WorldWideScience

Sample records for react detectability identifiability

  1. 3-12 Detection and Management of Adverse Drug React

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MINA SAN

    Detection and Management of Adverse Drug Reactions Related to Antiretroviral Drugs among. HIV/AIDS Patients in Kiambu ... of various adverse drug reactions associated with antiretroviral drugs occurring in patients attending Comprehensive Care .... educational level, perception of ADRs, knowledge of ADRs, detection ...

  2. Detecting and Reacting to Change: The Effect of Exposure to Narrow Categorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Amitav; Fang, Christina; Shapira, Zur

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect a change, to accurately assess the magnitude of the change, and to react to that change in a commensurate fashion are of critical importance in many decision domains. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that systematically affect people's reactions to change. In this article we document a novel effect: Decision…

  3. Criminalising Institutional Failures to Prevent, Identify or React to Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Crofts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there is increasing academic recognition of corporations as criminogenic, the criminal legal system has demonstrated difficulties in conceptualising corporate culpability. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse provides ample evidence of why organisations can and should be criminalised for systemic failures. I demonstrate that the emphasis upon individualistic subjective culpability by the criminal legal system does not adequately encapsulate the institutional failings detailed before the Royal Commission. Whilst mandatory reporting offences are important, these offences do not adequately respond to the kinds of organisational failings identified by the Royal Commission. I argue in favour of developing a new institutional offence constructed upon realist concepts of negligence and/or corporate culture that recognises that organisations are capable of wrongdoing and sufficiently blameworthy to justify the imposition of criminal sanctions. I conclude by arguing that the expressive role of criminal law justifies and requires the criminalisation of this kind of organisational wrongdoing.

  4. A commercial ELISA detects high levels of human H5 antibody but cross-reacts with influenza A antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Wong, Bruce; Robertson, Peter; Lynch, Garry W; Laurie, Karen; Shaw, Robert; Barr, Ian; Selleck, Paul W; Baleriola, Cristina; Escott, Ros; Katsoulotos, Gregory; Rawlinson, William D

    2008-10-01

    Commercial serological assays to determine influenza A H5N1 infection are available, although the accuracy and reproducibility of these are not reported in detail. This study aimed to assess the validity of a commercial ELISA H5 hemagglutinin (HA) antibody kit. A commercial ELISA for detection of antibodies towards influenza A H5 HA was evaluated using human sera from vaccinated individuals. The ELISA was used to screen 304 sera with elevated influenza A complement fixation titres collected between the period 1995-2007. The ELISA was found to be accurate for sera with high levels of anti-H5 antibodies, and would be useful in clinical settings where a rapid result is required. Thirteen of the stored sera were positive using the ELISA, but were confirmed as negative for H5N1 exposure using further serological tests. Absorption studies suggested that antibodies towards seasonal H3N2 and H1N1 influenza may cross-react with H5 antigen, giving false positive results with the ELISA.

  5. Molecular methods routinely used to detect Coxiella burnetii in ticks cross-react with Coxiella-like bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain Elsa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Ticks may act as vectors, and many epidemiological studies aim to assess C. burnetii prevalence in ticks. Because ticks may also be infected with Coxiella-like bacteria, screening tools that differentiate between C. burnetii and Coxiella-like bacteria are essential. Methods: In this study, we screened tick specimens from 10 species (Ornithodoros rostratus, O. peruvianus, O. capensis, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. decoloratus, R. geigy, O. sonrai, O. occidentalis, and Amblyomma cajennense known to harbor specific Coxiella-like bacteria, by using quantitative PCR primers usually considered to be specific for C. burnetii and targeting, respectively, the IS1111, icd, scvA, p1, and GroEL/htpB genes. Results: We found that some Coxiella-like bacteria, belonging to clades A and C, yield positive PCR results when screened with primers initially believed to be C. burnetii-specific. Conclusions: These results suggest that PCR-based surveys that aim to detect C. burnetii in ticks by using currently available methods must be interpreted with caution if the amplified products cannot be sequenced. Future molecular methods that aim at detecting C. burnetii need to take into account the possibility that cross-reactions may exist with Coxiella-like bacteria.

  6. Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstein, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.

  7. The REACT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid; Byskov, Jens

    decisions; and the provision of leadership and the enforcement of conditions. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study, which started in 2006 testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each...... selected disease and programme interventions and services, within general care and on health systems management. Efforts to improve health sector performance have not yet been satisfactory, and adequate and sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. Priority setting in health systems...... improvements to health systems performance discussed....

  8. Identifying Likely Disk-hosting M dwarfs with Disk Detective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven; Wisniewski, John; Kuchner, Marc J.; Disk Detective Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    M dwarfs are critical targets for exoplanet searches. Debris disks often provide key information as to the formation and evolution of planetary systems around higher-mass stars, alongside the planet themselves. However, less than 300 M dwarf debris disks are known, despite M dwarfs making up 70% of the local neighborhood. The Disk Detective citizen science project has identified over 6000 new potential disk host stars from the AllWISE catalog over the past three years. Here, we present preliminary results of our search for new disk-hosting M dwarfs in the survey. Based on near-infrared color cuts and fitting stellar models to photometry, we have identified over 500 potential new M dwarf disk hosts, nearly doubling the known number of such systems. In this talk, we present our methodology, and outline our ongoing work to confirm systems as M dwarf disks.

  9. Rationale and design of REACT: a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of home-collection to increase chlamydia retesting and detect repeat positive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsty S; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus; Fairley, Christopher K; McNulty, Anna; Read, Phillip; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Wand, Handan; Saville, Marion; Rawlinson, William; Garland, Suzanne M; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca

    2014-04-24

    Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common and increases the risk of sequelae in women and HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite guidelines recommending chlamydia retesting three months after treatment, retesting rates are low. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of home collection combined with short message service (SMS) reminders on chlamydia retesting and reinfection rates in three risk groups. The REACT (retest after Chlamydia trachomatis) trial involves 600 patients diagnosed with chlamydia: 200 MSM, 200 women and 200 heterosexual men recruited from two Australian sexual health clinics where SMS reminders for retesting are routine practice. Participants will be randomised to the home group (3-month SMS reminder and home-collection) or the clinic group (3-month SMS reminder to return to the clinic). Participants in the home group will be given the choice of attending the clinic if they prefer. The mailed home-collection kit includes a self-collected vaginal swab (women), UriSWAB (Copan) for urine collection (heterosexual men), and UriSWAB plus rectal swab (MSM). The primary outcome is the retest rate at 1-4 months after a chlamydia diagnosis, and the secondary outcomes are: the repeat positive test rate; the reinfection rate; the acceptability of home testing with SMS reminders; and the cost effectiveness of home testing. Sexual behaviour data collected via an online survey at 4-5 months, and genotyping of repeat infections, will be used to discriminate reinfections from treatment failures. The trial will be conducted over two years. An intention to treat analysis will be conducted. This study will provide evidence about the effectiveness of home-collection combined with SMS reminders on chlamydia retesting, repeat infection and reinfection rates in three risk groups. The trial will determine client acceptability and cost effectiveness of this strategy. Australian and New

  10. Broadcasting, Reacting, Engaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Symmetric communication and relationship building are core principles of public relations, which have been highlighted for CSR communication. In this paper three different communication strategies for CSR communication in Twitter are developed, of which each contributes differently...... to the ideals of symmetric communication and relationship building. The framework is then applied to analyze how companies use the micro-blogging service Twitter for CSR communication. Design/methodology/approach - Social network analysis is used to identify the 30 most central corporate accounts in a CSR...... Twitter-Network. From these accounts over 40´000 tweets are extracted and manually coded. Anova is applied to investigate differences in the weighting of CSR topics between the different strategies. Findings - The analysis reveals that corporations adhere to a broadcasting strategy or a reactive strategy...

  11. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  12. Identifying Threats Using Graph-based Anomaly Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, William; Holder, Lawrence; Cook, Diane

    Much of the data collected during the monitoring of cyber and other infrastructures is structural in nature, consisting of various types of entities and relationships between them. The detection of threatening anomalies in such data is crucial to protecting these infrastructures. We present an approach to detecting anomalies in a graph-based representation of such data that explicitly represents these entities and relationships. The approach consists of first finding normative patterns in the data using graph-based data mining and then searching for small, unexpected deviations to these normative patterns, assuming illicit behavior tries to mimic legitimate, normative behavior. The approach is evaluated using several synthetic and real-world datasets. Results show that the approach has high truepositive rates, low false-positive rates, and is capable of detecting complex structural anomalies in real-world domains including email communications, cellphone calls and network traffic.

  13. Automated Detection of Anomalous Shipping Manifests to Identify Illicit Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2013-11-12

    We describe an approach to analyzing trade data which uses clustering to detect similarities across shipping manifest records, classification to evaluate clustering results and categorize new unseen shipping data records, and visual analytics to provide to support situation awareness in dynamic decision making to monitor and warn against the movement of radiological threat materials through search, analysis and forecasting capabilities. The evaluation of clustering results through classification and systematic inspection of the clusters show the clusters have strong semantic cohesion and offer novel ways to detect transactions related to nuclear smuggling.

  14. Directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbach, Mayara Nascimento; Karam, Rudnei M.; Cardoso, Domingos D.O.; Sant'anna, Viviane C.; Vellozo, Sergio de O.; Gomes, Renato G.; Amorim, Aneuri S. de; Oliveira, Luciano S.R.

    2016-01-01

    It was characterized the directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency by using sources of Cesium ("1"3"7Cs) with activity of 37,4 kBq and Cobalt ("6"0Co) with an activity of 41 kBq, manufactured on 04/17/2007. The work took place in distances (0,5m, 1,0m, 1,5m e 2,0m) and for the angles (0°, 45°, 60° e 90°), and the measure found in angle 0° of said evaluation was adopted as reference value; this same procedure was adopted for other distances evaluated in this work. The results achieved are provided in charts 1, 2 and 3. (author)

  15. Detecting and identifying small molecules in a nanopore flux capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearden, Samuel; Zhang, Guigen; McClure, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    A new method of molecular detection in a metallic-semiconductor nanopore was developed and evaluated with experimental and computational methods. Measurements were made of the charging potential of the electrical double layer (EDL) capacitance as charge-carrying small molecules translocated the nanopore. Signals in the charging potential were found to be correlated to the physical properties of analyte molecules. From the measured signals, we were able to distinguish molecules with different valence charge or similar valence charge but different size. The relative magnitude of the signals from different analytes was consistent over a wide range of experimental conditions, suggesting that the detected signals are likely due to single molecules. Computational modeling of the nanopore system indicated that the double layer potential signal may be described in terms of disruption of the EDL structure due to the size and charge of the analyte molecule, in agreement with Huckel and Debye’s analysis of the electrical atmosphere of electrolyte solutions. (paper)

  16. Leak detecting and identifying device in a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshiichiro; Tomisawa, Teruaki; Yamada, Minoru.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate early detection and position identification for the leakages in a reactor container, shorten the start-up time for the nuclear power plant and reduce the equipment damages due to leakage. Constitution: Sensor signals from image sensors for obtaining infrared radiation image data are converted into image information and sent to a diagnosis device. While on the other hand, process variant signals from a process computer for obtaining plant status data are sent to a status judging device by which the plant status is judged based on the process variants such as water level, pressure and radioactivity in the reactor. The status judging device retrieves the status image aligned with the present plant status sent from the first memory device and transfers reference image information signals to the diagnosis device as the reference. The diagnosis device compares the present images with the reference images and displays the result of the judgement on CRT. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Ultrasensitive immunoradiometric assay for chorionic gonadotropin which does not cross-react with luteinizing hormone nor free β chain of hCG and which detects hCG in blood of non-pregnant humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.; Odell, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive, non-competitive, two-monoclonal antibody, sandwich-type or immunoradiometric assay has been developed for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which shows no cross-reaction with the free β chain of hCG nor with human luteinizing hormone (LH). In the assay procedure, two, highly selected monoclonal antibodies reacted in solution with hCG to be quantified. One antibody was covalently conjugated to biotin. This antibody was specific for the β subunit of hCG, and showed no reaction with LH nor the α subunit. The second antibody was labelled with 125 I and was specific for intact hCG and LH, showing no cross-reaction with βhCG nor the α subunit. The separation system was a polystyrene ball conjugated with biotin. This ball bound via an avidin bridge the monoclonal 'sandwich' containing hCG. Counts per minute bound to the ball were directly proportional to the amount of hCG present. The assay was specific for whole hCG and showed no reaction with βhCG, βLH, intact LH nor the free α subunit. Sensitivity was adequate to detect 'hCG-like' material in all post menopausal women and, when single samples were obtained, in over 2/3 of normal men. When multiple samples were obtained, 'hCG-like' material was detectable in all eugonadal adults studied. 27 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  18. Detection of serum antibodies cross-reacting with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and beta-cell antigen zinc transporter 8 homologous peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Antonio; Masala, Speranza; Blasetti, Francesco; Maiore, Irene; Cossu, Davide; Paccagnini, Daniela; Mameli, Giuseppe; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2014-01-01

    MAP3865c, a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) cell membrane protein, has a relevant sequence homology with zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), a beta-cell membrane protein involved in Zn++ transportation. Recently, antibodies recognizing MAP3865c epitopes have been shown to cross-react with ZnT8 in type 1 diabetes patients. The purpose of this study was to detect antibodies against MAP3865c peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and speculate on whether they may somehow be involved in the pathogenesis of this severe retinal disorder. Blood samples were obtained from 62 type 1 and 80 type 2 diabetes patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 81 healthy controls. Antibodies against 6 highly immunogenic MAP3865c peptides were detected by indirect ELISA. Type 1 diabetes patients had significantly higher rates of positive antibodies than controls. Conversely, no statistically significant differences were found between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. After categorization of type 1 diabetes patients into two groups, one with positive, the other with negative antibodies, we found that they had similar mean visual acuity (∼ 0.6) and identical rates of vitreous hemorrhage (28.6%). Conversely, Hashimoto's thyroiditis prevalence was 4/13 (30.7%) in the positive antibody group and 1/49 (2%) in the negative antibody group, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.016). This study confirmed that type 1 diabetes patients have significantly higher rates of positive antibodies against MAP/ZnT8 peptides, but failed to find a correlation between the presence of these antibodies and the severity degree of high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The significantly higher prevalence of Hashimoto's disease among type 1 diabetes patients with positive antibodies might suggest a possible common environmental trigger for these conditions.

  19. Identification of streptococcal proteins reacting with sera from Behçet's disease and rheumatic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Bin; Lee, Ju Hee; Ahn, Keun Jae; Cho, Suhyun; Park, Yong-Beom; Lee, Soo-Kon; Bang, Dongsik; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the reactivity of sera from Behçet's disease (BD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), dermatomyositis (DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Takayasu's arteritis (TA) patients against human α-enolase and streptococcal α-enolase, and identified additional streptococcal antigens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting were performed using sera from patients with BD, SLE, DM, RA, and TA and healthy volunteers (control) against human α-enolase and streptococcal α-enolase. Immunoblot analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to identify and recombine other streptococcal antigens. Specific positive signals against recombinant human α-enolase were detected by IgM ELISA of serum samples from 50% of BD, 14.3% of SLE, 57.1% of DM, 42.9% of RA, and 57.1% of TA patients. Specific positive signals against streptococcal α-enolase were detected from 42.9% of BD, 14.3% of DM, and 14.3% of TA patients. No SLE and RA sera reacted against streptococcal α-enolase antigen. Streptococcal proteins reacting with sera were identified as hypothetical protein (HP) for SLE and DM patients, acid phosphatase (AP) for RA patients, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) for TA patients. We observed that RA patients did not present serum reactivity against either HP or GAPDH though BD, SLE, DM, and TA patients did. Also, AP reacted with sera from BD, SLE, DM, RA, and TA patients.

  20. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  1. Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Li, Ruonan; Smith, Kate; Che, Han

    2016-04-15

    Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach. Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance (PE) based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method (MED) and linear prediction filter (LPF) method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. This analysis revealed why the conventional MED and LPF methods failed to identify existence of contamination events. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  3. Detection of Botnet Command and Control Traffic by the Multistage Trust Evaluation of Destination Identifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Burghouwt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Network-based detection of botnet Command and Control communication is a difficult task if the traffic has a relatively low volume and if popular protocols, such as HTTP, are used to resemble normal traffic. We present a new network-based detection approach that is capable of detecting this type of Command and Control traffic in an enterprise network by estimating the trustworthiness of the traffic destinations. If the destination identifier of a traffic flow origins directly from: human input, prior traffic from a trusted destination, or a defined set of legitimate applications, the destination is trusted and its associated traffic is classified as normal. Advantages of this approach are: the ability of zero day malicious traffic detection, low exposure to malware by passive host-external traffic monitoring, and the applicability for real-time filtering. Experimental evaluation demonstrates successful detection of diverse types of Command and Control Traffic.

  4. A New Unified Intrusion Anomaly Detection in Identifying Unseen Web Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hilmi Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global usage of more sophisticated web-based application systems is obviously growing very rapidly. Major usage includes the storing and transporting of sensitive data over the Internet. The growth has consequently opened up a serious need for more secured network and application security protection devices. Security experts normally equip their databases with a large number of signatures to help in the detection of known web-based threats. In reality, it is almost impossible to keep updating the database with the newly identified web vulnerabilities. As such, new attacks are invisible. This research presents a novel approach of Intrusion Detection System (IDS in detecting unknown attacks on web servers using the Unified Intrusion Anomaly Detection (UIAD approach. The unified approach consists of three components (preprocessing, statistical analysis, and classification. Initially, the process starts with the removal of irrelevant and redundant features using a novel hybrid feature selection method. Thereafter, the process continues with the application of a statistical approach to identifying traffic abnormality. We performed Relative Percentage Ratio (RPR coupled with Euclidean Distance Analysis (EDA and the Chebyshev Inequality Theorem (CIT to calculate the normality score and generate a finest threshold. Finally, Logitboost (LB is employed alongside Random Forest (RF as a weak classifier, with the aim of minimising the final false alarm rate. The experiment has demonstrated that our approach has successfully identified unknown attacks with greater than a 95% detection rate and less than a 1% false alarm rate for both the DARPA 1999 and the ISCX 2012 datasets.

  5. TransDetect Identifies a New Regulatory Module Controlling Phosphate Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sikander; Kisko, Mushtak; Dubos, Christian; Lacombe, Benoit; Berthomieu, Pierre; Krouk, Gabriel; Rouached, Hatem

    2017-10-01

    Identifying transcription factor (TFs) cooperation controlling target gene expression is still an arduous challenge. The accuracy of current methods at genome scale significantly drops with the increase in number of genes, which limits their applicability to more complex genomes, like animals and plants. Here, we developed an algorithm, TransDetect, able to predict TF combinations controlling the expression level of a given gene. TransDetect was used to identify novel TF modules regulating the expression of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) phosphate transporter PHO1;H3 comprising MYB15, MYB84, bHLH35, and ICE1. These TFs were confirmed to interact between themselves and with the PHO1;H3 promoter. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of TF mutants enable the organization of these four TFs and PHO1;H3 in a new gene regulatory network controlling phosphate accumulation in zinc-dependent manner. This demonstrates the potential of TransDetect to extract directionality in nondynamic transcriptomes and to provide a blueprint to identify gene regulatory network involved in a given biological process. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Detection of irradiated strawberries by identifying ESR peak of irradiated cellulose component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Tanabe, Hiroko

    2002-01-01

    The method of detecting low-dose irradiated strawberries by identifying ESR peak of irradiated cellulose component was studied. Ratio of peak height (S) of high magnetic field cellulose component, and noise width (N) of either irradiated or unirradiated seeds of strawberries were compared. In this study, sample was identified to be irradiated when S/N ratio of ESR spectrum of 4 min. sweep time was above 0.7. In the case of S/N ratio below 0.7, when the S/N ratio of integrated ESR spectrum, obtained from measuring 10 times with 1 min. sweep time was above 1.0, the sample was identified to be irradiated. The result suggests that S/N ratio is a good marker to detect the irradiation. The strawberries irradiated above 0.5kGy was able to be detected after 3 days storage at room temperature, after 21 days refrigeration and after 60 days freezing, respectively. (author)

  7. Glypican1 identifies cancer exosomes and facilitates early detection of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Sonia A.; Luecke, Linda B.; Kahlert, Christoph; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Gammon, Seth T.; Kaye, Judith; LeBleu, Valerie S.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Weitz, Juergen; Rahbari, Nuh; Reissfelder, Christoph; Pilarsky, Christian; Fraga, Mario F.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Kalluri, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer cell-derived exosomes in circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identified a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer cell-derived exosomes. GPC1+ circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of cancer patients and mice with cancer. GPC1+ crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreas cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreas disease from patients with early and late stage pancreas cancer. Levels of GPC1+ crExos correlate with tumor burden and survival in patients pre- and post-surgical tumor resection. GPC1+ crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreas tumors driven by oncogenic KRAS contained RNA with specific KRAS mutation, and it emerges as a reliable biomarker for the detection of PanIN lesions despite negative signal by MRI in mice. GPC1+ crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreas cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy. PMID:26106858

  8. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis by identifying Inmono proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Karen E.

    1984-01-01

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  9. Calorimetry of non-reacting systems

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, John P

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume 1: Calorimetry of Non-Reacting Systems covers the heat capacity determinations for chemical substances in the solid, liquid, solution, and vapor states, at temperatures ranging from near the absolute zero to the highest at which calorimetry is feasible.This book is divided into 14 chapters. The first four chapters provide background information and general principles applicable to all types of calorimetry of non-reacting systems. The remaining 10 chapters deal with specific types of calorimetry. Most of the types of calorimetry treated are developed over a c

  10. Reacting plasma project at IPP Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, A.; Momota, H.; Hamada, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Akimune, H.

    1981-01-01

    Contributed papers of the seminar on burning plasma held at UCLA are collected. Paper on ''overview of reacting plasma project'' described aim and philosophy of R-Project in Japan. Paper on ''Burning plasma and requirements for design'' gave theoretical aspect of reacting plasma physics while paper on ''plasma container, heating and diagnostics'' treated experimental aspect. Tritium handling is essential for the next step experiment; therefore, paper on ''Tritium problems in burning plasma experiments'' took an important part of this seminar. As appendix, paper on ''a new type of D - ion source using Si-semiconductor'' was added because such an advanced R and D work is essential for R-Project. (author)

  11. Comparison of Mixing Calculations for Reacting and Non-Reacting Flows in a Cylindrical Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsle, V. L.; Mongia, H. C.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    A production 3-D elliptic flow code has been used to calculate non-reacting and reacting flow fields in an experimental mixing section relevant to a rich burn/quick mix/lean burn (RQL) combustion system. A number of test cases have been run to assess the effects of the variation in the number of orifices, mass flow ratio, and rich-zone equivalence ratio on the flow field and mixing rates. The calculated normalized temperature profiles for the non-reacting flow field agree qualitatively well with the normalized conserved variable isopleths for the reacting flow field indicating that non-reacting mixing experiments are appropriate for screening and ranking potential rapid mixing concepts. For a given set of jet momentum-flux ratio, mass flow ratio, and density ratio (J, MR, and DR), the reacting flow calculations show a reduced level of mixing compared to the non-reacting cases. In addition, the rich-zone equivalence ratio has noticeable effect on the mixing flow characteristics for reacting flows.

  12. Measuring the Electronic Properties of DNA-Specific Schottky Diodes Towards Detecting and Identifying Basidiomycetes DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vengadesh; Rizan, Nastaran; Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Tan, Yee Shin; Tajuddin, Hairul Annuar; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of semiconducting behavior of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has resulted in a large number of literatures in the study of DNA electronics. Sequence-specific electronic response provides a platform towards understanding charge transfer mechanism and therefore the electronic properties of DNA. It is possible to utilize these characteristic properties to identify/detect DNA. In this current work, we demonstrate a novel method of DNA-based identification of basidiomycetes using current-voltage (I-V) profiles obtained from DNA-specific Schottky barrier diodes. Electronic properties such as ideality factor, barrier height, shunt resistance, series resistance, turn-on voltage, knee-voltage, breakdown voltage and breakdown current were calculated and used to quantify the identification process as compared to morphological and molecular characterization techniques. The use of these techniques is necessary in order to study biodiversity, but sometimes it can be misleading and unreliable and is not sufficiently useful for the identification of fungi genera. Many of these methods have failed when it comes to identification of closely related species of certain genus like Pleurotus. Our electronics profiles, both in the negative and positive bias regions were however found to be highly characteristic according to the base-pair sequences. We believe that this simple, low-cost and practical method could be useful towards identifying and detecting DNA in biotechnology and pathology. PMID:27435636

  13. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897 are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819. Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  14. Identifying DNA Methylation Biomarkers for Non-Endoscopic Detection of Barrett’s Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinova, Helen R.; LaFramboise, Thomas; Lutterbaugh, James D.; Chandar, Apoorva Krishna; Dumot, John; Faulx, Ashley; Brock, Wendy; De la Cruz Cabrera, Omar; Guda, Kishore; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Iyer, Prasad G.; Canto, Marcia I.; Wang, Jean S.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Thota, Prashanti N.; Willis, Joseph E.; Chak, Amitabh; Markowitz, Sanford D.

    2018-01-01

    We report a biomarker-based non-endoscopic method for detecting Barrett’s esophagus (BE), based on detecting methylated DNAs retrieved via a swallowable balloon-based esophageal sampling device. BE is the precursor of, and a major recognized risk factor for, developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Endoscopy, the current standard for BE detection, is not cost-effective for population screening. We performed genome-wide screening to ascertain regions targeted for recurrent aberrant cytosine methylation in BE, identifying high-frequency methylation within the CCNA1 locus. We tested CCNA1 DNA methylation as a BE biomarker in cytology brushings of the distal esophagus from 173 individuals with or without BE. CCNA1 DNA methylation demonstrated an area under the curve (AUC)=0.95 for discriminating BE-related metaplasia and neoplasia cases versus normal individuals, performing identically to methylation of VIM DNA, an established BE biomarker. When combined, the resulting two biomarker panel was 95% sensitive and 91% specific. These results were replicated in an independent validation cohort of 149 individuals, who were assayed using the same cutoff values for test positivity established in the training population. To progress toward non-endoscopic esophageal screening, we engineered a well-tolerated, swallowable, encapsulated balloon device able to selectively sample the distal esophagus within 5 minutes. In balloon samples from 86 individuals, tests of CCNA1 plus VIM DNA methylation detected BE metaplasia with 90.3% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Combining the balloon sampling device with molecular assays of CCNA1 plus VIM DNA methylation enables an efficient, well-tolerated, sensitive, and specific method of screening at-risk populations for BE. PMID:29343623

  15. Nonlinear features identified by Volterra series for damage detection in a buckled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiki S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a new index for damage detection based on nonlinear features extracted from prediction errors computed by multiple convolutions using the discrete-time Volterra series. A reference Volterra model is identified with data in the healthy condition and used for monitoring the system operating with linear or nonlinear behavior. When the system has some structural change, possibly associated with damage, the index metrics computed could give an alert to separate the linear and nonlinear contributions, besides provide a diagnostic about the structural state. To show the applicability of the method, an experimental test is performed using nonlinear vibration signals measured in a clamped buckled beam subject to different levels of force applied and with simulated damages through discontinuities inserted in the beam surface.

  16. In Vivo Detection of HSP90 Identifies Breast Cancers with Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Kaneko, Kensuke; Gwin, William R; Morse, Michael A; Hobeika, Amy; Pogue, Brian W; Hartman, Zachary C; Hughes, Philip F; Haystead, Timothy; Lyerly, H Kim

    2017-12-15

    Purpose: Hsp90, a chaperone to numerous molecular pathways in malignant cells, is elevated in aggressive breast cancers. We hypothesized that identifying breast cells with elevated Hsp90 activity in situ could result in early detection of aggressive breast cancers. Experimental Design: We exploited the uptake of an Hsp90 inhibitor by malignant cells to create an imaging probe (HS131) of Hsp90 activity by linking it to a near-infrared (nIR) dye. HS131 uptake into cells correlated with cell membrane expression of Hsp90 and was used to image molecular subtypes of murine and human breast cancers in vitro and in murine models. Results: HS131 imaging was both sensitive and specific in detecting the murine 4T1 breast cancer cell line, as well as subclones with differing metastatic potential. Highly metastatic subclones (4T07) had high HS131 uptake, but subclones with lower metastatic potential (67NR, 168FARN) had low HS131 uptake. We generated isogenic cell lines to demonstrate that overexpression of a variety of specific oncogenes resulted in high HS131 uptake and retention. Finally, we demonstrated that HS131 could be used to detect spontaneous tumors in MMTV-neu mice, as well as primary and metastatic human breast cancer xenografts. HS131 could image invasive lobular breast cancer, a histologic subtype of breast cancer which is often undetectable by mammography. Conclusions: An HSP90-targeting nIR probe is sensitive and specific in imaging all molecular subtypes of murine and human breast cancer, with higher uptake in aggressive and highly metastatic clones. Clinical studies with Hsp90-targeting nIR probes will be initiated shortly. Clin Cancer Res; 23(24); 7531-42. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  18. Oral-Fluid Thiol-Detection Test Identifies Underlying Active Periodontal Disease Not Detected by the Visual Awake Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queck, Katherine E; Chapman, Angela; Herzog, Leslie J; Shell-Martin, Tamara; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony; McClure, George David

    Periodontal disease in dogs is highly prevalent but can only be accurately diagnosed by performing an anesthetized oral examination with periodontal probing and dental radiography. In this study, 114 dogs had a visual awake examination of the oral cavity and were administered an oral-fluid thiol-detection test prior to undergoing a a full-mouth anesthetized oral examination and digital dental radiographs. The results show the visual awake examination underestimated the presence and severity of active periodontal disease. The thiol-detection test was superior to the visual awake examination at detecting the presence and severity of active periodontal disease and was an indicator of progression toward alveolar bone loss. The thiol-detection test detected active periodontal disease at early stages of development, before any visual cues were present, indicating the need for intervention to prevent periodontal bone loss. Early detection is important because without intervention, dogs with gingivitis (active periodontal disease) progress to irreversible periodontal bone loss (stage 2+). As suggested in the current AAHA guidelines, a thiol-detection test administered in conjunction with the visual awake examination during routine wellness examinations facilitates veterinarian-client communication and mitigates under-diagnosis of periodontal disease and underutilization of dental services. The thiol-detection test can be used to monitor the periodontal health status of the conscious patient during follow-up examinations based on disease severity.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy as a probe to rapidly detect, identify, and characterize micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Lamfarraj, Hasnae; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Pina, Patrick; Delavenne, Marc; Witthuhn, Fabienne; Allouch, Pierre; Manfait, Michel

    1999-04-01

    Fast and exact identification of a great number of microorganisms is becoming a serious challenge. Differentiation and identification of microorganisms is today mainly achieved by the use of a variety of distinct techniques based on morphological, serological aspects and a set of biochemical test. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques can be complementary and useful methods in this field due to their rapidity, 'fingerprinting' capabilities, and the molecular information that they can provide. Using SERS at Ag colloids, we have conducted pilot studies to rapidly detect and identify bacterial clinical strains. Using a Raman microspectrometer equipped with a He/Ne laser, a first attempt to record SERS spectra was made on colloidal solutions. Spectra were of good quality but not very reproducible due to the movement of the microorganisms. Strains were then put in presence of Ag colloids and direct on-plate analysis was performed. Spectra were more reproducible, with diminished fluorescence, and reveal characteristic cellular-level information. Different growth conditions and colloid preparations have been tested. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli clinical strains, responsible for nosocomial infections, have been our first test samples. An attempt has also been made to record SERS data from gold colloids in view of future measurement in the near-IR. Spectroscopic data are compared with ATR-FTIR results.

  20. Attribute analyses of gpr data for detecting and identifying heavy minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catakli, Aycan

    Attribute analyses have been used successfully in seismic applications for many years. In this study, the application of the attribute analyses to Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data has been proposed to detect and identify heavy minerals within the Moon soil (regolith). Lunar samples are mostly composed of heavy minerals such as ilmenite, plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene, a characteristic that makes lunar soil a source for elements such as titanium, oxygen and iron. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate the use of GPR method for detecting and mapping heavy minerals concentrations. The attribute analyses used in this study are Attenuation Analysis (AA), Complex Trace Analysis (CTA), Texture Analysis (TA) and Center Frequency Destitution (CFD). Attribute analysis was applied to both synthetic models and prototype laboratory measurements to study its application to GPR data. The results indicate that the attribute analyses of GPR data can be useful to provide valuable subsurface information. The findings of AA show that attenuation values are function of mineralogy of the subsurface. This could be applicable to Moon and Mars in addition to Earth environment to explore their near-surface soils. CTA can successfully estimate the location of heavy mineral samples embedded inside host medium through the variation of reflected energy around buried sample and sharpen the reflecting interface. Results indicate that as the amount of the buried heavy minerals increases, the value of CTA parameters (Normal distribution of amplitude spectra `NDoAS' and tau-parameter) proportionally increase. TA measures combined can be used as an enhanced interpretation tool. The texture results show that heavy mineral concentrations can be identified by the high contrast, entropy, autocorrelation, correlation, cluster, dissimilarity, standard deviation, variance and low energy, maximum probability, and homogeneity. The measures also help in highlighting the edge of the buried samples

  1. RUBIC identifies driver genes by detecting recurrent DNA copy number breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dyk, H.O.; Hoogstraat, M; ten Hoeve, J; Reinders, M.J.T.; Wessels, L.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    The frequent recurrence of copy number aberrations across tumour samples is a reliable hallmark of certain cancer driver genes. However, state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting recurrent aberrations fail to detect several known drivers. In this study, we propose RUBIC, an approach that detects

  2. Multiphase reacting flows modelling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisio, Daniele L

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this book describe the most widely applicable modeling approaches and are organized in six groups covering from fundamentals to relevant applications. In the first part, some fundamentals of multiphase turbulent reacting flows are covered. In particular the introduction focuses on basic notions of turbulence theory in single-phase and multi-phase systems as well as on the interaction between turbulence and chemistry. In the second part, models for the physical and chemical processes involved are discussed. Among other things, particular emphasis is given to turbulence modeling strategies for multiphase flows based on the kinetic theory for granular flows. Next, the different numerical methods based on Lagrangian and/or Eulerian schemes are presented. In particular the most popular numerical approaches of computational fluid dynamics codes are described (i.e., Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach). The book will cover particle-based meth...

  3. Molecular Simulation of Reacting Systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THOMPSON, AIDAN P.

    2002-01-01

    The final report for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project entitled, Molecular Simulation of Reacting Systems is presented. It describes efforts to incorporate chemical reaction events into the LAMMPS massively parallel molecular dynamics code. This was accomplished using a scheme in which several classes of reactions are allowed to occur in a probabilistic fashion at specified times during the MD simulation. Three classes of reaction were implemented: addition, chain transfer and scission. A fully parallel implementation was achieved using a checkerboarding scheme, which avoids conflicts due to reactions occurring on neighboring processors. The observed chemical evolution is independent of the number of processors used. The code was applied to two test applications: irreversible linear polymerization and thermal degradation chemistry

  4. Materials study for reacting plasma machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kohji; Hamada, Yasuji

    1982-01-01

    A new reacting plasma machine is designed, and will be constructed at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University. It is important to avoid the activation of the materials for the machine, accordingly, aluminum alloy has been considered as the material since the induced activity of aluminum due to 14 MeV neutrons is small. The vacuum chamber of the new machine consists of four modules, and the remote control of each module is considered. However, the cost of the remote control of modules is expensive. To minimize the dependence on the remote control, the use of aluminum alloy is considered as the first step. The low electrical resistivity, over-ageing, weak mechanical strength and eddy current characteristics of aluminum alloy must be improved. The physical and electrical properties of various aluminum alloys have been investigated. Permeability of hydrogen through aluminum, the recycling characteristics and surface coating materials have been also studied. (Kato, T.)

  5. Mathematical aspects of reacting and diffusing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fife, Paul C

    1979-01-01

    Modeling and analyzing the dynamics of chemical mixtures by means of differ- tial equations is one of the prime concerns of chemical engineering theorists. These equations often take the form of systems of nonlinear parabolic partial d- ferential equations, or reaction-diffusion equations, when there is diffusion of chemical substances involved. A good overview of this endeavor can be had by re- ing the two volumes by R. Aris (1975), who himself was one of the main contributors to the theory. Enthusiasm for the models developed has been shared by parts of the mathematical community, and these models have, in fact, provided motivation for some beautiful mathematical results. There are analogies between chemical reactors and certain biological systems. One such analogy is rather obvious: a single living organism is a dynamic structure built of molecules and ions, many of which react and diffuse. Other analogies are less obvious; for example, the electric potential of a membrane can diffuse like a chemical, and ...

  6. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  7. Detecting and Identifying Industrial Gases by a Method Based on Olfactory Machine at Different Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yunlong; Luo, Dehan; Li, Hui; Zhu, Chuchu; Xu, Ou; Gholam Hosseini, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Gas sensors have been widely reported for industrial gas detection and monitoring. However, the rapid detection and identification of industrial gases are still a challenge. In this work, we measure four typical industrial gases including CO2, CH4, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on electronic nose (EN) at different concentrations. To solve the problem of effective classification and identification of different industrial gases, we propose an algorithm based on the selective ...

  8. Combining satellite-based fire observations and ground-based lightning detections to identify lightning fires across the conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Massada, A.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Radeloff, V.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning fires are a common natural disturbance in North America, and account for the largest proportion of the area burned by wildfires each year. Yet, the spatiotemporal patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US are not well understood due to limitations of existing fire databases. Our goal here was to develop and test an algorithm that combined MODIS fire detections with lightning detections from the National Lightning Detection Network to identify lightning fires across the conterminous US from 2000 to 2008. The algorithm searches for spatiotemporal conjunctions of MODIS fire clusters and NLDN detected lightning strikes, given a spatiotemporal lag between lightning strike and fire ignition. The algorithm revealed distinctive spatial patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US While a sensitivity analysis revealed that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the two thresholds that are used to determine conjunction, the density of fires it detected was moderately correlated with ground based fire records. When only fires larger than 0.4 km2 were considered, correlations were higher and the root-mean-square error between datasets was less than five fires per 625 km2 for the entire study period. Our algorithm is thus suitable for detecting broad scale spatial patterns of lightning fire occurrence, and especially lightning fire hotspots, but has limited detection capability of smaller fires because these cannot be consistently detected by MODIS. These results may enhance our understanding of large scale patterns of lightning fire activity, and can be used to identify the broad scale factors controlling fire occurrence.

  9. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted ...

  10. SNIPE: A New Method to Identify Imaging Biomarker for Early Detection of Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.

    , from a clinical point of view the prediction of AD is the key question since it is in that moment when treatment is possible. The potential use of structural MRI as imaging biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) for early detection has become generally accepted, especially the use of atrophy...

  11. Cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) detection test identified perilymph leakage preoperatively in revision stapes surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yuko; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Yuen, Koji; Maeda, Yukihide; Sugaya, Akiko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    Perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is defined as an abnormal leakage between perilymph from the labyrinth to the middle ear. Symptoms include hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The standard mode of PLF detection is intraoperative visualization of perilymph leakage and fistula, which ostensibly confirms the existence of PLF. Other possible methods of diagnosis include confirmation of pneumolabyrinth via diagnostic imaging. Recently, a cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) detection test has been developed that allows definitive diagnosis of PLF-related hearing loss. We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with right-sided tinnitus, hearing loss, and dizziness 30 years after stapes surgery. Middle ear lavage was performed after myringotomy. A preoperative diagnosis of PLF was reached using the CTP detection test. Intraoperative observations included a necrotic long process of the incus, displaced wire piston, and fibrous tissue in the oval window. Perilymph leakage was not evident. The oval window was closed with fascia, and vertigo disappeared within 2 weeks postoperatively. When PLF is suspected after stapes surgery, the CTP detection test can be a useful, highly sensitive, and less invasive method for preoperative diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigative change detection: identifying new topics using lexicon-based search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2002-08-01

    In law enforcement there is much textual data which needs to be searched in order to detect new threats. A new methodology which can be applied to this need is the automatic searching of the contents of documents from known sources to construct a lexicon of words used by that source. When analyzing future documents, the occurrence of words which have not been lexiconized are indicative of the introduction of a new topic into the source's lexicon which should be examined in its context by an analyst. A system analogous to this has been built and used to detect Fads and Categories on web sites. Fad refers to the first appearance of a word not in the lexicon; Category refers to the repeated appearance of a Fad word and the exceeding of some frequency or spatial occurrence metric indicating a permanence to the Category.

  13. Detecting and Identifying Industrial Gases by a Method Based on Olfactory Machine at Different Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors have been widely reported for industrial gas detection and monitoring. However, the rapid detection and identification of industrial gases are still a challenge. In this work, we measure four typical industrial gases including CO2, CH4, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs based on electronic nose (EN at different concentrations. To solve the problem of effective classification and identification of different industrial gases, we propose an algorithm based on the selective local linear embedding (SLLE to reduce the dimensionality and extract the features of high-dimensional data. Combining the Euclidean distance (ED formula with the proposed algorithm, we can achieve better classification and identification of four kinds of gases. We compared the classification and recognition results of classical principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminate analysis (LDA, and PCA + LDA algorithms with the proposed SLLE algorithm after selecting the original data and performing feature extraction. The experimental results show that the recognition accuracy rate of the SLLE reaches 91.36%, which is better than the other three algorithms. In addition, the SLLE algorithm provides more efficient and accurate responses to high-dimensional industrial gas data. It can be used in real-time industrial gas detection and monitoring combined with gas sensor networks.

  14. Identifying Homelessness among Veterans Using VA Administrative Data: Opportunities to Expand Detection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rachel; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Metraux, Stephen; Carter, Marjorie E.; Palmer, Miland; Redd, Andrew; Samore, Matthew H.; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) have used administrative criteria to identify homelessness among U.S. Veterans. Our objective was to explore the use of these codes in VA health care facilities. We examined VA health records (2002-2012) of Veterans recently separated from the military and identified as homeless using VA conventional identification criteria (ICD-9-CM code V60.0, VA specific codes for homeless services), plus closely allied V60 codes indicating housing instability. Logistic regression analyses examined differences between Veterans who received these codes. Health care services and co-morbidities were analyzed in the 90 days post-identification of homelessness. VA conventional criteria identified 21,021 homeless Veterans from Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn (rate 2.5%). Adding allied V60 codes increased that to 31,260 (rate 3.3%). While certain demographic differences were noted, Veterans identified as homeless using conventional or allied codes were similar with regards to utilization of homeless, mental health, and substance abuse services, as well as co-morbidities. Differences were noted in the pattern of usage of homelessness-related diagnostic codes in VA facilities nation-wide. Creating an official VA case definition for homelessness, which would include additional ICD-9-CM and other administrative codes for VA homeless services, would likely allow improved identification of homeless and at-risk Veterans. This also presents an opportunity for encouraging uniformity in applying these codes in VA facilities nationwide as well as in other large health care organizations. PMID:26172386

  15. Identifying Homelessness among Veterans Using VA Administrative Data: Opportunities to Expand Detection Criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Peterson

    Full Text Available Researchers at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA have used administrative criteria to identify homelessness among U.S. Veterans. Our objective was to explore the use of these codes in VA health care facilities. We examined VA health records (2002-2012 of Veterans recently separated from the military and identified as homeless using VA conventional identification criteria (ICD-9-CM code V60.0, VA specific codes for homeless services, plus closely allied V60 codes indicating housing instability. Logistic regression analyses examined differences between Veterans who received these codes. Health care services and co-morbidities were analyzed in the 90 days post-identification of homelessness. VA conventional criteria identified 21,021 homeless Veterans from Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn (rate 2.5%. Adding allied V60 codes increased that to 31,260 (rate 3.3%. While certain demographic differences were noted, Veterans identified as homeless using conventional or allied codes were similar with regards to utilization of homeless, mental health, and substance abuse services, as well as co-morbidities. Differences were noted in the pattern of usage of homelessness-related diagnostic codes in VA facilities nation-wide. Creating an official VA case definition for homelessness, which would include additional ICD-9-CM and other administrative codes for VA homeless services, would likely allow improved identification of homeless and at-risk Veterans. This also presents an opportunity for encouraging uniformity in applying these codes in VA facilities nationwide as well as in other large health care organizations.

  16. Detecting and identifying damage in sandwich polymer composite by using acoustic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGugan, M.; Soerensen, Bent F.; Oestergaard, R.; Bech, T.

    2006-12-15

    Acoustic emission is a useful monitoring tool for extracting extra information during mechanical testing of polymer composite sandwich materials. The study of fracture mechanics within test specimens extracted from wind turbine blade material is presented. The contribution of the acoustic emission monitoring technique in defining different failure modes identified during the testing is discussed. The development of in-situ structural monitoring and control systems is considered. (au)

  17. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhojit Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Globally, breast cancer (BC has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Results Data were analyzed in three major themes: i knowledge and perception about BC; ii barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Conclusions Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  18. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  19. Sensitive Diagnostics for Chemically Reacting Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    This talk will feature latest diagnostic developments for sensitive detection of gas temperature and important combustion species. Advanced optical strategies, such as intrapulse chirping, wavelength modulation, and cavity ringdown are employed.

  20. Sensitive Diagnostics for Chemically Reacting Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2015-11-02

    This talk will feature latest diagnostic developments for sensitive detection of gas temperature and important combustion species. Advanced optical strategies, such as intrapulse chirping, wavelength modulation, and cavity ringdown are employed.

  1. A study of using smartphone to detect and identify construction workers' near-miss falls based on ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyuan; Cao, Tianzhuo; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    As an effective fall accident preventive method, insight into near-miss falls provides an efficient solution to find out the causes of fall accidents, classify the type of near-miss falls and control the potential hazards. In this context, the paper proposes a method to detect and identify near-miss falls that occur when a worker walks in a workplace based on artificial neural network (ANN). The energy variation generated by workers who meet with near-miss falls is measured by sensors embedded in smart phone. Two experiments were designed to train the algorithm to identify various types of near-miss falls and test the recognition accuracy, respectively. At last, a test was conducted by workers wearing smart phones as they walked around a simulated construction workplace. The motion data was collected, processed and inputted to the trained ANN to detect and identify near-miss falls. Thresholds were obtained to measure the relationship between near-miss falls and fall accidents in a quantitate way. This approach, which integrates smart phone and ANN, will help detect near-miss fall events, identify hazardous elements and vulnerable workers, providing opportunities to eliminate dangerous conditions in a construction site or to alert possible victims that need to change their behavior before the occurrence of a fall accident.

  2. Identifying the Micro-relations Underpinning Familiarity Detection in Dynamic Displays Containing Multiple Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. North

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We identified the important micro-relations that are perceived when attempting to recognize patterns in stimuli consisting of multiple dynamic objects. Skilled and less-skilled participants were presented with point light display sequences representing dynamic patterns in an invasion sport and were subsequently required to make familiarity based recognition judgments in three different conditions, each of which contained only a select number of features that were present at initial viewing. No differences in recognition accuracy were observed between skilled and less-skilled participants when just objects located in the periphery were presented. Yet, when presented with the relative motions of two centrally located attacking objects only, skilled participants were significantly more accurate than less-skilled participants and their recognition accuracy improved further when a target object was included against which these relative motions could be judged. Skilled participants can perceive and recognize global patterns on the basis of centrally located relational information.

  3. Impact of variations in fatty liver on sonographic detection of focal hepatic lesions originally identified by CT

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Size; Tu, Rong; Nan, Ruixia; Liu, Guangqing; Cui, Xiaojing; Liang, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variations in fatty liver on the ultrasonographic detection of focal liver lesions. Methods: A total of 229 patients with varying degrees of fatty liver and focal liver lesions and 200 patients with focal liver lesions but no fatty liver were randomly selected for inclusion in groups I and II, respectively. Findings of focal liver lesions identified on computed tomography were taken as the reference, and findings on ultrasonog...

  4. Measurements of non-reacting and reacting flow fields of a liquid swirl flame burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cheng Tung; Hochgreb, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the liquid fuel spray and flow field characteristics inside a combustor is crucial for designing a fuel efficient and low emission device. Characterisation of the flow field of a model gas turbine liquid swirl burner is performed by using a 2-D particle imaging velocimetry(PIV) system. The flow field pattern of an axial flow burner with a fixed swirl intensity is compared under confined and unconfined conditions, i.e., with and without the combustor wall. The effect of temperature on the main swirling air flow is investigated under open and non-reacting conditions. The result shows that axial and radial velocities increase as a result of decreased flow density and increased flow volume. The flow field of the main swirling flow with liquid fuel spray injection is compared to non-spray swirling flow. Introduction of liquid fuel spray changes the swirl air flow field at the burner outlet, where the radial velocity components increase for both open and confined environment. Under reacting condition, the enclosure generates a corner recirculation zone that intensifies the strength of radial velocity. The reverse flow and corner recirculation zone assists in stabilizing the flame by preheating the reactants. The flow field data can be used as validation target for swirl combustion modelling.

  5. Initiatives on early detection and intervention to proactively identify health and social problems in older people: experiences from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Baan, Caroline A; van den Berg, Matthijs; de Bruin, Simone R

    2015-10-30

    Over the last years, several initiatives on early detection and intervention have been put in place to proactively identify health and social problems in (frail) older people. An overview of the initiatives currently available in the Netherlands is lacking, and it is unknown whether they meet the preferences and needs of older people. Therefore, the objectives of this study were threefold: 1. To identify initiatives on early detection and intervention for older people in the Netherlands and compare their characteristics; 2. To explore the experiences of professionals with these initiatives; and 3. To explore to what extent existing initiatives meet the preferences and needs of older people. We performed a qualitative descriptive study in which we conducted semi-structured interviews with seventeen experts in preventive elderly care and three group interviews with volunteer elderly advisors. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. We identified eight categories of initiatives based on the setting (e.g. general practitioner practice, hospital, municipality) in which they were offered. Initiatives differed in their aims and target groups. The utilization of peers to identify problems and risks, as was done by some initiatives, was seen as a strength. Difficulties were experienced with identifying the target group that would benefit from proactive delivery of care and support most, and with addressing prevalent issues among older people (e.g. psychosocial issues, self-reliance issues). Although there is a broad array of initiatives available, there is a discrepancy between supply and demand. Current initiatives insufficiently address needs of (frail) older people. More insight is needed in "what should be done by whom, for which target group and at what moment", in order to improve current practice in preventive elderly care.

  6. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...

  7. Continuum-Kinetic Hybrid Framework for Chemically Reacting Flows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Predictive modeling of chemically reacting flows is essential for the design and optimization of future hypersonic vehicles. During atmospheric re-entry, complex...

  8. Impact of variations in fatty liver on sonographic detection of focal hepatic lesions originally identified by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Size; Tu, Rong; Nan, Ruixia; Liu, Guang Qing; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variations in fatty liver on the ultrasonographic detection of focal liver lesions. A total of 229 patients with varying degrees of fatty liver and focal liver lesions and 200 patients with focal liver lesions but no fatty liver were randomly selected for inclusion in groups I and II, respectively. Findings of focal liver lesions identified on computed tomography were taken as the reference, and findings on ultrasonography were compared with them. The number of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 501 and 413, respectively. The ultrasonographic detection rates of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 86.8% (435/501) and 94.2% (389/413), respectively. Comparison of the detection of the focal lesions between patients with and without fatty liver or different grades of fatty liver were as follows: mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P=0.277); mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. moderate fatty liver (190/212) (P=0.604); mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. severe fatty liver (83/112) (P<0.001); moderate fatty liver (190/212) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P=0.051); moderate fatty liver (190/212) vs. severe fatty liver (83/112) (P<0.001); severe fatty liver (83/112) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P<0.001); and fatty liver (435/501) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P<0.001). Mild and moderate fatty liver are not significantly associated with the visualization of the lesion, while severe fatty liver usually impairs the detection of focal lesions in the liver. If a patient with severe fatty liver is suspected to have a liver tumor, ultrasonography should only be chosen cautiously in case of a missed diagnosis

  9. Impact of variations in fatty liver on sonographic detection of focal hepatic lesions originally identified by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Size; Tu, Rong; Nan, Ruixia; Liu, Guang Qing; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian [Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variations in fatty liver on the ultrasonographic detection of focal liver lesions. A total of 229 patients with varying degrees of fatty liver and focal liver lesions and 200 patients with focal liver lesions but no fatty liver were randomly selected for inclusion in groups I and II, respectively. Findings of focal liver lesions identified on computed tomography were taken as the reference, and findings on ultrasonography were compared with them. The number of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 501 and 413, respectively. The ultrasonographic detection rates of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 86.8% (435/501) and 94.2% (389/413), respectively. Comparison of the detection of the focal lesions between patients with and without fatty liver or different grades of fatty liver were as follows: mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P=0.277); mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. moderate fatty liver (190/212) (P=0.604); mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. severe fatty liver (83/112) (P<0.001); moderate fatty liver (190/212) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P=0.051); moderate fatty liver (190/212) vs. severe fatty liver (83/112) (P<0.001); severe fatty liver (83/112) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P<0.001); and fatty liver (435/501) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P<0.001). Mild and moderate fatty liver are not significantly associated with the visualization of the lesion, while severe fatty liver usually impairs the detection of focal lesions in the liver. If a patient with severe fatty liver is suspected to have a liver tumor, ultrasonography should only be chosen cautiously in case of a missed diagnosis.

  10. Cry-Bt identifier: a biological database for PCR detection of Cry genes present in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Ambwani, Sonu; Marla, Soma; Kumar, Anil

    2009-10-23

    We describe the development of a user friendly tool that would assist in the retrieval of information relating to Cry genes in transgenic crops. The tool also helps in detection of transformed Cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis present in transgenic plants by providing suitable designed primers for PCR identification of these genes. The tool designed based on relational database model enables easy retrieval of information from the database with simple user queries. The tool also enables users to access related information about Cry genes present in various databases by interacting with different sources (nucleotide sequences, protein sequence, sequence comparison tools, published literature, conserved domains, evolutionary and structural data). http://insilicogenomics.in/Cry-btIdentifier/welcome.html.

  11. The property distance index PD predicts peptides that cross-react with IgE antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Schein, Catherine H.; Xie, Liping; Hillman, Gilbert R.; Goldblum, Randall M.; Braun, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Similarities in the sequence and structure of allergens can explain clinically observed cross-reactivities. Distinguishing sequences that bind IgE in patient sera can be used to identify potentially allergenic protein sequences and aid in the design of hypo-allergenic proteins. The property distance index PD, incorporated in our Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/), may identify potentially cross-reactive segments of proteins, based on their similarity to known IgE epitopes. We sought to obtain experimental validation of the PD index as a quantitative predictor of IgE cross-reactivity, by designing peptide variants with predetermined PD scores relative to three linear IgE epitopes of Jun a 1, the dominant allergen from mountain cedar pollen. For each of the three epitopes, 60 peptides were designed with increasing PD values (decreasing physicochemical similarity) to the starting sequence. The peptides synthesized on a derivatized cellulose membrane were probed with sera from patients who were allergic to Jun a 1, and the experimental data were interpreted with a PD classification method. Peptides with low PD values relative to a given epitope were more likely to bind IgE from the sera than were those with PD values larger than 6. Control sequences, with PD values between 18 and 20 to all the three epitopes, did not bind patient IgE, thus validating our procedure for identifying negative control peptides. The PD index is a statistically validated method to detect discrete regions of proteins that have a high probability of cross-reacting with IgE from allergic patients. PMID:18950868

  12. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W. [BgVV - Federal Inst. for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author).

  13. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author)

  14. Impact of variations in fatty liver on sonographic detection of focal hepatic lesions originally identified by CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Size Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variations in fatty liver on the ultrasonographic detection of focal liver lesions. Methods: A total of 229 patients with varying degrees of fatty liver and focal liver lesions and 200 patients with focal liver lesions but no fatty liver were randomly selected for inclusion in groups I and II, respectively. Findings of focal liver lesions identified on computed tomography were taken as the reference, and findings on ultrasonography were compared with them. Results: The number of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 501 and 413, respectively. The ultrasonographic detection rates of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 86.8% (435/501 and 94.2% (389/413, respectively. Comparison of the detection of the focal lesions between patients with and without fatty liver or different grades of fatty liver were as follows: mild fatty liver (162/177 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P=0.277; mild fatty liver (162/177 vs. moderate fatty liver (190/212 (P=0.604; mild fatty liver (162/177 vs. severe fatty liver (83/112 (P<0.001; moderate fatty liver (190/212 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P=0.051; moderate fatty liver (190/212 vs. severe fatty liver (83/112 (P<0.001; severe fatty liver (83/112 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P<0.001; and fatty liver (435/501 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P<0.001. Conclusion: Mild and moderate fatty liver are not significantly associated with the visualization of the lesion, while severe fatty liver usually impairs the detection of focal lesions in the liver. If a patient with severe fatty liver is suspected to have a liver tumor, ultrasonography should only be chosen cautiously in case of a missed diagnosis.

  15. Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard; Bucher, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A mechanism has been designed to apply the loads (the stirring and the resection forces and torques) in self-reacted friction stir welding. This mechanism differs somewhat from mechanisms used in conventional friction stir welding, as described below. The tooling needed to apply the large reaction loads in conventional friction stir welding can be complex. Self-reacted friction stir welding has become popular in the solid-state welding community as a means of reducing the complexity of tooling and to reduce costs. The main problems inherent in self-reacted friction stir welding originate in the high stresses encountered by the pin-and-shoulder assembly that produces the weld. The design of the present mechanism solves the problems. The mechanism includes a redesigned pin-and-shoulder assembly. The welding torque is transmitted into the welding pin by a square pin that fits into a square bushing with set-screws. The opposite or back shoulder is held in place by a Woodruff key and high-strength nut on a threaded shaft. The Woodruff key reacts the torque, while the nut reacts the tensile load on the shaft.

  16. Competitor's marketing : How banks acquire and react to knowledge about their competitor's marketing.

    OpenAIRE

    Puelma, Rodrigo; Persson, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Abstract   Introduction The way banks compete has changed dramatically during recent years, mostly because of international trends such as advances in information technology, globalisation and deregulations. This has made competition harsher meaning that survival and success requires knowledge about the competitors and understanding about the way they act and react. Within marketing there is a need to identify suitable strategies to acquire knowledge about competitor’s marketing and methods t...

  17. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms were centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure was 1/3 kbar. All prisms showed large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration reacted readily to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms were coated with a calcium smectite, and the last two prisms were covered with discrete patches of potassium-rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The results indicated that clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  18. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms are centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure is 1/3 kbar. All prisms show large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration readily reacts to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms are coated with a Ca-smectite while the last two prisms are covered with discrete patches of K rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  19. REAC/TS radiation accident registry. Update of accidents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, R.C.; Berger, M.E.; Holloway, E.C.; Goans, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Serious injury due to ionizing radiation is a rare occurrence. From 1944 to the present, 243 US accidents meeting dose criteria for classification as serious are documented in the REAC/TS Registry. Thirty individuals have lost their lives in radiation accidents in the United States. The Registry is part of the overall REAC/TS program providing 24-hour direct or consultative assistance regarding medical and heath physics problems associated with radiation accidents in local, national, and international incidents. The REAC/TS Registry serves as a repository of medically important information documenting the consequences of these accidents. Registry data are gathered from various sources. These include reports from the World Heath Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), state radiological health departments, medical/health physics literature, personal communication, the Internet, and most frequently, from calls for medical assistance to REAC/TS, as part of our 24-hour medical assistance program. The REAC/TS Registry for documentation of radiation accidents serves several useful purposes: 1) weaknesses in design, safety practices, training or control can be identified, and trends noted; 2) information regarding the medical consequences of injuries and the efficacy of treatment protocols is available to the treating physician; and 3) Registry case studies serve as valuable teaching tools. This presentation will review and summarize data on the US radiation accidents including their classification by device, accident circumstances, and frequency by respective states. Data regarding accidents with fatal outcomes will be reviewed. The inclusion of Registry data in the IAEA's International Reporting System of Radiation Events (RADEV) will also be discussed. (author)

  20. Second law analysis of a reacting temperature dependent viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, entropy generation during the flow of a reacting viscous fluid through an inclined Channel with isothermal walls are investigated. The coupled energy and momentum equations were solved numerically. Previous results in literature (Adesanya et al 2006 [[17]) showed both velocity and temperature have two ...

  1. Three-dimensional reacting shock–bubble interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diegelmann, Felix; Hickel, S.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a reacting shock–bubble interaction through three-dimensional numerical simulations with detailed chemistry. The convex shape of the bubble focuses the shock and generates regions of high pressure and temperature, which are sufficient to ignite the diluted stoichiometric

  2. Large-Eddy Simulations of Reacting Liquid Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederlin, Thomas; Sanjose, Marlene; Gicquel, Laurent; Cuenot, Benedicte; Pitsch, Heinz; Poinsot, Thierry

    2008-11-01

    Numerical simulation, which is commonly used in many stages of aero-engine design, still has to demonstrate its predictive capability for two-phase reacting flows. This study is a collaboration between Stanford University and CERFACS to perform LES of a realistic spray combustor installed at ONERA, Toulouse. The experimental configuration is computed on the same unstructured mesh with two different solvers: Stanford's CDP code and CERFACS's AVBP code. CDP uses a low-Mach, variable-density solver with implicit time advancement. Droplets are tracked in a Lagrangian point-particle framework. The combustion model uses a flamelet approach, based on two transported scalars, mixture fraction and reaction progress variable. AVBP is a fully compressible solver with explicit time advancement. The liquid phase is described with an Eulerian method. The flame-turbulence interaction is modeled using a dynamically-thickened flame. Results are compared with experimental data for three regimes: purely gaseous non-reacting flow, non-reacting flow with evaporating droplets, reacting flow with droplets. Both simulations show a good agreement with experimental data and also stress the difference and relative advantages of the numerical methods.

  3. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Zika Virus Patients in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available First isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, Zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. More than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in Brazil in 2015. Approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. An association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as Guillain-Barre Syndrome has led to a World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. Zika virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Male to female sexual transmission has been reported and there is potential for transmission via blood transfusions. After an incubation period of 2-7 days, symptomatic patients develop rapid onset fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, often associated with headache and myalgias. Emergency department (ED personnel must be prepared to address concerns from patients presenting with symptoms consistent with acute Zika virus infection, especially those who are pregnant or planning travel to Zika-endemic regions, as well as those women planning to become pregnant and their partners. The identify-isolate-inform (3I tool, originally conceived for initial detection and management of Ebola virus disease patients in the ED, and later adjusted for measles and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, can be adapted for real-time use for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I tool for initial detection and management of patients under investigation for Zika virus. Following an assessment of epidemiologic risk, including travel to countries with mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, patients are further investigated if clinically indicated. If after a rapid evaluation, Zika or other

  4. Characterization of forced response of density stratified reacting wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Samadhan A.; Sujith, Raman I.; Emerson, Benjamin; Lieuwen, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of a reacting wake depends primarily on the density ratio [i.e., ratio of unburnt gas density (ρu) to burnt gas density (ρb)] of the flow across the wake. The variation of the density ratio from high to low value, keeping ρ u / ρ b > 1 , transitions dynamical characteristics of the reacting wake from a linearly globally stable (or convectively unstable) to a globally unstable mode. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze the effect of harmonic forcing on the deterministic and synchronization characteristics of reacting wakes. Using the recurrence quantification analysis of the forced wake response, we show that the deterministic behaviour of the reacting wake increases as the amplitude of forcing is increased. Furthermore, for different density ratios, we found that the synchronization of the top and bottom branches of the wake with the forcing signal is dependent on whether the mean frequency of the natural oscillations of the wake (fn) is lesser or greater than the frequency of external forcing (ff). We notice that the response of both branches (top and bottom) of the reacting wake to the external forcing is asymmetric and symmetric for the low and high density ratios, respectively. Furthermore, we characterize the phase-locking behaviour between the top and bottom branches of the wake for different values of density ratios. We observe that an increase in the density ratio results in a gradual decrease in the relative phase angle between the top and bottom branches of the wake, which leads to a change in the vortex shedding pattern from a sinuous (anti-phase) to a varicose (in-phase) mode of the oscillations.

  5. Proteomic-based detection of a protein cluster dysregulated during cardiovascular development identifies biomarkers of congenital heart defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali K Nath

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular development is vital for embryonic survival and growth. Early gestation embryo loss or malformation has been linked to yolk sac vasculopathy and congenital heart defects (CHDs. However, the molecular pathways that underlie these structural defects in humans remain largely unknown hindering the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools and novel therapies.Murine embryos were exposed to high glucose, a condition known to induce cardiovascular defects in both animal models and humans. We further employed a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins differentially expressed in embryos with defects from those with normal cardiovascular development. The proteins detected by mass spectrometry (WNT16, ST14, Pcsk1, Jumonji, Morca2a, TRPC5, and others were validated by Western blotting and immunoflorescent staining of the yolk sac and heart. The proteins within the proteomic dataset clustered to adhesion/migration, differentiation, transport, and insulin signaling pathways. A functional role for several proteins (WNT16, ADAM15 and NOGO-A/B was demonstrated in an ex vivo model of heart development. Additionally, a successful application of a cluster of protein biomarkers (WNT16, ST14 and Pcsk1 as a prenatal screen for CHDs was confirmed in a study of human amniotic fluid (AF samples from women carrying normal fetuses and those with CHDs.The novel finding that WNT16, ST14 and Pcsk1 protein levels increase in fetuses with CHDs suggests that these proteins may play a role in the etiology of human CHDs. The information gained through this bed-side to bench translational approach contributes to a more complete understanding of the protein pathways dysregulated during cardiovascular development and provides novel avenues for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, beneficial to fetuses at risk for CHDs.

  6. Subtraction electrocardiography: Detection of ischemia-induced ST displacement without the need to identify the J point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Haar, C Cato; Man, Sum-Che; Maan, Arie C; Schalij, Martin J; Swenne, Cees A

    2016-01-01

    When triaging a patient with acute chest pain at first medical contact, an electrocardiogram (ECG) is routinely made and inspected for signs of myocardial ischemia. The guidelines recommend comparison of the acute and an earlier-made ECG, when available. No concrete recommendations for this comparison exist, neither is known how to handle J-point identification difficulties. Here we present a J-point independent method for such a comparison. After conversion to vectorcardiograms, baseline and acute ischemic ECGs after 3minutes of balloon occlusion during elective PCI were compared in 81 patients of the STAFF III ECG database. Baseline vectorcardiograms were subtracted from ischemic vectorcardiograms using either the QRS onsets or the J points as synchronization instants, yielding vector magnitude difference signals, ΔH. Output variables for the J-point synchronized differences were ΔH at the actual J point and at 20, 40, 60 and 80ms thereafter. Output variables for the onset-QRS synchronized differences were the ΔH at 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160ms after onset QRS. Finally, linear regressions of all combinations of ΔHJ+… versus ΔHQRS+… were made, and the best combination was identified. The highest correlation, 0.93 (pJ point and 160ms after the onset of the QRS complex. With a ΔH ischemia threshold of 0.05mV, 66/81 (J-point synchronized differences) and 68/81 (onset-QRS synchronized differences) subjects were above the ischemia threshold, corresponding to sensitivities of 81% and 84%, respectively. Our current study opens an alternative way to detect cardiac ischemia without the need for human expertise for determination of the J point by measuring the difference vector magnitude at 160ms after the onset of the QRS complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying EGFR-Expressed Cells and Detecting EGFR Multi-Mutations at Single-Cell Level by Microfluidic Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren; Zhou, Mingxing; Li, Jine; Wang, Zihua; Zhang, Weikai; Yue, Chunyan; Ma, Yan; Peng, Hailin; Wei, Zewen; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    EGFR mutations companion diagnostics have been proved to be crucial for the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeted cancer therapies. To uncover multiple mutations occurred in minority of EGFR-mutated cells, which may be covered by the noises from majority of un-mutated cells, is currently becoming an urgent clinical requirement. Here we present the validation of a microfluidic-chip-based method for detecting EGFR multi-mutations at single-cell level. By trapping and immunofluorescently imaging single cells in specifically designed silicon microwells, the EGFR-expressed cells were easily identified. By in situ lysing single cells, the cell lysates of EGFR-expressed cells were retrieved without cross-contamination. Benefited from excluding the noise from cells without EGFR expression, the simple and cost-effective Sanger's sequencing, but not the expensive deep sequencing of the whole cell population, was used to discover multi-mutations. We verified the new method with precisely discovering three most important EGFR drug-related mutations from a sample in which EGFR-mutated cells only account for a small percentage of whole cell population. The microfluidic chip is capable of discovering not only the existence of specific EGFR multi-mutations, but also other valuable single-cell-level information: on which specific cells the mutations occurred, or whether different mutations coexist on the same cells. This microfluidic chip constitutes a promising method to promote simple and cost-effective Sanger's sequencing to be a routine test before performing targeted cancer therapy.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Study of subgrid-scale velocity models for reacting and nonreacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, I.; Doan, N. A. K.; Swaminathan, N.; Pope, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    A study is conducted to identify advantages and limitations of existing large-eddy simulation (LES) closures for the subgrid-scale (SGS) kinetic energy using a database of direct numerical simulations (DNS). The analysis is conducted for both reacting and nonreacting flows, different turbulence conditions, and various filter sizes. A model, based on dissipation and diffusion of momentum (LD-D model), is proposed in this paper based on the observed behavior of four existing models. Our model shows the best overall agreements with DNS statistics. Two main investigations are conducted for both reacting and nonreacting flows: (i) an investigation on the robustness of the model constants, showing that commonly used constants lead to a severe underestimation of the SGS kinetic energy and enlightening their dependence on Reynolds number and filter size; and (ii) an investigation on the statistical behavior of the SGS closures, which suggests that the dissipation of momentum is the key parameter to be considered in such closures and that dilatation effect is important and must be captured correctly in reacting flows. Additional properties of SGS kinetic energy modeling are identified and discussed.

  9. Directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency; Dependencia direcional do identificador ORTEC - modelo Micro Detective tipo N com 15% de eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbach, Mayara Nascimento; Karam, Rudnei M.; Cardoso, Domingos D.O.; Sant' anna, Viviane C.; Vellozo, Sergio de O.; Gomes, Renato G., E-mail: mayaraarbach@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Amorim, Aneuri S. de; Oliveira, Luciano S.R. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    It was characterized the directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency by using sources of Cesium ({sup 137}Cs) with activity of 37,4 kBq and Cobalt ({sup 60}Co) with an activity of 41 kBq, manufactured on 04/17/2007. The work took place in distances (0,5m, 1,0m, 1,5m e 2,0m) and for the angles (0°, 45°, 60° e 90°), and the measure found in angle 0° of said evaluation was adopted as reference value; this same procedure was adopted for other distances evaluated in this work. The results achieved are provided in charts 1, 2 and 3. (author)

  10. A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.

  11. Low Mach number asymptotics for reacting compressible fluid flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Petzeltová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2010), s. 455-480 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : low Mach number * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * reacting fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4660

  12. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  13. Combining discrete equations method and upwind downwind-controlled splitting for non-reacting and reacting two-fluid computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, K.

    2012-01-01

    When numerically investigating multiphase phenomena during severe accidents in a reactor system, characteristic lengths of the multi-fluid zone (non-reactive and reactive) are found to be much smaller than the volume of the reactor containment, which makes the direct modeling of the configuration hardly achievable. Alternatively, we propose to consider the physical multiphase mixture zone as an infinitely thin interface. Then, the reactive Riemann solver is inserted into the Reactive Discrete Equations Method (RDEM) to compute high speed combustion waves represented by discontinuous interfaces. An anti-diffusive approach is also coupled with RDEM to accurately simulate reactive interfaces. Increased robustness and efficiency when computing both multiphase interfaces and reacting flows are achieved thanks to an original upwind downwind-controlled splitting method (UDCS). UDCS is capable of accurately solving interfaces on multi-dimensional unstructured meshes, including reacting fronts for both deflagration and detonation configurations. (author)

  14. Detection of previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Dahl, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Under-diagnosis of COPD is a widespread problem. This study aimed to identify previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified through general practice. Methods: Participating GPs (n = 241) recruited subjects with no previous diagnosis of lung disease,...

  15. What are incident reports telling us? A comparative study at two Australian hospitals of medication errors identified at audit, detected by staff and reported to an incident system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Li, Ling; Lehnbom, Elin C; Baysari, Melissa T; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Burke, Rosemary; Conn, Chris; Day, Richard O

    2015-02-01

    To (i) compare medication errors identified at audit and observation with medication incident reports; (ii) identify differences between two hospitals in incident report frequency and medication error rates; (iii) identify prescribing error detection rates by staff. Audit of 3291 patient records at two hospitals to identify prescribing errors and evidence of their detection by staff. Medication administration errors were identified from a direct observational study of 180 nurses administering 7451 medications. Severity of errors was classified. Those likely to lead to patient harm were categorized as 'clinically important'. Two major academic teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Rates of medication errors identified from audit and from direct observation were compared with reported medication incident reports. A total of 12 567 prescribing errors were identified at audit. Of these 1.2/1000 errors (95% CI: 0.6-1.8) had incident reports. Clinically important prescribing errors (n = 539) were detected by staff at a rate of 218.9/1000 (95% CI: 184.0-253.8), but only 13.0/1000 (95% CI: 3.4-22.5) were reported. 78.1% (n = 421) of clinically important prescribing errors were not detected. A total of 2043 drug administrations (27.4%; 95% CI: 26.4-28.4%) contained ≥ 1 errors; none had an incident report. Hospital A had a higher frequency of incident reports than Hospital B, but a lower rate of errors at audit. Prescribing errors with the potential to cause harm frequently go undetected. Reported incidents do not reflect the profile of medication errors which occur in hospitals or the underlying rates. This demonstrates the inaccuracy of using incident frequency to compare patient risk or quality performance within or across hospitals. New approaches including data mining of electronic clinical information systems are required to support more effective medication error detection and mitigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association

  16. Using areas of known occupancy to identify sources of variation in detection probability of raptors: taking time lowers replication effort for surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murn, Campbell; Holloway, Graham J

    2016-10-01

    Species occurring at low density can be difficult to detect and if not properly accounted for, imperfect detection will lead to inaccurate estimates of occupancy. Understanding sources of variation in detection probability and how they can be managed is a key part of monitoring. We used sightings data of a low-density and elusive raptor (white-headed vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis ) in areas of known occupancy (breeding territories) in a likelihood-based modelling approach to calculate detection probability and the factors affecting it. Because occupancy was known a priori to be 100%, we fixed the model occupancy parameter to 1.0 and focused on identifying sources of variation in detection probability. Using detection histories from 359 territory visits, we assessed nine covariates in 29 candidate models. The model with the highest support indicated that observer speed during a survey, combined with temporal covariates such as time of year and length of time within a territory, had the highest influence on the detection probability. Averaged detection probability was 0.207 (s.e. 0.033) and based on this the mean number of visits required to determine within 95% confidence that white-headed vultures are absent from a breeding area is 13 (95% CI: 9-20). Topographical and habitat covariates contributed little to the best models and had little effect on detection probability. We highlight that low detection probabilities of some species means that emphasizing habitat covariates could lead to spurious results in occupancy models that do not also incorporate temporal components. While variation in detection probability is complex and influenced by effects at both temporal and spatial scales, temporal covariates can and should be controlled as part of robust survey methods. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for detection probability in occupancy studies, particularly during presence/absence studies for species such as raptors that are widespread and

  17. A preliminary evaluation of the generalized likelihood ratio for detecting and identifying control element failures in a transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundick, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the Generalized Likelihood Ratio technique to the detection and identification of aircraft control element failures has been evaluated in a linear digital simulation of the longitudinal dynamics of a B-737 aircraft. Simulation results show that the technique has potential but that the effects of wind turbulence and Kalman filter model errors are problems which must be overcome.

  18. A suite of molecular markers for identifying species, detecting introgression and describing population structure in spadefoot toads (Spea spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Karin S; Allenby, Ashley; Martin, Ryan A; Monroy, Anaïs; Jones, Corbin D

    2012-09-01

    Two congeneric species of spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons, have been the focus of hybridization studies since the 1970s. Because complex hybrids are not readily distinguished phenotypically, genetic markers are needed to identify introgressed individuals. We therefore developed a set of molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphism) for identifying pure-species, F1 hybrids and more complex introgressed types. To do so, we tested a series of markers across both species and known hybrids using populations in both allopatry and sympatry. We retained those markers that differentiated the two pure-species and also consistently identified known species hybrids. These markers are well suited for identifying hybrids between these species. Moreover, those markers that show variation within each species can be used in conjunction with existing molecular markers in studies of population structure and gene flow. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Study on flow characteristics of chemically reacting liquid jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Seon Dae; Okamoto, Koji; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2004-07-01

    Tube rupture accidents in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors are important for safety because the rupture may propagates to neighboring tubes due to sodium-water reaction. In order to clarify the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the accidents, the flow pattern and the interface in multi-phase flow must be investigated. The JNC cooperative research scheme on the nuclear fuel cycle with the University of Tokyo has been carried to develop a simultaneous measurement system of concentration and velocity profiles and to evaluate influence of chemical reaction on mixing phenomena. In the experiments, aqueous liquor of acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide are selected as a simulant fluid instead of liquid sodium and water vapor. The following conclusions are obtained in this research. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was adopted to measure reacting zone and pH distribution in chemically reacting liquid round free jet. As a result, it was found that the chemical reaction, which took place at the interface between the jet and outer flow, suppressed the mixing phenomenon (in 2001 research). Dynamic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method was developed to measure instantaneous velocity profile with high temporal resolution. In the Dynamic PIV, a high-speed video camera coupled with a high-speed laser pulse generator was implemented. A time-line trend of interfacial area in the free jet was investigated with the Dynamic PIV. This technique was also applied to a complicated geometry (in 2002 research). A new algorithms for image analysis was developed to evaluated the Dynamic PIV data in detail. The characteristics of the mixing phenomenon with reacting jet such as the turbulent kinetic energy and the Reynolds stress were estimated in a spatial and temporal spectrum (in 2003 research). (author)

  20. Delivery dilemmas: How drug cryptomarket users identify and seek to reduce their risk of detection by law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Judith; Askew, Rebecca

    2017-03-01

    Cryptomarkets represent an important drug market innovation by bringing buyers and sellers of illegal drugs together in a 'hidden' yet public online marketplace. We ask: How do cryptomarket drug sellers and buyers perceive the risks of detection and arrest, and attempt to limit them? We analyse selected texts produced by vendors operating on the first major drug cryptomarket, Silk Road (N=600) alongside data extracted from the marketplace discussion forum that include buyer perspectives. We apply Fader's (2016) framework for understanding how drug dealers operating 'offline' attempt to reduce the risk of detection and arrest: visibility reduction, charge reduction and risk distribution. We characterize drug transactions on cryptomarkets as 'stretched' across time, virtual and physical space, and handlers, changing the location and nature of risks faced by cryptomarket users. The key locations of risk of detection and arrest by law enforcement were found in 'offline' activities of cryptomarket vendors (packaging and delivery drop-offs) and buyers (receiving deliveries). Strategies in response involved either creating or disrupting routine activities in line with a non-offending identity. Use of encrypted communication was seen as 'good practice' but often not employed. 'Drop shipping' allowed some Silk Road vendors to sell illegal drugs without the necessity of handling them. Silk Road participants neither viewed themselves as immune to, nor passively accepting of, the risk of detection and arrest. Rational choice theorists have viewed offending decisions as constrained by limited access to relevant information. Cryptomarkets as 'illicit capital' sharing communities provide expanded and low-cost access to information enabling drug market participants to make more accurate assessments of the risk of apprehension. The abundance of drug market intelligence available to those on both sides of the law may function to speed up innovation in illegal drug markets, as well

  1. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model....

  2. SQL Triggers Reacting on Time Events: An Extension Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Andreas; Dorau, Christian; Manthey, Rainer

    Being able to activate triggers at timepoints reached or after time intervals elapsed has been acknowledged by many authors as a valuable functionality of a DBMS. Recently, the interest in time-based triggers has been renewed in the context of data stream monitoring. However, up till now SQL triggers react to data changes only, even though research proposals and prototypes have been supporting several other event types, in particular time-based ones, since long. We therefore propose a seamless extension of the SQL trigger concept by time-based triggers, focussing on semantic issues arising from such an extension.

  3. Tax havens under international pressure: How do they react?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Pieretti; Giuseppe Pulina

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature about tax havens by providing a more comprehensive analysis of their role. The aim is to analyze how low-tax jurisdictions can react to growing international pressure exerted, by high-tax countries, to enforce compliance with anti aggressive tax planning standards. To this end, we model how a small tax haven tries to be attractive to multinationals located in a high-tax region by providing aggressive tax planning services and/or a favorable environment...

  4. ReACT Methodology Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) funded INL Researchers to evaluate a novel process for assessing and mitigating cyber security risks. The proof of concept level of the method was tested in an industry environment. This case study, plus additional case studies will support the further development of the method into a tool to assist industry in securing their critical networks. This report provides an understanding of the process developed in the Response Analysis and Characterization Tool (ReACT) project. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these tools for use by industry.

  5. Numerical simulation of low Mach number reacting flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J B; Aspden, A J; Day, M S; Lijewski, M J

    2007-01-01

    Using examples from active research areas in combustion and astrophysics, we demonstrate a computationally efficient numerical approach for simulating multiscale low Mach number reacting flows. The method enables simulations that incorporate an unprecedented range of temporal and spatial scales, while at the same time, allows an extremely high degree of reaction fidelity. Sample applications demonstrate the efficiency of the approach with respect to a traditional time-explicit integration method, and the utility of the methodology for studying the interaction of turbulence with terrestrial and astrophysical flame structures

  6. Modeling and design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Hodges, George; Piccione, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Issues related to the design of biphasic (liquid) catalytic reaction operations are discussed. A chemical system involving the reaction of an organic-phase soluble reactant (A) with an aqueous-phase soluble reactant (B) in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) is modeled and based on it......, some of the design issues related to improved reaction operation are analyzed. Since the solubility of the different forms of the PTC in the organic solvent affects ultimately the catalyst partition coefficients, therefore, the organic solvent plays an important role in the design of PTC-based reacting...

  7. Clinically Detectable Dental Identifiers Observed in Intra-oral Photographs and Extra-oral Radiographs, Validated for Human Identification Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakopoulos, Nikolaos; Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Screening the prevalence and pattern of dental identifiers contributes toward the process of human identification. This research investigated the uniqueness of clinical dental identifiers in photographs and radiographs. Panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs and five intra-oral photographs of 1727 subjects were used. In a target set, two observers examined different subjects. In a subset, both observers examined the same subjects (source set). The distance between source and target subjects was quantified for each identifier. The percentage of subjects in the target set being at least as close as the correct subject was assessed. The number of molars (34.6%), missing teeth (42%), and displaced teeth (59.9%) were the most unique identifiers in photographs and panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively. The pattern of rotated teeth (14.9%) was the most unique in photographs, while displaced teeth was in panoramic (37.6%) and lateral cephalometric (54.8%) radiographs. Morphological identifiers were the most unique, highlighting their importance for human identifications. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Signal detection to identify serious adverse events (neuropsychiatric events in travelers taking mefloquine for chemoprophylaxis of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cho Naing,1,3 Kyan Aung,1 Syed Imran Ahmed,2 Joon Wah Mak31School of Medical Sciences, 2School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 3School of Postgraduate Studies and Research, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: For all medications, there is a trade-off between benefits and potential for harm. It is important for patient safety to detect drug-event combinations and analyze by appropriate statistical methods. Mefloquine is used as chemoprophylaxis for travelers going to regions with known chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. As such, there is a concern about serious adverse events associated with mefloquine chemoprophylaxis. The objective of the present study was to assess whether any signal would be detected for the serious adverse events of mefloquine, based on data in clinicoepidemiological studies.Materials and methods: We extracted data on adverse events related to mefloquine chemoprophylaxis from the two published datasets. Disproportionality reporting of adverse events such as neuropsychiatric events and other adverse events was presented in the 2 × 2 contingency table. Reporting odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval [CI] data-mining algorithm was applied for the signal detection. The safety signals are considered significant when the ROR estimates and the lower limits of the corresponding 95% CI are ≥2.Results: Two datasets addressing adverse events of mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (one from a published article and one from a Cochrane systematic review were included for analyses. Reporting odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI: 1.49–1.68 based on published data in the selected article, and 1.195, 95% CI: 0.94–1.44 based on data in the selected Cochrane review. Overall, in both datasets, the reporting odds ratio values of lower 95% CI were less than 2.Conclusion: Based on available data, findings suggested that signals for serious adverse events pertinent to neuropsychiatric event were

  9. Nb3Sn dipole magnet reacted after winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Scanlan, R.; Peters, C.; Wolgast, R.; Gilbert, W.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.

    1984-09-01

    A 5 cm bore dia., 1-m-long dipole model magnet was constructed by winding un-reacted cable, followed by reaction and epoxy-impregnation. Experience and test results are described on the 1.7 mm dia. internal-tin wire, the eleven-strand flattened cable, fiberglass insulation, and construction of the magnet. Each half of the magnet has two double-pancake-type windings that were reacted in a single operation. The two double-pancakes were then separately vacuum impregnated after soldering the flexible Nb-Ti leads to the Nb 3 Sn conductors. No iron flux return yoke was used. In initial tests a central field of 8.0 T was reached at 4.4 K. However, evidence from training behavior, and 1.8 K tests indicate that premature quenching, rather than critical current of the cable, limited the field intensity. The magnet was reassembled and more rigidly clamped; additional test results are reported

  10. Effects of continuum breakdown on hypersonic aerothermodynamics for reacting flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Timothy D.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of continuum breakdown on the surface aerothermodynamic properties (pressure, stress, and heat transfer rate) of a sphere in a Mach 25 flow of reacting air in regimes varying from continuum to a rarefied gas. Results are generated using both continuum [computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] and particle [direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC)] approaches. The DSMC method utilizes a chemistry model that calculates the backward rates from an equilibrium constant. A preferential dissociation model is modified in the CFD method to better compare with the vibrationally favored dissociation model that is utilized in the DSMC method. Tests of these models are performed to confirm their validity and to compare the chemistry models in both numerical methods. This study examines the effect of reacting air flow on continuum breakdown and the surface properties of the sphere. As the global Knudsen number increases, the amount of continuum breakdown in the flow and on the surface increases. This increase in continuum breakdown significantly affects the surface properties, causing an increase in the differences between CFD and DSMC. Explanations are provided for the trends observed.

  11. Sticky tunes: how do people react to involuntary musical imagery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Williamson

    Full Text Available The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI or 'earworms'; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies.

  12. Sticky Tunes: How Do People React to Involuntary Musical Imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Liikkanen, Lassi A.; Jakubowski, Kelly; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI) or ‘earworms’; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies. PMID:24497938

  13. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Device To Detect and Identify Microbial Pathogen Nucleic Acids in Cerebrospinal Fluid. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the device to detect and identify microbial pathogen nucleic acids in cerebrospinal fluid into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the device to detect and identify microbial pathogen nucleic acids in cerebrospinal fluid’s classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jeffrey Joseph

    This dissertation: (i) develops a novel numerical method for DNS/LES of compressible, turbulent reacting flows, (ii) performs several validation simulations, (iii) studies auto-ignition of a hydrogen vortex ring in air and (iv) studies a hydrogen/air turbulent diffusion flame. The numerical method is spatially non-dissipative, implicit and applicable over a range of Mach numbers. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are rescaled so that the zero Mach number equations are discretely recovered in the limit of zero Mach number. The dependent variables are co--located in space, and thermodynamic variables are staggered from velocity in time. The algorithm discretely conserves kinetic energy in the incompressible, inviscid, non--reacting limit. The chemical source terms are implicit in time to allow for stiff chemical mechanisms. The algorithm is readily applicable to complex chemical mechanisms. Good results are obtained for validation simulations. The algorithm is used to study auto-ignition in laminar vortex rings. A nine species, nineteen reaction mechanism for H2/air combustion proposed by Mueller et al. [37] is used. Diluted H 2 at ambient temperature (300 K) is injected into hot air. The simulations study the effect of fuel/air ratio, oxidizer temperature, Lewis number and stroke ratio (ratio of piston stroke length to diameter). Results show that auto--ignition occurs in fuel lean, high temperature regions with low scalar dissipation at a 'most reactive' mixture fraction, zeta MR (Mastorakos et al. [32]). Subsequent evolution of the flame is not predicted by zetaMR; a most reactive temperature TMR is defined and shown to predict both the initial auto-ignition as well as subsequent evolution. For stroke ratios less than the formation number, ignition in general occurs behind the vortex ring and propagates into the core. At higher oxidizer temperatures, ignition is almost instantaneous and occurs along the entire interface between fuel and oxidizer. For stroke

  15. Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Kiew-Lian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies for C. irritans. The C. irritans genome is virtually unexplored; therefore, we generated and analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs of the parasite to identify genes that encode for surface proteins, excretory/secretory proteins and repeat-containing proteins. Results ESTs were generated from a cDNA library of C. irritans tomonts isolated from infected Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Clustering of the 5356 ESTs produced 2659 unique transcripts (UTs containing 1989 singletons and 670 consensi. BLAST analysis showed that 74% of the UTs had significant similarity (E-value -5 to sequences that are currently available in the GenBank database, with more than 15% of the significant hits showing unknown function. Forty percent of the UTs had significant similarity to ciliates from the genera Tetrahymena and Paramecium. Comparative gene family analysis with related taxa showed that many protein families are conserved among the protozoans. Based on gene ontology annotation, functional groups were successfully assigned to 790 UTs. Genes encoding excretory/secretory proteins and membrane and membrane-associated proteins were identified because these proteins often function as antigens and are good antibody targets. A total of 481 UTs were classified as encoding membrane proteins, 54 were classified as encoding for membrane-bound proteins, and 155 were found to contain excretory/secretory protein-coding sequences. Amino acid repeat-containing proteins and GPI-anchored proteins were also identified as potential candidates for the development of

  16. The Space-Time Variation of Global Crop Yields, Detecting Simultaneous Outliers and Identifying the Teleconnections with Climatic Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, E.; Devineni, N.; Pal, I.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the climate factors that influence the space-time variability of crop yields is important for food security purposes and can help us predict global food availability. In this study, we address how the crop yield trends of countries globally were related to each other during the last several decades and the main climatic variables that triggered high/low crop yields simultaneously across the world. Robust Principal Component Analysis (rPCA) is used to identify the primary modes of variation in wheat, maize, sorghum, rice, soybeans, and barley yields. Relations between these modes of variability and important climatic variables, especially anomalous sea surface temperature (SSTa), are examined from 1964 to 2010. rPCA is also used to identify simultaneous outliers in each year, i.e. systematic high/low crop yields across the globe. The results demonstrated spatiotemporal patterns of these crop yields and the climate-related events that caused them as well as the connection of outliers with weather extremes. We find that among climatic variables, SST has had the most impact on creating simultaneous crop yields variability and yield outliers in many countries. An understanding of this phenomenon can benefit global crop trade networks.

  17. Detecting plague-host abundance from space: Using a spectral vegetation index to identify occupancy of great gerbil burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, Liesbeth I.; Heesterbeek, Johan A. P.; Begon, Mike; de Jong, Steven M.; Ageyev, Vladimir; Laudisoit, Anne; Addink, Elisabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    In Kazakhstan, plague outbreaks occur when its main host, the great gerbil, exceeds an abundance threshold. These live in family groups in burrows, which can be mapped using remote sensing. Occupancy (percentage of burrows occupied) is a good proxy for abundance and hence the possibility of an outbreak. Here we use time series of satellite images to estimate occupancy remotely. In April and September 2013, 872 burrows were identified in the field as either occupied or empty. For satellite images acquired between April and August, 'burrow objects' were identified and matched to the field burrows. The burrow objects were represented by 25 different polygon types, then classified (using a majority vote from 10 Random Forests) as occupied or empty, using Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) calculated for all images. Throughout the season NDVI values were higher for empty than for occupied burrows. Occupancy status of individual burrows that were continuously occupied or empty, was classified with producer's and user's accuracy values of 63 and 64% for the optimum polygon. Occupancy level was predicted very well and differed 2% from the observed occupancy. This establishes firmly the principle that occupancy can be estimated using satellite images with the potential to predict plague outbreaks over extensive areas with much greater ease and accuracy than previously.

  18. Protegemed2: an extended platform based on RFID to identify EME and improve the detection of microshocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebonatto, Marcelo Trindade; Spalding, Luiz Eduardo Schardong; Hessel, Fabiano Passuelo; Amaral, Leonardo Albernaz

    2013-06-01

    The use of electromedical equipment (EME) throughout the years has brought benefits in the aid of diagnosis and therapies as well as in surgical interventions. However, the equipment may fail and can cause health hazards, for example, the passing of a small but dangerous electric current through the patient (microshock). To prevent and minimize the risk of failure we propose the Protegemed2, an extension of the previous version called Protegemed, addressed in 2009. This system uses radio frequency identification to automatically identify EME and increases the performance of the system allowing a large-scale supervision of EMEs. Protegemed2 was built embedded into the gas and electric power panel of surgical rooms and uses an ARM 32-bit microcontroller.

  19. Vorticity Dynamics in Single and Multiple Swirling Reacting Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Travis; Aguilar, Michael; Emerson, Benjamin; Noble, David; Lieuwen, Tim

    2015-11-01

    This presentation describes an analysis of the unsteady flow structures in two multinozzle swirling jet configurations. This work is motivated by the problem of combustion instabilities in premixed flames, a major concern in the development of modern low NOx combustors. The objective is to compare the unsteady flow structures in these two configurations for two separate geometries and determine how certain parameters, primarily distance between jets, influence the flow dynamics. The analysis aims to differentiate between the flow dynamics of single nozzle and triple nozzle configurations. This study looks at how the vorticity in the shear layers of one reacting swirling jet can affect the dynamics of a nearby similar jet. The distance between the swirling jets is found to have an effect on the flow field in determining where swirling jets merge and on the dynamics upstream of the merging location. Graduate Student, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

  20. Optimal stretching in the reacting wake of a bluff body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinge; Tithof, Jeffrey; Nevins, Thomas D; Colón, Rony O; Kelley, Douglas H

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally study spreading of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction behind a bluff body in a laminar flow. Locations of reacted regions (i.e., regions with high product concentration) correlate with a moderate range of Lagrangian stretching and that range is close to the range of optimal stretching previously observed in topologically different flows [T. D. Nevins and D. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 164502 (2016)]. The previous work found optimal stretching in a closed, vortex dominated flow, but this article uses an open flow and only a small area of appreciable vorticity. We hypothesize that optimal stretching is common in advection-reaction-diffusion systems with an excitation threshold, including excitable and bistable systems, and that the optimal range depends on reaction chemistry and not on flow shape or characteristic speed. Our results may also give insight into plankton blooms behind islands in ocean currents.

  1. Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting flows: Theory and numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Liberman, M; Lipatnikov, A N; Rogachevskii, I; Yu, R

    2017-11-01

    The theory of turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures developed previously [T. Elperin et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 053001 (2014)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.90.053001] is generalized for large yet finite Reynolds numbers and the dependence of turbulent diffusion coefficient on two parameters, the Reynolds number and Damköhler number (which characterizes a ratio of turbulent and reaction time scales), is obtained. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a finite-thickness reaction wave for the first-order chemical reactions propagating in forced, homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible turbulence are performed to validate the theoretically predicted effect of chemical reactions on turbulent diffusion. It is shown that the obtained DNS results are in good agreement with the developed theory.

  2. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  3. LES-ODT Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Shear Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffie, Andreas; Echekki, Tarek

    2012-11-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) simulations of a spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layer with heat release and high Reynolds numbers were conducted and compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the same configuration. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine ODT grid, which is embedded in the LES computational domain. The shear layer is simulated with a single-step, second-order reaction with an Arrhenius reaction rate. The transport equations are solved using a low Mach number approximation. The LES-ODT simulations yield reasonably accurate predictions of turbulence and passive/reactive scalars' statistics compared to DNS results.

  4. How preschoolers react to norm violations is associated with culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, Anja; Daum, Moritz M

    2018-01-01

    Children from the age of 3years understand social norms as such and enforce these norms in interactions with others. Differences in parental and institutional education across cultures make it likely that children receive divergent information about how to act in cases of norm violations. In the current study, we investigated whether cultural values are associated with the ways in which children react to norm violations. We tested 80 bicultural 3-year-olds with a norm enforcement paradigm and analyzed their reactions to norm violations. The reactions were correlated to the children's parental cultural values using the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) scales, and these results show that parental culture was associated with children's reactions to norm violations. The three strongest correlations were found for institutional collectivism, performance orientation, and assertiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent advances in ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopy and imaging for reacting plasmas and flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Anil K.; Adamovich, Igor; Gord, James R.; Roy, Sukesh

    2017-10-01

    Reacting flows and plasmas are prevalent in a wide array of systems involving defense, commercial, space, energy, medical, and consumer products. Understanding the complex physical and chemical processes involving reacting flows and plasmas requires measurements of key parameters, such as temperature, pressure, electric field, velocity, and number densities of chemical species. Time-resolved measurements of key chemical species and temperature are required to determine kinetics related to the chemical reactions and transient phenomena. Laser-based, noninvasive linear and nonlinear spectroscopic approaches have proved to be very valuable in providing key insights into the physico-chemical processes governing reacting flows and plasmas as well as validating numerical models. The advent of kilohertz rate amplified femtosecond lasers has expanded the multidimensional imaging of key atomic species such as H, O, and N in a significant way, providing unprecedented insight into preferential diffusion and production of these species under chemical reactions or electric-field driven processes. These lasers not only provide 2D imaging of chemical species but have the ability to perform measurements free of various interferences. Moreover, these lasers allow 1D and 2D temperature-field measurements, which were quite unimaginable only a few years ago. The rapid growth of the ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopic measurements has been fueled by the need to achieve the following when measurements are performed in reacting flows and plasmas. They are: (1) interference-free measurements (collision broadening, photolytic dissociation, Stark broadening, etc), (2) time-resolved single-shot measurements at a rate of 1-10 kHz, (3) spatially-resolved measurements, (4) higher dimensionality (line, planar, or volumetric), and (5) simultaneous detection of multiple species. The overarching goal of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopic

  6. Calcination of calcium acetate and calcium magnesium acetate: effect of the reacting atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adanez, J.; Diego, L.F. de; Garcia-Labiano, F. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    1999-04-01

    The calcination process of the calcium acetate (CA) and calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was investigated as a previous step for coal gas desulfurisation during sorbent injection at high temperatures because the excellent results demonstrated by these sorbents as sulfur removal agents both in combustion and gasification processes. As pore structure developed during calcination is one of the most important characteristics of the sorbent related with the later reaction with the gaseous pollutants, several calcination tests were conducted in a drop tube reactor at temperatures from 700{degree}C to 1100{degree}C, and residence times from 0.8 to 2.4 s. Four different gas atmospheres were used for comparative purposes: inert, oxidising, reducing, and non-calcining (pure CO{sub 2}). Despite the advantage of the high porous cenospheric structure developed by these sorbents during their injection at high temperature, calcination of the CaCO{sub 3} was not complete even at the longest residence time, 2.4 s, and the highest temperature, 1100{degree}C, tested. An important effect of the reacting atmosphere on the calcination conversion and on the sorbent pore structure was detected. The CO{sub 2} concentration around the particle, both that fed in the reacting gases or that generated by organic material combustion, seems to be responsible for the final calcination conversions obtained in each case, also affecting the sintering suffered by the sorbents. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Efficient removal of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) through reacting with recycled electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Ji Zhi; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2013-06-18

    This paper reports that recycled electroplating sludge is able to efficiently remove greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The removal process involves various reactions of SF6 with the recycled sludge. Remarkably, the sludge completely removed SF6 at a capacity of 1.10 mmol/g (SF6/sludge) at 600 °C. More importantly, the evolved gases were SO2, SiF4, and a limited amount of HF, with no toxic SOF4, SO2F2, or SF4 being detected. These generated gases can be readily captured and removed by NaOH solution. The reacted solids were further found to be various metal fluorides, thus revealing that SF6 removal takes place by reacting with various metal oxides and silicate in the sludge. Moreover, the kinetic investigation revealed that the SF6 reaction with the sludge is a first-order chemically controlled process. This research thus demonstrates that the waste electroplating sludge can be potentially used as an effective removal agent for one of the notorious greenhouse gases, SF6.

  8. BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND THE COMMON. HOW GROUPS REACT TO SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komendant-Brodowska Agata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the relationship between group characteristics and the scope of reaction of the group to socially undesirable behaviour. Sometimes small groups or communities fail to react to undesirable or violent behaviour and their apathy can have devastating consequences. Such a situation can occur among co-workers witnessing workplace mobbing, or neighbours who do not react to a suspicion of domestic violence. Reasons for their inaction are diverse and can include fear, doubts concerning the necessity of such a reaction, and also conformity. In the paper I examine a seemingly favourable situation: I assume that reaction is costless and all the members of the group would like to react (internalised norm, but they also want to conform. In order to analyse the factors that can influence the scope of group reaction, a structurally embedded sequential coordination game was played for different initial conditions. Computer simulations were conducted for networks of a specific type (Erd¨os-R´enyi random graph. The main aim of the analysis was to identify non-structural and structural features of the group that can impede or even block the intervention of the group. There is a positive relationship between the scope of group reaction and the strength of the internalized norm, whereas the level of conformity affects the chances of group intervention in a negative way. Heterogeneity of the group is an important factor - the scope of reaction is higher when members of the group have different levels of norm internalisation and conformity. There is a non-linear relationship between network density and the scope of reaction. Both low and high density can make it harder for people to act.

  9. 'Reacting to the unknown': experiencing the first birth at home or in hospital in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Barclay, Lesley; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-08-01

    to explore the experiences of a small group of first-time mothers giving birth at home or in hospital. a grounded theory methodology was used. Data were generated from in-depth interviews with women in their own homes. Sydney, Australia. 19 women were interviewed. Seven women who gave birth for the first time in a public hospital and seven women who gave birth for the first time at home were interviewed, and their experiences were contrasted with two mothers who gave birth for the first time in a birth centre, one mother who gave birth for the first time in a private hospital and two women who had given birth more than once. these women shared common experiences of giving birth as 'novices'. Regardless of birth setting, they were all 'reacting to the unknown'. As they entered labour, the women chose different levels of responsibility for their birth. They also readjusted their expectations when the reality of labour occurred, reacted to the 'force' of labour, and connected or disconnected from the labour and eventually the baby. knowing that first-time mothers, irrespective of birth setting, are essentially 'reacting to the unknown' as they negotiate the experience of birth, could alter the way in which care is provided and increase the sensitivity of midwives to women's needs. Most importantly, midwives need to be aware of the need to help women adjust their expectations during labour and birth. Identifying the 'novice' status of first-time mothers also better explains previous research that reports unrealistic expectations and fear that may be associated with first-time birthing. Crown Copyright 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fungal decay resistance of wood reacted with phosphorus pentoxide-amine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of wood reacted in situ with phosphorus pentoxide-amine to the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was examined. Wood reacted with either octyl, tribromo, or nitro derivatives were more resistant to both fungi. Threshold retention values of phosphoramide-reacted wood to white-rot fungus T. versicolor ranged from 2.9...

  11. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program sp...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model.......As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...

  12. Large eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation of high speed turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Frankel, S. H.; Madnia, C. K.; Givi, P.

    The objective of this research is to make use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first phase of this research conducted within the past three years have been directed in several issues pertaining to intricate physics of turbulent reacting flows. In our previous 5 semi-annual reports submitted to NASA LaRC, as well as several technical papers in archival journals, the results of our investigations have been fully described. In this progress report which is different in format as compared to our previous documents, we focus only on the issue of LES. The reason for doing so is that LES is the primary issue of interest to our Technical Monitor and that our other findings were needed to support the activities conducted under this prime issue. The outcomes of our related investigations, nevertheless, are included in the appendices accompanying this report. The relevance of the materials in these appendices are, therefore, discussed only briefly within the body of the report. Here, results are presented of a priori and a posterior analyses for validity assessments of assumed Probability Density Function (PDF) methods as potential subgrid scale (SGS) closures for LES of turbulent reacting flows. Simple non-premixed reacting systems involving an isothermal reaction of the type A + B yields Products under both chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions are considered. A priori analyses are conducted of a homogeneous box flow, and a spatially developing planar mixing layer to investigate the performance of the Pearson Family of PDF's as SGS models. A posteriori analyses are conducted of the mixing layer using a hybrid one-equation Smagorinsky/PDF SGS closure. The Smagorinsky closure augmented by the solution of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is employed to account for hydrodynamic fluctuations, and the PDF is employed for modeling the

  13. Spatiotemporal patterns of High Mountain Asia's snowmelt season identified with an automated snowmelt detection algorithm, 1987-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Taylor; Bookhagen, Bodo; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha

    2017-10-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) - encompassing the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges - is the primary water source for much of Asia, serving more than a billion downstream users. Many catchments receive the majority of their yearly water budget in the form of snow, which is poorly monitored by sparse in situ weather networks. Both the timing and volume of snowmelt play critical roles in downstream water provision, as many applications - such as agriculture, drinking-water generation, and hydropower - rely on consistent and predictable snowmelt runoff. Here, we examine passive microwave data across HMA with five sensors (SSMI, SSMIS, AMSR-E, AMSR2, and GPM) from 1987 to 2016 to track the timing of the snowmelt season - defined here as the time between maximum passive microwave signal separation and snow clearance. We validated our method against climate model surface temperatures, optical remote-sensing snow-cover data, and a manual control dataset (n = 2100, 3 variables at 25 locations over 28 years); our algorithm is generally accurate within 3-5 days. Using the algorithm-generated snowmelt dates, we examine the spatiotemporal patterns of the snowmelt season across HMA. The climatically short (29-year) time series, along with complex interannual snowfall variations, makes determining trends in snowmelt dates at a single point difficult. We instead identify trends in snowmelt timing by using hierarchical clustering of the passive microwave data to determine trends in self-similar regions. We make the following four key observations. (1) The end of the snowmelt season is trending almost universally earlier in HMA (negative trends). Changes in the end of the snowmelt season are generally between 2 and 8 days decade-1 over the 29-year study period (5-25 days total). The length of the snowmelt season is thus shrinking in many, though not all, regions of HMA. Some areas exhibit later peak signal separation (positive trends), but with generally smaller magnitudes

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns of High Mountain Asia's snowmelt season identified with an automated snowmelt detection algorithm, 1987–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smith

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High Mountain Asia (HMA – encompassing the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges – is the primary water source for much of Asia, serving more than a billion downstream users. Many catchments receive the majority of their yearly water budget in the form of snow, which is poorly monitored by sparse in situ weather networks. Both the timing and volume of snowmelt play critical roles in downstream water provision, as many applications – such as agriculture, drinking-water generation, and hydropower – rely on consistent and predictable snowmelt runoff. Here, we examine passive microwave data across HMA with five sensors (SSMI, SSMIS, AMSR-E, AMSR2, and GPM from 1987 to 2016 to track the timing of the snowmelt season – defined here as the time between maximum passive microwave signal separation and snow clearance. We validated our method against climate model surface temperatures, optical remote-sensing snow-cover data, and a manual control dataset (n = 2100, 3 variables at 25 locations over 28 years; our algorithm is generally accurate within 3–5 days. Using the algorithm-generated snowmelt dates, we examine the spatiotemporal patterns of the snowmelt season across HMA. The climatically short (29-year time series, along with complex interannual snowfall variations, makes determining trends in snowmelt dates at a single point difficult. We instead identify trends in snowmelt timing by using hierarchical clustering of the passive microwave data to determine trends in self-similar regions. We make the following four key observations. (1 The end of the snowmelt season is trending almost universally earlier in HMA (negative trends. Changes in the end of the snowmelt season are generally between 2 and 8 days decade−1 over the 29-year study period (5–25 days total. The length of the snowmelt season is thus shrinking in many, though not all, regions of HMA. Some areas exhibit later peak signal separation (positive

  15. A quasi-linear formulation for chemically reacting compressible mixtures of imperfect gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentini, D.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-linear formulation is proposed for high-speed finite-rate chemically reacting mixtures of imperfect gases, i.e., thermally perfect gases with specific heat varying with temperature. It retains the same formalism of a well-tried counterpart formulation for perfect gases, which has been proven to be suited for application of accurate and fast algorithms. Equations for both quasi-monodimensional flows, and for axisymmetric viscous flows are presented. The approach is based on the definition of an appropriate function F of temperature and concentration, which allows to identify Riemann variables for the flow under consideration; the formulation also includes equations for the entropy and the mass fractions of the N chemical species present in the reacting mixture. The key function F must be computed by numerical quadrature, together with its derivatives with respect to the individual species mass fractions. An example of computation of these quantities is reported, with reference to conditions in the combustion chamber of the Vulcain engine powering the first stage of the Ariane 5 launcher. Such a computation is demonstrated to be both economic and accurate, thus proving the workability of the proposed approach. Further, an estimate of the variation of the mixture specific heat ratio with temperature is given, in order to underline the importance of the effect under consideration.

  16. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis of the 16S Ribosomal Gene to Detect and Identify Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Species in Colombian Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez Sánchez, Ronald G; Quintero, Juan Álvaro López; Pereira, Martha María; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad

    2017-05-01

    AbstractIt is important to identify the circulating Leptospira agent to enhance the performance of serodiagnostic tests by incorporating specific antigens of native species, develop vaccines that take into account the species/serovars circulating in different regions, and optimize prevention and control strategies. The objectives of this study were to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-high-resolution melting (HRM) assay for differentiating between species of the genus Leptospira and to verify its usefulness in identifying unknown samples to species level. A set of primers from the initial region of the 16S ribosomal gene was designed to detect and differentiate the 22 species of Leptospira . Eleven reference strains were used as controls to establish the reference species and differential melting curves. Twenty-five Colombian Leptospira isolates were studied to evaluate the usefulness of the PCR-HRM assay in identifying unknown samples to species level. This identification was confirmed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene. Eleven Leptospira species were successfully identified, except for Leptospira meyeri / Leptospira yanagawae because the sequences were 100% identical. The 25 isolates from humans, animals, and environmental water sources were identified as Leptospira santarosai (twelve), Leptospira interrogans (nine), and L. meyeri / L. yanagawae (four). The species verification was 100% concordant between PCR-HRM and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene. The PCR-HRM assay designed in this study is a useful tool for identifying Leptospira species from isolates.

  17. An experimental study on downstream of the transition of the chemically reacting liquid round free jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.D.; Sugii, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Madarame, H.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on the chemically reacting liquid round free jet, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was adopted to evaluate the diffusion width of the jet into liquid streams. In the fluid engineering, it is very important to evaluate the characteristics of reacting jet for the safety of the nuclear reactor. In this study, the jet profile of downstream region far away from the transition point was evaluated, providing comparisons between reacting and non-reacting jet case. The concentration of the jet solution was varied from 0.01 mol/L to 0.5 mol/L in reacting cases. In the downstream far away from the transition point, the jet profiles between reacting cases and non-reacting cases were visualized quite different. It was concluded that the chemical reaction affects the momentum diffusion of the jet in the downstream region. (author)

  18. Studies on the different forms of material reacting with antiinsulin antibodies in the fetal and adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, J.M.; Sutter-Dub, M.T.; Legrele, C.; Reims Univ., 51

    1975-01-01

    The nature of peak B (MW = 10-12,000, proinsulin) and peak C (MW = 50-100,000, 'big big' insulin) materials detected by the double antibody (DA) procedure in elution profiles of rat sera after Sephadex G 50 or G 100 chromatography (cf. preceding companion paper) is further investigated. Peak B is converted by mild tryptic digestion in an immunoreactive material behaving in rechromatography exactly like insulin monomer. Peak C is less easily detected by the dextran coated charcoal (DCC) method; it resists 8 M urea 37 0 C for 1 hr, is not an artifact due to the complement system; its relative importance is very much reduced in pancreatic extracts or perifusates. Incubation of biologically active 125 I labelled insulin in rat sera results in appearance of labelled material behaving on chromatography like peak C natural material, having the electrophoretic mobility of rat α 1 globulins and albumin, and resisting 8 M urea, acidic pHs and 0.5 M NaCl. Similar incubation in buffer supplemented with bovine albumin results in appearance of a labelled material having the electrophoretic mobility of beef albumin; N-ethyl-maleimide provides against this binding, which might result from (S-S)-(SH) interchanges. Rat α globulins and albumin (but not beef albumin) cross-react with the DA procedure; they do not react with the DCC method. Insulin bound to plasma proteins react with both methods. It is suggested that peak C material, as detected by the DA method in rat serum, consists both of insulin covalently bound to plasma proteins and of certain plasma proteins; the DCC method detects only bound insulin. In streptozotocin treated rats, peak C material persists after the complete disappearance of insulin and proinsulin when detected by the (DA) procedure, but disappears when detected by the DCC procedure. (orig.) [de

  19. Studies on the different forms of material reacting with antiinsulin antibodies in the fetal and adult rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, J M; Sutter-Dub, M T; Legrele, C [Reims Univ., 51 (France). Lab. de Physiologie Animale; Reims Univ., 51 (France). Centre de Biologie et de Biochimie du Developpement)

    1975-09-01

    The nature of peak B (MW = 10-12,000, proinsulin) and peak C (MW = 50-100,000, 'big big' insulin) materials detected by the double antibody (DA) procedure in elution profiles of rat sera after Sephadex G 50 or G 100 chromatography (cf. preceding companion paper) is further investigated. Peak B is converted by mild tryptic digestion in an immunoreactive material behaving in rechromatography exactly like insulin monomer. Peak C is less easily detected by the dextran coated charcoal (DCC) method; it resists 8 M urea 37/sup 0/C for 1 hr, is not an artifact due to the complement system; its relative importance is very much reduced in pancreatic extracts or perifusates. Incubation of biologically active /sup 125/I labelled insulin in rat sera results in appearance of labelled material behaving on chromatography like peak C natural material, having the electrophoretic mobility of rat ..cap alpha../sub 1/ globulins and albumin, and resisting 8 M urea, acidic pHs and 0.5 M NaCl. Similar incubation in buffer supplemented with bovine albumin results in appearance of a labelled material having the electrophoretic mobility of beef albumin; N-ethyl-maleimide provides against this binding, which might result from (S-S)-(SH) interchanges. Rat ..cap alpha.. globulins and albumin (but not beef albumin) cross-react with the DA procedure; they do not react with the DCC method. Insulin bound to plasma proteins react with both methods. It is suggested that peak C material, as detected by the DA method in rat serum, consists both of insulin covalently bound to plasma proteins and of certain plasma proteins; the DCC method detects only bound insulin. In streptozotocin treated rats, peak C material persists after the complete disappearance of insulin and proinsulin when detected by the (DA) procedure, but disappears when detected by the DCC procedure.

  20. Nonlinear Stability and Structure of Compressible Reacting Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M. J.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used to investigate issues of nonlinear flow development and mixing in compressible reacting shear layers. Particular interest is placed on investigating the change in flow structure that occurs when compressibility and heat release are added to the flow. These conditions allow the 'outer' instability modes- one associated with each of the fast and slow streams-to dominate over the 'central', Kelvin-Helmholtz mode that unaccompanied in incompressible nonreacting mixing layers. Analysis of scalar probability density functions in flows with dominant outer modes demonstrates the ineffective, one-sided nature of mixing that accompany these flow structures. Colayer conditions, where two modes have equal growth rate and the mixing layer is formed by two sets of vortices, offer some opportunity for mixing enhancement. Their extent, however, is found to be limited in the mixing layer's parameter space. Extensive validation of the PSE technique also provides a unique perspective on central- mode vortex pairing, further supporting the view that pairing is primarily governed perspective sheds insight on how linear stability theory is able to provide such an accurate prediction of experimentally-observed, fully nonlinear flow phenomenon.

  1. Motivation, procedures and aims of reacting plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Akira

    1982-01-01

    A project of reacting plasma experiment (R-project) was proposed at the Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP), Nagoya University. It is necessary to bridge plasma physics and fusion engineering by means of a messenger wire like burning plasma experiment. This is a motivation of the R-project. The university linkage organization of Japan for fusion engineering category carried out a lot of contribution to R-tokamak design. The project consists of four items, namely, R-tokamak design, research and development (R and D), site and facilities, and international collaboration. The phase 1 experiment (R 1 - phase) corresponds to burning plasma experiment without D + T fuel, while the phase-2 experiment (R 2 -phase) with D + T fuel. One reference design was finished. Intensive efforts have been carried out by the R and D team on the following items, wall material, vacuum system, tritium system, neutronics, remote control system, pulsed superconducting magnet development, negative ion source, and alpha-particle diagnostics. The problems concerning site and major facilities are also important, because tritium handling, neutron and gamma-ray sky shines and the activation of devices cause impact to surrounding area. The aims of burning plasma experiment are to enter tritium into the fusion device, and to study burning plasma physics. (Kato, T.)

  2. CERN reacts to increased costs to completion of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Aspects of LHC construction. The CERN Council, where the representatives of the 20 Member States of the Organization decide on scientific programmes and financial resources, held its 120th session on 14 December under the chairmanship of Prof. Maurice Bourquin (CH). CERN adjusts to the LHC Director-General, Luciano Maiani, stressed that CERN was now fully engaged in the LHC and outlined the first moves to react to the increased cost to completion of the LHC. The new accelerator is an extremely complex, high-tech project which CERN is building under very severe conditions. However, the technical challenges are solved and industrial production of accelerator elements, and installation are starting. Professor Maiani said that 2001 had been a very hard but decisive year for CERN. An important milestone had been passed during this meeting with the approval of the LHC dipole magnets contract, the last major contract for the accelerator. The new costs to completion of the LHC project are now clear. A first propos...

  3. The chilling effect: how do researchers react to controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kempner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can political controversy have a "chilling effect" on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Drawing on interview (n = 30 and survey data (n = 82, this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were "a waste of taxpayer money." The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.

  4. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  5. Evolution of a chemically reacting plume in a ventilated room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, D. T.; Smith, Stefan G. Llewellyn; Caulfield, C. P.

    2005-08-01

    The dynamics of a second-order chemical reaction in an enclosed space driven by the mixing produced by a turbulent buoyant plume are studied theoretically, numerically and experimentally. An isolated turbulent buoyant plume source is located in an enclosure with a single external opening. Both the source and the opening are located at the bottom of the enclosure. The enclosure is filled with a fluid of a given density with a fixed initial concentration of a chemical. The source supplies a constant volume flux of fluid of different density containing a different chemical of known and constant concentration. These two chemicals undergo a second-order non-reversible reaction, leading to the creation of a third product chemical. For simplicity, we restrict attention to the situation where the reaction process does not affect the density of the fluids involved. Because of the natural constraint of volume conservation, fluid from the enclosure is continually vented. We study the evolution of the various chemical species as they are advected by the developing ventilated filling box process within the room that is driven by the plume dynamics. In particular, we study both the mean and vertical distributions of the chemical species as a function of time within the room. We compare the results of analogue laboratory experiments with theoretical predictions derived from reduced numerical models, and find excellent agreement. Important parameters for the behaviour of the system are associated with the source volume flux and specific momentum flux relative to the source specific buoyancy flux, the ratio of the initial concentrations of the reacting chemical input in the plume and the reacting chemical in the enclosed space, the reaction rate of the chemicals and the aspect ratio of the room. Although the behaviour of the system depends on all these parameters in a non-trivial way, in general the concentration within the room of the chemical input at the isolated source passes

  6. Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab

    2016-12-01

    We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.

  7. Computational Investigation of Soot and Radiation in Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalit, Harshad

    This study delves into computational modeling of soot and infrared radiation for turbulent reacting flows, detailed understanding of both of which is paramount in the design of cleaner engines and pollution control. In the first part of the study, the concept of Stochastic Time and Space Series Analysis (STASS) as a numerical tool to compute time dependent statistics of radiation intensity is introduced for a turbulent premixed flame. In the absence of high fidelity codes for large eddy simulation or direct numerical simulation of turbulent flames, the utility of STASS for radiation imaging of reacting flows to understand the flame structure is assessed by generating images of infrared radiation in spectral bands dominated by radiation from gas phase carbon dioxide and water vapor using an assumed PDF method. The study elucidates the need for time dependent computation of radiation intensity for validation with experiments and the need for accounting for turbulence radiation interactions for correctly predicting radiation intensity and consequently the flame temperature and NOx in a reacting fluid flow. Comparison of single point statistics of infrared radiation intensity with measurements show that STASS can not only predict the flame structure but also estimate the dynamics of thermochemical scalars in the flame with reasonable accuracy. While a time series is used to generate realizations of thermochemical scalars in the first part of the study, in the second part, instantaneous realizations of resolved scale temperature, CO2 and H2O mole fractions and soot volume fractions are extracted from a large eddy simulation (LES) to carry out quantitative imaging of radiation intensity (QIRI) for a turbulent soot generating ethylene diffusion flame. A primary motivation of the study is to establish QIRI as a computational tool for validation of soot models, especially in the absence of conventional flow field and measured scalar data for sooting flames. Realizations of

  8. Detection of EpCAM-positive microparticles in pleural fluid: A new approach to mini-invasively identify patients with malignant pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Elisa; Lacroix, Romaric; Judicone, Coralie; Laroumagne, Sophie; Robert, Stéphane; Cointe, Sylvie; Muller, Alexandre; Kaspi, Elise; Roll, Patrice; Brisson, Alain R; Tantucci, Claudio; Astoul, Philippe; Dignat-George, Françoise

    2016-01-19

    Pleural biomarkers allowing to mini-invasively discriminate benign from malignant pleural effusions are needed. Among potential candidates, microparticles (MPs) are extracellular vesicles that vectorize antigen derived from the parent cell. We hypothesized that tumor-derived MPs could be present in the pleural liquid and help to identify patients with malignant pleural effusions. Using highly sensitive flow cytometry and cryo-electron microscopy, we showed that large amounts of MPs from hematopoïetic and vascular origin could be detectable in pleural fluids. Their level did not differ between benign (n = 14) and malignant (n = 71) pleural effusions. Analysis of selected tumoral associated antigens (podoplanin, mucin 1 and EpCAM, epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule) evidenced for the first time the presence of tumor-derived MPs expressing EpCAM in malignant pleural fluids only (Specificity = 93%, Sensitivity = 49% and 45% for flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively). The detection of EpCAM-positive-MPs (EpCAM + MPs) by flow cytometry showed a better specificity and sensitivity than ELISA to distinguish between pleural carcinoma and the others malignant pleural effusions (MPE; Sp: 96% vs 89%; Se: 79% vs 66%). Combining EpCAM+ MPs and cytology improved the diagnosis of MPE compared to cytology alone. This study establishes the basis for using EpCAM+ MPs as a promising new biomarker that could be added to the armamentarium to mini-invasively identify patients with malignant pleural effusions.

  9. Reliability of the MicroScan WalkAway PC21 panel in identifying and detecting oxacillin resistance in clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendzki, A N; Barros, E M; Laport, M S; Dos Santos, K R N; Giambiagi-Demarval, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the MicroScan WalkAway PosCombo21 (PC21) system for the identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains and the detection of oxacillin resistance. Using molecular and phenotypic methods, 196 clinical strains were evaluated. The automated system demonstrated 100 % reliability for the identification of the clinical strains Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus cohnii; 98.03 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis; 70 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus lugdunensis; 40 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus warneri; and 28.57 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus capitis, but no reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus xylosus. We concluded that the automated system provides accurate results for the more common CNS species but often fails to accurately identify less prevalent species. For the detection of oxacillin resistance, the automated system showed 100 % specificity and 90.22 % sensitivity. Thus, the PC21 panel detects oxacillin-resistant strains, but is limited by the heteroresistance that is observed when using most phenotypic methods.

  10. Modeling reacting gases and aftertreatment devices for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depcik, Christopher David

    As more emphasis is placed worldwide on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, automobile manufacturers have to create more efficient engines. Simultaneously, legislative agencies want these engines to produce fewer problematic emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. In response, newer combustion methods, like homogeneous charge compression ignition and fuel cells, are being researched alongside the old standard of efficiency, the compression ignition or diesel engine. These newer technologies present a number of benefits but still have significant challenges to overcome. As a result, renewed interest has risen in making diesel engines cleaner. The key to cleaning up the diesel engine is the placement of aftertreatment devices in the exhaust. These devices have shown great potential in reducing emission levels below regulatory levels while still allowing for increased fuel economy versus a gasoline engine. However, these devices are subject to many flow control issues. While experimental evaluation of these devices helps to understand these issues better, it is impossible to solve the problem through experimentation alone because of time and cost constraints. Because of this, accurate models are needed in conjunction with the experimental work. In this dissertation, the author examines the entire exhaust system including reacting gas dynamics and aftertreatment devices, and develops a complete numerical model for it. The author begins by analyzing the current one-dimensional gas-dynamics simulation models used for internal combustion engine simulations. It appears that more accurate and faster numerical method is available, in particular, those developed in aeronautical engineering, and the author successfully implements one for the exhaust system. The author then develops a comprehensive literature search to better understand the aftertreatment devices. A number of these devices require a secondary injection of fuel or reductant in the exhaust stream

  11. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter K. F. Hwang

    2007-10-22

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  12. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wires for Wind-and-React Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Peter K.F.

    2007-01-01

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2-inch dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  13. Immunolocalization of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium antigens reacting with their Egyptian snail vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; Mohamed, Amira H; Hammam, Olfat A; Rabia, Ibrahim

    2007-12-01

    The reaction of the haemolymph and the tissue of infected intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium antigens were investigated using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A new technique, Agarose cell block was used in collection of haemolymph which helped in collecting plenty of well formed cells in comparison to the ordinary one using the cytospin. Collected haemolymph and prepared tissues of uninfected and infected B. alexandria and B. truncatus were fixed and then reacted with anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium IgG polyclonal antibodies. The haemolymph and tissue of infected B. alexandrina and B. truncatus gave a positive peroxidase reaction represented by a brown colour. In haemolymph, the positive peroxidase reaction was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of the amoebocytes. In the tissue, it was detected in epithelial cells lining the tubules, male cells in the lumen of the tubules and in female oogonia cells along the periphery of the tubules. The similarity in the strength and distribution of positive reaction in B. alexandrina and B. truncates was observed as compared to control. Thus, the immunoperoxidase technique proved to be an effective indicator for the schistosome-antigen in the snails.

  14. Machine Learning Methods Improve Prognostication, Identify Clinically Distinct Phenotypes, and Detect Heterogeneity in Response to Therapy in a Large Cohort of Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; Lund, Lars H; Rao, Pooja; Ghosh, Rohit; Warier, Prashant; Vaccaro, Benjamin; Dahlström, Ulf; O'Connor, Christopher M; Felker, G Michael; Desai, Nihar R

    2018-04-12

    Whereas heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome, conventional approaches to its management have treated it as a singular disease, leading to inadequate patient care and inefficient clinical trials. We hypothesized that applying advanced analytics to a large cohort of HF patients would improve prognostication of outcomes, identify distinct patient phenotypes, and detect heterogeneity in treatment response. The Swedish Heart Failure Registry is a nationwide registry collecting detailed demographic, clinical, laboratory, and medication data and linked to databases with outcome information. We applied random forest modeling to identify predictors of 1-year survival. Cluster analysis was performed and validated using serial bootstrapping. Association between clusters and survival was assessed with Cox proportional hazards modeling and interaction testing was performed to assess for heterogeneity in response to HF pharmacotherapy across propensity-matched clusters. Our study included 44 886 HF patients enrolled in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry between 2000 and 2012. Random forest modeling demonstrated excellent calibration and discrimination for survival (C-statistic=0.83) whereas left ventricular ejection fraction did not (C-statistic=0.52): there were no meaningful differences per strata of left ventricular ejection fraction (1-year survival: 80%, 81%, 83%, and 84%). Cluster analysis using the 8 highest predictive variables identified 4 clinically relevant subgroups of HF with marked differences in 1-year survival. There were significant interactions between propensity-matched clusters (across age, sex, and left ventricular ejection fraction and the following medications: diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and nitrates, P <0.001, all). Machine learning algorithms accurately predicted outcomes in a large data set of HF patients. Cluster analysis identified 4 distinct phenotypes that differed significantly in outcomes and in

  15. Profiling of microRNAs in tumor interstitial fluid of breast tumors – a novel resource to identify biomarkers for prognostic classification and detection of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Helland, Åslaug; Gromov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    and to elucidate the cross-talk that exists among cells in a tumor microenvironment. Matched tumor interstitial fluid samples (TIF, n = 60), normal interstitial fluid samples (NIF, n = 51), corresponding tumor tissue specimens (n = 54), and serum samples (n = 27) were collected from patients with breast cancer......, and detectable microRNAs were analyzed and compared. In addition, serum data from 32 patients with breast cancer and 22 healthy controls were obtained for a validation study. To identify potential serum biomarkers of breast cancer, first the microRNA profiles of TIF and NIF samples were compared. A total of 266...... microRNAs were present at higher level in the TIF samples as compared to normal counterparts. Sixty-one of these microRNAs were present in > 75% of the serum samples and were subsequently tested in a validation set. Seven of the 61 microRNAs were associated with poor survival, while 23 were associated...

  16. Detection of high-sensitivity troponin in outpatients with stable pulmonary hypertension identifies a subgroup at higher risk of adverse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K; McCullagh, Brian N; Segurado, Ricardo; McGorrian, Catherine; Keane, Elizabeth; Keaney, John; Fitzgibbon, Maria N; Mahon, Niall G; Murray, Patrick T; Gaine, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    The detection of elevations in cardiorenal biomarkers, such as troponins, B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalins, are associated with poor outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure. Less is known about the association of these markers with adverse events in chronic right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary hypertension, or whether their measurement may improve risk assessment in the outpatient setting. We performed a cohort study of 108 patients attending the National Pulmonary Hypertension Unit in Dublin, Ireland, from 2007 to 2009. Cox proportional hazards analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine predictors of mortality and hospitalization. Death or hospitalization occurred in 50 patients (46.3%) during the median study period of 4.1 years. Independent predictors of mortality were: 1) decreasing 6-minute walk test (6MWT; hazard ratio [HR] 12.8; P < .001); 2) BNP (HR 6.68; P < .001); and 3) highly sensitive troponin (hsTnT; HR 5.48; P < .001). Adjusted hazard analyses remained significant when hsTnT was added to a model with BNP and 6MWT (HR 9.26, 95% CI 3.61-23.79), as did the predictive ability of the model for death and rehospitalization (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.90). Detection of troponin using a highly sensitive assay identifies a pulmonary hypertension subgroup with a poorer prognosis. hsTnT may also be used in a risk prediction model to identify patients at higher risk who may require escalation of targeted pulmonary vasodilator therapies and closer clinical surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In situ hybridization detection methods for HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA in identifying transcriptionally active HPV infection of oropharyngeal carcinoma: an updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara C; Ciniselli, Chiara M; Gualeni, Ambra V; Plebani, Maddalena; Alfieri, Salvatore; Verderio, Paolo; Locati, Laura; Perrone, Federica; Quattrone, Pasquale; Carbone, Antonino; Pilotti, Silvana; Gloghini, Annunziata

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare 2 in situ hybridization (ISH) detection methods for human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 mRNA, that is, the RNAscope 2.0 High Definition (HD) and the upgraded RNAscope 2.5 HD version. The RNAscope 2.5 HD has recently replaced the RNAscope 2.0 HD detection kit. Therefore, this investigation starts from the need to analytically validate the new mRNA ISH assay and, possibly, to refine the current algorithm for HPV detection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with the final goal of applying it to daily laboratory practice. The study was based on HPV status and on generated data, interpreted by a scoring algorithm. The results highlighted that the compared RNAscope HPV tests had a good level of interchangeability and enabled to identify oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma that are truly driven by high-risk HPV infection. This was also supported by the comparison of the RNAscope HPV test with HPV E6/E7 mRNA real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in a fraction of cases where material for HPV E6/E7 mRNA real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was available. Furthermore, the algorithm that associates p16 immunohistochemistry with the identification of HPV mRNA by RNAscope was more effective than the one that associated p16 immunohistochemistry with the identification of HPV DNA by ISH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ReACT!: An Interactive Educational Tool for AI Planning for Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogmus, Zeynep; Erdem, Esra; Patogulu, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ReAct!, an interactive educational tool for artificial intelligence (AI) planning for robotics. ReAct! enables students to describe robots' actions and change in dynamic domains without first having to know about the syntactic and semantic details of the underlying formalism, and to solve planning problems using…

  19. Improving Resilience to Emergencies through Advanced Cyber Technologies: the I-REACT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maltoni

    2017-08-01

    be equipped with essential tools for early warning and response. At the same time, private companies could leverage specific set of I-REACT components to improve their business, when linked to disaster management. Overall, I-REACT aims to be a European-wide contribution to build more secure and resilient societies to disasters.

  20. Improving TCP Network Performance by Detecting and Reacting to Packet Reordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Hans; Ostermann, Shawn; Allman, Mark

    2003-01-01

    There are many factors governing the performance of TCP-basec applications traversing satellite channels. The end-to-end performance of TCP is known to be degraded by the reordering, delay, noise and asymmetry inherent in geosynchronous systems. This result has been largely based on experiments that evaluate the performance of TCP in single flow tests. While single flow tests are useful for deriving information on the theoretical behavior of TCP and allow for easy diagnosis of problems they do not represent a broad range of realistic situations and therefore cannot be used to authoritatively comment on performance issues. The experiments discussed in this report test TCP s performance in a more dynamic environment with competing traffic flows from hundreds of TCP connections running simultaneously across the satellite channel. Another aspect we investigate is TCP's reaction to bit errors on satellite channels. TCP interprets loss as a sign of network congestion. This causes TCP to reduce its transmission rate leading to reduced performance when loss is due to corruption. We allowed the bit error rate on our satellite channel to vary widely and tested the performance of TCP as a function of these bit error rates. Our results show that the average performance of TCP on satellite channels is good even under conditions of loss as high as bit error rates of 10(exp -5)

  1. Validating the use of the evaluation tool of children's handwriting-manuscript to identify handwriting difficulties and detect change in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Mazer, Barbara; Julien, Marilyse; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    In this study we sought to validate the discriminant ability of the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Manuscript in identifying children in Grades 2-3 with handwriting difficulties and to determine the percentage of change in handwriting scores that is consistently detected by occupational therapists. Thirty-four therapists judged and compared 35 pairs of handwriting samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine (1) the optimal cutoff values for word and letter legibility scores that identify children with handwriting difficulties who should be seen in rehabilitation and (2) the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in handwriting scores. Cutoff scores of 75.0% for total word legibility and 76.0% for total letter legibility were found to provide excellent levels of accuracy. A difference of 10.0%-12.5% for total word legibility and 6.0%-7.0% for total letter legibility were found as the MCID. Study findings enable therapists to quantitatively support clinical judgment when evaluating handwriting. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Epidemic 2014 enterovirus D68 cross-reacts with human rhinovirus on a respiratory molecular diagnostic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Shane C; Schleiss, Mark R; Arbefeville, Sophie; Steiner, Marie E; Hanson, Ryan S; Pollock, Catherine; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging virus known to cause sporadic disease and occasional epidemics of severe lower respiratory tract infection. However, the true prevalence of infection with EV-D68 is unknown, due in part to the lack of a rapid and specific nucleic acid amplification test as well as the infrequency with which respiratory samples are analyzed by enterovirus surveillance programs. During the 2014 EV-D68 epidemic in the United States, we noted an increased frequency of "low-positive" results for human rhinovirus (HRV) detected in respiratory tract samples using the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor respiratory viral panel, a multiplex PCR assay able to detect 14 known respiratory viruses but not enteroviruses. We simultaneously noted markedly increased admissions to our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for severe lower respiratory tract infections in patients both with and without a history of reactive airway disease. Accordingly, we hypothesized that these "low-positive" RVP results were due to EV-D68 rather than rhinovirus infection. Sequencing of the picornavirus 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 49 samples positive for HRV by the GenMark RVP revealed that 33 (67.3%) were in fact EV-D68. Notably, the mean intensity of the HRV RVP result was significantly lower in the sequence-identified EV-D68 samples (20.3 nA) compared to HRV (129.7 nA). Using a cut-off of 40 nA for the differentiation of EV-D68 from HRV resulted in 94% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The robust diagnostic characteristics of our data suggest that the cross-reactivity of EV-D68 and HRV on the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor RVP platform may be an important factor to consider in making accurate molecular diagnosis of EV-D68 at institutions utilizing this system or other molecular respiratory platforms that may also cross-react.

  3. Autofluorescence imaging can identify preinvasive or clinically occult lesions in fallopian tube epithelium: a promising step towards screening and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, J N; El Hallani, S; Lam, S F; Kalloger, S E; Luk, M; Huntsman, D G; MacAulay, C; Gilks, C B; Miller, D M; Lane, P M

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging systems are robust, portable, relatively inexpensive, and have proven utility in detecting precancerous lesions in the lung, esophagus, colon, oral cavity and cervix. We describe the use of light-induced endogenous fluorescence (autofluorescence) in identifying preinvasive and occult carcinomas in ex vivo samples of human fallopian tube (FT) epithelium. Women undergoing surgery for an i) ovarian mass, ii) a history suggestive of hereditary breast-ovarian cancer, or iii) known serous ovarian cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were approached for informed consent. Immediately following surgery, FT's were photographed in reflectance and fluorescence at high resolution. Images included: (1) white-light reflectance of luminal/epithelial surface; (2) narrow-band green reflectance (570 nm) (3) green autofluorescence (405/436 nm excitation); and (4) blue autofluorescence (405 nm excitation). Areas revealing a loss of natural tissue fluorescence or marked increase in tissue microvasculature were recorded and compared to final histopathologic diagnosis (SEE-FIM protocol). Fifty-six cases involving one or both fallopian tubes underwent reflectance and fluorescence visualization. Nine cases were excluded, either secondary to non-ovarian primary pathology (7) or excessive trauma (2) rendering tissue interpretation impossible. Of the 47 cases remaining, there were 11 high grade serous (HGS) and 9 non-serous ovarian carcinomas undergoing primary debulking surgery, 5 serous carcinomas having received NAC, 8 benign ovarian tumors, and 14 women undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO). Methodology was feasible, efficient, and reproducible. TIC or carcinoma was identified in 7/11 HGS, 3/5 NAC, and 1/14 RRBSO. Optical images were reviewed to determine test positive or negative based on standardized criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the entire

  4. Study of transport and micro-structural properties of magnesium di-boride strand under react and bend mode and bend and react mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Bano, Anees; Pradhan, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    I-V characterization of commercial multi-filamentary Magnesium Di-Boride (MgB 2 ) wire of diameter 0.83 mm were studied in cryocooler based self-field characterization system under both react and bent mode and bent and react mode for a range of temperature 6 K - 25 K. This study is of practical technical relevance where the heat treatment of the superconducting wire makes the sample less flexible for winding in magnet and in other applications. There are limited reported data, available on degradation of MgB 2 wire with bending induced strain in react and wind and wind and react method. In the present work the bending diameter were varied from 80 mm to 20 mm in the interval of 10 mm change of bending diameter and for each case critical current (Ic) of the strand is measured for the above range of temperature. An ETP copper made customized sample holder for mounting the MgB 2 strand was fabricated and is thermally anchored to the cooling stage of the cryocooler. It is seen from the experimental data that in react and bent mode the critical current degrades from 105 A to 87 A corresponding to bending diameter of 80 mm and 20 mm respectively. The corresponding bending strain was analytically estimated and compared with the simulation result. It is also observed that in react and bent mode, the degradation of the transport property of the strand is less as compared to react and bent mode. For bent and react mode in the same sample, the critical current (Ic) was measured to be ∼145 A at 15 K for bending diameter of 20 mm. Apart from studying the bending induced strain on MgB 2 strand, the tensile test of the strand at RT was carried out. The electrical characterizations of the samples were accompanied by the microstructure analyses of the bent strand to examine the bending induced degradation in the grain structure of the strand. All these experimental findings are expected to be used as input to fabricate prototype MgB 2 based magnet. (author)

  5. Manufacturing and preliminary tests of a 12 T ''wind and react'' coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, A. della; Pasotti, G.; Sacchetti, N.; Spadoni, M.; Oliva, A.B.; Penco, R.; Parodi, S.; Valle, N.; Specking, W.

    1994-01-01

    As already reported ENEA is engaged in the realization of a 12 T wind and react Nb 3 Sn coil, a subsize magnet designed to simulate many technological problems to be faced in NET-ITER magnets. EM-LMI and Ansaldo are the industrial partners in this project. A preliminary winding has been built and successfully tested. This winding has been cut in pieces and carefully inspected to be sure that the impregnation process after the heat treatment works well. No particular flaws have been detected. Then manufacturing of the 12 T magnet has been started and completed in about three months. Heat treatment, impregnation and electrical tests at 300 K have been successfully performed and the magnet is now ready for final tests. In order to obtain the most significant scientific and technological information from this magnet, the original test program (insertion of the coil in the SULTAN facility) has been modified according to a decision of the Fusion Technology Steering Committee (FTSC) of EURATOM. Details of the new test programs are given in the paper

  6. A rapid two-step algorithm detects and identifies clinical macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in clinical bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuedong; Nie, Shuping; Xia, Chengjing; Huang, Lie; He, Ying; Wu, Runxiang; Zhang, Li

    2014-07-01

    Aiming to identify macrolide and beta-lactam resistance in clinical bacterial isolates rapidly and accurately, a two-step algorithm was developed based on detection of eight antibiotic resistance genes. Targeting at genes linked to bacterial macrolide (msrA, ermA, ermB, and ermC) and beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9) antibiotic resistances, this method includes a multiplex real-time PCR, a melting temperature profile analysis as well as a liquid bead microarray assay. Liquid bead microarray assay is applied only when indistinguishable Tm profile is observed. The clinical validity of this method was assessed on clinical bacterial isolates. Among the total 580 isolates that were determined by our diagnostic method, 75% of them were identified by the multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis alone, while the remaining 25% required both multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis and liquid bead microarray assay for identification. Compared with the traditional phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility test, an overall agreement of 81.2% (kappa=0.614, 95% CI=0.550-0.679) was observed, with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.7% and 73% respectively. Besides, the average test turnaround time is 3.9h, which is much shorter in comparison with more than 24h for the traditional phenotypic tests. Having the advantages of the shorter operating time and comparable high sensitivity and specificity with the traditional phenotypic test, our two-step algorithm provides an efficient tool for rapid determination of macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistances in clinical bacterial isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Settlement Relocation Modeling: Reacting to Merapi’s Eruption Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitasari, A.; Buchori, I.

    2018-02-01

    Merapi eruption has made severe damages in Central Java Province. Klaten was one of the most affected area, specifically in Balerante Village. This research is made to comprehend GIS model on finding alternative locations for impacted settlement in hazardous zones of eruption. The principal objective of the research study is to identify and analyze physical condition, community characteristics, and local government regulation related to settlements relocation plan for impacted area of eruption. The output is location map which classified into four categories, i.e. not available, available with low accessibility, available with medium accessibility, and available with high accessibility.

  8. Developing Dynamic Single Page Web Applications Using Meteor : Comparing JavaScript Frameworks: Blaze and React

    OpenAIRE

    Yetayeh, Asabeneh

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies Meteor which is a JavaScript full-stack framework to develop interactive single page web applications. Meteor allows building web applications entirely in JavaScript. Meteor uses Blaze, React or AngularJS as a view layer and Node.js and MongoDB as a back-end. The main purpose of this study is to compare the performance of Blaze and React. A multi-user Blaze and React web applications with similar HTML and CSS were developed. Both applications were deployed on Heroku’s w...

  9. Improving a full-text search engine: the importance of negation detection and family history context to identify cases in a biomedical data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcelon, Nicolas; Neuraz, Antoine; Benoit, Vincent; Salomon, Rémi; Burgun, Anita

    2017-05-01

    The repurposing of electronic health records (EHRs) can improve clinical and genetic research for rare diseases. However, significant information in rare disease EHRs is embedded in the narrative reports, which contain many negated clinical signs and family medical history. This paper presents a method to detect family history and negation in narrative reports and evaluates its impact on selecting populations from a clinical data warehouse (CDW). We developed a pipeline to process 1.6 million reports from multiple sources. This pipeline is part of the load process of the Necker Hospital CDW. We identified patients with "Lupus and diarrhea," "Crohn's and diabetes," and "NPHP1" from the CDW. The overall precision, recall, specificity, and F-measure were 0.85, 0.98, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively. The proposed method generates a highly accurate identification of cases from a CDW of rare disease EHRs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Streptococcus sinensis may react with Lancefield group F antiserum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Teng, Jade L L; Leung, Kit-wah; Lau, Susanna K P; Tse, Herman; Wong, Beatrice H L; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2004-11-01

    Lancefield group F streptococci have been found almost exclusively as members of the 'Streptococcus milleri' group, although they have been reported very occasionally in some other streptococcal species. Among 302 patients with bacteraemia caused by viridans streptococci over a 6-year period, three cases were caused by Streptococcus sinensis (type strain HKU4T, HKU5 and HKU6). All three patients had infective endocarditis complicating their underlying chronic rheumatic heart diseases. Gene sequencing showed no base differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of HKU5 and HKU6 and that of HKU4T. All three strains were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming cocci arranged in chains. All grew on sheep blood agar as alpha-haemolytic, grey colonies of 0.5-1 mm in diameter after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C in ambient air. Lancefield grouping revealed that HKU5 and HKU6 were Lancefield group F, but HKU4T was non-groupable with Lancefield groups A, B, C, D, F or G antisera. HKU4T was identified by the Vitek system (GPI), API system (20 STREP) and ATB system (ID32 STREP) as 99 % Streptococcus intermedius, 51.3 % S. intermedius and 99.9 % Streptococcus anginosus, respectively. Using the same tests, HKU5 was identified as 87 % Streptococcus sanguinis/Streptococcus gordonii, 59 % Streptococcus salivarius and 99.6 % S. anginosus, respectively, and HKU6 as 87 % S. sanguinis/S. gordonii, 77 % Streptococcus pneumoniae and 98.3 % S. anginosus, respectively. The present data revealed that a proportion of Lancefield group F streptococci could be S. sinensis. Lancefield group F streptococci should not be automatically reported as 'S. milleri'.

  11. The Accounting Network: How Financial Institutions React to Systemic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliga, Michelangelo; Flori, Andrea; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The role of Network Theory in the study of the financial crisis has been widely spotted in the latest years. It has been shown how the network topology and the dynamics running on top of it can trigger the outbreak of large systemic crisis. Following this methodological perspective we introduce here the Accounting Network, i.e. the network we can extract through vector similarities techniques from companies' financial statements. We build the Accounting Network on a large database of worldwide banks in the period 2001-2013, covering the onset of the global financial crisis of mid-2007. After a careful data cleaning, we apply a quality check in the construction of the network, introducing a parameter (the Quality Ratio) capable of trading off the size of the sample (coverage) and the representativeness of the financial statements (accuracy). We compute several basic network statistics and check, with the Louvain community detection algorithm, for emerging communities of banks. Remarkably enough sensible regional aggregations show up with the Japanese and the US clusters dominating the community structure, although the presence of a geographically mixed community points to a gradual convergence of banks into similar supranational practices. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis procedure reveals the main economic components that influence communities' heterogeneity. Even using the most basic vector similarity hypotheses on the composition of the financial statements, the signature of the financial crisis clearly arises across the years around 2008. We finally discuss how the Accounting Networks can be improved to reflect the best practices in the financial statement analysis.

  12. The Accounting Network: How Financial Institutions React to Systemic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliga, Michelangelo; Flori, Andrea; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The role of Network Theory in the study of the financial crisis has been widely spotted in the latest years. It has been shown how the network topology and the dynamics running on top of it can trigger the outbreak of large systemic crisis. Following this methodological perspective we introduce here the Accounting Network, i.e. the network we can extract through vector similarities techniques from companies’ financial statements. We build the Accounting Network on a large database of worldwide banks in the period 2001–2013, covering the onset of the global financial crisis of mid-2007. After a careful data cleaning, we apply a quality check in the construction of the network, introducing a parameter (the Quality Ratio) capable of trading off the size of the sample (coverage) and the representativeness of the financial statements (accuracy). We compute several basic network statistics and check, with the Louvain community detection algorithm, for emerging communities of banks. Remarkably enough sensible regional aggregations show up with the Japanese and the US clusters dominating the community structure, although the presence of a geographically mixed community points to a gradual convergence of banks into similar supranational practices. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis procedure reveals the main economic components that influence communities’ heterogeneity. Even using the most basic vector similarity hypotheses on the composition of the financial statements, the signature of the financial crisis clearly arises across the years around 2008. We finally discuss how the Accounting Networks can be improved to reflect the best practices in the financial statement analysis. PMID:27736865

  13. The Accounting Network: How Financial Institutions React to Systemic Crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelangelo Puliga

    Full Text Available The role of Network Theory in the study of the financial crisis has been widely spotted in the latest years. It has been shown how the network topology and the dynamics running on top of it can trigger the outbreak of large systemic crisis. Following this methodological perspective we introduce here the Accounting Network, i.e. the network we can extract through vector similarities techniques from companies' financial statements. We build the Accounting Network on a large database of worldwide banks in the period 2001-2013, covering the onset of the global financial crisis of mid-2007. After a careful data cleaning, we apply a quality check in the construction of the network, introducing a parameter (the Quality Ratio capable of trading off the size of the sample (coverage and the representativeness of the financial statements (accuracy. We compute several basic network statistics and check, with the Louvain community detection algorithm, for emerging communities of banks. Remarkably enough sensible regional aggregations show up with the Japanese and the US clusters dominating the community structure, although the presence of a geographically mixed community points to a gradual convergence of banks into similar supranational practices. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis procedure reveals the main economic components that influence communities' heterogeneity. Even using the most basic vector similarity hypotheses on the composition of the financial statements, the signature of the financial crisis clearly arises across the years around 2008. We finally discuss how the Accounting Networks can be improved to reflect the best practices in the financial statement analysis.

  14. Methane reacts with heteropolyacids chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Miao; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Rossini, Aaron J.; Zhang, Jizhe; Lesage, Anne; Zhu, Haibo; Pelletier, Jeremie; Emsley, Lyndon; Caps, Valerie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Selective functionalization of methane at moderate temperature is of crucial economic, environmental, and scientific importance. Here, we report that methane reacts with heteropolyacids (HPAs) chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft

  15. Rule-Based Multidisciplinary Tool for Unsteady Reacting Real-Fluid Flows, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A design and analysis computational tool is proposed for simulating unsteady reacting flows in combustor devices used in reusable launch vehicles. Key aspects...

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis of Chemically Reacting Mixtures-Comparison of First and Second Order Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekař, Miloslav

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a method based on non-equilibrium continuum thermodynamics which derives thermodynamically consistent reaction rate models together with thermodynamic constraints on their parameters was analyzed using a triangular reaction scheme. The scheme was kinetically of the first order. Here, the analysis is further developed for several first and second order schemes to gain a deeper insight into the thermodynamic consistency of rate equations and relationships between chemical thermodynamic and kinetics. It is shown that the thermodynamic constraints on the so-called proper rate coefficient are usually simple sign restrictions consistent with the supposed reaction directions. Constraints on the so-called coupling rate coefficients are more complex and weaker. This means more freedom in kinetic coupling between reaction steps in a scheme, i.e., in the kinetic effects of other reactions on the rate of some reaction in a reacting system. When compared with traditional mass-action rate equations, the method allows a reduction in the number of traditional rate constants to be evaluated from data, i.e., a reduction in the dimensionality of the parameter estimation problem. This is due to identifying relationships between mass-action rate constants (relationships which also include thermodynamic equilibrium constants) which have so far been unknown.

  17. KEEFEKTIFAN STRATEGI REACT DITINJAU DARI PRESTASI BELAJAR, KEMAMPUAN PENYELESAIAN MASALAH, KONEKSI MATEMATIS, SELF EFFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runtyani Irjayanti Putri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mendeskripsikan keefektifan strategi pembelajaran REACT pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang, (2 menentukan strategi pembelajaran yang lebih efektif diantara strategi REACT dan pembelajaran konvensional pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari aspek prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian quasi experiment. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah teknik tes dan nontes. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah uji one sample t-test, uji T2 Hotelling’s, dan uji t-Bonferroni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 strategi pembelajaran REACT efektif pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang, dan (2 strategi pembelajaran REACT lebih efektif daripada pembelajaran konvensional pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari aspek prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang. Kata Kunci: strategi REACT, prestasi belajar, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA   THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REACT STRATEGY VIEWED FROM LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT, PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY, MATHEMATICAL CONNECTION, SELF EFFICACY Abstract The aims of this study are to: (1 to describe the effectiveness of the REACT strategy viewed from Mathematics Learning Achievement, Mathematics Problem Solving Ability, Mathematics Connection Ability, and Student Self efficacy of State Senior High School 4 Magelang Students, and (2 determine a more effective

  18. An improved ChIP-seq peak detection system for simultaneously identifying post-translational modified transcription factors by combinatorial fusion, using SUMOylation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Yang; Chu, Chia-Han; Hsu, Hung-Wei; Hsu, Fang-Rong; Tang, Chung Yi; Wang, Wen-Ching; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chang, Pei-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modification (PTM) of transcriptional factors and chromatin remodelling proteins is recognized as a major mechanism by which transcriptional regulation occurs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in combination with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is being applied as a gold standard when studying the genome-wide binding sites of transcription factor (TFs). This has greatly improved our understanding of protein-DNA interactions on a genomic-wide scale. However, current ChIP-seq peak calling tools are not sufficiently sensitive and are unable to simultaneously identify post-translational modified TFs based on ChIP-seq analysis; this is largely due to the wide-spread presence of multiple modified TFs. Using SUMO-1 modification as an example; we describe here an improved approach that allows the simultaneous identification of the particular genomic binding regions of all TFs with SUMO-1 modification. Traditional peak calling methods are inadequate when identifying multiple TF binding sites that involve long genomic regions and therefore we designed a ChIP-seq processing pipeline for the detection of peaks via a combinatorial fusion method. Then, we annotate the peaks with known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) using the Transfac Matrix Database (v7.0), which predicts potential SUMOylated TFs. Next, the peak calling result was further analyzed based on the promoter proximity, TFBS annotation, a literature review, and was validated by ChIP-real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and ChIP-reChIP real-time qPCR. The results show clearly that SUMOylated TFs are able to be pinpointed using our pipeline. A methodology is presented that analyzes SUMO-1 ChIP-seq patterns and predicts related TFs. Our analysis uses three peak calling tools. The fusion of these different tools increases the precision of the peak calling results. TFBS annotation method is able to predict potential SUMOylated TFs. Here, we offer a new approach that enhances Ch

  19. Cross-reacting and heterospecific monoclonal antibodies produced against arabis mosaic nepovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, E A; Stace-Smith, R

    1992-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against arabis mosaic nepovirus (AMV). A hybridoma screening procedure was applied which involved the testing of culture supernatants, before the hybridomas were cloned to single cell lines, for their reaction with eight nepoviruses [AMV, cherry leafroll virus (CLRV), grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), peach rosette mosaic virus, raspberry ringspot virus (RRSV), tobacco ringspot virus, tomato black ring virus (TBRV) and tomato ringspot virus]. In addition to AMV-specific MAbs, this screening technique has allowed the selection of two cross-reacting MAbs: one reacting with AMV and GFLV, and one reacting with AMV and RRSV. This is the first report of MAbs cross-reacting with these nepoviruses. In addition, five heterospecific MAbs (HS-MAbs) could be selected: two reacting with RRSV, two with CLRV and one with TBRV. The usefulness of the screening technique that was applied for the selection of cross-reacting MAbs and HS-MAbs, and the potential use of such antibodies are discussed.

  20. Birefringence characteristics in sperm heads allow for the selection of reacted spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Ferraretti, Anna P; Crippa, Andor; Lappi, Michela; Capitani, Serena; Baccetti, Baccio

    2010-02-01

    To verify clinical outcome after injection of spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction (reacted spermatozoa) vs. those still having an intact acrosome (nonreacted spermatozoa). Prospective, randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Italian Society for the Study of Reproductive Medicine, Bologna, Italy. According to a prospective randomization including 71 couples with severe male factor infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed under polarized light that permitted analysis of the pattern of birefringence in the sperm head. Twenty-three patients had their oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa, 26 patient's oocytes were injected with nonreacted spermatozoa, and in 22 patients both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa were injected. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed under polarized light to selectively inject acrosome-reacted and acrosome-nonreacted spermatozoa. Rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. There was no effect on the fertilizing capacity and embryo development of either type of sperm, whereas the implantation rate was higher in oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa (39.0%) vs. those injected with nonreacted spermatozoa (8.6%). The implantation rate was 24.4% in the group injected with both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa. The delivery rate per cycle followed the same trend. Spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction seem to be more prone to supporting the development of viable ICSI embryos. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calculation of the detection limits for radionuclides identified in gamma-ray spectra based on post-processing peak analysis results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korun, M; Vodenik, B; Zorko, B

    2018-03-01

    A new method for calculating the detection limits of gamma-ray spectrometry measurements is presented. The method is applicable for gamma-ray emitters, irrespective of the influences of the peaked background, the origin of the background and the overlap with other peaks. It offers the opportunity for multi-gamma-ray emitters to calculate the common detection limit, corresponding to more peaks. The detection limit is calculated by approximating the dependence of the uncertainty in the indication on its value with a second-order polynomial. In this approach the relation between the input quantities and the detection limit are described by an explicit expression and can be easy investigated. The detection limit is calculated from the data usually provided by the reports of peak-analyzing programs: the peak areas and their uncertainties. As a result, the need to use individual channel contents for calculating the detection limit is bypassed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of improved finite-difference WENO schemes for the implicit large eddy simulation of turbulent non-reacting and reacting high-speed shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, S.; Lardjane, N.; Fedioun, I.

    2014-01-01

    Improved WENO schemes, Z, M, and their combination MZ, originally designed to capture sharper discontinuities than the classical fifth order Jiang-Shu scheme does, are evaluated for the purpose of implicit large eddy simulation of free shear flows. 1D Fourier analysis of errors reveals the built-in filter and dissipative properties of the schemes, which are subsequently applied to the canonical Rayleigh-Taylor and Taylor-Green flows. Large eddy simulations of a transonic non-reacting and a supersonic reacting air/H2 jets are then performed at resolution 128 * 128 * 512, showing no significant difference in the flow statistics. However, the computational time varies from one scheme to the other, the Z scheme providing the smaller wall-time due to larger allowed time steps. (authors)

  3. Numerical simulation of reacting and non-reacting flow in a combustion chamber; Numerisk simulering av reagerande och icke-reagerande stroemning i en braennkammare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, A.; Revstedt, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this work has been to do a preliminary study of how well numerical calculations with different turbulence models can predict the flow and temperature fields of a strongly swirling and combusting flow in an experimental combustion chamber and to see which parameters in the mathematical model are the most important. The combustion chamber on which we have done the calculations is called Validation Rig II and was designed by Volvo Aero Corporation. The main part of the study has been carried out on a non-reacting flow but some work has also been done on reacting flow. In most cases it has not been meaningful to compare the calculations with the measurements because they differ quite a lot from each other. For the non-reacting case the following investigations have been made: * How the solution differs for different turbulence models, * The solutions sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions, * How different types of leakage disturb the flow, and * The difference in results between two different CFD-codes, the commercial code CFDS-Flow3D and a code developed at the department of fluid mechanics. For the reacting cases we have studied the influence of: * one or two reaction steps, * the effects of a change in reaction rate, * the influence of thermal radiation, and * the effects of changing the boundary conditions for temperature on the walls. The results from these calculations show that the inlet turbulence intensity has very little effect on the values of the turbulent quantities as well as the velocity profiles at the outlet. Changing the turbulence model or the outlet boundary conditions gives some change in velocity profiles at the outlet but only marginal effects on the swirl number. 21 refs, 54 figs, 19 tabs

  4. Study of Transport and Micro-structural properties of Magnesium Di-Boride Strand under react and bend mode and bend and react mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Kumar Das, Subrat; Bano, Anees; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    I-V characterization of commercial multi-filamentary Magnesium Di-Boride (MgB 2 ) wire of diameter 0.83 mm were studied in Cryocooler at self-field I-V characterization system under both react and bend mode and bend and react mode for a range of temperature 6 K - 25 K. This study is of practical technical relevance where the heat treatment of the superconducting wire makes the wire less flexible for winding in magnet and in other applications. In the present work the bending diameter was varied from 40 mm to 20 mm and for each case critical current (I c ) of the strand is measured for above range of temperature. A customized sample holder is fabricated and thermally anchored with the 2 nd cold stage of Cryocooler. It is observed from the measurement that the strand is more susceptible to degradation for react and bend cases. The transport measurement of the strand was accompanied by SEM analyses of bend samples. Also the tensile strength of the raw strands and the heat treated strands were carried out at room temperature in Universal Testing Machine (UTM) to have an estimate about the limiting winding tension value during magnet fabrication. (paper)

  5. An experimental and numerical study of confined non-reacting and reacting turbulent jets to facilitate homogeneous combustion in industrial furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Insu

    Confined non-reacting turbulent jets are ideal for recirculating the hot flue gas back into the furnace from an external exhaust duct. Such jets are also used inside the furnace to internally entrain and recirculate the hot flue gas to preheat and dilute the reactants. Both internal and external implementation of confined turbulent jets increase the furnace thermal efficiency. For external implementation, depending on the circumstances, the exhaust gas flow may be co- or counter-flow relative to the jet flow. Inside the furnaces, fuel and air jets are injected separately. To create a condition which can facilitate near homogeneous combustion, these jets have to first mix with the burned gas inside the furnace and simultaneously being heated and diluted prior to combustion. Clearly, the combustion pattern and emissions from reacting confined turbulent jets are affected by jet interactions, mixing and entrainment of hot flue gas. In this work, the flow and mixing characteristics of a non-reacting and reacting confined turbulent jet are investigated experimentally and numerically. This work consists of two parts: (i) A study of flow and mixing characteristics of non-reacting confined turbulent jets with co- or counter-flowing exhaust/flue gas. Here the axial and radial distributions of temperature, velocity and NO concentration (used as a tracer gas) were measured. FLUENT was used to numerically simulate the experimental results. This work provides the basic understanding of the flow and mixing characteristics of confined turbulent jets and develops some design considerations for recirculating flue gas back into the furnace as expressed by the recirculation zone and the stagnation locations. (ii) Numerical calculations of near homogeneous combustion are performed for the existing furnace. The exact geometry of the furnace in the lab is used and the real dimensional boundary conditions are considered. The parameters such as air nozzle diameter (dair), fuel nozzle

  6. House dust mite (Der p 10) and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; van Broekhoven, Sarah; den Hartog-Jager, Constance F; Gaspari, Marco; de Jong, Govardus A H; Wichers, Harry J; van Hoffen, Els; Houben, Geert F; Knulst, André C

    2014-03-01

    Due to the imminent growth of the world population, shortage of protein sources for human consumption will arise in the near future. Alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects) are being explored for the production of food and feed. In this project, the safety of Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) for human consumption was tested using approaches as advised by the European Food Safety Authority for allergenicity risk assessment. Different Yellow mealworm protein fractions were prepared, characterised, and tested for cross-reactivity using sera from patients with an inhalation or food allergy to biologically related species (House dust mite (HDM) and crustaceans) by immunoblotting and basophil activation. Furthermore, the stability was investigated using an in vitro pepsin digestion test. IgE from HDM- and crustacean allergic patients cross-reacted with Yellow mealworm proteins. This cross-reactivity was functional, as shown by the induction of basophil activation. The major cross-reactive proteins were identified as tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are well known allergens in arthropods. These proteins were moderately stable in the pepsin stability test. Based on these cross-reactivity studies, there is a realistic possibility that HDM- and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct numerical simulations of reacting flows with detailed chemistry using many-core/GPU acceleration

    KAUST Repository

    Herná ndez Pé rez, Francisco E.; Mukhadiyev, Nurzhan; Xu, Xiao; Sow, Aliou; Lee, Bok Jik; Sankaran, Ramanan; Im, Hong G.

    2018-01-01

    A new direct numerical simulation (DNS) code for multi-component gaseous reacting flows has been developed at KAUST, with the state-of-the-art programming model for next generation high performance computing platforms. The code, named KAUST Adaptive Reacting Flows Solver (KARFS), employs the MPI+X programming, and relies on Kokkos for “X” for performance portability to multi-core, many-core and GPUs, providing innovative software development while maintaining backward compatibility with established parallel models and legacy code. The capability and potential of KARFS to perform DNS of reacting flows with large, detailed reaction mechanisms is demonstrated with various model problems involving ignition and turbulent flame propagations with varying degrees of chemical complexities.

  8. Computation of turbulent reacting flow in a solid-propellant ducted rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yei-Chin; Chou, Wen-Fuh; Liu, Sheng-Shyang

    1995-05-01

    A mathematical model for computation of turbulent reacting flows is developed under general curvilinear coordinate systems. An adaptive, streamline grid system is generated to deal with the complex flow structures in a multiple-inlet solid-propellant ducted rocket (SDR) combustor. General tensor representations of the k-epsilon and algebraic stress (ASM) turbulence models are derived in terms of contravariant velocity components, and modification caused by the effects of compressible turbulence is also included in the modeling. The clipped Gaussian probability density function is incorporated in the combustion model to account for fluctuations of properties. Validation of the above modeling is first examined by studying mixing and reacting characteristics in a confined coaxial-jet problem. This is followed by study of nonreacting and reacting SDR combustor flows. The results show that Gibson and Launder's ASM incorporated with Sarkar's modification for compressible turbulence effects based on the general curvilinear coordinate systems yields the most satisfactory prediction for this complicated SDR flowfield.

  9. Process to separate alkali metal salts from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier; Larsen, Dennis; Killpack, Jeff

    2017-06-27

    A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about 350.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.

  10. Direct numerical simulations of reacting flows with detailed chemistry using many-core/GPU acceleration

    KAUST Repository

    Hernández Pérez, Francisco E.

    2018-03-29

    A new direct numerical simulation (DNS) code for multi-component gaseous reacting flows has been developed at KAUST, with the state-of-the-art programming model for next generation high performance computing platforms. The code, named KAUST Adaptive Reacting Flows Solver (KARFS), employs the MPI+X programming, and relies on Kokkos for “X” for performance portability to multi-core, many-core and GPUs, providing innovative software development while maintaining backward compatibility with established parallel models and legacy code. The capability and potential of KARFS to perform DNS of reacting flows with large, detailed reaction mechanisms is demonstrated with various model problems involving ignition and turbulent flame propagations with varying degrees of chemical complexities.

  11. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and hα filters. II - detection of 16 optically-identified supernova remnant candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the detection of 16 optical supernova remnant (SNR candidates in the nearby spiral galaxy IC342. The candidates were detected by applying the [Sii]/Hα ratio criterion on observations made with the 2 m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper, we report the coordinates, diameters, Hα and [S ii] fluxes for 16 SNRs detected in two fields of view in the IC342 galaxy. Also, we estimate the contamination of total Hα flux from SNRs in the observed portion of IC342 to be 1.4%. This would represent the fractional error when the star formation rate (SFR for this galaxy is derived from the total galaxy’s Hα emission.

  12. Effects of Fusion Tack Welds on Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Pendleton, M. L.; Brooke, S. A.; Russell, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to know whether fusion tack welds would affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir seam welds in 2195-T87 aluminum alloy, the fracture stresses of 144 tensile test coupons cut from 24 welded panels containing segments of friction stir welds were measured. Each of the panels was welded under unique processing conditions. A measure of the effect of the tack welds for each panel was devised. An analysis of the measures of the tack weld effect supported the hypothesis that fusion tack welds do not affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir welds to a 5% level of confidence.

  13. Heat and mass transfer for turbulent flow of chemically reacting gas in eccentric annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besedina, T.V.; Tverkovkin, B.E.; Udot, A.V.; Yakushev, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the possibility of using dissociating gases as coolants and working bodies of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to develop computational algorithms for calculating heat and mass transfer processes under conditions of nonequilibrium flow of chemically reacting gases not only in axisymmetric channels, but also in channels with a complex transverse cross section (including also in eccentric annular channels). An algorithm is proposed for calculating the velocity, temperature, and concentration fields under conditions of cooling of a cylindrical heat-releasing rod, placed off-center in a circular casing pipe, by a longitudinal flow of chemically reacting gas [N 2 O 4

  14. Why Targets of Economic Sanctions React Differently: Reference Point Effects on North Korea and Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoun Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The international community has frequently introduced economic sanctions to curb the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, to which each target nation has reacted differently. This paper explores the reasons why each target of economic sanctions reacts differently by specif- ically building a model based on reference point effects, and by analyzing the cases of North Korea and Libya. According to the results, when the reference point level increases, as in the case of North Korea, the target resists more firmly; on the other hand, when the reference point decreases, like in the case of Libya, the target resists more subtly.

  15. Demonstration of Hybrid DSMC-CFD Capability for Nonequilibrium Reacting Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-09

    AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2018-0056 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2018-0056 DEMONSTRATION OF HYBRID DSMC-CFD CAPABILITY FOR NONEQUILIBRIUM REACTING FLOW Thomas E...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Demonstration of Hybrid DSMC-CFD Capability for Nonequilibrium Reacting Flow 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9453-17-1...simulation codes. The models are based on new ab-intio rate data obtained using state -of-the-art potential energy surfaces for air species. A probability

  16. 3-Methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency in Amish/Mennonite adults identified by detection of increased acylcarnitines in blood spots of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, K M; Bennett, M J; Naylor, E W; Morton, D H

    1998-03-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase (MCC) deficiency was documented in four adult women from the Amish/Mennonite population of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Metabolic and enzymatic investigations in these individuals were instituted after the detection of abnormal acylcarnitine profiles in blood spots obtained from their newborn children, in whom MCC activity was normal.

  17. Detecting new microRNAs in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes identifies miR-3085 as a human, chondrocyte-selective, microRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, N.; Swingler, T.E.; Le, L.T.T.; Barter, M.J.; Wheeler, G.; Pais, H.; Donell, S.T.; Young, D.A.; Dalmay, T.; Clark, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To use deep sequencing to identify novel microRNAs (miRNAs) in human osteoarthritic cartilage which have a functional role in chondrocyte phenotype or function. Design A small RNA library was prepared from human osteoarthritic primary chondrocytes using in-house adaptors and analysed by Illumina sequencing. Novel candidate miRNAs were validated by northern blot and qRT-PCR. Expression was measured in cartilage models. Targets of novel candidates were identified by microarray...

  18. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay-A rapid detection tool for identifying red fox (Vulpes vulpes) DNA in the carcasses of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Teresa; van Neer, Abbo; Becker, André; Grilo, Miguel Luca; Siebert, Ursula; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Carcasses of wild animals are often visited by different scavengers. However, determining which scavenger caused certain types of bite marks is particularly difficult and knowledge thereof is lacking. Therefore, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay (target sequence cytochrome b) was developed to detect red fox DNA in carcasses of harbour porpoises. The MSwab™ method for direct testing without prior DNA isolation was validated. As a detection device, the portable real-time fluorometer Genie® II was used, which yields rapid results and can be used in field studies without huge laboratory equipment. In addition to in vitro evaluation and validation, a stranded and scavenged harbour porpoise carcass was successfully examined for red fox DNA residues. The developed LAMP method is a valuable diagnostic tool for confirming presumable red fox bite wounds in harbour porpoises without further DNA isolation steps.

  19. Detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity identifies neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran R Petrosyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12 or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3–4 (group II; n = 12. In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup. Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian's calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of fibers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results suggest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury; and detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regeneration-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system.

  20. Thermal properties of wood reacted with a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the fire-retardant properties of wood in one treatment using a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system. Phosphorus pentoxide and 16 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines were compounded in N,N-dimethylformamide and the resulting solutions containing phosphoramides were reacted with wood. The characteristics of...

  1. Errors of Students Learning with React Strategy in Solving the Problems of Mathematical Representation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Delsika Pramata; Darhim; Rosjanuardi, Rizky

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the errors experienced by students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning in solving problems of mathematical representation ability. This study used quasi experimental pattern with static-group comparison design. The subjects of this study were 47 eighth grade students of junior high…

  2. Investigation of the properties of fully reacted unstoichiometric polydimethylsiloxane networks and their extracted network fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl; Jensen, Mette Krog; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the linear dynamic response of a series of fully reacted unstoichiometric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) networks and of the two corresponding network fractions namely the sol and the washed network. The sol and the washed network were separated by a simple extraction process. This way...

  3. MHD flow and heat transfer of a viscous reacting fluid over a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a boundary layer flow analysis for a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting reacting fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field. It is shown that the Hartmann, Prandtl and the Eckert numbers have effect on the velocity and temperature fields. Journal of the Nigerian ...

  4. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  5. Development and testing of bumper limiter of aluminum alloy vacuum vessel for reacting plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikawa, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Ioki, K.; Irie, T.; Nayama, R.; Nishikawa, M.; Onozuka, M.; Tomita, M.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of graphite bumper limiters were designed and trially fabricated for a reacting plasma device, R-tokamak. High heat load tests were conducted to examine thermal behavior and thermal shock resistance of the limiters by using a 100kW electron beam facility. The experimental data were compared with the results of 3-D thermal analysis

  6. Development and testing of bumper limiter of aluminum alloy vacuum vessel for reacting plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchikawa, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Ioki, K.; Irie, T.; Nayama, R.; Nishikawa, M.; Onozuka, M.; Tomita, M.

    1985-07-01

    Two types of graphite bumper limiters were designed and trially fabricated for a reacting plasma device, R-tokamak. High heat load tests were conducted to examine thermal behavior and thermal shock resistance of the limiters by using a 100kW electron beam facility. The experimental data were compared with the results of 3-D thermal analysis.

  7. Reaction Ensemble Molecular Dynamics: Direct Simulation of the Dynamic Equilibrium Properties of Chemically Reacting Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brennan, J.K.; Lísal, Martin; Gubbins, K.E.; Rice, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (2004), 0611031-0611034 ISSN 1063-651X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/1588 Grant - others:NSF(US) CTS-0211792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : reacting systems * simulation * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.352, year: 2004

  8. Prediction of reacting atoms for the major biotransformation reactions of organic xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudik, Anastasia V; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Lagunin, Alexey A; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of drug metabolite structures is essential at the early stage of drug discovery to understand the potential liabilities and risks connected with biotransformation. The determination of the site of a molecule at which a particular metabolic reaction occurs could be used as a starting point for metabolite identification. The prediction of the site of metabolism does not always correspond to the particular atom that is modified by the enzyme but rather is often associated with a group of atoms. To overcome this problem, we propose to operate with the term "reacting atom", corresponding to a single atom in the substrate that is modified during the biotransformation reaction. The prediction of the reacting atom(s) in a molecule for the major classes of biotransformation reactions is necessary to generate drug metabolites. Substrates of the major human cytochromes P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases from the Biovia Metabolite database were divided into nine groups according to their reaction classes, which are aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation, N- and O-glucuronidation, N-, S- and C-oxidation, and N- and O-dealkylation. Each training set consists of positive and negative examples of structures with one labelled atom. In the positive examples, the labelled atom is the reacting atom of a particular reaction that changed adjacency. Negative examples represent non-reacting atoms of a particular reaction. We used Labelled Multilevel Neighbourhoods of Atoms descriptors for the designation of reacting atoms. A Bayesian-like algorithm was applied to estimate the structure-activity relationships. The average invariant accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-one-out and 20-fold cross-validation procedures for five human isoforms of cytochrome P450 and all isoforms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase varies from 0.86 to 0.99 (0.96 on average). We report that reacting atoms may be predicted with reasonable accuracy for the major classes of metabolic reactions

  9. Keefektifan Strategi Pembelajaran React Pada Kemampuan Siswa Kelas VII Aspek Komunikasi Matematis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pembelajaran dengan strategi REACT efektif ter-hadap kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa. Metode pengumpulan data dilakukan de-ngan metode dokumentasi, tes, dan observasi. Hasil uji proporsi menunjukkan bahwa hasil belajar siswa kelas eksperimen pada aspek kemampuan komunikasi matematis telah men-capai ketuntasan klasikal, mencapai lebih dari 80 % yaitu sebesar 96,7%. Dilihat dari nilai rata-rata tes kemampuan komunikasi matematis kelas eksperimen  adalah 83,61 sedangkan kelas kontrol adalah 73,79 dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa kon-trol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan strategi pembelajaran REACT efektif terhadap kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa materi segiempat kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Gembong. Kata kunci:      keefektifan, kemampuan komunikasi matematis, Relating Experiencing Applying Cooperating Transferring (REACT  AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the application of REACT learning strategy approach to mathematic communication ability of students. Methods of data collection is done by the method of documentation, testing, and observation. The test results showed that the proportion of student learning outcomes in the experimental class with the aspects of mathematic communication ability has reached the classical completeness, reached more than 80% is equal to 96.7%. Judging from the value of the average test learners' ability to mathematic communication experimental class was 83.61 while the control class is 73.79 it can be concluded that the mathematic communication skills of learners experimental classes are better than mathematic communication abilities of learners control class. The results showed that the application of REACT learning strategy approach effective to mathematic communication abilities of students of class VII

  10. Identifying influential neighbors in animal flocking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Schools of fish and flocks of birds can move together in synchrony and decide on new directions of movement in a seamless way. This is possible because group members constantly share directional information with their neighbors. Although detecting the directionality of other group members is known to be important to maintain cohesion, it is not clear how many neighbors each individual can simultaneously track and pay attention to, and what the spatial distribution of these influential neighbors is. Here, we address these questions on shoals of Hemigrammus rhodostomus, a species of fish exhibiting strong schooling behavior. We adopt a data-driven analysis technique based on the study of short-term directional correlations to identify which neighbors have the strongest influence over the participation of an individual in a collective U-turn event. We find that fish mainly react to one or two neighbors at a time. Moreover, we find no correlation between the distance rank of a neighbor and its likelihood to be influential. We interpret our results in terms of fish allocating sequential and selective attention to their neighbors.

  11. Identifying influential neighbors in animal flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Giuggioli, Luca; Perna, Andrea; Escobedo, Ramón; Lecheval, Valentin; Sire, Clément; Han, Zhangang; Theraulaz, Guy

    2017-11-01

    Schools of fish and flocks of birds can move together in synchrony and decide on new directions of movement in a seamless way. This is possible because group members constantly share directional information with their neighbors. Although detecting the directionality of other group members is known to be important to maintain cohesion, it is not clear how many neighbors each individual can simultaneously track and pay attention to, and what the spatial distribution of these influential neighbors is. Here, we address these questions on shoals of Hemigrammus rhodostomus, a species of fish exhibiting strong schooling behavior. We adopt a data-driven analysis technique based on the study of short-term directional correlations to identify which neighbors have the strongest influence over the participation of an individual in a collective U-turn event. We find that fish mainly react to one or two neighbors at a time. Moreover, we find no correlation between the distance rank of a neighbor and its likelihood to be influential. We interpret our results in terms of fish allocating sequential and selective attention to their neighbors.

  12. Differing Event-Related Patterns of Gamma-Band Power in Brain Waves of Fast- and Slow-Reacting Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Wilhelm Wundt proposed that there are two types of subjects in sim- ple RT experiments: fast-reacting subjects, who respond before they fully...quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects...accord with the hypothesis of Wundt and others that slower ("sensorial") responders wait to fully perceive a stimulus and then react to their perception

  13. Real-time PCR array as a universal platform for the detection of genetically modified crops and its application in identifying unapproved genetically modified crops in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Shigemitsu, Natsuki; Futo, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-01-14

    We developed a novel type of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array with TaqMan chemistry as a platform for the comprehensive and semiquantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) crops. Thirty primer-probe sets for the specific detection of GM lines, recombinant DNA (r-DNA) segments, endogenous reference genes, and donor organisms were synthesized, and a 96-well PCR plate was prepared with a different primer-probe in each well as the real-time PCR array. The specificity and sensitivity of the array were evaluated. A comparative analysis with the data and publicly available information on GM crops approved in Japan allowed us to assume the possibility of unapproved GM crop contamination. Furthermore, we designed a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application, Unapproved GMO Checker version 2.01, which helps process all the data of real-time PCR arrays for the easy assumption of unapproved GM crop contamination. The spreadsheet is available free of charge at http://cse.naro.affrc.go.jp/jmano/index.html .

  14. Detection of EpCAM-positive microparticles in pleural fluid: A new approach to mini-invasively identify patients with malignant pleural effusions

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, Elisa; Lacroix, Romaric; Judicone, Coralie; Laroumagne, Sophie; Robert, St?phane; Cointe, Sylvie; Muller, Alexandre; Kaspi, Elise; Roll, Patrice; Brisson, Alain R.; Tantucci, Claudio; Astoul, Philippe; Dignat-George, Fran?oise

    2015-01-01

    Pleural biomarkers allowing to mini-invasively discriminate benign from malignant pleural effusions are needed. Among potential candidates, microparticles (MPs) are extracellular vesicles that vectorize antigen derived from the parent cell. We hypothesized that tumor-derived MPs could be present in the pleural liquid and help to identify patients with malignant pleural effusions. Using highly sensitive flow cytometry and cryo-electron microscopy, we showed that large amounts of MPs from hemat...

  15. microRNA expression profiling on individual breast cancer patients identifies novel panel of circulating microRNA for early detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Ali, Arwa M.; Alsaleh, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification and mana......Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification...... and management choices. Herein we developed a novel approach which relies on the isolation of circulating microRNAs through an enrichment step using speed-vacuum concentration which resulted in 5-fold increase in microRNA abundance. Global miRNA microarray expression profiling performed on individual samples...... of 46 BC and 14 controls. The expression of those microRNAs was overall higher in patients with stage I, II, and III, compared to stage IV, with potential utilization for early detection. The expression of this microRNA panel was slightly higher in the HER2 and TN compared to patients with luminal...

  16. Identifying Feasible Locations for Wetland Creation or Restoration in Catchments by Suitability Modelling Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR Digital Elevation Model (DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Uuemaa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play a key role in controlling flooding and non-point-source (diffuse pollution. They are therefore an important tool for mitigating diffuse water pollution from farms. However, to use this tool, it is necessary to obtain detailed assessments and identification of potential wetland restoration or creation sites. This is complicated by the diversity of landscapes, environmental conditions, and land ownership. Site suitability for wetland restoration or creation depends on many factors: the underlying geology, soils, topography, hydrology, drainage, and land ownership. Local hydrology and soils are among the most important factors. However, the inventory and characterization of a site’s soils and hydrology often requires extensive, expensive, and time-consuming ground surveys, and it is therefore limited to small areas. Another possibility would be to consider topography, which strongly determines water movement patterns. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR data provides detailed topographic information and can be acquired by remote sensing. Our study showed that terrain analysis using high-resolution topographical data can produce suitability maps for wetlands that can be easily used by decision makers and planners in watershed management. The rapid methodology reveals potential wetland creation or restoration sites at a reasonable cost; with the resulting spatially explicit suitability map, managers can plan for wetland creation or restoration without having to wait for field-data collection.

  17. Propel: A Discontinuous-Galerkin Finite Element Code for Solving the Reacting Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan; Kercher, Andrew; Schwer, Douglas; Corrigan, Andrew; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra

    2017-11-01

    This presentation focuses on the development of a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for application to chemically reacting flows. The in-house code, called Propel, was developed by the Laboratory of Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics at the Naval Research Laboratory. It was designed specifically for developing advanced multi-dimensional algorithms to run efficiently on new and innovative architectures such as GPUs. For these results, Propel solves for convection and diffusion simultaneously with detailed transport and thermodynamics. Chemistry is currently solved in a time-split approach using Strang-splitting with finite element DG time integration of chemical source terms. Results presented here show canonical unsteady reacting flow cases, such as co-flow and splitter plate, and we report performance for higher order DG on CPU and GPUs.

  18. Errors of Students Learning With React Strategy in Solving the Problems of Mathematical Representation Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsika Pramata Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the errors experienced by students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning in solving problems of mathematical representation ability. This study used quasi experimental pattern with static-group comparison design. The subjects of this study were 47 eighth grade students of junior high school in Bandung consisting of two samples. The instrument used was a test to measure students' mathematical representation ability. The reliability coefficient about the mathematical representation ability was 0.56. The most prominent errors of mathematical representation ability of students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning, was on indicator that solving problem involving arithmetic symbols (symbolic representation. In addition, errors were also experienced by many students with traditional learning on the indicator of making the image of a real world situation to clarify the problem and facilitate its completion (visual representation.

  19. A mathematical model for chemical reactions with actinide elements in the aqueous nitric acid solution: REACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi

    1990-02-01

    A mathematical model of chemical reactions with actinide elements: REACT code, was developed to simulate change of valency states of U, Pu and Np in the aqueous nitric acid solution. Twenty seven rate equations for the redox reactions involving some reductants, disproportionation reactions, and radiolytic growth and decay reaction of nitrous acid were programmed in the code . Eight numerical solution methods such as Porsing method to solve the rate equations were incorporated parallel as options depending on the characteristics of the reaction systems. The present report gives a description of the REACT code, e.g., chemical reactions and their rate equations, numerical solution methods, and some examples of the calculation results. A manual and a source file of the program was attached to the appendix. (author)

  20. THE STABILITY OF OPTICALLY THIN REACTING PLASMAS: EFFECTS OF THE BULK VISCOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez S, Miguel H.

    2009-01-01

    The thermochemical stability of reacting plasmas is analyzed by taking into account the change in the thermodynamical equilibrium values during the fluctuation. This shift in the equilibrium produces two main effects: a change in the four instability criteria for reacting gases resulting when the above effect is neglected and adds a fifth instability criterion due to the fact that the corresponding secular equation becomes a fifth-order polynomial. The above results are applied to several plasma models, in particular, to a photoionized hydrogen plasma for which the bulk viscosity can be more important than the dynamic viscosity and the thermometric conductivity. Therefore, the bulk viscosity may quench thermochemical instabilities were the thermal conduction is unable of stabilizing. This occurs for low values of the photoionizing energy E. The implications of the above results in explaining the formation of clump structures in different regions of the interstellar medium are outlined.

  1. Numerical Investigation into CO Emission, O Depletion, and Thermal Decomposition in a Reacting Slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Makinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 is closely associated with oxygen (O2 depletion, and thermal decomposition in a reacting stockpile of combustible materials like fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, and natural gas. Moreover, it is understood that proper assessment of the emission levels provides a crucial reference point for other assessment tools like climate change indicators and mitigation strategies. In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model for estimating the CO2 emission, O2 depletion, and thermal stability of a reacting slab is presented and tackled numerically using a semi-implicit finite-difference scheme. It is assumed that the slab surface is subjected to a symmetrical convective heat and mass exchange with the ambient. Both numerical and graphical results are presented and discussed quantitatively with respect to various parameters embedded in the problem.

  2. Acute hepatitis due to Epstein–Barr virus with cross-reacting antibodies to cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Karadeniz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV is the cause of systemic infection known as infectious mononucleosis with classic presentation of fever, oropharyngitis and lymphadenitis. EBV rarely causes acute hepatitis. In this report, we present a 19-year-old patient presented with nausea, fatigue and jaundice. Her physical examination and laboratory tests revealed the diagnosis as acute hepatitis due to EBV with cross-reacting antibodies to cytomegalovirus.

  3. A framework for the design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Shaw, Andrew; Hodges, George

    2012-01-01

    A generic modelling framework for phase transition catalyst based reacting systems has been developed and converted into a software tool. The modelling framework accommodates models of different types representing different sub-systems of the PTCbased reactive system; databases of model parameters...... and carefully collected and checked (for thermodynamic consistency) experimentally measured data. The models, data and software have been tested on various PTC-based reactive systems. Illustrative examples are provided....

  4. 'REACTS'. A pragmatic approach for providing medical care and physician education for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Andrews, G.A.; Huebner, K.F.; Cloutier, R.J.; Beck, W.L.; Berger, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Because serious radiation incidents have been rare, few medical personnel (notably only some in France, Russia, Belgium, Canada, Yugoslavia, Japan, Great Britain and the United States) have first-hand experience in radiation-accident management. The generation of physicians who participated in those accidents now needs to pass on the bits of knowledge that were gleaned from them. These case histories are difficult for the local, non-radiology physician to obtain when he is called upon to help formulate the medical-emergency response plan required everywhere for licensing power reactors. The Radiation Emergency Assistance Center and Training Site (REACTS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, supported by the US Energy Research and Development Administration, is designed to meet these medical and educational needs. REACTS, located in the Oak Ridge Hospital of the Methodist Church, is not involved in the hospital's daily community functions except insofar as REACTS is the radiation emergency arm of the area's major disaster plan. Its dual mission is training physicians, nurses, and paramedical emergency personnel in radiation-accident management, and treating irradiated and contaminated persons. Its training activities are carried out by the Special Training Division of Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Formal courses in radiation medicine and health physics and practical laboratory experience are now conducted twice a year for physicians. They will be expanded in the future to include training of paramedical personnel. Follow-up studies of radiation-accident survivors are carried out in REACTS to ensure the preservation of valuable human data and radiation-accident experiences. This unique facility and its staff are dedicated to meet the needs of the far-flung public and private medical domains in the United States for nuclear-production energy

  5. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  6. Effects of radiative heat transfer on the turbulence structure in inert and reacting mixing layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Friedrich, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    We use large-eddy simulation to study the interaction between turbulence and radiative heat transfer in low-speed inert and reacting plane temporal mixing layers. An explicit filtering scheme based on approximate deconvolution is applied to treat the closure problem arising from quadratic nonlinearities of the filtered transport equations. In the reacting case, the working fluid is a mixture of ideal gases where the low-speed stream consists of hydrogen and nitrogen and the high-speed stream consists of oxygen and nitrogen. Both streams are premixed in a way that the free-stream densities are the same and the stoichiometric mixture fraction is 0.3. The filtered heat release term is modelled using equilibrium chemistry. In the inert case, the low-speed stream consists of nitrogen at a temperature of 1000 K and the highspeed stream is pure water vapour of 2000 K, when radiation is turned off. Simulations assuming the gas mixtures as gray gases with artificially increased Planck mean absorption coefficients are performed in which the large-eddy simulation code and the radiation code PRISSMA are fully coupled. In both cases, radiative heat transfer is found to clearly affect fluctuations of thermodynamic variables, Reynolds stresses, and Reynolds stress budget terms like pressure-strain correlations. Source terms in the transport equation for the variance of temperature are used to explain the decrease of this variance in the reacting case and its increase in the inert case

  7. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TEST OF THE REACT AND WIND, NB(3)SN, LDX FLOATING COIL CONDUCTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, B.A.; MICHAEL, P.C.; MINERVINI, J.V.; TAKAYASU, M.; SCHULTZ, J.H.; GREGORY, E.; PYON, T.; SAMPSON, W.B.; GHOSH, A.; SCANLAN, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a novel approach for studying magnetic confinement of a fusion plasma. In this approach, a superconducting ring coil is magnetically levitated for up to 8 hours a day in the center of a 5 meter diameter vacuum vessel. The levitated coil, with on-board helium supply, is called the gloating Coil (F-Coil). Although the maximum field at the coil is only 5.3 tesla, a react-and-wind Nb 3 Sn conductor was selected because the relatively high critical temperature will enable the coil to remain levitated while it warms from 5 K to 10 K. Since pre-reacted Nb 3 Sn tape is no longer commercially available, a composite conductor was designed that contains an 18 strand Nb 3 Sn Rutherford cable. The cable was reacted and then soldered into a structural copper channel that completes the conductor and also provides quench protection. The strain state of the cable was continuously controlled during fabrication steps such as: soldering into the copper channel, spooling, and coil winding, to prevent degradation of the critical current. Measurements of strand and cable critical currents are reported, as well as estimates of the effect of fabrication, winding and operating strains on critical current

  8. A stochastic model of particle dispersion in turbulent reacting gaseous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David; Hewson, John

    2012-11-01

    We are performing fundamental studies of dispersive transport and time-temperature histories of Lagrangian particles in turbulent reacting flows. The particle-flow statistics including the full particle temperature PDF are of interest. A challenge in modeling particle motions is the accurate prediction of fine-scale aerosol-fluid interactions. A computationally affordable stochastic modeling approach, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT), is a proven method that captures the full range of length and time scales, and provides detailed statistics of fine-scale turbulent-particle mixing and transport. Limited results of particle transport in ODT have been reported in non-reacting flow. Here, we extend ODT to particle transport in reacting flow. The results of particle transport in three flow configurations are presented: channel flow, homogeneous isotropic turbulence, and jet flames. We investigate the functional dependence of the statistics of particle-flow interactions including (1) parametric study with varying temperatures, Reynolds numbers, and particle Stokes numbers; (2) particle temperature histories and PDFs; (3) time scale and the sensitivity of initial and boundary conditions. Flow statistics are compared to both experimental measurements and DNS data.

  9. Identifying differences in brain activities and an accurate detection of autism spectrum disorder using resting state functional-magnetic resonance imaging : A spatial filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraju, Vigneshwaran; Suresh, Mahanand Belathur; Sundaram, Suresh; Narasimhan, Sundararajan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for detecting major differences in brain activities between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients and neurotypical subjects using the resting state fMRI. Further the method also extracts discriminative features for an accurate diagnosis of ASD. The proposed approach determines a spatial filter that projects the covariance matrices of the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) time-series signals from both the ASD patients and neurotypical subjects in orthogonal directions such that they are highly separable. The inverse of this filter also provides a spatial pattern map within the brain that highlights those regions responsible for the distinguishable activities between the ASD patients and neurotypical subjects. For a better classification, highly discriminative log-variance features providing the maximum separation between the two classes are extracted from the projected BOLD time-series data. A detailed study has been carried out using the publicly available data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) consortium for the different gender and age-groups. The study results indicate that for all the above categories, the regional differences in resting state activities are more commonly found in the right hemisphere compared to the left hemisphere of the brain. Among males, a clear shift in activities to the prefrontal cortex is observed for ASD patients while other parts of the brain show diminished activities compared to neurotypical subjects. Among females, such a clear shift is not evident; however, several regions, especially in the posterior and medial portions of the brain show diminished activities due to ASD. Finally, the classification performance obtained using the log-variance features is found to be better when compared to earlier studies in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a screening tool for detecting undernutrition and dietary inadequacy among rural elderly in Malaysia: simple indices to identify individuals at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, S; Dixon, R A; Earland, J

    1999-11-01

    Undernutrition and the consumption of poor diets are prevalent among elderly people in developing countries. Recognising the importance of the early identification of individuals at high nutritional risk, this study aimed to develop a simple tool for screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 11 randomly selected villages among the 62 in Mersing District, Malaysia. Undernutrition was assessed using body mass index, plasma albumin and haemoglobin on 285 subjects. Dietary inadequacy (a count of nutrients falling below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances) was examined for 337 subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of undernutrition and dietary inadequacy from social and health factors, and to derive appropriate indices based on these predictions. The multivariate predictors of undernutrition were 'no joint disease', 'smoker', 'no hypertension', 'depended on others for economic resource', 'respiratory disease', 'perceived weight loss' and 'chewing difficulty', with a joint sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 84%. The equivalent predictors of dietary inadequacy were 'unable to take public transport', 'loss of appetite', 'chewing difficulty', 'no regular fruit intake' and 'regularly taking less than three meals per day', with a joint sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 47%. These predictions, with minor modification to simplify operational use, led to the production of a simple screening tool. The tool can be used by public health professionals or community workers or leaders as a simple and rapid instrument to screen individual at high risk of undernutrition and/or dietary inadequacy.

  11. Prepared to react? Assessing the functional capacity of the primary health care system in rural Orissa, India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marx

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of an impending flood and the availability of countermeasures to deal with it can significantly reduce its health impacts. In developing countries like India, public primary health care facilities are frontline organizations that deal with disasters particularly in rural settings. For developing robust counter reacting systems evaluating preparedness capacities within existing systems becomes necessary. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the functional capacity of the primary health care system in Jagatsinghpur district of rural Orissa in India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008. Methods: An onsite survey was conducted in all 29 primary and secondary facilities in five rural blocks (administrative units of Jagatsinghpur district in Orissa state. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered face to face in the facilities. The data was entered, processed and analyzed using STATA® 10. Results: Data from our primary survey clearly shows that the healthcare facilities are ill prepared to handle the flood despite being faced by them annually. Basic utilities like electricity backup and essential medical supplies are lacking during floods. Lack of human resources along with missing standard operating procedures; pre-identified communication and incident command systems; effective leadership; and weak financial structures are the main hindering factors in mounting an adequate response to the floods. Conclusion: The 2008 flood challenged the primary curative and preventive health care services in Jagatsinghpur. Simple steps like developing facility specific preparedness plans which detail out standard operating procedures during floods and identify clear lines of command will go a long way in strengthening the response to future floods. Performance critiques provided by the grass roots workers, like this one, should be used for institutional learning and effective preparedness

  12. Complex profiles of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish poisoning compounds in Gymnodinium catenatum identified by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Paulo

    2008-06-27

    The presence of hydrophobic analogues of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) was studied in a Portuguese strain of Gymnodinium catenatum by conventional pre-column oxidation HPLC after a prolonged acetonitrile gradient coupled with fluorescence detection. Prior separation of hydrophobic PSTs analogues from hydrophilic analogues was done by solid-phase extraction (SPE) partitioning on a C18 cartridge. Several unknown oxidation products, with emission spectra similar to known PSTs, appeared after periodate or hydrogen peroxide oxidation. The compounds producing these oxidation products could be grouped into three major sub-groups according to SPE partitioning. The first one eluting with 10 and 20% MeOH, produced the first set of oxidation products observed after the saxitoxin oxidation product. The second one eluting with 30-100% MeOH produced the second set of oxidation products. The third one eluted with acidified 90% MeOH produced the third and last set of oxidation products. Additionally, the oxidation products corresponding to decarbamoyl gonyautoxins and decarbamoyl saxitoxins were also abundant, resulting from ester cleavage of the benzoate side chain of these compounds during the oxidation. Analysis of these fractions by LC-MS demonstrated the second sub-group was constituted by analogues of the 11-hydroxysulfated GC1/GC2, while the third sub-group was constituted by analogues of GC3, which lack the 11-hydroxysulfate. In addition to GC1/GC2 and GC3, novel analogues differing by 16u could be related, respectively, to the N1-hydroxyl analogues of GC1-GC3, designated GC4-GC6. A novel family of GC analogues, differing, by 16u from GC1-GC6, were hypothesized to possess an extra hydroxyl in the benzoate side chain, existing in both N1-hydroxylated and non-N1-hydroxylated variants, and tentatively designated GC1a-GC6a. The first sub-group was hypothesized to constitute an additional novel family of GC analogues with a hydroxysulfate group instead of the

  13. [A surface reacted layer study of titanium-zirconium alloy after dental casting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Guo, T; Li, Z; Li, C

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the influence of the mold temperature on the surface reacted layer of Ti-Zr alloy castings. Ti-Zr alloy was casted into a mold which was made of a zircon (ZrO2.SiO2) for inner coating and a phosphate-bonded material for outer investing with a casting machine (China) designed as vacuum, pressure and centrifuge. At three mold temperatures (room temperature, 300 degrees C, 600 degrees C) the Ti-Zr alloy was casted separately. The surface roughness of the castings was calculated by instrument of smooth finish (China). From the surface to the inner part the Knoop hardness and thickness in reacted layer of Ti-Zr alloy casting was measured. The structure of the surface reacted layer was analysed by SEM. Elemental analyses of the interfacial zone of the casting was made by element line scanning observation. The surface roughness of the castings was increased significantly with the mold temperature increasing. At a higher mold temperature the Knoop hardness of the reactive layer was increased. At the three mold temperature the outmost surface was very hard, and microhardness data decreased rapidly where they reached constant values. The thickness was about 85 microns for castings at room temperature and 300 degrees C, 105 microns for castings at 600 degrees C. From the SEM micrograph of the Ti-Zr alloy casting, the surface reacted layer could be divided into three different layers. The first layer was called non-structure layer, which thickness was about 10 microns for room temperature group, 20 microns for 300 degrees C and 25 microns for 600 degrees C. The second layer was characterized by coarse-grained acicular crystal, which thickness was about 50 microns for three mold temperatures. The third layer was Ti-Zr alloy. The element line scanning showed non-structure layer with higher level of element of O, Al, Si and Zr, The higher the mold temperature during casting, the deeper the Si permeating and in the second layer the element Si could also be found

  14. Experimental investigation of a reacting transverse jet in a high pressure oscillating vitiated crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugger, Christopher A.

    Staged combustion is one design approach in a gas turbine engine to reduce pollutant emission levels. In axially staged combustion, portions of the air and fuel are injected downstream of a lean premixed low NOx primary combustion zone. The gas residence time at elevated temperatures is decreased resulting in lower thermal NOx, and the reduced oxygen and high temperature vitiated primary zone flow further help to reduce pollutant emissions and quickly complete combustion. One implementation of axially staged combustion is transverse fuel jet injection. An important consideration for staged combustion systems, though, is how the primary and secondary combustion zones can couple through the acoustic resonances of the chamber. These couplings can lead to additional source terms that pump energy into the resonant acoustic field and help sustain the high-amplitude combustor pressure oscillations. An understanding of these couplings is important so that it may be possible to design a secondary combustion system that provides inherent damping to the combustor system. To systematically characterize the coupling of a reacting jet in unsteady crossflow in detail, the effects of an an unsteady pressure flowfield and an unsteady velocity flowfield are separately investigated. An optically accessible resonant combustion chamber was designed and built as part of this work to generate a standing wave unsteady vitiated crossflow at a chamber pressure of 0.9 MPa. The location of transverse jet injection corresponds to one of two locations, where one location is the pressure node and the other location the pressure anti-node of the resonant chamber acoustic mode. The injection location is optically accessible, and the dynamic interactions between the transverse jet flow and the 1st and 2nd axial combustor modes are measured using 10 kHz OH-PLIF and 2D PIV. This document analyzes five test cases: two non-reacting jets and three reacting jets. All cases correspond to jet injection

  15. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tognon

    Full Text Available Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  16. Do Surgeons React?: A Retrospective Analysis of Surgeons' Response to Harassment of a Colleague During Simulated Operating Theatre Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostlow, Hannah; Vega, Camila Vega; Marlow, Nicholas; Babidge, Wendy; Maddern, Guy

    2017-07-24

    To assess and report on surgeons' ability to identify and manage incidences of harassment. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons is committed to driving out discrimination, bullying, harassment, and sexual harassment from surgical training and practice, through changing the culture of the workplace. To eradicate these behaviors, it is first critical to understand how the current workforce responds to these actions. A retrospective analysis of video data of an operating theatre simulation was conducted to identify how surgeons, from a range of experience levels, react to instances of harassment. Thematic analysis was used to categorize types of harassment and participant response characteristics. The frequency of these responses was assessed and reported. The type of participant response depended on the nature of harassment being perpetuated and the seniority of the participant. In the 50 instances of scripted harassment, active responses were enacted 52% of the time, acknowledgment responses 16%, and no response enacted in 30%. One senior surgeon also perpetuated the harassment (2%). Trainees were more likely to respond actively compared with consultants. It is apparent that trainees are more aware of instances of harassment, and were more likely to intervene during the simulated scenario. However, a large proportion of harassment was unchallenged. The hierarchical nature of surgical education and the surgical workforce in general needs to enable a culture in which the responsibility to intervene is allowed and respected. Simulation-based education programs could be developed to train in the recognition and intervention of discrimination, bullying, harassment and sexual harassment.

  17. Leptospira spp. vaccinal antibodies do not react with Borrelia burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, Amber L; Moroff, Scott; Lappin, Michael R

    2017-11-01

    We attempted to determine if Leptospira spp. antibodies induced by vaccination would cross-react with Borrelia burgdorferi antigens used in a commercial automated immunofluorescent assay (AccuPlex 4 BioCD; Antech). Staff- and student-owned dogs ( n = 31) were recruited at a veterinary teaching hospital in a B. burgdorferi nonendemic area. The dogs were randomized and administered 1 of 4 commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines that contained serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona, then booster vaccinated 3 wk later. Blood was collected on weeks 0, 3, 4, 8, and 12. After confirming that maximal Leptospira spp. titers occurred on week 4, aliquots of sera from week 4 were shipped frozen for analysis of B. burgdorferi antibodies against OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP with the AccuPlex system. Week 4 sera from all 31 dogs had a titer of 1:100 for at least 1 Leptospira spp. serovar. Titers of 1:800 or greater were detected against multiple serovars in 27 dogs. None of the samples contained antibodies against the B. burgdorferi OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP peptides used in the commercial assay. The B. burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex system do not recognize naturally occurring Leptospira spp. antibodies or those induced by the commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines administered in our study.

  18. Effect of skin barrier disruption on immune responses to topically applied cross-reacting material, CRM(197), of diphtheria toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, S; Peyre, M; Garcia, N; Muller, S; Sesardic, D; Partidos, C D

    2005-08-01

    The high accessibility of the skin and the presence of immunocompetent cells in the epidermis makes this surface an attractive route for needle-free administration of vaccines. However, the lining of the skin by the stratum corneum is a major obstacle to vaccine delivery. In this study we examined the effect of skin barrier disruption on the immune responses to the cross-reacting material CRM(197), a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DTx) that is considered as a vaccine candidate. Application of CRM(197), together with cholera toxin (CT), onto the tape-stripped skin of mice elicited antibody responses that had anti-DTx neutralizing activity. Vaccine delivery onto mildly ablated skin or intact skin did not elicit any detectable anti-CRM(197) antibodies. Mice immunized with CRM(197) alone onto the tape-stripped skin mounted a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response. In contrast, the induction of cellular immunity after CRM(197) deposition onto mildly ablated or intact skin was adjuvant dependent. Furthermore, epidermal cells were activated and underwent apoptosis that was more pronounced when the stratum corneum was removed by tape stripping. Overall, these findings highlight the potential for transcutaneous delivery of CRM(197) and establish a correlation between the degree of barrier disruption and levels of antigen-specific immune responses. Moreover, these results provide the first evidence that the development of a transcutaneous immunization strategy for diphtheria, based on simple and practical methods to disrupt the skin barrier, is feasible.

  19. Changes in the Chemistry of Groundwater Reacted with CO2: Comparison of Laboratory Results with the ZERT Field Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Abedini, Atosa A.; Beers, Sarah; Thomas, Burt

    2017-01-01

    As part of the ZERT program, sediments from two wells at the ZERT site, located in Bozeman, Montana, USA were reacted with a solution having the composition of local groundwater. A total of 50 water samples were collected from 7 containers placed for 15 days in a glove box with one atmosphere of CO2 to investigate detailed changes in the concentrations of major, minor and trace inorganic compounds, and to compare these with changes observed in groundwater at the ZERT site following CO2 injection. Laboratory results included rapid changes in pH (8.6 to 5.7), alkalinity (243 to 1295 mg/L as HCO3), electrical conductance (539 to 1822 μS/cm), Ca (28 to 297 mg/L), Mg (18 to 63 mg/L), Fe (5 to 43 μg/L) and Mn (2 to 837 μg/L) following CO2 injection. These chemical changes, which are in general agreement with those obtained from sampling the ZERT monitoring wells, could provide early detection of CO2 leakage into shallow groundwater. Dissolution of calcite, some dolomite and minor Mn-oxides, and desorption/ion exchange are likely the main geochemical processes responsible for the observed changes.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with common tumor antigens on UV-induced tumors also react with hyperplastic UV-irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, C.W.; Beauchamp, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Most murine skin tumors induced by ultraviolet light (UVB, 280-340 nm) can be successfully transplanted only into syngeneic hosts that have received subcarcinogenic doses of UVB. The tumor susceptible state is long-lived and mediated by T suppressor cells that control effector responses against common antigens on UV-induced tumors. Because antigen specific suppression arises prior to the appearance of a tumor, questions arise about the source of the original antigen. They have previously reported transplantation studies indicating that UV-irradiated skin is antigenically cross-reactive with UV-induced tumors. They now report on flow cytometry analyses showing that a series of MoAb reactive with common antigens expressed by UV-induced tumors are also reactive on cells from UV-irradiated skin. Various antigens appear at different times in the UV irradiation scheme, and some persist while others are transient. They speculate that the common antigens detected may be the ones to which functional suppression is directed. If true, these results suggest that successful tumors need not escape host defenses to emerge. Rather, tumors may arise and grow progressively if they express antigens that cross-react with specificities to which the host has previously mounted a suppressive response

  1. PENGARUH MODEL PEMBELAJARAN INKUIRI BERSTRATEGI REACT TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR KIMIA SISWA SMA KELAS XI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Ismawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of inquiry learning model with REACT strategy on learning outcomes and to determine the contribution to the learning outcomes. The expected benefits are improvements in learning chemistry subjects in class XI of high school through constructivism learning activities. The population in this study were students of class XI of high school in Semarang. The analysis showed the early stages of the population have the same degree of homogeneity and normal distribution. Average learning outcomes after experimental class treated were better than the control class, which amounted to 75.52 and 67.14. Test the difference between two average results obtained t from calculation (4.85> t from table (1.66, so we can conclude the experimental class learning results are better than the control class. Correlation test resulted biserial correlation coefficient (rb of 0.58 and t from calculation (5.68> t from table (1.99, so the influence was significant. Effect of application of inquiry learning model with REACT strategy shown by the coefficient of determination of 33.64%.The cognitive learning outcomes of experimental class had reached mastery learning classical while control class not yet. The average value of affective and psychomotor experimental classes are better than the control class. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the inquiry learning with REACT strategy have positive effect on learning outcomes chemistry in student class XI of high school in Semarang.

  2. IgE antibodies of fish allergic patients cross-react with frog parvalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Thill, L; Grigioni, F; Lehners, C; Falagiani, P; Ferrara, A; Romano, C; Stevens, W; Hentges, F

    2004-06-01

    The major allergens in fish are parvalbumins. Important immunoglobulin (Ig)E cross-recognition of parvalbumins from different fish species has been shown. Recently frog parvalbumin alpha has been found to be responsible for a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis triggered by the ingestion of frog meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IgE antibodies of fish allergic persons cross-react with frog parvalbumin and to appreciate its clinical relevance. The sera of 15 fish allergic patients and one fish and frog allergic patient were tested by IgE-immunoblotting against frog muscle extract. Sera were tested against recombinant parvalbumin alpha and beta from Rana esculenta. Skin prick tests were performed in selected patients with recombinant frog parvalbumin. Ca(2+) depletion experiments and inhibition studies with purified cod and frog recombinant parvalbumin were done to characterize the cross-reactive pattern. Fourteen of the sera tested had IgE antibodies recognizing low molecular weight components in frog muscle extract. Calcium depletion experiments or inhibition of patient sera with purified cod parvalbumin led to a significant or complete decrease in IgE binding. When tested against recombinant parvalbumins, three of 13 sera reacted with alpha parvalbumin and 11 of 12 reacted with beta parvalbumin from R. esculenta. Skin prick tests performed with recombinant frog parvalbumin were positive in fish allergic patients. Inhibition studies showed that a fish and frog allergic patient was primarily sensitized to fish parvalbumin. Cod parvalbumin, a major cross-reactive allergen among different fish species, shares IgE binding epitopes with frog parvalbumin. This in vitro cross-reactivity seems to be also clinically relevant. Parvalbumins probably represent a new family of cross-reactive allergens.

  3. A Parallel Multiblock Structured Grid Method with Automated Interblocked Unstructured Grids for Chemically Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Seth Christian

    An automated method for using unstructured grids to patch non- C0 interfaces between structured blocks has been developed in conjunction with a finite-volume method for solving chemically reacting flows on unstructured grids. Although the standalone unstructured solver, FVFLO-NCSU, is capable of resolving flows for high-speed aeropropulsion devices with complex geometries, unstructured-mesh algorithms are inherently inefficient when compared to their structured counterparts. However, the advantages of structured algorithms in developing a flow solution in a timely manner can be negated by the amount of time required to develop a mesh for complex geometries. The global domain can be split up into numerous smaller blocks during the grid-generation process to alleviate some of the difficulties in creating these complex meshes. An even greater abatement can be found by allowing the nodes on abutting block interfaces to be nonmatching or non-C 0 continuous. One code capable of solving chemically reacting flows on these multiblock grids is VULCAN, which uses a nonconservative approach for patching non-C0 block interfaces. The developed automated unstructured-grid patching algorithm has been installed within VULCAN to provide it the capability of a fully conservative approach for patching non-C0 block interfaces. Additionally, the FVFLO-NCSU solver algorithms have been deeply intertwined with the VULCAN source code to solve chemically reacting flows on these unstructured patches. Finally, the CGNS software library was added to the VULCAN postprocessor so structured and unstructured data can be stored in a single compact file. This final upgrade to VULCAN has been successfully installed and verified using test cases with particular interest towards those involving grids with non- C0 block interfaces.

  4. How Did the Asian Stock Markets React to Bank Mergera after the 1997 Financial Crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Meslier-Crouzille , Céline; Lepetit , Laetitia; Bautista , Carlos C.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the stock market reaction to the announcement of bank mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in eight East Asian countries over the 1997-2003 period. M&As are classified according to the status of entity, the time period of the deal and the maturity of the banking system. A bivariate GARCH model is used to estimate abnormal returns taking beta conditional variability into account. We find that the market reacted negatively ...

  5. Desarrollo de una aplicación móvil mediante React-Native

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Lentijo, David

    2018-01-01

    In this document has been developed an application to share food recipes with social format where the users can interact between them. The goal of this applications is to create a global platform when users wants to find something related with cooking, know where have to go and don't have to use a web browser. All has developed with React-Native that allows to develop native applications for Android and IOS platforms, and reduce the processing time respect to hybrid applications. Also, the co...

  6. Approximate solution to the Kolmogorov equation for a fission chain-reacting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, L.; McSwine, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    An approximate solution has been obtained for the Kolmogorov equation describing a fission chain-reacting system. The method considers the population of neutrons, delayed-neutron precursors, and detector counts. The effect of the detector is separated from the statistics of the chain reaction by a weak coupling assumption that predicts that the detector responds to the average rather than to the instantaneous neutron population. An approximate solution to the remaining equation, involving the populations of neutrons and precursors, predicts a negative-binomial behaviour for the neutron probability distribution

  7. Does the StartReact Effect Apply to First-Trial Reactive Movements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sutter

    Full Text Available StartReact is the acceleration of reaction time by a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS. The SAS is thought to release a pre-prepared motor program. Here, we investigated whether the StartReact effect is applicable to the very first trial in a series of repeated unpractised single-joint movements.Twenty healthy young subjects were instructed to perform a rapid ankle dorsiflexion movement in response to an imperative stimulus. Participants were divided in two groups of ten. Both groups performed 17 trials. In one group a SAS (116 dB was given in the first trial, whereas the other group received a non-startling sound (70 dB as the first imperative stimulus. In the remaining 16 trials, the SAS was given as the imperative stimulus in 25% of the trials in both groups. The same measurement was repeated one week later, but with the first-trial stimuli counterbalanced between groups.When a SAS was given in the very first trial, participants had significantly shorter onset latencies compared to first-trial responses to a non-startling stimulus. Succeeding trials were significantly faster compared to the first trial, both for trials with and without a SAS. However, the difference between the first and succeeding trials was significantly larger for responses to a non-startling stimulus compared to responses triggered by a SAS. SAS-induced acceleration in the first trial of the second session was similar to that in succeeding trials of session 1.The present results confirm that the StartReact phenomenon also applies to movements that have not yet been practiced in the experimental context. The excessive SAS-induced acceleration in the very first trial may be due to the absence of integration of novel context-specific information with the existing motor memory for movement execution. Our findings demonstrate that StartReact enables a rapid release of motor programs in the very first trial also without previous practice, which might provide a behavioural

  8. Responding to excessive alcohol consumption in third-level (REACT): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Martin P; Calnan, Susan; Mulcahy, Judith; Lynch, Emily; Perry, Ivan J; Byrne, Michael

    2018-05-11

    Problem alcohol use is an ongoing, worldwide phenomenon of considerable concern. Throughout the past 20 years, national policies have noted the importance of students when tackling alcohol consumption. Considering alcohol is a multifaceted issue, a multi-component response is required to combat its excessive use. This protocol sets out the approach used for developing, implementing and evaluating the REACT (Responding to Excessive Alcohol Consumption in Third-level) Programme. This evaluation will provide the evidence base for programme development, implementation and improvement. Stage one involved defining the multi-component intervention. This was developed following a systematic review of existing literature and a Delphi-consensus workshop involving university students, staff and relevant stakeholders. Following this, the programme is being implemented across the Higher Education sector in Ireland. A number of Higher Education Institutes have declined the invitation to participate in the programme. These institutions will act as control sites. Each intervention site will have a steering committee whose membership will include a mix of students and academic and student service staff. This steering committee will report to the REACT research team on the implementation of mandatory and optional action points at local sites. An online cross-sectional study at baseline and two-years post intervention will be utilised to determine the impact of the REACT programme. The impact assessment will focus on (1) whether the intervention has reduced alcohol consumption among third-level students (2); whether the programme altered students attitudes toward alcohol and (3) whether the programme has decreased the second-hand effects associated with excessive consumption. Finally, qualitative research will focus on factors influencing the take-up and implementation of this programme as well as students' views on the initiative. Alcohol consumption has remained on the policy

  9. Detecting Anti Ad-blockers in the Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mughees Muhammad Haris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of ad-blockers is viewed as an economic threat by online publishers who primarily rely on online advertising to monetize their services. To address this threat, publishers have started to retaliate by employing anti ad-blockers, which scout for ad-block users and react to them by pushing users to whitelist the website or disable ad-blockers altogether. The clash between ad-blockers and anti ad-blockers has resulted in a new arms race on the Web. In this paper, we present an automated machine learning based approach to identify anti ad-blockers that detect and react to ad-block users. The approach is promising with precision of 94.8% and recall of 93.1%. Our automated approach allows us to conduct a large-scale measurement study of anti ad-blockers on Alexa top-100K websites. We identify 686 websites that make visible changes to their page content in response to ad-block detection. We characterize the spectrum of different strategies used by anti ad-blockers. We find that a majority of publishers use fairly simple first-party anti ad-block scripts. However, we also note the use of third-party anti ad-block services that use more sophisticated tactics to detect and respond to ad-blockers.

  10. The diagnostic value of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and detection of pepsin and bile acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Nicholas P; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Fisichella, P Marco

    2014-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is thought to lead to aspiration and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Unfortunately, the identification of patients with GERD who aspirate still lacks clear diagnostic indicators. The authors hypothesized that symptoms of GERD and detection of pepsin and bile acids in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are effective for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration. From November 2009 to November 2010, 85 lung transplantation patients undergoing surveillance bronchoscopy were prospectively enrolled. For these patients, self-reported symptoms of GERD were correlated with levels of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC and with GERD status assessed by 24-h pH monitoring. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC also were compared with the presence of GERD in 24-h pH monitoring. The typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation) had modest sensitivity and specificity for detecting GERD and aspiration. The atypical symptoms of GERD (aspiration and bronchitis) showed better identification of aspiration as measured by detection of pepsin and bile acids in BAL. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin in BAL compared with GERD by 24-h pH monitoring were respectively 60 and 45 %, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of bile acids in BAL were 67 and 80 %. These data indicate that the measurement of pepsin and bile acids in BAL can provide additional data for identifying lung transplantation patients at risk for GERD-induced aspiration compared with symptoms or 24-h pH monitoring alone. These results support a diagnostic role for detecting markers of aspiration in BAL, but this must be validated in larger studies.

  11. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  12. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  13. Lean premixed reacting flows with swirl and wall-separation zones in a contracting chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxin; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-11-01

    Low Mach number lean premixed reacting swirling flows with wall-separation zones in a contracting circular finite-length open chamber are studied. Assuming a complete reaction with high activation energy and chemical equilibrium behind the reaction zone, a nonlinear partial differential equation is derived for the solution of the flow stream function behind the reaction zone in terms of the inlet total enthalpy for a reacting flow, specific entropy and the circulation functions. Bifurcation diagrams of steady flows are described as the inlet swirl level is increased at fixed chamber contraction and reaction heat release. The approach is applied to an inlet solid-body rotation flow with constant profiles of the axial velocity, temperature and mixture reactant mass fraction. The computed results provide predictions of the critical inlet swirl levels for the first appearance of wall-separation states and for the size of the separation zone as a function of the inlet swirl ratio, Mach number, chamber contraction and heat release of the reaction. The methodology developed in this paper provides a theoretical feasibility for the development of the technology of swirl-assisted combustion where the reaction zone is supported and stabilized by a wall-separation zone.

  14. Reacting to different types of concept drift: the Accuracy Updated Ensemble algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Dariusz; Stefanowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Data stream mining has been receiving increased attention due to its presence in a wide range of applications, such as sensor networks, banking, and telecommunication. One of the most important challenges in learning from data streams is reacting to concept drift, i.e., unforeseen changes of the stream's underlying data distribution. Several classification algorithms that cope with concept drift have been put forward, however, most of them specialize in one type of change. In this paper, we propose a new data stream classifier, called the Accuracy Updated Ensemble (AUE2), which aims at reacting equally well to different types of drift. AUE2 combines accuracy-based weighting mechanisms known from block-based ensembles with the incremental nature of Hoeffding Trees. The proposed algorithm is experimentally compared with 11 state-of-the-art stream methods, including single classifiers, block-based and online ensembles, and hybrid approaches in different drift scenarios. Out of all the compared algorithms, AUE2 provided best average classification accuracy while proving to be less memory consuming than other ensemble approaches. Experimental results show that AUE2 can be considered suitable for scenarios, involving many types of drift as well as static environments.

  15. A Finite Element Theory for Predicting the Attenuation of Extended-Reacting Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    A non-modal finite element theory for predicting the attenuation of an extended-reacting liner containing a porous facesheet and located in a no-flow duct is presented. The mathematical approach is to solve separate wave equations in the liner and duct airway and to couple these two solutions by invoking kinematic constraints at the facesheet that are consistent with a continuum theory of fluid motion. Given the liner intrinsic properties, a weak Galerkin finite element formulation with cubic polynomial basis functions is used as the basis for generating a discrete system of acoustic equations that are solved to obtain the coupled acoustic field. A state-of-the-art, asymmetric, parallel, sparse equation solver is implemented that allows tens of thousands of grid points to be analyzed. A grid refinement study is presented to show that the predicted attenuation converges. Excellent comparison of the numerically predicted attenuation to that of a mode theory (using a Haynes 25 metal foam liner) is used to validate the computational approach. Simulations are also presented for fifteen porous plate, extended-reacting liners. The construction of some of the porous plate liners suggest that they should behave as resonant liners while the construction of others suggest that they should behave as broadband attenuators. In each case the finite element theory is observed to predict the proper attenuation trend.

  16. Statistical analysis of the velocity and scalar fields in reacting turbulent wall-jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouransari, Z.; Biferale, L.; Johansson, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The concept of local isotropy in a chemically reacting turbulent wall-jet flow is addressed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Different DNS databases with isothermal and exothermic reactions are examined. The chemical reaction and heat release effects on the turbulent velocity, passive scalar, and reactive species fields are studied using their probability density functions (PDFs) and higher order moments for velocities and scalar fields, as well as their gradients. With the aid of the anisotropy invariant maps for the Reynolds stress tensor, the heat release effects on the anisotropy level at different wall-normal locations are evaluated and found to be most accentuated in the near-wall region. It is observed that the small-scale anisotropies are persistent both in the near-wall region and inside the jet flame. Two exothermic cases with different Damköhler numbers are examined and the comparison revealed that the Damköhler number effects are most dominant in the near-wall region, where the wall cooling effects are influential. In addition, with the aid of PDFs conditioned on the mixture fraction, the significance of the reactive scalar characteristics in the reaction zone is illustrated. We argue that the combined effects of strong intermittency and strong persistency of anisotropy at the small scales in the entire domain can affect mixing and ultimately the combustion characteristics of the reacting flow.

  17. Combined LAURA-UPS solution procedure for chemically-reacting flows. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure seeks to combine the thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver LAURA with the parabolized Navier-Stokes solver UPS for the aerothermodynamic solution of chemically-reacting air flowfields. The interface protocol is presented and the method is applied to two slender, blunted shapes. Both axisymmetric and three dimensional solutions are included with surface pressure and heat transfer comparisons between the present method and previously published results. The case of Mach 25 flow over an axisymmetric six degree sphere-cone with a noncatalytic wall is considered to 100 nose radii. A stability bound on the marching step size was observed with this case and is attributed to chemistry effects resulting from the noncatalytic wall boundary condition. A second case with Mach 28 flow over a sphere-cone-cylinder-flare configuration is computed at both two and five degree angles of attack with a fully-catalytic wall. Surface pressures are seen to be within five percent with the present method compared to the baseline LAURA solution and heat transfers are within 10 percent. The effect of grid resolution is investigated and the nonequilibrium results are compared with a perfect gas solution, showing that while the surface pressure is relatively unchanged by the inclusion of reacting chemistry the nonequilibrium heating is 25 percent higher. The procedure demonstrates significant, order of magnitude reductions in solution time and required memory for the three dimensional case over an all thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution.

  18. Different event-related patterns of gamma-band power in brain waves of fast- and slow-reacting subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokeit, H; Makeig, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast- and slow-reacting subjects exhibit different patterns of gamma-band electroencephalogram (EEG) activity when responding as quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects produce speeded reactions in different ways and demonstrates that analysis of event-related changes in the amplitude of EEG activity recorded from the human scalp can reveal information about event-related brain processes unavailable using event-related potential measures. Time-varying spectral power in a selected (35- to 43-Hz) gamma frequency band was averaged across trials in two experimental conditions: passive listening and speeded reacting to binaural clicks, forming 40-Hz event-related spectral responses. Factor analysis of between-subject event-related spectral response differences split subjects into two near-equal groups composed of faster- and slower-reacting subjects. In faster-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power peaked near 200 ms and 400 ms poststimulus in the react condition, whereas in slower-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power just before stimulus delivery was larger in the react condition. These group differences were preserved in separate averages of relatively long and short reaction-time epochs for each group. gamma-band (20-60 Hz)-filtered event-related potential response averages did not differ between the two groups or conditions. Because of this and because gamma-band power in the auditory event-related potential is small compared with the EEG, the observed event-related spectral response features must represent gamma-band EEG activity reliably induced by, but not phase-locked to, experimental stimuli or events. PMID:8022783

  19. Failure of anti-T-cell receptor V beta antibodies to consistently identify a malignant T-cell clone in Sézary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, R D; Boselli, C M; Foley, B; Vonderheid, E C

    1996-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacting with the human T cell receptor (TCR) V beta or V alpha region have been shown to be almost as specific as a private idiotypic MAb in identifying T cell clones. When available, V beta-specific MAbs offer the ease of immunofluorescence analysis to identify and quantitate expanded malignant or nonmalignant T cell populations without requiring polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to evaluate expression of V beta gene families. The V beta expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes from twenty-three consecutive patients with Sézary syndrome has been analyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Ten patients had malignant T cell clones that expressed a TCR V beta corresponding to a commercially available anti-V beta antibody. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-V beta MAbs showed a direct correlation with RT-PCR results in seven of ten patients. No false positive reactivity was noted on immunofluorescence staining with any MAb. Cells from three patients, however, did not react with the corresponding anti-V beta MAb. These three cases expressed a TCR V beta from gene families containing a single member, ie, V beta 14, V beta 18, and V beta 20, yet MAbs reported to be specific for these regions failed to react with the T cell clone from these patients. Sequencing of the PCR product in these cases confirmed the RT-PCR results. Cells from two patients expressed a TCR using V beta 5.1-D beta 1.1 genes with different J-C segments. One patient's cells reacted with an anti-V beta 5.1 MAb (LC4) whereas the other patient's cells bound one-tenth the amount of this same MAb. These results indicate that currently available anti-TCR V region MAbs may not react consistently with T cell clones expressing the corresponding V region or may react with a low affinity making detection difficult. Differences in the J-C junction or in CDR3 may influence the binding of these MAbs. Until the false negative rate is reduced and the fine specificity and

  20. Post-factum detection of radiation treatment of meat and fish by means of DNA alterations identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.

    1994-01-01

    The doctoral thesis explains methods and experiments for post-factum detection of radiation-induced alterations of DNA. There are various manifestations of such alterations. Ionizing radiation can directly alter the bases and/or sugar component, or can indirectly induce DNA damage by way of forming water radicals. Both mechanisms result in base derivatives, released for some part from the DNA strand, or formed by alterations of the 2-deoxyribose, inducing strand breaks ( single and double strand breaks). The first part of the thesis explains the approach applying GC-MS for detection of radiation-induced base derivatives, using herring sperm DNA as a model DNA. Some typical types of base derivatives were identified (thymine glycol, 5-hydroxycytosine).Some base derivatives were also found in DNA samples derived from poultry meat. These base derivatives are known to be indicators of food processing with ionizing radiation, but surprisingly were also found in non-irradiated controls, although in minor amounts. The second part discusses the identification of strand breaks applying the pused-field gel electrophoresis. This method is capable of producing evidence that irradiation markedly enhances the short-chain DNA molecules as compared to non-irradiated controls. DNA molecules of a size of approx. 2.2 million base pairs are almost completely broken into short-chain fragments. The method reliably detects radiation treatments down to 1500 Gy, even if applied long ago. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Serum and plasma fibronectin binds to complement reacted immune complexes primarily via Clq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Svehag, S E

    1986-01-01

    The binding of fibronectin to human Clq, C3b, and complement-reacted immune complexes (IC) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Microplates were coated with BSA followed by incubation with rabbit-anti-BSA IgG or F(ab')2 fragments of rabbit anti-BSA. Incubation of the solid phase...... with serum at 37 degrees C caused attachment of Clq and C3b. Addition of EDTA to the serum inhibited the binding of C3b, but not Clq, whereas substitution of the anti-BSA IgG on the solid phase with the F(ab')2 fragments abrogated the Clq, but not the C3b binding. Fibronectin binding was observed after...

  2. Development and test of a Nb3Sn racetrack magnet using the react and wind technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bauer, P.; Carcagno, R.; Chichili, D.; Ewald, K.; Feher, S.; Imbasciati, L.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Limon, P.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.; Yadav, S.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Fermilab is involved in the development of a high field accelerator magnet for future hadron colliders using Nb 3 Sn superconductor and the react-and-wind technology. The magnet design is based on single-layer common coils wound simultaneously into a laminated mechanical structure and impregnated with epoxy. In order to develop and optimize the fabrication techniques and to study the conductor performance, a magnet with flat racetrack type coils in a common coil configuration was assembled and tested. The coils were wound in the mechanical structure and in situ impregnated following a procedure that will be used in the single-layer common coil. The magnetic and mechanical design of the racetrack magnet, the fabrication techniques and the test results are presented and discussed in this paper

  3. Advantage of fast reacting adsorbents like humic acids for the recovery of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denzinger, H.; Schnell, C.; Heitkamp, D.; Wagener, K.

    1980-01-01

    This report is divided into two sections. The first part comprises experimental data of humic acid adsorbers; whereas, the second concerns design parameter and costs of a recovery plant using fast reacting adsorbents. Summarizing the experimental results, hydrogen-loaded humic acids on carriers show an exceptionally fast kinetics of uranium fixation in seawater which is practically temperature independent. This fast adsorption performance may be maintained in a technical recovery process if care is taken to minimize slow diffraction controlled steps preceding the uranium fixation reaction. When humic acid was used instead of titanium hydroxide in the recovery plant, there was a decrease of investment and production costs of about 50%. However, there was a higher percentage of energy costs, i.e., electric power consumption and investments for pumps

  4. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of reacting zone for TWR bundles based on CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chuan; Yan Mingyu; Lu Jianchao

    2013-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of reacting zone for TWR (travelling wave reactor) bundles were analysed by CFD method. The calculation results of 7, 19 and 37 fuel pin bundles show the similar characteristics. The hot coolant seems to congregate into the centre as flowing to the downstream area. The high temperature coolant always distributes in the inner area while the temperature shows distinct gradation in the outer area. The temperature difference is more than 100 ℃ for the bundle whose diameter is about 26 cm. The major temperature gradations mainly locate in the outermost fuel rods of two circles while other circles show much smaller temperature gradients. This conclusion is estimated to be true for more fuel pin bundles such as 217 fuel pin bundles. The fuel assembly structure of the existing TWR design should be optimized in future. (authors)

  5. Performance of coils wound from long lengths of surface-coated, reacted, BSCCO-2212 conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M.S.; Hazelton, D.W.; Gardner, M.T. [Intermagnetics General Corp., Latham, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    React-before-wind surface-coated BSCCO-2212 is being established as a relatively low cost HTS conductor for practical applications. Quality tape is presently being manufactured in 450-500m lengths at a cost estimated to be 1/3-1/5 of the industry costs of BSCCO-2223 powder-in-tube tape. Robust, mechanically sound coils for applications ranging from NMR insert magnets to transformer windings are being made from this BSCCO-2212 tape. The coils have performed consistently through test and thermal cycling without degradation and as projected from short sample measurements. A hybrid approach, which uses mainly BSCCO- 2212 augmented by BSCCO-2223 conductor in the high radial field end regions, is expected to halve magnet system costs.

  6. Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows is analyzed. Focussing on fluorescence of the OH molecule in typical H2-air Scramjet flows, the effects of uncharacterized variations in temperature, pressure, and collisional partner composition across the measurement plane are examined. Detailed measurements of the (1,0) band OH lineshape variations in H2-air combustions are used, along with single-pulse and time-averaged measurements of an excimer-pumped dye laser, to predict the performance of a model velocimeter with typical Scramjet flow properties. The analysis demonstrates the need for modification and control of the laser bandshape in order to permit accurate velocity measurements in the presence of multivariant flow properties.

  7. Steam bubble growth in the bulk of overheated N2O4-NO chemically reacting solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtsev, V.A.; Cherkashin, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A mathematical model and numerical investigation of the vapour bubble growth that begins from the bubble critical size at the positive radius fluctuation during the initial moment in the bulk of the overheated N 2 O 4 -NO liquid solution are presented. The mathematical model has been stated under the following assumptions: the movement of a bubble wall and surrounding liquid is spherically symmetrical; thermal parameters in the bubble are distributed uniformly; the vapour phase follows the ideal gas law; heat transfer is not affected by the compressibility of liquid; if dissolution of light components is determined by Henry's law, then Hertz-Knudsen's equation determines the velocity of phase transition for a N 2 O 4 component. The mathematical model presented can be applied to another fluids, including chemically reacting ones

  8. ENVIRONMENT: a computational platform to stochastically simulate reacting and self-reproducing lipid compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavelli, Fabio; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2010-09-01

    'ENVIRONMENT' is a computational platform that has been developed in the last few years with the aim to simulate stochastically the dynamics and stability of chemically reacting protocellular systems. Here we present and describe some of its main features, showing how the stochastic kinetics approach can be applied to study the time evolution of reaction networks in heterogeneous conditions, particularly when supramolecular lipid structures (micelles, vesicles, etc) coexist with aqueous domains. These conditions are of special relevance to understand the origins of cellular, self-reproducing compartments, in the context of prebiotic chemistry and evolution. We contrast our simulation results with real lab experiments, with the aim to bring together theoretical and experimental research on protocell and minimal artificial cell systems.

  9. Longitudinally Vibrating Elastic Rods with Locally and Non-Locally Reacting Viscous Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefaatdin Yüksel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eigencharacteristics of a longitudinally vibrating elastic rod with locally and non-locally reacting damping are analyzed. The rod is considered as a continuous system and complex eigenfrequencies are determined as solution of a characteristic equation. The variation of the damping ratios with respect to damper locations and damping coefficients for the first four eigenfrequencies are obtained. It is shown that at any mode of locally or non-locally damped elastic rod, the variation of damping ratio with damper location is linearly proportional to absolute value of the mode shape of undamped system. It is seen that the increasing damping coefficient does not always increase the damping ratio and there are optimal values for the damping ratio. Optimal values for external damping coefficients of viscous dampers and locations of the dampers are presented.

  10. Impact of small variations in LDR for late-reacting tissue in gyn brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourel, Victor J.; Torre, Marcela de la; Rodriguez, Isabel

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: The linear-quadratic model shows that while a slight variation in the LDR Brachytherapy dose rate affects just a little the tumoral tissue ERD (Extrapolated Response Dose), the effect can be very strong in the late reacting tissues. The LDR Brachytherapy in cervix cancer is done with a dose rate in point A that range between 0.5 Gy/h and 0.7 Gy/h. This small range is a very heavy variable to find equivalent schemes. Material and Methods: Whith the LC10 program (based in the linear-quadratic model developed in our centre) a radiobiological analysis of the GYN Brachytherapy considering the dosimetric distribution of the most usual applicators is done. Different studies show that the critical rectal and bladder point doses in reference to point A ranges between 60% and 80%. Bearing this in mind, and the typical variables (tissue parameters, number of fractions, dose per fraction, total dose, etc.) the effect of the LDR dose rate variation in particularly analysed while calculating the equivalent HDR scheme. Result and discussion: When equivalent schemes are calculated in practise it is found that the HDR number of fractions depends highly on the LDR dose rate, that's why for one specific LDR scheme is necessary even to duplicate the HDR number of fractions to find the unique equivalent scheme when varying the dose rate from 0.5 Gy/h to 0.7 Gy/h. This also shows that the same LDR scheme using 0.5 Gy/h or 0.7 Gy/h is radiobiologically different (up to 20% in the late reacting tissue ERD). Conclusion: It is very important to report with great detail the LDR dose rate with which the gynaecological treatments have been performed because this variable is decisive to compare the results with other LDR or HDR schemes

  11. Network Intrusion Detection System using Apache Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Manzoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Network security implements various strategies for the identification and prevention of security breaches. Network intrusion detection is a critical component of network management for security, quality of service and other purposes. These systems allow early detection of network intrusion and malicious activities; so that the Network Security infrastructure can react to mitigate these threats. Various systems are proposed to enhance the network security. We are proposing to use anomaly based network intrusion detection system in this work. Anomaly based intrusion detection system can identify the new network threats. We also propose to use Real-time Big Data Stream Processing Framework, Apache Storm, for the implementation of network intrusion detection system. Apache Storm can help to manage the network traffic which is generated at enormous speed and size and the network traffic speed and size is constantly increasing. We have used Support Vector Machine in this work. We use Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 1999 (KDD’99 dataset to test and evaluate our proposed solution.

  12. Double shock experiments and reactive flow modeling on LX-17 to understand the reacted equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S; Garcia, Frank; Fried, Laurence E; Tarver, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data from measurements of the reacted state of an energetic material are desired to incorporate reacted states in modeling by computer codes. In a case such as LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight), where the time dependent kinetics of reaction is still not fully understood and the reacted state may evolve over time, this information becomes even more vital. Experiments were performed to measure the reacted state of LX-17 using a double shock method involving the use of two flyer materials (with known properties) mounted on the projectile that send an initial shock through the material close to or above the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state followed by a second shock at a higher magnitude into the detonated material. By measuring the parameters of the first and second shock waves, information on the reacted state can be obtained. The LX-17 detonation reaction zone profiles plus the arrival times and amplitudes of reflected shocks in LX-17 detonation reaction products were measured using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes and an aluminum foil coated LiF window. A discussion of this work will include the experimental parameters, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, reactive CHEETAH and Ignition and Growth modeling, as well as detail on possible future experiments.

  13. Rhythm experience and Africana culture trial (REACT!): A culturally salient intervention to promote neurocognitive health, mood, and well-being in older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukach, Alexis J; Jedrziewski, M Kathryn; Grove, George A; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn J; Williams, Shardae S; Wollam, Mariegold E; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-05-01

    The Rhythm Experience and Africana Culture Trial (REACT!) is a multi-site randomized controlled intervention study designed to examine the efficacy of using African Dance as a form of moderate-intensity physical activity to improve cognitive function in older African Americans. African Americans are almost two times more likely than Caucasians to experience cognitive impairment in late adulthood. This increased risk may be attributed to lower level and quality of education, lower socioeconomic status, and higher prevalence of vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, all of which are recognized as risk factors for dementia. Fortunately, interventions targeting cardiovascular health (i.e., physical activity) are associated with improved neurocognitive function and a reduced risk for dementia, so African Americans may be particularly suited for interventions targeting cardiovascular health and cognitive function. Here, we describe a randomized intervention protocol for increasing physical activity in older (65-75years) African Americans. Participants (n=80) at two study locations will be randomized into one of two groups. The treatment group will participate in African Dance three times per week for six months and the control group will receive educational training on Africana history and culture, as well as information about health behaviors, three times per week for six months. If successful, the REACT! study may transform community interventions and serve as a platform and model for testing other populations, age groups, and health outcomes, potentially identifying novel and creative methods for reducing or eliminating health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of Na-CO{sub 2} Reaction with Initial Reaction in Various Reacting Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Su; Park, Gunyeop; Kim, Soo Jae; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Wi, Myung-Hwan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The reaction products that cause oxidation and erosion are threaten the heat transfer tubes so that it is necessary to investigate Na-CO{sub 2} reaction according to various experimental parameter. Unlike SWR, Na-CO{sub 2} reaction is more complex to deal with reaction kinetics. Since a comprehensive understanding of Na-CO{sub 2} reaction mechanism is crucial for the safety analysis, the reaction phenomenon under the various conditions was investigated. The current issue is to make a database for developing computational code for CO{sub 2} gas leak situation because it is experimentally difficult to analyze the actual accident situation. Most studies on Na-CO{sub 2} interaction reports that chemical reaction is getting vigorous as temperature increased and reactivity is sensitive as temperature change between 400 .deg. C and 600 .deg. C. Therefore, temperature range is determined based on the operating condition (450 - 500 .deg. C) of KALIMER-600 employed as supercritical CO{sub 2} brayton cycle energy conversion system for Na-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger. And next parameter is sodium surface area which contact between sodium and CO{sub 2} when CO{sub 2} is injected into sodium pool in the accident situation. So, the fundamental surface reaction is experimentally studied in the range of 8 - 12cm{sup 2}. Additionally, it has been reported in recent years that CO{sub 2} Flow rate affects reactivity less significantly and CO{sub 2} flow rate is assumed that 5 SLPM (standard liter per minute) is suitable as a basis for a small leakage. The finally selected control parameters is sodium temperature and reacting surface area with constant CO{sub 2} flow rate. Na-CO{sub 2} reaction test is performed for investigating risk of potential accident which contacts with liquid sodium and CO{sub 2}. Amount of reaction is saturated as time passed because of kept a balance between production of solid phase reaction products and amount of diffusivity. These results contribute to make a

  15. Investigation of Na-CO2 Reaction with Initial Reaction in Various Reacting Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Su; Park, Gunyeop; Kim, Soo Jae; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan; Wi, Myung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The reaction products that cause oxidation and erosion are threaten the heat transfer tubes so that it is necessary to investigate Na-CO 2 reaction according to various experimental parameter. Unlike SWR, Na-CO 2 reaction is more complex to deal with reaction kinetics. Since a comprehensive understanding of Na-CO 2 reaction mechanism is crucial for the safety analysis, the reaction phenomenon under the various conditions was investigated. The current issue is to make a database for developing computational code for CO 2 gas leak situation because it is experimentally difficult to analyze the actual accident situation. Most studies on Na-CO 2 interaction reports that chemical reaction is getting vigorous as temperature increased and reactivity is sensitive as temperature change between 400 .deg. C and 600 .deg. C. Therefore, temperature range is determined based on the operating condition (450 - 500 .deg. C) of KALIMER-600 employed as supercritical CO 2 brayton cycle energy conversion system for Na-CO 2 heat exchanger. And next parameter is sodium surface area which contact between sodium and CO 2 when CO 2 is injected into sodium pool in the accident situation. So, the fundamental surface reaction is experimentally studied in the range of 8 - 12cm 2 . Additionally, it has been reported in recent years that CO 2 Flow rate affects reactivity less significantly and CO 2 flow rate is assumed that 5 SLPM (standard liter per minute) is suitable as a basis for a small leakage. The finally selected control parameters is sodium temperature and reacting surface area with constant CO 2 flow rate. Na-CO 2 reaction test is performed for investigating risk of potential accident which contacts with liquid sodium and CO 2 . Amount of reaction is saturated as time passed because of kept a balance between production of solid phase reaction products and amount of diffusivity. These results contribute to make a database for the SFR safety analysis and additional experiments are needed

  16. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): the dimensionality of student perceptions of the instructional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M; Demers, Joseph A; Christ, Theodore J

    2014-06-01

    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale items. Participants included 1,465 middle school students across 48 classrooms in the Midwest. Item analysis, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was used to refine a 27-item scale with a second-order factor structure. Results support the interpretation of a single general dimension of the Classroom Teaching Environment with 6 subscale dimensions: Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Presentation, Goal Setting, Differentiated Instruction, Formative Feedback, and Instructional Enjoyment. Applications of REACT in research and practice are discussed along with implications for future research and the development of classroom environment measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Methane reacts with heteropolyacids chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Miao

    2013-01-16

    Selective functionalization of methane at moderate temperature is of crucial economic, environmental, and scientific importance. Here, we report that methane reacts with heteropolyacids (HPAs) chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions. Specially, when chemisorbed on silica, H 4SiW12O40, H3PW12O 40, H4SiMo12O40, and H 3PMo12O40 activate the primary C-H bond of methane at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. With these systems, acetic acid is produced directly from methane, in a single step, in the absence of Pd and without adding CO. Extensive surface characterization by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that C-H activation of methane is triggered by the protons in the HPA-silica interface with concerted reduction of the Keggin cage, leading to water formation and hydration of the interface. This is the simplest and mildest way reported to date to functionalize methane. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Wildfire simulation using a chemically-reacting plume in a crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Robert; Alvarado, Travis; Potter, Brian

    2010-11-01

    Water tunnel experiments reveal the flame length of a chemically-reacting plume in a crossflow. Salt water containing a pH indicator and a base is slowly injected from above into the test section of a water tunnel containing an acidic solution. The flame length is measured optically as a function of the buoyancy flux, crossflow speed, and volume equivalence ratio of the chemical reaction. Based on earlier work of Broadwell with the transverse jet, a simple dilution model predicts the flame length of the transverse plume. The plume observations are in accord with the model. As with the jet, there is a minimum in the flame length of the plume at a transition between two self-similar regimes, corresponding to the formation of a pair of counter-rotating vortices at a certain crossflow speed. At the transition, there is a maximum in the entrainment and mixing rates. In an actual wildfire with variable winds, this transition may correspond to a dangerous condition for firefighters.

  19. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  20. MP Salsa: a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 1--theoretical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.

  1. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Compressible Reacting Boundary Layer using a Temporal Slow Growth Homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalian, Victor; Oliver, Todd; Ulerich, Rhys; Moser, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A DNS of a compressible, reacting boundary layer flow at Reθ ~ 430 was performed using a temporal slow-growth homogenization, for a multispecies flow model of air at supersonic regime. The overall scenario parameters are related to those of the flow over an ablating surface of a space capsule upon Earth's atmospheric re-entry. The simulation algorithm features Fourier spatial discretization in the streamwise and spanwise directions, B-splines in the wall normal direction, and is marched semi-implicitly in time using the SMR91 scheme. Flow statistics will be presented for relevant flow quantities, in particular those related with RANS modeling. Since analogous slow growth computations can be performed using RANS to predict the flow mean profiles, the use of data gathered from this type of simulation as a vehicle for the calibration and uncertainty quantification of RANS models will be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  2. Stereodynamics of Ne(3P2) reacting with Ar, Kr, Xe, and N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junwen; Gordon, Sean D. S.; Tanteri, Silvia; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Stereodynamics experiments of Ne(3P2) reacting with Ar, Kr, Xe, and N2 leading to Penning and associative ionization have been performed in a crossed molecular beam apparatus. A curved magnetic hexapole was used to state-select and polarize Ne(3P2) atoms which were then oriented in a rotatable magnetic field and crossed with a beam of Ar, Kr, Xe, or N2. The ratio of associative to Penning ionization was recorded as a function of the magnetic field direction for collision energies between 320 cm-1 and 500 cm-1. Reactivities are obtained for individual states that differ only in Ω, the projection of the neon total angular momentum vector on the inter-particle axis. The results are rationalized on the basis of a model involving a long-range and a short-range reaction mechanism. Substantially lower probability for associative ionization was observed for N2, suggesting that predissociation plays a critical role in the overall reaction pathway.

  3. How do patients and providers react to different incentives in the Chinese multiple health security systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yu; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-03-05

    China has achieved universal health insurance coverage. This study examined how patients and hospitals react to the different designs of the plans and to monitoring of patients by the local authority in the Chinese multiple health security schemes. The sample for analysis consisted of 1006 orthopedic inpatients who were admitted between January and December 2011 at a tertiary teaching hospital located in Beijing. We conducted general linear regression analyses to investigate whether medical expenditure and length of stay differed according to the different incentives. Patients under plans with lower copayment rates consumed significantly more medication compared with those under plans with higher copayment rates. Under plans with an annual ceiling for insurance coverage, patients spent significantly more in the second half of the year than in the first half of the year. The length of stay was shorter among patients when there were government monitoring and a penalty to the hospital service provider. Our results indicate that the different designs and monitoring of the health security systems in China cause opportunistic behavior by patients and providers. Reformation is necessary to reduce those incentives, and improve equity and efficiency in healthcare use.

  4. Possible effects of small-scale intermittency in turbulent reacting flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, K.R.

    2006-12-01

    It is now well established that quantities such as energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and enstrophy possess huge fluctuations in turbulent flows, and that the fluctuations become increasingly stronger with increasing Reynolds number of the flow. The effects of this small-scale 'intermittency' on various aspects of reacting flows have not been addressed fully. This paper draws brief attention to a few possible effects on reaction rates, flame extinction, flamelet approximation, conditional moment closure methods, and so forth, besides commenting on possible effects on the resolution requirements of direct numerical simulations of turbulence. We also discuss the likelihood that large-amplitude events in a given class of shear flows are characteristic of that class, and that, plausible estimates of such quantities cannot be made, in general, on the hypothesis that large and small scales are independent. Finally, we briefly describe some ideas from multifractals as a potentially useful tool for an economical handling of a few of the problems touched upon here. (author)

  5. Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO: an improved state to state approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Capitelli, M.

    2017-12-01

    Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO for conditions typically met in microwave discharges have been developed based on the coupling of excited state kinetics and the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Particular attention is given to the insertion in the vibrational kinetics of a complete set of electron molecule resonant processes linking the whole vibrational ladder of the CO molecule, as well as to the role of Boudouard reaction, i.e. the process of forming CO2 by two vibrationally excited CO molecules, in shaping the vibrational distribution of CO and promoting reaction channels assisted by vibrational excitation (pure vibrational mechanisms, PVM). PVM mechanisms can become competitive with electron impact dissociation processes (DEM) in the activation of CO. A case study reproducing the conditions of a microwave discharge has been considered following the coupled kinetics also in the post discharge conditions. Results include the evolution of EEDF in discharge and post discharge conditions highlighting the role of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions in shaping the EEDF. Moreover, PVM rate coefficients and DEM ones are studied as a function of gas temperature, showing a non-Arrhenius behavior, i.e. the rate coefficients increase with decreasing gas temperature as a result of a vibrational-vibrational (V-V) pumping up mechanism able to form plateaux in the vibrational distribution function. The accuracy of the results is discussed in particular in connection to the present knowledge of the activation energy of the Boudouard process.

  6. Low-temperature deuteron irradiation of differently reacted Nb3Sn superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, P.; Seibt, E.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation measurements with 50 MeV deuterons at 18 K and subsequent annealing measurements were performed on Nb 3 Sn single and multifilamentary superconductors at the Helium-Bath Irradiation Facility of the Karlsruhe Cyclotron. The critical current densities jsub(c) of Nb 3 Sn bronze-reacted wire samples at various reaction temperatures (Tsub(R)=650,700,750,800 and 850 0 C) with equal layer thickness were measured for integral deuteron fluxes up to PHIsub(t)=0.7x10 18 cm -2 . After a decrease in jsub(c) of 85% at maximum dose a relatively small annealing effect (4 to 10%) was observed at ambient temperatures. The maximum value of the normalized critical current density, jsub(c)/jsub(c0), at PHIsub(t)approximately=10 17 cm -2 increases with increasing reaction temperature. The difference in volume pinning forces before and after irradiation increases less than linear (approximately√PHIsub(t)) with the irradiation dose. An almost linear dependence between the inverse grain diameter (dsub(K) -1 )) and volume pinning force is obtained both before and after irradiation. (Auth.)

  7. Edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger, reacts with peroxynitrite to produce predominantly 4-NO-edaravone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Akio; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2016-05-01

    3-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (edaravone) is used in clinical treatment of acute brain infarction to rescue the penumbra, based on its ability to prevent lipid peroxidation by scavenging lipid peroxyl radicals. Here, we show that edaravone also reacts with peroxynitrite to yield 4-NO-edaravone as the major product and 4-NO2-edaravone as a minor product. We observed little formation of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-4,5-dione (4-oxoedaravone) and its hydrate, 2-oxo-3-(phenylhydrazono)butanoic acid, which are the major free radical-induced oxidation products of edaravone, suggesting that free radicals are not involved in the reaction with peroxynitrite. The reaction of peroxynitrite with edaravone is approximately 30-fold greater than with uric acid, a physiological peroxynitrite scavenger (reaction rate k = 1.5 × 10 (4)  M(-1) s(-1) vs. 480 M(-1) s(-1)). These results suggest that edaravone functions therapeutically as a scavenger of peroxynitrite as well as lipid peroxyl radicals, which is consistent with a report that edaravone treatment reduced levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  8. Entropy Filtered Density Function for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mehdi

    Analysis of local entropy generation is an effective means to optimize the performance of energy and combustion systems by minimizing the irreversibilities in transport processes. Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to describe entropy transport and generation in turbulent reacting flows. The entropy transport equation in LES contains several unclosed terms. These are the subgrid scale (SGS) entropy flux and entropy generation caused by irreversible processes: heat conduction, mass diffusion, chemical reaction and viscous dissipation. The SGS effects are taken into account using a novel methodology based on the filtered density function (FDF). This methodology, entitled entropy FDF (En-FDF), is developed and utilized in the form of joint entropy-velocity-scalar-turbulent frequency FDF and the marginal scalar-entropy FDF, both of which contain the chemical reaction effects in a closed form. The former constitutes the most comprehensive form of the En-FDF and provides closure for all the unclosed filtered moments. This methodology is applied for LES of a turbulent shear layer involving transport of passive scalars. Predictions show favor- able agreements with the data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the same layer. The marginal En-FDF accounts for entropy generation effects as well as scalar and entropy statistics. This methodology is applied to a turbulent nonpremixed jet flame (Sandia Flame D) and predictions are validated against experimental data. In both flows, sources of irreversibility are predicted and analyzed.

  9. Test Results of a Nb3Sn Wind/React ''Stress-Managed'' Block Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.; Bish, P.; Blackburn, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Hafalia Jr., R.; Henchel, W.; Jaisle, A.; Lau, W.; Lietzke, A.; McIntyre, P.; Noyes, P.; Nyman, M.; Sattarov, A.; Sattarov, A.

    2006-01-01

    A second phase of a highfield dipole technology development has been tested. A Nb3Sn block-coil model dipole was fabricated, using magnetic mirror geometry and wind/react coil technology. The primary objective of this phase was to make a first experimental test of the stress-management strategy pioneered at Texas A and M. In this strategy a high-strength support matrix is integrated with the windings to intercept Lorentz stress from the inner winding so that it does not accumulate in the outer winding. The magnet attained a field that was consistent with short sample limit on the first quench; there was no training. The decoupling of Lorentz stress between inner and outer windings was validated. In ramp rate studies the magnet exhibited a remarkable robustness in rapid ramping operation. It reached 85 percent of short sample(ss) current even while ramping 2-3 T/s. This robustness is attributed to the orientation of the Rutherford cables parallel to the field in the windings, instead of the transverse orientation that characterizes common dipole designs. Test results are presented and the next development phase plans are discussed

  10. Role of the reacting free radicals on the antioxidant mechanism of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galano, Annia, E-mail: agalano@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Area de Quimica Analitica, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Diduk, Ruslan; Ramirez-Silva, Maria Teresa; Alarcon-Angeles, Georgina; Rojas-Hernandez, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Area de Quimica Analitica, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-18

    Density functional theory is used to study the antioxidant mechanism of curcumin. Five different mechanisms are considered: single electron transfer (SET), radical adduct formation (RAF), H atom transfer from neutral curcumin (HAT), H atom transfer from deprotonated curcumin (HAT-D), and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET). The influence of the environment is investigated for polar and non-polar surroundings. The apparent contradictions among previous experimental results are explained by the role of the nature of the reacting free radical on the relative importance of the above mentioned mechanism. It is proposed that the curcumin + DPPH reaction actually takes place mainly through the SPLET mechanism, while the reaction with {sup {center_dot}}OCH{sub 3}, and likely with other alkoxyl radicals, is governed by the HAT mechanism. Branching ratios for the {sup {center_dot}}OCH{sub 3} + curcumin reaction are reported for the first time. The calculated overall rate constants for this reaction are 1.16 x 10{sup 10} (benzene) and 5.52 x 10{sup 9} (water) L mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The role of phenolic groups on the antioxidant activity of curcumin has been experimentally confirmed.

  11. 3D simulation of polyurethane foam injection and reacting mold flow in a complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Fırat

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a flow model which can be used to determine the paths of the polyurethane foam in the mold filling process of a refrigerator cabinet so that improvements in the distribution and the size of the venting holes can be achieved without the expensive prototyping and experiments. For this purpose, the multi-component, two-phase chemically reacting flow is described by Navier Stokes and 12 scalar transport equations. The air and the multi-component foam zones are separated by an interface, which moves only with advection since the mass diffusion of species are set zero in the air zone. The inverse density, viscosity and other diffusion coefficients are calculated by a mass fraction weighted average of the corresponding temperature-dependent values of all species. Simulations are performed in a real refrigerator geometry, are able to reveal the problematical zones where air bubbles and voids trapped in the solidified foam are expected to occur. Furthermore, the approach proves itself as a reliable design tool to use in deciding the locations of air vents and sizing the channel dimensions.

  12. Comparison of PDF and Moment Closure Methods in the Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Andrew T.; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1994-01-01

    In modeling turbulent reactive flows, Probability Density Function (PDF) methods have an advantage over the more traditional moment closure schemes in that the PDF formulation treats the chemical reaction source terms exactly, while moment closure methods are required to model the mean reaction rate. The common model used is the laminar chemistry approximation, where the effects of turbulence on the reaction are assumed negligible. For flows with low turbulence levels and fast chemistry, the difference between the two methods can be expected to be small. However for flows with finite rate chemistry and high turbulence levels, significant errors can be expected in the moment closure method. In this paper, the ability of the PDF method and the moment closure scheme to accurately model a turbulent reacting flow is tested. To accomplish this, both schemes were used to model a CO/H2/N2- air piloted diffusion flame near extinction. Identical thermochemistry, turbulence models, initial conditions and boundary conditions are employed to ensure a consistent comparison can be made. The results of the two methods are compared to experimental data as well as to each other. The comparison reveals that the PDF method provides good agreement with the experimental data, while the moment closure scheme incorrectly shows a broad, laminar-like flame structure.

  13. Analysis of the trend to equilibrium of a chemically reacting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M; Bianchi, Miriam Pandolfi; Soares, Ana Jacinta

    2007-01-01

    In this present paper, a quaternary gaseous reactive mixture, for which the chemical reaction is close to its final stage and the elastic and reactive frequencies are comparable, is modelled within the Boltzmann equation extended to reacting gases. The main objective is a detailed analysis of the non-equilibrium effects arising in the reactive system A 1 + A 2 ↔ A 3 + A 4 , in a flow regime which is considered not far away from thermal, mechanical and chemical equilibrium. A first-order perturbation solution technique is applied to the macroscopic field equations for the spatially homogeneous gas system, and the trend to equilibrium is studied in detail. Adopting elastic hard-spheres and reactive line-of-centres cross sections and an appropriate choice of the input distribution functions-which allows us to distinguish the two cases where the constituents are either at same or different temperatures-explicit computations of the linearized production terms for mass, momentum and total energy are performed for each gas species. The departures from the equilibrium states of densities, temperatures and diffusion fluxes are characterized by small perturbations of their corresponding equilibrium values. For the hydrogen-chlorine system, the perturbations are plotted as functions of time for both cases where the species are either at the same or different temperatures. Moreover, the trend to equilibrium of the reaction rates is represented for the forward and backward reaction H 2 + Cl ↔ HCl + H

  14. Hybrid Capture-Based Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Identifies Lung Cancer Patients with Well-Characterized Sensitizing Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Point Mutations That Were Not Detected by Standard of Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, James H; Schrock, Alexa B; Johnson, Adrienne; Lipson, Doron; Gay, Laurie M; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Elvin, Julia A; Shakir, Abdur; Ruehlman, Peter; Reckamp, Karen L; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Ross, Jeffrey S; Stephens, Philip J; Miller, Vincent A; Ali, Siraj M

    2018-03-14

    In our recent study, of cases positive for epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) exon 19 deletions using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP), 17/77 (22%) patients with prior standard of care (SOC) EGFR testing results available were previously negative for exon 19 deletion. Our aim was to compare the detection rates of CGP versus SOC testing for well-characterized sensitizing EGFR point mutations (pm) in our 6,832-patient cohort. DNA was extracted from 40 microns of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 6,832 consecutive cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of various histologies (2012-2015). CGP was performed using a hybrid capture, adaptor ligation-based next-generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 576×. Genomic alterations (pm, small indels, copy number changes and rearrangements) involving EGFR were recorded for each case and compared with prior testing results if available. Overall, there were 482 instances of EGFR exon 21 L858R (359) and L861Q (20), exon 18 G719X (73) and exon 20 S768I (30) pm, of which 103 unique cases had prior EGFR testing results that were available for review. Of these 103 cases, CGP identified 22 patients (21%) with sensitizing EGFR pm that were not detected by SOC testing, including 9/75 (12%) patients with L858R, 4/7 (57%) patients with L861Q, 8/20 (40%) patients with G719X, and 4/7 (57%) patients with S768I pm (some patients had multiple EGFR pm). In cases with available clinical data, benefit from small molecule inhibitor therapy was observed. CGP, even when applied to low tumor purity clinical-grade specimens, can detect well-known EGFR pm in NSCLC patients that would otherwise not be detected by SOC testing. Taken together with EGFR exon 19 deletions, over 20% of patients who are positive for EGFR -activating mutations using CGP are previously negative by SOC EGFR mutation testing, suggesting that thousands of such patients per year in the U.S. alone could experience improved clinical

  15. Detectable end of radiation prostate specific antigen assists in identifying men with unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer at high risk of distant recurrence and cancer-specific mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Jonathan; Phillips, Ryan; Chen, Di; Perin, Jamie; Narang, Amol K; Trieu, Janson; Radwan, Noura; Greco, Stephen; Deville, Curtiland; McNutt, Todd; Song, Daniel Y; DeWeese, Theodore L; Tran, Phuoc T

    2018-06-01

    Undetectable End of Radiation PSA (EOR-PSA) has been shown to predict improved survival in prostate cancer (PCa). While validating the unfavorable intermediate-risk (UIR) and favorable intermediate-risk (FIR) stratifications among Johns Hopkins PCa patients treated with radiotherapy, we examined whether EOR-PSA could further risk stratify UIR men for survival. A total of 302 IR patients were identified in the Johns Hopkins PCa database (178 UIR, 124 FIR). Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable analysis was performed via Cox regression for biochemical recurrence free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS), while a competing risks model was used for PCa specific survival (PCSS). Among the 235 patients with known EOR-PSA values, we then stratified by EOR-PSA and performed the aforementioned analysis. The median follow-up time was 11.5 years (138 months). UIR was predictive of worse DMFS and PCSS (P = 0.008 and P = 0.023) on multivariable analysis (MVA). Increased radiation dose was significant for improved DMFS (P = 0.016) on MVA. EOR-PSA was excluded from the models because it did not trend towards significance as a continuous or binary variable due to interaction with UIR, and we were unable to converge a multivariable model with a variable to control for this interaction. However, when stratifying by detectable versus undetectable EOR-PSA, UIR had worse DMFS and PCSS among detectable EOR-PSA patients, but not undetectable patients. UIR was significant on MVA among detectable EOR-PSA patients for DMFS (P = 0.021) and PCSS (P = 0.033), while RT dose also predicted PCSS (P = 0.013). EOR-PSA can assist in predicting DMFS and PCSS among UIR patients, suggesting a clinically meaningful time point for considering intensification of treatment in clinical trials of intermediate-risk men. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. "Reacting to the Past" to Be Proactive in the Present: Feminist Roots of High-Impact Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidinsky, April

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explains a high-impact role-playing pedagogy developed at Barnard College called "Reacting to the Past," which she uses to introduce first-year and general education students to feminist history, current feminist issues, and feminist pedagogy.

  17. Evaluation of a porcine internal mammary artery (No-React II) as a small-diameter conduit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostapczuk, S; Poniewierski, J; Thiel, A; Knieriem, HJ; Orlowski, T; Rakhorst, G; Krian, A

    1998-01-01

    Background. The patency of biologic small-diameter vascular grafts in the aortocoronary position is still unsatisfactory. Most of the studies suggest that xeno-grafts are to be avoided as an aortocoronary bypass. Methods. The porcine internal mammary artery treated by the No-React II procedure was

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics and thermal structure of nonpremixed reacting swirling wakes at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Rong F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China); Yen, Shun C. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung (China)

    2008-12-15

    The aerodynamic characteristics and thermal structure of uncontrolled and controlled swirling double-concentric jet flames at low Reynolds numbers are experimentally studied. The swirl and Reynolds numbers are lower than 0.6 and 2000, respectively. The flow characteristics are diagnosed by the laser-light-sheet-assisted Mie scattering flow visualization method and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The thermal structure is measured by a fine-wire thermocouple. The flame shapes, combined images of flame and flow, velocity vector maps, streamline patterns, velocity and turbulence distributions, flame lengths, and temperature distributions are discussed. The flow patterns of the no-control case exhibit an open-top, single-ring vortex sitting on the blockage disc with a jetlike swirling flow evolving from the central disc face toward the downstream area. The rotation direction and size of the near-disc vortex, as well as the flow properties, change in different ranges of annulus swirl number and therefore induce three characteristic flame modes: weak swirling flame, lifted flame, and turbulent reattached flame. Because the near-disc vortex is open-top, the radial dispersion of the fuel-jet fluids is not significantly enhanced by the annulus swirling flow. The flows of the reacting swirling double-concentric jets at such low swirl and Reynolds numbers therefore present characteristics of diffusion jet flames. In the controlled case, the axial momentum of the central fuel jet is deflected radially by a control disc placed above the blockage disc. This arrangement can induce a large near-disc recirculation bubble and high turbulence intensities. The enhanced mixing hence tremendously shortens the flame length and enlarges the flame width. (author)

  19. Reacting fluids analysis and polluting emissions; Analisis de fluidos reactivos y emisiones contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo, Ramon; Ley Koo, Marcos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Varela Ham, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    A problem is set up of a reacting flow which occurs in a gas exhausting duct, which is boiled down to a problem of initial conditions (temperature, pressure and concentration of species) freeing the selection of reaction mechanisms. Through some pre-established algorithms calculation routines can be programmed in specific problems of chemistry kinetics. With the calculation routines set forth in base of the selected mechanism, the temperature, pressure, etc., conditions, a general program is obtained containing the differential equations for the mechanisms, and with its solution, with a certain degree of uncertainty, the gases at a duct outlet can be predicted. The exhaust gases will carry unburned particles and products that can be polluting or not. If we vary the working conditions, we can find the optimum values to work with equipment that produces exhaust gases, anticipating with it the more efficient utilization of the equipment and the energy with the least possible pollution. [Espanol] Se plantea un problema de un flujo reactivo que se lleva a cabo en un ducto de salida de gases de escape, para lo cual se reduce a un problema de condiciones iniciales (temperatura, presion y concentracion de especies), y dejando en libertad la seleccion de mecanismos de reaccion. Mediante algunos algoritmos preestablecidos se pueden programar las rutinas de calculo en problemas especificos de cinetica quimica. Con las rutinas de calculo planteadas en base al mecanismo seleccionado, las condiciones de temperatura, presion, etc. se obtiene un programa general que contiene las ecuaciones diferenciales para el mecanismo y con su solucion se puede predecir con cierto grado de incertidumbre los gases a la salida de un ducto, los gases de salida llevaran particulas inquemadas y productos que pueden ser contaminantes o no, si hacemos variacion en las condiciones de trabajo podemos encontrar los valores optimos para trabajar con equipos que producen gases de escape, previendo con ello

  20. Large eddy simulation of a two-phase reacting swirl flow inside a cement cyclone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Ashhab, Moh'd Sami; Duić, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the highly swirled gas–solid flow inside a cement cyclone. The computational fluid dynamics – CFD simulation for continuum fluid flow and heat exchange was used for the investigation. The Eulearian–Lagrangian approach was used to describe the two-phase flow, and the large eddy simulation – LES method was used for correctly obtaining the turbulent fluctuations of the gas phase. A model describing the reaction of the solid phase, e.g. the calcination process, has been developed and implemented within the commercial finite volume CFD code FIRE. Due to the fact that the calcination process has a direct influence on the overall energy efficiency of the cement production, it is of great importance to have a certain degree of limestone degradation at the cyclone's outlet. The heat exchange between the gas and solid phase is of particular importance when studying cement cyclones, as it has a direct effect on the calcination process. In order to study the heat exchange phenomena and the flow characteristics, a three dimensional geometry of a real industrial scroll type cyclone was used for the CFD simulation. The gained numerical results, characteristic for cyclones, such as the pressure drop, and concentration of particles can thus be used for better understanding of the complex swirled two-phase flow inside the cement cyclone and also for improving the heat exchange phenomena. - Highlights: • CFD (computational fluid dynamics) is being increasingly used to enhance efficiency of reacting multi-phase flows. • Numerical model of calcination process was presented. • A detailed industrial geometry was used for the CFD simulation. • Presented model and measurement data are in good agreement

  1. Modeling study of rarefied gas effects on hypersonic reacting stagnation flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Bao, Lin

    2014-12-01

    Recent development of the near space hypersonic sharp leading vehicles has raised a necessity to fast and accurately predict the aeroheating in hypersonic rarefied flows, which challenges our understanding of the aerothermodynamics and aerothermochemistry. The present flow and heat transfer problem involves complex rarefied gas effects and nonequilibrium real gas effects which are beyond the scope of the traditional prediction theory based on the continuum hypothesis and equilibrium assumption. As a typical example, it has been found that the classical Fay-Riddell equation fails to predict the stagnation point heat flux, when the flow is either rarefied or chemical nonequilibrium. In order to design a more general theory covering the rarefied reacting flow cases, an intuitive model is proposed in this paper to describe the nonequilibrium dissociation-recombination flow along the stagnation streamline towards a slightly blunted nose in hypersonic rarefied flows. Some characteristic flow parameters are introduced, and based on these parameters, an explicitly analytical bridging function is established to correct the traditional theory to accurately predict the actual aeroheating performance. It is shown that for a small size nose in medium density flows, the flow at the outer edge of the stagnation point boundary layer could be highly nonequilibrium, and the aeroheating performance is distinguished from that of the big blunt body reentry flows at high altitudes. As a result, when the rarefied gas effects and the nonequilibrium real gas effects are both significant, the classical similarity law could be questionable, and it is inadequate to directly analogize results from the classical blunt body reentry problems to the present new generation sharp-leading vehicles. In addition, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is also employed to validate the conclusion.

  2. Numerical study on non-locally reacting behavior of nacelle liners incorporating drainage slots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Li, Xiaodong; Thiele, Frank

    2018-06-01

    For acoustic liners used in current commercial nacelles, in order to prevent any liquid accumulating in the resonators, drainage slots are incorporated on the partition walls between closely packed cavities. Recently, an experimental study conducted by Busse-Gerstengarbe et al. shown that the cell interaction introduced by drainage slots causes an additional dissipation peak which increases with the size of the slot. However, the variation of damping process due to drainage slots is still not fully understood. Therefore, a numerical study based on computational aeroacoustic methods is carried out to investigate the mechanism of the changed attenuation characteristics due to drainage slots in presence of grazing incident sound waves with low or high intensities. Different slot configurations are designed based on the generic non-locally reacting liner model adopted in the experimental investigation. Both 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations of only slit resonators are carried out. Numerical results indicate that the extra peak is a result of a resonance excited in the second cavity at specific frequency. Under high sound pressure level incoming waves, the basic characteristics of the acoustic performance remain. However, vortex shedding transpires at the resonances around both the slits and the drainage slot. Vorticity contours show that the connection of two coupled cavities decreases the strength of vortex shedding around the basic Helmholtz resonance due to a higher energy reflection. Meanwhile, the cell interaction significantly increases the vorticity magnitude near the extra resonant frequency. Finally, a semi-empirical model is derived to predict the extra attenuation peak frequency.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of an isothermal reacting turbulent wall-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouransari, Zeinab; Brethouwer, Geert; Johansson, Arne V.

    2011-08-01

    In the present investigation, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study a binary irreversible and isothermal reaction in a plane turbulent wall-jet. The flow is compressible and a single-step global reaction between an oxidizer and a fuel species is solved. The inlet based Reynolds, Schmidt, and Mach numbers of the wall-jet are Re = 2000, Sc = 0.72, and M = 0.5, respectively, and a constant coflow velocity is applied above the jet. At the inlet, fuel and oxidizer enter the domain separately in a non-premixed manner. The turbulent structures of the velocity field show the common streaky patterns near the wall, while a somewhat patchy or spotty pattern is observed for the scalars and the reaction rate fluctuations in the near-wall region. The reaction mainly occurs in the upper shear layer in thin highly convoluted reaction zones, but it also takes place close to the wall. Analysis of turbulence and reaction statistics confirms the observations in the instantaneous snapshots, regarding the intermittent character of the reaction rate near the wall. A detailed study of the probability density functions of the reacting scalars and comparison to that of the passive scalar throughout the domain reveals the significance of the reaction influence as well as the wall effects on the scalar distributions. The higher order moments of both the velocities and the scalar concentrations are analyzed and show a satisfactory agreement with experiments. The simulations show that the reaction can both enhance and reduce the dissipation of fuel scalar, since there are two competing effects; on the one hand, the reaction causes sharper scalar gradients and thus a higher dissipation rate, on the other hand, the reaction consumes the fuel scalar thereby reducing the scalar dissipation.

  4. An LES-PBE-PDF approach for modeling particle formation in turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerin, Fabian; Rigopoulos, Stelios

    2017-10-01

    Many chemical and environmental processes involve the formation of a polydispersed particulate phase in a turbulent carrier flow. Frequently, the immersed particles are characterized by an intrinsic property such as the particle size, and the distribution of this property across a sample population is taken as an indicator for the quality of the particulate product or its environmental impact. In the present article, we propose a comprehensive model and an efficient numerical solution scheme for predicting the evolution of the property distribution associated with a polydispersed particulate phase forming in a turbulent reacting flow. Here, the particulate phase is described in terms of the particle number density whose evolution in both physical and particle property space is governed by the population balance equation (PBE). Based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES), we augment the existing LES-transported probability density function (PDF) approach for fluid phase scalars by the particle number density and obtain a modeled evolution equation for the filtered PDF associated with the instantaneous fluid composition and particle property distribution. This LES-PBE-PDF approach allows us to predict the LES-filtered fluid composition and particle property distribution at each spatial location and point in time without any restriction on the chemical or particle formation kinetics. In view of a numerical solution, we apply the method of Eulerian stochastic fields, invoking an explicit adaptive grid technique in order to discretize the stochastic field equation for the number density in particle property space. In this way, sharp moving features of the particle property distribution can be accurately resolved at a significantly reduced computational cost. As a test case, we consider the condensation of an aerosol in a developed turbulent mixing layer. Our investigation not only demonstrates the predictive capabilities of the LES-PBE-PDF model but also

  5. Reacting fluids analysis and polluting emissions; Analisis de fluidos reactivos y emisiones contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo, Ramon; Ley Koo, Marcos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Varela Ham, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    A problem is set up of a reacting flow which occurs in a gas exhausting duct, which is boiled down to a problem of initial conditions (temperature, pressure and concentration of species) freeing the selection of reaction mechanisms. Through some pre-established algorithms calculation routines can be programmed in specific problems of chemistry kinetics. With the calculation routines set forth in base of the selected mechanism, the temperature, pressure, etc., conditions, a general program is obtained containing the differential equations for the mechanisms, and with its solution, with a certain degree of uncertainty, the gases at a duct outlet can be predicted. The exhaust gases will carry unburned particles and products that can be polluting or not. If we vary the working conditions, we can find the optimum values to work with equipment that produces exhaust gases, anticipating with it the more efficient utilization of the equipment and the energy with the least possible pollution. [Espanol] Se plantea un problema de un flujo reactivo que se lleva a cabo en un ducto de salida de gases de escape, para lo cual se reduce a un problema de condiciones iniciales (temperatura, presion y concentracion de especies), y dejando en libertad la seleccion de mecanismos de reaccion. Mediante algunos algoritmos preestablecidos se pueden programar las rutinas de calculo en problemas especificos de cinetica quimica. Con las rutinas de calculo planteadas en base al mecanismo seleccionado, las condiciones de temperatura, presion, etc. se obtiene un programa general que contiene las ecuaciones diferenciales para el mecanismo y con su solucion se puede predecir con cierto grado de incertidumbre los gases a la salida de un ducto, los gases de salida llevaran particulas inquemadas y productos que pueden ser contaminantes o no, si hacemos variacion en las condiciones de trabajo podemos encontrar los valores optimos para trabajar con equipos que producen gases de escape, previendo con ello

  6. Mixing and NO(x) Emission Calculations of Confined Reacting Jet Flows in a Cylindrical Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Oechsle, Victor L.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid mixing of cold lateral jets with hot cross-stream flows in confined configurations is of practical interest in gas turbine combustors as it strongly affects combustor exit temperature quality, and gaseous emissions in for example rich-lean combustion. It is therefore important to further improve our fundamental understanding of the important processes of dilution jet mixing especially when the injected jet mass flow rate exceeds that of the cross-stream. The results reported in this report describe some of the main flow characteristics which develop in the mixing process in a cylindrical duct. A 3-dimensional tool has been used to predict the mixing flow field characteristics and NOx emission in a quench section of an RQL combustor, Eighteen configurations have been analyzed in a circular geometry in a fully reacting environment simulating the operating condition of an actual RQL gas turbine combustion liner. The evaluation matrix was constructed by varying three parameters: 1) jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio (J), 2) orifice shape or orifice aspect ratio, and 3) slot slant angle. The results indicate that the mixing flow field significantly varies with the value of the jet penetration and subsequently, slanting elongated slots generally improve the mixing uniformity at high J conditions. Round orifices produce more uniform mixing and low NO(x) emissions at low J due to the strong and adequate jet penetration. No significant correlation was found between the NO(x) production rates and the mixing deviation parameters, however, strong correlation was found between NO(x) formation and jet penetration. In the computational results, most of the NO(x) formation occurred behind the orifice starting at the orifice wake region. Additional NO(x) is formed upstream of the orifice in certain configurations with high J conditions due to the upstream recirculation.

  7. Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air

  8. High-fidelity target sequencing of individual molecules identified using barcode sequences: de novo detection and absolute quantitation of mutations in plasma cell-free DNA from cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, Yoji; Matoba, Ryo; Uchida, Junji; Hamakawa, Takuya; Doki, Yuichiro; Imamura, Fumio; Kato, Kikuya

    2015-08-01

    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging field of cancer research. However, current ctDNA analysis is usually restricted to one or a few mutation sites due to technical limitations. In the case of massively parallel DNA sequencers, the number of false positives caused by a high read error rate is a major problem. In addition, the final sequence reads do not represent the original DNA population due to the global amplification step during the template preparation. We established a high-fidelity target sequencing system of individual molecules identified in plasma cell-free DNA using barcode sequences; this system consists of the following two steps. (i) A novel target sequencing method that adds barcode sequences by adaptor ligation. This method uses linear amplification to eliminate the errors introduced during the early cycles of polymerase chain reaction. (ii) The monitoring and removal of erroneous barcode tags. This process involves the identification of individual molecules that have been sequenced and for which the number of mutations have been absolute quantitated. Using plasma cell-free DNA from patients with gastric or lung cancer, we demonstrated that the system achieved near complete elimination of false positives and enabled de novo detection and absolute quantitation of mutations in plasma cell-free DNA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  9. Selective chemical detection by energy modulation of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, J.R.; Otagawa, T.

    1985-05-20

    A portable instrument for use in the field in detecting, identifying, and quantifying a component of a sampled fluid includes a sensor which chemically reacts with the component of interest or a derivative thereof, an electrical heating filament for heating the sample before it is applied to the sensor, and modulating means for continuously varying the temperature of the filament (and hence the reaction rate) between two values sufficient to produce the chemical reaction. In response to this thermal modulation, the sensor produces a modulated output signal, the modulation of which is a function of the activation energy of the chemical reaction, which activation energy is specific to the particular component of interest and its concentration. Microprocessor means compares the modulated output signal with standard responses for a plurality of components to identify and quantify the particular component of interest. 4 figs.

  10. Mixing and NOx Emission Calculations of Confined Reacting Jet Flows in Cylindrical and Annular Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsle, Victor L.; Connor, Christopher H.; Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rapid mixing of cold lateral jets with hot cross-stream flows in confined configurations is of practical interest in gas turbine combustors as it strongly affects combustor exit temperature quality, and gaseous emissions in for example rich-lean combustion. It is therefore important to further improve our fundamental understanding of the important processes of dilution jet mixing especially when the injected jet mass flow rate exceeds that of the cross-stream. The results reported in this report describe some of the main flow characteristics which develop in the mixing process in a cylindrical duct. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been used to predict the mixing flow field characteristics and NOx emission in a quench section of a rich-burn/quick-mix/lean-burn (RQL) combustor. Sixty configurations have been analyzed in both circular and annular geometries in a fully reacting environment simulating the operating condition of an actual RQL gas turbine combustion liner. The evaluation matrix was constructed by varying the number of orifices per row and orifice shape. Other parameters such as J (momentum-flux ratio), MR (mass flowrate ratio), DR (density ratio), and mixer sector orifice ACd (effective orifice area) were maintained constant throughout the entire study. The results indicate that the mixing flow field can be correlated with the NOx production if they are referenced with the stoichiometric equivalence ratio value and not the equilibrium value. The mixing flowfields in both circular and annular mixers are different. The penetration of equal jets in both annular and circular geometries is vastly different which significantly affects the performance of the mixing section. In the computational results with the circular mixer, most of the NOx formation occurred behind the orifice starting at the orifice wake region. General trends have been observed in the NOx production as the number of orifices is changed and this appears to be

  11. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    ) will likely also enable a much better understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection and the molecular basis of the host response to infection. But the full potential of these advances will only transpire if the data in this area become transferable and thereby comparable, preferably in open-source...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  12. Computer program to solve two-dimensional shock-wave interference problems with an equilibrium chemically reacting air model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Christopher E.

    1990-08-01

    The computer program EASI, an acronym for Equilibrium Air Shock Interference, was developed to calculate the inviscid flowfield, the maximum surface pressure, and the maximum heat flux produced by six shock wave interference patterns on a 2-D, cylindrical configuration. Thermodynamic properties of the inviscid flowfield are determined using either an 11-specie, 7-reaction equilibrium chemically reacting air model or a calorically perfect air model. The inviscid flowfield is solved using the integral form of the conservation equations. Surface heating calculations at the impingement point for the equilibrium chemically reacting air model use variable transport properties and specific heat. However, for the calorically perfect air model, heating rate calculations use a constant Prandtl number. Sample calculations of the six shock wave interference patterns, a listing of the computer program, and flowcharts of the programming logic are included.

  13. Survey of citrus tristeza virus populations in Central California that react with MCA13 monoclonal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Citrus Pest Detection Program (CPDP) of the Central California Tristeza Eradication Agency monitors Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in Central California. MCA13 is a severe strain discriminating monoclonal antibody used to screen for potentially virulent CTV isolates. MCA13-reactive CTV isolates are...

  14. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  15. Anti-N antibody reacting at 37°C: An unusual occurrence interfering with routine testing: Two interesting cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumawat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-N antibodies are naturally occurring, IgM antibodies, and not active above 25°C and are not clinically significant but IgG anti- N has also been described. Immune anti-N resulting from multiple transfusions does occur & has been implicated as the cause of hemolytic transfusion reactions and mild hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn. Anti- N reacting at room temperature can be a cause for ABO blood group discrepancy

  16. Prevalence of Allergy to Natural Rubber Latex and Potential Cross Reacting Food in Operation Room Staff in Shiraz Hospitals -2006

    OpenAIRE

    H Nabavizade; R Amin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased during past 10 years especially among health care workers and patients with high exposure to latex allergens. Allergic reaction to latex is related to many diseases like occupational asthma. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber latex and potential cross reacting food in operation room staff in Shiraz hospitals. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional descr...

  17. Potential performance improvement using a reacting gas (nitrogin tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an analysis to estimate the performance that could be obtained by using a chemically reacting gas (nitrogen tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle are presented. Compared with data for helium as the working fluid, these results indicate efficiency improvements from 4 to 90 percent, depending on turbine inlet temperature, pressures, and gas residence time in heat transfer equipment.

  18. Early combined immunosuppression for the management of Crohn's disease (REACT): a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Reena; Bressler, Brian; Levesque, Barrett G; Zou, Guangyong; Stitt, Larry W; Greenberg, Gordon R; Panaccione, Remo; Bitton, Alain; Paré, Pierre; Vermeire, Séverine; D'Haens, Geert; MacIntosh, Donald; Sandborn, William J; Donner, Allan; Vandervoort, Margaret K; Morris, Joan C; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-11-07

    Conventional management of Crohn's disease features incremental use of therapies. However, early combined immunosuppression (ECI), with a TNF antagonist and antimetabolite might be a more effective strategy. We compared the efficacy of ECI with that of conventional management for treatment of Crohn's disease. In this open-label cluster randomised controlled trial (Randomised Evaluation of an Algorithm for Crohn's Treatment, REACT), we included community gastroenterology practices from Belgium and Canada that were willing to be assigned to either of the study groups, participate in all aspects of the study, and provide data on up to 60 patients with Crohn's disease. These practices were randomly assigned (1:1) to either ECI or conventional management. The computer-generated randomisation was minimised by country and practice size. Up to 60 consecutive adult patients were assessed within practices. Patients who were aged 18 years or older; documented to have Crohn's disease; able to speak or understand English, French, or Dutch; able to access a telephone; and able to provide written informed consent were followed up for 2 years. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in corticosteroid-free remission (Harvey-Bradshaw Index score ≤ 4) at 12 months at the practice level. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01030809. This study took place between March 15, 2010, and Oct 1, 2013. Of the 60 practices screened, 41 were randomly assigned to either ECI (n=22) or conventional management (n=19). Two practices (one in each group) discontinued because of insufficient resources. 921 (85%) of the 1084 patients at ECI practices and 806 (90%) of 898 patients at conventional management practices completed 12 months follow-up and were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. The 12 month practice-level remission rates were similar at ECI and conventional management practices (66·0% [SD 14·0] and 61·9% [16·9]; adjusted difference 2·5%, 95

  19. Why Have Labour Markets Reacted to the Global Crisis in Different Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwiatkowski Eugeniusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the effects of the global crisis on employment and unemployment in the EU countries and indicate factors which may explain the differentiated response of labour markets to this crisis.

  20. Human sera IgE reacts with a Metarhizium anisopliae fungal catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that Metarhzium anisopliae extract can induce immune responses in a mouse model that are characteristic of human allergic asthma. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the extract proteins t...

  1. Development of a Reduced-Order Model for Reacting Gas-Solids Flow using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Dwayne [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Dulikravich, George [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Cizmas, Paul [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-11-27

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks and accomplishments made during the three year duration of this research project. The report presents the results obtained by applying advanced computational techniques to develop reduced-order models (ROMs) in the case of reacting multiphase flows based on high fidelity numerical simulation of gas-solids flow structures in risers and vertical columns obtained by the Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges (MFIX) software. The research includes a numerical investigation of reacting and non-reacting gas-solids flow systems and computational analysis that will involve model development to accelerate the scale-up process for the design of fluidization systems by providing accurate solutions that match the full-scale models. The computational work contributes to the development of a methodology for obtaining ROMs that is applicable to the system of gas-solid flows. Finally, the validity of the developed ROMs is evaluated by comparing the results against those obtained using the MFIX code. Additionally, the robustness of existing POD-based ROMs for multiphase flows is improved by avoiding non-physical solutions of the gas void fraction and ensuring that the reduced kinetics models used for reactive flows in fluidized beds are thermodynamically consistent.

  2. PERBEDAAN KEMAMPUAN KONEKSI MATEMATIS MELALUI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN REACT DENGAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN LEARNING CYCLE 5E SISWA SMKN 39 JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Prihandhika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hasil analisa TIMSS Tahun 2013 menempatkan Indonesia sebagai salah satu negara dengan peringkat terendah dalam perolehan nilai matematika. Model pembelajaran yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan koneksi matematis diantaranya adalah model pembelajaran REACT dan Learning Cycle 5E. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui terdapat atau tidaknya perbedaan kemampuan koneksi matematis peserta didik yang diajarkan dengan kedua model tersebut. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMKN 39 Jakarta dengan populasi kelas X semester ganjil tahun pelajaran 2015-2016. Sampel yang diteliti sebanyak 61 orang dengan menggunakan design penelitian quasi experimental. Variabel bebas : model pembelajaran REACT dan model pembelajaran Learning Cycle 5E. Variabel terikat : kemampuan koneksi matematis. Uji instrumen dengan uji validitas dan uji reliabilitas. Uji validitas dengan rumus korelasi Product Moment didapat 7 soal yang valid. Uji reliabilitas dengan rumus Alpha menunjukan bahwa soal tersebut reliabel. Uji normalitas dengan uji Lilliefors menunjukan kedua sampel dari populasi yang berdistribusi normal. Uji homogenitas dengan uji Fisher menunjukan kedua sampel memiliki varians yang homogen. Uji hipotesis dengan uji-t  didapat  dengan alpha sebesar 0,05, maka  di tolak. Dengan demikian terdapat perbedaan kemampuan koneksi matematis peserta didik yang diajarkan dengan model pembelajaran REACT dan model pembelajaran Learning Cycle 5E di SMKN 39 Jakarta.   Kata Kunci: Kemampuan Koneksi Matematis, Model Pembelajaran REACT      Model Pembelajaran Learning Cycle 5E.

  3. Cross-reacting antibacterial auto-antibodies are produced within coronary atherosclerotic plaques of acute coronary syndrome patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Canducci

    Full Text Available Coronary atherosclerosis, the main condition predisposing to acute myocardial infarction, has an inflammatory component caused by stimuli that are yet unknown. We molecularly investigated the nature of the immune response within human coronary lesion in four coronary plaques obtained by endoluminal atherectomy from four patients. We constructed phage-display libraries containing the IgG1/kappa antibody fragments produced by B-lymphocytes present in each plaque. By immunoaffinity, we selected from these libraries a monoclonal antibody, arbitrarily named Fab7816, able to react both with coronary and carotid atherosclerotic tissue samples. We also demonstrated by confocal microscopy that this monoclonal antibody recognized human transgelin type 1, a cytoskeleton protein involved in atherogenesis, and that it co-localized with fibrocyte-like cells transgelin+, CD68+, CD45+ in human sections of coronary and carotid plaques. In vitro fibrocytes obtained by differentiating CD14+ cells isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells also interacted with Fab7816, thus supporting the hypothesis of a specific recognition of fibrocytes into the atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, the same antibody, cross-reacted with the outer membrane proteins of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae (and possibly with homologous proteins of other enterobacteriaceae present in the microbiota. From all the other three libraries, we were able to clone, by immunoaffinity selection, human monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with bacterial outer membrane proteins and with transgelin. These findings demonstrated that in human atherosclerotic plaques a local cross-reactive immune response takes place.

  4. Identify alkylation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that extensive experience shows that alkylation plants regardless of acid catalyst choice, can be operated safely, and with minimum process risk to employees or neighbors. Both types of plants require a comprehensive and fully supported hazard management program that accounts for differing physical properties of the acids involved. Control and mitigation cost to refiners will vary considerably from plant to plant and location to location. In the author's experience, the order of magnitude costs will be about $1 to $2 million for a sulfuric acid (SA) alkylation plant, and about $10 to $15 million for a hydrofluoric acid (HF) plant. These costs include water supply systems and impoundment facilities for contaminated runoff water. The alkylation process, which chemically reacts isobutane and light olefins in the presence of a strong acid catalyst into a premium gasoline component is described

  5. Brain development in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti: a comparative immunocytochemical analysis using cross-reacting antibodies from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Keshava; Flister, Susanne; Müller, Pie; Rodrigues, Veronica; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-12-01

    Considerable effort has been directed towards understanding the organization and function of peripheral and central nervous system of disease vector mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti. To date, all of these investigations have been carried out on adults but none of the studies addressed the development of the nervous system during the larval and pupal stages in mosquitoes. Here, we first screen a set of 30 antibodies, which have been used to study brain development in Drosophila, and identify 13 of them cross-reacting and labeling epitopes in the developing brain of Aedes. We then use the identified antibodies in immunolabeling studies to characterize general neuroanatomical features of the developing brain and compare them with the well-studied model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in larval, pupal, and adult stages. Furthermore, we use immunolabeling to document the development of specific components of the Aedes brain, namely the optic lobes, the subesophageal neuropil, and serotonergic system of the subesophageal neuropil in more detail. Our study reveals prominent differences in the developing brain in the larval stage as compared to the pupal (and adult) stage of Aedes. The results also uncover interesting similarities and marked differences in brain development of Aedes as compared to Drosophila. Taken together, this investigation forms the basis for future cellular and molecular investigations of brain development in this important disease vector. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  6. First report on the patient database for the identification of the genetic pathways involved in patients over-reacting to radiotherapy: GENEPI-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ruysscher, Dirk; Severin, Diane; Barnes, Elizabeth; Baumann, Michael; Bristow, Rob; Gregoire, Vincent; Hoelscher, Tobias; Veninga, Theo; Polanski, Andrzej; Veen, Evert-Ben van; Verfaillie, Christine; Heeren, Germaine; Damaraju, Sambasivarao; Just, Uwe; Haustermans, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Identifying the most radiosensitive patient group would have huge clinical implications. Methods: A tissue bank containing skin fibroblasts, whole blood, lymphocytes, plasma and lymphoblastoid cell lines from clinically radiation hypersensitive patients was established from patients in Europe and Canada. Over-reacting individuals had CTCAE3.0 severe acute side effects grade 2 or more occurring at very low radiation doses where these side effects are unexpected or grade 3-4 lasting more than 4 weeks after the end of radiotherapy and/or requiring surgical intervention at any time or severe late side effects grade 3-4. Results: Eleven patients have been identified with a mean age of 61.6 ± 8.5 years (range 49-74). Two patients were male, 9 female. One patient had non-small cell lung cancer, 6 breast cancer, 2 head and neck cancer, one lymphoma and one meningioma. The mean follow-up time after radiotherapy was 1658 ± 1048 days (range 84-3752). Conclusions: The establishment of an international tissue bank of the rare group of patients with extreme hypersensitivity to radiotherapy was proven to be feasible and should enable in-depth molecular studies.

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of Spatially Developing Turbulent Reacting Shear Layers with the One-Dimensional Turbulence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffie, Andreas Frank

    Large eddy simulation (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to simulate spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layers with high heat release and high Reynolds numbers. The LES-ODT results are compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), for model development and validation purposes. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum and pressure on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine, one-dimensional, but three-dimensionally coupled ODT subgrid, which is embedded into the LES computational domain. Although one-dimensional, all three velocity components are transported along the ODT domain. The low-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution of the subgrid scales describe a new modeling paradigm, referred to as autonomous microstructure evolution (AME) models, which resolve the multiscale nature of turbulence down to the Kolmogorv scales. While this new concept aims to mimic the turbulent cascade and to reduce the number of input parameters, AME enables also regime-independent combustion modeling, capable to simulate multiphysics problems simultaneously. The LES as well as the one-dimensional transport equations are solved using an incompressible, low Mach number approximation, however the effects of heat release are accounted for through variable density computed by the ideal gas equation of state, based on temperature variations. The computations are carried out on a three-dimensional structured mesh, which is stretched in the transverse direction. While the LES momentum equation is integrated with a third-order Runge-Kutta time-integration, the time integration at the ODT level is accomplished with an explicit Forward-Euler method. Spatial finite-difference schemes of third (LES) and first (ODT) order are utilized and a fully consistent fractional-step method at the LES level is used. Turbulence closure at the LES level is achieved by utilizing the Smagorinsky

  8. Cellular responses in sea fan corals: granular amoebocytes react to pathogen and climate stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D Mydlarz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate warming is causing environmental change making both marine and terrestrial organisms, and even humans, more susceptible to emerging diseases. Coral reefs are among the most impacted ecosystems by climate stress, and immunity of corals, the most ancient of metazoans, is poorly known. Although coral mortality due to infectious diseases and temperature-related stress is on the rise, the immune effector mechanisms that contribute to the resistance of corals to such events remain elusive. In the Caribbean sea fan corals (Anthozoa, Alcyonacea: Gorgoniidae, the cell-based immune defenses are granular acidophilic amoebocytes, which are known to be involved in wound repair and histocompatibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate for the first time in corals that these cells are involved in the organismal response to pathogenic and temperature stress. In sea fans with both naturally occurring infections and experimental inoculations with the fungal pathogen Aspergillus sydowii, an inflammatory response, characterized by a massive increase of amoebocytes, was evident near infections. Melanosomes were detected in amoebocytes adjacent to protective melanin bands in infected sea fans; neither was present in uninfected fans. In naturally infected sea fans a concurrent increase in prophenoloxidase activity was detected in infected tissues with dense amoebocytes. Sea fans sampled in the field during the 2005 Caribbean Bleaching Event (a once-in-hundred-year climate event responded to heat stress with a systemic increase in amoebocytes and amoebocyte densities were also increased by elevated temperature stress in lab experiments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observed amoebocyte responses indicate that sea fan corals use cellular defenses to combat fungal infection and temperature stress. The ability to mount an inflammatory response may be a contributing factor that allowed the survival of even infected sea fan corals during a

  9. The need analysis of chemistry module based on REACT (relating, experiencing, applying, cooperating and transferring) to improve critical thinking ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyffani, D. M.; Utomo, S. B.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    This research was aimed to find out how students’ need of chemistry module based REACT (Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating and Transferring) to improve students’ critical thinking ability. The subjects of this research was the studentsof XI grade in three school in even semester of academic year 2016-2017 that contained of 48 students of Senior High School 2 Bandar Lampung, 38 students of Senior High School 3 Bandar Lampung and 46 students of Senior High School 12 Bandar Lampung. The data was gathering used non-test method by using open questionnaire with 13 questions. The results showed that 84,84% of students stated that the development of chemistry module based REACT on colloid material is needed. The analysis of hand’s book was used aspects of critical thinking proposed by Facione (2011) are interpretation, analysis, evaluation, conclusion, and explanation. Based on the result of the analysis of hand’s book at Senior High School 12 Bandar Lampung for critical thinking in colloid material that indicate 50% indicator is appropriate, while for indicator of inference and explanation only 16,67% appropriate, then for indicator analysis and evaluation doesn’t have conformity. Based on the results of the analysis shows that the hand’s book used have not empowered critical thinking ability with maximum. The development of chemistry module on colloid material is needed to overcome the problem of hand’s book that hasn’t maximized critical thinking ability, then the development of module oriented to REACT learning model (Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating, and Transferring).

  10. Prevalence of Allergy to Natural Rubber Latex and Potential Cross Reacting Food in Operation Room Staff in Shiraz Hospitals -2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nabavizade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased during past 10 years especially among health care workers and patients with high exposure to latex allergens. Allergic reaction to latex is related to many diseases like occupational asthma. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber latex and potential cross reacting food in operation room staff in Shiraz hospitals. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study five hundred eighty operation room staff of ten private and state hospitals in Shiraz completed latex allergy questionnaire. They were questioned about personal history and previous history of latex sensitivity, symptoms of latex reactivity and about other allergies particularly to foods that may cross react with latex. Informed consent was obtained and skin prick testing was performed with natural rubber latex. Skin prick tests were done with three potentially cross reacting food (banana, Kiwi, and potato. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results: Among the 580 operation room workers 104 (17.9 % of participants were positive to latex skin test. We found a significant association between positive skin test to latex in operation room staff and atopy, urticaria and food allergy. Positive skin test to latex related to positive kiwi skin test (p<0.05. The prevalence did not vary by sex, age, education, surgical and non surgical glove users, history of contact dermatitis or smoking status. Conclusion: Latex allergy has a high prevalence in personnel of operation room. Evaluation of present symptom and prediction of future disease necessitate screening test in individuals at risk.

  11. How relay protection and automatic control systems react to the energizing of a 500 kV line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, V S; Kokovich, V E; Ovchinnikov, V V

    1966-04-01

    When the three phases of a 500 to 750 KV line are switched on to load by existing types of circuit breaker, a heavy aperiodic component of current appears in the secondaries of the neutral current transformers. The dc component, although damped, has a relatively long decay period. This effect is particularly evident in the case of high speed or nonsynchronized autoreclosure. The presence of such a large dc component can cause maloperation of the line earth fault protection unless special precautions are taken. Two complementary solutions are described, preventing the first stage earth fault protection from reacting to the aperiodic component, and reducing the time constant of the CT secondary circuits.

  12. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part One: Zero-Dimensional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Casseau; Rodrigo C. Palharini; Thomas J. Scanlon; Richard E. Brown

    2016-01-01

    A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrat...

  13. Simulation of moving boundaries interacting with compressible reacting flows using a second-order adaptive Cartesian cut-cell method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Balaji; Menon, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    A high-order adaptive Cartesian cut-cell method, developed in the past by the authors [1] for simulation of compressible viscous flow over static embedded boundaries, is now extended for reacting flow simulations over moving interfaces. The main difficulty related to simulation of moving boundary problems using immersed boundary techniques is the loss of conservation of mass, momentum and energy during the transition of numerical grid cells from solid to fluid and vice versa. Gas phase reactions near solid boundaries can produce huge source terms to the governing equations, which if not properly treated for moving boundaries, can result in inaccuracies in numerical predictions. The small cell clustering algorithm proposed in our previous work is now extended to handle moving boundaries enforcing strict conservation. In addition, the cell clustering algorithm also preserves the smoothness of solution near moving surfaces. A second order Runge-Kutta scheme where the boundaries are allowed to change during the sub-time steps is employed. This scheme improves the time accuracy of the calculations when the body motion is driven by hydrodynamic forces. Simple one dimensional reacting and non-reacting studies of moving piston are first performed in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. Results are then reported for flow past moving cylinders at subsonic and supersonic velocities in a viscous compressible flow and are compared with theoretical and previously available experimental data. The ability of the scheme to handle deforming boundaries and interaction of hydrodynamic forces with rigid body motion is demonstrated using different test cases. Finally, the method is applied to investigate the detonation initiation and stabilization mechanisms on a cylinder and a sphere, when they are launched into a detonable mixture. The effect of the filling pressure on the detonation stabilization mechanisms over a hyper-velocity sphere launched into a hydrogen

  14. Radioimmunoassay for abscisic acid: properties of cross-reacting polar metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Page-Degivry, M.; Bulard, C. (Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 06 - Nice (France))

    When the radioimmunoassay developed for abscisic acid (ABA) estimation was applied to a plant extract, results appeared overestimated. Purification by thin-layer chromatography established that ABA in its free and alkali-hydrolysable forms constituted only a small part of the immunoreactive material. The major source of the cross-reactivity was a group of polar metabolites, poorly soluble in ether and well recovered by ethyl acetate and butanol. These immunoreactive metabolites were compared with polar metabolites already described in experiments where (/sup 14/C)ABA was fed to plant tissue, particularly with recently identified glucosides of ABA and dihydrophaseic acid.

  15. A radioimmunoassay for abscisic acid: properties of cross-reacting polar metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Page-Degivry, M.; Bulard, C.

    1984-01-01

    When the radioimmunoassay developed for abscisic acid (ABA) estimation was applied to a plant extract, results appeared overestimated. Purification by thin-layer chromatography established that ABA in its free and alkali-hydrolysable forms constituted only a small part of the immunoreactive material. The major source of the cross-reactivity was a group of polar metabolites, poorly soluble in ether and well recovered by ethyl acetate and butanol. These immunoreactive metabolites were compared with polar metabolites already described in experiments wher e [ 14 C]ABA was fed to plant tissue, particularly with recently identified glucosides of ABA and dihydrophaseic acid

  16. How people react to Zika virus outbreaks on Twitter? A computational content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King-Wa; Liang, Hai; Saroha, Nitin; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Ip, Patrick; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2016-12-01

    Zika-related Twitter incidence peaked after the World Health Organization declared an emergency. Five themes were identified from Zika-related Twitter content: (1) societal impact of the outbreak; (2) government, public and private sector, and general public responses to the outbreak; (3) pregnancy and microcephaly: negative health consequences related to pregnant women and babies; (4) transmission routes; and (5) case reports. User-generated contents sites were preferred direct information channels rather than those of the government authorities. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  18. O-GlcNAc-specific antibody CTD110.6 cross-reacts with N-GlcNAc2-modified proteins induced under glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Isono

    Full Text Available Modification of serine and threonine residues in proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc glycosylation is a feature of many cellular responses to the nutritional state and to stress. O-GlcNAc modification is reversibly regulated by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT and β-D-N-acetylglucosaminase (O-GlcNAcase. O-GlcNAc modification of proteins is dependent on the concentration of uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc, which is a substrate of OGT and is synthesized via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Immunoblot analysis using the O-GlcNAc-specific antibody CTD110.6 has indicated that glucose deprivation increases protein O-GlcNAcylation in some cancer cells. The mechanism of this paradoxical phenomenon has remained unclear. Here we show that the increased glycosylation induced by glucose deprivation and detected by CTD110.6 antibodies is actually modification by N-GlcNAc(2, rather than by O-GlcNAc. We found that this induced glycosylation was not regulated by OGT and O-GlcNAcase, unlike typical O-GlcNAcylation, and it was inhibited by treatment with tunicamycin, an N-glycosylation inhibitor. Proteomics analysis showed that proteins modified by this induced glycosylation were N-GlcNAc(2-modified glycoproteins. Furthermore, CTD110.6 antibodies reacted with N-GlcNAc(2-modified glycoproteins produced by a yeast strain with a ts-mutant of ALG1 that could not add a mannose residue to dolichol-PP-GlcNAc(2. Our results demonstrated that N-GlcNAc(2-modified glycoproteins were induced under glucose deprivation and that they cross-reacted with the O-GlcNAc-specific antibody CTD110.6. We therefore propose that the glycosylation status of proteins previously classified as O-GlcNAc-modified proteins according to their reactivity with CTD110.6 antibodies must be re-examined. We also suggest that the repression of mature N-linked glycoproteins due to increased levels of N-GlcNAc(2-modified proteins is a newly

  19. Complex Odor from Plants under Attack: Herbivore's Enemies React to the Whole, Not Its Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J. A.; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Insect herbivory induces plant odors that attract herbivores' natural enemies. Assuming this attraction emerges from individual compounds, genetic control over odor emission of crops may provide a rationale for manipulating the distribution of predators used for pest control. However, studies on odor perception in vertebrates and invertebrates suggest that olfactory information processing of mixtures results in odor percepts that are a synthetic whole and not a set of components that could function as recognizable individual attractants. Here, we ask if predators respond to herbivore-induced attractants in odor mixtures or to odor mixture as a whole. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a system consisting of Lima bean, the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We found that four herbivore-induced bean volatiles are not attractive in pure form while a fifth, methyl salicylate (MeSA), is. Several reduced mixtures deficient in one component compared to the full spider-mite induced blend were not attractive despite the presence of MeSA indicating that the predators cannot detect this component in these odor mixtures. A mixture of all five HIPV is most attractive, when offered together with the non-induced odor of Lima bean. Odors that elicit no response in their pure form were essential components of the attractive mixture. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the predatory mites perceive odors as a synthetic whole and that the hypothesis that predatory mites recognize attractive HIPV in odor mixtures is unsupported. PMID:21765908

  20. Complex odor from plants under attack: herbivore's enemies react to the whole, not its parts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Wijk

    Full Text Available Insect herbivory induces plant odors that attract herbivores' natural enemies. Assuming this attraction emerges from individual compounds, genetic control over odor emission of crops may provide a rationale for manipulating the distribution of predators used for pest control. However, studies on odor perception in vertebrates and invertebrates suggest that olfactory information processing of mixtures results in odor percepts that are a synthetic whole and not a set of components that could function as recognizable individual attractants. Here, we ask if predators respond to herbivore-induced attractants in odor mixtures or to odor mixture as a whole.We studied a system consisting of Lima bean, the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We found that four herbivore-induced bean volatiles are not attractive in pure form while a fifth, methyl salicylate (MeSA, is. Several reduced mixtures deficient in one component compared to the full spider-mite induced blend were not attractive despite the presence of MeSA indicating that the predators cannot detect this component in these odor mixtures. A mixture of all five HIPV is most attractive, when offered together with the non-induced odor of Lima bean. Odors that elicit no response in their pure form were essential components of the attractive mixture.We conclude that the predatory mites perceive odors as a synthetic whole and that the hypothesis that predatory mites recognize attractive HIPV in odor mixtures is unsupported.

  1. Design Modifications, Fabrication and Test of HFDB-03 Racetrack Magnet Wound with Pre-Reacted Nb3Sn Rutherford Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bhashyam, S.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Imbasciati, L.; Lamm, M.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A 10 T racetrack magnet (HFDB-03) wound with pre-reacted Nb3Sn Rutherford cable has been fabricated and tested at Fermilab. This magnet is the third one in a proof-of-principle series for the use of the React-and-Wind technology in common-coil dipole magnets for future accelerators. It consists of two flat racetrack coils (28 turns each) separated by 5 mm. The maximum field on the coil, at the short sample limit of 16530 A, is 10 tesla. The cable has 41 strands with 0.7 mm diameter and the minimum bend radius in the magnet ends is 90 mm. The predecessor of this magnet (HFDB-02) reached 78 % of the short sample limit at 7.7 T. The mechanical design was improved and the fabrication procedure was slightly modified in order to address possible causes of limitation. In this paper we present the mechanical design and analysis of HFDB-03, the modifications to the fabrication procedure and the test results

  2. Eco-friendly synthesis for MCM-41 nanoporous materials using the non-reacted reagents in mother liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eng-Poh; Goh, Jia-Yi; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R

    2013-03-04

    Nanoporous materials such as Mobil composite material number 41 (MCM-41) are attractive for applications such as catalysis, adsorption, supports, and carriers. Green synthesis of MCM-41 is particularly appealing because the chemical reagents are useful and valuable. We report on the eco-friendly synthesis of MCM-41 nanoporous materials via multi-cycle approach by re-using the non-reacted reagents in supernatant as mother liquor after separating the solid product. This approach was achieved via minimal requirement of chemical compensation where additional fresh reactants were added into the mother liquor followed by pH adjustment after each cycle of synthesis. The solid product of each successive batch was collected and characterized while the non-reacted reagents in supernatant can be recovered and re-used to produce subsequent cycle of MCM-41. The multi-cycle synthesis is demonstrated up to three times in this research. This approach suggests a low cost and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoporous material since less waste is discarded after the product has been collected, and in addition, product yield can be maintained at the high level.

  3. Does acetone react with HO2 in the upper-troposphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical calculations showed that reaction with HO2 could be an important sink for acetone (CH3C(OCH3 and source of acetic acid (CH3C(OOH in cold parts of the atmosphere (e.g. the tropopause region. This work details studies of HO2 + CH3C(OCH3 (CH32C(OHOO (R1 in laboratory-based and theoretical chemistry experiments; the atmospheric significance of Reaction (R1 was assessed in a global 3-D chemical model. Pulsed laser-kinetic experiments were conducted, for the first time, at the low-temperatures representative of the tropopause. Reaction with NO converted HO2 to OH for detection by laser induced fluorescence. Reduced yields of OH at T 2 by CH3C(OCH3 with a forward rate coefficient greater than 2 × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. No evidence for Reaction (R1 was observed at T > 230 K, probably due to rapid thermal dissociation back to HO2 + CH3C(OCH3. Numerical simulations of the data indicate that these experiments were sensitive to only (R1a HO2-CH3C(OCH3 complex formation, the first step in (R1. Rearrangement (R1b of the complex to form peroxy radicals, and hence the atmospheric significance of (R1 has yet to be rigorously verified by experiment. Results from new quantum chemical calculations indicate that K1 is characterised by large uncertainties of at least an order of magnitude at T 3C(OCH3 near the tropopause, it cannot explain observations of CH3C(OOH throughout the troposphere.

  4. Mapping the epitopes of a neutralizing antibody fragment directed against the lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis and cross-reacting with the homologous edema factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Thullier

    Full Text Available The lethal toxin (LT of Bacillus anthracis, composed of the protective antigen (PA and the lethal factor (LF, plays an essential role in anthrax pathogenesis. PA also interacts with the edema factor (EF, 20% identity with LF to form the edema toxin (ET, which has a lesser role in anthrax pathogenesis. The first recombinant antibody fragment directed against LF was scFv 2LF; it neutralizes LT by blocking the interaction between PA and LF. Here, we report that scFv 2LF cross-reacts with EF and cross-neutralizes ET, and we present an in silico method taking advantage of this cross-reactivity to map the epitope of scFv 2LF on both LF and EF. This method identified five epitope candidates on LF, constituted of a total of 32 residues, which were tested experimentally by mutating the residues to alanine. This combined approach precisely identified the epitope of scFv 2LF on LF as five residues (H229, R230, Q234, L235 and Y236, of which three were missed by the consensus epitope candidate identified by pre-existing in silico methods. The homolog of this epitope on EF (H253, R254, E258, L259 and Y260 was experimentally confirmed to constitute the epitope of scFv 2LF on EF. Other inhibitors, including synthetic molecules, could be used to target these epitopes for therapeutic purposes. The in silico method presented here may be of more general interest.

  5. IAEA Director General reacts to U.S.- India cooperation agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei has welcomed the US-India agreement to embark on full civil nuclear energy cooperation and to work to enhance nuclear non-proliferation and security. 'Out of the box thinking and active participation by all members of the international community are important if we are to advance nuclear arms control, non-proliferation, safety and security, and tackle new threats such as illicit trafficking in sensitive nuclear technology and the risks of nuclear terrorism,' Dr. ElBaradei said. Dr. ElBaradei has also been urging all countries using nuclear energy to apply the highest safety standards possible. 'Making advanced civil nuclear technology available to all countries will contribute to the enhancement of nuclear safety and security,' he said. Dr. ElBaradei said that India's intention to identify and place all its civilian nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards and sign and adhere to an Additional Protocol with respect to civilian nuclear facilities is a welcome development. I have always advocated concrete and practical steps towards the universal application of IAEA safeguards,' Dr. ElBaradei said. (IAEA)

  6. Stromal and epithelial cells react differentially to c-kit in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logullo, Angela F; Nonogaki, Suely; Do Socorro Maciel, Maria; Mourão-Neto, Mário; Soares, Fernando Augusto

    2008-01-01

    The CD117 protein is a tyrosine-kinase receptor encoded by the c-kit gene that frequently bears activating mutations in gastrointestinal tumors. Conflicting findings regarding CD117 expression in other stromal tumors, including phyllodes tumors (PTs), have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate c-kit expression in the stroma and epithelia of fibroepithelial breast tumors and its correlation with clinical pathological variables. Ninety-six fibroepithelial tumors of the breast, including 14 fibroadenomas (FAs), 12 juvenile FAs and 70 PTs, were classified according to stromal cellularity, atypia, epithelial hyperplasia, mitosis and borders into 45 benign (PTB), 17 borderline (PTBL) and 8 malignant (PTM) tumors. CD117 expression was identified in the stromal component in only two cases of PTBL. Overall, 38 cases (39.6%) showed positive CD117 in the epithelial component, including 20 FAs (10 regular, 10 juvenile) and 18 PTs (11 PTBs and 8 PTBLs). Other cases, including all PTMs, 6 FAs (4 regular, 2 juvenile), 34 PTBs and 10 PTBLs, showed no positivity in the epithelial component. Expression of c-kit did not correlate with diagnosis or malignancy (p>0.05). In conclusion, c-kit is expressed more often in the epithelial than in the stromal component in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast, and is associated with benign lesions.

  7. [Patient's Autonomy and Information in Psycho-Oncology: Computer Based Distress Screening for an Interactive Treatment Planning (ePOS-react)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffeler, Norbert; Sedelmaier, Jana; Möhrer, Hannah; Ziser, Katrin; Ringwald, Johanna; Wickert, Martin; Brucker, Sara; Junne, Florian; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-07-01

    To identify distressed patients in oncology using screening questionnaires is quite challenging in clinical routine. Up to now there is no evidence based recommendation which instrument is most suitable and how to put a screening to practice. Using computer based screening tools offers the possibility to automatically analyse patient's data, inform psycho-oncological and medical staff about the results, and use reactive questionnaires. Studies on how to empower patients in decision making in psycho-oncology are rare.Methods Women with breast and gynaecological cancer have been consecutively included in this study (n=103) at time of inpatient surgical treatment in a gynaecological clinic. They answered the computer based screening questionnaire (ePOS-react) for routine distress screening at time of admission. At the end of the tool an individual recommendation concerning psycho-oncological treatment is given ( i) psycho-oncological counselling, ii) brief psycho-oncological contact, iii) no treatment suggestion). The informed patients could choose autonomously either the recommended treatment or an individually more favoured alternative possibility. Additionally, a clinical interview (approx. 30 min) based on the "Psychoonkologische Basisdiagnostik (PO-Bado)" has been carried out for a third-party assessment of patients' need for treatment.Results 68.9% followed the treatment recommendation. 22.3% asked for a more "intense" (e. g. counselling instead of recommended brief contact) and 8,7% for a "less intense" intervention than recommended. The accordance of third-party assessment (clinical interview "PO-Bado") and treatment recommendation is about 72.8%. The accordance of third-party assessment and patient's choice (ePOS-react) is about 58.3%. The latter is smaller because 29.1% asked for a brief psycho-oncological contact for whom from the third-party assessment's perspective no indication for treatment has been existent.Discussion A direct response of the

  8. Microhardness, strength and strain field characterization of self-reacting friction stir and plug welds of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karla Renee

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential advantages for aerospace and automotive industries dealing with light alloys. Self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW) is one variation of the FSW process being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in the fabrication of propellant tanks. Friction plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential SR-FSW. This work reports on material properties and strain patterns developed in a SR-FSW with a friction plug weld. Specifically, this study examines the behavior of a SR-FSW formed between an AA2014-T6 plate on the advancing side and an AA2219-T87 plate on the retreating side and a SR-FSW (AA2014-T6 to AA2219-T87) with a 2219-T87 plug weld. This study presents the results of a characterization of the micro-hardness, joint strength, and strain field characterization of SR-FSW and FPW joints tested at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. The initial weld microstructure analysis showed a nugget region with fine grains and a displaced weld seam from the advancing side past the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) into the nugget region. The displaced material shared the same hardness as the parent material. Dynamic recrystallization was observed in the SR-FSW zone and the displaced weld seam region. The welds revealed a fine grain structure in the SR-FSW zone with a sharp demarcation seen on the advancing side and fairly diffuse flow observed on the retreating side. The parent material hardness is 145 HV700g with a drop in hardness starting at the HAZ to 130 HV700g. The hardness further drops in the TMAZ to118 HV700g with an increase representing a dispersed interface of AA2014-T6 material to 135 HV700g. The hardness then drops significantly within the nugget region to 85 HV700g followed by an increase through the retreating side TMAZ into the HAZ to 135 HV 700g. There was a sharp increase in the hardness value within

  9. Effect of reacting surface density on the overall graphite oxidation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang; Kim, Eung; Lim, Jong; Schultz, Richard; Petti, David

    2009-01-01

    their chemical and mechanical characteristics are well identified by the previous investigations, and therefore it was convenient for us to access the published data, and to apply and validate our new methodologies. This paper presents preliminary results of compressive strength vs. burn-off and surface area density vs. burn-off, which can be used for the nuclear graphite selection for the NGNP. (author)

  10. ''A Parallel Adaptive Simulation Tool for Two Phase Steady State Reacting Flows in Industrial Boilers and Furnaces''; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael J. Bockelie

    2002-01-01

    This DOE SBIR Phase II final report summarizes research that has been performed to develop a parallel adaptive tool for modeling steady, two phase turbulent reacting flow. The target applications for the new tool are full scale, fossil-fuel fired boilers and furnaces such as those used in the electric utility industry, chemical process industry and mineral/metal process industry. The type of analyses to be performed on these systems are engineering calculations to evaluate the impact on overall furnace performance due to operational, process or equipment changes. To develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial scale furnace requires a carefully designed grid that will capture all of the large and small scale features of the flowfield. Industrial systems are quite large, usually measured in tens of feet, but contain numerous burners, air injection ports, flames and localized behavior with dimensions that are measured in inches or fractions of inches. To create an accurate computational model of such systems requires capturing length scales within the flow field that span several orders of magnitude. In addition, to create an industrially useful model, the grid can not contain too many grid points - the model must be able to execute on an inexpensive desktop PC in a matter of days. An adaptive mesh provides a convenient means to create a grid that can capture both fine flow field detail within a very large domain with a ''reasonable'' number of grid points. However, the use of an adaptive mesh requires the development of a new flow solver. To create the new simulation tool, we have combined existing reacting CFD modeling software with new software based on emerging block structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technologies developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Specifically, we combined: -physical models, modeling expertise, and software from existing combustion simulation codes used by Reaction Engineering International

  11. Low energy electron irradiation induced carbon etching: Triggering carbon film reacting with oxygen from SiO{sub 2} substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang, Chao, E-mail: cwang367@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn; Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: cwang367@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-08-01

    We report low-energy (50–200 eV) electron irradiation induced etching of thin carbon films on a SiO{sub 2} substrate. The etching mechanism was interpreted that electron irradiation stimulated the dissociation of the carbon film and SiO{sub 2}, and then triggered the carbon film reacting with oxygen from the SiO{sub 2} substrate. A requirement for triggering the etching of the carbon film is that the incident electron penetrates through the whole carbon film, which is related to both irradiation energy and film thickness. This study provides a convenient electron-assisted etching with the precursor substrate, which sheds light on an efficient pathway to the fabrication of nanodevices and nanosurfaces.

  12. [Effect of previous experience in reacting to a danger signal on "open field" behavior in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltyreva, T E; Petrov, E S

    1983-01-01

    Modification of rats behaviour in an "hopen field" test was investigated, induced by an acoustic stimulus, previously subjected to conditioning in a shuttle chamber in experiments with possibility and impossibility of avoidance from electrical shock. It has been established that presentation of a stimulus having the meaning of a danger signal, in a new situation, significantly suppresses investigating behaviour of rats, whereas the stimulus which had not been subjected to conditioning exerts no marked effect on behaviour. The greatest suppression was observed in rats with "learned helplessness". This fact suggests that the degree of suppression of the behaviour in an open field in response to a danger signal, depends on the animal's previous experience in reacting to this signal.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of IgG and IgM rheumatoid factors reacting with human IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.A.; Lawrance, S.; Catalano, M.A.; Vaughan, J.H.; Abraham, G.

    1977-01-01

    Although IgG rheumatoid factor may play a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, previously there have been no precise methods for its specific measurement in serum and synovial fluid. This paper describes a solid phase radioimmunoassay for the independent quantification of IgM and IgG rheumatoid factor reacting with the Fc fragment of human IgG. As measured by this assay, serum IgG rheumatoid factor levels differed significantly between patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and normal control subjects. In addition, several sera and joint fluids from patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, even without vasculitis, were shown by gel chromatography to have acid-dissociable complexes of IgG rheumatoid factor suggestive of IgG-IgG dimer or trimer formation

  14. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  15. Laminar or turbulent boundary-layer flows of perfect gases or reacting gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. C.; Lewis, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Turbulent boundary layer flows of non-reacting gases are predicted for both interal (nozzle) and external flows. Effects of favorable pressure gradients on two eddy viscosity models were studied in rocket and hypervelocity wind tunnel flows. Nozzle flows of equilibrium air with stagnation temperatures up to 10,000 K were computed. Predictions of equilibrium nitrogen flows through hypervelocity nozzles were compared with experimental data. A slender spherically blunted cone was studied at 70,000 ft altitude and 19,000 ft/sec. in the earth's atmosphere. Comparisons with available experimental data showed good agreement. A computer program was developed and fully documented during this investigation for use by interested individuals.

  16. The development and piloting of the REnal specific Advanced Communication Training (REACT) programme to improve Advance Care Planning for renal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Shepherd, Kate; Bryan, Liz; Brown, Heather; Carey, Irene; Matthews, Beverley; O'Donoghue, Donal; Vinen, Katie; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the End-Stage Kidney Disease population has increased and is ever more frail, elderly and co-morbid. A care-focused approach needs to be incorporated alongside the disease focus, to identify those who are deteriorating and improve communication about preferences and future care. Yet many renal professionals feel unprepared for such discussions. To develop and pilot a REnal specific Advanced Communication Training (REACT) programme to address the needs of End-Stage Kidney Disease patients and renal professionals. Two-part study: (1) development of the REnal specific Advanced Communication Training programme informed by multi-professional focus group and patient survey and (2) piloting of the programme. The REnal specific Advanced Communication Training programme was piloted with 16 participants (9 renal nurses/health-care assistants and 7 renal consultants) in two UK teaching hospitals. The focus group identified the need for better information about end-of-life phase, improved awareness of patient perspectives, skills to manage challenging discussions, 'hands on' practice in a safe environment and follow-up to discuss experiences. The patient survey demonstrated a need to improve communication about concerns, treatment plans and decisions. The developed REnal specific Advanced Communication Training programme was acceptable and feasible and was associated with a non-significant increase in confidence in communicating about end-of-life issues (pre-training: 6.6/10, 95% confidence interval: 5.7-7.4; post-training: 6.9/10, 95% confidence interval: 6.1-7.7, unpaired t-test - p = 0.56), maintained at 3 months. There is a need to improve end-of-life care for End-Stage Kidney Disease patients, to enable them to make informed decisions about future care. Challenges include prioritising communication training among service providers.

  17. Serum IgG antibodies from healthy subjects up to 100 years old react to JC polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Ilaria; Mazzoni, Elisa; Pietrobon, Silvia; Manfrini, Marco; Torreggiani, Elena; Rossini, Marika; Lotito, Francesca; Guerra, Giovanni; Rizzo, Paola; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2018-08-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was identified in 1971 in the brain tissue of a patient (J.C.) affected by the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes for the oncoproteins large T antigen (Tag) and small t-antigen (tag). These oncoproteins are responsible of the cell transformation and tumorigenesis in experimental animals. JCPyV is ubiquitous in human populations. After the primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic, JCPyV remains lifelong in the host in a latent phase. Its reactivation may occur in heathy subjects and immunocompromised patients. Upon reactivation, JCPyV could reach (i) the CNS inducing the PML, (ii) the kidney of transplant patients causing the organ rejection. Association between JCPyV, which is a small DNA tumor virus, and gliomas and colorectal carcinomas has been published. In the present investigation, we report on a new indirect ELISA with two specific synthetic peptides mimicking JCPyV VP1 immunogenic epitopes to detect specific serum IgG antibodies against JCPyV. Serum samples of healthy subjects (n = 355) ranging 2-100 years old, were analyzed by this new indirect ELISA. The linear peptides VP1 K and VP1 N resemble the natural JCPyV VP1 capsidic epitopes constituting a docking site for serum antibodies. Data from this innovative immunologic assay indicate that the overall prevalence of JCPyV-VP1 antibodies in healthy subjects is at 39%. The innovative indirect ELISA with JCPyV VP1 mimotopes seems to be a useful method to detect specific IgG antibodies against this virus, without cross-reactivity with the closely related SV40 and BKPyV polyomaviruses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  19. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  20. Simple New Method of Detecting Lies By Identifying Invisible Unique Physiological Reflex Response Appearing Often Less Than 10-15 Seconds on the Specific Parts of Face of Lying Person; Quick Screening of Potential Murderers & Problematic Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Nihrane, Abdallah; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, we cannot find any significant visible changes when somebody lies, but we found there are significant invisible changes appearing in specific areas of the face when somebody lies and their location often depends on whether the lie is serious with or without physical violence involvement. These abnormalities were detected non-invasively at areas: 1) lobules and c) a small round area of each upper lateral side of forehead; 2) the skin between the base of the 2 orifices of the nose and the upper end of upper lip and 3) Alae of both sides of nose. These invisible significant changes usually last less than 15 seconds after telling a lie. In these areas, Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT), which received a U.S. Patent in 1993, became significantly weak with an abnormal value of (-)7 and TXB2, measured non-invasively, was increased from 0.125-0.5ng to 12.5-15ng (within the first 5 seconds) and then went back down to less than 1ng (after 15 seconds). These unique changes can be documented semi-permanently by taking photographs of the face of people who tell a lie, within as short as 10 seconds after saying a lying statement. These abnormal responses appear in one or more of the above-mentioned 3 areas 1), 2) & 3). At least one abnormal pupil with BDORT of (-)8-(-)12 & marked reduction in Acetylcholine and abnormal increase in any of 3 Alzheimer's disease associated factors Apolipoprotein (Apo) E4, β-Amyloid (1-42), Tau protein, viral and bacterial infections were detected in both pupils and forehead of murderers and people who often have problems with others. Analysis of well-known typical examples of recent mass murderers was presented as examples. Using these findings, potential murderers and people who are very likely to develop problems with others can be screened within 5-10 minutes by examining their facial photographs and signatures before school admission or employment.

  1. Reacting to Neighborhood Cues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    is founded on politically sophisticated individuals having a greater comprehension of news and other mass-mediated sources, which makes them less likely to rely on neighborhood cues as sources of information relevant for political attitudes. Based on a unique panel data set with fine-grained information...

  2. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  3. Detecting deviating behaviors without models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.; Fahland, D.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Reichert, M.; Reijers, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deviation detection is a set of techniques that identify deviations from normative processes in real process executions. These diagnostics are used to derive recommendations for improving business processes. Existing detection techniques identify deviations either only on the process instance level

  4. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  5. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  6. Approximate method of calculation of non-equilibrium flow parameters of chemically reacting nitrogen tetroxide in the variable cross-section channels with energy exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, M.A.; Fedosenko, G.Eh.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Mal'ko, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that adiabatic non-equilibrium chemically reacting gas flow with energy exchange in a variable cross-section channel may be subdivided into five possible types: 1) quasi-equilibrium flow; 2) flow in the linear region of deviation from equilibrium state; 3) quasi-frozen flow; 4) flow in the linear region of deviation from frozen state; 5) non-equilibrium flow. Criteria of quasi-equilibrium and quazi-frozen flows, including factors of external action of chemically reacting gas on flow, allow to obtain simple but sufficiently reliable approximate method of calculation of flow parameters. The considered method for solving the problem of chemically reacting nitrogen tetroxide in the variable cross-section channel with energy exchange can be used for evaluation of chemical reaction kinetics on the flow parameter in the stages of axial-flow and radial-flow turbines and in another practical problems

  7. Outcomes in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Who Develop Everolimus-Related Hyperglycemia and Hypercholesterolemia: Combined Subgroup Analyses of the RECORD-1 and REACT Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Petri; Oudard, Stephane; Bodrogi, Istvan; Hutson, Thomas E; Escudier, Bernard; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Thompson, John A; Figlin, Robert A; Ravaud, Alain; Basaran, Mert; Porta, Camillo; Bracarda, Sergio; Brechenmacher, Thomas; Lin, Chinjune; Voi, Maurizio; Grunwald, Viktor; Motzer, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia are class effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safety and efficacy of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with everolimus in RECORD-1 (REnal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RAD001 given Daily) and REACT (RAD001 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC) who developed these events. Adults with vascular endothelial growth factor-refractory mRCC received everolimus 10 mg/d in the randomized RECORD-1 (n = 277) and open-label REACT (n = 1367) studies. Outcomes included safety, treatment duration, overall response, and progression-free survival for patients who developed hypercholesterolemia or hyperglycemia. In RECORD-1, 12% (33 of 277) and 20% (55 of 277) of patients developed any grade hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, respectively, with only 6% (78 of 1367) and 1% (14 of 1367) of the same events, respectively, in REACT. Median everolimus treatment duration was similar for patients with hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia (RECORD-1, 6.2 and 6.2 months, respectively; REACT, 4.4 and 4.5 months, respectively), but longer than the overall populations (RECORD-1, 4.6 months; REACT, 3.2 months). In RECORD-1/REACT, 82%/68% of patients with hyperglycemia and 75%/71% of patients with hypercholesterolemia achieved partial response or stable disease. The incidence of clinically notable Grade 3 or 4 adverse events, other than anemia and lymphopenia, appeared to be similar across trials and subgroups. Although there was a trend for improved progression-free survival with development of hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, the association was not statistically significant. Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were observed in low numbers of patients, and although these events might be associated with improved response to everolimus, the differences were not significant. These findings should be validated with prospective biomarker studies. Copyright

  8. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  9. Dependence and withdrawal reactions to benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. How did the health authorities react?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to explore communications from drug agencies about benzodiazepine dependence and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) withdrawal reactions over time. Documentary study. We searched the web-sites of the European Medicines Agency and the drug agencies in USA, UK, and Denmark for documents mentioning benzodiazepines or SSRIs. We supplemented with other relevant literature that could contribute to our study. The searches were performed in 2009 in PubMed, Google, BMJ and JAMA. It took many years before the drug regulators acknowledged benzodiazepine dependence and SSRI withdrawal reactions and before the prescribers and the public were informed. Drug regulators relied mainly on the definitions of dependence and withdrawal reactions from the diagnostic psychiatric manuals, which contributed to the idea that SSRIs do not cause dependence, although it is difficult for many patients to stop treatment. In the perspective of a precautionary principle, drug agencies have failed to acknowledge that SSRIs can cause dependence and have minimised the problem with regard to its frequency and severity. In the perspective of a risk management principle, the drug agencies have reacted in concordance with the slowly growing knowledge of adverse drug reactions and have sharpened the information to the prescribers and the public over time. However, solely relying on spontaneous reporting of adverse effects leads to underestimation and delayed information about the problems. Given the experience with the benzodiazepines, we believe the regulatory bodies should have required studies from the manufacturers that could have elucidated the dependence potential of the SSRIs before marketing authorization was granted.

  10. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part Two: Multi-Dimensional Analysis †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Casseau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available hy2Foam is a newly-coded open-source two-temperature computational fluid dynamics (CFD solver that has previously been validated for zero-dimensional test cases. It aims at (1 giving open-source access to a state-of-the-art hypersonic CFD solver to students and researchers; and (2 providing a foundation for a future hybrid CFD-DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code within the OpenFOAM framework. This paper focuses on the multi-dimensional verification of hy2Foam and firstly describes the different models implemented. In conjunction with employing the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV chemistry–vibration model, novel use is made of the quantum-kinetic (QK rates in a CFD solver. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with previously published data for a Mach 11 nitrogen flow over a blunted cone and with the dsmcFoam code for a Mach 20 cylinder flow for a binary reacting mixture. This latter case scenario provides a useful basis for other codes to compare against.

  11. Lie Group Solution for Free Convective Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Chemically Reacting Horizontal Plate in a Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM is employed to investigate the steady laminar incompressible free convective flow of a nanofluid past a chemically reacting upward facing horizontal plate in a porous medium taking into account heat generation/absorption and the thermal slip boundary condition. Using similarity transformations developed by Lie group analysis, the continuity, momentum, energy, and nanoparticle volume fraction equations are transformed into a set of coupled similarity equations. The OHAM solutions are obtained and verified by numerical results using a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. The effect of the emerging flow controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction have been presented graphically and discussed. Good agreement is found between analytical and numerical results of the present paper with published results. This close agreement supports our analysis and the accuracy of the numerical computations. This paper also includes a representative set of numerical results for reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in a table for various values of the parameters. It is concluded that the reduced Nusselt number increases with the Lewis number and reaction parameter whist it decreases with the order of the chemical reaction, thermal slip, and generation parameters.

  12. Microhardness and Strain Field Characterization of Self-Reacting Friction Stir and Plug Welds of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karla Renee

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential advantages for aerospace and automotive industries dealing with light alloys. Self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW) is one variation of the FSW process being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in the fabrication of propellant tanks. Friction plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential SR-FSW. This work reports on material properties and strain patterns developed in a SR-FSW with a friction plug weld. Specifically, this study examines the behavior of a SR-FSW formed between an AA 2014-T6 plate on the advancing side and an AA 2219-T87 plate on the retreating side and a SR-FSW (AA 2014-T6 to AA 2219-T87) with a 2219-T87 plug weld. This study presents the results of a characterization of the micro-hardness, joint strength, and strain field characterization of SR-FSW and FPW joints tested at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  13. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part One: Zero-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Casseau

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrational-electronic temperatures. hy2Foam has the capability to model vibrational-translational and vibrational-vibrational energy exchanges in an eleven-species air mixture. It makes use of either the Park TTv model or the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV model to handle chemistry-vibration coupling and it can simulate flows with or without electronic energy. Verification of the code for various zero-dimensional adiabatic heat baths of progressive complexity has been carried out. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with those given by the CFD code LeMANS (The Michigan Aerothermodynamic Navier-Stokes solver and previously published data. A comparison is also performed with the open-source DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code dsmcFoam. It has been demonstrated that the use of the CVDV model and rates derived from Quantum-Kinetic theory promote a satisfactory consistency between the CFD and DSMC chemistry modules.

  14. Simulations of Spray Reacting Flows in a Single Element LDI Injector With and Without Invoking an Eulerian Scalar PDF Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical simulations of the Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single element lean direct injection (LDI) injector by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) with and without invoking the Eulerian scalar probability density function (PDF) method. The flow field is calculated by using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS and URANS) with nonlinear turbulence models, and when the scalar PDF method is invoked, the energy and compositions or species mass fractions are calculated by solving the equation of an ensemble averaged density-weighted fine-grained probability density function that is referred to here as the averaged probability density function (APDF). A nonlinear model for closing the convection term of the scalar APDF equation is used in the presented simulations and will be briefly described. Detailed comparisons between the results and available experimental data are carried out. Some positive findings of invoking the Eulerian scalar PDF method in both improving the simulation quality and reducing the computing cost are observed.

  15. Rationale and design of REACT: a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of home-collection to increase chlamydia retesting and detect repeat positive tests

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirsty S; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus; Fairley, Christopher K; McNulty, Anna; Read, Phillip; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Wand, Handan; Saville, Marion; Rawlinson, William; Garland, Suzanne M; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common and increases the risk of sequelae in women and HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite guidelines recommending chlamydia retesting three months after treatment, retesting rates are low. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of home collection combined with short message service (SMS) reminders on chlamydia retesting and reinfection rates in three risk groups. ...

  16. Aerial Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quam, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    An airborne system designed for the detection of radioactive sources on the soil surface from an aircraft normally senses gamma rays emitted by the source. Gamma rays have the longest path length (least attenuation) through the air of any of the common radioactive emissions and will thus permit source detection at large distances. A secondary benefit from gamma rays detection if that nearly all radioactive isotopes can be identified by the spectrum of gammas emitted. Major gaseous emissions from fuel processing plants emit gammas that may be detected and identified. Some types of special nuclear material also emit neutrons which are also useful for detection at a distance

  17. Detection and serotyping of dengue virus in serum samples by multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR-ligase detection reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Pingle, M R; Muñoz-Jordán, J; Rundell, M S; Rondini, S; Granger, K; Chang, G-J J; Kelly, E; Spier, E G; Larone, D; Spitzer, E; Barany, F; Golightly, L M

    2008-10-01

    The detection and successful typing of dengue virus (DENV) from patients with suspected dengue fever is important both for the diagnosis of the disease and for the implementation of epidemiologic control measures. A technique for the multiplex detection and typing of DENV serotypes 1 to 4 (DENV-1 to DENV-4) from clinical samples by PCR-ligase detection reaction (LDR) has been developed. A serotype-specific PCR amplifies the regions of genes C and E simultaneously. The two amplicons are targeted in a multiplex LDR, and the resultant fluorescently labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array. The assay was optimized using 38 DENV strains and was evaluated with 350 archived acute-phase serum samples. The sensitivity of the assay was 98.7%, and its specificity was 98.4%, relative to the results of real-time PCR. The detection threshold was 0.017 PFU for DENV-1, 0.004 PFU for DENV-2, 0.8 PFU for DENV-3, and 0.7 PFU for DENV-4. The assay is specific; it does not cross-react with the other flaviviruses tested (West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Kunjin virus, Murray Valley virus, Powassan virus, and yellow fever virus). All but 1 of 26 genotypic variants of DENV serotypes in a global DENV panel from different geographic regions were successfully identified. The PCR-LDR assay is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and high-throughput technique for the simultaneous detection of all four serotypes of DENV.

  18. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  19. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  20. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferts, K.B.; Jefferts, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 2 6 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  1. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    tyrosine kinases with an SH3, SH2 and catalytic domain, it lacks a native myristylation signal shared by most members of this class [14], [38]. The...therapeutics and consequently, improve clinical outcomes. We aim to identify novel drivers of breast oncogenesis. We hypothesize that a kinase gain-of...human mammary epithelial cells. A pBabe-Puro-Myr-Flag kinase open reading frame (ORF) library was screened in immortalized human mammary epithelial

  2. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  3. Therapeutic preparations of IVIg contain naturally occurring anti-HLA-E antibodies that react with HLA-Ia (HLA-A/-B/-Cw) alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Mepur H; Terasaki, Paul I; Pham, Tho; Jucaud, Vadim; Kawakita, Satoru

    2013-03-14

    The US Food and Drug Administration approved intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), extracted from the plasma of thousands of blood donors, for removing HLA antibodies (Abs) in highly sensitized patients awaiting organ transplants. Since the blood of healthy individuals has HLA Abs, we tested different IVIg preparations for reactivity to HLA single antigen Luminex beads. All preparations showed high levels of HLA-Ia and -Ib reactivity. Since normal nonalloimmunized males have natural antibodies to the heavy chains (HCs) of HLA antigens, the preparations were then tested against iBeads coated only with intact HLA antigens. All IVIg preparations varied in level of antibody reactivity to intact HLA antigens. We raised monoclonal Abs against HLA-E that mimicked IVIg's HLA-Ia and HLA-Ib reactivity but reacted only to HLA-I HCs. Inhibition experiments with synthetic peptides showed that HLA-E shares epitopes with HLA-Ia alleles. Importantly, depleting anti-HLA-E Abs from IVIg totally eliminated the HLA-Ia reactivity of IVIg. Since anti-HLA-E mAbs react with HLA-Ia, they might be useful in suppressing HLA antibody production, similar to the way anti-RhD Abs suppress production. At the same time, anti-HLA-E mAb, which reacts only to HLA-I HCs, is unlikely to produce transfusion-related acute lung injury, in contrast to antibodies reacting to intact-HLA.

  4. Fabrication of a Combustion-Reacted High-Performance ZnO Electron Transport Layer with Silver Nanowire Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minkyu; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Donghyuk; Kang, Juhoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Han, Seung Min

    2018-02-28

    Herein, a new methodology for solution-processed ZnO fabrication on Ag nanowire network electrode via combustion reaction is reported, where the amount of heat emitted during combustion was minimized by controlling the reaction temperature to avoid damaging the underlying Ag nanowires. The degree of participation of acetylacetones, which are volatile fuels in the combustion reaction, was found to vary with the reaction temperature, as revealed by thermogravimetric and compositional analyses. An optimized processing temperature of 180 °C was chosen to successfully fabricate a combustion-reacted ZnO and Ag nanowire hybrid electrode with a sheet resistance of 30 Ω/sq and transmittance of 87%. A combustion-reacted ZnO on Ag nanowire hybrid structure was demonstrated as an efficient transparent electrode and electron transport layer for the PTB7-Th-based polymer solar cells. The superior electrical conductivity of combustion-reacted ZnO, compared to that of conventional sol-gel ZnO, increased the external quantum efficiency over the entire absorption range, whereas a unique light scattering effect due to the presence of nanopores in the combustion-derived ZnO further enhanced the external quantum efficiency in the 450-550 nm wavelength range. A power conversion efficiency of 8.48% was demonstrated for the PTB7-Th-based polymer solar cell with the use of a combustion-reacted ZnO/Ag NW hybrid transparent electrode.

  5. Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein (ML-IAP) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes cross-react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek Sørensen, Rikke; Faurschou, Mikkel; Troelsen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of melanoma patients host a spontaneous T-cell response specifically against ML-IAP-derived peptides. In this study, we describe that some ML-IAP-specific cytotoxic T cells isolated from melanoma patients cross react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56. SS56 is a recentl...

  6. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doisneau, François, E-mail: fdoisne@sandia.gov; Arienti, Marco, E-mail: marient@sandia.gov; Oefelein, Joseph C., E-mail: oefelei@sandia.gov

    2017-01-15

    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier–Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle–particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  7. Semi-implicit iterative methods for low Mach number turbulent reacting flows: Operator splitting versus approximate factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArt, Jonathan F.; Mueller, Michael E.

    2016-12-01

    Two formally second-order accurate, semi-implicit, iterative methods for the solution of scalar transport-reaction equations are developed for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows. The first is a monolithic scheme based on a linearly implicit midpoint method utilizing an approximately factorized exact Jacobian of the transport and reaction operators. The second is an operator splitting scheme based on the Strang splitting approach. The accuracy properties of these schemes, as well as their stability, cost, and the effect of chemical mechanism size on relative performance, are assessed in two one-dimensional test configurations comprising an unsteady premixed flame and an unsteady nonpremixed ignition, which have substantially different Damköhler numbers and relative stiffness of transport to chemistry. All schemes demonstrate their formal order of accuracy in the fully-coupled convergence tests. Compared to a (non-)factorized scheme with a diagonal approximation to the chemical Jacobian, the monolithic, factorized scheme using the exact chemical Jacobian is shown to be both more stable and more economical. This is due to an improved convergence rate of the iterative procedure, and the difference between the two schemes in convergence rate grows as the time step increases. The stability properties of the Strang splitting scheme are demonstrated to outpace those of Lie splitting and monolithic schemes in simulations at high Damköhler number; however, in this regime, the monolithic scheme using the approximately factorized exact Jacobian is found to be the most economical at practical CFL numbers. The performance of the schemes is further evaluated in a simulation of a three-dimensional, spatially evolving, turbulent nonpremixed planar jet flame.

  8. Device for detecting failure of reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Tatsuo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To make it possible to rapidly detect any failure in a reactor system prior to the leakage of coolants. Constitution: The dose of beta line is computed from the difference between the power of a detector for reacting with both beta and gamma lines and a detector for reacting only with gamma line to detect the failure of a reactor system, thereby to raise the detection speed and improve the detection accuracy. More specifically, a radiation detector A detects gamma and beta lines by means of piezoelectric elements. A radiation detector B caused the opening of the detector A to be covered with a metal, and detects only gamma line. The detected values of detectors A and B are amplified by an amplifier and applied to a rate meter and a counter, the values being converted into DC and introduced into a comparison circuit, where the outputs of the rate meter are compared with each other. When the difference is more than the predetermined range, it is supplied as output to an alarm circuit where an alarm signal is produced. (Nakamura, S.)

  9. Laboratory Detective Work Identifies a Mishandling Problem in Sample Aliquoting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Claire; Pinsky, Paul; Huang, Wen-Yi; Purdue, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Data from a recent ovarian cancer biomarker study using serum aliquots from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial Biorepository showed that CA125II concentrations in these aliquots were significantly lower than those previously measured in the same subjects from the same blood draw. We designed an experiment to investigate whether samples used in the study (reference study) were compromised during the aliquoting process. We measured CA125II in the “sister” ...

  10. Identifying phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the possibility of finding evidence that phenomenal consciousness is independent of access. The suggestion reviewed is that we should look for isomorphisms between phenomenal and neural activation spaces. It is argued that the fact that phenomenal spaces are mapped via verbal report is no problem for this methodology. The fact that activation and phenomenal space are mapped via different means does not mean that they cannot be identified. The paper finishes by examining how data addressing this theoretical question could be obtained.

  11. Machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    . Due to promise of non-invasive and resilient detection, botnet detection based on network traffic analysis has drawn a special attention of the research community. Furthermore, many authors have turned their attention to the use of machine learning algorithms as the mean of inferring botnet......-related knowledge from the monitored traffic. This paper presents a review of contemporary botnet detection methods that use machine learning as a tool of identifying botnet-related traffic. The main goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on the field by summarizing current scientific efforts....... The contribution of the paper is three-fold. First, the paper provides a detailed insight on the existing detection methods by investigating which bot-related heuristic were assumed by the detection systems and how different machine learning techniques were adapted in order to capture botnet-related knowledge...

  12. Contraband detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzani, T.

    1995-01-01

    Inspecting incoming cargo for drugs, explosives and other contraband would quickly overwhelm inspection agencies even if a small percentage of the cargoes were manually searched. Now a new accelerator-based inspection system using pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) allows automated inspection of loaded cargo containers and trucks. A collimated pulsed beam of fast neutrons, scanned over the side of a cargo container as it passes, excites the nuclei of common elements in bulk materials. The primary signals of interest for contraband are gammaray emissions following inelastic scattering of the fast neutrons from carbon and oxygen. Direct imaging of the contents of the material by time-of-flight analysis identifies the position of the interactions, while gamma-ray spectroscopy identifies the elemental gamma rays. The ratio of elements or other combinations of the elemental signatures are used to identify contraband - a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio, for example, is characteristic of drugs. The system incorporates gamma ray detectors, and analogue and digital processors sort the pulses for position and elemental information. Detection algorithms produce three-dimensional images of possible concealed contraband. From these images the inspector can identify suspicious objects within the cargo container

  13. Contraband detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozzani, T. [Science Applications International Corporation, Santa Clara (United States)

    1995-07-15

    Inspecting incoming cargo for drugs, explosives and other contraband would quickly overwhelm inspection agencies even if a small percentage of the cargoes were manually searched. Now a new accelerator-based inspection system using pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) allows automated inspection of loaded cargo containers and trucks. A collimated pulsed beam of fast neutrons, scanned over the side of a cargo container as it passes, excites the nuclei of common elements in bulk materials. The primary signals of interest for contraband are gammaray emissions following inelastic scattering of the fast neutrons from carbon and oxygen. Direct imaging of the contents of the material by time-of-flight analysis identifies the position of the interactions, while gamma-ray spectroscopy identifies the elemental gamma rays. The ratio of elements or other combinations of the elemental signatures are used to identify contraband - a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio, for example, is characteristic of drugs. The system incorporates gamma ray detectors, and analogue and digital processors sort the pulses for position and elemental information. Detection algorithms produce three-dimensional images of possible concealed contraband. From these images the inspector can identify suspicious objects within the cargo container.

  14. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  15. Can Technical Analysis Signals Detect Price Reactions Around Earnings Announcement?: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dedhy Sulistiawan; Jogiyanto Hartono

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether technical analysis signals can detect price reactions before and after earnings announcement dates in Indonesian stock market. Earnings announcements produce reactions, both before and after the announcements. Informed investors may use private information before earnings announcements (Christophe, Ferri and Angel, 2004; Porter, 1992). Using technical analysis signals, this study expects that retail investors (uninformed investors) can detect preannouncements react...

  16. "How Do We Start? And How Will They React?" Disclosing to Young People with Perinatally Acquired HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, Stella; Paparini, Sara; Seeley, Janet; Bernays, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite great advances in pediatric HIV care, rates and the extent of full disclosure of HIV status to infected children remain low especially in resource-constrained setting. The World Health Organisation recommends that, by the age of 10-12 years old, children should be made fully aware of their HIV-positive status. However, this awareness is often delayed until much later in their adolescence. Few studies have been conducted to investigate what influences caregivers' decision-making process in this regard in low-income settings. In this article, we present an analysis of care dyads of caregivers and HIV-positive young people in Kampala, Uganda, as part of the findings of a longitudinal qualitative study about young people's adherence to antiretroviral therapy embedded in an international clinical trial (BREATHER). Repeat in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 young people living with HIV throughout the course of the trial, and once-off interviews with 16 of their caregivers were also carried out toward the end of the trial. In this article, we examine why and how caregivers decide to disclose a young person's HIV status to them and explore their feelings and dilemmas toward disclosure, as well as how young people reacted and the influence it had on their relationships with and attitudes toward their caregivers. Caregivers feared the consequences of disclosing the young person's positive status to them and disclosure commonly occurred hurriedly in response to a crisis, rather than as part of an anticipated and planned process. A key impediment to disclosure was that caregivers feared that disclosing would damage their relationships with the young people and commonly used this as a reason to continue to postpone disclosure. However, young people did not report prolonged feelings of blame or anger toward their caregivers about their own infection, but they did express frustration at the delay and obfuscation surrounding the disclosure process. Our findings

  17. Radiograph identifying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible character-indentable plastics embossing tape is backed by and bonded to a lead strip, not more than 0.025 inches thick, to form a tape suitable for identifying radiographs. The lead strip is itself backed by a relatively thin and flimsy plastics or fabric strip which, when removed, allows the lead plastic tape to be pressure-bonded to the surface to be radiographed. A conventional tape-embossing gun is used to indent the desired characters in succession into the lead-backed tape, without necessarily severing the lead; and then the backing strip is peeled away to expose the layer of adhesive which pressure-bonds the indented tape to the object to be radiographed. X-rays incident on the embossed tape will cause the raised characters to show up dark on the subsequently-developed film, whilst the raised side areas will show up white. Each character will thus stand out on the developed film. (author)

  18. REACT-Mod: a mathematical model for transient calculation of chemical reactions with U-Pu-Np-Tc in the aqueous nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi; Kitamura, Tatsuaki.

    1996-10-01

    A computer code REACT-Mod which simulates various chemical reactions in an aqueous nitric acid solution involving uranium, plutonium, neptunium, technetium etc. e.g., redox, radiolytic and disproportionation reactions of 68, was developed based on the kinetics model. The numerical solution method adopted in the code are two, a kinetics model totally based on the rate law of which differential equations are solved by the modified Porsing method, and a two-step model based on both the rate law and equilibrium law. Only the former treats 27 radiolytic reactions. The latter is beneficially used to have a quick and approximate result by economical computation. The present report aims not only to explain the concept, chemical reactions treated and characteristics of the model but also to provide details of the program for users of the REACT-Mod code. (author)

  19. DIA-datasnooping and identifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaminpardaz, S.; Teunissen, P. J. G.

    2018-04-01

    In this contribution, we present and analyze datasnooping in the context of the DIA method. As the DIA method for the detection, identification and adaptation of mismodelling errors is concerned with estimation and testing, it is the combination of both that needs to be considered. This combination is rigorously captured by the DIA estimator. We discuss and analyze the DIA-datasnooping decision probabilities and the construction of the corresponding partitioning of misclosure space. We also investigate the circumstances under which two or more hypotheses are nonseparable in the identification step. By means of a theorem on the equivalence between the nonseparability of hypotheses and the inestimability of parameters, we demonstrate that one can forget about adapting the parameter vector for hypotheses that are nonseparable. However, as this concerns the complete vector and not necessarily functions of it, we also show that parameter functions may exist for which adaptation is still possible. It is shown how this adaptation looks like and how it changes the structure of the DIA estimator. To demonstrate the performance of the various elements of DIA-datasnooping, we apply the theory to some selected examples. We analyze how geometry changes in the measurement setup affect the testing procedure, by studying their partitioning of misclosure space, the decision probabilities and the minimal detectable and identifiable biases. The difference between these two minimal biases is highlighted by showing the difference between their corresponding contributing factors. We also show that if two alternative hypotheses, say Hi and Hj , are nonseparable, the testing procedure may have different levels of sensitivity to Hi -biases compared to the same Hj -biases.

  20. What is the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in society in the perspective of Millennials and how do they react to CSR practices as consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Barbeiro, Sofia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    As it grows older, the Millennial generation is gaining relevance for companies, especially when considering their demands and choices as consumers. But what is Millennials’ opinion with regard to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? And how does the Millennial generation react to CSR initiatives by companies? Since CSR is gaining more importance nowadays, these are the main questions addressed by the present research. Based on primary data collected via semi-structured interviews and an on...

  1. What is the role corporate social responsability (CSR) in society in the perspective of Millennials and how do they react to CSR practices as consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Barbeiro, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    As it grows older, the Millennial generation is gaining relevance for companies, especially when considering their demands and choices as consumers. But what is Millennials’ opinion with regard to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? And how does the Millennial generation react to CSR initiatives by companies? Since CSR is gaining more importance nowadays, these are the main questions addressed by the present research. Based on primary data collected via semi-structured interviews and an on...

  2. Extension of a semi-implicit shock-capturing algorithm for 3-D fully coupled, chemically reacting flows in generalized coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.L.; Yee, H.C.; Uenishi, K.; NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; Vigyan Research Associates, Inc., Hampton, VA)

    1987-01-01

    A semiimplicit high-resolution shock-capturing method for multidimensional systems of hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms has been developed by Yee and Shinn (1987). The goal of this work is to extend this method to solve the three-dimensional fully coupled Navier-Stokes equations for a hypersonic chemically reacting flow in generalized coordinates. In this formulation, the global continuity equation was replaced by all the species continuity equations. The shock-capturing technique is a second-order-accurate, symmetric total-variation-diminishing method which accounts fully and directly for the coupling among the fluid and all the species. To verify the current approach, it was implemented into an existing computer code which contained the MacCormack method. Test results for a five-species reacting flow are shown to be oscillation-free around the shock, and the time spent per iteration only doubles when compared to the result using classical way of supplying numerical dissipation. The extra computation is more than justified by the elimination of spurious oscillation and nonlinear instability associated with the classical shock-capturing schemes in computing hypersonic reacting flows. 27 references

  3. Comparison of algorithms for blood stain detection applied to forensic hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Messinger, David W.; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Early detection of blood stains is particularly important since the blood reacts physically and chemically with air and materials over time. Accurate identification of blood remnants, including regions that might have been intentionally cleaned, is an important aspect of forensic investigation. Hyperspectral imaging might be a potential method to detect blood stains because it is non-contact and provides substantial spectral information that can be used to identify regions in a scene with trace amounts of blood. The potential complexity of scenes in which such vast violence occurs can be high when the range of scene material types and conditions containing blood stains at a crime scene are considered. Some stains are hard to detect by the unaided eye, especially if a conscious effort to clean the scene has occurred (we refer to these as "latent" blood stains). In this paper we present the initial results of a study of the use of hyperspectral imaging algorithms for blood detection in complex scenes. We describe a hyperspectral imaging system which generates images covering 400 nm - 700 nm visible range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm. Three image sets of 31 wavelength bands were generated using this camera for a simulated indoor crime scene in which blood stains were placed on a T-shirt and walls. To detect blood stains in the scene, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Subspace Reed Xiaoli Detection (SRXD), and Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithms were used. Comparison of the three hyperspectral image analysis techniques shows that TAD is most suitable for detecting blood stains and discovering latent blood stains.

  4. Simultaneous detection of indicators of hepatitis virus exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.; Decker, R.A.; Overby, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention discloses an improvement in solid phase immunoassay methods for the detection and determination of antigens and antibodies (markers) relating to hepatitis. The method for simultaneously detecting in a sample at least two different markers evidencing exposure to hepatitis virus comprises contacting the sample with a solid phase reagent which is coated with at least two different, non-complementary immunoreactants which are complementary to the unknown markers to be detected, then with a liquid reagent comprising at least two different hepatitis markers or immunoreactants, each selected to either react or compete with one of the unknown markers and each labeled with a detectably distinct tag. Examples described use 125 I. (author)

  5. Detection of ionized foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiated foods and feed might be identified with two kinds of tests: 1. biochemical: detection of specific products are not yet available 2. microbiological: when a microbial species dissapears from a sample of food i.e. it is not detectable after enrichment (for instance Coliforms in hamburgers) it is likely that the sample has been ionized [fr

  6. H5N1-SeroDetect EIA and rapid test: a novel differential diagnostic assay for serodiagnosis of H5N1 infections and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Sasono, Pretty; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Le, Quynh Mai; Pham, Quang Thai; Nguyen, Tran Hien; Nguyen, Thanh Liem; Horby, Peter; Golding, Hana

    2011-12-01

    Continuing evolution of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza viruses in wild birds with transmission to domestic poultry and humans poses a pandemic threat. There is an urgent need for a simple and rapid serological diagnostic assay which can differentiate between antibodies to seasonal and H5N1 strains and that could provide surveillance tools not dependent on virus isolation and nucleic acid technologies. Here we describe the establishment of H5N1 SeroDetect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid test assays based on three peptides in HA2 (488-516), PB1-F2 (2-75), and M2e (2-24) that are highly conserved within H5N1 strains. These peptides were identified by antibody repertoire analyses of H5N1 influenza survivors in Vietnam using whole-genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs). To date, both platforms have demonstrated high levels of sensitivity and specificity in detecting H5N1 infections (clade 1 and clade 2.3.4) in Vietnamese patients as early as 7 days and up to several years postinfection. H5N1 virus-uninfected individuals in Vietnam and the United States, including subjects vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccines or with confirmed seasonal virus infections, did not react in the H5N1-SeroDetect assays. Moreover, sera from individuals vaccinated with H5N1 subunit vaccine with moderate anti-H5N1 neutralizing antibody titers did not react positively in the H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA or rapid test assays. The simple H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA and rapid tests could provide an important tool for large-scale surveillance for potential exposure to HP H5N1 strains in both humans and birds.

  7. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  8. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. Results: We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. Availability and implementation: The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. Contact: sarala@ebi.ac.uk PMID:25638809

  9. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-06-01

    On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Cannula sensor for nitric oxide detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazier, S.A. [National Institute of Standard and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) has received much attention because of its numerous roles in mammalian systems. It has been found in the brain and nervous system to act as a neurotransmitter, in blood vessels as a blood pressure regulator, in the immune system to act as a bactericide and tumorcide, and in other postulated roles as well. Nitric oxide is produced in mammalian cells by the enzyme nitric oxide synthetase. Once produced, NO is oxidized or reacts rapidly with components in living systems and hence has a short half-life. Only a few sensors have been constructed which can detect NO at nanomolar to micromolar levels found in these systems. We are currently examining the use of a cannula sensor employing oxyhemoglobin for NO detection. This sensor continuously draws in liquid sample at a low rate and immediately reacts it with oxyhemoglobin. The absorbance changes which accompany the reaction are monitored. The sensor has a linear response range from approximately 50 to 1000 nM of NO in aqueous solution. Its utility in monitoring NO produced by stimulated murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) in culture is currently being examined. The sensor design is generic in that it can also employ fluorescence and chemiluminescence detection chemistries which may allow lower detection limits to be achieved. Details of the sensor`s performance will be given.

  11. Application of ABTS radical cation for selective on-line detection of radical scavengers in HPLC eluates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, [No Value; Niederlander, HAG; van Beek, TA

    2001-01-01

    The radical cation 2,2 ' -azinobis-(3 -ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate), (ABTS(.+)) was utilized in an on-line HPLC method for the detection of radical scavengers in complex matrixes. The HPLC-separated analytes react postcolumn with the preformed ABTS(.+), and the induced bleaching is detected as

  12. Effect of turbulent model closure and type of inlet boundary condition on a Large Eddy Simulation of a non-reacting jet with co-flow stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, Raul; López, J. Javier; Martí-Aldaraví, Pedro; Giraldo, Jhoan S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LES in a non-reacting jet with co-flow is performed with OpenFoam. • Smagorinsky (SMAG) and One Equation Eddy (OEE) approaches are compared. • A turbulent pipe is used to generate and map coherent inlet turbulence structure. • Fluctuating inlet boundary condition requires much less computational cost. - Abstract: In this paper, the behavior and turbulence structure of a non-reacting jet with a co-flow stream is described by means of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) carried out with the computational tool OpenFoam. In order to study the influence of the sub-grid scale (SGS) model on the main flow statistics, Smagorinsky (SMAG) and One Equation Eddy (OEE) approaches are used to model the smallest scales involved in the turbulence of the jet. The impact of cell size and turbulent inlet boundary condition in resulting velocity profiles is analyzed as well. Four different tasks have been performed to accomplish these objectives. Firstly, the simulation of a turbulent pipe, which is necessary to generate and map coherent turbulence structure into the inlet of the non-reacting jet domain. Secondly, a structured mesh based on hexahedrons has been built for the jet and its co-flow. The third task consists on performing four different simulations. In those, mapping statistics from the turbulent pipe is compared with the use of fluctuating inlet boundary condition available in OpenFoam; OEE and SMAG approaches are contrasted; and the effect of changing cell size is investigated. Finally, as forth task, the obtained results are compared with experimental data. As main conclusions of this comparison, it has been proved that the fluctuating boundary condition requires much less computational cost, but some inaccuracies were found close to the nozzle. Also, both SGS models are capable to simulate this kind of jets with a co-flow stream with exactitude.

  13. IGHV1-69-Encoded Antibodies Expressed in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia React with Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde Adduct, an Immunodominant Oxidation-Specific Epitope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Que, Xuchu; Widhopf Ii, George F; Amir, Shahzada

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulins expressed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells are highly restricted, suggesting they are selected for binding either self or foreign antigen. Of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) genes expressed in CLL, IGHV1-69 is the most common, and often is expressed...... are products of enhanced lipid peroxidation and a major target of innate natural antibodies. Specifically, CLL69C bound immunodominant OSE adducts termed MAA (malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducts), which are found on apoptotic cells, inflammatory tissues, and atherosclerotic lesions. It also reacted...

  14. Antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus Serotype 8 Capsular Polysaccharide React with and Protect against Serotype 5 and 8 Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Saeyoung; Gerber, Sabina; Lee, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Most Staphylococcus aureus isolates produce either a serotype 5 (CP5) or 8 (CP8) capsular polysaccharide, and the CP antigens are targets for vaccine development. Since CP5 and CP8 have similar trisaccharide repeating units, it is important to identify an epitope shared by both CP5 and CP8. To characterize cross-reactivity between CP5 and CP8, the immunogenicity of CP5 and CP8 conjugate vaccines in mice and rabbits was evaluated by serological assays. Immune sera were also tested for function...

  15. Description of a nanobody-based competitive immunoassay to detect tsetse fly exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the main vectors of human and animal African trypanosomes. The Tsal proteins in tsetse fly saliva were previously identified as suitable biomarkers of bite exposure. A new competitive assay was conceived based on nanobody (Nb technology to ameliorate the detection of anti-Tsal antibodies in mammalian hosts.A camelid-derived Nb library was generated against the Glossina morsitans morsitans sialome and exploited to select Tsal specific Nbs. One of the three identified Nb families (family III, TsalNb-05 and TsalNb-11 was found suitable for anti-Tsal antibody detection in a competitive ELISA format. The competitive ELISA was able to detect exposure to a broad range of tsetse species (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes and did not cross-react with the other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao. Using a collection of plasmas from tsetse-exposed pigs, the new test characteristics were compared with those of the previously described G. m. moristans and rTsal1 indirect ELISAs, revealing equally good specificities (> 95% and positive predictive values (> 98% but higher negative predictive values and hence increased sensitivity (> 95% and accuracy (> 95%.We have developed a highly accurate Nb-based competitive immunoassay to detect specific anti-Tsal antibodies induced by various tsetse fly species in a range of hosts. We propose that this competitive assay provides a simple serological indicator of tsetse fly presence without the requirement of test adaptation to the vertebrate host species. In addition, the use of monoclonal Nbs for antibody detection is innovative and could be applied to other tsetse fly salivary biomarkers in order to achieve a multi-target immunoprofiling of hosts. In addition, this approach could be broadened to other pathogenic organisms for which accurate serological diagnosis remains a bottleneck.

  16. Detection of Sensor Faults in Small Helicopter UAVs Using Observer/Kalman Filter Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Heredia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is a critical issue in navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs since there is no human pilot that can react to any abnormal situation. Due to size and cost limitations, redundant sensor schemes and aeronautical-grade navigation sensors used in large aircrafts cannot be installed in small UAVs. Therefore, other approaches like analytical redundancy should be used to detect faults in navigation sensors and increase reliability. This paper presents a sensor fault detection and diagnosis system for small autonomous helicopters based on analytical redundancy. Fault detection is accomplished by evaluating any significant change in the behaviour of the vehicle with respect to the fault-free behaviour, which is estimated by using an observer. The observer is obtained from input-output experimental data with the Observer/Kalman Filter Identification (OKID method. The OKID method is able to identify the system and an observer with properties similar to a Kalman filter, directly from input-output experimental data. Results are similar to the Kalman filter, but, with the proposed method, there is no need to estimate neither system matrices nor sensor and process noise covariance matrices. The system has been tested with real helicopter flight data, and the results compared with other methods.

  17. Development of an ELISA and Immunochromatographic Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Microcystin-LR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody for microcystin–leucine–arginine (MC-LR was produced by cell fusion. The immunogen was synthesized in two steps. First, ovalbumin/ bovine serum albumin was conjugated with 6-acetylthiohexanoic acid using a carbodiimide EDC (1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride/ NHS (N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide reaction. After dialysis, the protein was reacted with MC-LR based on a free radical reaction under basic solution conditions. The protein conjugate was used for immunization based on low volume. The antibodies were identified by indirect competitive (icELISA and were subjected to tap water and lake water analysis. The concentration causing 50% inhibition of binding of MC-LR (IC50 by the competitive indirect ELISA was 0.27 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity to the MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-WR was good. The tap water and lake water matrices had no effect on the detection limit. The analytical recovery of MC-LR in the water samples in the icELISA was 94%–110%. Based on this antibody, an immunochromatographic biosensor was developed with a cut-off value of 1 ng/mL, which could satisfy the requirement of the World Health Organization for MC-LR detection in drinking water. This biosensor could be therefore be used as a fast screening tool in the field detection of MC-LR.

  18. Exploring functionally related enzymes using radially distributed properties of active sites around the reacting points of bound ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Keisuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural genomics approaches, particularly those solving the 3D structures of many proteins with unknown functions, have increased the desire for structure-based function predictions. However, prediction of enzyme function is difficult because one member of a superfamily may catalyze a different reaction than other members, whereas members of different superfamilies can catalyze the same reaction. In addition, conformational changes, mutations or the absence of a particular catalytic residue can prevent inference of the mechanism by which catalytic residues stabilize and promote the elementary reaction. A major hurdle for alignment-based methods for prediction of function is the absence (despite its importance of a measure of similarity of the physicochemical properties of catalytic sites. To solve this problem, the physicochemical features radially distributed around catalytic sites should be considered in addition to structural and sequence similarities. Results We showed that radial distribution functions (RDFs, which are associated with the local structural and physicochemical properties of catalytic active sites, are capable of clustering oxidoreductases and transferases by function. The catalytic sites of these enzymes were also characterized using the RDFs. The RDFs provided a measure of the similarity among the catalytic sites, detecting conformational changes caused by mutation of catalytic residues. Furthermore, the RDFs reinforced the classification of enzyme functions based on conventional sequence and structural alignments. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the application of RDFs provides advantages in the functional classification of enzymes by providing information about catalytic sites.

  19. ENHANCING STUDENTS‟ MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT IN LEARNING GRAMMAR THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING THROUGH RELATING, EXPERIENCING, APPLYING, COOPERATING AND TRANSFERRING (REACT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashlihatul Umami Umami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the issue of whether Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL through REACT (Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating and Transferring strategy is able to enhance motivation and achievement of English Department students‘ in learning grammar. The researcher uses a classroom action research in which it was held for about two cycles. The instruments of collecting the data are observation, rubric, questionaire and test. The researcher analyzes the data using three steps, i.e. students‘ motivation to learn are analyzed by the sheet of observation, each of individuals is also analyzed by fulfilling the questionnaire of self assessment, the progress of students‘ motivation and achievement are all monitored by rubric assessment tool, seven components of REACT strategy in learning is also recorded by the sheets of observation and the statistical analysis using t-test measures the improvement occurred. In addition, the researcher prepares field note and questionnaire to monitor the process of learning. Based on the results of qualitative-quantitative analysis, it can be found that the use of CTL approach especially using project based and cooperative learning improves the students‘ motivation and achievement in learning grammar.

  20. A second-order coupled immersed boundary-SAMR construction for chemically reacting flow over a heat-conducting Cartesian grid-conforming solid

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.; Safta, Cosmin; Ray, Jaideep; Najm, Habib N.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a second-order numerical method for simulations of reacting flow around heat-conducting immersed solid objects. The method is coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) framework and a low-Mach number operator-split projection algorithm. A "buffer zone" methodology is introduced to impose the solid-fluid boundary conditions such that the solver uses symmetric derivatives and interpolation stencils throughout the interior of the numerical domain; irrespective of whether it describes fluid or solid cells. Solid cells are tracked using a binary marker function. The no-slip velocity boundary condition at the immersed wall is imposed using the staggered mesh. Near the immersed solid boundary, single-sided buffer zones (inside the solid) are created to resolve the species discontinuities, and dual buffer zones (inside and outside the solid) are created to capture the temperature gradient discontinuities. The development discussed in this paper is limited to a two-dimensional Cartesian grid-conforming solid. We validate the code using benchmark simulations documented in the literature. We also demonstrate the overall second-order convergence of our numerical method. To demonstrate its capability, a reacting flow simulation of a methane/air premixed flame stabilized on a channel-confined bluff-body using a detailed chemical kinetics model is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) made against insect-derived metacyclic trypomastigotes (IMT) of Trypanosoma cruzi (TC) cross-react with other parasite forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, L.V.; Gilliam, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable information has been generated in recent years about stage-specific surface membrane antigens of a number of protozoa, and this phenomenon has been observed among several stages of TC as well. However, little is known about the surface antigens of IMT, the true infective stage of TC, because of the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of these organisms for analysis. The Tulahuen strain of TC was maintained in the reduviid vector Dipetalogaster maximus by repeated feeding on mice with high parasitemias. IMT collected with insect urine were irradiated (150 krad) and used to immunize a BALB/c mouse for hybridoma production. Supernatants were screened by immunofluorescence assay for the presence of IgG MAb that react with methanol-fixed IMT, epimastogotes (EPI) and culture-derived metacyclic trypomastigoes (CMT). Of 41 MAb obtained, 40 reacted with IMT, 37 with EPI and 38 with CMT. Four MAb immunoprecipitated radioiodinated proteins or protein conjugates of M/sub r/ 80, 72, 45 and 45 from lysates of 125 I surface-labeled EPI. These results indicate that, at least at the epitopic level, there is considerable overlap among IMT, EPI and CMT surface antigens. This finding suggests that analysis of surface proteins of the latter 2 parasite forms may lead to identification of molecules useful for vaccine development

  2. A second-order coupled immersed boundary-SAMR construction for chemically reacting flow over a heat-conducting Cartesian grid-conforming solid

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a second-order numerical method for simulations of reacting flow around heat-conducting immersed solid objects. The method is coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) framework and a low-Mach number operator-split projection algorithm. A "buffer zone" methodology is introduced to impose the solid-fluid boundary conditions such that the solver uses symmetric derivatives and interpolation stencils throughout the interior of the numerical domain; irrespective of whether it describes fluid or solid cells. Solid cells are tracked using a binary marker function. The no-slip velocity boundary condition at the immersed wall is imposed using the staggered mesh. Near the immersed solid boundary, single-sided buffer zones (inside the solid) are created to resolve the species discontinuities, and dual buffer zones (inside and outside the solid) are created to capture the temperature gradient discontinuities. The development discussed in this paper is limited to a two-dimensional Cartesian grid-conforming solid. We validate the code using benchmark simulations documented in the literature. We also demonstrate the overall second-order convergence of our numerical method. To demonstrate its capability, a reacting flow simulation of a methane/air premixed flame stabilized on a channel-confined bluff-body using a detailed chemical kinetics model is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Comparing Spray Characteristics from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) National Combustion Code (NCC) Calculations Against Experimental Data for a Turbulent Reacting Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Moder, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Developing physics-based tools to aid in reducing harmful combustion emissions, like Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Unburnt Hydrocarbons (UHC s), and Sulfur Dioxides (SOx), is an important goal of aeronautics research at NASA. As part of that effort, NASA Glenn Research Center is performing a detailed assessment and validation of an in-house combustion CFD code known as the National Combustion Code (NCC) for turbulent reacting flows. To assess the current capabilities of NCC for simulating turbulent reacting flows with liquid jet fuel injection, a set of Single Swirler Lean Direct Injection (LDI) experiments performed at the University of Cincinnati was chosen as an initial validation data set. This Jet-A/air combustion experiment operates at a lean equivalence ratio of 0.75 at atmospheric pressure and has a 4 percent static pressure drop across the swirler. Detailed comparisons of NCC predictions for gas temperature and gaseous emissions (CO and NOx) against this experiment are considered in a previous work. The current paper is focused on detailed comparisons of the spray characteristics (radial profiles of drop size distribution and at several radial rakes) from NCC simulations against the experimental data. Comparisons against experimental data show that the use of the correlation for primary spray break-up implemented by Raju in the NCC produces most realistic results, but this result needs to be improved. Given the single or ten step chemical kinetics models, use of a spray size correlation gives similar, acceptable results

  4. Double Shock Experiments Performed at -55°C on LX-17 with Reactive Flow Modeling to Understand the Reacted Equation of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaven, Martin R.; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Strickland, Shawn L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2017-06-01

    Experiments were performed at -55°C to measure the reacted state of LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight) using a double shock technique using two flyer materials (with known properties) mounted on a projectile that send an initial shock through the material close to the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state followed by a second shock at a higher magnitude into the detonated material. Information on the reacted state is obtained by measuring the relative timing and magnitude of the first and second shock waves. The LX-17 detonation reaction zone profiles plus the arrival times and amplitudes of reflected shocks in LX-17 detonation reaction products were measured using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes and an aluminum foil coated LiF window. A discussion of this work will include a comparison to prior work at ambient temperature, the experimental parameters, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, reactive CHEETAH and Ignition and Growth modeling, as well as detail on possible future experiments. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Characterization of Periplasmic Protein BP26 Epitopes of Brucella melitensis Reacting with Murine Monoclonal and Sheep Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingbo; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanzhi; Qiao, Jun; Chen, Chuangfu; Gao, Goege F.; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2012-01-01

    More than 35,000 new cases of human brucellosis were reported in 2010 by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. An attenuated B. melitensis vaccine M5-90 is currently used for vaccination of sheep and goats in China. In the study, a periplasmic protein BP26 from M5-90 was characterized for its epitope reactivity with mouse monoclonal and sheep antibodies. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against recombinant BP26 (rBP26) were produced, which were tested for reactivity with a panel of BP26 peptides, three truncated rBP26 and native BP26 containing membrane protein extracts (NMP) of B. melitensis M5-90 in ELISA and Western-Blot. The linear, semi-conformational and conformational epitopes from native BP26 were identified. Two linear epitopes recognized by mAbs were revealed by 28 of 16mer overlapping peptides, which were accurately mapped as the core motif of amino acid residues 93DRDLQTGGI101 (position 93 to 101) or residues 104QPIYVYPD111, respectively. The reactivity of linear epitope peptides, rBP26 and NMP was tested with 137 sheep sera by ELISAs, of which the two linear epitopes had 65–70% reactivity and NMP 90% consistent with the results of a combination of two standard serological tests. The results were helpful for evaluating the reactivity of BP26 antigen in M5-90. PMID:22457830

  6. O-Methylisourea Can React with the α-Amino Group of Lysine: Implications for the Analysis of Reactive Lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Tetske G; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Sforza, Stefano; Bikker, Paul; van der Poel, Antonius F B; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2017-02-01

    The specificity of O-methylisourea (OMIU) to bind to the ε-amino group of Lys, an important supposition for the OMIU-reactive Lys analysis of foods, feeds, ingredients, and digesta, was investigated. Crystalline l-Lys incubated under standard conditions with OMIU resulted in low homoarginine recoveries. The reaction of OMIU with the α-amino group of Lys was confirmed by MS analysis, with double derivatized Lys being identified. None of the changes in reaction conditions (OMIU pH, OMIU to Lys ratio, and reaction time) with crystalline l-Lys resulted in 100% recovery of homoarginine. The average free Lys content in ileal digesta of growing pigs and broilers was found to be 13% of total Lys, which could result in a significant underestimation of the reactive Lys content. The reaction of OMIU with α-amino groups may necessitate analysis of free Lys to accurately quantify reactive lysine in samples containing a large proportion of Lys with a free α-amino group.

  7. Use of the nonsteady monotonic heating method for complex determination of thermophysical properties of chemically reacting mixture in the case of non-equilibrium proceeding of the chemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebryanyj, G.Z.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical analysis is made for the monotonic heating method as applied for complex determination of thermophysical properties of chemically reacting gases. The possibility is shown of simultaneous determination of frozen and equilibrium heat capacity, frozen and equilibrium heat conduction provided non-equilibrium occuring of the reaction in the wide range of temperatures and pressures. The monotonic heating method can be used for complex determination of thermophysical properties of chemically reacting systems in case of non-equilibrium proceeding of the chemical reaction

  8. Evaluation of an x-ray microprobe technique as a possible aid to detect salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.R.; Banwart, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Specific bacterial antigen (Salmonella) increased in phosphorus and sqlfur after reaction with the flukrescain isothiocyanate-tagged anti-Salmonella antibody, while nonspecific antigen (Escherichia coli) did not. X-ray microprobe analysis may be useful in detecting salmonellae or other bacteria by determining increases in the elemental constituents of bacterial cells when reacted with elemental-tagged antibodies

  9. Immunoassay screening of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its confirmation by HPLC and fluorescence detection following LSD ImmunElute extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobosch, T; Lemm-Ahlers, U

    2002-04-01

    In all, 3872 urine specimens were screened for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) using the CEDIA DAU LSD assay. Forty-eight samples, mainly from psychiatric patients or drug abusers, were found to be LSD positive, but only 13 (27%) of these could be confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) following immunoaffinity extraction (IAE). Additional analysis for LSD using the DPC Coat-a-Count RIA was performed to compare the two immunoassay screening methods. Complete agreement between the DPC RIA assay and HPLC-FLD results was observed at concentrations below a cutoff concentration of 500 pg/mL. Samples that were LSD positive in the CEDIA DAU assay but not confirmed by HPLC-FLD were also investigated for interfering compounds using REMEDI HS drug-profiling system. REMEDI HS analysis identified 15 compounds (parent drugs and metabolites) that are believed to cross-react in the CEDIA DAU LSD assay: ambroxol, prilocaine, pipamperone, diphenhydramine, metoclopramide, amitriptyline, doxepine, atracurium, bupivacaine, doxylamine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, promethazine, ranitidine, and tramadole. The IAE/HPLC-FLD combination is rapid, easy to perform and reliable. It can reduce costs when standard, rather than more advanced, HPLC equipment is used, especially for labs that perform analyses for LSD infrequently. The chromatographic analysis of LSD, nor-LSD, and iso-LSD is not influenced by any of the tested cross-reacting compounds even at a concentration of 100 ng/mL.

  10. Near Identifiability of Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, F. Y.; Bekey, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts regarding approximate mathematical models treated rigorously. Paper presents new results in analysis of structural identifiability, equivalence, and near equivalence between mathematical models and physical processes they represent. Helps establish rigorous mathematical basis for concepts related to structural identifiability and equivalence revealing fundamental requirements, tacit assumptions, and sources of error. "Structural identifiability," as used by workers in this field, loosely translates as meaning ability to specify unique mathematical model and set of model parameters that accurately predict behavior of corresponding physical system.

  11. System Detects Vibrational Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.

  12. Identifying wrong assemblies in de novo short read primary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finally, some mis-assembly detecting tools have been evaluated for their ability to detect the wrongly assembledprimary contigs, suggesting a lot of scope for improvement in this area. The present work also proposes a simpleunsupervised learning-based novel approach to identify mis-assemblies in the contigs which was ...

  13. Pre-existing IgG antibodies cross-reacting with the Fab region of infliximab predict efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    are common and may cross-react with the murine part of IFX. AIM: To investigate if Abs binding to IFX's Fab region (IFX-Fab) are present in IBD patients before exposure to IFX, and whether they predict efficacy and safety of IFX therapy. METHODS: Observational, retrospective cohort study of patients with CD...... (n = 29) and UC (n = 22). RESULTS: Pre-treatment levels of IFX-Fab reactive IgG Abs were significantly lower in CD patients in remission after 1 year of maintenance IFX (median 91 mU/L, n = 8) than in the rest of the patients (639 mU/L, n = 21; P ...

  14. Investigation of Microstructure and Microhardness in Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welded AA2014-T6 and AA2219-T87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, K. Renee; McGill, Preston; Barkey, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential advantages for aerospace and automotive industries dealing with light alloys. Self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW) is one variation of the FSW process being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in the fabrication of propellant tanks. This work reports on the microstructure and microhardness of SR-FSW between two dissimilar aluminum alloys. Specifically, the study examines the cross section of the weld joint formed between an AA2014-T6 plate on the advancing side and an AA2219-T87 plate on the retreating side. The microstructural analysis shows an irregularly displaced weld seam from the advancing side past the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) into the weld nugget region. There are sharp variations in the microhardness across the weld. These variations are described in the paper and mechanisms for their formation are discussed.

  15. Potential protective immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197) when used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael

    2016-03-03

    When tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant protein, are used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugate vaccines, these carriers induce a protein specific antibody response as measured by in vitro assays. Here, it was evaluated whether or not glycoconjugates based on TT, DT or CRM197 can induce a protective immune response as measured by potency tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia. It could be shown, that the conjugate carriers TT and DT can induce a protective immune response against a lethal challenge by toxins in animals, while glycoconjugates based on CRM197 failed to induce a protective immune response. Opportunities for new applications of glycoconjugates are discussed.

  16. Excess antibody immunoassays for rat glandular kallikreins. Measurement of kallikrein from different organs in the presence of cross-reacting antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, L.; Oerstavik, T.B.; Holck, M.; Nustad, K.

    1983-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay has previously been developed for measurement of rat glandular kallikrein. In the present paper, further studies on the specificity and sensitivity of the method are described. Problems of interference of immunologically cross-reacting antigens were overcome by proper preabsorption of the antibody. A method was thus established in which enzymatic activity of the immunoreactive kallikrein could be measured even in the presence of enzymes sharing immunological determinants and substrate specificity with kallikrein. Two variants of the immunoradiometric assay have been evaluated. A simplified version with simultaneous addition of all reagents gave results equal to those obtained in the original assay. A further modification with delayed addition of the solid-phase antibody, gave considerable improvement in assay sensitivity. (Auth.)

  17. Rate based failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett Emery Trabun; Gamage, Thoshitha Thanushka; Bakken, David Edward

    2018-01-02

    This disclosure describes, in part, a system management component and failure detection component for use in a power grid data network to identify anomalies within the network and systematically adjust the quality of service of data published by publishers and subscribed to by subscribers within the network. In one implementation, subscribers may identify a desired data rate, a minimum acceptable data rate, desired latency, minimum acceptable latency and a priority for each subscription. The failure detection component may identify an anomaly within the network and a source of the anomaly. Based on the identified anomaly, data rates and or data paths may be adjusted in real-time to ensure that the power grid data network does not become overloaded and/or fail.

  18. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. It is known that individuals near the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner during the course of an outbreak, on average, than those at the periphery. Unfortunately, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals who might be monitored for infection is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, simply monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students who were either members of a group of randomly chosen individuals or a group of their friends. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 13.9 days (95% C.I. 9.9–16.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significant lead time (pepidemic, a full 46 days before the peak in daily incidence in the population as a whole. This sensor method could provide significant additional time to react to epidemics in small or large populations under surveillance. The amount of lead time will depend on features of the outbreak and the network at hand. The method could in principle be generalized to other biological, psychological, informational, or behavioral contagions that spread in networks. PMID:20856792

  19. True Detective

    OpenAIRE

    Gajhede, Andreas; Westmark, [No Value; Bantoulidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the HBO’s television-series True Detective, a 2014 crime drama, attempting to point out the central elements of detective-fiction, to be found in its narrative. True Detective narrative is a heavy text with a number of references from various well-known, non-adjacent texts within the field of weird fiction, horror fiction and detective fiction. Therefore, the case study of this research will focus on narratological and literary analysis, in order to discover the predominan...

  20. Gliadin Detection in Food by Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter; Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunoassays are very sensitive and efficient tests that are commonly used to identify a specific protein. Examples of applications in the food industry include identification of proteins expressed in genetically modified foods, allergens, or proteins associated with a disease, including celiac disease. This genetic disease is associated with Europeans and affects about one in every 200 people in North America. These individuals react immunologically to wheat proteins, and consequently their own immune systems attack and damage their intestines. This disease can be managed if wheat proteins, specifically "gliadins," are avoided in foods.

  1. Identifying Phase Space Boundaries with Voronoi Tessellations

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Dipsikha; Kilic, Can; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Yang, Yuan-Pao

    2016-11-24

    Determining the masses of new physics particles appearing in decay chains is an important and longstanding problem in high energy phenomenology. Recently it has been shown that these mass measurements can be improved by utilizing the boundary of the allowed region in the fully differentiable phase space in its full dimensionality. Here we show that the practical challenge of identifying this boundary can be solved using techniques based on the geometric properties of the cells resulting from Voronoi tessellations of the relevant data. The robust detection of such phase space boundaries in the data could also be used to corroborate a new physics discovery based on a cut-and-count analysis.

  2. Identifying QCD Transition Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Pang, Long-gang; Su, Nan; Petersen, Hannah; Stoecker, Horst; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2018-02-01

    In this proceeding we review our recent work using supervised learning with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to identify the QCD equation of state (EoS) employed in hydrodynamic modeling of heavy-ion collisions given only final-state particle spectra ρ(pT, V). We showed that there is a traceable encoder of the dynamical information from phase structure (EoS) that survives the evolution and exists in the final snapshot, which enables the trained CNN to act as an effective "EoS-meter" in detecting the nature of the QCD transition.

  3. The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

  4. A New Method for Identifying Hazardous Road Locations Using GPS and Accelerometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    and validated through a case study of Aalborg city, where HRLs identified on the basis of accident statistics are compared to the HCLs identified with the new method on a dataset of more than 36.531 hours of driving tracked with accelerometer and GPS, containing 131 million GPS and 1.1 billion acceleration...... a new method relying on GPS data and accelerometer data. The method developed in this article is superior to previous methods since it utilizes acceleration measurements to identify both a deceleration and a significant drop in speed by integrating acceleration measurements over time in a moving time......-window. This calculation is combined with measurements of jerks to distinguish between planned decelerations and unplanned decelerations, which occurs when drivers react to hazardous situations. Finally, using GPS data, the unplanned decelerations identified are linked to specific locations. The method is tested...

  5. Simplified approaches for the development of an ELISA to detect circulating autoantibodies to p53 in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayapiwatana Chatchai

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recognition that human tumors stimulate the production of autoantibodies has initiated the use of this immune response as serological markers for the early diagnosis and management of cancer. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most common method used in detecting autoantibodies, which involves coating the microtiter plate with the tumor associated antigen (TAA of interest and allowing serum antibodies to bind. The patient's sample is directly in contact with the coating antigen so the protein used for coating must be pure to avoid non-specific binding. In this study, a simplified method to selectively and specifically immobilize TAAs onto microtiter plates in order to detect circulating autoantibodies in cancer patients without prior purification process was described. Wild type full-length p53 protein was produced in fusion with biotin carboxyl carrier peptide (BCCP or hexahistidine [(His6] using pAK400 and pET15b(+ vectors, respectively. The recombinant p53 fusion protein produced was then subjected to react with either a commercial p53 monoclonal antibody (mAb or sera from lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA format. Results Both of the immobilized p53 fusion proteins as well as the purified (His6-p53 fusion protein had a similar dose response of detection to a commercial p53 mAb (DO7. When the biotinylated p53-BCCP fusion protein was used as an antigen to detect p53 autoantibodies in clinical samples, the result showed that human serum reacted strongly to avidin-coated microwell even in the absence of the biotinylated p53-BCCP fusion protein, thus compromised its ability to differentiate weakly positive sera from those that were negative. In contrast, the (His6-p53 protein immobilized directly onto Ni+ coated microplate was able to identify the p53 autoantibody positive serum. In addition, its reactivity to clinical serum samples highly correlated

  6. [Prokaryotic expression of vp3 gene of Muscovy duck parvovirus, and its antiserum preparation for detection of virus multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Zhu, Yumin; Dong, Shijuan; Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Yuanshu; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    New epidemic broke out in recent year which was suspected to be caused by variant Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). For this reason, new MDPV detection methods are needed for the new virus strains. In this study, a pair of primers were designed according to the full-length genome of MDPV strain SAAS-SHNH, which were identified in 2012, and were used to amplify the vp3 gene of MDPV by polymerase chain reaction. After being sequenced, the vp3 gene was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector PET28a. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 and induced with IPTG. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis showed the MDPV vp3 gene was successfully expressed. After being purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography system, the recombinant protein was used as antigen to immunize rabbits to obtain antiserum. Western blotting analysis showed that the acquired antiserum could react specifically with VP3 protein of J3D6 strain and MDPV vaccine strain. The antiserum could also be used for detection of cultured MDPV from primary duck embryo fibroblasts by immune fluorescence assay (IFA). It could be concluded that the VP3 protein and its antibody prepared in the research could be used for detection of VP3 antiserum and antigen respectively.

  7. Advanced Diagnostics for Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-20

    Ingeniera Mecanica , 17-19 Dec. 1990, Zaragosa, Spain; published in Congress Proceedings. 19. D. F. Davidson, A. Y. Chang, M. D. DiRosa and R. K. Hanson... Mecanica , 17-19 Dec. 1990, Zaragosa, Spain; published in Congress Proceedings. 14. D. F. Davidson, A. Y. Chang, M. D. DiRosa and R. K. Hanson

  8. Laser Diagnostics for Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    the high-temperature kinetics of n-heptane pyrolysis . The two-wavelength temperature and vapor concentration diagnostic designed for n- dodecane was...features ranging from 1338 nm to 1469 nm and one laser tuned to a CO2 transition near 1997 nm were combined onto a single mode optical fiber ( Corning

  9. Laser Diagnostics for Reacting Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Ronald K

    2007-01-01

    ... (UV) or infrared (IR) wavelengths. The cw lasers were spectrally narrow, allowing study of innovative diagnostics based on spectral lineshapes, while the pulsed lasers provided intense bursts of photons needed for techniques based on LIF...

  10. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  11. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  12. Determination of 2-alkylcyclobutanones by combining precolumn derivatization with 1-naphthalenyl hydrazine and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangpeng; Tong, Tong; Wang, Lianrong; Liu, Hanxia; Chan, Wan

    2016-05-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are uniquely formed when triglycerides-containing food products are exposed to ionizing radiation. Thus, 2-ACBs have been used as marker molecules to identify irradiated food. Most methods to determine 2-ACBs involve mass spectrometric detection after chromatographic separation. The spectrofluorometer is rarely used to determine 2-ACBs because these molecules do not fluoresce. In this study, we developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method to determine 2-ACBs. 2-ACBs were converted into fluorophores after reacting with 1-naphthalenyl hydrazine to facilitate their sensitive and selective detection using a fluorescence detector (FLD). Analysis of 2-ACBs using our developed UPLC-FLD method allows sensitive determination of 2-ACBs at a detection limit of 2 ng 2-ACBs per g of fat (30 pg/injection), which is significantly lower than that of existing analytical methods. After validation for trueness and precision, the method was applied to γ-irradiated chicken samples to determine their 2-ACB content. Comparative studies employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method revealed no systematic difference between the two methods, thereby demonstrating that the proposed UPLC-FLD method can be suitably used to determine 2-ACBs in irradiated foodstuffs. Graphical Abstract Determination of radiation-induced food-borne 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone by combining 1-naphthalenyl hydrazine derivatization and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

  13. Development of nanobody-based flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for sensitive detection of human prealbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Sun, Yanyan; Kang, Xuejun; Wan, Yakun

    2014-11-15

    Nanobodies, derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies, have novel and impactful applications in clinical diagnostics. Our objective is to develop a nanobody-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for sensitive detection of human prealbumin (PA). In this context, a phage display nanobody library is constructed via immunizing dromedary camel with human prealbumin. Three nanobodies have been identified by five successive bio-panning steps. Based on their high expression level and good affinity, two out of three are chosen for further study. Magnetic beads (MBs) were functionalized with PEI by acylamide bond formed between the carboxyl group on the surface of the MB. Then, an anti-PA nanobody (Nb1) can be effectively immobilized onto the surface of the functionalized MB using glutaradehyde as the link. The modified MBs with Nb1 can specifically capture the target PA and reacted with silica nanoparticles with co-immobilized HRP and anti-PA nanobody (Nb2). The concentration of PA was detected by flow injection chemiluminescence. When using MB/PEI as the carrier of anti-PA Nb1, the CL signal significantly increased to 4-fold compared with the signal using MB without PEI modification. The CL signal was further amplified to 5-fold when Si/Nb2 was used as the signal probe. Under optimized conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a wide quantitative range from 0.05 to 1000 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.01 μg L(-1). The sensitivity of the proposed immunoassay offers great promises in providing a sensitive, specific, time saving, and potential method for detecting PA in clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevent cervical cancer by screening with reliable human papillomavirus detection and genotyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Shichao; Gong, Bo; Cai, Xushan; Yang, Xiaoer; Gan, Xiaowei; Tong, Xinghai; Li, Haichuan; Zhu, Meijuan; Yang, Fengyun; Zhou, Hongrong; Hong, Guofan

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer is expected to rise sharply in China. A reliable routine human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping test to be supplemented by the limited Papanicolaou cytology facilities is urgently needed to help identify the patients with cervical precancer for preventive interventions. To this end, we evaluated a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for detection of HPV L1 gene DNA in cervicovaginal cells. The PCR amplicons were genotyped by direct DNA sequencing. In parallel, split samples were subjected to a Digene HC2 HPV test which has been widely used for “cervical cancer risk” screen. Of the 1826 specimens, 1655 contained sufficient materials for analysis and 657 were truly negative. PCR/DNA sequencing showed 674 infected by a single high-risk HPV, 188 by a single low-risk HPV, and 136 by multiple HPV genotypes with up to five HPV genotypes in one specimen. In comparison, the HC2 test classified 713 specimens as infected by high-risk HPV, and 942 as negative for HPV infections. The high-risk HC2 test correctly detected 388 (57.6%) of the 674 high-risk HPV isolates in clinical specimens, mislabeled 88 (46.8%) of the 188 low-risk HPV isolates as high-risk genotypes, and classified 180 (27.4%) of the 657 “true-negative” samples as being infected by high-risk HPV. It was found to cross-react with 20 low-risk HPV genotypes. We conclude that nested PCR detection of HPV followed by short target DNA sequencing can be used for screening and genotyping to formulate a paradigm in clinical management of HPV-related disorders in a rapidly developing economy

  15. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DATA USED FOR IDENTIFYING ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to unique social and demographic characteristics, various segments of the population may experience exposures different from those of the general population, which, in many cases, may be greater. When risk assessments do not characterize subsets of the general population, the populations that may experience the greatest risk remain unidentified. When such populations are not identified, the social and demographic data relevant to these populations is not considered when preparing exposure estimates, which can underestimate exposure and risk estimates for at-risk populations. Thus, it is necessary for risk or exposure assessors characterizing a diverse population, to first identify and then enumerate certain groups within the general population who are at risk for greater contaminant exposures. The document entitled Sociodemographic Data Used for Identifying Potentially Highly Exposed Populations (also referred to as the Highly Exposed Populations document), assists assessors in identifying and enumerating potentially highly exposed populations. This document presents data relating to factors which potentially impact an individual or group's exposure to environmental contaminants based on activity patterns (how time is spent), microenvironments (locations where time is spent), and other socio-demographic data such as age, gender, race and economic status. Populations potentially more exposed to various chemicals of concern, relative to the general population

  16. SNP interaction pattern identifier (SIPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hui Yi; Chen, Dung Tsa; Huang, Po Yu

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: Testing SNP-SNP interactions is considered as a key for overcoming bottlenecks of genetic association studies. However, related statistical methods for testing SNP-SNP interactions are underdeveloped. Results: We propose the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI), which tests 45...

  17. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  18. Identifying high-risk medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sædder, Eva; Brock, Birgitte; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    salicylic acid, and beta-blockers; 30 drugs or drug classes caused 82 % of all serious MEs. The top ten drugs involved in fatal events accounted for 73 % of all drugs identified. CONCLUSION: Increasing focus on seven drugs/drug classes can potentially reduce hospitalizations, extended hospitalizations...

  19. Distributed Persistent Identifiers System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Golodoniuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementation, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have, by in large, catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, and persistence, regardless of the identifier’s application domain. Trustworthiness of these systems has been measured by the criteria first defined by Bütikofer (2009 and further elaborated by Golodoniuc 'et al'. (2016 and Car 'et al'. (2017. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by a single organisation they faced challenges for widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. We believe that a cause of PID systems that were once successful fading away is the centralisation of support infrastructure – both organisational and computing and data storage systems. In this paper, we propose a PID system design that implements the pillars of a trustworthy system – ensuring identifiers’ independence of any particular technology or organisation, implementation of core PID system functions, separation from data delivery, and enabling the system to adapt for future change. We propose decentralisation at all levels — persistent identifiers and information objects registration, resolution, and data delivery — using Distributed Hash Tables and traditional peer-to-peer networks with information replication and caching mechanisms, thus eliminating the need for a central PID data store. This will increase overall system fault tolerance thus ensuring its trustworthiness. We also discuss important aspects of the distributed system’s governance, such as the notion of the authoritative source and data integrity

  20. Identifying HIV-1 dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelissen Marion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the

  1. Interaction of a weak and a strong shock in reacting high enthalpy flow; Wechselwirkung einer starken und einer schwachen Stosswelle in reagierender Hochenthalpiestroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, M.

    1998-11-01

    In the free piston driven shock tunnel HEG the interaction of shock waves in front of a blunt body is studied in reacting high enthalpy flow. The influence of high temperature effects is of interest. The so called type IV interaction produces a free jet that impinges onto the body and creates high pressure and heat loads on the body surface. A cylinder wedge model is used. At the cylinder surface pressure and heat flux are measured. Holographic interferometry and schlieren optic are applied to visualize the flow. The measured loads show unsteady behaviour. At higher Reynolds numbers the upper bow shock shows a strong disturbance. It is assumed that this disturbance is caused by an unstable shear layer if the convective Mach number (i.e. the Mach number of the flow relative to a frame of reference moving with the shear layer structures) is larger than one. A study of the influence of dissociation on the convective Mach number shows, that the convective Mach number increases. Numerical calculations and an analytical model, which is based on the ideal dissociating gas model and the Fay Riddell solution to stagnation point flows are discussed in comparison with the experiments. (orig.)

  2. Antibodies against Clonorchis sinensis LDH could cross-react with LDHB localizing on the plasma membrane of human hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721 and induce apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianzhang; Gan, Wenjia; Chen, Jintao; Huang, Lilin; Yin, Hongling; He, Tailong; Huang, Huaiqiu; Hu, Xuchu

    2016-04-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a terminal enzyme in anaerobic glycolytic pathway. It widely exists in various organisms and is in charge of converting the glycolysis product pyruvic acid to lactic acid. Most parasites, including Clonorchis sinensis, predominantly depend on glycolysis to provide energy. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that the LDHs from many species have more than one transmembrane region, suggesting that it may be a membrane protein. C. sinensis LDH (CsLDH) has been confirmed as a transmembrane protein mainly located in the tegument. The antibodies against CsLDH can inhibit the worm's energy metabolism, kill the worm, and may have the same effects on human cancer cells. In this study, we cloned and characterized human LDHA (HsLDHA), HsLDHB, and CsLDH. Semi-quantitative real-time RCP showed that HsLDHB only existed in hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721. Confocal microscopy and Western blot experiments revealed that HsLDHB was localized in the plasma membrane of SMMC-7721 cells, and the antibodies against CsLDH could cross-react with it. This cross-reaction could inhibit the enzymatic activity of HsLDHB. The cancer cells co-cultured with anti-CsLDH sera showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation rate and increases in caspase 9 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Therefore, anti-CsLDH antibodies can induce the apoptosis of cancer cells SMMC-7721 and may serve as a new tool to inhibit tumor.

  3. Study the influence of reacted aliphatic amine series length on its kinetic reaction with dimeric fatty acid C36 and properties of resulted polyamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mohammad, H.; Falah, A.; Al-Hammoy, M.

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic studies were carried out on the reaction between dimeric fatty acid C 3 6 with 1.3 Diamino propane and 1.4 Diamino butane and 1.6 Diamino hexane and 1.8 Diamino octane in molten phase. The reaction was performed at 145 o C. The polyamidation reaction was found to be on the overall a second order up to 83% conversion for reaction dimeric fatty acid C-36 with 1.3 Diamino propane and 86% conversion for reaction dimeric fatty acid C 3 6 with 1.4 Diamino butane and 87% conversion for reaction dimeric fatty acid C 3 6 with 1.6 Diamino hexane and 1.8 Diamino octane then the reaction order changes to the third order above last conversion. The degree of polymerization,number average molecular weight and weight average molecular weight have been calculated during different times. Their relationships with the times are linear until last conversion. The melting point and thermodynamic constants for melting are determined by use of differential scanning calorimetry DSC. The melting point and thermodynamic constants increase by increasing the length of reacted amine series. (author)

  4. Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil by Reacting with Olefins and Alcohols over Solid Acids: Reaction Paths via Model Compound Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic refining of bio-oil by reacting with olefin/alcohol over solid acids can convert bio-oil to oxygen-containing fuels. Reactivities of groups of compounds typically present in bio-oil with 1-octene (or 1-butanol were studied at 120 °C/3 h over Dowex50WX2, Amberlyst15, Amberlyst36, silica sulfuric acid (SSA and Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 supported on K10 clay (Cs2.5/K10, 30 wt. %. These compounds include phenol, water, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, d-glucose and 2-hydroxymethylfuran. Mechanisms for the overall conversions were proposed. Other olefins (1,7-octadiene, cyclohexene, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene and alcohols (iso-butanol with different activities were also investigated. All the olefins and alcohols used were effective but produced varying product selectivities. A complex model bio-oil, synthesized by mixing all the above-stated model compounds, was refined under similar conditions to test the catalyst’s activity. SSA shows the highest hydrothermal stability. Cs2.5/K10 lost most of its activity. A global reaction pathway is outlined. Simultaneous and competing esterification, etherfication, acetal formation, hydration, isomerization and other equilibria were involved. Synergistic interactions among reactants and products were determined. Acid-catalyzed olefin hydration removed water and drove the esterification and acetal formation equilibria toward ester and acetal products.

  5. A three-dimensional fully coupled thermo-mechanical model for Self-reacting Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium AA6061 sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Piyush; Biswas, Pankaj; Kore, Sachin D.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work a three dimensional model of self-reacting friction stir welding in aluminium alloy AA6061 has been developed based on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The temperature dependent material properties have been incorporated in the model from available literature. A slip-stick contact between the workpiece and tool surface has been considered with the slip factor varying linearly with distance. The methodology adopted has been validated with experimental results available in the literature. The temperature distribution observed has been found to be asymmetric about the weld centre line. The maximum temperature has been observed on the advancing side of the weld. However, the temperature distribution across the thickness has been found to be almost symmetric about the mid thickness plane. An hourglass shaped temperature distribution has been observed across the cross-section of the weld. The material flow velocity distribution shows that the deformation zone is limited to a very small region around the tool. (paper)

  6. Effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss and color of surface reaction type pre-reacted glass-ionomer filled resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Miyazaki, Masashi; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss and color of different shades of surface reaction type pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filled nano-hybrid resin composite. Resin disks of 15 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness and final polish with 1000-grit SiC paper, super fine cut diamond (FG) point, silicon (MFR) point and Super-Snap mini-disk red (SNAP) were made with Beautifil II shades: A2, A20, Inc). One week after curing, the surface roughness, gloss and color were measured. Data was analyzed with ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD with alpha= 0.05 For all shades, the order of roughness (Ra) ranked according to groups of 1000-grit SiC > FG > MFR > SNAP with significant differences among all groups. For all shades, the order of gloss ranked according to groups of SNAP > MFR > FG > 1000-grit SiC with significant differences among the groups except for between MFR and FG without significant difference. The influence of the surface roughness on color differed among the polishing groups and shades. However, the values of the color differences (deltaE*ab) between the polishing groups of all shades were imperceptible to the naked eye.

  7. Anesthesiology leadership rounding: identifying opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenstein, Dietrich; Ford, Susan; Enneking, F Kayser

    2012-01-01

    Rounding that includes participation of individuals with authority to implement changes has been advocated as important to the transformation of an institution into a high-quality and safe organization. We describe a Department of Anesthesiology's experience with leadership rounding. The Department Chair or other senior faculty designate, a quality coordinator, up to four residents, the ward charge nurse, and patient nurses participated in rounds at bedsides. During a 23-month period, 14 significant opportunities to improve care were identified. Nurses identified 5 of these opportunities, primary team physicians 2, the rounding team 4, and patients or their family members another 3. The anesthesiology service had sole or shared responsibility for 10 improvements. A variety of organizations track specific measures across all phases of the patient experience to gauge quality of care. Chart auditing tools for detecting threats to safety are often used. These measures and tools missed opportunities for improvement that were discovered only through rounding. We conclude that the introduction of leadership rounding by an anesthesiology service can identify opportunities for improving quality that are not captured by conventional efforts.

  8. Unsupervised learning for robust bitcoin fraud detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monamo, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The rampant absorption of Bitcoin as a cryptographic currency, along with rising cybercrime activities, warrants utilization of anomaly detection to identify potential fraud. Anomaly detection plays a pivotal role in data mining since most outlying...

  9. Real-time PCR assays for detection of Brucella spp. and the identification of genotype ST27 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingzhong; McFee, Wayne E; Goldstein, Tracey; Tiller, Rebekah V; Schwacke, Lori

    2014-05-01

    Rapid detection of Brucella spp. in marine mammals is challenging. Microbiologic culture is used for definitive diagnosis of brucellosis, but is time consuming, has low sensitivity and can be hazardous to laboratory personnel. Serological methods can aid in diagnosis, but may not differentiate prior exposure versus current active infection and may cross-react with unrelated Gram-negative bacteria. This study reports a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp. and application to screen clinical samples from bottlenose dolphins stranded along the coast of South Carolina, USA. The assay was found to be 100% sensitive for the Brucella strains tested, and the limit of detection was 0.27fg of genomic DNA from Brucella ceti B1/94 per PCR volume. No amplification was detected for the non-Brucella pathogens tested. Brucella DNA was detected in 31% (55/178) of clinical samples tested. These studies indicate that the real-time PCR assay is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of Brucella spp. in bottlenose dolphins. We also developed a second real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of Brucella ST27, a genotype that is associated with human zoonotic infection. Positive results were obtained for Brucella strains which had been identified as ST27 by multilocus sequence typing. No amplification was found for other Brucella strains included in this study. ST27 was identified in 33% (18/54) of Brucella spp. DNA-positive clinical samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a real-time PCR assay for identification of Brucella genotype ST27 in marine mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ORCID: Author Identifiers for Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn B. Reed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Generating accurate publication lists by researchers can be challenging when faced with scholars who have common names or who have published under name variations. This article describes ORCID and the goal of generating author identifiers for scholars to connect their research outputs. Included are the reasons for having author identifiers as well as the types of information within individual profiles. This article includes information on how academic libraries are playing a role with ORCID initiatives as well as describing how publishers, institutions, and funders are employing ORCID in their workflows. Highlighted is material on academic institutions in Pennsylvania using ORCID. The purpose of the article is to provide an overview of ORCID and its uses to inform librarians about this important initiative.

  11. Device for identifying fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Tetsuo; Miyazawa, Tatsuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately identify a symbol printed on a hanging tool at the upper part of a fuel assembly. Constitution: Optical fibers are bundled to prepare a detector which is disposed at a predetermined position on a hanging tool. This position is set by a guide. Thus, the light emitted from an illumination lamp arrives at the bottom of a groove printed on the upper surface of the tool, and is divided into a weak light reflected upwardly and a strong light reflected on the surface lower than the groove. When these lights are received by the optical fibers, the fibers corresponding to the grooved position become dark, and the fibers corresponding to the ungrooved position become bright. Since the fuel assembly is identified by the dark and bright of the optical fibers as symbols, different machining can be performed every fuel assembly on the upper surface of the tool. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Identifying patient risks during hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Ferreira Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risks reported at a public institution andto know the main patient risks from the nursing staff point of view.Methods: A retrospective, descriptive and exploratory study. Thesurvey was developed at a hospital in the city of Taboão da Serra, SãoPaulo, Brazil. The study included all nurses working in care areas whoagreed to participate in the study. At the same time, sentinel eventsoccurring in the period from July 2006 to July 2007 were identified.Results: There were 440 sentinel events reported, and the main risksincluded patient falls, medication errors and pressure ulcers. Sixty-fivenurses were interviewed. They also reported patient falls, medicationerrors and pressure ulcers as the main risks. Conclusions: Riskassessment and implementation of effective preventive actions arenecessary to ensure patient’s safety. Involvement of a multidisciplinaryteam is one of the steps for a successful process.

  13. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  14. Optimizing detectability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    HPLC is useful for trace and ultratrace analyses of a variety of compounds. For most applications, HPLC is useful for determinations in the nanogram-to-microgram range; however, detection limits of a picogram or less have been demonstrated in certain cases. These determinations require state-of-the-art capability; several examples of such determinations are provided in this chapter. As mentioned before, to detect and/or analyze low quantities of a given analyte at submicrogram or ultratrace levels, it is necessary to optimize the whole separation system, including the quantity and type of sample, sample preparation, HPLC equipment, chromatographic conditions (including column), choice of detector, and quantitation techniques. A limited discussion is provided here for optimization based on theoretical considerations, chromatographic conditions, detector selection, and miscellaneous approaches to detectability optimization. 59 refs

  15. Detection block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, A.

    1987-01-01

    A diagram is given of a detection block used for monitoring burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. A shielding block is an important part of the detection block. It stabilizes the fuel assembly in the fixing hole in front of a collimator where a suitable gamma beam is defined for gamma spectrometry determination of fuel burnup. The detector case and a neutron source case are placed on opposite sides of the fixing hole. For neutron measurement for which the water in the tank is used as a moderator, the neutron detector-fuel assembly configuration is selected such that neutrons from spontaneous fission and neutrons induced with the neutron source can both be measured. The patented design of the detection block permits longitudinal travel and rotation of the fuel assembly to any position, and thus more reliable determination of nuclear fuel burnup. (E.S.). 1 fig

  16. Treatment-responsive limbic encephalitis identified by neuropil antibodies: MRI and PET correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M.; Vitaliani, Roberta; Taylor, Robert A.; Liebeskind, David S.; Voloschin, Alfredo; Houghton, David J.; Galetta, Steven L.; Dichter, Marc; Alavi, Abass; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Dalmau, Josep

    2007-01-01

    We report seven patients, six from a single institution, who developed subacute limbic encephalitis initially considered of uncertain aetiology. Four patients presented with symptoms of hippocampal dysfunction (i.e. severe short-term memory loss) and three with extensive limbic dysfunction (i.e. confusion, seizures and suspected psychosis). Brain MRI and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET complemented each other but did not overlap in 50% of the patients. Combining both tests, all patients had temporal lobe abnormalities, five with additional areas involved. In one patient, FDG hyperactivity in the brainstem that was normal on MRI correlated with central hypoventilation; in another case, hyperactivity in the cerebellum anticipated ataxia. All patients had abnormal CSF: six pleocytosis, six had increased protein concentration, and three of five examined had oligoclonal bands. A tumour was identified and removed in four patients (mediastinal teratoma, thymoma, thymic carcinoma and thyroid cancer) and not treated in one (ovarian teratoma). An immunohistochemical technique that facilitates the detection of antibodies to cell surface or synaptic proteins demonstrated that six patients had antibodies to the neuropil of hippocampus or cerebellum, and one to intraneuronal antigens. Only one of the neuropil antibodies corresponded to voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies; the other five (two with identical specificity) reacted with antigens concentrated in areas of high dendritic density or synaptic-enriched regions of the hippocampus or cerebellum. Preliminary characterization of these antigens indicates that they are diverse and expressed on the neuronal cell membrane and dendrites; they do not co-localize with VGKCs, but partially co-localize with spinophilin. A target autoantigen in one of the patients co-localizes with a cell surface protein involved in hippocampal dendritic development. All patients except the one with antibodies to intracellular antigens

  17. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  18. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  19. The development of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran as a highly selective probe for the detection and quantitative determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żamojć, Krzysztof; Zdrowowicz, Magdalena; Rudnicki-Velasquez, Paweł Błażej; Krzymiński, Karol; Zaborowski, Bartłomiej; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2017-01-01

    1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF) has been developed as a selective probe for the detection and quantitative determination of hydrogen peroxide in samples containing different reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS). DPBF is a fluorescent probe which, for almost 20 years, was believed to react in a highly specific manner toward some reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen and hydroxy, alkyloxy or alkylperoxy radicals. Under the action of these individuals DPBF has been rapidly transformed to 1,2-dibenzoylbenzene (DBB). In order to check if DPBF can act as a unique indicator of the total amount of different RNOS, as well as oxidative stress caused by an overproduction of these individuals, a series of experiments was carried out, in which DPBF reacted with peroxynitrite anion, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite anion, and anions commonly present under biological conditions, namely nitrite and nitrate. In all cases, except for hydrogen peroxide, the product of the reaction is DBB. Only under the action of H 2 O 2 9-hydroxyanthracen-10(9H)-one (oxanthrone) is formed. This product has been identified with the use of fluorescence spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). A linear relationship was found between a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of DPBF and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the range of concentrations of 0.196-3.941 mM. DPBF responds to hydrogen peroxide in a very specific way with the limits of detection and quantitation of 88 and 122.8 μM, respectively. The kinetics of the reaction between DBBF and H 2 O 2 was also studied.

  20. Identifying New Members of Nearby Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbeck, Erika; Vican, Laura

    2014-06-01

    Our group has assembled a sample of 14,000 stars of spectral types B9-M9 with measured UVW Galactic space velocities and lying within 125 pc of Earth. We have identified candidate members of three nearby young (less than 100 Myr) moving groups. For stars of spectral types G5 and later, we have used the Kast spectrometer on the Shane 3m telescope at Lick Observatory to measure lithium abundance in order to determine stellar ages. With the data we have obtained from this run, we will be able to establish whether our candidates are bona fide members of the moving groups in question. I will be presenting the preliminary results from this survey, including spectra of the ~50 stars observed thus far. These nearby young stars will make excellent targets for direct imaging followup surveys, since any giant planets around young stars will still be warm, and will therefore be bright enough to detect with instruments like GPI.

  1. Detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  2. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  3. Malware Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Maughan, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Shared resources, such as the internet, have created a highly interconnected cyber-infrastructure. Many malicious attacks on critical infrastructures are achieved by malicious code or malware, such as viruses and worms. This book captures the research in the area of malicious code detection, prevention and mitigation.

  4. Anti-Mycobacterium leprae monoclonal antibodies cross-react with human skin: an alternative explanation for the immune responses in leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naafs, B.; Kolk, A. H.; Chin A Lien, R. A.; Faber, W. R.; van Dijk, G.; Kuijper, S.; Stolz, E.; van Joost, T.

    1990-01-01

    A panel of 17 mouse monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) raised against Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) antigens was used to detect antigenic determinants in normal human skin. An indirect immunoperoxidase technique was used. Eight of the MoAb detected epidermal antigens similar to patterns well known for

  5. Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    and bench-marked on artificial and real biological data sets. SLIM is closest in spirit to LiNGAM (Shimizu et al., 2006), but differs substantially in inference, Bayesian network structure learning and model comparison. Experimentally, SLIM performs equally well or better than LiNGAM with comparable......In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...

  6. Identifying flares in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykerk, Vivian P; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest H

    2016-01-01

    to flare, with escalation planned in 61%. CONCLUSIONS: Flares are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are often preceded by treatment reductions. Patient/MD/DAS agreement of flare status is highest in patients worsening from R/LDA. OMERACT RA flare questions can discriminate between patients with...... Set. METHODS: Candidate flare questions and legacy measures were administered at consecutive visits to Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) patients between November 2011 and November 2014. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) core set indicators were recorded. Concordance to identify flares...

  7. Ultrasonic Detectors Safely Identify Dangerous, Costly Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 1990, NASA grounded its space shuttle fleet. The reason: leaks detected in the hydrogen fuel systems of the Space Shuttles Atlantis and Columbia. Unless the sources of the leaks could be identified and fixed, the shuttles would not be safe to fly. To help locate the existing leaks and check for others, Kennedy Space Center engineers used portable ultrasonic detectors to scan the fuel systems. As a gas or liquid escapes from a leak, the resulting turbulence creates ultrasonic noise, explains Gary Mohr, president of Elmsford, New York-based UE Systems Inc., a long-time leader in ultrasonic detector technologies. "In lay terms, the leak is like a dog whistle, and the detector is like the dog ear." Because the ultrasound emissions from a leak are highly localized, they can be used not only to identify the presence of a leak but also to help pinpoint a leak s location. The NASA engineers employed UE s detectors to examine the shuttle fuel tanks and solid rocket boosters, but encountered difficulty with the devices limited range-certain areas of the shuttle proved difficult or unsafe to scan up close. To remedy the problem, the engineers created a long-range attachment for the detectors, similar to "a zoom lens on a camera," Mohr says. "If you are on the ground, and the leak is 50 feet away, the detector would now give you the same impression as if you were only 25 feet away." The enhancement also had the effect of reducing background noise, allowing for a clearer, more precise detection of a leak s location.

  8. Identifying New Small Proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOrsdel, Caitlin E; Kelly, John P; Burke, Brittany N; Lein, Christina D; Oufiero, Christopher E; Sanchez, Joseph F; Wimmers, Larry E; Hearn, David J; Abuikhdair, Fatimeh J; Barnhart, Kathryn R; Duley, Michelle L; Ernst, Sarah E G; Kenerson, Briana A; Serafin, Aubrey J; Hemm, Matthew R

    2018-04-12

    The number of small proteins (SPs) encoded in the Escherichia coli genome is unknown, as current bioinformatics and biochemical techniques make short gene and small protein identification challenging. One method of small protein identification involves adding an epitope tag to the 3' end of a short open reading frame (sORF) on the chromosome, with synthesis confirmed by immunoblot assays. In this study, this strategy was used to identify new E. coli small proteins, tagging 80 sORFs in the E. coli genome, and assayed for protein synthesis. The selected sORFs represent diverse sequence characteristics, including degrees of sORF conservation, predicted transmembrane domains, sORF direction with respect to flanking genes, ribosome binding site (RBS) prediction, and ribosome profiling results. Of 80 sORFs, 36 resulted in encoded synthesized proteins-a 45% success rate. Modeling of detected versus non-detected small proteins analysis showed predictions based on RBS prediction, transcription data, and ribosome profiling had statistically-significant correlation with protein synthesis; however, there was no correlation between current sORF annotation and protein synthesis. These results suggest substantial numbers of small proteins remain undiscovered in E. coli, and existing bioinformatics techniques must continue to improve to facilitate identification. © 2018 The Authors. Proteomics Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Towson University.

  9. Ammonia Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William Douglas (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The different advantageous embodiments provide for identifying gas leakage in a platform. A processor unit identifies a rate of the gas of the substance leaking from a container in a first compartment for a platform. The processor unit also identifies an amount of gas that has leaked from the container at a selected time based on the rate of the gas of the substance leaking from the container and a total time. The processor unit identifies an amount of the gas of the substance present in a number of compartments associated with the first compartment using the amount of gas leaked from the container in the first compartment and a pressure for each compartment in the number of compartments. The processor unit determines whether the amount of gas in at least one of the first compartment and the number of compartments is outside of a desired amount for the gas.

  10. Robust Adaptable Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy

    2009-01-01

    in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models.......Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...

  11. Passive Leak Detection Using Commercial Hydrogen Colorimetric Indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Element One, Inc. (www.elem.com), a small business with in Boulder, CO, has been developing hydrogen detection technology based upon a highly selective colorimetric indicator. In its native state, the indicator pigment is a pale gray color, but becomes black upon exposure to hydrogen. The colorimetric change can be readily observed by the naked eye without the need for supplemental electronics or other hardware. Recently, the colorimetric indicator was integrated into a pliable, self-adhesive tape that can readily wrap around pneumatic fittings to serve as a hydrogen leak detector. A prototype version of the Element One indicator tape was tested within an NREL hydrogen system and successfully identified the unexpected presence of a small leak; a summary document for this case study is presented in Appendix 1. The tape was subsequently configured into 10-foot rolls as a product prototype that has just recently been commercialized and marketed under the tradename DetecTape(R). Figure 1 shows the commercial version of DetecTape along with an indicator sample in its native state and one that had been exposed to hydrogen. DetecTape is a self-adhesive silicone-based tape impregnated with a proprietary hydrogen-sensitive indicator based on transition metal oxides. A length of the tape can be cut from the roll and stretched by a factor of two or three times around a fitting. Due to the self-adhesive property of the tape, this provides a tight seal around the fitting. The seal is not hermetic, and is not intended to prevent the release of a leaking gas. However, a portion of the hydrogen leaking from a wrapped fitting will pass through the tape and react with the active indicator impregnated within the tape, thereby inducing blackening.

  12. Role of tropomyosin as a cross-reacting allergen in sensitization to cockroach in patients from Martinique (French Caribbean island) with a respiratory allergy to mite and a food allergy to crab and shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purohit, A.; Shao, J.; Degreef, J. M.; van Leeuwen, A.; van Ree, R.; Pauli, G.; de Blay, F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tropomyosin has been described as cross-reacting allergen between mite, cockroach and shrimp. METHODS: In 13 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized to mite and/or German cockroach and presenting urticaria, oral allergy syndrome or angio-edema upon eating shrimp and/or crab, we

  13. Identification of cross-reacting T-cell epitopes in structural and non-structural proteins of swine and pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus strains in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baratelli, Massimiliano; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Trebbien, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Heterologous protection against swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) of different lineages is an important concern for the pig industry. Cross-protection between 'avian-like' H1N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 lineages has been observed previously, indicating the involvement of cross-reacting T-cells. Here...

  14. Partial characterization of the cross-reacting determinant, a carbohydrate epitope shared by decay accelerating factor and the variant surface glycoprotein of the African Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, S; Davitz, M A; Wolinsky, M L; Nussenzweig, V; Turner, M J; Gurnett, A

    1988-03-15

    The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of the African trypanosome is anchored in the cell membrane by a complex glycan attached to phosphatidylinositol. The carboxyl terminal portion of VSG contains a cryptic carbohydrate epitope, the cross-reacting determinant (CRD), that is revealed only after removal of the diacylglycerol by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) or VSG lipase. Recently, we have shown that after hydrolysis by PIPLC, decay-accelerating factor (DAF)--a mammalian phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein--also contains the CRD epitope. Using a two site immunoradiometric assay in which the capturing antibody is a monoclonal antibody to DAF and the revealing antibody is anti-CRD, we now show that sugar phosphates significantly inhibited the binding of anti-CRD antibody to DAF released by PIPLC. DL-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate was the most potent inhibitor of binding (IC50 less than 10(-8) M). Other sugar phosphates, such as alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate, which also possess adjacent hydroxyl and phosphate moieties in cis also inhibited binding at low concentrations (IC50 = 10(-5) to 10(-4) M). In contrast, sugar phosphates which do not possess adjacent hydroxyl and phosphate moieties in cis and simple sugars weakly inhibited binding (IC50 greater than 10(-3) M). These results suggest that myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate contributes significantly to the epitope recognized by the anti-CRD antibody and is consistent with analysis of the carboxyl terminus of VSG, which also suggested the presence of the cyclic inositol phosphate. In light of the recent findings that human serum contains a glycan-phosphatidyl-inositol-specific phospholipase D, which converts DAF from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic form lacking the CRD, the observation that the phosphate is crucial for expression of the epitope may be relevant in understanding the origin of CRD-negative DAF in urine and plasma.

  15. Cost Effectiveness of Implantable Cardiac Monitor-Guided Intermittent Anticoagulation for Atrial Fibrillation: An Analysis of the REACT.COM Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Zimetbaum, Peter J; Passman, Rod S; Leong-Sit, Peter; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-08-30

    Anticoagulation guidelines for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) disregard AF burden. A strategy of targeted anticoagulation with novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) based on continuous rhythm assessment with an implantable cardiac monitor (ICM) has recently been explored. We evaluated the potential cost-effectiveness of this strategy versus projected outcomes with continuous anticoagulation. We developed a Markov model using data from the Rhythm Evaluation for AntiCoagulaTion With COntinuous Monitoring (REACT.COM) pilot study (N = 59) and prior NOAC trials to calculate the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with ICM-guided intermittent anticoagulation for AF versus standard care during a 3-year time horizon. Health state utilities were estimated from the pilot study population using the SF-12. Costs were based on current Medicare reimbursement. Over 14 ± 4 months of follow-up, 18 of 59 patients had 35 AF episodes. The ICM-guided strategy resulted in a 94% reduction in anticoagulant use relative to continuous treatment. There were no strokes, 3 (5.1%) TIAs, 2 major bleeding events (on aspirin) and 3 minor bleeding events with the ICM-guided strategy. The projected total 3-year costs were $12,535 for the ICM-guided strategy versus $13,340 for continuous anticoagulation. Projected QALYs were 2.45 for both groups. Based on a pilot study, a strategy of ICM-guided anticoagulation with NOACs may be cost-saving relative to expected outcomes with continuous anticoagulation, with similar quality-adjusted survival. This strategy could be attractive from a health economic perspective if shown to be safe and effective in a rigorous clinical trial. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudleson, B. (Dubai Petroleum Co. (FR)); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  17. Identifying frauds and anomalies in Medicare-B dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwon Seo; Mendelevitch, Ofer

    2017-07-01

    Healthcare industry is growing at a rapid rate to reach a market value of $7 trillion dollars world wide. At the same time, fraud in healthcare is becoming a serious problem, amounting to 5% of the total healthcare spending, or $100 billion dollars each year in US. Manually detecting healthcare fraud requires much effort. Recently, machine learning and data mining techniques are applied to automatically detect healthcare frauds. This paper proposes a novel PageRank-based algorithm to detect healthcare frauds and anomalies. We apply the algorithm to Medicare-B dataset, a real-life data with 10 million healthcare insurance claims. The algorithm successfully identifies tens of previously unreported anomalies.

  18. Crossed radio-immunoisoelectric focusing as a method of identifying isoallergens: identification of isoallergens in rat urine extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longbottom, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A method of 2-dimensional radio-immunoelectrophoresis to detect directly the presence of 'isoallergens' in complex allergenic (skin test) extracts is described. This procedure, in which the components are separated by isoelectric focusing in agarose gel in the first dimension is therefore basically similar to that of crossed radio-immunoelectrophoresis, and hence has been termed crossed radio-immunoisoelectric focusing. The method has been applied to the allergens present in rat urine and has verified the presence of the cross-reacting α 2 -euglobulin and prealbumin components in (at least) 3 and 2 isoallergenic forms respectively. (Auth.)

  19. Effectively identifying user profiles in network and host metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.; Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a collection of methods that is used to effectively identify users of computers systems based on their particular usage of the software and the network. Not only are we able to identify individual computer users by their behavioral patterns, we are also able to detect significant deviations in their typical computer usage over time, or compared to a group of their peers. For instance, most people have a small, and relatively unique selection of regularly visited websites, certain email services, daily work hours, and typical preferred applications for mandated tasks. We argue that these habitual patterns are sufficiently specific to identify fully anonymized network users. We demonstrate that with only a modest data collection capability, profiles of individual computer users can be constructed so as to uniquely identify a profiled user from among their peers. As time progresses and habits or circumstances change, the methods presented update each profile so that changes in user behavior can be reliably detected over both abrupt and gradual time frames, without losing the ability to identify the profiled user. The primary benefit of our methodology allows one to efficiently detect deviant behaviors, such as subverted user accounts, or organizational policy violations. Thanks to the relative robustness, these techniques can be used in scenarios with very diverse data collection capabilities, and data privacy requirements. In addition to behavioral change detection, the generated profiles can also be compared against pre-defined examples of known adversarial patterns.

  20. Detection and Identification of Rare Audiovisual Cues

    CERN Document Server

    Anemüller, Jörn; Gool, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Machine learning builds models of the world using training data from the application domain and prior knowledge about the problem. The models are later applied to future data in order to estimate the current state of the world. An implied assumption is that the future is stochastically similar to the past. The approach fails when the system encounters situations that are not anticipated from the past experience. In contrast, successful natural organisms identify new unanticipated stimuli and situations and frequently generate appropriate responses. The observation described above lead to the initiation of the DIRAC EC project in 2006. In 2010 a workshop was held, aimed to bring together researchers and students from different disciplines in order to present and discuss new approaches for identifying and reacting to unexpected events in information-rich environments. This book includes a summary of the achievements of the DIRAC project in chapter 1, and a collection of the papers presented in this workshop in ...