference for EIST (Initiatives in Science and Technology). The purpose of the EIST project is to make a qualitative overview of a number...

  11. New fundamental equations of thermodynamics for systems in chemical equilibrium at a specified partial pressure of a reactant and the standard transformed formation properties of reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberty, R.A.; Oppenheim, I.

    1993-01-01

    When temperature, pressure, and the partial pressure of a reactant are fixed, the criterion of chemical equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the transformed Gibbs energy G' that is obtained by using a Legendre transform involving the chemical potential of the reactant that is fixed. For reactions of ideal gases, the most natural variables to use in the fundamental equation are T, P', and P B , where P' is the partial pressure of the reactants other than the one that is fixed and P B is the partial pressure of the reactant that is fixed. The fundamental equation for G' yields the expression for the transformed entropy S', and a transformed enthalpy can be defined by the additional Legendre transform H'=G'+TS'. This leads to an additional form of the fundamental equation. The calculation of transformed thermodynamic properties and equilibrium compositions is discussed for a simple system and for a general multireaction system. The change, in a reaction, of the binding of the reactant that is at a specified pressure can be calculated using one of the six Maxwell equations of the fundamental equation in G'

  12. Why do bacteria divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vic

    2015-01-01

    The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life – Life as independent of its constituents – is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass – its cellular connectivity – would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity – Life on the Scales of Equilibria – is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium (E) and non-equilibrium (NE) cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias ‘hyperstructures.’ The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of E material and the intensity of use of NE material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence – Competitive Coherence – is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell’s contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics to the cell cycle itself. PMID

  13. Liquid Water Transport in the Reactant Channels of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak

    Water management has been identified as a critical issue in the development of PEM fuel cells for automotive applications. Water is present inside the PEM fuel cell in three phases, i.e. liquid phase, vapor phase and mist phase. Liquid water in the reactant channels causes flooding of the cell and blocks the transport of reactants to the reaction sites at the catalyst layer. Understanding the behavior of liquid water in the reactant channels would allow us to devise improved strategies for removing liquid water from the reactant channels. In situ fuel cell tests have been performed to identify and diagnose operating conditions which result in the flooding of the fuel cell. A relationship has been identified between the liquid water present in the reactant channels and the cell performance. A novel diagnostic technique has been established which utilizes the pressure drop multiplier in the reactant channels to predict the flooding of the cell or the drying-out of the membrane. An ex-situ study has been undertaken to quantify the liquid water present in the reactant channels. A new parameter, the Area Coverage Ratio (ACR), has been defined to identify the interfacial area of the reactant channel which is blocked for reactant transport by the presence of liquid water. A parametric study has been conducted to study the effect of changing temperature and the inlet relative humidity on the ACR. The ACR decreases with increase in current density as the gas flow rates increase, removing water more efficiently. With increase in temperature, the ACR decreases rapidly, such that by 60°C, there is no significant ACR to be reported. Inlet relative humidity of the gases does change the saturation of the gases in the channel, but did not show any significant effect on the ACR. Automotive powertrains, which is the target for this work, are continuously faced with transient changes. Water management under transient operating conditions is significantly more challenging and has not

  14. Contribution to the study of the production and properties of finely divided solids, prepared in a flame reactor (1960); Contribution a l'etude de procedes d'obtention et des proprietes des solides finement divises elabores dans un reacteur a flamme (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuer, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-04-15

    Sufficiently fine particles cannot be obtained by the grinding of crystals. It is therefore logical to adopt a method whereby the solid is formed from a compound in the vapour phase notable amongst such compounds, volatile at moderate temperatures, are certain organic derivatives of metals and the metallic halides. Formation of the solid from its gaseous derivative should be possible by hydrolysis or oxidation without the dispersion of the reaction medium being modified. The simplest method seems to be to obtain the reaction in an oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe. When the gases in the blow-pipe contain a volatile metallic compound, precipitation of finely divided solid in the form of oxide is produced in the flame at high temperature. Aluminium, titanium, iron and zirconium oxides and silica, the particles of which are spherical and very homogeneous in diameter, have been prepared in this way. The specific surfaces calculated from the diameters on electron microscope photographs are in agreement with those measured by adsorption of nitrogen at 195 deg. C. The oxides thus prepared are therefore not intensely porous. The properties and size of the oxide particles are studied as a function of various operational parameters, such as flame temperature and concentration of volatile metal derivative in the reactive gases. When the blow-pipe is supplied with oxide particles of small diameter, a very marked increase in size is observed. The properties of these preparations are also examined. (author) [French] Les procedes de broyage des cristaux ne conduisent pas a des particules suffisamment fines. Aussi, il est logique de s'adresser a un procede de formation du solide a partir d'un compose se trouvant en phase vapeur. De tels composes, volatils a des temperatures moderees, sont notamment certains derives organiques des metaux et les halogenures metalliques. La formation du solide a partir de son derive gazeux doit pouvoir etre effectuee par l'hydrolyse ou l'oxydation, sans que la

  15. Complex nonlinear behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    The fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle investigated in this paper can exhibit periodic solutions. These solutions bifurcate from the steady state in a Hopf bifurcation. The Hopf bifurcation encountered at the lowest value of the inlet concentration turns the steady state unstable and marks......,that the dynamic behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle is much more complex than previously reported....

  16. Anne Fine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gaydon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Anne Fine with an introduction and aside on the role of children’s literature in our lives and development, and our adult perceptions of the suitability of childhood reading material. Since graduating from Warwick in 1968 with a BA in Politics and History, Anne Fine has written over fifty books for children and eight for adults, won the Carnegie Medal twice (for Goggle-Eyes in 1989 and Flour Babies in 1992, been a highly commended runner-up three times (for Bill’s New Frock in 1989, The Tulip Touch in 1996, and Up on Cloud Nine in 2002, been shortlisted for the Hans Christian Andersen Award (the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children’s books, 1998, undertaken the positon of Children’s Laureate (2001-2003, and been awarded an OBE for her services to literature (2003. Warwick presented Fine with an Honorary Doctorate in 2005. Philip Gaydon’s interview with Anne Fine was recorded as part of the ‘Voices of the University’ oral history project, co-ordinated by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study.

  17. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  18. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  19. Essays on the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Belal M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The digital divide is a phenomenon that is globally persistent, despite rapidly decreasing costs in technology. While much of the variance in the adoption and use of information communication technology (ICT) that defines the digital divide can be explained by socioeconomic and demographic variables, there is still significant unaccounted variance…

  20. First unitary, then divided: the temporal dynamics of dividing attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Witt, Joseph B

    2018-04-24

    Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets. One aspect of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, has been shown to occur only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By presenting the second target pair at various spatial locations and assessing the magnitude of Lag-1 sparing, we probed the spatial distribution of attention. By systematically manipulating the stimulus-onset-asynchrony between the targets, we also tracked changes to the spatial distribution of attention over time. The results showed that even under conditions which encourage the division of attention, the attentional focus is first deployed in unitary form before being divided. It is then maintained in divided form only briefly before settling on a single location.

  1. Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

  2. Catalytic membrane in denitrification of water: a means to facilitate intraporous diffusion of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilinich, O.M.; Cuperus, F.P.; Gemert, van R.W.; Gribov, E.N.; Nosova, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    The series of mono- and bi-metallic catalysts with Pd and/or Cu supported over γ-Al 2O 3 was investigated with respect to reduction of nitrate and nitrite ions in water by hydrogen. Pronounced limitations of catalytic performance due to intraporous diffusion of the reactants were observed in the

  3. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  4. On the mechanism of effective chemical reactions with turbulent mixing of reactants and finite rate of molecular reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotilin, V. P., E-mail: VPVorotilin@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Mechanics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    A generalization of the theory of chemical transformation processes under turbulent mixing of reactants and arbitrary values of the rate of molecular reactions is presented that was previously developed for the variant of an instantaneous reaction [13]. The use of the features of instantaneous reactions when considering the general case, namely, the introduction of the concept of effective reaction for the reactant volumes and writing a closing conservation equation for these volumes, became possible due to the partition of the whole amount of reactants into “active” and “passive” classes; the reactants of the first class are not mixed and react by the mechanism of instantaneous reactions, while the reactants of the second class approach each other only through molecular diffusion, and therefore their contribution to the reaction process can be neglected. The physical mechanism of reaction for the limit regime of an ideal mixing reactor (IMR) is revealed and described. Although formally the reaction rate in this regime depends on the concentration of passive fractions of the reactants, according to the theory presented, the true (hidden) mechanism of the reaction is associated only with the reaction of the active fractions of the reactants with vanishingly small concentration in the volume of the reactor. It is shown that the rate constant of fast chemical reactions can be evaluated when the mixing intensity of reactants is much less than that needed to reach the mixing conditions in an IMR.

  5. Getting Past the "Digital Divide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sean

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, "digital divide" has become a catchphrase for the stubborn disparity in IT resources between communities, especially in regard to education. Low-income, rural and minority populations have received special scrutiny as the technological "have-nots." This article presents success stories of educators who can work around obstacles…

  6. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  7. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  8. Low temperature synthesis of Mo2C/W2C superlattices via ultra-thin modulated reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Johnson, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The authors report here a synthesis method of preparing carbide superlattices using ultra-thin modulated reactants. Initial investigations into the synthesis of the binary systems, Mo 2 C and W 2 C using ultra-thin modulated reactants revealed that both can be formed at relatively low temperatures (500 and 600 C respectively). DSC and XRD data suggested a two step reaction pathway involving interdiffusion of the initial modulated reactant followed by crystallization of the final product, if the modulation length is on the order of 10 angstrom. This information was used to form Mo 2 C/W 2 C superlattices using the structure of the ultra-thin modulated reactant to control the final superlattice period. Relatively large superlattice modulations were kinetically trapped by having several repeat units of each binary within the total repeat of the initial reactant. DSC and XRD data again are consistent with a two step reaction pathway leading to the formation of carbide superlattices

  9. A low-power digital frequency divider for system-on-a-chip applications

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an idea for a new frequency divider architecture is proposed. The divider is based on a coarse-fine architecture. The coarse block operates at a low frequency to save power consumption and it selectively enables the fine block which operates at the high input frequency. The proposed divider has the advantages of synchronous divider, but with lower power consumption and higher operation speed. The design can achieve a wide division range with a minor effect on power consumption and speed. The architecture was implemented on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to verify its operation. Experimental measurements validate system operation with power reduction greater than 40%. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease: current concepts and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, Vilasan; Ambili, Ranjith; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Preeja, Chandran

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal disease has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events by unknown mechanisms. C-reactive protein is a systemic marker released during the acute phase of an inflammatory response and is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease, with elevated serum levels being reported during periodontal disease. Studies also reported elevated levels of various other acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease. It has been reported extensively in the literature that treatment of periodontal infections can significantly lower serum levels of C-reactive protein. Therefore, an understanding of the relationship between acute-phase response and the progression of periodontal disease and other systemic health complications would have a profound effect on the periodontal treatment strategies. In view of this fact, the present review highlights an overview of acute-phase reactants and their role in periodontal disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Modeling of the reactant conversion rate in a turbulent shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, S. H.; Madnia, C. K.; Givi, P.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially developing shear flows under the influence of infinitely fast chemical reactions of the type A + B yields Products. The simulation results are used to construct the compositional structure of the scalar field in a statistical manner. The results of this statistical analysis indicate that the use of a Beta density for the probability density function (PDF) of an appropriate Shvab-Zeldovich mixture fraction provides a very good estimate of the limiting bounds of the reactant conversion rate within the shear layer. This provides a strong justification for the implementation of this density in practical modeling of non-homogeneous turbulent reacting flows. However, the validity of the model cannot be generalized for predictions of higher order statistical quantities. A closed form analytical expression is presented for predicting the maximum rate of reactant conversion in non-homogeneous reacting turbulence.

  12. Experimental investigation of laminar LPG-H{sub 2} jet diffusion flame with preheated reactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Mishra; P. Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Combustion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effect of H{sub 2} addition on flame length, soot free length fraction (SFLF), flame radiant fraction, gas temperature and emission level in LPG-H{sub 2} composite fuel jet diffusion flame for two preheated cases namely, (i) preheated air and (ii) preheated air and fuel. Results show that the H{sub 2} addition leads to a reduction in flame length which may be caused due to an increased gas temperature. Besides this, the flame length is also observed to be reduced with increasing reactants temperature. The soot free length fraction (SFLF) increases as H{sub 2} is added to fuel stream. This might have been caused by decrease in the C/H ratio in the flame and is favorable to attenuate PAH formation rate. Interestingly, the SFLF is observed to be reduced with increasing reactants temperature that may be due to reduction in induction period of soot formation caused by enhanced flame temperature. Moreover, the decreased radiant heat fraction with hydrogen addition is pertinent with the reduction in soot concentration level. The reduction in NOx emission level with H{sub 2} addition to the fuel stream is also observed. On the contrary, NOx emission level is found to be enhanced significantly with reactant temperature that can be attributed to the increase in thermal NOx through Zeldovich mechanism. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Design, fabrication and performance of a mixed-reactant membraneless micro direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego-Martínez, J. C.; Moreno-Zuria, A.; Cuevas-Muñiz, F. M.; Arriaga, L. G.; Sun, Shuhui; Mohamedi, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, we report the design, fabrication and evaluation of a membraneless mixed-reactant and air-breathing microfluidic direct methanol fuel cell (ML-μDMFC) stack operated in passive mode. The operation under mixed-reactant conditions was achieved by using a highly methanol-tolerant Ag/Pt/CP cathode with ultra-low Pt loading in alkaline medium. Prior to the fabrication of the stack, a flow simulation was made in order to study the behavior of the reactants stream in the microchannel through the 2 cells. Subsequently, the device was tested in passive mode using a mixture of 5 M MeOH +0.5 M KOH. The results showed that by connecting the 2 cells in series, it is possible to effectively double the voltage of a single ML-μDMFC, as well as increasing the absolute power by 75% with practically no cost increase. The stack was capable of operate continuously for more than 2 h with a single charge of 40 μL, producing an OCV of 0.89 V and a maximum power density of 3.33 mW mgPt-1. Additionally, the device exhibited good stability throughout a 10 h test.

  14. Divided by the Market, Divided by the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Starke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of the individual differences, the analysis also shows, for the first time, that both high inequality and strongly redistributive policies divide public opinion along the lines of socioeconomic position. Put differently, while market inequality may be associated with less cohesive attitudes, a highly redistributive...... welfare state does not seem to foster agreement among the public, either. These findings have important policy implications for advanced welfare states, including a renewed emphasis on ‘predistribution’ (i.e., policies that influence the primary distribution of income) in order to avoid the scenario...

  15. Environment, information divide and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Design of human environment is to be made with understanding human-human and human-environment relations and environmental behaviors of human beings, artifacts and natural things and overcoming their differences and contradictions. Information divide exists naturally due to various differences of human beings. Many problems in the area of nuclear energy seem to be derived from various differences and contradictions in central-local interests, between the particles concerned and unconcerned and also in human being-artifacts relations. In order to harmonize nuclear energy with the society, it is necessary to vanish differences and solve contradictions with redesigning environments of those problems in their context. Case studies are highly recommended with continuous efforts to develop more universal design methodology. Open access to information and data in science and technology is encouraged in the area of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Platinum- and membrane-free swiss-roll mixed-reactant alkaline fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziznia, Amin; Oloman, Colin W; Gyenge, Előd L

    2013-05-01

    Eliminating the expensive and failure-prone proton exchange membrane (PEM) together with the platinum-based anode and cathode catalysts would significantly reduce the high capital and operating costs of low-temperature (<373 K) fuel cells. We recently introduced the Swiss-roll mixed-reactant fuel cell (SR-MRFC) concept for borohydride-oxygen alkaline fuel cells. We now present advances in anode electrocatalysis for borohydride electrooxidation through the development of osmium nanoparticulate catalysts supported on porous monolithic carbon fiber materials (referred to as an osmium 3D anode). The borohydride-oxygen SR-MRFC operates at 323 K and near atmospheric pressure, generating a peak power density of 1880 W m(-2) in a single-cell configuration by using an osmium-based anode (with an osmium loading of 0.32 mg cm(-2)) and a manganese dioxide gas-diffusion cathode. To the best of our knowledge, 1880 W m(-2) is the highest power density ever reported for a mixed-reactant fuel cell operating under similar conditions. Furthermore, the performance matches the highest reported power densities for conventional dual chamber PEM direct borohydride fuel cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Time resolved FTIR study of the catalytic CO oxidation under periodic variation of the reactant concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritzenberger, J; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Oxidation of CO over palladium/zirconia catalyst obtained from an amorphous Pd{sub 25}Zr{sub 75} precursor was investigated by time resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Sine wave shaped modulation of the reactant concentration, i.e. variation of CO or O{sub 2} partial pressure, was used to induce variations of the IR signals of product (CO{sub 2}) and unconverted reactant (CO), which were detected in a multi-pass absorption cell. The phase shift {phi} between external perturbation and variation of the CO{sub 2} signal was examined in dependence on temperature (100{sup o}C{<=}T{<=}350{sup o}C) and modulation frequency (1.39x10{sup -4}Hz{<=}{omega}{<=}6.67x10{sup -2}Hz). From the phase shift values, a simple Eley-Rideal mechanism is excluded, and the rate limiting step of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism for the CO oxidation may be identified. Adsorption and possible surface movement of CO to the actual reaction site determine the rate of the CO oxidation on the palladium/zirconia catalyst used in our study. The introduction of an external perturbation is a first step towards the application of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to heterogeneous catalyzed reactions. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  18. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  19. A Regime Diagram for Autoignition of Homogeneous Reactant Mixtures with Turbulent Velocity and Temperature Fluctuations

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.; Pal, Pinaki; Wooldridge, Margaret S.; Mansfield, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical scaling analysis is conducted to propose a diagram to predict weak and strong ignition regimes for a compositionally homogeneous reactant mixture with turbulent velocity and temperature fluctuations. The diagram provides guidance on expected ignition behavior based on the thermo-chemical properties of the mixture and the flow/scalar field conditions. The analysis is an extension of the original Zeldovich’s analysis by combining the turbulent flow and scalar characteristics in terms of the characteristic Damköhler and Reynolds numbers of the system, thereby providing unified and comprehensive understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms controlling ignition characteristics. Estimated parameters for existing experimental measurements in a rapid compression facility show that the regime diagram predicts the observed ignition characteristics with good fidelity.

  20. A Regime Diagram for Autoignition of Homogeneous Reactant Mixtures with Turbulent Velocity and Temperature Fluctuations

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.

    2015-04-02

    A theoretical scaling analysis is conducted to propose a diagram to predict weak and strong ignition regimes for a compositionally homogeneous reactant mixture with turbulent velocity and temperature fluctuations. The diagram provides guidance on expected ignition behavior based on the thermo-chemical properties of the mixture and the flow/scalar field conditions. The analysis is an extension of the original Zeldovich’s analysis by combining the turbulent flow and scalar characteristics in terms of the characteristic Damköhler and Reynolds numbers of the system, thereby providing unified and comprehensive understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms controlling ignition characteristics. Estimated parameters for existing experimental measurements in a rapid compression facility show that the regime diagram predicts the observed ignition characteristics with good fidelity.

  1. Computational Modelling of Thermal Stability in a Reactive Slab with Reactant Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Makinde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates both the transient and the steady state of a one-step nth-order oxidation exothermic reaction in a slab of combustible material with an insulated lower surface and an isothermal upper surface, taking into consideration reactant consumption. The nonlinear partial differential equation governing the transient reaction-diffusion problem is solved numerically using a semidiscretization finite difference technique. The steady-state problem is solved using a perturbation technique together with a special type of the Hermite-Padé approximants. Graphical results are presented and discussed quantitatively with respect to various embedded parameters controlling the systems. The crucial roles played by the boundary conditions in determining the thermal ignition criticality are demonstrated.

  2. SHS synthesis of Si-SiC composite powders using Mg and reactants from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadee, Tawat

    2017-11-01

    Si-SiC composite powders were synthesized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) using reactants of fly ash-based silica, sawdust-based activated carbon, and magnesium. Fly ash-based silica and sawdust-based activated carbon were prepared from coal mining fly ash and Para rubber-wood sawdust, respectively. The work investigated the effects of the synthesis atmosphere (air and Ar) on the phase and morphology of the SHS products. The SHS product was leached by a two-step acid leaching processes, to obtain the Si-SiC composite powder. The SHS product and SHS product after leaching were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results indicated that the SHS product synthesized in air consisted of Si, SiC, MgO, and intermediate phases (SiO2, Mg, Mg2SiO4, Mg2Si), whereas the SHS product synthesized in Ar consisted of Si, SiC, MgO and a little Mg2SiO4. The SiC content in the leached-SHS product was higher when Ar was used as the synthesis atmosphere. As well as affecting the purity, the synthesis atmospheres also affected the average crystalline sizes of the products. The crystalline size of the product synthesized in Ar was smaller than that of the product synthesized in air. All of the results showed that fly ash and sawdust could be effective waste-material reactants for the synthesis of Si-SiC composite powders.

  3. Tech, Teachers & Teens: Bridging the Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuht, Amy Colcord; Colcord, Cean

    2011-01-01

    In past decades, the "digital divide" referred to the gap between those who could afford access to technology and those who could not. The divide has shifted in recent years to reflect the growing technological chasm between teachers and their students: today's schools and teenagers' worlds. The digital divide is widening and deepening…

  4. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  5. Study of the ionization of alkane-electron scavenger reactant mixtures irradiated by 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    This study deals with ionization of alkane-electron scavenger reactant mixtures, irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays. It is shown that the extrapolated free-ion yields (extrapolated yield method) decrease with the reactant concentration. On the basis of ONSAGER model and theoretical treatment of MOZUMDER, the cross sections of epithermal electron attachment in hexane, cyclohexane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, cyclopentane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane for CCl 4 , C 7 F 14 , C 6 H 5 Br, C 6 H 5 Cl, C 6 F 14 , (C 6 H 5 ) 2 are determined. A comparison between gas-phase and liquid-phase cross sections is established [fr

  6. Transesterification of castor oil usingMgO/SiO2 catalyst and coconutoilas co-reactant

    OpenAIRE

    Kamisah D. Pandiangan; Novesar Jamarun; Syukri Arief; Wasinton Simanjuntak

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the transesterification of castor oil with the use of coconut oil as co-reactant and MgO/SiO2as heterogeneous base catalyst. The catalyst was preparedfrom rice husk silica and magnesium nitrate by sol-gel method, with MgO load of 20% relative to silica, and then subjected to sintering treatment at 600 oC for 6 hours. A series of experiments was carried out, indicating that the use of coconut oil as co-reactant significantly promoted the conversion of castor oil into b...

  7. Analog and digital dividers for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Errors of four different types of stress dividers used in statical mass-spectrometers for determination of mass number by accelerating stress are analyzed. The simplest flowsheet of the analog divider comprises operation amplifier, in the chain of the negative feedback of which a multiplication device on differential cascade is switched- in. This analog divider has high sensitivity to temperature and high error approximately 5%. Application of the multiplier on differential cascade with normalization permits to increase temperature stability and decrease the error up to 1%. Another type of the analog divider is a logarithmic divider the error of which is constant within the whole operation range and it constitutes 1-5%. The digital divider with a digital-analog transformer (DAT) has the error of +-0.015% which is determined by the error of detectors and resistance of keys in the locked state. Considered is the design of a divider based on transformation of the inlet stress into the time period. The error of the divider is determined in this case mainly by stress of the zero shift of the operation amplifier (it should be compensated) and relative threshold stability of the comparator triggering which equals (2-3)x10 -4 . It is noted that the divider with DAT application and the divider with the use of stress transformation within the time period are most perspective ones for statical mass-spectrometers [ru

  8. Temperature modulation and quadrature detection for selective titration of two-state exchanging reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrelli, K; Barilero, T; Cavatore, E; Berthoumieux, H; Le Saux, T; Croquette, V; Lemarchand, A; Gosse, C; Jullien, L

    2011-04-01

    Biological samples exhibit huge molecular diversity over large concentration ranges. Titrating a given compound in such mixtures is often difficult, and innovative strategies emphasizing selectivity are thus demanded. To overcome limitations inherent to thermodynamics, we here present a generic technique where discrimination relies on the dynamics of interaction between the target of interest and a probe introduced in excess. Considering an ensemble of two-state exchanging reactants submitted to temperature modulation, we first demonstrate that the amplitude of the out-of-phase concentration oscillations is maximum for every compound involved in a reaction whose equilibrium constant is equal to unity and whose relaxation time is equal to the inverse of the excitation angular frequency. Taking advantage of this feature, we next devise a highly specific detection protocol and validate it using a microfabricated resistive heater and an epifluorescence microscope, as well as labeled oligonucleotides to model species displaying various dynamic properties. As expected, quantification of a sought for strand is obtained even if interfering reagents are present in similar amounts. Moreover, our approach does not require any separation and is compatible with imaging. It could then benefit some of the numerous binding assays performed every day in life sciences.

  9. A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Mehmet A., E-mail: mehmet.sen@mathworks.com [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kowalski, Gregory J., E-mail: gkowal@coe.neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fiering, Jason, E-mail: jfiering@draper.com [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larson, Dale, E-mail: dlarson@draper.com [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Highlights: • A co-flow microreactor is modeled in flow, reaction/diffusion, and thermal domains. • Analysis shows how arrayed temperature sensors can provide enthalpy of reaction. • Optical plasmonic temperature sensors could be arrayed suitably for calorimetry. • The reactor studied has a volume of 25 nL. - Abstract: A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction.

  10. Switching from Reactant to Substrate Engineering in the Selective Synthesis of Graphene Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Díez, Néstor; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Nita, Pawel; Garcia-Lekue, Aran; Basagni, Andrea; Vasseur, Guillaume; Tiso, Federica; Sedona, Francesco; Das, Pranab K; Fujii, Jun; Vobornik, Ivana; Sambi, Mauro; Pascual, José Ignacio; Ortega, J Enrique; de Oteyza, Dimas G

    2018-04-27

    The challenge of synthesizing graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with atomic precision is currently being pursued along a one-way road, based on the synthesis of adequate molecular precursors that react in predefined ways through self-assembly processes. The synthetic options for GNR generation would multiply by adding a new direction to this readily successful approach, especially if both of them can be combined. We show here how GNR synthesis can be guided by an adequately nanotemplated substrate instead of by the traditionally designed reactants. The structural atomic precision, unachievable to date through top-down methods, is preserved by the self-assembly process. This new strategy's proof-of-concept compares experiments using 4,4''-dibromo-para-terphenyl as a molecular precursor on flat Au(111) and stepped Au(322) substrates. As opposed to the former, the periodic steps of the latter drive the selective synthesis of 6 atom-wide armchair GNRs, whose electronic properties have been further characterized in detail by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, angle resolved photoemission, and density functional theory calculations.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, Melissa G. [Planetary Environments Laboratory, Code 699, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sebree, Joshua A. [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, Code 699, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Heidi Yoon, Y.; Tolbert, Margaret A., E-mail: melissa.trainer@nasa.gov [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Box 216 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    Benzene has been detected in Titan's atmosphere by Cassini instruments, with concentrations ranging from sub-ppb in the stratosphere to ppm in the ionosphere. Sustained levels of benzene in the haze formation region could signify that it is an important reactant in the formation of Titan's organic aerosol. To date, there have not been laboratory investigations to assess the influence of benzene on aerosol properties. We report a laboratory study on the chemical composition of organic aerosol formed from C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} via far ultraviolet irradiation (120-200 nm). The compositional results are compared to those from aerosol generated by a more ''traditional Titan'' mixture of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}. Our results show that even a trace amount of C{sub 6}H{sub 6} (10 ppm) has significant impact on the chemical composition and production rates of organic aerosol. There are several pathways by which photolyzed benzene may react to form larger molecules, both with and without the presence of CH{sub 4}, but many of these reaction mechanisms are only beginning to be explored for the conditions at Titan. Continued work investigating the influence of benzene in aerosol growth will advance understanding of this previously unstudied reaction system.

  12. Modification of the liquid cooling channel of PEMFCs for their operation with dry reactant gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Jin-Cherng; Hsueh, Kan-Lin; Tsau, Fanghei; Chen, Fa-Lin

    2011-01-01

    In order to tackle both water and thermal problems, a modified PEMFC is proposed in the present study for its operation with dry reactant gases via the modification of liquid cooling channel with circulating liquid electrolyte. Fuel cell with both circulating liquid electrolyte and solid polymer membrane operated with either dry or humidified H 2 /O 2 is compared in the present study at temperatures of 40, 50, 65, and 80 o C, respectively. The measured E-I data show that such single cell can be operated at 80 o C without humidification. Besides, a semi-empirical equation to predict the current/voltage relationship, and the electrochemical impedance method are also employed in the present study for cell resistance analysis. The analysis results show that the high interfacial resistance should be one of the major reasons for the inferior performance of the present cell. Based on the discovery, an improvement of the present fuel cell is further proposed by Nafion ionomer spreading on the electrode before the assembly of membrane and electrode. The maximum power density of the cell after electrode treatment reaches 75 mW/cm 2 for dry H 2 /O 2 operation at 0.4 V, which is almost threefold improvement compared with that without electrode treatment.

  13. A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Mehmet A.; Kowalski, Gregory J.; Fiering, Jason; Larson, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A co-flow microreactor is modeled in flow, reaction/diffusion, and thermal domains. • Analysis shows how arrayed temperature sensors can provide enthalpy of reaction. • Optical plasmonic temperature sensors could be arrayed suitably for calorimetry. • The reactor studied has a volume of 25 nL. - Abstract: A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction

  14. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  15. Use of Gas Transported Reactants for Uranium Remediation in Vadose Zone Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Truex, Michael J.; Resch, Charles T.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory-scale investigation is focused on decreasing mobility of uranium in subsurface contaminated sediments in the vadose zone by in situ geochemical manipulation at low water content. This geochemical manipulation of the sediment surface phases included reduction, pH change (acidic and alkaline), and additions of chemicals (phosphate, ferric iron) to form specific precipitates. Reactants were advected into 1-D columns packed with Hanford 200 area U-contaminated sediment as a reactive gas (for CO2, NH3, H2S, SO2), with a 0.1% water content mist (for NaOH, Fe(III), HCl, PO4) and with a 1% water content foam (for PO4). Because uranium is present in the sediment in multiple phases, changes in U surface phases were evaluated with a series of liquid extractions that dissolve progressively less soluble phases and electron microbe identification of mineral phases. In terms of the short-term decrease in U mobility (in decreasing order), NH3, NaOH mist, CO2, HCl mist, and Fe(III) mist showed 20% to 35% change in U surface phases. The two reductive gas treatments (H2S and SO2) showed little change. For long-term decrease in U transport, mineral phases created that had low solubility (phosphates, silicates) were desired, so NH3, phosphates (mist and foam delivered), and NaOH mist showed the greatest formation of these minerals.

  16. Compact Unequal Power Divider with Filtering Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel unequal power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider consists of five resonators and a resistor. The power division ratio is controlled by altering the coupling strength among the resonators. The output ports have the characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and impedance transformers in classical Wilkinson power dividers are not required in this design. Use of resonators enables the filtering function of the power divider. Two transmission zeros are generated near the passband edges, resulting in quasielliptic bandpass responses. For validation, a 2 : 1 filtering power divider is implemented. The fabricated circuit size is 0.22 λg × 0.08 λg, featuring compact size for unequal filtering power dividers, which is suitable for the feeding networks of antenna arrays.

  17. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Ryan

    2017-05-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  18. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  19. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  20. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  1. The Digital Divide Revisited: What Is Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    As soon as the Internet came into existence and the World Wide Web was introduced to make Internet utilization much easier, leaders have been worried about the "digital divide." The digital divide refers to the inequality of access to information services. There has been marked improvements over the last 20 years, however the poorest…

  2. New Media and the Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    During the 1990s, researchers and policy makers began discussing the presence of a so-called ‘digital divide,’ a distinction of people who do and do not have access to information and communication technologies. The concept of the digital divide stems from a comparative perspective of social and

  3. Effects of balneotherapy on the reactants of acute inflammation phase in Ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects sacroiliac joints, spinal column and peripheral joints. Beside medication therapy, physical and balneotherapy play an important role in its complex treatment. Objective. The aim of the research was to establish serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, α 1-acid glycoprotein (α 1-AGP, ceruloplasmine (CP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SE before and after the balneotherapy in ankylosing spondylitis. Methods. The research included 50 AS patients according to the revised New York criteria, of mean age 43 years, who were treated for 14 days on the average at the Clinic for Rheumatology of the Institute 'Niška Banja'. All the patients received medications and balneotherapy (radioactive oligomineral baths, peloid, massage, kinesitherapy; the serum concentrations of CRP, α1-AGP, CP and SE were measured before and after balneotherapy. Serum proteins were determined using original Nor Partigen plates Boehringer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was measured by Westergreen method. Balneotherapy was applied individually, intensively or mildly, depending on the AS stage and activity phase. Results. After dosed balneotherapy, a significant decrease in the concentrations of CP (p<0.05, α1-AGP (p<0.01 and CRP (p<0.05 was registered in the serums of AS patients. ESR was not significantly reduced. Conclusion. The research proved that α 1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmine and C-reactive protein represent more sensitive inflammation markers as compared to erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The identification of acute phase reactants is important in the evaluation of dosed balneotherapy efficiency in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

  4. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena B Mithal

    Full Text Available Early onset sepsis (EOS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection.In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2 were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12; presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30; and no sepsis (controls, n = 30. Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™. In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results.cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01. SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01 and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants.This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  5. Method of distilling machine-cut peat and other finely divided material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-03-03

    Apparatus arrangement is given for dry distillation of machine-cut peat and similar materials in particle or powder form, consisting of a tunnel oven through which the material is led and in which it is heated by help of the gases generated in the process. These gases are brought to circulate through the interior of the oven and heat exchangers installed outside the oven, are flushed by hot combustion gases. Through the tunnel oven a mounted turnable shaft is provided with paddles which lift the material and let it fall to make the particles of material get good contact with the circulating gases without offering too much resistance to the flow of the gases.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of reactant gases mass flow rates on power density in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, E. E.; Taymaz, I.

    2018-03-01

    In this study it was experimentally investigated the effect of mass flow rates of reactant gases which is one of the most important operational parameters of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell on power density. The channel type is serpentine and single PEM fuel cell has an active area of 25 cm2. Design-Expert 8.0 (trial version) was used with four variables to investigate the effect of variables on the response using. Cell temperature, hydrogen mass flow rate, oxygen mass flow rate and humidification temperature were selected as independent variables. In addition, the power density was used as response to determine the combined effects of these variables. It was kept constant cell and humidification temperatures while changing mass flow rates of reactant gases. From the results an increase occurred in power density with increasing the hydrogen flow rates. But oxygen flow rate does not have a significant effect on power density within determined mass flow rates.

  7. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of OMEGA separated reactants inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, Brian M., E-mail: bmhaines@lanl.gov; Fincke, James R.; Shah, Rahul C.; Boswell, Melissa; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Gore, Robert A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Klein, Andreas; Rundberg, Robert S.; Steinkamp, Michael J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS T087, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Grim, Gary P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Forrest, Chad J.; Silverstein, Kevin; Marshall, Frederic J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We present results from the comparison of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with data from the implosions of inertial confinement fusion capsules with separated reactants performed on the OMEGA laser facility. Each capsule, referred to as a “CD Mixcap,” is filled with tritium and has a polystyrene (CH) shell with a deuterated polystyrene (CD) layer whose burial depth is varied. In these implosions, fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium ions can occur only in the presence of atomic mix between the gas fill and shell material. The simulations feature accurate models for all known experimental asymmetries and do not employ any adjustable parameters to improve agreement with experimental data. Simulations are performed with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code using an Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) strategy for the hydrodynamics. We obtain good agreement with the experimental data, including the DT/TT neutron yield ratios used to diagnose mix, for all burial depths of the deuterated shell layer. Additionally, simulations demonstrate good agreement with converged simulations employing explicit models for plasma diffusion and viscosity, suggesting that the implicit sub-grid model used in ILES is sufficient to model these processes in these experiments. In our simulations, mixing is driven by short-wavelength asymmetries and longer-wavelength features are responsible for developing flows that transport mixed material towards the center of the hot spot. Mix material transported by this process is responsible for most of the mix (DT) yield even for the capsule with a CD layer adjacent to the tritium fuel. Consistent with our previous results, mix does not play a significant role in TT neutron yield degradation; instead, this is dominated by the displacement of fuel from the center of the implosion due to the development of turbulent instabilities seeded by long-wavelength asymmetries. Through these processes, the long

  8. Kinetics of the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction pathways: influences of pH and reactant initial concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, S.I.F.S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    A previously proposed kinetic model for the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction pathways has been validated by changing the initial pH (4.8, 5.5, 6.0, 6.8 and 7.5) of the reaction and reactant initial concentrations (1:2 and 2:1 molar ratios were compared to the 1:1 ratio). The model consists of 10

  9. Synthesis of nanoparticles from malleable and ductile metals using powder-free, reactant-assisted mechanical attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Brandon W; Perez, Jesus Paulo L; Yu, Jiang; Boatz, Jerry A; Anderson, Scott L

    2014-11-26

    A reactant-assisted mechanochemical method was used to produce copious nanoparticles from malleable/ductile metals, demonstrated here for aluminum, iron, and copper. The milling media is intentionally degraded via a reactant-accelerated wear process, where the reactant aids particle production by binding to the metal surfaces, enhancing particle production, and reducing the tendency toward mechanochemical (cold) welding. The mechanism is explored by comparing the effects of different types of solvents and solvent mixtures on the amount and type of particles produced. Particles were functionalized with oleic acid to aid in particle size separation, enhance dispersion in hydrocarbon solvents, and protect the particles from oxidation. For aluminum and iron, the result is air-stable particles, but for copper, the suspended particles are found to dissolve when exposed to air. Characterization was performed using electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Density functional theory was used to examine the nature of carboxylic acid binding to the aluminum surface, confirming the dominance of bridging bidentate binding.

  10. The influence of tertiary butyl hydrazine as a co-reactant on the atomic layer deposition of silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golrokhi, Zahra; Marshall, Paul A.; Romani, Simon [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering,The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Rushworth, Simon [EpiValence, The Wilton Centre, Redcar, Cleveland, TS10 4RF (United Kingdom); Chalker, Paul R. [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering,The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Potter, Richard J., E-mail: rjpott@liverpool.ac.uk [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering,The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • We demonstrate metallic silver growth by direct liquid injection thermal ALD. • A substituted hydrazine is used as a powerful reducing agent for the first time. • The hydrazine extends the ALD temperature window compared with alcohol. • Hydrazine promotes a more planar growth mode compared to alcohol. • Film adhesion is improved using hydrazine compared with alcohol. - Abstract: Ultra-thin conformal silver films are the focus of development for applications such as anti-microbial surfaces, optical components and electronic devices. In this study, metallic silver films have been deposited using direct liquid injection thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) using (hfac)Ag(1,5-COD) ((hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)) as the metal source and tertiary butyl hydrazine (TBH) as a co-reactant. The process provides a 23 °C wide ‘self-limiting’ ALD temperature window between 105 and 128 °C, which is significantly wider than is achievable using alcohol as a co-reactant. A mass deposition rate of ∼20 ng/cm{sup 2}/cycle (∼0.18 Å/cycle) is observed under self-limiting growth conditions. The resulting films are crystalline metallic silver with a near planar film-like morphology which are electrically conductive. By extending the temperature range of the ALD window by the use of TBH as a co-reactant, it is envisaged that the process will be exploitable in a range of new low temperature applications.

  11. Fine Arts Database (FAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Fine Arts Database records information on federally owned art in the control of the GSA; this includes the location, current condition and information on artists.

  12. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  13. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabloff, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics

  14. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  15. Radioactivity in fine papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.W.; Singh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactivity of fine papers has been studied through γ-ray spectroscopy with an intrinsic Ge detector. Samples of paper from European and North American sources were found to contain very different amounts of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The processes which introduce radionuclides into paper are discussed. The radioactivity from fine papers makes only a small contribution to an individual's annual radiation dose; nevertheless it is easily detectable and perhaps, avoidable. (Author)

  16. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  17. Smoking improves divided attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Eike; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Goudarzi, Elnaz; Dettling, Michael; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent in schizophrenia, and there is evidence for beneficial effects on neurocognition. Smoking is therefore hypothesized a self-medication in schizophrenia. Although much effort is devoted to characterize those cognitive domains that potentially benefit from smoking, divided attention has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactional effects of diagnosis of schizophrenia and smoking history on divided attention. We investigated behavioral measures of divided attention in a sample of 48 schizophrenic patients and 48 controls (24 current smokers and non-smokers each) carefully matched for age, sex, education, verbal IQ, and smoking status with general linear models. Most important within the scope of this study, significant interactions were found for valid reactions and errors of omission: Performance substantially increased in smoking schizophrenic patients, but not in controls. Further, these interactions were modified by sex, driven by female schizophrenic patients who showed a significant behavioral advantage of smokers over non-smokers, other than male schizophrenic patients or healthy controls who did not express this sex-specific pattern. Results suggest a positive effect of smoking history on divided attention in schizophrenic patients. This study provides first evidence that the complex attention domain of divided attention is improved by smoking, which further substantiates the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia, although this has been shown mainly for sustained and selective attention. Gender-specific effects on cognition need to be further investigated.

  18. Temporal dynamics of divided spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Garcia, Javier O; Serences, John T

    2013-05-01

    In naturalistic settings, observers often have to monitor multiple objects dispersed throughout the visual scene. However, the degree to which spatial attention can be divided across spatially noncontiguous objects has long been debated, particularly when those objects are in close proximity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of divided attention are unclear: is the process of dividing spatial attention gradual and continuous, or does it onset in a discrete manner? To address these issues, we recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as subjects covertly monitored two flickering targets while ignoring an intervening distractor that flickered at a different frequency. All three stimuli were clustered within either the lower left or the lower right quadrant, and our dependent measure was SSVEP power at the target and distractor frequencies measured over time. In two experiments, we observed a temporally discrete increase in power for target- vs. distractor-evoked SSVEPs extending from ∼350 to 150 ms prior to correct (but not incorrect) responses. The divergence in SSVEP power immediately prior to a correct response suggests that spatial attention can be divided across noncontiguous locations, even when the targets are closely spaced within a single quadrant. In addition, the division of spatial attention appears to be relatively discrete, as opposed to slow and continuous. Finally, the predictive relationship between SSVEP power and behavior demonstrates that these neurophysiological measures of divided attention are meaningfully related to cognitive function.

  19. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernovae data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state $w$ crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in the gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. So...

  20. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of

  1. The electronic health record: a digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2007-10-01

    The gap between EHR adoption among larger providers versus adoption by smaller or rural providers has caused a "digital divide" that could threaten smaller providers' survival in the years ahead. Closing this gap will require the collective action of providers, payers, and government.

  2. The Testing Effect under Divided Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchin, Zachary L.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2017-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances later memory compared with restudying (i.e., the testing effect), indicating that retrieval does not simply reveal but also modifies memory representations. Dividing attention (DA) during encoding greatly disrupts later memory performance while DA during retrieval typically has modest effects--but what of the…

  3. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  4. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo

    2011-11-01

    Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives. Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country. Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society. Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  5. Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane Photoelectrochemical (PEM-PEC Cell with a Web of Titania Nanotube Arrays as Photoanode and Gaseous Reactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsampas M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Photoanodes of titania nanotube arrays, TNTAs, were developed, for the first time, on a Ti-web of microfiber substrates, by electrochemical anodization. The performance of TNTAs/Ti-web photoanodes were evaluated in both gaseous and liquid reactants. Due to the presence of reliable reference electrode in gas phase direct comparison of the results was possible. Gas phase operation with He or Air as carrier gases and only 2.5% of water content exhibits very promising photoefficiency in comparison with conventional PEC cells.

  6. Serum levels of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) during virus infections; indication that chicken MBL is an acute phase reactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collectin which is believed to be an opsonin of the innate immune defence against various microorganisms. MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in man. We investigated the concentration of serum MBL in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV...... levels returned to normal values 6-10 days after infection. The results indicated that MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in chickens....

  7. A fine art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, G.; Raaff, T. [Andritz AG (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    The paper describes a new dewatering system for coal fines which challenges established processes by using screenbowl centrifuge and hyperbaric filter combinations. Company acquisitions over the past three to four years enabled Andritz AG to develop a new system combining two technologies. The article describes the benefits of the combination process and explains the basic operation of these machines. 4 figs.

  8. Fine 5 lavastab Venemaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tantsuteatru Fine 5 koreograafid Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik toovad Jekaterinburgis välja lavastuse "... and Red", esitajaks Venemaa nimekas nüüdistantsutrupp Provintsialnõje Tantsõ. Lavastuses kõlab Taavo Remmeli kontrabassiimprovisatsioon "12.12.2006"

  9. Imeilus Fine 5

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Vaba Lava teatrikeskuse laval esineb Fine 5 oma lavastusega "Imeilus". Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik, tantsulavastuse autorid on koreograafid, õppejõud, lavastajad ja kogemustega tantsijad. 29. jaanuaril korraldavad Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik Tallinna Ülikoolis kaasaegse liikumismõtlemise töötoa, mis on pühendatud lavastusele "Imeilus"

  10. The general theory of multistage geminate reactions of isolated pairs of reactants. III. Two-stage reversible dissociation in geminate reaction A + A↔C↔B + B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipriyanov, Alexey A.; Kipriyanov, Alexander A.; Doktorov, Alexander B. [Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia and Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-14

    Specific two-stage reversible reaction A + A↔C↔B + B of the decay of species C reactants by two independent transition channels is considered on the basis of the general theory of multistage reactions of isolated pairs of reactants. It is assumed that at the initial instant of time, the reacting system contains only reactants C. The employed general approach has made it possible to consider, in the general case, the inhomogeneous initial distribution of reactants, and avoid application of model concepts of a reaction system structure (i.e., of the structure of reactants and their molecular mobility). Slowing of multistage reaction kinetics as compared to the kinetics of elementary stages is established and physically interpreted. To test approximations (point approximation) used to develop a universal kinetic law, a widely employed specific model of spherical particles with isotropic reactivity diffusing in solution is applied. With this particular model as an example, ultimate kinetics of chemical conversion of reactants is investigated. The question concerning the depths of chemical transformation at which long-term asymptotes are reached is studied.

  11. The general theory of multistage geminate reactions of isolated pairs of reactants. III. Two-stage reversible dissociation in geminate reaction A + A ↔ C ↔ B + B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipriyanov, Alexey A; Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Doktorov, Alexander B

    2016-04-14

    Specific two-stage reversible reaction A + A ↔ C ↔ B + B of the decay of species C reactants by two independent transition channels is considered on the basis of the general theory of multistage reactions of isolated pairs of reactants. It is assumed that at the initial instant of time, the reacting system contains only reactants C. The employed general approach has made it possible to consider, in the general case, the inhomogeneous initial distribution of reactants, and avoid application of model concepts of a reaction system structure (i.e., of the structure of reactants and their molecular mobility). Slowing of multistage reaction kinetics as compared to the kinetics of elementary stages is established and physically interpreted. To test approximations (point approximation) used to develop a universal kinetic law, a widely employed specific model of spherical particles with isotropic reactivity diffusing in solution is applied. With this particular model as an example, ultimate kinetics of chemical conversion of reactants is investigated. The question concerning the depths of chemical transformation at which long-term asymptotes are reached is studied.

  12. Splicing the Divide: A Review of Research on the Evolving Digital Divide among K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The digital divide has narrowed with regard to one definition of access to technology--the binary view of the "haves" and "have-nots." However, use of technology at home and in school is not equitable for all students. According to recent literature, a broader and more nuanced definition of the technological divide is necessary…

  13. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  14. The Digital Divide: A Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoko, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Huge progress was made in bridging the digital divide in first decade of 21^st century. This was largely due to the explosive growth of mobile, which saw numbers rise from under 500 million to over five billion mobile cellular subscriptions in just ten years. With household mobile penetration rates of over 50% even in rural areas of developing countries, we have achieved the dream of bringing all the world's people within reach of communications technology. We must now, however, replicate the mobile miracle for the Internet, and especially broadband, if we are to avoid creating a new broadband breach to replace the digital divide. Three things need to happen for this to be achieved: firstly, broadband needs to be brought to the top of the development agenda; secondly, broadband needs to become much more affordable and thirdly, security needs to be part of the strategy.

  15. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  16. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernova data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state w crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of the Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. Some analytical solutions with w -1 are obtained. A minimally coupled scalar with different potentials, including quadratic, cubic, quantic, exponential and logarithmic potentials are investigated via numerical methods, respectively. All these potentials lead to the crossing behavior. We show that it is a robust result which is hardly dependent on the concrete form of the potential of the scalar. (orig.)

  17. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  18. Fine Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  19. Neural network approach to time-dependent dividing surfaces in classical reaction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, Philippe; Junginger, Andrej; Feldmaier, Matthias; Bardakcioglu, Robin; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2018-04-01

    In a dynamical system, the transition between reactants and products is typically mediated by an energy barrier whose properties determine the corresponding pathways and rates. The latter is the flux through a dividing surface (DS) between the two corresponding regions, and it is exact only if it is free of recrossings. For time-independent barriers, the DS can be attached to the top of the corresponding saddle point of the potential energy surface, and in time-dependent systems, the DS is a moving object. The precise determination of these direct reaction rates, e.g., using transition state theory, requires the actual construction of a DS for a given saddle geometry, which is in general a demanding methodical and computational task, especially in high-dimensional systems. In this paper, we demonstrate how such time-dependent, global, and recrossing-free DSs can be constructed using neural networks. In our approach, the neural network uses the bath coordinates and time as input, and it is trained in a way that its output provides the position of the DS along the reaction coordinate. An advantage of this procedure is that, once the neural network is trained, the complete information about the dynamical phase space separation is stored in the network's parameters, and a precise distinction between reactants and products can be made for all possible system configurations, all times, and with little computational effort. We demonstrate this general method for two- and three-dimensional systems and explain its straightforward extension to even more degrees of freedom.

  20. Microwave power divider with arbitrary distribution ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengda; Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Syratchev, I.

    2004-01-01

    As is well known, the EM field of TE11 mode at the wall of the circular waveguide changes as sine (or cosine) function azimuthally. So when we attach two perpendicular waveguides to the wall of the circular waveguide and rotate them around the axis of the waveguide, authors can distribute the input power between the two waveguides with arbitrary distribution proportion. The authors have designed a new power divider following this idea. The 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS is used in the design. And a new type circular TE11 mode launcher is developed. (author)

  1. Media Literacy in Times of Media Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Žuran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a post-modern society, an information society, a society based around knowledge and participation, and above all in a media society. In a media culture where media holds a dominant position, we cannot overlook the emerging idea of a ‘media divide’ within the frame of media education, media literate individuals and the expansion of the traditional concept of media literacy. Firstly, we are in an era of technological revolution, and it is time to consider the meaning and function of media and how we experience it in our everyday life. Secondly, as a society we are subject to intense media invasion and we all need to learn how to use it to our benefit and apply a critical and autonomous perspective towards selecting media content. Otherwise the media divide between the media literate and illiterate will widen; but is there even a chance to overcome the supposed divide between those who are formally media educated and those who are not?

  2. Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-04-10

    How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.

  3. The reactants equation of state for the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) based explosive PBX 9502

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq D.

    2017-07-01

    The response of high explosives (HEs), due to mechanical and/or thermal insults, is of great importance for both safety and performance. A major component of how an HE responds to these stimuli stems from its reactant equation of state (EOS). Here, the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene based explosive PBX 9502 is investigated by examining recent experiments. Furthermore, a complete thermal EOS is calibrated based on the functional form devised by Wescott, Stewart, and Davis [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053514 (2005)]. It is found, by comparing to earlier calibrations, that a variety of thermodynamic data are needed to sufficiently constrain the EOS response over a wide range of thermodynamic state space. Included in the calibration presented here is the specific heat as a function of temperature, isobaric thermal expansion, and shock Hugoniot response. As validation of the resulting model, isothermal compression and isentropic compression are compared with recent experiments.

  4. The effect of layer thickness and composition on the kinetics of solid state reactions in the niobium-selenium system studied using superlattice reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuto, M.; Kevan, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    The ability to form an amorphous reaction intermediate by the low temperature interdiffusion of a modulated elemental reactant is shown to be a function of the overall composition as well as elemental layer thicknesses in the niobium-selenium system. For niobium-rich reactants, an amorphous reaction intermediate was observed to form upon low temperature annealing of reactants with modulation thicknesses less than 60 A. Further annealing of the amorphous intermediates led to the crystallization of Nb 2 Se, Nb 5 Se 4 or Nb 3 Se 4 depending upon the overall composition of the amorphous intermediate. Modulated elemental reactants with overall compositions containing more than two-thirds selenium were found to heterogeneously nucleate NbSe 2 at the reacting interfaces. The formation of the thermodynamically expected compounds Nb 2 Se 3 , NbSe 3 , and Nb 2 Se 9 at their respective compositions required extended high temperature annealing to react the dichalcogenide with the remaining elemental reactants. A striking difference between the evolution of the low angle diffraction patterns in these two composition regimes suggests the differences in the reaction kinetics result from a composition dependence of the diffusion coefficients. (orig.)

  5. Bridging the transatlantic divide in privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kift

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the US National Security Agency surveillance scandal, the transatlantic privacy divide has come back to the fore. In the United States, the right to privacy is primarily understood as a right to physical privacy, thus the protection from unwarranted government searches and seizures. In Germany on the other hand, it is also understood as a right to spiritual privacy, thus the right of citizens to develop into autonomous moral agents. The following article will discuss the different constitutional assumptions that underlie American and German attitudes towards privacy, namely privacy as an aspect of liberty or as an aspect of dignity. As data flows defy jurisdictional boundaries, however, policymakers across the Atlantic are faced with a conundrum: how can German and American privacy cultures be reconciled?

  6. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  7. NGST fine guidance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Neil; Hutchings, John; Murowinski, Richard G.; Alexander, Russ

    2003-03-01

    Instrumentation for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is currently in the Phase A definition stage. We have developed a concept for the NGST Fine Guidance Sensor or FGS. The FGS is a detector array based imager which resides in the NGST focal plane. We report here on tradeoff studies aimed at defining an overall configuration of the FGS which will meet the performance and interface requirements. A key performance requirement is a noise equivalent angle of 3 milli-arcseconds to be achieved with 95% probability for any pointing of the observatory in the celestial sphere. A key interface requirement is compatibility with the architecture of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The concept developed consists of two independent and redundant FGS modules, each with a 4' x 2' field of view covered by two 2048 x 2048 infrared detector arrays, providing 60 milli-arcsecond sampling. Performance modeling supporting the choice of this architecture and the trade space considered is presented. Each module has a set of readout electronics which perform star detection, pixel-by-pixel correction, and in fine guiding mode, centroid calculation. These readout electronics communicate with the ISIM Command &Data Handling Units where the FGS control software is based. Rationale for this choice of architecture is also presented.

  8. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of tris(2,2' bipyridine)ruthenium(II) using common biological buffers as co-reactant, pH buffer and supporting electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Noah; Francis, Paul S; Barbante, Gregory J; Hogan, Conor F

    2015-11-07

    A series of aliphatic tertiary amines (HEPES, POPSO, EPPS and BIS-TRIS) commonly used to buffer the pH in biological experiments, were examined as alternative, non-toxic co-reactants for the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(ii) ([Ru(bpy)3](2+)). These were found to be very attractive as "multi-tasking" reagents, serving not only as co-reactants, but also fulfiling the roles of pH buffer and supporting electrolyte within an aqueous environment; thus significantly simplifying the overall ECL analysis. Sub-nanomolar detection limits were obtained for [Ru(bpy)3](2+) in the presence of BIS-TRIS, making this species an valuable option for co-reactant ECL-based bioanalytical applications.

  9. Use of periodic variations of reactant concentrations in time resolved ftir studies of CO oxidation on Pd/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortelli, E; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Sine wave modulation of feed concentrations was used to induce dynamic variations in the concentrations of products, intermediates and reactants, which were monitored in a diffuse reflectance FTIR (DRIFT) cell. The phase shift {Delta}{phi} between the external perturbation of the feed and the signals of products, intermediates and reactants was examined in dependence on the modulation frequency {omega}. Reaction constants of a simplified model mechanism were estimated for a Pd{sub 25}Zr{sub 75} based catalyst for CO oxidation. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  10. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  11. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  12. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-03-10

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  13. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  14. Radiology and fine art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stošić-Opinćal, Tatjana; Tomić, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The radiologic aesthetics of some body parts and internal organs have inspired certain artists to create specific works of art. Our aim was to describe the link between radiology and fine art. We explored 13,625 artworks in the literature produced by 2049 artists and found several thousand photographs in an online image search. The examination revealed 271 radiologic artworks (1.99%) created by 59 artists (2.88%) who mainly applied radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI. Some authors produced radiologic artistic photographs, and others used radiologic images to create artful compositions, specific sculptures, or digital works. Many radiologic artworks have symbolic, metaphoric, or conceptual connotations. Radiology is clearly becoming an original and important field of modern art.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of Ru thin film using N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma as a reactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tae Eun [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 1275 Jisadong, Gangseogu, Busan, 618-230 (Korea, Republic of); Mun, Ki-Yeung; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Park, Ji-Yoon [School of Materials Science and Engineering Yeungnam University 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering Yeungnam University 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Taehoon [Center for Core Research Facilities, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Sang-ri, Hyeonpung-myeon, Dalseong-gun, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Kyoung [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Sunjung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ulsan, Mugeo-dong, Nam-go, Ulsan, 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-31

    Ruthenium (Ru) thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition using IMBCHRu [({eta}6-1-Isopropyl-4-MethylBenzene)({eta}4-CycloHexa-1,3-diene)Ruthenium(0)] as a precursor and a nitrogen-hydrogen mixture (N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) plasma as a reactant, at the substrate temperature of 270 Degree-Sign C. In the wide range of the ratios of N{sub 2} and total gas flow rates (fN{sub 2}/N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}) from 0.12 to 0.70, pure Ru films with negligible nitrogen incorporation of 0.5 at.% were obtained, with resistivities ranging from {approx} 20 to {approx} 30 {mu} Ohm-Sign cm. A growth rate of 0.057 nm/cycle and negligible incubation cycle for the growth on SiO{sub 2} was observed, indicating the fast nucleation of Ru. The Ru films formed polycrystalline and columnar grain structures with a hexagonal-close-packed phase. Its resistivity was dependent on the crystallinity, which could be controlled by varying the deposition parameters such as plasma power and pulsing time. Cu was electroplated on a 10-nm-thick Ru film. Interestingly, it was found that the nitrogen could be incorporated into Ru at a higher reactant gas ratio of 0.86. The N-incorporated Ru film ({approx} 20 at.% of N) formed a nanocrystalline and non-columnar grain structure with the resistivity of {approx} 340 {mu} Ohm-Sign cm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Ru and N-incorporated Ru film using N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The growth rate of 0.057 nm/cycle and negligible incubation cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low resistivity of Ru ({approx} 16.5 {mu} Ohm-Sign cm) at the deposition temperature of 270 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroplating of Cu on a 10-nm-thick ALD-Ru film.

  16. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  17. Experimental advances and preliminary mathematical modeling of the Swiss-roll mixed-reactant direct borohydride fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziznia, Amin; Oloman, Colin W.; Gyenge, Előd L.

    2014-11-01

    The Swiss-roll single-cell mixed reactant (SR-MRFC) borohydride - oxygen fuel cell equipped with Pt/carbon cloth 3D anode and either MnO2 or Ag gas-diffusion cathodes is investigated by a combination of experimental studies and preliminary mathematical modeling of the polarization curve. We investigate the effects of four variables: cathode side metallic mesh fluid distributor, separator type (Nafion 112® vs. Viledon®), cathode catalyst (MnO2 vs. Ag), and the hydrophilic pore volume fraction of the gas-diffusion cathode. Using a two-phase feed of alkaline borohydride solution (1 M NaBH4 - 2 M NaOH) and O2 gas in an SR-MRFC equipped with Pt/C 3D anode, MnO2 gas diffusion cathode, Viledon® porous diaphragm, expanded mesh cathode-side fluid distributor, the maximum superficial power density is 2230 W m-2 at 323 K and 105 kPa(abs). The latter superficial power density is almost 3.5 times higher than our previously reported superficial power density for the same catalyst combinations. Furthermore, with a Pt anode and Ag cathode catalyst combination, a superficial power density of 2500 W m-2 is achieved with superior performance durability compared to the MnO2 cathode. The fuel cell results are substantiated by impedance spectroscopy analysis and preliminary mathematical model predictions based on mixed potential theory.

  18. Characterization of Cr-rich Cr-Sb multilayer films: Syntheses of a new metastable phase using modulated elemental reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regus, Matthias; Mankovsky, Sergiy; Polesya, Svitlana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Ditto, Jeffrey; Schürmann, Ulrich; Jacquot, Alexandre; Bartholomé, Kilian; Näther, Christian; Winkler, Markus; König, Jan D.; Böttner, Harald; Kienle, Lorenz; Johnson, David C.; Ebert, Hubert; Bensch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The new metastable compound Cr 1+x Sb with x up to 0.6 has been prepared via a thin film approach using modulated elemental reactants and investigated by in-situ X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, energy dispersive X-ray analysis as well as transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The new Cr-rich antimonide crystallizes in a structure related to the Ni 2 In-type structure, where the crystallographic position (1/3, 2/3, 3/4) is partially occupied by excess Cr. The elemental layers of the pristine material interdiffused significantly before Cr 1+x Sb crystallized. A change in the activation energy was observed for the diffusion process when crystal growth starts. First-principles electronic structure calculations provide insight into the structural stability, magnetic properties and resistivity of Cr 1+x Sb. - Graphical abstract: 1 amorphous multilayered film 2 interdiffused amorphous film 3 metastable crystalline phase 4 thermodynamic stable phase (and by-product). - Highlights: • Interdiffusion of amorphous Cr and Sb occurs before crystallization. • Crystallization of a new metastable phase Cr 1.6 Sb in Ni 2 In-type structure. • The new Cr-rich phase shows half-metallic behavior

  19. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the electrical power generation/power reactant storage and distribution subsystem FMEA/CIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) is presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Electrical Power Generation/Power Reactant Storage and Distribution (EPG/PRSD) subsystem hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baselines with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. The results of that comparison are documented for the Orbiter EPG/PRSD hardware. The comparison produced agreement on all but 27 FMEAs and 9 CIL items. The discrepancy between the number of IOA findings and NASA FMEAs can be partially explained by the different approaches used by IOA and NASA to group failure modes together to form one FMEA. Also, several IOA items represented inner tank components and ground operations failure modes which were not in the NASA baseline.

  20. Entropy and chemical change. 1: Characterization of product (and reactant) energy distributions in reactive molecular collisions: Information and enthropy deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, R. B.; Levine, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Optimal means of characterizing the distribution of product energy states resulting from reactive collisions of molecules with restricted distributions of initial states are considered, along with those for characterizing the particular reactant state distribution which yields a given set of product states at a specified total energy. It is suggested to represent the energy-dependence of global-type results in the form of square-faced bar plots, and of data for specific-type experiments as triangular-faced prismatic plots. The essential parameters defining the internal state distribution are isolated, and the information content of such a distribution is put on a quantitative basis. The relationship between the information content, the surprisal, and the entropy of the continuous distribution is established. The concept of an entropy deficiency, which characterizes the specificity of product state formation, is suggested as a useful measure of the deviance from statistical behavior. The degradation of information by experimental averaging is considered, leading to bounds on the entropy deficiency.

  1. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  2. Solar fuel production in a novel polymeric electrolyte membrane photoelectrochemical (PEM-PEC) cell with a web of titania nanotube arrays as photoanode and gaseous reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoll, T.; Zafeiropoulos, G.; Tsampas, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell design is proposed and investigated for H-2 production with gaseous reactants. The core of the cell is a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that consists of a TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode, a Pt/C cathode, a Pt/C reference electrode and a proton conducting

  3. CATALYST-FREE REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FEE CONDITIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDRAZONES BELOW THE MELTING POINT OF NEAT REACTANTS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    NRMRL-CIN-1437 Jeselnik, M., Varma*, R.S., Polanc, S., and Kocevar, M. Catalyst-free Reactions under Solvent-fee Conditions: Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Heterocyclic Hydrazones below the Melting Point of Neat Reactants. Published in: Chemical Communications 18:1716-1717 (200...

  4. Process of briquetting fine shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, J

    1943-05-05

    A process is described for the preparation of briquetts of fine bituminous shale, so-called Mansfield copper shale, without addition of binding material, characterized in that the fine shale is warmed to about 100/sup 0/C and concurrently briquetted in a high-pressure rolling press or piece press under a pressure of 300 to 800 kg/cm/sup 2/.

  5. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  6. Dense cermets containing fine grained ceramics and their manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a method of producing a ceramic-metal composite (cermet) containing boride-oxide ceramic having components of a first metal boride and a second metal oxide, which ceramic is in mixture in the cermet with elemental metal of the second metal, wherein the cermet is produced by sintering a reaction mixture of the first metal oxide, boron oxide and the elemental second metal. The improvement consists of: combining for the reaction mixture; A. (a) first metal oxide; (b) boron oxide; (c) ceramic component in very finely divided form; and (d) elemental second metal in very finely divided form and in an amount of at least a 100 percent molar excess beyond that amount stoichiometrically required to produce the second metal oxide during sintering; and B. sintering the reaction mixture in inert gas atmosphere

  7. Uneven Distribution of Microgranules in Divided Lansoprazole Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Gillian A; Teitelbaum, Jonathan E

    2015-10-01

    Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor commonly used in children lansoprazole-containing microgranules within each half of a divided tablet. Clinicians must determine whether this difference is clinically relevant when prescribing "divided" medication to children.

  8. Bridging the digital divide: with special reference to Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the digital divide in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. It presents the causes of digital divided such as; the general poor economic conditions in Africa; local content; telecommunications constraints; lack of investment in ICT infrastructure, etc. Benefits derivable from bridging the digital divide such ...

  9. Divided Attention Abilities in Young and Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somberg, Benjamin L.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments on divided attention and adult aging are reported that take into account age differences in single-task performance and that measure divided attention independently of resource allocation strategies. No significant age difference in divided attention ability independent of single-task performance level was found in either…

  10. Design of shielded voltage divider for impulse voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Kouno, Teruya; Maruyama, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Koji.

    1976-01-01

    The dividers used for the study of the insulation and electric discharge phenomena in high voltage equipments have the problems of the change of response characteristics owing to adjacent bodies and of induced noise. To improve the characteristics, the enclosed type divider shielded with metal has been investigated, and the divider of excellent response has been obtained by adopting the frequency-separating divider system, which is divided into two parts, resistance divider (lower frequency region) and capacitance divider (higher frequency region), for avoiding to degrade the response. Theoretical analysis was carried out in the cases that residual inductance can be neglected or can not be neglected in the small capacitance divider, and that the connecting wires are added. Next, the structure of the divider and the design of the electric field for the divider manufactured on the basis of the theory are described. The response characteristics were measured. The results show that 1 MV impulse voltage can be measured within the response time of 10 ns. Though this divider aims at the impulse voltage, the duration time of which is about that of standard lightning impulse, in view of the heat capacity because of the input resistance of 10.5 kΩ, it is expected that the divider can be applied to the voltage of longer duration time by increasing the input resistance in future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among

  12. 5 CFR 838.303 - Expressly dividing employee annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expressly dividing employee annuity. 838... Employee Annuities § 838.303 Expressly dividing employee annuity. (a) A court order directed at employee annuity is not a court order acceptable for processing unless it expressly divides the employee annuity as...

  13. Digital Divide in India: Measurement, Determinants and Policy for Addressing the Challenges in Bridging the Digital Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanjeet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies of the digital divide reveals the gap that exists between those who have access to ICTs and those who do not create exclusion, endanger social integration and hamper economic growth. The digital divide has many dimensions and can be categorized as global, regional and national. At national level, there is no single divide, but multiple divides: for instance, within countries, between men and women, young and elderly, rich and poor and most importantly rural and urban. The pre...

  14. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  15. Fine 5 kolib Kumu lavale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kumu kunstimuuseumi auditooriumis toimub 21. veebruaril Fine 5 kaasaegse tantsu etendus "Panus". Esinevad Tiina Ollesk, Irina Pähn, žonglöör Dimitri Kruus, disainer Rain Saukas ja muusik Mattias Siitan

  16. Layer dividing and zone dividing of physical property of crust and deep structure in Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhua; Yang Yaxin; Gong Yuling; Huang Linping

    2001-01-01

    On the base of summing experiences both at home and abroad, the Bugar gravitative anomalies are studied by major means of data processing. According to the anomalous character, three layer crust models (surface layer, middle layer in region and material layer under crust) are built up, depth of upper and bottom surfaces for every layer is calculated quantitatively, their varied characters of depth are studied and deep geological tectonics are outlined. The 'density' and 'mass' of every layer are calculated, and according to these two parameters, the shallow geological tectonics are researched. The relation-factor R between the surface altitude and Bugar gravitative anomalies are calculated and the stable or unstable crust zones are divided. The favorable mine zones for uranium deposit in Jiangxi Province are outlined

  17. The effects of reactants ratios, reaction temperatures and times on Maillard reaction products of the L-ascorbic acid/L-glutamic acid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transformation law of the Maillard reaction products with three different reactants ratios - equimolar reactants, excess L-glutamic acid and excess L-ascorbic acid reaction respectively, five different temperatures, and different time conditions for the L-ascorbic acid / L-glutamic acid system were investigated. Results showed that, the increase of the reaction time and temperature led to the increase of the browning products, uncoloured intermediate products, as well as aroma compounds. Compared with the equimolar reaction system, the excess L-ascorbic acid reaction system produced more browning products and uncoloured intermediate products, while the aroma compounds production remained the same. In the excess L-glutamic acid system, the uncoloured intermediate products increased slightly, the browning products remained the same, while the aroma compounds increased.

  18. General theory of the multistage geminate reactions of the isolated pairs of reactants. II. Detailed balance and universal asymptotes of kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipriyanov, Alexey A; Doktorov, Alexander B

    2014-10-14

    The analysis of general (matrix) kinetic equations for the mean survival probabilities of any of the species in a sample (or mean concentrations) has been made for a wide class of the multistage geminate reactions of the isolated pairs. These kinetic equations (obtained in the frame of the kinetic approach based on the concept of "effective" particles in Paper I) take into account various possible elementary reactions (stages of a multistage reaction) excluding monomolecular, but including physical and chemical processes of the change in internal quantum states carried out with the isolated pairs of reactants (or isolated reactants). The general basic principles of total and detailed balance have been established. The behavior of the reacting system has been considered on macroscopic time scales, and the universal long-term kinetics has been determined.

  19. Redox flow batteries with serpentine flow fields: Distributions of electrolyte flow reactant penetration into the porous carbon electrodes and effects on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.

    2018-04-01

    Redox flow batteries with flow field designs have been demonstrated to boost their capacities to deliver high current density and power density in medium and large-scale energy storage applications. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms involved with improved current density in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs have been not fully understood. Here we report a three-dimensional model of a serpentine flow field over a porous carbon electrode to examine the distributions of pressure driven electrolyte flow penetrations into the porous carbon electrodes. We also estimate the maximum current densities associated with stoichiometric availability of electrolyte reactant flow penetrations through the porous carbon electrodes. The results predict reasonably well observed experimental data without using any adjustable parameters. This fundamental work on electrolyte flow distributions of limiting reactant availability will contribute to a better understanding of limits on electrochemical performance in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs and should be helpful to optimizing flow batteries.

  20. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  1. Fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memišević Haris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are very important for children's overall functioning. Their development is necessary for many everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, holding objects, etc. Moreover, fine motor skills are also correlated to the children's academic success at school. Recent research suggests a close relationship between motor skills and intelligence. Given the relative paucity of literature on fine motor skills in different etiological groups of children with intellectual disability (ID, we examined these skills in children with Down syndrome. The sample for this study comprised 90 children with ID, aged 7-15, who were divided in three etiological groups: 1. Down syndrome, 2. Organic/other genetic cause of ID and 3. Unknown etiology of ID. Fine motor skills were assessed by the Purdue Pegboard Test. The results of this study indicate that children with Down syndrome did not differ statistically significantly from the other two etiological groups. On the other hand, children with unknown etiology of ID performed statistically better than children with organic/other genetic cause of ID. An additional goal was to examine fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome in relation to the child's sex. There were no statistically significant differences in fine motor skills between girls and boys with Down syndrome. It is important to provide children with Down syndrome, and all other children with ID, with early (rehabilitation programs for the improvement of their fine motor skills. Special educators and rehabilitators should play a crucial role in the assessment and in creating programs for the development of these skills.

  2. The Apply of Frequency Divider Circuit in Nuclear Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU Hefan; Zeng Bing; Zhang Ziliang; Ge Liangquan

    2009-01-01

    Different components in a digital system often need different working frequencies, the way we often used is clock division from the system clock. Through the analysis of frequency divider principle, a applied integer frequency dividing circuit with SE120A is proposed. It can divide the frequency multiple from 2 to 64. It's usually used in nuclear electronics. It's testing and analysis is displayed that it has no noise, good frequency division effect and stability. (authors)

  3. The effects of divided attention at study and reporting procedure on regulation and monitoring for episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, James; Hope, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Eyewitnesses regulate the level of detail (grain size) reported to balance competing demands for informativeness and accuracy. However, research to date has predominantly examined metacognitive monitoring for semantic memory tasks, and used relatively artificial phased reporting procedures. Further, although the established role of confidence in this regulation process may affect the confidence-accuracy relation for volunteered responses in predictable ways, previous investigations of the confidence-accuracy relation for eyewitness recall have largely overlooked the regulation of response granularity. Using a non-phased paradigm, Experiment 1 compared reporting and monitoring following optimal and sub-optimal (divided attention) encoding conditions. Participants showed evidence of sacrificing accuracy for informativeness, even when memory quality was relatively weak. Participants in the divided (cf. full) attention condition showed reduced accuracy for fine- but not coarse-grained responses. However, indices of discrimination and confidence diagnosticity showed no effect of divided attention. Experiment 2 compared the effects of divided attention at encoding on reporting and monitoring using both non-phased and 2-phase procedures. Divided attention effects were consistent with Experiment 1. However, compared to those in the non-phased condition, participants in the 2-phase condition displayed a more conservative control strategy, and confidence ratings were less diagnostic of accuracy. When memory quality was reduced, although attempts to balance informativeness and accuracy increased the chance of fine-grained response errors, confidence provided an index of the likely accuracy of volunteered fine-grained responses for both condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    Because of a change in underground mining methods that caused a considerable increase in the amount of fine sizes in the raw coal, Sahara Coal Co. designed and constructed a unique and simple fine coal system at their Harrisburg, IL prep plant. Before the new system was built, the overload of the fine coal circuit created a cost crunch due to loss of salable coal to slurry ponds, slurry pond cleaning costs, and operating and maintenance costs--each and every one excessive. Motivated by these problems, Sahara designed a prototype system to dewater the minus 28 mesh refuse. The success of the idea permitted fine refuse to be loaded onto the coarse refuse belt. Sahara also realized a large reduction in pond cleaning costs. After a period of testing, an expanded version of the refuse system was installed to dewater and dry the 28 mesh X 0 clean coal. Clean coal output increased about 30 tph. Cost savings justified the expenditures for the refuse and clean coal systems. These benefits, combined with increased coal sales revenue, paid back the project costs in less than a year.

  5. The Digital Divide and Health Outcomes: A Teleretinal Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, explore and describe the digital divide and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes. Diabetes and diabetic eye disease was used as the real-life context for understanding change and exploring the digital divide. As an investigational framework, a telemedicine…

  6. The Digital Divide in Health Education: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don

    2008-01-01

    Although e-health interventions provide new opportunities for health education, there has been cause for concern regarding the purported information technology gap between those who have access to digital applications and those who do not--termed the "digital divide." The literature suggests, however, that this divide may now be illusory, driven…

  7. A pulse amplitude dividing circuit for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediss, C.; McQuarrie, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    A pulse dividing circuit has been developed to provide analogue and digital outputs proportional to the ratio of the amplitudes of two nuclear pulses. Input pulses ranging from 200 mV to 10 V may be processed by the device. The pulse dividing circuit has been successfully incorporated as part of a small gamma camera. (orig.)

  8. Bridging the Digital Divide--An Australian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the lack of access to information and communication technology (ICT) or the "digital divide" severely limits education, employment and economic prospects. This paper reports on the evaluation of a project that aims to bridge the digital divide. In particular, the case study data has been used to bring to…

  9. Evaluation of Fatih Project in the Frame of Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research realized at the general survey model is to evaluate "FATIH Project" in the frame of digital divide by determining the effects of the distributed tablets to the students being educated at K-12 schools on digital divide. Sample is taking from the 9th grade students in Sakarya city in the 2013-2014 academic session.…

  10. Negotiating Digital Divides: Perspectives from the New Zealand Schooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Louise; Sylvester, Allan; Johnstone, David

    2017-01-01

    This article explores digital divides identified in research literature and considers educational policy directions that may mitigate or enhance future inequities. A review of literature identified three categories of digital divides in society; access, capability, and participation. To explore the strategic focus in schooling, data were gathered…

  11. Confronting the Digital Divide: Debunking Brave New World Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Morrell, Ernest; Alvermann, Donna E.

    2017-01-01

    There is far more to the digital divide than meets the eye. In this article, the authors consolidate existing research on the digital divide to offer some tangible ways for educators to bridge the gap between the haves and have-nots, or the cans and cannots. Drawing on Aldous Huxley's notion of a "brave new world," some digital divide…

  12. A Divided Attention Experiment with Pervasively Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Task performance of 12 pervasive hyperactives and controls (ages 8-13) was studied in a divided attention reaction time experiment. Hyperactives were slower than controls, had more variable reaction times, and made more frequent errors. Task inefficiency in hyperactives could not be explained by a divided attention deficiency or impulsive…

  13. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  14. Connecting across Many Divides: Digital, Racial, and Socio-Economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Janice; Daniel, Cathy

    As Internet usage increases nationally, it becomes more apparent that the Digital Divide (the gap between those who have information access and those who do not) is related to demographics. Although the number of low income and ethnic households that have Internet access is increasing, the Digital Divide is expected to widen because access…

  15. The New Frontier of Digital Inequality. The Participatory Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Robles Morales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between digital participation and the digital participation divide. The first concept refers to the use of the Internet to produce cultural goods that are subsequently shared on a global scale; the latter, refers to the inequalities generated by the uneven distribution of these creative uses of the Internet in a given population. Empirically, our work focuses on the role of digital skills and sociopolitical attitudes toward the Internet in explaining the digital participation divide, as they are considered precursors of digital participation. Results suggest that the same mechanisms that previously sustained digital divide are now fostering digital participation divide; however, we argue that the negative social consequences of this divide exceed those of its predecessor.

  16. Prospective memory: effects of divided attention on spontaneous retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler L; Mullet, Hillary G; Whiffen, Katie N; Ousterhout, Hunter; Einstein, Gilles O

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of divided attention on the spontaneous retrieval of a prospective memory intention. Participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task with an embedded prospective memory demand, and also performed a divided-attention task during some segments of lexical decision trials. In all experiments, monitoring was highly discouraged, and we observed no evidence that participants engaged monitoring processes. In Experiment 1, performing a moderately demanding divided-attention task (a digit detection task) did not affect prospective memory performance. In Experiment 2, performing a more challenging divided-attention task (random number generation) impaired prospective memory. Experiment 3 showed that this impairment was eliminated when the prospective memory cue was perceptually salient. Taken together, the results indicate that spontaneous retrieval is not automatic and that challenging divided-attention tasks interfere with spontaneous retrieval and not with the execution of a retrieved intention.

  17. [Fine root dynamics and its relationship with soil fertility in tropical rainforests of Chocó].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Harley; Caicedo, Haylin; Thelis Perez, May; Moreno, Flavio

    2016-12-01

    The fine roots play an important role in the acquisition of water and minerals from the soil, the global carbon balance and mitigation of climate change. The dynamics (productivity and turnover) of fine roots is essential for nutrient cycling and carbon balance of forest ecosystems. The availability of soil water and nutrients has significantly determined the productivity and turnover of fine roots. It has been hypothesized that fine roots dynamics increases with the availability of soil resources in tropical forest ecosystems. To test this hypothesis in tropical rainforests of Chocó (ecosystems with the highest rainfall in the world), five one-ha permanent plots were established in the localities of Opogodó and Pacurita, where the productivity and turnover of fine roots were measured at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth. The measurement of the fine root production was realized by the Ingrowth core method. The fine root turnover was measured like fine roots production divided mean annual biomass. In addition, soil fertility parameters (pH, nutrients, and texture) were measured and their association with productivity and turnover of fine roots was evaluated. It was found that the sites had nutrient-poor soils. The localities also differ in soil; Opogodó has sandy soils and flat topography, and Pacurita has clay soils, rich in aluminum and mountainous topography. In Opogodó fine root production was 6.50 ± 2.62 t/ha.yr (mean ± SD). In Pacurita, fine root production was 3.61 ± 0.88 t/ha.yr. Also in Opogodó, the fine root turnover was higher than in Pacurita (1.17 /y and 0.62 /y, respectively). Fine root turnover and production in the upper soil layers (10 cm upper soil) was considerably higher. Productivity and turnover of fine roots showed positive correlation with pH and contents of organic matter, total N, K, Mg, and sand; whereas correlations were negative with ECEC and contents of Al, silt, and clay. The percentage of sand was the parameter that best explained

  18. Phase space barriers and dividing surfaces in the absence of critical points of the potential energy: Application to roaming in ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauguière, Frédéric A. L., E-mail: frederic.mauguiere@bristol.ac.uk; Collins, Peter, E-mail: peter.collins@bristol.ac.uk; Wiggins, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.wiggins@mac.com [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Kramer, Zeb C., E-mail: zebcolterkramer@gmail.com; Ezra, Gregory S., E-mail: gse1@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Carpenter, Barry K., E-mail: carpenterb1@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Farantos, Stavros C., E-mail: farantos@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, and Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Iraklion 711 10, Crete (Greece)

    2016-02-07

    We examine the phase space structures that govern reaction dynamics in the absence of critical points on the potential energy surface. We show that in the vicinity of hyperbolic invariant tori, it is possible to define phase space dividing surfaces that are analogous to the dividing surfaces governing transition from reactants to products near a critical point of the potential energy surface. We investigate the problem of capture of an atom by a diatomic molecule and show that a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold exists at large atom-diatom distances, away from any critical points on the potential. This normally hyperbolic invariant manifold is the anchor for the construction of a dividing surface in phase space, which defines the outer or loose transition state governing capture dynamics. We present an algorithm for sampling an approximate capture dividing surface, and apply our methods to the recombination of the ozone molecule. We treat both 2 and 3 degrees of freedom models with zero total angular momentum. We have located the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold from which the orbiting (outer) transition state is constructed. This forms the basis for our analysis of trajectories for ozone in general, but with particular emphasis on the roaming trajectories.

  19. Effect of reactant concentration on the structural properties of hydrothermally-grown ZnO rods on seed-layer ZnO / polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. I.; Shin, C. M.; Heo, J. H.; Ryu, H. [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. J. [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, C. S. [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H. [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The morphology and the structural properties were studied for zinc-oxide (ZnO) rods hydrothermally grown on seed-layer ZnO/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at various reactant concentrations. Dissolved solutions with de-ionized water, zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, ZNH) and hexamethylenetetramine (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}, HMT) were employed as reactants for hydrothermal growth of ZnO. The transparency of the mixtures (ZNH+HMT) with increasing reactant concentration from 0.025 to 0.25 M changed from transparent to translucent to opaque (white colors) due to Zn(OH){sub 2} precipitates. When the concentration was increased, the density of the ZnO rods increased, and the morphology of the ZnO rods changed from a hexagonal flat-end shape to a sharp-end or flake-like structure. The sharp-end rods with increasing concentration from 0.1 to 0.15 M resulted from the etching process at a lower pH condition (less than pH 6) after the ZnO rod growth, and the flake-like structure was due to a high growth rate. The ZnO seed layer might have improved the alignment of ZnO rods and made a high density of ZnO rods. In addition, the structural properties were improved at lower concentrations by inserting a seed layer.

  20. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  1. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among different categories of income, employment, education, age, and ethnicity can be proved to have existed in the 1980s and 1990s according to official American and Dutch statistics. If only by effects of sat...

  2. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ... to critically examining the gender-specific aspects of ICT use and its impact on development in ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  3. Divided attention: an undesirable difficulty in memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold

    2013-10-01

    How can we improve memory retention? A large body of research has suggested that difficulty encountered during learning, such as when practice sessions are distributed rather than massed, can enhance later memory performance (see R. A. Bjork & E. L. Bjork, 1992). Here, we investigated whether divided attention during retrieval practice can also constitute a desirable difficulty. Following two initial study phases and one test phase with Swahili-English word pairs (e.g., vuvi-snake), we manipulated whether items were tested again under full or divided attention. Two days later, participants were brought back for a final cued-recall test (e.g., vuvi-?). Across three experiments (combined N = 122), we found no evidence that dividing attention while practicing retrieval enhances memory retention. This finding raises the question of why many types of difficulty during practice do improve long-term retention, but dividing attention does not.

  4. Evaluation of the divided attention condition during functional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Harper, Jill M; Querim, Angie C

    2013-01-01

    A common condition included in most functional analyses (FAs) is the attention condition, in which the therapist ignores the client by engaging in a solitary activity (antecedent event) but delivers attention to the client contingent on problem behavior (consequent event). The divided attention condition is similar, except that the antecedent event consists of the therapist conversing with an adult confederate. We compared the typical and divided attention conditions to determine whether behavior in general (Study 1) and problem behavior in particular (Study 2) were more sensitive to one of the test conditions. Results showed that the divided attention condition resulted in faster acquisition or more efficient FA results for 2 of 9 subjects, suggesting that the divided attention condition could be considered a preferred condition when resources are available. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    2003-01-01

    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  6. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan; Doghri, Ali; Wu, Ke; Shamim, Atif

    2013-01-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics

  7. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly a...... into digital divide and associated reasons in four different educations systems in Bangladesh.......Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly any...... data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...

  8. Geology of photo linear elements, Great Divide Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground examination of photo linear elements in the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming indicates little if any tectonic control. Aeolian aspects are more widespread and pervasive than previously considered.

  9. Divided attention deficits in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S; Fantie, B; Straus, S F; Grafman, J

    2001-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients and controls were compared on a variety of mood state, personality, and neuropsychological measures, including memory, word finding, and attentional tasks that required participants to focus, sustain, or divide their attention, or to perform a combination of these functions. CFS patients demonstrated a selective deficit on 3 measures of divided attention. Their performance on the other neuropsychological tests of intelligence, fluency, and memory was no different than that of normal controls despite their reports of generally diminished cognitive capacity. There was an inverse relation between CFS patient fatigue severity and performance on 1 of the divided attention measures. Given these findings, it is probable that CFS patients will report more cognitive difficulties in real-life situations that cause them to divide their effort or rapidly reallocate cognitive resources between 2 response channels (vision and audition).

  10. Afterword. Internet Freedom, Nuanced Digital Divide, and the Internet Craftsman

    OpenAIRE

    Meinrath, Sascha D; Losey, James; Lennett, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth comparative analysis of inequality and the stratification of the digital sphere. Grounded in classical sociological theories of inequality, as well as empirical evidence, this book defines 'the digital divide' as the unequal access and utility of internet communications technologies and explores how it has the potential to replicate existing social inequalities, as well as create new forms of stratification. The Digital Divide examines how various demographic an...

  11. The contribution of working memory to divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that increasing working memory (WM) load can affect the attentional selection of signals originating from one object/location. Here we assessed whether WM load affects also the selection of multiple objects/locations (divided attention). Participants monitored either two object-categories (vs. one category; object-based divided attention) or two locations (vs. one location; space-based divided attention) while maintaining in WM either a variable number of objects (object-based WM load) or locations (space-based WM load). Behavioural results showed that WM load affected attentional performance irrespective of divided or focused attention. However, fMRI results showed that the activity associated with object-based divided attention increased linearly with increasing object-based WM load in the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS); while, in the same areas, activity associated with space-based divided attention was not affected by any type of WM load. These findings support the hypothesis that WM contributes to the maintenance of resource-demanding attentional sets in a domain-specific manner. Moreover, the dissociable impact of WM load on performance and brain activity suggests that increased IPS activation reflects a recruitment of additional, domain-specific processing resources that enable dual-task performance under conditions of high WM load and high attentional demand. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Berry's Phase and Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    Irrational numbers can be assigned to physical entities based on iterative processes of geometric objects. It is likely that iterative round trips of vector signals include a geometric phase component. If so, this component will couple back to the round trip frequency or path length generating an non-linear feedback loop (i.e. induced by precession). In this paper such a quantum feedback mechanism is defined including generalized fine structure constants in accordance with the fundamental gravitomagnetic relation of spin-orbit coupling. Supported by measurements, the general relativistic and topological background allows to propose, that the deviation of the fine structure constant from 1/137 could be assigned to Berry's phase. The interpretation is straightforward: spacetime curvature effects can be greatly amplified by non-linear phase-locked feedback-loops adjusted to single-valued phase relationships in the quantum regime.

  13. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  14. Replacing Chlorine with Hydrogen Chloride as a Possible Reactant for Synthesis of Titanium Carbide Derived Carbon Powders for High-Technology Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallo, Indrek; Thomberg, Thomas; Jänes, Alar; Lust, Enn

    2013-01-01

    Micro- and mesoporous carbide-derived carbons were synthesized from titanium carbide (TiC) powder via gas phase reaction by using different reactants (Cl 2 and HCl) within the temperature range from 700 to 1100 °C. Analysis of XRD results show that TiC-derived carbons (TiC-CDC) consist mainly of graphitic crystallites. The first-order Raman spectra showed the graphite-like absorption peaks at ∼1577 cm 1 and the disorder-induced peaks at ∼1338 cm- 1 . The energy-related properties of supercapacitors based on 1 M (C 2 H 5 ) 3 CH 3 NBF 4 in acetonitrile and carbide-derived carbons (TiC-CDC (Cl 2 ) and TiC-CDC (HCl)) as electrode materials were also investigated using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge/discharge and constant power methods. The Ragone plots for carbide-derived carbons prepared by using different reactants (Cl 2 , HCl) are quite similar and at high power loads TiC-CDC (Cl 2 ) material synthesized at 900 °C, i.e. materials with optimal porous structure, deliver higher power at constant energy

  15. The impact of reactants composition and temperature on the flow structure in a wake stabilized laminar lean premixed CH4/H2/air flames; mechanism and scaling

    KAUST Repository

    Michaels, D.

    2016-11-11

    In this paper we investigate the role of reactants composition and temperature in defining the steady flow structure in bluff body stabilized premixed flames. The study was motivated by experiments which showed that the flow structure and stability map for different fuels and inlet conditions collapse using the extinction strain rate as the chemical time scale. The investigation is conducted using a laminar lean premixed flame stabilized on a heat conducting bluff-body. Calculations are performed for a wide range of mixtures of CH4/H2/air (0.35 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.75, 0 ≤ %H2 ≤ 40, 300 ≤ Tin [K] ≤ 500) in order to systematically vary the burning velocity (2.0–35.6 cm/s), dilatation ratio (2.7–6.4), and extinction strain rate (106–2924 1/s). The model is based on a fully resolved unsteady two-dimensional flow with detailed chemistry and species transport, and with no artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions. Calculations reveal that the recirculation zone length correlates with a chemical time scale based on the flame extinction strain rate corresponding to the inlet fuel composition, stoichiometry, pressure and temperature; and are consistent with experimental data in literature. It was found that in the wake region the flame is highly stretched and its location and interaction with the flow is governed by the reactants combustion characteristics under high strain.

  16. A three-dimensional numerical investigation of trapezoid baffles effect on non-isothermal reactant transport and cell net power in a PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perng, Shiang-Wuu; Wu, Horng-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study how angle and height of trapezoid baffle affect PEMFC net power. • The jet-type, trapping, and blockage effects augment non-isothermal transport in flow channel. • Greater angles and heights of trapezoid baffles provide more reactant to the catalyst layer. • Baffles of 1.5 mm and 90° fully block flow channel to show bad heat transfer and large pressure drop. • Maximum enhancement of cell net power is 90% with baffles of 60° angle and 1.125 mm height. - Abstract: The present study performed a three-dimensional numerical simulation to observe how trapezoid baffles affect non-isothermal reactant transports and cell net power in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) by the SIMPLE-C method. The geometric parameters of trapezoid baffles installed in the gas channel employed in this study include the angle and height with the same gas diffusion and catalyst layers to realize the cell net power considering the effect of liquid water formation on the fluid flow field. The cell net power is adopted to evaluate the real enhancement of cell performance due to the additional pumping power induced by the pressure loss through the PEMFC. The results illustrated that compared with traditional gas channel without baffles, the novel gas channel with trapezoid baffles, whose angle is 60° and height is 1.125 mm, enhances the cell net power best by approximately 90% among all trapezoid baffle designs

  17. The behavior of exciplex decay processes and interplay of radiationless transition and preliminary reorganization mechanisms of electron transfer in loose and tight pairs of reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Michael G; Soboleva, Irina V; Dolotova, Elena V

    2007-01-18

    Exciplex emission spectra and rate constants of their decay via internal conversion and intersystem crossing are studied and discussed in terms of conventional radiationless transition approach. Exciplexes of 9-cyanophenanthrene with 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene were studied in heptane, toluene, butyl acetate, dichloromethane, butyronitrile, and acetonitrile. A better description of spectra and rate constants is obtained using 0-0 transition energy and Gauss broadening of vibrational bands rather than the free energy of electron transfer and reorganization energy. The coincidence of parameters describing exciplex emission spectra and dependence of exciplex decay rate constants on energy gap gives the evidence of radiationless quantum transition mechanism rather than thermally activated medium reorganization mechanism of charge recombination in exciplexes and excited charge transfer complexes (contact radical ion pairs) as well as in solvent separated radical ion pairs. Radiationless quantum transition mechanism is shown to provide an appropriate description also for the main features of exergonic excited-state charge separation reactions if fast mutual transformations of loose and tight pairs of reactants are considered. In particular, very fast electron transfer (ET) in tight pairs of reactants with strong electronic coupling of locally excited and charge transfer states can prevent the observation of an inverted region in bimolecular excited-state charge separation even for highly exergonic reactions.

  18. A Chebyshev method for state-to-state reactive scattering using reactant-product decoupling: OH + H2 → H2O + H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitaš, Marko T; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2013-08-14

    We extend a recently developed wave packet method for computing the state-to-state quantum dynamics of AB + CD → ABC + D reactions [M. T. Cvitaš and S. C. Althorpe, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4557 (2009)] to include the Chebyshev propagator. The method uses the further partitioned approach to reactant-product decoupling, which uses artificial decoupling potentials to partition the coordinate space of the reaction into separate reactant, product, and transition-state regions. Separate coordinates and basis sets can then be used that are best adapted to each region. We derive improved Chebyshev partitioning formulas which include Mandelshtam-and-Taylor-type decoupling potentials, and which are essential for the non-unitary discrete variable representations that must be used in 4-atom reactive scattering calculations. Numerical tests on the fully dimensional OH + H2 → H2O + H reaction for J = 0 show that the new version of the method is as efficient as the previously developed split-operator version. The advantages of the Chebyshev propagator (most notably the ease of parallelization for J > 0) can now be fully exploited in state-to-state reactive scattering calculations on 4-atom reactions.

  19. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  20. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  1. [Promoting nursing competitiveness: introduction to the digital divide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly sophisticated information technology (IT) has widened the gap (the so-called "digital divide") between those with effective access to IT resources and those without. Problems related to the digital divide exist in every country. In addition to level of familiarity with technology, the divide can also be influenced by factors of race, gender, age, education, economic status and area of residence. The digital divide may be ameliorated through technology innovations in terms of access to information, information application and information literacy. As IT is an increasingly significant component of modern healthcare, it may be expected that the "width" of the potential gap widens as IT applications increase in sophistication. Nursing professionals must keep abreast of advancing technologies in order to narrow the digital divide. To cope with this challenge, nursing professionals should enhance their understanding of new technologies beyond what is taught in formal education curricula. This knowledge enhancement may be attained through self learning or on-the-job training in nursing informatics. Content could cover hospital information system (IS) usage, security, applications and web access. This will improve the ability of nursing staff to face the current IT challenge.

  2. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Fang, Eric; Gooley, Joshua J

    2017-01-01

    Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1) performed alone (single task); 2) performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task); and 3) performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task). Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  3. Romania's Digital Divide and the Failures of E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to measure the level of the digital divide existing in Romania and also to verify its relationship with e-government. At the country level, Romania is one of the least digitally developed countries in Europe, but it has shown a sharp increase in recent years. At the social level, based on data from public opinion surveys, digital divide is analyzed at two levels: lack of access and lack of knowledge. The results are similar to those in other countries: digital divide appears along the same dimensions: rural/urban, age, education, wealth and, to a lesser extent, gender. E-government services, while presumed to be at an adequate level, are used only by a very small number of citizens, thus having no impact upon the digital divide. Confronted with a serious divide, and with great possibility of its increasing, Romania needs to promote policies designed to increase access and knowledge. Also, e-government is not possible, unless administrative culture and procedures change.

  4. Investigation on Locking and Pulling Modes in Analog Frequency Dividers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Buonomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the main analytical results available to estimate the locking range, which is the key figure-of-merit of LC frequency dividers based on the injection locking phenomenon. Starting from the classical result by Adler concerning injection-locked oscillators, we elucidate the merits and the shortcomings of the different approaches to study injection-locked frequency dividers, with particular emphasis on divider-by-2. In particular, we show the potential of a perturbation approach which enables a more complete analysis of frequency dividers, making it possible to calculate not only the amplitude and the phase of the locked oscillation, but also the region where it exists and is stable, which defines the locking region. Finally, we analyze the dynamical behaviour of the dividers in the vicinity of the boundary of the locking region, showing that there exists a border region where the occurrence of the locking or the pulling operation mode is possible, depending on the initial conditions of the system.

  5. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chern-Pin Chua

    Full Text Available Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1 performed alone (single task; 2 performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task; and 3 performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task. Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  6. Digital Divide Measurement in Lembata Regency Using SIBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Cecilia Dai Payon Binti; Setyohadi, Djoko Budiyanto; Suyoto

    2018-02-01

    Along with technological development in Indonesia, digital divide occurs in various regions, which were behind in terms of information on how to use, access and utilize ICT in collecting information from internet. One of the regions is Lembata Regency in East Nusa Tenggara, where digital divide among the people should be measured. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of digital divide among the people of Lembata Regency. To determine the level of digital divide, we used SIBIS GPS (General Population Survey) method, which consisted of several indicators or aspect, i.e. internet usage behavior, internet utilization, and e-government. We also performed two tests, i.e. validity test and reliability test to obtain value of index of digital divide measurement among the people of Lembata Regency. The results of validity test which is processed using SPSS program are categorized valid for each variable indicator and the reliability test results show reliable status. According to the test results on digital discrepancy in Lembata people, the internet usage attitude indicator is categorized low which is 63.1%, the internet usage function indicator is categorized low which is 64%, and the digital discrepancy of e-government indicator is categorized medium which is 40.4%. Therefore, the result of this study because consideration for the government of Lembata Regency in improving ICT services in e-government and in distributing ICT access and ability equally to the people.

  7. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...

  8. Considering Fine Art and Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a close association between picturebook illustrations and works of fine art since the picturebook was first conceived, and many ways these associations among works of fine art and picturebook illustrations and design play out. To make sense of all the various ways picturebook illustrations are associated with works of fine art,…

  9. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a reasonable...

  10. Bridging the Digital Divide for urban seniors: community partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults resources for improving health. For many older adults, the "Digital Divide" (the social, economic, and demographic factors that exist between individuals who use computers and those who do not) is a barrier to taking advantage of these resources. Bridging the Digital Divide by making computers and the Internet more accessible and making online health information more usable for older adults has the potential to improve health of older adults. This article describes a strategy for closing the Digital Divide for urban seniors through the formation of a community- university partnership with the goal of improving health and well-being through the use of online health information. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dividing traffic cluster into parts by signal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    When a cluster of vehicles with various speeds moves through the series of signals, the cluster breaks down by stopping at signals and results in smaller groups of vehicles. We present the nonlinear-map model of the motion of vehicles controlled by the signals. We study the breakup of a cluster of vehicles through the series of signals. The cluster of vehicles is divided into various groups by controlling the cycle time of signals. The vehicles within each group move with the same mean velocity. The breakup of the traffic cluster depends highly on the signal control. The dependence of dividing on both cycle time and vehicular speed is clarified. Also, we investigate the effect of the irregular interval between signals on dividing.

  12. Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for Important Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions. Though participants recalled fewer words following digit detection than in the other conditions, there were no significant differences between conditions in terms of selectively remembering the most valuable words. Similar results were obtained across a variety of divided-attention tasks that stressed attention and working memory to different degrees, which suggests that people may compensate for divided-attention costs by selectively attending to the most valuable items and that factors that worsen memory do not necessarily impair the ability to selectively remember important information.

  13. Crossing the phantom divide: Dark energy internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy constraints have forced viable alternatives that differ substantially from a cosmological constant Λ to have an equation of state w that evolves across the phantom divide set by Λ. Naively, crossing this divide makes the dark energy gravitationally unstable, a problem that is typically finessed by unphysically ignoring the perturbations. While this procedure does not affect constraints near the favored cosmological constant model it can artificially enhance the confidence with which alternative models are rejected. Similar to the general problem of stability for w<0, the solution lies in the internal degrees of freedom in the dark energy sector. We explicitly show how to construct a two scalar field model that crosses the phantom divide and mimics the single field behavior on either side to substantially better than 1% in all observables. It is representative of models where the internal degrees of freedom keep the dark energy smooth out to the horizon scale independently of the equation of state

  14. Acoustic tool for leak inspections in steam generator divider plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, J.; Maak, P.; Colbert, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cross flow leakage through divider plates in the primary head of steam generators, may be a contributor to RIHT rise which can have a negative effect on the operation of a plant. A method to provide quick and reliable inspection of divider plate leakage can be very useful in helping make timely and effective maintenance decisions. A novel acoustic tool for performing inspections in drained steam generators during shutdowns has been developed by OH Technologies and successfully demonstrated in a field application. The technique, referred as ALIS (acoustic leak inspection system), performs a scan of the divider plate face and presents a graphic image of the leakage paths and an estimate of the total leakage area. (author)

  15. Bruce NGS A Unit 4 preheater divider plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landridge, M.; McInnes, D.

    1995-01-01

    On May 19, 1995, without any prior operational indications, Bruce A discovered preheater divider plate damage in Unit 4 that had the potential to have a major impact on the continued safe operation of the station. Further investigations indicated that Unit 4 may have been operating with this damage for as long as ten years. In the two months following the discovery, Bruce A has procured and replaced the 4 divider plates, located most of the missing pieces, retrieved pieces from the PHT system, investigated historical operational information, performed detailed analytical investigations, investigated root cause, performed in-situ and mock-up testing, updated operational procedures and installed DP monitoring equipment

  16. Google and the digital divide the bias of online knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Elad

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial to scholars and students in the fields of media and communication, politics and technology, this book outlines the significant role of search engines in general and Google in particular in widening the digital divide between individuals, organisations and states. It uses innovative methods and research approaches to assess and illustrate the digital divide by comparing the popular search queries in Google and Yahoo in different countries as well as analysing the various biases in Google News and Google Earth. The different studies developed and presented in this book provide various

  17. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    FREYDIER, Chloé; BERTHELON, Catherine; BASTIEN-TONIAZZO, Mireille; GINEYT, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to two crashes factors, divided attention task and alcohol, and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Method: Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identif...

  18. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  19. From Fundamentalists to Structuralists: Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide information about several ICT initiatives undertaken in education on a global basis in order to overcome the digital divide and summarise the findings of these initiatives. Due to the limited scope of the study, the bulk of the review mainly concerns initiatives undertaken in secondary schools,…

  20. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  1. The Digital Divide: The Special Case of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence for the digital divide based on gender. An overview of research published in the last 20 years draws to the conclusion that females are at a disadvantage relative to men when learning about computers or learning other material with the aid of computer-assisted software. The evidence shows that the digital divide…

  2. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some global and local developments in information access and the Open Access movement are highlighted, and the National Library of South Africa\\'s interim strategies to bridge the information and digital divide are identified. However, it becomes evident that unless librarians, information consumers, publishers, ...

  3. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  5. The new technology of dividing wall in stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiguo

    1999-01-01

    The author analyzes advantages and disadvantages of the ordinary separating methods between stopes at deep mine, points out the main problems of the original projects constructing dividing wall, presents an idea of new technology which can overcome the main problems, predicts effect adopting the new technology, and analyzes that feasibility applying the new technology to construct mortar pad in stope and dyke-dam

  6. Divided dreamworlds? The cultural cold war in East and West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, P.; Scott-Smith, G.; Segal, J.

    2012-01-01

    While the divide between capitalism and communism, embodied in the image of the Iron Curtain, seemed to be as wide and definitive as any cultural rift, Giles Scott-Smith, Joes Segal, and Peter Romijn have compiled a selection of essays on how culture contributed to the blurring of ideological

  7. Impact of usability on efforts to bridge the digital divide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebesin, F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available in these types of development projects, the dream of the providing effective access may remain just that – a dream. This paper highlights the important role that usability plays in the drive towards narrowing the digital divide. We report on the outcome of a...

  8. Lost in the Great Divide: Motivation in Religious Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Emily O.

    2018-01-01

    One of the most illuminating finds in Barbara E. Walvoord's "Teaching and Learning in College Introductory Religion Courses" (2008) is what she calls "the great divide," a mismatch between instructors' goals for their courses, which are academic, and the students' reasons for taking them, which relate to their personal…

  9. Peculiarities of the Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to argue that the peculiarities of sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of its socio-cultural diversity, low economic development, linguistic factors, HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender discrimination, low ICT awareness and so on, demand a new model of addressing the digital divide. Design/methodology/approach: Paper largely based on literature…

  10. Loop versus divided colostomy for the management of anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Omar; Davies, Dafydd; Colapinto, Kimberly; Gerstle, J Ted

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of loop and divided colostomies in patients with anorectal malformations (ARM). We performed a retrospective cohort study reviewing the medical records of all patients with ARM managed with diverting colostomies between 2000 and 2010 at our institution. Independent variables and outcomes of stoma complications were analyzed by parametric measures and logistic regression. One hundred forty-four patients managed with a colostomy for ARM were evaluated (37.5% females, 50.7% loop, 49.3% divided). The incidence of patients with loop and divided colostomies who developed stoma-related complications was 31.5 and 15.5%, respectively (p=0.031). The incidence of prolapse was 17.8 and 2.8%, respectively (p=0.005). Multivariable-logistic regression controlling for other significant independent variables found loop colostomies to be positively associated with the development of a stoma complication (OR 3.13, 95%CI (1.09, 8.96), p=0.033). When individual complications were evaluated, it was only stoma prolapse that was more likely in patients with loop colostomies (OR 8.75, 95%CI (1.74, 44.16), p=0.009). Because of the higher incidence of prolapse, loop colostomies were found to be associated with a higher total incidence of complications than divided stomas. The development of other complications, including urinary tract infections (UTIs) and megarectum, were independent of the type of colostomy performed. © 2014.

  11. Communication in a Divided World: Opportunities and Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, Harold

    Communication systems in a divided world can perpetuate tension and violence or can be instrumental in developing unity. In response to this power, communicators must focus on generating worldwide recognition of interdependence in the shaping and sharing of values. Likewise, a responsible communication policy must stimulate the invention and…

  12. Simulation of Material Flow Through a Sample Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Rozbroj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The prerequisite for a modern approach to innovative procedures of the development of current or even newly created equipment for the transport of particulate materials is the utilization of simulation methods, such as the Discrete Element Method (DEM. This article focuses on the basic, or initial, validation of movement of material through the sample divider. The mechanical-physical properties of brown coal were measured. Based on these parameters the preliminary input values for EDEM Academic were selected, and a simulation of the dividing process was run. The key monitored parameters included density and friction coefficient. Experiments on a realistic model of the equipment were performed and assessed. The total weights of brown coal at the exit from the divider were determined for a specific speed of the divider. The aim of this task was to simulate the realistically determined weight division of the brown coal sample. The result from the DEM was compared with the results of measurement on a realistic model.

  13. Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2009-01-01

    The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who

  14. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  15. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. PMID:24493837

  16. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, C; Berthelon, C; Bastien-Toniazzo, M; Gineyt, G

    2014-06-01

    The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to divided attention task and alcohol and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L, and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identification. Driving performance, response time and accuracy on the additional task were measured. ANOVA showed a driving impairment and a decrease in additional task performance from a BAC of 0.5 g/L, particularly for novice drivers. Indeed, the latter adopt more risky behavior such as tailgating. In the divided attention task, driving impairment was found for all drivers and impairment on information processing accuracy was highlighted, notably in peripheral vision. The divided attention task used here provides a relevant method for identifying the effects of alcohol on cognitive functions and could be used in psychopharmacological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Competing discourses on Europe: the divided case of Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Historical and cultural context and individual experience are likely to influence the ‘imagination of Europe’. Such discourses exist according to specific social patterns that may critically divide societies into different and competing social constructions of Europe. Is there a transnational

  18. Antiphase dual-color correlation in a reactant-product pair imparts ultrasensitivity in reaction-linked double-photoswitching fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wei; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Tian, Zhiyuan; Li, Alexander D Q

    2015-04-08

    A pair of reversible photochemical reactions correlates their reactant and product specifically, and such a correlation uniquely distinguishes their correlated signal from others that are not linked by this reversible reaction. Here a nanoparticle-shielded fluorophore is photodriven to undergo structural dynamics, alternating between a green-fluorescence state and a red-fluorescence state. As time elapses, the fluorophore can be in either state but not both at the same time. Thus, the red fluorescence is maximized while the green fluorescence is minimized and vice versa. Such an antiphase dual-color (AD) corelationship between the red and green fluorescence maxima as well as between their minima can be exploited to greatly improve the signal-to-noise ratio, thus enhancing the ultimate detection limit. Potential benefits of this correlation include elimination of all interferences originating from single-color dyes and signal amplification of AD photoswitching molecules by orders of magnitude.

  19. Chiral Selectivity in Inter-reactant Recognition and Electron Transfer of the Oxidation of Horse Heart Cytochrome c by Trioxalatocobaltate(III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R.; Bronshtein, Michael D.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied electron transfer between cytochrome c and the chiral transition-metal complex pair Λ- and Δ-[Co(Ox)3]3− (Ox2− = oxalate) via strong ion-pair formation. Chirality was found in both ion-pair formation and electron transfer, with the Λ enantiomer the more strongly bound and faster r...... reacting. Investigations of the chirality using electron-transfer theory combined with quantum-chemical and statistical-mechanical calculations showed that chirality is solely in inter-reactant interaction and electronic overlap.......We have studied electron transfer between cytochrome c and the chiral transition-metal complex pair Λ- and Δ-[Co(Ox)3]3− (Ox2− = oxalate) via strong ion-pair formation. Chirality was found in both ion-pair formation and electron transfer, with the Λ enantiomer the more strongly bound and faster...

  20. Agent-based simulation of reactions in the crowded and structured intracellular environment: Influence of mobility and location of the reactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapin Alexei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we apply a novel agent-based simulation method in order to model intracellular reactions in detail. The simulations are performed within a virtual cytoskeleton enriched with further crowding elements, which allows the analysis of molecular crowding effects on intracellular diffusion and reaction rates. The cytoskeleton network leads to a reduction in the mobility of molecules. Molecules can also unspecifically bind to membranes or the cytoskeleton affecting (i the fraction of unbound molecules in the cytosol and (ii furthermore reducing the mobility. Binding of molecules to intracellular structures or scaffolds can in turn lead to a microcompartmentalization of the cell. Especially the formation of enzyme complexes promoting metabolic channeling, e.g. in glycolysis, depends on the co-localization of the proteins. Results While the co-localization of enzymes leads to faster reaction rates, the reduced mobility decreases the collision rate of reactants, hence reducing the reaction rate, as expected. This effect is most prominent in diffusion limited reactions. Furthermore, anomalous diffusion can occur due to molecular crowding in the cell. In the context of diffusion controlled reactions, anomalous diffusion leads to fractal reaction kinetics. The simulation framework is used to quantify and separate the effects originating from molecular crowding or the reduced mobility of the reactants. We were able to define three factors which describe the effective reaction rate, namely f diff for the diffusion effect, f volume for the crowding, and f access for the reduced accessibility of the molecules. Conclusions Molecule distributions, reaction rate constants and structural parameters can be adjusted separately in the simulation allowing a comprehensive study of individual effects in the context of a realistic cell environment. As such, the present simulation can help to bridge the gap between in vivo and in vitro

  1. Effects of annealing on the properties of atomic layer deposited Ru thin films deposited by NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} as reactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Soo-Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@ynu.ac.kr

    2016-08-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Ru using a non-oxidizing reactant is indispensable considering its application as a seed layer for Cu electroplating and a bottom electrode for dynamic random access memory capacitors. In this study, ALD-Ru films were deposited using a sequential supply of dicarbonyl-bis(5-methyl-2,4-hexanediketonato) Ru(II) (C{sub 16}H{sub 22}O{sub 6}Ru) and potential non-oxidizing reducing agents, NH{sub 3} or H{sub 2}, as the reactants at a substrate temperature of 250 °C, and the effects of post-annealing in a H{sub 2} ambient on the film properties were investigated. The highly conformal deposition of Ru films was possible using the present reaction scheme but its resistivity was as high as ~ 750 μΩ-cm due to carbon incorporation into the film and the formation of an amorphous structure. Low temperature annealing at 300 °C at H{sub 2} ambient after deposition was found to improve the properties significantly in terms of the resistivity, impurities contents and crystallinity. For example, the film resistivity was decreased drastically to ~ 40 μΩ-cm with both the release of C in the film and crystallization after annealing based on secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy, whereas perfect step coverage at a very small-sized dual trench (aspect ratio: ~ 3, the top opening size of 45 nm and bottom size of 20 nm) was maintained after annealing. - Highlights: • Ru thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} molecules. • Effects of low temperature (300 °C) post-annealing on the film properties were investigated. • Post annealing improved the properties of ALD-Ru films. • Perfect step coverage of ALD-Ru was confirmed at trench structure (top opening width: 45 nm).

  2. Generation of five phase-locked harmonics by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Nurul Sheeda; Ohae, Chiaki; Gavara, Trivikramarao; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-12-15

    We report the generation of five phase-locked harmonics, f₁:2403  nm, f₂:1201  nm, f₃:801  nm, f₄:600  nm, and f₅:480  nm with an exact frequency ratio of 1:2:3:4:5 by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider in the high harmonic generation process. All five harmonics are generated coaxially with high phase coherence in time and space, which are applicable for various practical uses.

  3. Divider plate leak inspections using an acoustic tool 'ALIS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, J.; Colbert, M.

    1998-01-01

    Divider plate leakage in the primary head of steam generators may be a contributor to high Reactor Inlet Header Temperature (RIHT) which can have a negative effect on the operation of a plant. A method to provide quick information of divider plate leakage can be very useful in helping operators to make timely and cost effective repair and maintenance decisions. As part of a CANDU Owners Group (COG) funded program, a novel acoustic tool for performing inspections in empty steam generators during a shutdown has been developed and successfully demonstrated by Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT). The basic principle of this technique utilizes sound transmission through the leakage paths of a divider plate assembly for creating a graphic image which reveals the locations and relative sizes of leaks. This is accomplished by injecting one side of the primary head with a series of airborne, ultrasonic sound bursts while scanning the divider plates from the opposite side and collecting transmitted sound pressure levels. Once a scan is completed the results are processed and displayed graphically as a color mapping of the entire divider plate assembly showing an image of the leakage locations and relative severity. The special transducers of the acoustic leak inspection system (ALIS) are installed through the manways of the steam generator at both sides of the primary head. These are clamped to the tube sheet and operated from a convenient remote location within the containment building. This process minimizes radiation exposure of the workers, as well, it reduces risk of contamination of the ALIS equipment. The current version of this tool performs the scans by remote manual control. (author)

  4. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  5. MRL and SuperFine+MRL: new supertree methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Supertree methods combine trees on subsets of the full taxon set together to produce a tree on the entire set of taxa. Of the many supertree methods, the most popular is MRP (Matrix Representation with Parsimony), a method that operates by first encoding the input set of source trees by a large matrix (the "MRP matrix") over {0,1, ?}, and then running maximum parsimony heuristics on the MRP matrix. Experimental studies evaluating MRP in comparison to other supertree methods have established that for large datasets, MRP generally produces trees of equal or greater accuracy than other methods, and can run on larger datasets. A recent development in supertree methods is SuperFine+MRP, a method that combines MRP with a divide-and-conquer approach, and produces more accurate trees in less time than MRP. In this paper we consider a new approach for supertree estimation, called MRL (Matrix Representation with Likelihood). MRL begins with the same MRP matrix, but then analyzes the MRP matrix using heuristics (such as RAxML) for 2-state Maximum Likelihood. Results We compared MRP and SuperFine+MRP with MRL and SuperFine+MRL on simulated and biological datasets. We examined the MRP and MRL scores of each method on a wide range of datasets, as well as the resulting topological accuracy of the trees. Our experimental results show that MRL, coupled with a very good ML heuristic such as RAxML, produced more accurate trees than MRP, and MRL scores were more strongly correlated with topological accuracy than MRP scores. Conclusions SuperFine+MRP, when based upon a good MP heuristic, such as TNT, produces among the best scores for both MRP and MRL, and is generally faster and more topologically accurate than other supertree methods we tested. PMID:22280525

  6. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  7. Divided attention interferes with fulfilling activity-based intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Ball, B Hunter; Knight, Justin B; Dewitt, Michael R; Marsh, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of divided attention on activity-based prospective memory. After establishing a goal to fulfill an intention upon completion of an ongoing activity, successful completion of the intention generally suffered when attention was being devoted to an additional task (Experiment 1). Forming an implementation intention at encoding ameliorated the negative effects of divided attention (Experiment 2). The results from the present experiments demonstrate that activity-based prospective memory is susceptible to distraction and that implementing encoding strategies that enhance prospective memory performance can reduce this interference. The current work raises interesting questions about the similarities and differences between event- and activity-based prospective memories. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Climate Change and North-South Divide. Between and Within

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The traditional North-South divide has persisted through out the negotiations on climate change. Divergent state interests made striking a right balance between development and environmental protection an elusive endeavor as negotiators were striving to adopt a global climate regime. Four principles of international environmental law are of particular concern: the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, the principle of equity, the precautionary principle, and the principle of sustainable development. With economic development being the overriding priority in developing countries, the negotiations leading to the Kyoto Protocol tend to prove that principles could be interpreted in different ways to fit particular interests. This study explains the confrontations between the North and the South and argues that climate change has by far strengthened the North-South divide both between and within. Accordingly, it concludes that there is a need to devise new principles

  9. The New Digital Divide For Digital BioMarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Rodriguez, Jorge; Powell, Adam

    2017-09-01

    As smartphone and sensors continue to become more ubiquitous across the world, digital biomarkers have emerged as a scalable and practical tool to explore disease states and advance health. But as the digital divide of access and ownership begins to fade, a new digital divide is emerging. Who are the types of people that own smartphones or smart watches, who are the types of people that download health apps or partake in digital biomarker studies, and who are the types of people that are actually active with digital biomarkers apps and sensors - the people providing the high quality and longitudinal data that this field is being founded upon? Understanding the people behind digital biomarkers, the very people this emerging field aims to help, may actually be the real challenge as well as opportunity for digital biomarkers.

  10. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restifo, Linda L; Phelan, Gerald R

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this 'cultural divide'. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  11. Design and analysis of unequal split Bagley power dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Alnadi, Omar; Dib, Nihad; Al-Shamaileh, Khair; Sheta, Abdelfattah

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we propose a general design procedure to develop unequal split Bagley power dividers (BPDs). Based on the mathematical approach carried out in the insight of simple circuit and transmission line theories, exact design equations for 3-way and 5-way BPDs are derived. Utilising the developed equations leads to power dividers with the ability of offering different output power ratios through a suitable choice of the characteristic impedances of the interconnecting transmission lines. For verification purposes, a 1:2:1 3-way, 1:2:1:2:1 5-way and 1:3:1:3:1 5-way BPDs are designed and fabricated. The experimental and full-wave simulation results prove the validity of the designed unequal split BPDs.

  12. Full versus divided attention and implicit memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, G; Prinsen, A

    1997-11-01

    Effects of full and divided attention during study on explicit and implicit memory performance were investigated in two experiments. Study time was manipulated in a third experiment. Experiment 1 showed that both similar and dissociative effects can be found in the two kinds of memory test, depending on the difficulty of the concurrent tasks used in the divided-attention condition. In this experiment, however, standard implicit memory tests were used and contamination by explicit memory influences cannot be ruled out. Therefore, in Experiments 2 and 3 the process dissociation procedure was applied. Manipulations of attention during study and of study time clearly affected the controlled (explicit) memory component, but had no effect on the automatic (implicit) memory component. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan

    2013-06-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics and the Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology for its high density integration. A coupling slot has been used to perform vertical integration, which can be easily optimized through its length. The measured input return loss within the bandwidth of interest (32 GHz-38 GHz) is less than -15 dB and -18 dB for the multilayer transition and the power divider, respectively. The lateral dimensions of a multilayer system, such as a feed network of an array, can be greatly reduced by employing these 3D slot-coupled components. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Finding effective responses against cyber attacks for divided nations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Min

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited There can be hostile relations between nations that are divided politically or ideologically, and there are threats in cyberspace as well as physical space. Although every cyber threat, like a physical threat, has countermeasures, this can be hard because of the complexity of cyberspace and the ethics in cyberspace. This study tries to find effective countermeasures for South Korea in cyberspace against North Korea’s continuing cyber a...

  15. Divided versus selective attention: evidence for common processing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Britta; Wolkenberg, Frank A; Ross, Thomas J; Myers, Carol S; Heishman, Stephen J; Stein, Dan J; Kurup, Pradeep K; Stein, Elliot A

    2008-06-18

    The current study revisited the question of whether there are brain mechanisms specific to divided attention that differ from those used in selective attention. Increased neuronal activity required to simultaneously process two stimulus dimensions as compared with each separate dimension has often been observed, but rarely has activity induced by a divided attention condition exceeded the sum of activity induced by the component tasks. Healthy participants performed a selective-divided attention paradigm while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The task required participants to make a same-different judgment about either one of two simultaneously presented stimulus dimensions, or about both dimensions. Performance accuracy was equated between tasks by dynamically adjusting the stimulus display time. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal differences between tasks were identified by whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons and by region-specific analyses of all areas modulated by the divided attention task (DIV). No region displayed greater activation or deactivation by DIV than the sum of signal change by the two selective attention tasks. Instead, regional activity followed the tasks' processing demands as reflected by reaction time. Only a left cerebellar region displayed a correlation between participants' BOLD signal intensity and reaction time that was selective for DIV. The correlation was positive, reflecting slower responding with greater activation. Overall, the findings do not support the existence of functional brain activity specific to DIV. Increased activity appears to reflect additional processing demands by introducing a secondary task, but those demands do not appear to qualitatively differ from processes of selective attention.

  16. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John A.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of v...

  17. Job quality in Europe: the North-South divide

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeira, Maria da Conceição; Kovács, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the job quality in Europe. It is based on the results of the Fourth European Foundation Survey on working conditions covering different dimensions including work organisation, job content, autonomy at work, aspects of worker dignity, working time and work-life balance, working conditions and safety in the workplace. The results point to the existence of great diversity in the job quality across Europe and the north-south divide. The job quality differences are related to t...

  18. Coping with divided attention: the advantage of familiarity.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, S. W.; Brockmark, S.; Höjesjö, J.; Johnsson, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of an animal to perform a task successfully is limited by the amount of attention being simultaneously focused on other activities. One way in which individuals might reduce the cost of divided attention is by preferentially focusing on the most beneficial tasks. In territorial animals where aggression is lower among familiar individuals, the decision to associate preferentially with familiar conspecifics may therefore confer advantages by allowing attention to be switched from ag...

  19. Pseudodifference operators and uniform convergence of divided differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifanov, I K; Poltavskii, L N

    2002-01-01

    The concept of pseudodifference operator is introduced. The properties of a class of pseudodifference operators in spaces of fractional quotients are studied. A local theorem on the uniform convergence of divided differences of arbitrary order for an approximate solution is established. In particular, the local infinite differentiability of a precise solution of operator equations of elliptic type with locally infinitely differentiable right-hand side is proved on the basis of a numerical method. Examples related to applications are presented

  20. Abelianization of the F-divided fundamental group scheme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS

    Abelianization of the F-divided fundamental group scheme. 283. Restrict the Poincaré bundle to X × Pic0 red(X). Viewing this restriction as a line bundle on Pic0 red(X) parametrized by X, we ... which gives rise to an exact sequence of the projective systems considered in Definition. 2.3. Applying the projective limit functor ...

  1. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Prull, Matthew W.; Lawless, Courtney; Marshall, Helen M.; Sherman, Annabella T. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (Experiments 1 and 3), or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2), both of which are conceptually-driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA) conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting...

  2. Reconciling Ethnic and National Identities in a Divided Society: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reconciling Ethnic and National Identities in a Divided Society: The Nigerian Dilemma of Nation-State Building. Abu Bakarr Bah. Abstract. « Réconcilier les Identités Ethniques et Nationales dans une Société Divisée: Le Dilemme Nigérian de la Construction de l\\'Etat-Nation ». Résumé Il s\\'agit ici d\\'une analyse théorique et ...

  3. Contact-free Stress Monitoring for User's Divided Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Dvijesh; Wesley, Avinash; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This research work demonstrates the feasibility of stress quantification in situations where the attention of the user is divided. Psychologically kosher (i.e., unobtrusive) quantification of stress and its correlation to user performance and emotion are of singular importance in man-machine interaction. We have also proved that talking on a cell phone during simulated driving increases the supraorbital skin temperature significantly. This finding clearly demonstrates that concurrent performa...

  4. Is the digital divide between young and elderly people increasing?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Gerd; Stegbauer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Elderly people still play a minor role in research on information needs and usage patterns of Internet users. Online research and advocacy groups look optimistically at the (economic and social) potential of the active and technology–skilled elderly; other approaches dealing with the social appropriation of technology see obstacles and stress the dangers of an increasing digital divide between generations. Our objective is to refer to taken for granted normative assumptions of the digital div...

  5. Measuring the Digital Divide with PingER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, L.

    2003-10-01

    We introduce the PingER project/toolkit and show its relevance to monitoring sites in developing countries. We then show results from PingER that illustrate the extent of the Digital Divide in terms of Internet performance between developed and developing regions, which developing regions are catching up, keeping up, or falling behind and the magnitude of the differences in performance between developed regions and developing regions.

  6. Subjective cognitive impairment: functional MRI during a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, J; Dannhauser, T; Cutinha, D J; Shergill, S S; Walker, Z

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) have persistent memory complaints but normal neurocognitive performance. For some, this may represent a pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given that attentional deficits and associated brain activation changes are present early in the course of AD, we aimed to determine whether SCI is associated with brain activation changes during attentional processing. Eleven SCI subjects and 10 controls completed a divided attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. SCI and control groups did not differ in sociodemographic, neurocognitive or behavioural measures. When group activation during the divided attention task was compared, the SCI group demonstrated increased activation in left medial temporal lobe, bilateral thalamus, posterior cingulate and caudate. This pattern of increased activation is similar to the pattern of decreased activation reported during divided attention in AD and may indicate compensatory changes. These findings suggest the presence of early functional changes in SCI; longitudinal studies will help to further elucidate the relationship between SCI and AD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of divided attention on auditory priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W; Duke, Marquinn; Cooper, Angela W

    2007-09-01

    Traditional theorizing stresses the importance of attentional state during encoding for later memory, based primarily on research with explicit memory. Recent research has begun to investigate the role of attention in implicit memory but has focused almost exclusively on priming in the visual modality. The present experiments examined the effect of divided attention on auditory implicit memory, using auditory perceptual identification, word-stem completion and word-fragment completion. Participants heard study words under full attention conditions or while simultaneously carrying out a distractor task (the divided attention condition). In Experiment 1, a distractor task with low response frequency failed to disrupt later auditory priming (but diminished explicit memory as assessed with auditory recognition). In Experiment 2, a distractor task with greater response frequency disrupted priming on all three of the auditory priming tasks as well as the explicit test. These results imply that although auditory priming is less reliant on attention than explicit memory, it is still greatly affected by at least some divided-attention manipulations. These results are consistent with research using visual priming tasks and have relevance for hypotheses regarding attention and auditory priming.

  8. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  9. Remelting of metallurgical fines using thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, L.C.; Neto F, J.B.F.; Bender, O.W.; Collares, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma furnace was developed for remelting of ferro alloys and silicon fines. The furnace capacity was about 4 Kg of silicon and power about 50 kW. The fine (20 to 100 mesh) was fed into the furnace directly at the high temperature zone. This system was tested for remelting silicon fines and the results in the recovery of silicon was about 95% and it took place a refine of aluminium and calcium. (author)

  10. A study of human DPOAE fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    height and ripple prevalence. Temporary changes of the DPOAE fine structure are analyzed by measuring DPOAE both before and after exposing some of the subjects to an intense sound. The characteristic patterns of fine structure can be found in the DPOAE of all subjects, though they are individual and vary...... fine structures are obtained from 74 normalhearing humans using primary levels of L1/L2=65/45 dB. The subjects belong to groups with different age and exposure history. A classification algorithm is developed, which quantifies the fine structure by the parameters ripple place, ripple width, ripple...

  11. On Basu's proposal: Fines affect bribes

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    I model the connection between the equilibrium bribe amount and the fines imposed on both bribe-taker and bribe-payer. I show that Basu's (2011) proposal to lower the fines imposed on bribe-payers in order to induce more whistleblowing and increase the probability of penalizing corrupt government officials might instead increase bribe amounts. Higher expected fines on bribe-takers will make them charge larger bribes; at the same time, lowering fines for bribe-paying might increase bribe-payer...

  12. Preferential processing of tactile events under conditions of divided attention: Effects of divided attention on reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, James V. M.; Whitaker, David; Heron, James

    2009-01-01

    Differences in transduction and transmission latencies of visual, auditory and tactile events cause corresponding differences in simple reaction time. As reaction time is usually measured in unimodal blocks, it is unclear whether such latency differences also apply when observers monitor multiple sensory channels. We investigate this by comparing reaction time when attention is focussed on a single modality, and when attention is divided between multiple modalities. Results show that tactile ...

  13. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  14. Green and sustainable median on a divided multilane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Bajuri, F. A. A.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Prasetijo, J.

    2017-11-01

    The road system in Malaysia showed good growth with increasing number of vehicles on the road. However, statistic of road accident is still at an alarming rate. There are many factor can contribute to the occurrence of an accident. If the accident was caused by road facilities such as street furniture, it is shown that the street furniture was failed to improve the safety of the road users. In this study, a new concept of materials for the construction of road dividers was purpose. The sustainable materials such as laterite soil, Cow Grass, tires and PVC pipes was used to replace the cement and iron guardrails in road divider construction. The main objectives of this study is to design characteristics of a road divider using natural material such as laterite soil, sand, grass and recycle material like used a tyre. A series of experiments such as test liquid limit, plastic limit test, standard proctor test and observations of root growth in 30 days were conducted. The result shows that the plastic index value of 35% was obtained. From the proctor compaction test, the optimum water content was 23% and maximum dry density at 15.3 kN/m3. This value was used to build a prototype of green and sustainable raised road median. The suitability of sand used as the medium in irrigation system was approved. Permeability of sand is 10-2 mm/s to 10 mm/s which is having a high rate of flow. The growth of Cow Grass roots was increased by 4.9 cm in 30 days. This shows that, the grass is suitable to grow in laterite soil and can be used as vegetation material. Through the impact test conducted on a model with a scale of 1:7.5, indicate the initial damage occurred when a force reaches 10N. However, the condition of the model is still stable. From the impact test conducted, the prototype of green and sustainable raised road median has a good potential to be used as existing road divider as it can absorb the impact of an accident.

  15. The NCI Digital Divide Pilot Projects: implications for cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L; Gustafson, David; Salovey, Peter; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Wilbright, Wayne; Bright, Mary Anne; Muha, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported four innovative demonstration research projects, "The Digital Divide Pilot Projects," to test new strategies for disseminating health information via computer to vulnerable consumers. These projects involved active research collaborations between the NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and regional cancer control researchers to field test new approaches for enhancing cancer communication in vulnerable communities. The projects were able to use computers to successfully disseminate relevant cancer information to vulnerable populations. These demonstration research projects suggested effective new strategies for using communication technologies to educate underserved populations about cancer prevention, control, and care.

  16. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  17. Charge dividing mechanism in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-01-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistances and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C)/sup 1/2), where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  18. Divide and conquer approach to quantum Hamiltonian simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Stuart; Papageorgiou, Anargyros

    2018-04-01

    We show a divide and conquer approach for simulating quantum mechanical systems on quantum computers. We can obtain fast simulation algorithms using Hamiltonian structure. Considering a sum of Hamiltonians we split them into groups, simulate each group separately, and combine the partial results. Simulation is customized to take advantage of the properties of each group, and hence yield refined bounds to the overall simulation cost. We illustrate our results using the electronic structure problem of quantum chemistry, where we obtain significantly improved cost estimates under very mild assumptions.

  19. Divide by 4 the emissions: the Negatep scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Negatep scenario is proposed in the framework of the french energy policy, aiming to divide by 4 the CO 2 emissions for 2050. After an evaluation of the today situation concerning the energy consumption and needs, the scenario proposes some ways of energy conservation in different sectors, other energy sources in place of the fossil fuels, the energy needs by sectors. The last part of the document provides the main consumption posts, the CO 2 releases and the approach. (A.L.B.)

  20. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  1. Fine Structure of Plasmaspheric Hiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D.; Omura, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Kletzing, C.

    2014-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss plays a key role in controlling the structure and dynamics of Earth's radiation belts.The quiet time slot region between the inner and outer belts can be explained as a steady-state balance between earthward radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering loss of energetic electrons to the atmosphere induced by plasmaspheric hiss. Plasmaspheric hiss can also induce gradual precipitation loss of MeV electrons from the outer radiation belt. Plasmaspheric hiss has been widely regarded as a broadband,structureless,incoherent emission. Here, by examining burst-mode vector waveform data from the EMFISIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission,we show that plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission with complex fine structure. Specifically, plasmaspheric hiss appears as discrete rising tone and falling tone elements. By means of waveform analysis we identify typical amplitudes,phase profiles,and sweep rates of the rising and falling tone elements. The new observations reported here can be expected to fuel a re-examination of the properties of plasmaspheric hiss, including a further re-analysis of the generation mechanism for hiss.

  2. Fine structure of cluster decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, O.

    1993-07-01

    Within the one level R-matrix approach the hindrance factors of the radioactive decays in which are emitted α and 14 C - nuclei are calculated. The generalization to radioactive decays in which are emitted heavier clusters such as e.g. 20 O, 24 Ne, 25 Ne, 28 Mg. 30 Mg, 32 Si and 34 Si is straightforward. The interior wave functions are supposed to be given by the shell model with effective residual interactions (e.g. the large scale shell model code-OXBASH - in the Michigan State University version for nearly spherical nuclei or by the enlarged superfluid model - ESM - recently proposed for deformed nuclei). The exterior wave functions are calculated from a cluster - nucleus double - folding model potential obtained with the M3Y interaction. As examples of the cluster decay fine structure we analyzed the particular cases of α - decay of 241 Am and 14 C -decay of 233 Ra. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained. (author). 78 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  3. Get out of Fines Free: Recruiting Student Usability Testers via Fine Waivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Benjamin; Blackburn, Kourtney

    2016-01-01

    St. John Fisher College's Lavery Library's Access Services and Systems departments began a pilot project in which students with overdue fines tested usability of library Web sites in exchange for fine waivers. Circulation staff promoted the program and redeemed fine waiver vouchers at the Checkout Desk, while Systems staff administered testing and…

  4. 47 CFR 76.943 - Fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.943 Fines. (a) A franchising authority may impose fines or... specifically at the cable operator, provided the franchising authority has such power under state or local laws. (b) If a cable operator willfully fails to comply with the terms of any franchising authority's order...

  5. Divided attention selectively impairs memory for self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, David J; Brady-van den Bos, Mirjam; Collard, Philip; Gillespie-Smith, Karri; Conway, Martin A; Cunningham, Sheila J

    2013-05-01

    Information that is relevant to oneself tends to be remembered more than information that relates to other people, but the role of attention in eliciting this "self-reference effect" is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the importance of attention in self-referential encoding using an ownership paradigm, which required participants to encode items under conditions of imagined ownership by themselves or by another person. Previous work has established that this paradigm elicits a robust self-reference effect, with more "self-owned" items being remembered than "other-owned" items. Access to attentional resources was manipulated using divided-attention tasks at encoding. A significant self-reference effect emerged under full-attention conditions and was related to an increase in episodic recollection for self-owned items, but dividing attention eliminated this memory advantage. These findings are discussed in relation to the nature of self-referential cognition and the importance of attentional resources at encoding in the manifestation of the self-reference effect in memory.

  6. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Moroz, Irene M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling's interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling's interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling's interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2012-03-01

    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling\\'s interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling\\'s interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling\\'s interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, Kinga Bettina; Lőrincz, András

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs. PMID:29621292

  9. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Adrian Rill

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs.

  10. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rill, Róbert Adrian; Faragó, Kinga Bettina; Lőrincz, András

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs.

  11. Embodied ideas and divided selves: revisiting Laing via Bakhtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Ian; Sullivan, Paul

    2009-09-01

    In this article, we apply Mikhail Bakhtin's model of a 'divided self' to R.D. Laing's eponymous work on the lived experience of divided selves in 'psychosis'. Both of these authors offer intriguing insights into the fracturing of self through its social relationships (including the 'micro-dialogues' staged for oneself) but from uniquely different perspectives. Bakhtin (1984) uses Dostoevsky's novels as his material for a theory of self, centrally concerned with moments of split identity, crisis, and personal transformation, while Laing relies on his patient's accounts of 'psychosis'. We will outline how two key Bakhtinian divisions of the self (spirit/soul and authoritative/internally persuasive discourse) help to make sense of Laing's descriptions of his patient's experiences and micro-dialogues. Conversely, when refracted through Laing's phenomenology Bakhtin's account of the self becomes richer and somewhat darkened in terms of a double-edged ontology, which describes a maximally open self but one that is consumed by ideas, unable to manage their contradictions. The implications of this for managing the dilemmas of self-identity will be drawn out.

  12. Reactants encapsulation and Maillard Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades many efforts have been addressed to the control of Maillard Reaction products in different foods with the aim to promote the formation of compounds having the desired color and flavor and to reduce the concentration of several potential toxic molecules. Encapsulation, already

  13. Study of temperature, air dew point temperature and reactant flow effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performances using electrochemical spectroscopy and voltammetry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasterlain, S.; Hissel, D. [FC LAB, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); FEMTO-ST (UMR CNRS 6174), ENISYS Department, University of Franche-Comte, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Candusso, D.; Harel, F. [FC LAB, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); INRETS, The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Bergman, P.; Menard, P.; Anwar, M. [University of Connecticut, Connecticut Global Fuel Cell Center Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 44 Weaver Road, Unit 5233, Storrs, CT 06269-5233 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A single PEMFC has been operated by varying the assembly temperature, the air dew point temperature and the anode/cathode stoichiometry rates with the aim to identify the parameters and combinations of factors affecting the cell performance. Some of the experiments were conducted with low humidified reactants (relative humidity of 12%). The FC characterizations tests have been conducted using in situ electrochemical methods based on load current and cell voltage signal analysis, namely: polarization curves, EIS measurements, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetries (CV and LSV). The impacts of the parameters on the global FC performances were observed using the polarization curves whereas EIS, CV and LSV test results were used to discriminate the different voltage loss sources. The test results suggest that some parameter sets allow maximal output voltages but can also induce material degradation. For instance, higher FC temperature and air flow values can induce significant electrical efficiency benefits, notably by increasing the reversible potential and the reaction kinetics. However, raising the cell temperature can also gradually dry the FC and increase the risk of membrane failure. LSV has also shown that elevated FC temperature and relative humidity can also accelerate the electrolyte degradation (i.e. slightly higher fuel crossover rate) and reduce the lifetime consequently. (author)

  14. Study of temperature, air dew point temperature and reactant flow effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performances using electrochemical spectroscopy and voltammetry techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, S.; Candusso, D.; Hissel, D.; Harel, F.; Bergman, P.; Menard, P.; Anwar, M.

    A single PEMFC has been operated by varying the assembly temperature, the air dew point temperature and the anode/cathode stoichiometry rates with the aim to identify the parameters and combinations of factors affecting the cell performance. Some of the experiments were conducted with low humidified reactants (relative humidity of 12%). The FC characterizations tests have been conducted using in situ electrochemical methods based on load current and cell voltage signal analysis, namely: polarization curves, EIS measurements, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetries (CV and LSV). The impacts of the parameters on the global FC performances were observed using the polarization curves whereas EIS, CV and LSV test results were used to discriminate the different voltage loss sources. The test results suggest that some parameter sets allow maximal output voltages but can also induce material degradation. For instance, higher FC temperature and air flow values can induce significant electrical efficiency benefits, notably by increasing the reversible potential and the reaction kinetics. However, raising the cell temperature can also gradually dry the FC and increase the risk of membrane failure. LSV has also shown that elevated FC temperature and relative humidity can also accelerate the electrolyte degradation (i.e. slightly higher fuel crossover rate) and reduce the lifetime consequently.

  15. Effect of aluminum and silicon reactants and process parameters on glass-ceramic waste form characteristics for immobilization of high-level fluorinel-sodium calcined waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the effects of aluminum and silicon reactants, process soak time and the initial calcine particle size on glass-ceramic waste form characteristics for immobilization of the high-level fluorinel-sodium calcined waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are investigated. The waste form characteristics include density, total and normalized elemental leach rates, and microstructure. Glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing (HIPing) a pre-compacted mixture of pilot plant fluorinel-sodium calcine, Al, and Si metal powders at 1050 degrees C, 20,000 psi for 4 hours. One of the formulations with 2 wt % Al was HIPed for 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours at the same temperature and pressure. The calcine particle size range include as calcined particle size smaller than 600 μm (finer than -30 mesh, or 215 μm Mass Median Diameter, MMD) and 180 μm (finer than 80 mesh, or 49 μm MMD)

  16. Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail: totsuji-09@t.okadai.jp

    2017-03-11

    The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.

  17. Bifurcation in asymmetric plasma divided by a magnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohi, K.; Naitou, H.; Tauchi, Y.; Fukumasa, O.

    2001-05-01

    A magnetic filter (MF) reflecting electrons from both sides can separate a low-temperature and low-density subplasma from a high-temperature and high-density main plasma. The one-dimensional numerical simulation by the particle-in-cell code revealed that, depending on the asymmetry, the plasma divided by the MF behaves dynamically or statically [K. Ohi et al., Physics of Plasmas 8, 23 (2001)]. The transition between the two bifurcated states is discontinuous. In the dynamic state, the autonomous potential oscillation in the subplasma is synchronized with the passage of the shock wave structure generated by the modulated ion beam from the main plasma. The stationary phase of the dynamic state appears after the amplitude of the potential oscillation in the subplasma grows exponentially from the thermal noise. In the static state, the system is stable to the growth of the potential oscillation in the subplasma. (author)

  18. The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Jacoby, Larry L; Thomas, Ruthann C; Balota, David A

    2011-05-01

    Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words followed by recognition judgments on stimuli with an old or new word superimposed over an old or new picture. Participants were instructed to make their recognition decision on either the picture or word and to ignore the distracting stimulus. Spontaneous recognition was measured as the influence of old vs. new distracters on target recognition. Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-attention younger adults. The occurrence of spontaneous recognition is discussed in relation to ability to constrain retrieval to goal-relevant information.

  19. Divided Saddle Theory: A New Idea for Rate Constant Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, János; Stirling, András

    2014-03-11

    We present a theory of rare events and derive an algorithm to obtain rates from postprocessing the numerical data of a free energy calculation and the corresponding committor analysis. The formalism is based on the division of the saddle region of the free energy profile of the rare event into two adjacent segments called saddle domains. The method is built on sampling the dynamics within these regions: auxiliary rate constants are defined for the saddle domains and the absolute forward and backward rates are obtained by proper reweighting. We call our approach divided saddle theory (DST). An important advantage of our approach is that it requires only standard computational techniques which are available in most molecular dynamics codes. We demonstrate the potential of DST numerically on two examples: rearrangement of alanine-dipeptide (CH3CO-Ala-NHCH3) conformers and the intramolecular Cope reaction of the fluxional barbaralane molecule.

  20. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Restifo

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  1. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  2. Universal Service in a Broader Perspective: The European Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion GARCIA-JIMENEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring universal service is a top objective in many countries in order that all the citizens can have access basic communications services. Although the ICT equipment in households and its usage by individuals are essential prerequisites for benefiting from ICTs, the situation in the European Union is far from uniform. This article provides a description of the European information society development scenario using the values reached by the member states in a set of indicators selected for measuring said progress in households. Two tools are used for providing a broader perspective of the digital divide: a composite index and the cluster analysis. Below, a study is provided on what variables are relevant for interpreting the situation that is presented.

  3. Size and emotion averaging: costs of dividing attention after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John; Oriet, Chris; Tottenham, Laurie Sykes

    2012-03-01

    Perceptual averaging is a process by which sets of similar items are represented by summary statistics such as their average size, luminance, or orientation. Researchers have argued that this process is automatic, able to be carried out without interference from concurrent processing. Here, we challenge this conclusion and demonstrate a reliable cost of computing the mean size of circles distinguished by colour (Experiments 1 and 2) and the mean emotionality of faces distinguished by sex (Experiment 3). We also test the viability of two strategies that could have allowed observers to guess the correct response without computing the average size or emotionality of both sets concurrently. We conclude that although two means can be computed concurrently, doing so incurs a cost of dividing attention.

  4. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  7. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  8. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Closing the divide: Can the IAEA make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the world has seen many fundamental changes in the way countries interact. It is seen today in how business is conducted, how fast travel and super-fast communications have opened up the world into almost one huge market and how news of break-through technological innovations appear almost weekly in the media. Yet the world still lives with a vast divide between rich and poor and, from many perspectives, this divide appears to be increasing. The world's development programmes have thus been increasingly scrutinized for their effectiveness and efficiency. The aim is to ensure that the planned benefits reach the end-beneficiaries in a manner that adequately addresses the socio-economic needs of the recipient society. Against this background, the IAEA's relatively small but nevertheless significant programme of technical cooperation has had to reform itself. It has gone from a largely 'technology push' focus to adopting a new 'needs driven' strategy. As the world marks 50 years of the 'Atoms for Peace' initiative, the questions must be asked whether the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) really can make a difference? Is this programme correctly positioned to be able to meet these very large global challenges? Must it reform itself further to remain meaningful and relevant? What are the determinants for its success within a highly demanding environment? These are the typical questions that have largely shaped the deliberations between the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department and its Standing Advisory Group, called SAGTAC, since the group of representatives from Member States was formed in the mid- 1990s

  10. Wrong-way driving crashes on French divided roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemel, Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    The objective of divided roads is to increase users' safety by posting unidirectional traffic flows. It happens however that drivers proceed in the wrong direction, endangering themselves as well as other users. The crashes caused by wrong-way drivers are generally spotlighted by the media and call for public intervention. This paper proposes a characterization of wrong-way driving crashes occurring on French divided road on the 2008-2012 period. The objective is to identify the factors that delineate between wrong-way driving crashes and other crashes. Building on the national injury road crash database, 266 crashes involving a wrong-way driver were identified. Their characteristics (related to timing, location, vehicle and driver) are compared to those of the 22,120 other crashes that occurred on the same roads over the same period. The comparison relies on descriptive statistics, completed by a logistic regression. Wrong-way driving crashes are rare but severe. They are more likely to occur during night hours and on non-freeway roads than other crashes. Wrong-way drivers are older, more likely to be intoxicated, to be locals, to drive older vehicles, mainly passenger cars without passengers, than other drivers. The differences observed across networks can help prioritizing public intervention. Most of the identified WW-driving factors deal with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the specific countermeasures such as alternative road signs should be designed for and tested on cognitively impaired drivers. Nevertheless, WW-driving factors are also risk factors for other types of crashes (e.g. elderly driving, drunk driving and age of the vehicle). This suggests that, instead of (or in addition to) developing WW-driving specific countermeasures, managing these risk factors would help reducing a larger number of crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Fine Motor Skill on Accuracy of Measurements Using a Handheld Sliding Caliper at Adolescents Group Aged 19-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychta, Petr; Hojk, Vladimír; Hrubý, Jiří; Pilc, Jozef

    2017-10-01

    This innovate ve interdisciplinary study deals with influence of fine motor skill level (finger dexterity) of individual on his measurement results in metrology practice. The main objective of this study was determinate fine motor skill level of individuals using a motor test. Further determinate the potential effect of different fine motor skill levels on accuracy of measuring using a mechanical handheld sliding caliper. Fine motor skill test and metrological test were implemented. Pursuant the results of fine motor skill test were probands divided into 2 groups. The groups are significantly different on accuracy of measurement (p=0,006). Pearson coefficient shows a significant correlation r = - 0.66 between the Purdue Pegboard test and a measurement error. Results confirmed that the fine motor skill of the upper limbs (especially finger coordination) significantly influence accuracy of measurement using a mechanical handheld sliding caliper.

  12. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  13. Fine structure studies of terbium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhay Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Krishnanath; Niraj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Terbium (Z = 65) is a typical rare-earth element. Fine structure of spectural lines of terbium (Tb) are presented using the laser optogalvanic spectroscopic technique. Altogether eighty transitions in the 5686-6367 A range have been observed in the fine structure spectrum of 159 Tb. Wavelengths of all the observed transitions have been determined. Out of 80 transitions of Tb, a total of 59 transitions are being reported for the first time. Classifications of 39 new transitions have been provided using the known energy levels, Doppler-limited optogalvanic spectroscopic technique is employed to study the fine structure (fs) 159 Tb. (author)

  14. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  15. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervicofacial actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kusuma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Cervicofacial actinomycosis presenting as a fixed jaw swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of cervicofacial actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration, along with a review of the relevant literature. A 60 year-old man presented with a gradually increasing 6 x 5 cm swelling in the left side of his jaw. The swelling was fixed, without any apparent sinus or abscess. Fine needle aspiration was diagnostic as it revealed colonies of actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs and chronic inflammatory cells. The histopathological study of the excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. Fine needle aspiration is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis although its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the fine needle aspiration technique.

  17. The Execution of Criminal Fine Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Peneoașu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at dissecting the criminal provisions on criminal enforcement of fines in current Romanian criminal law with the goal of highlighting the new penal policy stated in the larger field of criminal penalties. In the new Criminal Code the fine penalty experience a new regulation, but also a wider scope compared to the Criminal Code from 1968, with an exponential growth of the number of offenses or variations of them, for which a fine may be imposed as a unique punishment, but, especially, as an alternative punishment to imprisonment. Consequently, to ensure the efficiency of this punishment, the effective enforcement manner of the fine takes a new dimension. The study aims both students and academics or practitioners in the making. Furthermore, throughout the approach of this scientific research, new matters that new criminal legislation brings, are emphasized regarding this institution, both in a positive, and especially under a critical manner.

  18. Fine 5 Eesti tantsuväljal / Iiris Viirpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viirpalu, Iiris, 1992-

    2017-01-01

    Nüüdistantsuteatril Fine 5 täitub tänavu 25. tegutsemisaasta. Fine 5 käekirjast. Vestlusest Fine 5 tantsuteatri ja -kooli kauaaegsete kunstiliste juhtide Renee Nõmmiku ja Tiina Olleskiga Eesti tantsukunstist

  19. Fine topology and locally Minkowskian manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Gunjan; Sinha, Soami Pyari

    2018-05-01

    Fine topology is one of the several well-known topologies of physical and mathematical relevance. In the present paper, it is obtained that the nonempty open sets of different dimensional Minkowski spaces with the fine topology are not homeomorphic. This leads to the introduction of a new class of manifolds. It turns out that the technique developed here is also applicable to some other topologies, namely, the s-topology, space topology, f-topology, and A-topology.

  20. Fine sediment erodibility in Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ashish J.; Hwang, Kyu-Nam

    1989-01-01

    The critical need to predict the turbidity in water due to fine-grained sediment suspension under wave action over mud deposits for sedimentation and erosion studies, as well as sorbed contaminant transport, is well known. Since fall velocities of fine sediment particles are very small, they can be easily transported by hydrodynamic flows such as waves and currents. The presence of these particles in the water column affects accoustic transmission, heat absorption and depth of ...

  1. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  2. Divided attention limits perception of 3-D object shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Alec; Palmer, John; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Can one perceive multiple object shapes at once? We tested two benchmark models of object shape perception under divided attention: an unlimited-capacity and a fixed-capacity model. Under unlimited-capacity models, shapes are analyzed independently and in parallel. Under fixed-capacity models, shapes are processed at a fixed rate (as in a serial model). To distinguish these models, we compared conditions in which observers were presented with simultaneous or sequential presentations of a fixed number of objects (The extended simultaneous-sequential method: Scharff, Palmer, & Moore, 2011a, 2011b). We used novel physical objects as stimuli, minimizing the role of semantic categorization in the task. Observers searched for a specific object among similar objects. We ensured that non-shape stimulus properties such as color and texture could not be used to complete the task. Unpredictable viewing angles were used to preclude image-matching strategies. The results rejected unlimited-capacity models for object shape perception and were consistent with the predictions of a fixed-capacity model. In contrast, a task that required observers to recognize 2-D shapes with predictable viewing angles yielded an unlimited capacity result. Further experiments ruled out alternative explanations for the capacity limit, leading us to conclude that there is a fixed-capacity limit on the ability to perceive 3-D object shapes. PMID:23404158

  3. Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Davidson, Thomas J; Nakajima, Miho; Deisseroth, Karl; Halassa, Michael M

    2015-10-29

    How the brain selects appropriate sensory inputs and suppresses distractors is unknown. Given the well-established role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in executive function, its interactions with sensory cortical areas during attention have been hypothesized to control sensory selection. To test this idea and, more generally, dissect the circuits underlying sensory selection, we developed a cross-modal divided-attention task in mice that allowed genetic access to this cognitive process. By optogenetically perturbing PFC function in a temporally precise window, the ability of mice to select appropriately between conflicting visual and auditory stimuli was diminished. Equivalent sensory thalamocortical manipulations showed that behaviour was causally dependent on PFC interactions with the sensory thalamus, not sensory cortex. Consistent with this notion, we found neurons of the visual thalamic reticular nucleus (visTRN) to exhibit PFC-dependent changes in firing rate predictive of the modality selected. visTRN activity was causal to performance as confirmed by bidirectional optogenetic manipulations of this subnetwork. Using a combination of electrophysiology and intracellular chloride photometry, we demonstrated that visTRN dynamically controls visual thalamic gain through feedforward inhibition. Our experiments introduce a new subcortical model of sensory selection, in which the PFC biases thalamic reticular subnetworks to control thalamic sensory gain, selecting appropriate inputs for further processing.

  4. Informaticiens Sans Frontieres: Helping to bridge the Digital Divide

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    ISF was formed as a CERN club during the World Summit for the Information Society, in Geneva, in 2003. Today we are involved in a number of international projects aimed to helping Africa bridge the Digital Divide, as well as using computing power (BOINCs) in the research against Malaria, or creating GRIDs that could allow African universities to join us in scientific research projects such as the LHC. Our latest project, named MANGO Net, is aimed at capacity building, by creating a network of computer assembly schools across the continent, which would form hardware and software technicians, create assembly centres, and lay the foundation for a future IT industry. ISF est né comme un club du CERN, en 2003, pendant le Sommet Mondiale de la Société de l'information à Genève. Aujourd'hui nous participons à plusieurs projets avec le but d'aider l'Afrique à reduire la Fracture Numérique, ou de fournir de la puissance de calcul (BOINC) à la recherche contre le Paludisme, ou en créant des GRIDs qui pourra...

  5. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2018-05-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  6. Divided we fall... or rise? Tajikistan–Kyrgyzstan border dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matveeva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan border remains one of the last undefined frontiers in the Commonwealth of Independent States, where the governments are reluctant to act against the wishes of their border communities and force delimitation solutions that may cause social protests. Uncertainty of territorial arrangements persists; however, the era of commonality and interdependence may be at its end due to the establishment of a border as a means of spatial control. Border drawing reflects the divergent development trajectories of the new states, seeking to break out of an interdependence pattern. Borderlands’ interactions become more conflictual. Generation change and a loss of common language work to widen the inter-communal gap. Ethnicity and identity factors grew in significance as association with the nation-states increased, and a border expresses a symbol of nationhood in this paradigm. Crucially, a border justifies a security regime, reinforced by international assistance policies, to project power over the territory. Actions of security structures cause grievances but also signify a protective arm of the state, a role that the border communities appreciate, themselves acting as a collective border guard and projecting their fears of encroachment onto the borders. The expansion of the Eurasian Economic Union became a new factor that could have served to alleviate the pressure to divide territory and assets, but this could work only if two countries joined it at the same period. With this option unavailable, a territorial impasse has been reached.

  7. Coping with divided attention: the advantage of familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, S W; Brockmark, S; Höjesjö, J; Johnsson, J I

    2004-04-07

    The ability of an animal to perform a task successfully is limited by the amount of attention being simultaneously focused on other activities. One way in which individuals might reduce the cost of divided attention is by preferentially focusing on the most beneficial tasks. In territorial animals where aggression is lower among familiar individuals, the decision to associate preferentially with familiar conspecifics may therefore confer advantages by allowing attention to be switched from aggression to predator vigilance and feeding. Wild juvenile brown trout were used to test the prediction that familiar fishes respond more quickly than unfamiliar fishes to a simulated predator attack. Our results confirm this prediction by demonstrating that familiar trout respond 14% faster than unfamiliar individuals to a predator attack. The results also show that familiar fishes consume a greater number of food items, foraging at more than twice the rate of unfamiliar conspecifics. To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence that familiarity-biased association confers advantages through the immediate fitness benefits afforded by faster predator-evasion responses and the long-term benefits provided by increased feeding opportunities.

  8. Responsible, Inclusive Innovation and the Nano-Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Doris; Dalton-Brown, Sally; Schrempf, Benjamin; Kaplan, David

    Policy makers from around the world are trying to emulate successful innovation systems in order to support economic growth. At the same time, innovation governance systems are being put in place to ensure a better integration of stakeholder views into the research and development process. In Europe, one of the most prominent and newly emerging governance frameworks is called Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This article aims to substantiate the following points: (1) The concept of RRI and the concept of justice can be used to derive similar ethical positions on the nano-divide. (2) Given the ambitious policy aims of RRI (e.g. economic competitiveness enhancer), the concept may be better suited to push for ethical outcomes on access to nanotechnology and its products rather than debates based on justice issues alone. It may thus serve as a mediator concept between those who push solely for competitiveness considerations and those who push solely for justice considerations in nano-technology debates. (3) The descriptive, non-normative Systems of Innovation approaches (see below) should be linked into RRI debates to provide more evidence on whether the approach advocated to achieve responsible and ethical governance of research and innovation (R&I) can indeed deliver on competitiveness (in nano-technology and other fields).

  9. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2017-06-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  10. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  11. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteroo, P A; Bluemink, J G; Dictus, W J; van Zoelen, E J; de Laat, S W

    1984-07-01

    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xenopus laevis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein ("HEDAF") and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein ("TEDAF") as probes. The preexisting plasma membrane of the animal side showed an inhomogeneous, dotted fluorescence pattern after labeling and the lateral mobility of both probes used was below the detection limits of the FPR method (D much less than 10(-10) cm2/sec). In contrast, the preexisting plasma membrane of the vegetal side exhibited homogeneous fluorescence and the lateral diffusion coefficient of both probes used was relatively high (HEDAF, D = 2.8 X 10(-8) cm2/sec; TEDAF, D = 2.4 X 10(-8) cm2/sec). In the cleaving egg visible transfer of HEDAF or TEDAF from prelabeled plasma membrane to the new membrane in the furrow did not occur, even on the vegetal side. Upon labeling during cleavage, however, the new membrane was uniformly labeled and both probes were mobile, as in the vegetal preexisting plasma membrane. These data show that the membrane of the dividing Xenopus egg comprises three macrodomains: (i) the animal preexisting plasma membrane; (ii) the vegetal preexisting plasma membrane; (iii) the new furrow membrane.

  12. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prull, Matthew W; Lawless, Courtney; Marshall, Helen M; Sherman, Annabella T K

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (CEG; Experiments 1 and 3), or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2), both of which are conceptually driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA) conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting task was either syllable judgments (dissimilar processes), or semantic judgments (similar processes) on unrelated words. Compared to full attention (FA) in which no distracting task was performed, DA had no effect on CEG priming overall, but reduced category-cued recall similarly regardless of distractor task. Analyses of distractor task performance also revealed differences between implicit and explicit memory retrieval. The evidence suggests that, whereas explicit memory retrieval requires attentional resources and is disrupted by semantic and phonological distracting tasks, conceptual implicit memory is automatic and unaffected even when distractor and memory tasks involve similar processes.

  13. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Prull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (Experiments 1 and 3, or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2, both of which are conceptually-driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting task was either syllable judgments (dissimilar processes, or semantic judgments (similar processes on unrelated words. Compared to full attention (FA in which no distracting task was performed, DA had no effect on category exemplar generation priming overall, but reduced category-cued recall similarly regardless of distractor task. Analyses of distractor task performance also revealed differences between implicit and explicit memory retrieval. The evidence suggests that, whereas explicit memory retrieval requires attentional resources and is disrupted by semantic and phonological distracting tasks, conceptual implicit memory is automatic and unaffected even when distractor and memory tasks involve similar processes.

  14. Divided attention and mental effort after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouvi, Philippe; Couillet, Josette; Leclercq, Michel; Martin, Yves; Asloun, Sybille; Rousseaux, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dual-task performance in TBI patients, under different experimental conditions, with or without explicit emphasis on one of two tasks. Results were compared with measurement of the subjective mental effort required to perform each task. Forty-three severe TBI patients at the subacute or chronic phase performed two tasks under single- and dual-task conditions: (a) random generation; (b) visual go-no go reaction time task. Three dual-task conditions were given, requiring either to consider both tasks as equally important or to focus preferentially on one of them. Patients were compared to matched controls. Subjective mental effort was rated on a visual analogic scale. TBI patients showed a disproportionate increase in reaction time in the go-no go task under the dual-task condition. However, they were just as able as controls to adapt performance to the specific instructions about the task to be emphasised. Patients reported significantly higher subjective mental effort, but the variation of mental effort according to task condition was similar to that of controls. These results suggest that the divided attention deficit of TBI patients is related to a reduction in available processing resources rather than an impairment of strategic processes responsible for attentional allocation and switching. The higher level of subjective mental effort may explain why TBI patients frequently complain of mental fatigue, although this subjective complaint seems to be relatively independent of cognitive impairment.

  15. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2018-05-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  16. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Revisiting fine-tuning in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Graham G. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2017-03-06

    We evaluate the amount of fine-tuning in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with different boundary conditions at the GUT scale. Specifically we study the fully constrained version as well as the cases of non-universal Higgs and gaugino masses. We allow for the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms which we show further relax the fine-tuning. Of particular importance is the possibility of a Higgsino mass term and we discuss possible origins for such a term in UV complete models. We point out that loop corrections typically lead to a reduction in the fine-tuning by a factor of about two compared to the estimate at tree-level, which has been overlooked in many recent works. Taking these loop corrections into account, we discuss the impact of current limits from SUSY searches and dark matter on the fine-tuning. Contrary to common lore, we find that the MSSM fine-tuning can be as small as 10 while remaining consistent with all experimental constraints. If, in addition, the dark matter abundance is fully explained by the neutralino LSP, the fine-tuning can still be as low as ∼20 in the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms. We also discuss future prospects of these models and find that the MSSM will remain natural even in the case of a non-discovery in the foreseeable future.

  18. Revisiting fine-tuning in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Graham G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik

    2017-03-15

    We evaluate the amount of fine-tuning in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with different boundary conditions at the GUT scale. Specifically we study the fully constrained version as well as the cases of non-universal Higgs and gaugino masses. We allow for the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms which we show further relax the fine-tuning. Of particular importance is the possibility of a Higgsino mass term and we discuss possible origins for such a term in UV complete models. We point out that loop corrections typically lead to a reduction in the fine-tuning by a factor of about two compared to the estimate at tree-level, which has been overlooked in many recent works. Taking these loop corrections into account, we discuss the impact of current limits from SUSY searches and dark matter on the fine-tuning. Contrary to common lore, we find that the MSSM fine-tuning can be as small as 10 while remaining consistent with all experimental constraints. If, in addition, the dark matter abundance is fully explained by the neutralino LSP, the fine-tuning can still be as low as ∝20 in the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms. We also discuss future prospects of these models and find that the MSSM will remain natural even in the case of a non-discovery in the foreseeable future.

  19. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  20. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor

  1. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  2. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozlem OZAN,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or another. In the 21st century, the emergence of the knowledge society becomes pervasive hence the information and ICT systems that support knowledge are very important.This book discusses how educational technology can be used to transform education and assist developing communities to close the knowledge divide. Its broader audience is anyone who is interested in educational technology for development. In the book you can find best practices and case studies especially from countries in Africa.The book is edited by Stewart Marshall, Wanjira Kinuthia, Wallace Taylor. Professor Stewart Marshall, PhD, is the director of the Academic Division of the University of the West Indies Open Campus (UWIOC and holds the UNESCO Chair in Educational Technologies.Dr. Wanjira Kinuthia is assistant professor of Learning Technologies at Georgia State University. She works as an instructional designer in higher education and business and industry for several years. Professor Wallace Taylor, PhD, is a founding director of The Information Society Institute (TISI, a non-profit academic, research, and policy development organization based in South Africa.The book is consisted of 433 pages (+xxxv covering 24 articles divided into four sections and provides information about flexible learning for empowerment, managing and communicating knowledge, flexible delivery in higher education and preparing teacher using flexible approaches.Topics covered in the book are as follows

  3. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes how ICT screen-viewing activities relate to the Chinese obesity epidemic. Finally, this study assesses whether unequal access to digital resources and technology by geographic location and gender reinforces existing obesity disparities in China. Methods: This study uses longitudinal data drawn from 10,616 households and 17,377 person-years of those aged 18-55 who participated in the 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Fixed effect linear regression models capture the link between ICT screen-viewing activities and body mass index (BMI. Results: The results show that while between 91.37Š and 96.70Š of individuals had access to televisions during 2006-2011, there is a significant disparity in terms of Internet activity by gender and geographical location. The results show that Internet use could decrease a rural women's BMI by .87 kg/m2, while playing computer games could increase a rural man's BMI by .42 kg/m2. Contribution: This study highlights that unequal access to digital resources and technology might reinforce existing obesity disparities in China.

  4. Bridging the transatlantic climate divide. Final project paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, W.C.; Zoeteman, B.C.J.

    2005-10-01

    International climate change policy is presently dominated by the different visions of two major blocks, the USA and EU. It is not always realized that a part of these differences is more fundamental than one may expect in view of the historical connections between the populations of the two continents. Socio-cultural aspects like the role of government, the value of individual liberty and the consequences of population density are different in both regions and play an important role in determining what is acceptable policy-wise. Despite the apparent stalemate in formal positions, signs have been detected that indicate that the 'transatlantic divide' on this issue is (slowly) closing. One cause is that bottom-up momentum is building up in the USA, which can eventually push the federal level to initiate a more active policy. Another cause is the finding in the EU that it turns out to be difficult to reach the Kyoto-targets, which results in the development of policy instruments that could be attractive for the USA to endorse or even participate in. Such instruments could have similarities with the Kyoto Protocol. To obtain more insight in the driving forces behind such changes and why they lead to higher or lower acceptability of certain policy instruments, it makes sense to identify attitudinal indicators that signify such changes. By regularly monitoring these attitudinal indicators, e.g., concrete behavior of companies, proportional media attention, formal political statements, and relating the value of these indicators to a corresponding set of policy instruments, policy makers at both sides of the Atlantic Ocean have an extra tool at their disposal to frame the issue and identify joint solutions in a way that is acceptable to the other party. This project makes a first attempt to design such a method (dynamic analytic model). It holds promises, and it is recommended to develop this model further in order to support the effectiveness of the climate negotiations

  5. Effect of Reactant Concentration on the Microstructure of SiC Nano wires Grown In Situ within SiC Fiber Preforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Weon Ju; Kang, Seok Min; Park, Ji Yeon; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2006-01-01

    Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC f /SiC) composites are considered as advanced materials for control rods and other in-core components of high-temperature gas cooled reactors. Although the carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix (C f /C) composites are more mature and have advantages in cost, manufacturability and some thermomechanical properties, the SiC f /SiC composites have a clear advantage in irradiation stability, specifically a lower level of swelling and retention of mechanical properties. This offers a lifetime component for control rod application to HTGRs while the Cf/C composites would require 2-3 replacements over the reactor lifetime. In general, the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) technique has been used most widely to produce SiC f /SiC composites. Although the technique produces a highly pure SiC matrix, it requires a long processing time and inevitably contains large interbundle pores. The present authors have recently developed 'whisker growing-assisted process,' in which one-dimensional SiC nano structures with high aspect ratios such as whiskers, nano wires and nano rods are introduced into the fiber preform before the matrix infiltration step. This novel method can produce SiC f /SiC composites with a lower porosity and an uniform distribution of pores when compared with the conventional CVI. This would be expected to increase mechanical and thermal properties of the SiC f /SiC composites. In order to take full advantage of the whisker growing strategy, however, a homogeneous growth of long whiskers is required. In this study, we applied the atmospheric pressure CVI process without metallic catalysts for the growth of SiC nano wires within stacked SiC fiber fabrics. We focused on the effect of the concentration of a reactant gas on the growth behavior and microstructures of the SiC nano wires and discussed a controlling condition for the homogenous growth of long SiC nano wires

  6. Tuning different kinds of entangled metal-organic frameworks by modifying the spacer group of aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands and the reactant ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Xia; Zhai, Ji-Quan; Zhang, Xin; Qin, Ye-Yan; Yao, Yuan-Gen

    2016-01-14

    Taking advantage of the conformational flexibility of the bpp ligand and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, six interesting entangled coordination polymers, {[Cd(fum)(bpp)(H2O)]·(H2O)}n (), {[Cd(fum)(bpp)2]·(H2O)5}n (), {[Cd2(suc)1.5(bpp)2(NO3)(H2O)2]·6H2O}n (), {[Cd(suc)(bpp)2]·(H2O)1.5}n (), {[Cd2(glu)2(bpp)3]·10H2O}n (), and {Cd(adp)(bpp)(H2O)}n () have been prepared and structurally characterized (bpp = 1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)propane, fum = fumaric, suc = succinate, glu = glutaric, adp = adipic). Compounds and are comprised of undulated 2D 4(4)-sql networks. In the structure of compound , two identical undulated layers are parallelly interpenetrated with each other to give a 2D → 2D interpenetrating framework. For , the dangling arms projected from 2D layers are intercalated into the neighboring sheets, producing a 2D → 3D polythreading framework. Compound shows a rare example of a 2D self-penetrating framework with a (3,4)-connected (4(2)·6(3)·8)(4(2)·6) topology. Compound presents an unusual 2D self-threading network with a novel 4-connected {4(2)·6(3)·8} topology. Compound displays a 3D self-penetrating system based on a 2D → 3D parallel polycatenation array. Compound exhibits an unprecedented 3D self-penetrating structure having both 1D + 1D → 1D polycatenation and 3D + 3D → 3D interpenetration characteristics. A comparison of these six compounds demonstrates that both the different spacer lengths of the aliphatic dicarboxylates and reactant ratios appear to play a significant role in the assembly of entangled frameworks. In addition, thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties of have been examined in the solid state at room temperature.

  7. Two series of reactant's ratio-dependent lanthanide organic frameworks derived from nicotinic acid N-oxide and oxalate: synthesis, crystal structures and luminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhou, Yunshan; Zuhra, Zareen

    2015-03-14

    Two series of lanthanide(III)–organic frameworks with the molecular formula [Ln2(NNO)2(OX)2(H2O)4]n (Ln = Eu 1, Tb 2, Sm 3, Dy 4, Gd 5) and [Ln2(NNO)4(OX)(H2O)2]n (Ln = Eu 6, Tb 7, Sm 8, Dy 9, Gd 10) were synthesized successfully under the same hydrothermal conditions with nicotinic N-oxide (HNNO) and oxalic acid (H2OX) as the mixed ligands merely through varying the molar ratio of the reactants. The compounds were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, UV, TG-DTA and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses of compounds 1 and 7 selected as representatives and powder XRD analysis of the compounds revealed that both the series of compounds feature three-dimensional (3-D) open frameworks, and crystallize in the triclinic P1 space group while with different unit cell parameters. In compound 1, pairs of Eu(3+) ions and pairs of NNO(−) ligands connect with each other alternately to form a 1-D infinite Eu-NNO double chain, the adjacent 1-D double-chains are then joined together through OX(2−) ligands leading to a 2D layer, the 2-D layers are further ‘pillared’ by OX(2−) ligands resulting in a 3-D framework. In compound 7, the 1-D Tb-NNO infinite chain and its 2-D layer are formed in an almost similar fashion to that in compound 1. The difference between the structures of the two compounds 1 and 7 is that the adjacent 2-D layers in compound 7 are further connected by NNO(−) ligands resulting in a 3-D framework. The photoluminescence properties and energy transfer mechanism of the compounds were studied systematically. The energy level of the lowest triplet states of the HNNO ligand (23148 cm(−1)) was determined based on the phosphorescence spectrum of compound 5 at 77 K. The (5)D0 (Eu(3+)) and (5)D4 (Tb(3+)) emission lifetimes are 0.46 ms, 0.83 ms, 0.69 ms and 0.89 ms and overall quantum yields are 1.03%, 3.29%, 2.58% and 3.78% for the compounds 1, 2, 6 and 7, respectively.

  8. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  9. Single cyanide-bridged Mo(W)/S/Cu cluster-based coordination polymers: Reactant- and stoichiometry-dependent syntheses, effective photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yinlin; Chen, Weitao; Cifuentes, Marie P.; Humphrey, Mark G.; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The systematic study on the reaction variables affecting single cyanide-bridged Mo(W)/S/Cu cluster-based coordination polymers (CPs) is firstly demonstrated. Five anionic single cyanide-bridged Mo(W)/S/Cu cluster-based CPs {[Pr_4N][WS_4Cu_3(CN)_2]}_n (1), {[Pr_4N][WS_4Cu_4(CN)_3]}_n (2), {[Pr_4N][WOS_3Cu_3(CN)_2]}_n (3), {[Bu_4N][WOS_3Cu_3(CN)_2]}_n (4) and {[Bu_4N][MoOS_3Cu_3(CN)_2]}_n (5) were prepared by varying the molar ratios of the starting materials, and the specific cations, cluster building blocks and central metal atoms in the cluster building blocks. 1 possesses an anionic 3D diamondoid framework constructed from 4-connected T-shaped clusters [WS_4Cu_3]"+ and single CN"− bridges. 2 is fabricated from 6-connected planar ‘open’ clusters [WS_4Cu_4]"2"+ and single CN"− bridges, forming an anionic 3D architecture with an “ACS” topology. 3 and 4 exhibit novel anionic 2-D double-layer networks, both constructed from nest-shaped clusters [WOS_3Cu_3]"+ linked by single CN"− bridges, but containing the different cations [Pr_4N]"+ and [Bu_4N]"+, respectively. 5 is constructed from nest-shaped clusters [MoOS_3Cu_3]"+ and single CN"− bridges, with an anionic 3D diamondoid framework. The anionic frameworks of 1-5, all sustained by single CN"− bridges, are non-interpenetrating and exhibit huge potential void volumes. Employing differing molar ratios of the reactants and varying the cluster building blocks resulted in differing single cyanide-bridged Mo(W)/S/Cu cluster-based CPs, while replacing the cation ([Pr_4N]"+ vs. [Bu_4N]"+) was found to have negligible impact on the nature of the architecture. Unexpectedly, replacement of the central metal atom (W vs. Mo) in the cluster building blocks had a pronounced effect on the framework. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of heterothiometallic cluster-based CPs were firstly explored by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, which reveals that 2

  10. Classification of lung sounds using higher-order statistics: A divide-and-conquer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Raphael; Barbosa, Bruno H G; Ferreira, Danton D

    2016-06-01

    Lung sound auscultation is one of the most commonly used methods to evaluate respiratory diseases. However, the effectiveness of this method depends on the physician's training. If the physician does not have the proper training, he/she will be unable to distinguish between normal and abnormal sounds generated by the human body. Thus, the aim of this study was to implement a pattern recognition system to classify lung sounds. We used a dataset composed of five types of lung sounds: normal, coarse crackle, fine crackle, monophonic and polyphonic wheezes. We used higher-order statistics (HOS) to extract features (second-, third- and fourth-order cumulants), Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Fisher's Discriminant Ratio (FDR) to reduce dimensionality, and k-Nearest Neighbors and Naive Bayes classifiers to recognize the lung sound events in a tree-based system. We used the cross-validation procedure to analyze the classifiers performance and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference criterion to compare the results. Our results showed that the Genetic Algorithms outperformed the Fisher's Discriminant Ratio for feature selection. Moreover, each lung class had a different signature pattern according to their cumulants showing that HOS is a promising feature extraction tool for lung sounds. Besides, the proposed divide-and-conquer approach can accurately classify different types of lung sounds. The classification accuracy obtained by the best tree-based classifier was 98.1% for classification accuracy on training, and 94.6% for validation data. The proposed approach achieved good results even using only one feature extraction tool (higher-order statistics). Additionally, the implementation of the proposed classifier in an embedded system is feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wet oxidation of glycerol into fine organic acids: catalyst selection and kinetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. N. Brainer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The liquid phase oxidation of glycerol was performed producing fine organic acids. Catalysts based on Pt, Pd and Bi supported on activated carbon were employed to perform the conversion of glycerol into organic acids at 313 K, 323 K and 333 K, under atmospheric pressure (1.0 bar, in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor (MASR. The experimental results indicated glycerol conversions of 98% with production of glyceric, tartronic and glycolic acids, and dihydroxyacetone. A yield of glyceric acid of 69.8%, and a selectivity of this compound of 70.6% were reached after 4 h of operation. Surface mechanisms were proposed and rate equations were formulated to represent the kinetic behavior of the process. Selective formation of glyceric acid was observed, and the kinetic parameter values indicated the lowest activation energy (38.5 kJ/mol for its production reaction step, and the highest value of the adsorption equilibrium constant of the reactant glycerol (10-4 dm³/mol.

  12. Health literacy and the digital divide among older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen; Janke, Alexander T; Langa, Kenneth M

    2015-03-01

    digital divide.

  13. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  14. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    definition of "rigorous scientific research," one that includes both community development and scientific progress as legitimate objectives of genomic research. Innovative translational research is needed to develop practical, mutually acceptable methods for crossing the divide between genomic researchers and indigenous communities. This may mean the difference between success and failure in genomic science, and in improving health for all peoples. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Towards gloss control in fine art reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Teun; Brettel, Hans; Ortiz Segovia, Maria V.

    2015-03-01

    The studies regarding fine art reproduction mainly focus on the accuracy of colour and the recreation of surface texture properties. Since reflection properties other than colour are neglected, important details of the artwork are lost. For instance, gloss properties, often characteristic to painters and particular movements in the history of art, are not well reproduced. The inadequate reproduction of the different gloss levels of a piece of fine art leads to a specular reflection mismatch in printed copies with respect to the original works that affects the perceptual quality of the printout. We used different print parameters of a 3D high resolution printing setup to control the gloss level on a printout locally. Our method can be used to control gloss automatically and in crucial applications such as fine art reproduction.

  16. New methods and standards for fine dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielvogel, Juergen; Hartstock, Stefan; Grimm, Hans

    2009-01-01

    There seems to be common agreement that PM10 is a suboptimal quantity for the quantification of potential dangers from fine dust due to a number of reasons, notably because the chemical composition of the particles is not considered, because the size distribution is disregarded, and because of sampling artefacts. In a first step for improving the particle measurements, the European Community has published new directives for ambient air in June 2008 (EU 2008), which as a main part included new regulations for PM2.5 measurements, in addition to the further on valid regulations for PM10. The comparison of PM2.5 and PM10 may allow a source apportionment and a better assessment of the influence of fine dust on human health. The source apportionment may allow more effective fine dust reduction strategies.

  17. Edge separation using diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Bouldin, C.E.; Renevier, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We exploit the crystallographic sensitivity of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine-Structure (DAFS) measurement to separate the fine structure contributions of different atomic species with closely spaced resonant energies. In BaTiO 3 the Ti K edge and Ba Lm edges are separated by 281 eV, or about 8.2 Angstrom -1 ), thus severely limiting the information content of the Ti K edge signal. Using the site selectivity of DAFS we can separate the two fine structure spectra using an iterative Kramers-Kronig method, thus extending the range of the Ti K edge spectrum. This technique has application to many rare earth/transition metal compounds, including many magnetic materials of technological significance for which K and L edges overlap in energy. (au)

  18. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Study of fine structure of deformed hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskresenskaya, L.A.; Petukhova, A.S.; Kovalev, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the hafnium fine structure following the cold plastic deformation have been studied. The fine structure condition has been studied through the harmonic analysis of the profile of the X-ray diffraction line, obtained at the DRON-I installation. Received has been the dependence of the crystal lattice microdistortions value on the deformation extent for hafnium. This dependence is compared with the corresponding one for zirconium. It is found out that at all the deformations the microdistortion distribution is uniform. The microdistortion value grows with the increase in the compression. During the mechanical impact higher microdistortions of the crystal lattice occur in the hafnium rather than in zirconium

  20. Contribution to the study of porous or very finely divided alumina; Contribution a l'etude des alumines poreuses ou tres finement divisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juillet, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-12-15

    An amorphous porous alumina having a large surface area can be made non-stoichiometric by a treatment at 500 - 700 deg C in a vacuum. The oxygen deficit after a treatment at 500 deg C, and the aluminium deficit after a treatment at 700 deg C, give rise to semiconductor properties successively of type n and of the type p. A crystallized {delta}-alumina in the form of non-porous spherical grains compressed at a pressure of 1 to 5 metric tons/cm{sup 2} is also non-stoichiometric with a deficit of oxygen or of aluminium. None of these phenomena could be observed with a sample which had not been compressed. The favorable influence of oxygen on the recrystallization process of amorphous alumina, and on the {delta}-{alpha}, transformation of crystallized alumina has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the strains produced by the compression of the {delta}-alumina make possible its transformation in air into a at a temperature lower than the temperature necessary to observe this phenomenon with non-compressed {delta}-alumina. Amorphous alumina undergoes an intergranular sintering at 500 deg C and an intergranular sintering at 1 000 deg C. Only the latter occurs in the case of spherical alumina grains. For these, the strains brought about by the compression cause a lowering of 100 deg C in the threshold sintering temperature, with respect to the temperature required to produce the phenomena in a non-compressed sample. The amount of sintering in a crystallized alumina pellet depends, as well, on the rate of rise of temperature. This study tends to show that new properties, or at least unusual solid-state properties, can be observed on disorganised solids or on solids which are crystallized but which have a large surface area and a certain amount of strain. (author) [French] Une alumine poreuse amorphe de grande surface specifique peut etre rendue non-stoechiometrique par traitement sous vide pousse a 500-700 deg C. Le deficit en oxygene apres chauffage a 500 deg C, puis le deficit en aluminium apres traitement a 700 deg C entrainant l'apparition des proprietes de semi-conducteur n puis p. Une alumine cristallisee delta sous forme do grains spheriques non poreux soumise a une compression de 1 a 5 t/cm{sup 2} presente egalement une non-stoechiometrie a deficit d'oxygene ou d'aluminium. Aucun de ces phenomenes n'a pu etre enregistre avec l'echantillon non soumis a la compression. L'influence favorable de l'oxygene dans le processus de recristallisation de l'alumine amorphe et dans la transformation delta-alpha de l'alumine cristallisee a ete mise en evidence, De plus, les contraintes developpees par compression de l'alumine delta permettent sa transformation en phase alpha dans l'air a une temperature inferieure a celle necessaire pour observer le meme phenomene dans l'alumine delta non comprimee. L'afumine amorphe subit un frittage intragranulaire des 500 deg C et un frittage intergranulaire a 1 000 deg C. Seul ce dernier s'observe pour l'alumine en grains spheriques. Pour cette derniere les contraintes developpees par la compression abaissent de 100 deg C le seuil de ce frittage par rapport a la temperature necessaire pour observer ce phenomene avec l'echantillon non comprime. Le taux de frittage d'un comprime d'alumine cristallisee depend, en plus, de la vitesse de la mise en temperature. L'ensemble de cette etude tend a montrer que des proprietes nouvelles, ou du moins inhabituelles de l'etat solide peuvent etre observees s'il est fait appel a des solides desorganises ou encore cristallises mais dotes d'une importante surface specifique et soumis a des contraintes. (auteur)

  1. Contribution to the study of the sintering of finely divided alumina; Contribution a l'etude du frittage de l'alumine finement divisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergnon, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Two crystalline forms of alumina, delta and alpha, were used to prepare compacts. The shrinkage of these compacts was investigated at different temperatures. The samples of alumina are composed of non porous, spherical particles, of a very high purity. Their mean diameter varies between 160 and 1 200 Angstrom for the delta alumina samples and between 400 and 1 200 Angstrom for the alpha alumina samples. The shrinkage of compacts, heated at a linearly increasing temperature (300 deg. C/h, slow heating) was studied in a A.D.A.M.E.L. dilatometer, modified to be used as a retractometer. The kinetics of the isothermal shrinkage of compacts after their rapid introduction (a few seconds, flash heating) in the high temperature zone of the furnace were followed with a photographic technique. It is shown that the heating rate influences the shrinkage of the compacts when they are heated at temperatures over 1 000 deg. C. The kinetics of the isothermal shrinkage, at temperature between 1000 deg. C and 1600 deg. C were thoroughly studied. Values of the apparent activation energy for the different classes of compacts are given. An interpretation of the results is proposed. It takes into account two different but interdependent mechanisms of sintering: the disappearance of porosity as a result of vacancy diffusion and the grain growth as a result of boundary migration. (author) [French] Deux formes cristallines de l'alumine, la forme delta et la forme alpha, ont ete utilisees pour confectionner des comprimes en vue d'une etude cinetique du frittage. Ces alumines d'une tres grande purete sont constituees de particules spheriques non poreuses, sensiblement homodispersees dont le diametre moyen varie entre 160 et 1200 Angstrom pour les echantillons de l'alumine delta et entre 400 et 1200 Angstrom pour ceux de l'alumine alpha. Le retrait des comprimes chauffes a temperature linerairement croissante (300 deg. C/h: chauffage lent) a ete suivi a l'aide du dilotometre A.D.A.M.E.L., modifie afin de pouvoir etre utilise en retractometre. La technique de prises de vues photographiques du comprime place dans un four a permis de suivre la cinetique du retrait isotherme apres l'introduction rapide (quelques secondes: chauffage 'eclair') du comprime dans la zone de haute temperature du four. L'influence de le vitesse de chauffage sur le retrait des comprimes, lorsqu'ils sont portes a des temperatures superieures a 1000 deg. C, a ete mise en evidence. L'etude cinetique isotherme du retrait des comprimes entre 1000 et 1600 deg. C a fait l'objet de determinations poussees conduisant notamment a l'attribution de valeurs d'energies apparentes d'activation pour les differentes classes de comprimes. Une interpretation des resultats a ete donnee en s'appuyant sur le role de deux phenomenes differents, mais interdependants: l'elimination de la porosite par migration des lacunes et le grossissement des grains par deplacement des joints de grains. (auteur)

  2. Contribution to the study of the sintering of finely divided alumina; Contribution a l'etude du frittage de l'alumine finement divisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergnon, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Two crystalline forms of alumina, delta and alpha, were used to prepare compacts. The shrinkage of these compacts was investigated at different temperatures. The samples of alumina are composed of non porous, spherical particles, of a very high purity. Their mean diameter varies between 160 and 1 200 Angstrom for the delta alumina samples and between 400 and 1 200 Angstrom for the alpha alumina samples. The shrinkage of compacts, heated at a linearly increasing temperature (300 deg. C/h, slow heating) was studied in a A.D.A.M.E.L. dilatometer, modified to be used as a retractometer. The kinetics of the isothermal shrinkage of compacts after their rapid introduction (a few seconds, flash heating) in the high temperature zone of the furnace were followed with a photographic technique. It is shown that the heating rate influences the shrinkage of the compacts when they are heated at temperatures over 1 000 deg. C. The kinetics of the isothermal shrinkage, at temperature between 1000 deg. C and 1600 deg. C were thoroughly studied. Values of the apparent activation energy for the different classes of compacts are given. An interpretation of the results is proposed. It takes into account two different but interdependent mechanisms of sintering: the disappearance of porosity as a result of vacancy diffusion and the grain growth as a result of boundary migration. (author) [French] Deux formes cristallines de l'alumine, la forme delta et la forme alpha, ont ete utilisees pour confectionner des comprimes en vue d'une etude cinetique du frittage. Ces alumines d'une tres grande purete sont constituees de particules spheriques non poreuses, sensiblement homodispersees dont le diametre moyen varie entre 160 et 1200 Angstrom pour les echantillons de l'alumine delta et entre 400 et 1200 Angstrom pour ceux de l'alumine alpha. Le retrait des comprimes chauffes a temperature linerairement croissante (300 deg. C/h: chauffage lent) a ete suivi a l'aide du dilotometre A.D.A.M.E.L., modifie afin de pouvoir etre utilise en retractometre. La technique de prises de vues photographiques du comprime place dans un four a permis de suivre la cinetique du retrait isotherme apres l'introduction rapide (quelques secondes: chauffage 'eclair') du comprime dans la zone de haute temperature du four. L'influence de le vitesse de chauffage sur le retrait des comprimes, lorsqu'ils sont portes a des temperatures superieures a 1000 deg. C, a ete mise en evidence. L'etude cinetique isotherme du retrait des comprimes entre 1000 et 1600 deg. C a fait l'objet de determinations poussees conduisant notamment a l'attribution de valeurs d'energies apparentes d'activation pour les differentes classes de comprimes. Une interpretation des resultats a ete donnee en s'appuyant sur le role de deux phenomenes differents, mais interdependants: l'elimination de la porosite par migration des lacunes et le grossissement des grains par deplacement des joints de grains. (auteur)

  3. Single cyanide-bridged Mo(W)/S/Cu cluster-based coordination polymers: Reactant- and stoichiometry-dependent syntheses, effective photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinfang, E-mail: zjf260@jiangnan.edu.cn [China-Australia Joint Research Center for Functional Molecular Materials, School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang, Chao [China-Australia Joint Research Center for Functional Molecular Materials, School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang, Yinlin; Chen, Weitao [China-Australia Joint Research Center for Functional Molecular Materials, Scientific Research Academy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Cifuentes, Marie P.; Humphrey, Mark G. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Zhang, Chi, E-mail: chizhang@jiangnan.edu.cn [China-Australia Joint Research Center for Functional Molecular Materials, School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The systematic study on the reaction variables affecting single cyanide-bridged Mo(W)/S/Cu cluster-based coordination polymers (CPs) is firstly demonstrated. Five anionic single cyanide-bridged Mo(W)/S/Cu cluster-based CPs {[Pr_4N][WS_4Cu_3(CN)_2]}{sub n} (1), {[Pr_4N][WS_4Cu_4(CN)_3]}{sub n} (2), {[Pr_4N][WOS_3Cu_3(CN)_2]}{sub n} (3), {[Bu_4N][WOS_3Cu_3(CN)_2]}{sub n} (4) and {[Bu_4N][MoOS_3Cu_3(CN)_2]}{sub n} (5) were prepared by varying the molar ratios of the starting materials, and the specific cations, cluster building blocks and central metal atoms in the cluster building blocks. 1 possesses an anionic 3D diamondoid framework constructed from 4-connected T-shaped clusters [WS{sub 4}Cu{sub 3}]{sup +} and single CN{sup −} bridges. 2 is fabricated from 6-connected planar ‘open’ clusters [WS{sub 4}Cu{sub 4}]{sup 2+} and single CN{sup −} bridges, forming an anionic 3D architecture with an “ACS” topology. 3 and 4 exhibit novel anionic 2-D double-layer networks, both constructed from nest-shaped clusters [WOS{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}]{sup +} linked by single CN{sup −} bridges, but containing the different cations [Pr{sub 4}N]{sup +} and [Bu{sub 4}N]{sup +}, respectively. 5 is constructed from nest-shaped clusters [MoOS{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}]{sup +} and single CN{sup −} bridges, with an anionic 3D diamondoid framework. The anionic frameworks of 1-5, all sustained by single CN{sup −} bridges, are non-interpenetrating and exhibit huge potential void volumes. Employing differing molar ratios of the reactants and varying the cluster building blocks resulted in differing single cyanide-bridged Mo(W)/S/Cu cluster-based CPs, while replacing the cation ([Pr{sub 4}N]{sup +} vs. [Bu{sub 4}N]{sup +}) was found to have negligible impact on the nature of the architecture. Unexpectedly, replacement of the central metal atom (W vs. Mo) in the cluster building blocks had a pronounced effect on the framework. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of heterothiometallic

  4. JIGSAW PUZZLE IMPROVE FINE MOTOR ABILITIES OF UPPER EXTREMITIES IN POST-STROKE ISCHEMIC CLIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ischemic stroke is a disease caused by focal cerebral ischemia, where is a decline in blood flow that needed for neuronal metabolism, leading to neurologic deficit include motor deficit such as fine motor skills impairment. Therapy of fine motor skills disorders is to improve motor function, prevent contractures and complications. These study aimed to identify the effect of playing Jigsaw Puzzle on muscle strength, extensive motion, and upper extremity fine motor skills in patients with ischemic stroke at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. Methods: Experimental Quasi pre-posttest one group control. The number of samples were 34 respondents selected using purposive sampling technique. The samples were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was 17 respondents who were given standard treatment hospital and played Jigsaw Puzzle 2 times a day for six days. Control group is one respondent given by hospital standard therapy without given additional Jigsaw Puzzle game. Evaluation of these research is done on the first and seventh day for those groups. Result: The results showed that muscle strength, the range of joint motion and fine motor skills of upper extremities increased (p = 0.001 significantly after being given the Jigsaw Puzzle games. These means playing Jigsaw Puzzle increase muscle strength, the range of joint motion and upper extremity fine motor skill of ischemic stroke patients. Discussion and conclusion: Jigsaw puzzle game administration as additional rehabilitation therapy in upper extremity fine motor to minimize the occurrence of contractures and motor disorders in patients with ischemic stroke. Jigsaw puzzle game therapy capable of creating repetitive motion as a key of neurological rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke. This study recommends using jigsaw puzzle game as one of intervention in the nursing care of Ischemic Stroke patients.

  5. Score of Fine Motor Skill in Children with Down Syndrome using Nintendo Wii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspasari Sinaga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome occurs due to an extra chromosome 21, known as Trisomy 21. In addition to delayed cognitive and speech development, children with Down syndrome may also experience delayed gross and fine motor development. Virtual Reality Therapy, such as Nintendo Wii is a computer-based technology that allows users to interact with a virtual three-dimensional scenario and the most innovative physical rehabilitation method. High scores indicate that the player has a good motor skill. This study aimed to examine the difference between the score of fine motor skill in children with and without Down syndrome. Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2015 to 40 children aged between 9–12 years old who came from public primary schools and special needs schools in Bandung, West Java. They were divided into 2 groups using random gender and age pairing; one group was children with Down syndrome and another other group was normal children. The children’ scores of Nintendo Wii game were collected three times. The collected data were statistically analyzed by Chi-Square test. Results: The proportion of children with low-grade fine motor skill in Down syndrome group was larger than those with high-grade fine motor skill. In the other hand, in normal children group, the proportion was reversed compared to Down syndrome group. There was a significant difference in score of fine motor skill between children with Down syndrome and normal children (p=0.000. Conclusions: The fine motor skill of children with Down syndrome is poorer than normal children’s.

  6. Development of a new lower hybrid antenna module using a poloidal power divider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebara, S.; Imai, T.; Seki, M.; Suganuma, K.; Goniche, M.; Bibet, Ph.; Berio, S.; Brossaud, J.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G.

    1997-03-01

    A realistic antenna module using a poloidal divider for lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiment, is modelled and fabricated. In this antenna module test II, three types of poloidal dividers, which split the power in 3, are tested. (author)

  7. Fine filament NbTi superconductive composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.; Grabinsky, G.; Marancik, W.; Pattanayak, D.

    1986-01-01

    The large superconducting magnet for the high energy physics accelerator requires fine filament composite to minimize the field error due to the persistent current in the filaments. New concepts toward the fine filament composite and its cable fabrication are discussed. Two-stage cables of fine wire with intermediate number of filaments were introduced. The first stage was six wires cables around one and in the second stage this was used to produce a Rutherford cable. The advantage of this process is in the ease of billet fabrication since the number of filaments in a single wire is within the range of easy billet fabrication. The disadvantage is in the cable fabrication. One of the major concerns in the fabrication of fine NbTi filaments composite in a copper matrix is the intermetallic compound formation during the extrusion and heat treatment steps. The hard intermetallic particles degrade the uniformity of the filaments and reduce the critical current density. The process of using Nb barrier between the filaments and copper matrix in order to prevent this CuTi intermetallic particle formation is described

  8. Renal fine structures detected by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilch, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    A significantly improved image quality is achieved by the technique described, as compared to the magnetic resonance data obtained so far. The detailed analysis of the kidney goes as deep as into anatomic fine structures, and there is reason to hope for far better diagnostic details. (orig.) [de

  9. Looking inside giant resonance fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Voronov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Microscopic calculations of the fine structure of giant resonances for spherical nuclei are presented. Excited states are treated by wave function which takes into account coupling of simple one-phonon configurations with more complex ones. Nuclear structure calculations are applied to the description of the γ-decay of resonances into the ground and low-lying excited states. 16 refs.; 4 figs

  10. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Fine needle aspiration cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: This is a consecutive 9-year analysis of patients with peripheral lymphadenopathy. All the patients had fine needle aspiration. Smears were made, fixed in 95% alcohol and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Zeihl Neelsen stains. Results: 48 patients, 31 males and 17 females, were analyzed.

  11. Local Alignments for Fine-Grained Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavves, E.; Fernando, B.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Tuytelaars, T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is fine-grained categorization without human interaction. Different from prior work, which relies on detectors for specific object parts, we propose to localize distinctive details by roughly aligning the objects using just the overall shape. Then, one may proceed to the

  12. Krypton and xenon in lunar fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, J. R.; Dragon, J. C.; Pepin, R. O.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Data from grain-size separates, stepwise-heated fractions, and bulk analyses of 20 samples of fines and breccias from five lunar sites are used to define three-isotope and ordinate intercept correlations in an attempt to resolve the lunar heavy rare gas system in a statistically valid approach. Tables of concentrations and isotope compositions are given.

  13. Testing with fine fragrances in eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2001-01-01

    The frequencies of contact allergic reactions to 2 fine fragrances were studied by patch testing. Further, a comparison was made of test results before and after evaporation of the solvent. A total of 480 consecutive eczema patients were included, 100 in the Dortmund clinic and 380 in the Gentoft...

  14. Interaction of fine sediment with alluvial streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Carey, William P.

    1989-01-01

    More knowledge is needed about the physical processes that control the transport of fine sediment moving over an alluvial bed. The knowledge is needed to design rational sampling and monitoring programs that assess the transport and fate of toxic substances in surface waters because the toxics are often associated with silt- and clay-sized particles. This technical note reviews some of the past research in areas that may contribute to an increased understanding of the processes involved. An alluvial streambed can have a large capacity to store fine sediments that are extracted from the flow when instream concentrations are high and it can gradually release fine sediment to the flow when the instream concentrations are low. Several types of storage mechanisms are available depending on the relative size distribution of the suspended load and bed material, as well as the flow hydraulics. Alluvial flow tends to segregate the deposited material according to size and density. Some of the storage locations are temporary, but some can store the fine sediment for very long periods of time.

  15. Derivation of the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, A.

    1980-01-01

    The fine-structure constant is derived as a dynamical property of quantum electrodynamics. Single-particle solutions of the coupled Maxwell and Dirac equations have a physical charge spectrum. The solutions are used to construct lepton-and quark-like particles. The strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces are described as the interactions of complex charges in multiple combinations

  16. High Power Combiner/Divider with Coupled Lines for Broadband Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    novel isolation structure will also be presented. I. INTRODUCTION Power divider/combiners are traditionally used in the development of high power ...a novel Gysel divider/combiner structure have been demonstrated. The divider/combiner are applicable to various high- power , broadband radar, EW...Gysel Power Divider With Arbitrary Power Ratios and Filtering Responses Using Coupling Structure ,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Tech., vol

  17. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixin; Tian, Ye; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wenliang; Lin, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR) images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3). Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI) yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex) in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI) outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT) in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE) of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable. PMID:27775670

  18. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3. Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable.

  19. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  20. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  1. Analysing the role of ICT in bridging the digital divide amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This digital divide can be seen as an educational divide and thus we examine how ICT is influencing education. We also investigate the nature of this digital divide while focusing on the local perspective. A short pilot study was done at four schools and one adult education centre in South Africa regarding their access to ICT.

  2. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilka, Gila Cohen

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a) the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school); and (b) the digital…

  3. Divided attention capacity in adults with autism spectrum disorders and without intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, H; Flamma, B; Van der Meere, J.J.; van Engeland, H.

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was

  4. Divided Attention Capacity in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogte, Hans; Flamma, Bert; Van Der Meere, Jaap; Van Engeland, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was tested using a computerized variant of a…

  5. Migratory divides and their consequences for dispersal, population size and parasite-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Garamszegi, L Z; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Soler, J J

    2011-08-01

    Populations of migratory birds differ in their direction of migration with neighbouring populations often migrating in divergent directions separated by migratory divides. A total of 26% of 103 passerine bird species in Europe had migratory divides that were located disproportionately often along a longitudinal gradient in Central Europe, consistent with the assumption of a Quaternary glacial origin of such divides in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas followed by recolonization. Given that studies have shown significant genetic differentiation and reduced gene flow across migratory divides, we hypothesized that an absence of migratory divides would result in elevated rates of gene flow and hence a reduced level of local adaptation. In a comparative study, species with migratory divides had larger population sizes and population densities and longer dispersal distances than species without migratory divides. Species with migratory divides tended to be habitat generalists. Bird species with migratory divides had higher richness of blood parasites and higher growth rates of Staphylococcus on their eggs during the incubation period. There was weaker cell-mediated immunity in adults and stronger cell lysis in species with migratory divides. These findings may suggest that migratory divides constitute barriers to dispersal with consequences for ecology and evolution of distributions, population sizes, habitats and parasite-host interactions. They also suggest that migratory divides may play a role in local adaptation in host-parasite interactions. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Are changes in the digital divide consistent with global equality or inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    To answer the question in the title, the author divides a sample of developing countries according to whether they have experienced a rise or fall of the (absolute) digital divide in the Internet. He suggests that in countries where the divide is falling, incomes will tend to be relatively high, and

  7. A novel water resistor divider with a coaxial low-voltage arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chen, Weiqing; Mao, Congguang; Zeng, Jiangtao

    2010-03-01

    A new style high voltage resistor divider made of saline solution has been constructed and tested. A coaxial construction is used on the low-voltage arm, as the signal extraction electrode, which can increase the attenuation ratio of the divider. The time response of divider limited by the stray parameter also can be improved. Comparing the results of calibrated experiment with the commonly used equal size copper sulfate dividers, the new probe has nearly five times increase in the attenuation ratio. The time response of the new style divider in the dimension of 30 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length can reach to 1 ns.

  8. Capacitive divider for output voltage measurement of intense electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Desheng; Yi Lingzhi; Yu Binxiong; Hong Zhiqiang; Liu Jinliang

    2012-01-01

    A kind of simple-mechanism, easy-disassembly self-integrating capacitive divider used for measuring diode output voltage of intense electron beam accelerator (IEBA) is developed. The structure of the capacitive divider is described, and the capacitance value of the capacitive divider is calculated by theoretical analysis and electromagnetic simulation. The dependence of measurement voltage on electrical parameters such as stray capacitance, earth capacitance of front resistance is obtained by PSpice simulation. Measured waveforms appear overshoot phenomenon when stray capacitance of front resistance is larger, and the wavefront will be affected when earth capacitance of front resistance is larger. The diode output voltage waveforms of intense electron beam accelerator, are measured by capacitive divider and calibrated by water resistance divider, which is accordance with that measured by a resistive divider, the division ratio is about 563007. The designed capacitive divider can be used to measure high-voltage pulse with 100 ns full width at half maximum. (authors)

  9. Concentrations of the acute phase reactants high-sensitive C-reactive protein and YKL-40 and of interleukin-6 before and after treatment in patients with acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Vestergaard, Henrik; Kristensen, Lars Østergaard

    2007-01-01

    Acromegaly is accompanied by increased cardiovascular mortality and a cluster of proatherogenic risk factors. In the general population, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers. The acute phase reactant (APR) C-reactive protein (CRP) has been...... reported to be reduced in acromegaly and increase after treatment, suggesting that excess of GH/IGF-I could have anti-inflammatory effects. This is in accordance with results obtained in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), where increased levels of CRP have been reported....

  10. Customizing digital printing for fine art practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; Thirkell, Paul; Hoskins, Steve; Wang, Hong Qiang; Laidler, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The presentation will demonstrate how through alternative methods of digital print production the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) is developing methodologies for digital printing that attempt to move beyond standard reproductive print methods. Profiling is used for input and output hardware, along with bespoke profiling for fine art printmaking papers. Examples of artist's work, and examples from the Perpetual Portfolio are included - an artist in residence scheme for selected artists wanting to work at the Centre and to make a large-format digital print. Colour is an important issue: colour fidelity, colour density on paper, colour that can be achieved through multiple-pass printing. Research is also underway to test colour shortfalls in the current inkjet ink range, and to extend colour through the use of traditional printing inks.

  11. Sub-stratum injection of fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteren van, W.; Cornelisse, J.; Costello, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experiment conducted to evaluate the sub-stratum injection of oil sands fine tailings. The hydraulic fracturing method was developed as a sub-surface dredging process for mining sand without removing the overburden. Pressure was used to transport the sand-water mixture, and the high pressures used in the process resulted in water losses through the clay-sand interface. The experiment was conducted with soft clay, compacted sand, and an injection feed. Results of the study showed that the injection method may be successful. However, further research is required to characterize the fracture energy of oil sands and the rheology of fine tailings. Horizontal hydraulic fracturing equations were presented. Tensile failures in clay and oil sands were discussed. Fractures were identified by deformation and discharge rates. Crack propagation methods were also studied. tabs., figs.

  12. Measure theory and fine properties of functions

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence Craig

    2015-01-01

    Measure Theory and Fine Properties of Functions, Revised Edition provides a detailed examination of the central assertions of measure theory in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The book emphasizes the roles of Hausdorff measure and capacity in characterizing the fine properties of sets and functions. Topics covered include a quick review of abstract measure theory, theorems and differentiation in ℝn, Hausdorff measures, area and coarea formulas for Lipschitz mappings and related change-of-variable formulas, and Sobolev functions as well as functions of bounded variation.The text provides complete proofs of many key results omitted from other books, including Besicovitch's covering theorem, Rademacher's theorem (on the differentiability a.e. of Lipschitz functions), area and coarea formulas, the precise structure of Sobolev and BV functions, the precise structure of sets of finite perimeter, and Aleksandrov's theorem (on the twice differentiability a.e. of convex functions).This revised edition includes countl...

  13. Radiation effects in fine metal media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu. A.; Aliev, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The report discusses condition and perspectives of theoretical and experimental research of metal powder material radiation processing influence on their caking, recrystallization and formation of metal and alloy structure obtained by powder metallurgy methods. Radiation processing of metal powders under determined modes causes forming of homogeneous fine metal structure and helps to considerably improve their running abilities (strength, endurance, corrosion resistance) and caking technological conditions

  14. Device for the analysis of fine dusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, F.; Tausch, W.; Torge, R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention deals with a device that brings graphite bulbs containing samples of fine dusts automatically to the spectrometer for analysis and transports them away afterwards, a great number of individual measurements thus being quickly performed. The device consists of magazines, means of transport for them etc., and, if necessary, also a furnace for thermal preparation of the samples. (RW) 891 RW/RW 892 MKO [de

  15. Fine Structure of 211 Po Alpha Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, a theory based on the Landau-Zener effect was developed intending to describe quantitatively the cluster decay fine structure phenomenon. It was claimed that the same promotion effect can also govern the fine structure in the case of α-decay. This formalism intends to explain the fine structure of α-decay by considering single-particle transitions due to the radial and the rotational couplings. The levels with the same good quantum numbers associated to some symmetries of the system cannot in general intersect, but exhibit quasi-crossings, or pseudo-crossings, or avoided level crossings. The system is characterised by an axial symmetry, therefore the good quantum numbers are the projections of the nucleon spin Ω. The radial coupling causes transitions of the unpaired nucleon near the avoided level crossings. True crossings can also be obtained between levels characterized by different quantum numbers. Generally, the rotational coupling has a maximum strength in the vicinity of the true crossings. Transitions due to both couplings are taken into account in order to explain the excitations of the unpaired nucleon. For a tunnelling velocity of 9 x 10 6 fm/fs, the ratio between the intensity for transitions to the first excited state and to the ground state was found to be 0.0071 and the obtained ratio of the same parameter between the second excited state and the ground state was 0.0062, in good agreement with experimental data. These calculations suggest that the α-decay fine structure phenomenon can be explained quantitatively by describing the decaying system with molecular models and it can be stated that the quantitative characteristics of this phenomenon are ruled by dynamical effects. (author)

  16. BepiColombo fine sun sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslooper, Erik; van der Heiden, Nico; Naron, Daniël.; Schmits, Ruud; van der Velde, Jacob Jan; van Wakeren, Jorrit

    2017-11-01

    Design, development and verification of the passive Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) for the BepiColombo spacecraft is described. Major challenge in the design is to keep the detector at acceptable temperature levels while exposed to a solar flux intensity exceeding 10 times what is experienced in Earth orbit. A mesh type Heat Rejection Filter has been developed. The overall sensor design and its performance verification program is described.

  17. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  18. Fractal aggregation and breakup of fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakup may exert a controlling influence on particle size distributions and particles either are fractured or are eroded particle-by-particle through shear. The shear-induced breakage of fine particles in turbulent conditions is investigated using Taylor-expansion moment method. Their equations have been derived in continuous form in terms of the number density function with particle volume. It suitable for future implementation in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  19. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficiation 2010, 4–6 May 2010. 671The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 110 NOVEMBER 2010 L Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant mixed with magnetite in the launder and enters... with production. Plant equipment operational changes Cyclone spigot changes In an attempt to lower the cut-point density, the spigot on the L 672 NOVEMBER 2010 VOLUME 110 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Figure 1...

  20. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  1. Shock fabrics in fine-grained micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, M. D.; Genge, M. J.; Russell, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The orientations of dehydration cracks and fracture networks in fine-grained, unmelted micrometeorites were analyzed using rose diagrams and entropy calculations. As cracks exploit pre-existing anisotropies, analysis of their orientation provides a mechanism with which to study the subtle petrofabrics preserved within fine-grained and amorphous materials. Both uniaxial and biaxial fabrics are discovered, often with a relatively wide spread in orientations (40°-60°). Brittle deformation cataclasis and rotated olivine grains are reported from a single micrometeorite. This paper provides the first evidence for impact-induced shock deformation in fine-grained micrometeorites. The presence of pervasive, low-grade shock features in CM chondrites and CM-like dust, anomalously low-density measurements for C-type asteroids, and impact experiments which suggest CM chondrites are highly prone to disruption all imply that CM parent bodies are unlikely to have remained intact and instead exist as a collection of loosely aggregated rubble-pile asteroids, composed of primitive shocked clasts.

  2. Computer games and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, Lukasz; Tolstych, Katarzyna; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to determine the influence of computer games on fine motor skills in young adults, an area of incomplete understanding and verification. We hypothesized that computer gaming could have a positive influence on basic motor skills, such as precision, aiming, speed, dexterity, or tremor. We examined 30 habitual game users (F/M - 3/27; age range 20-25 years) of the highly interactive game Counter Strike, in which players impersonate soldiers on a battlefield, and 30 age- and gender-matched subjects who declared never to play games. Selected tests from the Vienna Test System were used to assess fine motor skills and tremor. The results demonstrate that the game users scored appreciably better than the control subjects in all tests employed. In particular, the players did significantly better in the precision of arm-hand movements, as expressed by a lower time of errors, 1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 s, a lower error rate, 13.6 ± 0.3 vs. 20.4 ± 2.2, and a shorter total time of performing a task, 14.6 ± 2.9 vs. 32.1 ± 4.5 s in non-players, respectively; p computer games on psychomotor functioning. We submit that playing computer games may be a useful training tool to increase fine motor skills and movement coordination.

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ... Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During ...

  4. effect of fines content on the engineering properties of reconstituted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Reconstitution of the natural soil (0% fines content) yielded soil samples having fines content between ... action to different stabilizing agents are better under- .... tion cracking, whereas clay soils with too low plastic limit (PL) ...

  5. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    transportation applications such as structural fill, road base material, and as snow ... normal fine particles resulting in weak porous paste, modulus of elasticity is ..... with the porous structure and high absorptivity of fine particles of bottom ash.

  6. 49 CFR 107.336 - Limitation on fines and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Criminal Penalties § 107.336 Limitation on fines and penalties. If a State or political subdivision or Indian tribe assesses any fine or penalty determined by the...

  7. Flocculation of chromite ore fines suspension using polysaccharide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    liquid separation. Keywords. Flocculation; graft copolymer; mineral industry effluent; chromite ore fines; ... work well as flocculating agent on coal washery effluent, copper and iron ore fines etc (Karmakar et al 1998, 1999;. Tripathy et al 2001).

  8. Fine structure transitions in Fe XIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2013-07-01

    Results are reported for Fe XIV energy levels and transitions obtained from the ab initio relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method. BPRM method developed under the Iron Project is capable of calculating very large number of fine structure energy levels and corresponding transitions. However, unlike in the atomic structure calculations, where levels are identified spectroscopically based on the leading percentage contributions of configurations, BPRM is incapable of such identification of the levels and hence the transitions. The main reason for it is that the percentage contributions can not be determined exactly from the large number of channels in the R-matrix space. The present report describes an identification method that uses considerations of quantum defects of channels, contributions of channel from outer regions, Hund's rule, and angular momenta algebra for addition and completeness of fine structure components. The present calculations are carried out using a close coupling wave function expansion that included 26 core excitations from configurations 2s22p63s2, 2s22p63s3p,2s22p63p2,2s22p63s3d, and 2s22p63p3d. A total of 1002 fine structure levels with n ⩽ 10, l⩽9, and 0.5 ⩽J⩽ 9.5 with even and odd parities and the corresponding 130,520 electric dipole allowed (E1) fine structure transitions, a most complete set for astrophysical modelings of spectral analysis and opacities, is presented. Large number of new energy levels are found and identified. The energies agree very well, mostly in less than 1% with the highest being 1.9%, with the 68 observed fine structure levels. While the high lying levels may have some uncertainty, an overall accuracy of energy levels should be within 10%. BPRM transitions have been benchmarked with the existing most accurate calculated transition probabilities with very good agreement for most cases. Based on the accuracy of the method and comparisons, most of the transitions can be rated with A (⩽10%) to C (

  9. Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills

    OpenAIRE

    Les, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Title: Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills Objectives: The aim of study is to assess the changes fine motor skills due to hyperbaric environment in preparation for selected tests of fine motor skills. Methods: The first method was used empirically - research. Then the method chosen of compilation of the information obtained. The basic method to work was the experimental measurement method specially constructed tests on fine motor skills. All measured values were statisticall...

  10. Divided Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    institutions. This conceptual stretching takes place at the expense of accuracy and clarity clouding our understanding of the multiple levels involved in trusting. This chapter seeks to clarify this issue conceptually by comparing and developing Niklas Luhmann’s system theoretical investigation of trust......Trust as a concept is inherently intertwined with institutional concepts. Trust, according to contemporary research, may be directed at both people and institutions, trust may in itself be an institution, and the influence of institutions may affect both trust in other people and trust in other...... between trust and confidence – the interpersonal and the institutional – emerges....

  11. Continental divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The historical precedents to the idea of continent-wide diversion of water in North America are reviewed, starting from early perceptions of continental drainage and the era of canal building that reached its peak in the mid-1800s. The attitude that natural landscapes can be rearranged to suit human needs has persisted from that era with the proposal for continent-wide water diversion megaprojects, many involving the movement of water from Canada to the southwestern USA. Over 50 water diversions exist in Canada, with a total diverted flow of 4,400 m 3 /s. The density of interconnected and almost-connected lakes and rivers has favored such diversions. Of these diversions, 95% of their storage capacity and 96% of their flow is for hydroelectric power generation. The number of diversions in the USA is similar but water volumes are only a sixth of those in Canada, and the water is mainly used for irrigation or water supply. Experience in both countries shows that diversions are contained by political boundaries. No large-scale diversion of fresh water across the international boundary has received any government support, and no significant change in this policy is anticipated. In the water-short areas of the USA, conservation and reallocation of water resources are receiving priority. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  13. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments......’ in the everyday life and cast light on how design and ‘materialities of mobilites’ are creating differential mobilities across societies, social networks, and communities of practices.......Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...

  14. Highly efficient quenching of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) electrochemiluminescence by ozone using formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, and glyoxalate as co-reactants and its application to ozone sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Liu, Xiaoyun; Qi, Wenjing; Gao, Wenyue; Li, Yunhui; Xu, Guobao

    2015-06-21

    Most electrochemiluminescence (ECL) systems require high concentrations of quencher to totally quench ECL. In this study, we found that ozone can quench tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) ECL using formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, or glyoxalate as co-reactants at a glassy carbon electrode with remarkable efficiencies even when the concentration of ozone is merely 0.25% of that of the co-reactant. The strongest quenching is observed with the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/formaldehyde ECL system. The tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/formaldehyde ECL intensities decrease linearly with the ozone concentration over the range of 0.025-25 μM (r = 0.9947) with a limit of detection of 8 nM. The method is more sensitive and faster than most methods. It shows high selectivity in the presence of other ROS or oxidants and some metal ions, such as H2O2, ClO(-), Mg(2+), Ni(2+), etc. The method exhibits high recoveries for the detection of ozone in a ventilated photocopy room.

  15. Digital divide and digital opportunity: Comparison, analysis and strategies for sustainable development in developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.; Onime, C.

    2007-07-01

    The world is witnessing a new digital economic order which may be quantified by the diffusion of information technology and globalization process. The current information technology gap (digital divide) between developed countries and developing countries is huge. Improvements in information technology (measured by the digital opportunity index) usually open up an opportunity for national/regional growth and development. There is a need for scientific investigation on the digital divide, digital opportunity index and their consequences. This paper presents a critical analysis of existing digital divide and its trends, it also investigates the relationship between the digital divide and the digital opportunity index. A mathematical model based on analysis of the growing digital divide is presented as a possible tool for combating and eradicate the digital divide gap which is only possible if developing and poor nations take advantage of the digital opportunities that can transform them into global competitive partners in digital knowledge economy. (author)

  16. Development and Validation of an Aquatic Fine Sediment Biotic Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Christina D.; Minshall, G. Wayne; Danehy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fine Sediment Biotic Index (FSBI) is a regional, stressor-specific biomonitoring index to assess fine sediment (Plecoptera (5), Trichoptera (3), and Ephemeroptera (2) contained all but one of the species or species groups classified as extremely sensitive. Index validation with an independent data set of 255 streams found FSBI scores to accurately predict both high and low levels of measured fine sediment.

  17. 76 FR 31307 - Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting The next meeting of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts is scheduled for June 16, 2011, at 10 a.m. in the Commission offices at the National Building Museum,Suite 312, Judiciary Square, 401 F Street, NW., Washington, DC, 20001-2728. Items of...

  18. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  19. Numerical modeling of fine particle fractal aggregates in turbulent flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Feifeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for prediction of fine particle transport in a turbulent flow is proposed, the interaction between particles and fluid is studied numerically, and fractal agglomerate of fine particles is analyzed using Taylor-expansion moment method. The paper provides a better understanding of fine particle dynamics in the evolved flows.

  20. The effect of divided attention on false memory depends on how memory is tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Barry, Christopher; Swannell, Ellen R.; Holmes, Selina J.; Bathurst, Gemma J.

    2007-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the effects of divided attention on false memory, using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied six DRM lists with full attention and six in one of two divided-attention conditions (random number generation or digit monitoring). Both divided-attention conditions increased false recall of related words (Experiment 1) but reduced false recognition (Experiment 2). These results were confirmed in Experiment 3,...

  1. Dividing time: Concurrent timing of auditory and visual events by young and elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    McAuley, J. Devin; Miller, Jonathan P.; Wang, Mo; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines age differences in individual’s ability to produce the durations of learned auditory and visual target events either in isolation (focused attention) or concurrently (divided attention). Young adults produced learned target durations equally well in focused and divided attention conditions. Older adults in contrast showed an age-related increase in timing variability in divided attention conditions that tended to be more pronounced for visual targets than for auditory ta...

  2. Divided attention and driving. The effects of aging and brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Withaar, Frederiec Kunna

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, divided attention was investigated in four groups of subjects: closed head injury (CHI) patients, young control and healthy older subjects, and older subjects with cognitive impairments. It was studied how diffuse brain injury and normal and abnormal aging affect cognitive processes involved in divided attention tasks. Furthermore, it was investigated how deficits in divided attention relate to performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), with an emphasis on ...

  3. Dividing time: concurrent timing of auditory and visual events by young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, J Devin; Miller, Jonathan P; Wang, Mo; Pang, Kevin C H

    2010-07-01

    This article examines age differences in individual's ability to produce the durations of learned auditory and visual target events either in isolation (focused attention) or concurrently (divided attention). Young adults produced learned target durations equally well in focused and divided attention conditions. Older adults, in contrast, showed an age-related increase in timing variability in divided attention conditions that tended to be more pronounced for visual targets than for auditory targets. Age-related impairments were associated with a decrease in working memory span; moreover, the relationship between working memory and timing performance was largest for visual targets in divided attention conditions.

  4. Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrotscher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s Reazione Nera led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as

  5. Fine-grained sheet silicate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1977-09-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the possibility of using shales as repositories for radioactive waste and a variety of other waste products, and it appears that over the next few years much money and effort will be expended to investigate and test a wide variety of shales. If shales are to be studied in detail by a large number of investigators, it is important that all concerned have the same concept of what constitutes a shale. The term shale and other terms for fine-grained rocks have been used for many years and have been continually redefined. Most definitions predate the development of modern instrumentation and are based on field observations and intuition; however, the main problem is the diversity of definitions. An attempt is made here to develop a simple, rational classification of fine-grained sediments, and it is hoped that this classification will eliminate some of the present ambiguity. In order that the classification be pertinent, mineral composition and textural data were compiled and evaluated. The data on unconsolidated and consolidated sediments were contrasted and the effects of burial diagenesis assessed. It was found necessary to introduce a new term, physil, to describe all sheet silicate minerals. In contrast to the term clay mineral, the term physil has no size connotation. A simple classification is proposed that is based on the percentage of physils and grain size. In Part II the fine-grained physil rocks are classified on the basis of physil type, non-physil minerals, and texture. Formations are listed which have the mineral and textural characteristics of the most important rock types volumetrically. Selected rock types, and the formations in which they can be found, are recommended for laboratory study to determine their suitability for the storage of high-level radioactive waste

  6. CRUQS: A Miniature Fine Sun Sensor for Nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, Scott; Snow, Carl; Santos, Luis

    2013-01-01

    A new miniature fine Sun sensor has been developed that uses a quadrant photodiode and housing to determine the Sun vector. Its size, mass, and power make it especially suited to small satellite applications, especially nanosatellites. Its accuracy is on the order of one arcminute, and it will enable new science in the area of nanosatellites. The motivation for this innovation was the need for high-performance Sun sensors in the nanosatellite category. The design idea comes out of the LISS (Lockheed Intermediate Sun Sensor) used by the sounding rocket program on their solar pointing ACS (Attitude Control System). This system uses photodiodes and a wall between them. The shadow cast by the Sun is used to determine the Sun angle. The new sensor takes this concept and miniaturizes it. A cruciform shaped housing and a surface-mount quadrant photodiode package allow for a two-axis fine Sun sensor to be packaged into a space approx.1.25xl x0.25 in. (approx.3.2x2.5x0.6 cm). The circuitry to read the photodiodes is a simple trans-impedance operational amplifier. This is much less complex than current small Sun sensors for nanosatellites that rely on photo-arrays and processing of images to determine the Sun center. The simplicity of the circuit allows for a low power draw as well. The sensor consists of housing with a cruciform machined in it. The cruciform walls are 0.5-mm thick and the center of the cruciform is situated over the center of the quadrant photodiode sensor. This allows for shadows to be cast on each of the four photodiodes based on the angle of the Sun. A simple operational amplifier circuit is used to read the output of the photodiodes as a voltage. The voltage output of each photodiode is summed based on rows and columns, and then the values of both rows or both columns are differenced and divided by the sum of the voltages for all four photodiodes. The value of both difference over sums for the rows and columns is compared to a table or a polynomial fit

  7. Fine needle diagnosis in lumbar osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, K.B.; Brinker, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Lumbar vertebral body and disk infection, presenting as low back pain, is a relatively uncommon disease but is seen more often in drug addicts. Radiographs show typical changes of infection of the lumbar vertebrae and adjacent disc. Under local anesthesia a fine needle is placed, saline injected, and aspirated. The entire needle-syringe unit is submitted to the bacteriology department. Pseudomonas infection is usually found. This method of diagnosis is simple, cost effective, well accepted by the patients, and can be done on outpatients. (orig.)

  8. Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.

  9. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  10. Relativistic corrections to fine structure of positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Faustov, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the quasipotential method, we have calculated the relativistic corrections in the positronium fine structure intervals 2 3 S 1 -2 3 P J . The contributions of order of mα 6 for the positronium S-levels were obtained from the one-photon, two-photon interactions and the second-order perturbation theory. We have obtained also the contribution of the two-photon annihilation diagrams to the interaction operator of the P-wave positronium. The corrections of order of α 5 R ∞ and α 5 1nαR ∞ to the P-wave energy levels of positronium were calculated

  11. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  12. Dark energy with fine redshift sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-03-01

    The cosmological constant and many other possible origins for acceleration of the cosmic expansion possess variations in the dark energy properties slow on the Hubble time scale. Given that models with more rapid variation, or even phase transitions, are possible though, we examine the fineness in redshift with which cosmological probes can realistically be employed, and what constraints this could impose on dark energy behavior. In particular, we discuss various aspects of baryon acoustic oscillations, and their use to measure the Hubble parameter H(z). We find that currently considered cosmological probes have an innate resolution no finer than Δz≈0.2 0.3.

  13. Dark energy with fine redshift sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-01-01

    The cosmological constant and many other possible origins for acceleration of the cosmic expansion possess variations in the dark energy properties slow on the Hubble time scale. Given that models with more rapid variation, or even phase transitions, are possible though, we examine the fineness in redshift with which cosmological probes can realistically be employed, and what constraints this could impose on dark energy behavior. In particular, we discuss various aspects of baryon acoustic oscillations, and their use to measure the Hubble parameter H(z). We find that currently considered cosmological probes have an innate resolution no finer than Δz≅0.2-0.3

  14. Pre - big bang inflation requires fine tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Michael S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Weinberg, Erick J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The pre-big-bang cosmology inspired by superstring theories has been suggested as an alternative to slow-roll inflation. We analyze, in both the Jordan and Einstein frames, the effect of spatial curvature on this scenario and show that too much curvature --- of either sign --- reduces the duration of the inflationary era to such an extent that the flatness and horizon problems are not solved. Hence, a fine-tuning of initial conditions is required to obtain enough inflation to solve the cosmological problems.

  15. Fine structure of 25 extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittels, J.J.; Knight, C.A.; Shapiro, I.I.; Hinteregger, H.F.; Rogers, A.E.E.; Whitney, A.R.; Clark, T.A.; Hutton, L.K.; Marandino, G.E.; Neill, A.E.; Ronnang, B.G.; Rydbeck, O.E.H.; Klemperer, W.K.; Warnock, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    Between 1972 April and 1973 May, 25 extragalactic radio sources were observed interferometrically at 7.8 GHz(lambdaapprox. =3.8 cm) with five pairings of antennas. These sources exhibit a broad variety of fine structures from very simple to complex. Although the structure and the total power of some of these sources have remained unchanged within the sensitivity of our measurements during the year of observations, both the total flux and the correlated flux of others have undergone large changes in a few weeks

  16. Fine structure in deformed proton emitting nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; Davids, C. N.; Woods, P. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ressler, J. J.; Schwartz, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Walters, W. B.

    1999-01-01

    In a recent experiment to study the proton radioactivity of the highly deformed 131 Eu nucleus, two proton lines were detected. The higher energy one was assigned to the ground-state to ground-state decay, while the lower energy, to the ground-state to the 2 + state decay. This constitutes the first observation of fine structure in proton radioactivity. With these four measured quantities, proton energies, half-life and branching ratio, it is possible to determine the Nilsson configuration of the ground state of the proton emitting nucleus as well as the 2 + energy and nuclear deformation of the daughter nucleus. These results will be presented and discussed

  17. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Peter J [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Clinton, TN

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  18. The Role of IT Literacy in Defining Digital Divide Policy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Enrico; Helbig, Natalie C.; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This article expands our current understanding of the digital divide by examining differences in individuals' IT skills acquisition. In the last two decades scholars have gradually refined the conceptualization of the digital divide, moving from a dichotomous model mainly based on access, to a multidimensional model accounting for differences in…

  19. Essays on the Digital Divide--Explorations through Global, National and Individual Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaletsky, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Divide has emerged as an important research and policy issue during the past thirty years. The divide exists at different levels, such as global, regional and individual levels. While extensive research already exists on this subject, the complexity of the issue presents opportunities for further research. In particular, there is ample…

  20. A digital divider with extension bits for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Digitizing errors produced in a digital divider for position-sensitive detectors have been reduced by adding extension bits to data bits. A relation between the extension bits and the data bits to obtain perfect position uniformity is also given. A digital divider employing 10 bit ADCs and 6 bit extension circuits has been constructed. (orig.)

  1. The ICT development index and the digital divide : How are they related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital preparedness and the digital divide are two ways of measuring ICT performance across countries. Recently, the ITU has proposed that a new index of preparedness be used to measure the divide. My goal is to investigate the validity of this suggestion. I have argued that the ICT Development

  2. Understanding the Complex Dimensions of the Digital Divide: Lessons Learned in the Alaskan Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2007-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of Inupiat Eskimo in the Alaskan Arctic has provided insights into the complex nature of the sociological issues surrounding equitable access to technology tools and skills, which are referred to as the digital divide. These people can overcome the digital divide if they get the basic ready access to hardware and…

  3. Computer and Video Games in Family Life: The Digital Divide as a Resource in Intergenerational Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsand, Pal Andre

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of family life, intergenerational video and computer game activities were videotaped and analysed. Both children and adults invoked the notion of a digital divide, i.e. a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology. It is argued that the digital divide was exploited by the children to…

  4. Dynamic crossmodal links revealed by steady-state responses in auditory-visual divided attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Ritske; Toffanin, Paolo; Harbers, Marten; Martens, Sander

    Frequency tagging has been often used to study intramodal attention but not intermodal attention. We used EEG and simultaneous frequency tagging of auditory and visual sources to study intermodal focused and divided attention in detection and discrimination performance. Divided-attention costs were

  5. Combination N-Way Power Divider/Combiner and Noninvasive Reflected Power Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An N-way RF/microwave power divider/combiner utilizes one input and N outputs, or conversely N inputs and one output to divide (or combine) RF/microwave power while...

  6. Great Divides: The Cultural, Cognitive, and Social Bases of the Global Subordination of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs

    2007-01-01

    Categorization based on sex is the most basic social divide. It is the organizational basis of most major institutions, including the division of labor in the home, the workforce, politics, and religion. Globally, women's gendered roles are regarded as subordinate to men's. The gender divide enforces women's roles in reproduction and support…

  7. Landslide-driven drainage divide migration and quantifying progress toward topographic steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Li, G.

    2017-12-01

    Drainage divide migration is a critical process in landscape evolution. It reorganizes river basins, redistributing fluvial erosive energy to facilitate mass balance, and contributes to feedbacks between tectonics, erosion, and climate. However, it leaves little straightforward evidence in the geologic or geomorphic record, and has been subject to minimal field study, hampering understanding its role in landscape evolution. Landslides link river channels, hillslopes, and ridges in steep landscapes, and thus play a central role in divide migration. In this study, we examine landslides triggered by three events: the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in central China, the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal, and the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in southern Taiwan, seeking new insight into the controls on divide migration. Of the 100,000 landslides triggered, we mapped 367 which caused a divide to migrate, resulting in a total exchange of about 2 km2 between basins. We use this database of divide migrations to explore relationships between the geometry of rivers and the exchange of drainage area, comparing metrics which have been proposed as indicators of divide stability across mobile divides. We find that upstream-averaged local relief and upstream-averaged channel gradient predict the We propose a new metric to describe divide mobility and the overall influence of a reorganizing event on a landscape, using it to estimate the impact of events similar to the 2009 Typhoon Morakot on the progress of Taiwan's Central Range toward topographic steady state.

  8. Statistical and numerical methods to improve the transient divided bar method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.

    The divided bar method is a commonly used method to measure thermal conductivity of rock samples in laboratory. We present improvements to this method that allows for simultaneous measurements of both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The divided bar setup is run in a transient mode...

  9. Poverty, Literacy, and Social Transformation: An Interdisciplinary Exploration of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Amy J.; Wolfson, Todd; Crowell, Jessica K.

    2018-01-01

    Harnessing scholarship focused on literacy and poverty, in this article we aim to complicate the common understanding of the digital divide. First, we argue that the dominant literature on the digital divide misses broader connections between technological exclusion and broader forms of economic and social exclusion. Accordingly, and following…

  10. Healing the Physical/Spiritual Divide through a Holistic and Hermeneutic Approach to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this special edition of the journal, attention is being given to the two dimensions of spirituality and physicality. In this particular paper I argue that there is an unhelpful divide that is often assumed to exist between these two dimensions and that this divide can be transcended or "healed" through a holistic and hermeneutic approach to…

  11. Examining the University-Profession Divide: An Inquiry into a Teacher Education Program's Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivia, Awneet; MacMath, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the divide between the university as a site of teacher education and the profession of practicing teachers. We employed a theoretical inquiry methodology on a singular case study which included formulating questions about the phenomena of the university-profession divide (UPD), analysing constituents of the UPD, and…

  12. A Nation under Joint Custody: How Conflicting Family Models Divide US Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Eva Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Across the globe and throughout history, politics are regularly divided into "left-leaning" and "right-leaning" camps. Explaining the sources of this conservative-liberal divide has become a major quest in the cognitive and social sciences. Early attempts have focused on self-interest as a possible explanation. However, as the…

  13. Computing the Free Energy Barriers for Less by Sampling with a Coarse Reference Potential while Retaining Accuracy of the Target Fine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Nikolay V

    2014-08-12

    Proposed in this contribution is a protocol for calculating fine-physics (e.g., ab initio QM/MM) free-energy surfaces at a high level of accuracy locally (e.g., only at reactants and at the transition state for computing the activation barrier) from targeted fine-physics sampling and extensive exploratory coarse-physics sampling. The full free-energy surface is still computed but at a lower level of accuracy from coarse-physics sampling. The method is analytically derived in terms of the umbrella sampling and the free-energy perturbation methods which are combined with the thermodynamic cycle and the targeted sampling strategy of the paradynamics approach. The algorithm starts by computing low-accuracy fine-physics free-energy surfaces from the coarse-physics sampling in order to identify the reaction path and to select regions for targeted sampling. Thus, the algorithm does not rely on the coarse-physics minimum free-energy reaction path. Next, segments of high-accuracy free-energy surface are computed locally at selected regions from the targeted fine-physics sampling and are positioned relative to the coarse-physics free-energy shifts. The positioning is done by averaging the free-energy perturbations computed with multistep linear response approximation method. This method is analytically shown to provide results of the thermodynamic integration and the free-energy interpolation methods, while being extremely simple in implementation. Incorporating the metadynamics sampling to the algorithm is also briefly outlined. The application is demonstrated by calculating the B3LYP//6-31G*/MM free-energy barrier for an enzymatic reaction using a semiempirical PM6/MM reference potential. These modifications allow computing the activation free energies at a significantly reduced computational cost but at the same level of accuracy compared to computing full potential of mean force.

  14. Picobubble column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Samuel Yu; Xiaohua Zhou; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh (0.6 mm) or -100 mesh (0.15 mm) fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range, nominally 10-100 {mu}m, beyond which the flotation efficiency drops sharply. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. Experimental results have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 5-cm diameter column flotation increased the combustible recovery of a highly floatable coal by up to 10% and that of a poorly floatable coal by up to 40%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. 14 refs.

  15. Extramedullary plasmacytoma. Fine needle aspiration findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P V; Owji, S M; Talei, A R; Malekhusseini, S A

    1997-01-01

    To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma. The study group consisted of 13 patients with palpable masses at various sites. The tumors were aspirated for cytologic study. The smears revealed groups of mature and immature plasma cells at various stages of maturation. Mature plasma cells showed an eccentric nucleus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with a paranuclear halo. Plasmablasts (immature plasma cells) showed a prominent, eccentric nucleus with single, large nucleolus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with no paranuclear halo. Binucleate and multinucleate forms were also seen quite often. The tumors were excised, and the histologic sections confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. All the patients received radiotherapy. One patient (18 years old) developed recurrence and died due to extensive infiltration into the maxilla and mandible. Two patients (57 and 62 years) developed multiple myeloma one to two years after the excision of tumors, and both died two to three months later. The remaining 10 patients were alive and well at this writing. The smears from all 13 patients were diagnosed as extramedullary plasmacytomas by fine needle aspiration cytology.

  16. Communication Optimizations for Fine-Grained UPCApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Iancu, Costin; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-07-08

    Global address space languages like UPC exhibit high performance and portability on a broad class of shared and distributed memory parallel architectures. The most scalable applications use bulk memory copies rather than individual reads and writes to the shared space, but finer-grained sharing can be useful for scenarios such as dynamic load balancing, event signaling, and distributed hash tables. In this paper we present three optimization techniques for global address space programs with fine-grained communication: redundancy elimination, use of split-phase communication, and communication coalescing. Parallel UPC programs are analyzed using static single assignment form and a data flow graph, which are extended to handle the various shared and private pointer types that are available in UPC. The optimizations also take advantage of UPC's relaxed memory consistency model, which reduces the need for cross thread analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the analysis and optimizations using several benchmarks, which were chosen to reflect the kinds of fine-grained, communication-intensive phases that exist in some larger applications. The optimizations show speedups of up to 70 percent on three parallel systems, which represent three different types of cluster network technologies.

  17. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parapharyngeal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Palash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parapharyngeal tumors are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties due to their location and plethora of presentations. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the occurrence in the population and to evaluate the exact nature by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Materials and Methods: A total of five hundred and six cases of lateral neck lesions were studied over three and half years. Of these 56 suspected parapharyngeal masses were selected by clinical and radiological methods. Cytopathology evaluation was done by fine needle aspiration cytology with computed tomography and ultrasonography guidance wherever necessary. Histopathology confirmation was available in all the cases. Results: On FNAC diagnosis could be established in 54 cases while in two cases the material was insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The tumors encountered were, pleomorphic adenoma (33, schwannoma (3, neurofibroma (11, paraganglioma (5, angiofibroma (1 and adenoid cystic carcinoma (1. Four false positives and two false negative cases were encountered. Overall sensitivity was 96%, with specificity of 99% and accuracy being 98.8%. Conclusions: With proper clinical and radiological assessment, FNAC can be extremely useful in diagnosing most of these lesions except a few which need histopathological and even immunohistochemical confirmation.

  18. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Harter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.

  19. Revisit to diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tokuda, K.; Shimada, K.; Ichitsubo, T.; Oishi, M.; Mizuki, J.; Matsubara, E.

    2014-01-01

    The diffraction anomalous fine structure method has been revisited by applying this measurement technique to polycrystalline samples and using an analytical method with the logarithmic dispersion relation. The diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) method that is a spectroscopic analysis combined with resonant X-ray diffraction enables the determination of the valence state and local structure of a selected element at a specific crystalline site and/or phase. This method has been improved by using a polycrystalline sample, channel-cut monochromator optics with an undulator synchrotron radiation source, an area detector and direct determination of resonant terms with a logarithmic dispersion relation. This study makes the DAFS method more convenient and saves a large amount of measurement time in comparison with the conventional DAFS method with a single crystal. The improved DAFS method has been applied to some model samples, Ni foil and Fe 3 O 4 powder, to demonstrate the validity of the measurement and the analysis of the present DAFS method

  20. Fine particle magnetic mineralogy of archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D; King, J A

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the magnetic mineralogy of a worldwide collection of archaeological pottery. The mineral types, the mass fractions and the domain states of the constituent magnetic fine particles were elucidated from a range of measurements including magnetic hysteresis behaviour, the acquisition of isothermal remanence, low field susceptibility and thermomagnetic curves. The magnetic mineralogy of most samples was dominated by magnetite. Titanomagnetites with limited titanium substitution and cation deficient magnetites (indicative of low temperature oxidation) were dominant in some samples. Haematite was detected in 53% of the samples, but seldom contributed much to the saturation magnetization. Magnetic particle sizes are skewed to smaller sizes, with sherds mostly having a large superparamagnetic or a stable single domain fraction. Low temperature susceptibility data suggest that 30% of samples had some multidomain component. The percentage by mass of magnetic material in the ancient pottery studied was less than 0.8% for all but one of the samples and the majority of samples contain less than 0.3% by weight of magnetic fine particles. The presence of low temperature oxidation in many samples and the occurrence of a multidomain component in a third of the collection suggest that ancient pottery may not always be suitable for determining the intensity of the ancient geomagnetic field

  1. Dynamic crossmodal links revealed by steady-state responses in auditory-visual divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ritske; Toffanin, Paolo; Harbers, Marten

    2010-01-01

    Frequency tagging has been often used to study intramodal attention but not intermodal attention. We used EEG and simultaneous frequency tagging of auditory and visual sources to study intermodal focused and divided attention in detection and discrimination performance. Divided-attention costs were smaller, but still significant, in detection than in discrimination. The auditory steady-state response (SSR) showed no effects of attention at frontocentral locations, but did so at occipital locations where it was evident only when attention was divided between audition and vision. Similarly, the visual SSR at occipital locations was substantially enhanced when attention was divided across modalities. Both effects were equally present in detection and discrimination. We suggest that both effects reflect a common cause: An attention-dependent influence of auditory information processing on early cortical stages of visual information processing, mediated by enhanced effective connectivity between the two modalities under conditions of divided attention. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two types of photomultiplier voltage dividers for high and changing count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, W.L.; Stengl, G.

    1980-01-01

    We report on the design of two types of voltage distribution circuits for high stability photomultiplier operation. 'Type A' voltage divider is an ohmic voltage divider with high bleeder current (up to 10 mA) and the resistor chain split at one of the last dynodes, usually the dynode where the analog signal is derived from. This simple constructive measure improves the stability of the dynode voltage by a factor of 5 compared with an unsplit conventional resistor chain. 'Type B' is a novel active voltage divider using cold cathode tubes ar regulating elements. This voltage divider exhibits excellent temperature stability (about 10 -4 / 0 C). With 'type B' an equal stability compared with conventional ohmic dividers can be achieved at a bleeder current smaller by one order of magnitude. Of course both concepts, 'type A' and 'type B', can be combined. (orig.)

  3. Divided attention in computer game play: analysis utilizing unobtrusive health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKanna, James A; Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Misha

    2009-01-01

    Divided attention is a vital cognitive ability used in important daily activities (e.g., driving), which tends to deteriorate with age. As with Alzheimer's and other neural degenerative conditions, treatment for divided attention problems is likely to be more effective the earlier it is detected. Thus, it is important that a method be found to detect changes in divided attention early on in the process, for both safety and health care reasons. We present here a new method for detecting divided attention unobtrusively, using performance on a computer game designed to force players to attend to different dimensions simultaneously in order to succeed. Should this model prove to predict scores on a standard test for divided attention, it could help to detect cognitive decline earlier in our increasingly computer-involved aging population, providing treatment efficacy benefits to those who will experience cognitive decline.

  4. Fining of glass melts: what we know about fining processes today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper addresses the mechanisms of fining (removal of gases from melt) and the effect of batch composition, oxidation state of the melt and furnace atmosphere on bubble removal processes for commercial glass types, such as float glass and container glass compositions. The mechanisms of the

  5. Hardwiring of fine synaptic layers in the zebrafish visual pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Michael R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal connections are often arranged in layers, which are divided into sublaminae harboring synapses with similar response properties. It is still debated how fine-grained synaptic layering is established during development. Here we investigated two stratified areas of the zebrafish visual pathway, the inner plexiform layer (IPL of the retina and the neuropil of the optic tectum, and determined if activity is required for their organization. Results The IPL of 5-day-old zebrafish larvae is composed of at least nine sublaminae, comprising the connections between different types of amacrine, bipolar, and ganglion cells (ACs, BCs, GCs. These sublaminae were distinguished by their expression of cell type-specific transgenic fluorescent reporters and immunohistochemical markers, including protein kinase Cβ (PKC, parvalbumin (Parv, zrf3, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. In the tectum, four retinal input layers abut a laminated array of neurites of tectal cells, which differentially express PKC and Parv. We investigated whether these patterns were affected by experimental disruptions of retinal activity in developing fish. Neither elimination of light inputs by dark rearing, nor a D, L-amino-phosphono-butyrate-induced reduction in the retinal response to light onset (but not offset altered IPL or tectal lamination. Moreover, thorough elimination of chemical synaptic transmission with Botulinum toxin B left laminar synaptic arrays intact. Conclusion Our results call into question a role for activity-dependent mechanisms – instructive light signals, balanced on and off BC activity, Hebbian plasticity, or a permissive role for synaptic transmission – in the synaptic stratification we examined. We propose that genetically encoded cues are sufficient to target groups of neurites to synaptic layers in this vertebrate visual system.

  6. A study of Rh xS y/C and RuSe x/C as methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction catalysts for mixed-reactant fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Liu, Fang; Conrad, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    For efficient operation, mixed-reactant fuel cells utilise highly selective anode and cathode electrocatalysts. While platinum and its alloys are the most widely used ORR electrocatalysts in conventional DMFCs, they suffer from both their very high activity for methanol oxidation and their inherent cost. Platinum-free precious metal chalcogenides have been suggested as alternatives with comparable oxygen reduction activity in the presence of methanol. Of these, commercially available carbon supported rhodium sulphide and developmental ruthenium selenium were electrochemically tested and assessed for their potential as selective ORR cathode catalysts. Both materials exhibited oxygen reduction activity approaching that of platinum, albeit at potentials 150 and 80 mV more negative. The three materials' ability to maintain their oxygen reduction activity in the presence of methanol ranks ruthenium selenium > rhodium sulphide >> platinum

  7. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were

  8. Retroviral infection of non-dividing cells: Old and new perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro; Emerman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of retroviral replication on cell proliferation was described as early as 1958, although different classes of retroviruses are able to infect non-dividing cells with different efficiencies. For example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other lentiviruses infect most non-dividing cells nearly as well as dividing cells, while the gammaretroviruses such as the murine leukemia virus (MLV) cannot infect non-dividing cells, and other retroviruses have intermediate phenotypes. One exception to the ability of HIV to infect non-dividing cells involves resting CD4+ T cells in vitro where there are multiple restrictions. However, recent data show that there is massive infection of non-activated CD4+ T cell during acute infection which suggests that the situation is different in vivo. Finally, much work trying to explain the difference between HIV and MLV in non-dividing cells has focused on describing the ability of HIV to enter the nucleus during interphase. However, we suggest that events in the viral lifecycle other than nuclear import may be more important in determining the ability of a given retrovirus to infect non-dividing cells

  9. Robust retrieval of fine art paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Bogdan; Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    The rapid growth of image archives increases the need for efficient and fast tools that can retrieve and search through large amount of visual data. In this paper we propose an efficient method of extracting the image color content, which serves as an image digital signature, allowing to efficiently index and retrieve the content of large, heterogeneous multimedia databases. We apply the proposed method for the retrieval of images from the WEBMUSEUM Internet database, containing the collection of fine art images and show that the new method of image color representation is robust to image distorsions caused by resizing and compression and can be incorporated into existing retrieval systems which exploit the information on color content in digital images.

  10. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological...... diagnostic classes were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality assurance programme in a screening population to determine whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as first choice remains a useful tool in the preoperative diagnostics, or if needle core biopsy should be the first...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  11. Urban Fitness, Gendered Practices, and Fine Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The author re-examines claims in the literature on Antonio Lopez that from the 1970s this fashion illustrator had significantly influenced the sporty styling of fashion. However, Antonio's 1960s swimsuit-, motorcycling- and varsity-themed ads reveal some prior links with sport. Antonio's later......'s portrayals of masculine exhibitionism and homoeroticism. For Antonio, the appeal of sport can be explained by an envious appropriation of the athletic physique as well as a personal re-imaging along sporty lines. The "horsetails" and "centaurs" which figure in Antonio's work hint at his spirited sexuality....... It is concluded that from the mid-1960s Antonio had already been illustrating sportswear, that he was inspired by depictions of sport and corporeal physicality by fine artists, and that his true significance for the sporty styling of fashion consisted in a "Warholian" edginess in choice of themes and treatment...

  12. Fine particles in the Soufriere eruption plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, D. C.; Chuan, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The size distributions of fine particles measured at tropospheric altitudes in the periphery of the eruption plume formed during the April 17, 1979 eruption of Soufriere Volcano and in the low-level effluents on May 15, 1979 were found to be bimodal, having peak concentrations at geometric mean diameters of 1.1 and 0.23 micrometers. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the samples revealed an abundance of aluminum and silicon and traces of sodium, magnesium, chlorine, potassium, calcium, and iron in the large-particle mode. The submicrometer-sized particles were covered with liquid containing sulfur, assumed to be in the form of liquid sulfuric acid.

  13. The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltodano, Pablo A.; Weinberg, Maxene H.; Whipple, Lauren A.; Gemmiti, Amanda L.; Whipple, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Flexor tenolysis surgery for flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis adhesions is a common procedure performed by hand surgeons. Releasing these adhered tendons can greatly improve hand function and improve quality of life. Recent evidence, however, has shown that the outcomes of tenolysis surgeries are often suboptimal and can result in relapsing adhesions or even tendon ruptures. Methods: This article describes a new technique with potential for reduced complication rates: The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis (FWT). Results: Following FWT, the patient detailed in this article had an excellent recovery of function and no complications: including tendon rupture, infection, hematomas, or any other complications. She reported a major improvement from her preoperative functionality and continues to have this level of success. The wire’s thinness allows for a swift tenolysis. Conclusions: The FWT is a new option available to the hand surgeon associated with good functional results. The wire is readily available to the clinician and is also inexpensive. PMID:29263961

  14. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  15. The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Matthew K; Baltodano, Pablo A; Weinberg, Maxene H; Whipple, Lauren A; Gemmiti, Amanda L; Whipple, Richard E

    2017-11-01

    Flexor tenolysis surgery for flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis adhesions is a common procedure performed by hand surgeons. Releasing these adhered tendons can greatly improve hand function and improve quality of life. Recent evidence, however, has shown that the outcomes of tenolysis surgeries are often suboptimal and can result in relapsing adhesions or even tendon ruptures. This article describes a new technique with potential for reduced complication rates: The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis (FWT). Following FWT, the patient detailed in this article had an excellent recovery of function and no complications: including tendon rupture, infection, hematomas, or any other complications. She reported a major improvement from her preoperative functionality and continues to have this level of success. The wire's thinness allows for a swift tenolysis. The FWT is a new option available to the hand surgeon associated with good functional results. The wire is readily available to the clinician and is also inexpensive.

  16. An InGaAs/InP 40 GHz CML static frequency divider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yongbo; Jin Zhi; Cheng Wei; Ge Ji; Wang Xiantai; Chen Gaopeng; Liu Xinyu; Xu Anhuai; Qi Ming

    2011-01-01

    Static frequency dividers are widely used as a circuit performance benchmark or figure-of-merit indicator to gauge a particular device technology's ability to implement high speed digital and integrated high performance mixed-signal circuits. We report a 2 : 1 static frequency divider in InGaAs/InP heterojunction bipolar transistor technology. This is the first InP based digital integrated circuit ever reported on the mainland of China. The divider is implemented in differential current mode logic (CML) with 30 transistors. The circuit operated at a peak clock frequency of 40 GHz and dissipated 650 mW from a single -5 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Ocean-Bottom Topography: The Divide between the Sohm and Hatteras Abyssal Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R M

    1965-06-18

    A compilation of precision echo soundings has delineated the complex topography between the Sohm and Hatteras abyssal plains off the Atlantic coast of the United States. At present the divide between the two plains is a broad, flat area about 4950 meters deep; however, the configuration of channels and depressions suggests spillage of turbidity currents from the Sohm Plain into the Hatteras Plain and a shifting of the divide toward the northeast. Hudson Canyon terminates in the divide area and has probably fed sediment into both plains.

  18. Fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Memišević Haris; Mačak Amra

    2014-01-01

    Fine motor skills are very important for children's overall functioning. Their development is necessary for many everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, holding objects, etc. Moreover, fine motor skills are also correlated to the children's academic success at school. Recent research suggests a close relationship between motor skills and intelligence. Given the relative paucity of literature on fine motor skills in different etiological groups of children with intellectual disability (...

  19. SHAPE ANALYSIS OF FINE AGGREGATES USED FOR CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    HE, Huan; Courard, Luc; Pirard, Eric; Michel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Fine aggregate is one of the essential components in concrete and significantly influences the material properties. As parts of natures, physical characteristics of fine aggregate are highly relevant to its behaviors in concrete. The most of previous studies are mainly focused on the physical properties of coarse aggregate due to the equipment limitations. In this paper, two typical fine aggregates, i.e. river sand and crushed rock, are selected for shape characterization. The new developed d...

  20. Poor need knowledge not only technology to bridge digital divide: experts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Developing countries need to gain knowledge rather than technology to latch onto the booming information society, experts said Monday ahead of a major conference on bridging the digital divide between rich and poor" (1/2 page).

  1. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960

  2. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.

  3. Unobtrusive monitoring of divided attention in a cognitive health coaching intervention for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKanna, James A; Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly

    2010-11-13

    Assessment of cognitive functionality is an important aspect of care for elders. Unfortunately, few tools exist to measure divided attention, the ability to allocate attention to different aspects of tasks. An accurate determination of divided attention would allow inference of generalized cognitive decline, as well as providing a quantifiable indicator of an important component of driving skill. We propose a new method for determining relative divided attention ability through unobtrusive monitoring of computer use. Specifically, we measure performance on a dual-task cognitive computer exercise as part of a health coaching intervention. This metric indicates whether the user has the ability to pay attention to both tasks at once, or is primarily attending to one task at a time (sacrificing optimal performance). The monitoring of divided attention in a home environment is a key component of both the early detection of cognitive problems and for assessing the efficacy of coaching interventions.

  4. A note on crossing the phantom divide in hybrid dark energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao; Cai Ronggen

    2006-01-01

    Recently a lot of attention has been given to building dark energy models in which the equation-of-state parameter w can cross the phantom divide w=-1. However, to our knowledge, these models with crossing the phantom divide only provide the possibility that w can cross -1. They do not answer another question: why crossing phantom divide occurs recently? Since in many existing models whose equation-of-state parameter can cross the phantom divide, w undulates around -1 randomly, why are we living in an epochw<-1? This can be regarded as the second cosmological coincidence problem. In this Letter, we propose a possible approach to alleviate this problem within a hybrid dark energy model

  5. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Nicolas

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  6. IODC 2015: Researchers seek to close the new data divide | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-06-26

    Jun 26, 2015 ... IODC 2015: Researchers seek to close the new data divide ... former research coordinator of the IDRC-supported Open Data in Developing Countries project. ... or unreliable, ground-level innovation can help fill the gap.

  7. Harmonic-suppressed quadrature-input frequency divider for OFDM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Haipeng; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2011-01-01

    A fully balanced harmonic-suppressed quadrature-input frequency divider is proposed. The frequency divider improves the quadrature phase accuracy at the output by using both input I/Q signals. Compared with conventional dividers, the circuit achieves an output I/Q phase sequence that is independent of the input I/Q phase sequence. Moreover, the third harmonic is effectively suppressed by employing a double degeneration technique. The design is fabricated in TSMC 0.13-μm CMOS and operated at 1.2 V. While locked at 8.5 GHz, the proposed divider measures a maximum third harmonic rejection of 45 dB and a phase noise of −124 dBc/Hz at a 10 MHz offset. The circuit achieves a locking range of 15% while consuming a total current of 4.5 mA. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Discrete lattice plane broken bond interfacial energy calculations and the use of the dividing surface concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujan, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the dividing surface has been extensively used to define the relationships between thermodynamic quantities at the interface between two phases; it is also useful in calculations of interfacial energy (γ). However, in the original formulation, the two phases are continuum phases, the atomistic nature of the interface was not considered. It is, therefore, useful to examine the use of the dividing surface in the context of atomistic interfacial energy calculations. The case of a planar fcc:hcp interface is considered and the dividing surface positions which are useful in atomistic interfacial energy calculations are stated, one position equates γ to the excess internal energy, the other position allows us to use the Gibbs adsorption equation. An example of a calculation using the convenient dividing surface positions is presented

  9. "Is There a Second Level Divide in Student’s Internet Skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna; Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a digital divide has moved beyond only physical disparities in technology usage and now also encompasses issues impeding access such as human social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies. This paper focuses on students......’ insufficient skill levels in making the best use of available Internet technology, discussing students in higher education in scenarios in Denmark and India. The paper emphasizes the reflective and conceptual issues which the students face in retrieving information from the Internet, which result in a second......-level divide. Through a cross-national comparison, the paper hopes to contribute to the literature through experiences of students in the two countries, providing researchers with insights into the digital divide. This divide in Internet skills is illuminated from different perspectives in the context of two...

  10. Ultra-trace Measurements in the WAIS Divide 06A Ice Core, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data contain the results of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of 207 samples from the WAIS Divide 06A ice core. The trace gases found in...

  11. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  12. Sweeping at the Martin boundary of a fine domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Kadiri, Mohamed; Fuglede, Bent

    2016-01-01

    We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical.......We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical....

  13. Fine structure of charge exchange lines observed in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, K.; Nishimura, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Kondo, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the fine structure of charge exchange lines appears only at the plasma edge or in the recombining phase where the ion temperature is low enough. The observed spectra in Li III and C VI are consistent with the sum of fine-structure components populated by statistical weights (assuming complete l-mixing) not by direct charge exchange cross sections. Some discrepancy was observed in the intensity ratio of fine-structure components between the observation and calculation for C VI in the recombining phase. The fine-structure of charge exchange lines gives an apparent Doppler shift in plasma rotation velocity measurement using charge exchange spectroscopy. (author)

  14. Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Data from a National Longitudinal Survey of CHARLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya

    2017-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2013) data was used to investigate internet use and mobile phone ownership in older Chinese adults and examine digital divide and social economic status and mobile technology adoption and health outcomes associations. Results suggest a significant digital divide associated with not only individual characteristics, but also neighborhood resources. Future eHealth programs should consider the accessibility of mobile tools and develop culturally appropriate programs for different social groups.

  15. The Effect of Divided Attention on Emotion-Induced Memory Narrowing

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, Katherine R. Mickley; Waring, Jill D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are more likely to remember emotional than neutral information, but this benefit does not always extend to the surrounding background information. This memory narrowing is theorized to be linked to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. In contrast to the predictions of this theoretical account, altering participants’ attentional resources at encoding, by dividing attention, did not affect the emotion-induced memory narrowing. Attention was divided using three sepa...

  16. Brain activity during divided and selective attention to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Carlson, Synnove; Vuontela, Virve; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured brain activity of human participants while they performed a sentence congruence judgment task in either the visual or auditory modality separately, or in both modalities simultaneously. Significant performance decrements were observed when attention was divided between the two modalities compared with when one modality was selectively attended. Compared with selective attention (i.e., single tasking), divided attention (i.e., dua...

  17. Efficient Divide-And-Conquer Classification Based on Feature-Space Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qi; Chen, Bo-Wei; Jiang, Feng; Ji, Xiangyang; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a divide-and-conquer (DC) approach based on feature space decomposition for classification. When large-scale datasets are present, typical approaches usually employed truncated kernel methods on the feature space or DC approaches on the sample space. However, this did not guarantee separability between classes, owing to overfitting. To overcome such problems, this work proposes a novel DC approach on feature spaces consisting of three steps. Firstly, we divide the feature ...

  18. The robotics divide a new frontier in the 21st century?

    CERN Document Server

    López Peláez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Analyzes how robotics will shape our societies in the twenty-first century; a time when industrial and service robotics, particularly for military and aerospace purposes, will become an essential technology Examines an emerging divide: the "robotics divide"; a phenomenon linked to the model to integrate advanced robotics in economic, social and military spheres Focuses on the main technological trends in the field of robotics, and the impact that robotics will have on different facets of social life

  19. Outcome of loop versus divided colostomy in the management of anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosallam, Osama Ibrahim; Aseeri, Ali; Shanafey, Saud Al

    2016-01-01

    Colostomy is a common part of the management of high anorectal malformation (ARM) in the pediatric population. To evaluate whether the type of colostomy (loop vs divided) has an impact on outcome in patients with ARM. A retrospective study. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, a tertiary care center. All patients who were managed with colostomy for ARM and had definitive repair during the period of January 2000 to December 2014. Outcomes relative to the type of the colostomy were compared. Morbidities associated with each type of colostomy. There were 104 patients managed for ARM with colostomy as staged procedures, 63 males and 41 females. Patients had a colostomy at a median age of 6 days and were closed at a median of 11 months. Definitive repair was at a median age of 17 months. Type of fistula was 8 perineal, 21 rectovestibular, 35 rectourethral, 11 rectovesical and there were 16 without fistula and 13 cloaca anomalies. There were 55 loop and 49 divided colostomies. There were 91 descending/sigmoid and 13 transverse colostomies. Operative time for loop colostomy closure was shorter than with divided colo6stomy (76 minutes vs 94 minutes, P=.002). Three patients among the divided group had reversed orientation of the colostomy that had affected bowel preparations negatively prior to its repair. There was no differences in complications of creation and closure of loop and divided colostomies except in occurrence of skin excoriation. There was more skin excoriation with divided colostomy compared to loop colostomy (17 vs 10, P=.04). Loop colostomy has a shorter closure operative time and relatively fewer complications compared to the divided colostomy. Our data suggests that loop colostomy may be more favorable than divided colostomy for ARM patients. Retrospective nature of the study and some colostomies performed at other hospitals.

  20. Quasi-resonant converter with divided resonant capacitor on primary and secondary side

    OpenAIRE

    Shiroyama, Hironobu; Matsuo, Hirofumi; Ishizuka, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a quasi-resonant converter with divided resonant capacitor on primary and secondary side of the isolation transformer. A conventional quasi-resonant converter using flyback topology can realize soft switching with simple circuit. However, relatively large surge voltage is generated in the switching device. To suppress such surge voltage, resonant capacitor is divided on primary side and secondary side in the proposed converter. In case of prototype 95W converter, the volta...