Sample records for reached schizont rupture

  1. Rupture

    Association du personnel


    Our Director-General is indifferent to the tradition of concertation foreseen in our statutes and is "culturally" unable to associate the Staff Association with problem-solving in staff matters. He drags his heels as long as possible before entering into negotiations, presents "often misleading" solutions at the last minute which he only accepts to change once a power struggle has been established. Faced with this rupture and despite its commitment to concertation between gentlemen. The results of the poll in which the staff is invited to participate this week. We therefore need your support to state our claims to the Governing Bodies. The Staff Association proposes a new medium of communication and thus hopes to show that it is ready for future negotiations. The pages devoted to the Staff Association are presented in a more informative, reactive and factual manner and in line with the evolution of the social situation at CERN. We want to establish strong and continuous ties between the members of CERN and ou...

  2. A Plasmodium falciparum FcB1-schizont-EST collection providing clues to schizont specific gene structure and polymorphism

    Charneau Sébastien


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum genome (3D7 strain published in 2002, revealed ~5,400 genes, mostly based on in silico predictions. Experimental data is therefore required for structural and functional assessments of P. falciparum genes and expression, and polymorphic data are further necessary to exploit genomic information to further qualify therapeutic target candidates. Here, we undertook a large scale analysis of a P. falciparum FcB1-schizont-EST library previously constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to study genes expressed during merozoite morphogenesis, with the aim of: 1 obtaining an exhaustive collection of schizont specific ESTs, 2 experimentally validating or correcting P. falciparum gene models and 3 pinpointing genes displaying protein polymorphism between the FcB1 and 3D7 strains. Results A total of 22,125 clones randomly picked from the SSH library were sequenced, yielding 21,805 usable ESTs that were then clustered on the P. falciparum genome. This allowed identification of 243 protein coding genes, including 121 previously annotated as hypothetical. Statistical analysis of GO terms, when available, indicated significant enrichment in genes involved in "entry into host-cells" and "actin cytoskeleton". Although most ESTs do not span full-length gene reading frames, detailed sequence comparison of FcB1-ESTs versus 3D7 genomic sequences allowed the confirmation of exon/intron boundaries in 29 genes, the detection of new boundaries in 14 genes and identification of protein polymorphism for 21 genes. In addition, a large number of non-protein coding ESTs were identified, mainly matching with the two A-type rRNA units (on chromosomes 5 and 7 and to a lower extent, two atypical rRNA loci (on chromosomes 1 and 8, TARE subtelomeric regions (several chromosomes and the recently described telomerase RNA gene (chromosome 9. Conclusion This FcB1-schizont-EST analysis confirmed the actual expression of 243

  3. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Theileria annulata schizont surface proteins.

    Olga Wiens

    Full Text Available The invasion of Theileria sporozoites into bovine leukocytes is rapidly followed by the destruction of the surrounding host cell membrane, allowing the parasite to establish its niche within the host cell cytoplasm. Theileria infection induces host cell transformation, characterised by increased host cell proliferation and invasiveness, and the activation of anti-apoptotic genes. This process is strictly dependent on the presence of a viable parasite. Several host cell kinases, including PI3-K, JNK, CK2 and Src-family kinases, are constitutively activated in Theileria-infected cells and contribute to the transformed phenotype. Although a number of host cell molecules, including IkB kinase and polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1, are recruited to the schizont surface, very little is known about the schizont molecules involved in host-parasite interactions. In this study we used immunofluorescence to detect phosphorylated threonine (p-Thr, serine (p-Ser and threonine-proline (p-Thr-Pro epitopes on the schizont during host cell cycle progression, revealing extensive schizont phosphorylation during host cell interphase. Furthermore, we established a quick protocol to isolate schizonts from infected macrophages following synchronisation in S-phase or mitosis, and used mass spectrometry to detect phosphorylated schizont proteins. In total, 65 phosphorylated Theileria proteins were detected, 15 of which are potentially secreted or expressed on the surface of the schizont and thus may be targets for host cell kinases. In particular, we describe the cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of two T. annulata surface proteins, TaSP and p104, both of which are highly phosphorylated during host cell S-phase. TaSP and p104 are involved in mediating interactions between the parasite and the host cell cytoskeleton, which is crucial for the persistence of the parasite within the dividing host cell and the maintenance of the transformed state.

  4. IL-17A regulates Eimeria tenella schizont maturation and migration in avian coccidiosis.

    Del Cacho, Emilio; Gallego, Margarita; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Quílez, Joaquín; Lillehoj, Erik P; Ramo, Ana; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad


    Although IL17A is associated with the immunological control of various infectious diseases, its role in host response to Eimeria infections is not well understood. In an effort to better dissect the role of IL17A in host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis, a neutralizing antibody (Ab) to chicken IL17A was used to counteract IL17A bioactivity in vivo. Chickens infected with Eimeria tenella and treated intravenously with IL17A Ab, exhibited reduced intracellular schizont and merozoite development, diminished lesion score, compared with untreated controls. Immunohistological evaluation of cecal lesions in the parasitized tissues indicated reduced migration and maturation of second-generation schizonts and reduced lesions in lamina propria and submucosa. In contrast, untreated and infected chickens had epithelial cells harboring second-generation schizonts, which extend into the submucosa through muscularis mucosa disruptions, maturing into second generation merozoites. Furthermore, IL17A Ab treatment was associated with increased parameters of Th1 immunity (IL2- and IFNγ- producing cells), reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and diminished levels of serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Finally, schizonts from untreated and infected chickens expressed S100, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family member 3 (WASF3), and heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) proteins as merozoites matured, whereas the expression of these proteins was absent in IL17A Ab-treated chickens. These results provide the first evidence that the administration of an IL17A neutralizing Ab to E. tenella-infected chickens inhibits the migration of parasitized epithelial cells, markedly reduces the production of ROS and MMP-9, and decreases cecal lesions, suggesting that IL17A might be a potential therapeutic target for coccidiosis control.

  5. Recruitment of EB1, a master regulator of microtubule dynamics, to the surface of the Theileria annulata schizont.

    Kerry L Woods


    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell's astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability. Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1, a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton.

  6. Recruitment of EB1, a Master Regulator of Microtubule Dynamics, to the Surface of the Theileria annulata Schizont

    Woods, Kerry L.


    The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs) surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell\\'s astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability). Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton. 2013 Woods et al.

  7. A quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay for the assessment of drug activities against intracellular Theileria annulata schizonts

    Isabel Hostettler


    Full Text Available Intracellular schizonts of the apicomplexans Theileria annulata and Theileria parva immortalize bovine leucocytes thereby causing fatal immunoproliferative diseases. Buparvaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone related to parvaquone, is the only drug available against Theileria. The drug is only effective at the onset of infection and emerging resistance underlines the need for identifying alternative compounds. Current drug assays employ monitoring of proliferation of infected cells, with apoptosis of the infected host cell as a read-out, but it is often unclear whether active compounds directly impair the viability of the parasite or primarily induce host cell death. We here report on the development of a quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR method based on two Theileria genes, tasp and tap104, which are both expressed in schizonts. Upon in vitro treatment of T. annulata infected bovine monocytes with buparvaquone, TaSP and Tap104 mRNA expression levels significantly decreased in relation to host cell actin already within 4 h of drug exposure, while significant differences in host cell proliferation were detectable only after 48–72 h. TEM revealed marked alterations of the schizont ultrastructure already after 2 h of buparvaquone treatment, while the host cell remained unaffected. Expression of TaSP and Tap104 proteins showed a marked decrease only after 24 h. Therefore, the analysis of expression levels of mRNA coding for TaSP and Tap104 allows to directly measuring impairment of parasite viability. We subsequently applied this method using a series of compounds affecting different targets in other apicomplexan parasites, and show that monitoring of TaSP- and Tap104 mRNA levels constitutes a suitable tool for anti-theilerial drug development.

  8. Identification of Protective B-Cell Epitopes within the Novel Malaria Vaccine Candidate Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Egress Antigen 1.

    Nixon, Christina E; Park, Sangshin; Pond-Tor, Sunthorn; Raj, Dipak; Lambert, Lynn E; Orr-Gonzalez, Sachy; Barnafo, Emma K; Rausch, Kelly M; Friedman, Jennifer F; Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick E; Kurtis, Jonathan D


    Naturally acquired antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum schizont egress antigen 1 (PfSEA-1A) are associated with protection against severe malaria in children. Vaccination of mice with SEA-1A from Plasmodium berghei (PbSEA-1A) decreases parasitemia and prolongs survival following P. berghei ANKA challenge. To enhance the immunogenicity of PfSEA-1A, we identified five linear B-cell epitopes using peptide microarrays probed with antisera from nonhuman primates vaccinated with recombinant PfSEA-1A (rPfSEA-1A). We evaluated the relationship between epitope-specific antibody levels and protection from parasitemia in a longitudinal treatment-reinfection cohort in western Kenya. Antibodies to three epitopes were associated with 16 to 17% decreased parasitemia over an 18-week high transmission season. We are currently designing immunogens to enhance antibody responses to these three epitopes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Gene discovery in Eimeria tenella by immunoscreening cDNA expression libraries of sporozoites and schizonts with chicken intestinal antibodies.

    Réfega, Susana; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Bourdieu, Christiane; Péry, Pierre; Labbé, Marie


    Specific antibodies were produced ex vivo from intestinal culture of Eimeria tenella infected chickens. The specificity of these intestinal antibodies was tested against different parasite stages. These antibodies were used to immunoscreen first generation schizont and sporozoite cDNA libraries permitting the identification of new E. tenella antigens. We obtained a total of 119 cDNA clones which were subjected to sequence analysis. The sequences coding for the proteins inducing local immune responses were compared with nucleotide or protein databases and with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) databases. We identified new Eimeria genes coding for heat shock proteins, a ribosomal protein, a pyruvate kinase and a pyridoxine kinase. Specific features of other sequences are discussed.

  10. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

    Peep Talving


    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  11. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Achilles tendon rupture Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Achilles (uh-KILL-eez) tendon rupture is an injury that affects the back ... but it can happen to anyone. The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord that connects the ...

  12. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M


    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  13. [Exceptional iatrogenic ureteral rupture].

    Martínez-Vieira, Almudena; Valera-Sánchez, Zoraida; Sousa-Vaquero, José María; Palacios-González, Carmen; García-Poley, Antonio; Bernal-Bellido, Carmen; Alamo-Martínez, José María; Millán-López, Ana; Blanco-Domínguez, Manuel; Galindo-Galindo, Antonio


    Rupture of the ureter is an infrequent event that can have serious consequences. The most frequent cause is surgical iatrogenic ureter disease. Other possible causes are urological procedures and urographic studies. In our patient, which, to our knowledge, is the first to be reported in the literature, the ureteral rupture was produced by a traumatic urinary catheterism, because the balloon was filled inside the ureter. The normal presentation is nephritic colic, although acute abdomen is also a possibility. The possibility of ureteral rupture in abdominopelvic surgery or in urological techniques should be evaluated when patients present these clinical symptoms. Treatment is surgical, although in some cases conservative measures can be used.

  14. Ruptured episiotomia resutured primarily.

    Monberg, J; Hammen, S


    In a randomized study, 35 patients with ruptured episiotomy were treated in two ways. One group, treated with Clindamycin and primary resuture, did better than the other group, not resutured but spontaneously healed.

  15. Achilles tendon rupture - aftercare

    Heel cord tear; Calcaneal tendon rupture ... MRI scan to see what type of Achilles tendon tear you have. An MRI is a type ... partial tear means at least some of the tendon is still OK. A full tear means your ...

  16. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    After ultrasound scan, uterine rupture was diagnosed and an ... delivery. The birth weights ranged between 2900 and 3200g. The last 2 .... abdominal pains and signs of shock, at which made up of altered blood and we think that the.

  17. Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture


    distal tendon . Although these findings overlap with those seen in tendinopathy , the presence of bone marrow edema at the radial tuberosity and fluid in...the bicipitoradial bursa suggests a partial tear rather than tendinopathy .3 When the distal biceps tendon tear is complete, MR imaging shows...Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, 2006 Radiology Corner Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Contributors: CPT Michael

  18. Endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Šarac Momir


    Full Text Available Introduction. Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a potentially lethal state. Only half of patients with ruptured AAA reach the hospital alive. The alternative for open reconstruction of this condition is endovascular repair (EVAR. We presented a successful endovascular reapir of ruptured AAA in a patient with a number of comorbidities. Case report. A 60-year-old man was admitted to our institution due to diffuse abdominal pain with flatulence and belching. Initial abdominal ultrasonography showed an AAA that was confirmed on multislice computed tomography scan angiography which revealed a large retroperitoneal haematoma. Because of patient’s comorbidites (previous surgery of laryngeal carcinoma and one-third laryngeal stenosis, arterial hypertension and cardiomyopathy with left ventricle ejection fraction of 30%, stenosis of the right internal carotid artery of 80% it was decided that endovascular repair of ruptured AAA in local anaesthesia and analgosedation would be treatment of choice. Endovascular grafting was achieved with aorto-bi-iliac bifurcated excluder endoprosthesis with complete exclusion of the aneurysmal sac, without further enlargment of haemathoma and no contrast leakage. The postoperative course of the patient was eventless, without complications. On recall examination 3 months after, the state of the patient was well. Conclusion. The alternative for open reconstruction of ruptured AAA in haemodynamically stable patients with suitable anatomy and comorbidities could be emergency EVAR in local anesthesia. This technique could provide greater chances for survival with lower intraoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality, as shown in the presented patient.

  19. 巨型艾美球虫第二代裂殖体的分离纯化%Isolation and purification of the second generation schizont of Eimeria maxima

    崔晓靓; 张宇


    Objective To find a better way for separating and purifying the second generation schizonts of Eimeria maxima. Methods Twenty-one-day-old to twenty-eight-day-old SPF chicken were inoculated with 50 000 oocysts of Eimeria maxima per bird, respectively. The estimate of schizont production was made on 72 h after inoculation. Enzymatic digestion, centrifugation-washing, red blood cell disruption and Percoll density gradient centrifugation were synthetically applied to separate and purify the second generation schizonts of Eimeria maxima. Results We obtained 4.1 × 105 second generation schizonts from the jejunum of 35 chicken after autopsy, on an average of 1.17 × 104 schizonts each bird with a 89.6% recovery rate of schizonts. Conclusion This method can be applied to the molecular biology studies on Eimeria maxima.%目的 寻找分离纯化巨型艾美球虫第二代裂殖体效率更高的方法 . 方法 用孢子化的巨型艾美球虫卵囊喂食21~28日龄SPF雏鸡,平均50万个/只,72 h后剖检出小肠中段,综合运用酶消化、离心洗涤、红细胞裂解和Percoll密度梯度离心等方法分离纯化巨型艾美球虫的第二代裂殖体.结果 从35羽鸡的小肠中段中纯化到裂殖体4.1×105个,平均每羽鸡获得裂殖体1.17×104个,回收率约为89.6%. 结论 此方法简单易行,纯化回收结果适用于艾美属球虫分子生物学方面的研究.

  20. Sarcocystis neurona schizonts-associated encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and myositis in a two-month-old dog simulating toxoplasmosis, and presence of mature sarcocysts in muscles.

    Dubey, J P; Black, S S; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Morris, E; Hanson, M A; Cooley, A J


    Sarcocystis neurona is an unusual species of the genus Sarcocystis. Opossums (Didelphis virginianus, D. albiventris) are the definitive hosts and several other species, including dogs, cats, marine mammals, and horses are intermediate or aberrant hosts. Sarcocysts are not known to form in aberrant hosts. Sarcocystis neurona causes fatal disease in horses (Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, EPM). There are numerous reports of fatal EPM-like infections in other species, usually with central nervous system signs and associated with the schizont stage of S. neurona. Here, we report fatal disseminated S. neurona infection in a nine-week-old golden retriever dog from Mississippi, USA. Protozoal merozoites were identified in smears of the cerebrospinal fluid. Microscopically, lesions and protozoa were identified in eyes, tongue, heart, liver, intestines, nasal turbinates, skeletal muscle and brain, which reacted intensely with S. neurona polyclonal antibodies. Mature sarcocysts were seen in sections of muscles. These sarcocysts were ultrastructurally similar to those of S. neurona from experimentally infected animals. These data suggest that the dog is another intermediate host for S. neurona. Data suggest that the dog was transplacentally infected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rupture, waves and earthquakes

    UENISHI, Koji


    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but “extraordinary” phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable. PMID:28077808

  2. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Uenishi, Koji


    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  3. Complete Achilles tendon ruptures.

    Landvater, S J; Renström, P A


    Achilles tendon ruptures can be treated nonsurgically in the nonathletic or low-end recreational athletic patient, particularly those more than 50 years of age, provided the treating physician does not delay in the diagnosis and treatment (preferably less than 48 hrs and possibly less than 1 week). The patient should be advised of the higher incidence of re-rupture of the tendon when treated nonsurgically. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients who are young and athletic. This is particularly true because the major criticism of surgical treatment has been the complication rate, which has decreased to a low level and to a mild degree, usually not significantly affecting the repair over time. Surgical treatment in these individuals seems to be superior not only in regard to re-rupture but also in assuring the correct apposition of the tendon ends and in placing the necessary tension on the tendon to secure appropriate orientation of the collagen fibers. This in turn allows them to regain full strength, power, endurance, and an early return to sports. Surgery is also recommended for late diagnosed ruptures where there is significant lengthening of the tendon. Surgical technique should involve a medial incision to avoid the sural nerve, absorbable suture, and augmentation with fascia or tendon where there is a gap or late rupture. Postoperatively, the immobilization should be 7 to 10 days in a splint. A walking boot with early motion in plantar flexion or a short leg cast with the tendon under slight tension should thereafter be used for 4 to 5 weeks. An early and well-supervised rehabilitation program should be initiated to restore the patient to the preinjury activity level.

  4. Rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Pai, V S


    Rupture of the plantar fascia in athletes engaged in sports that require running and jumping has been reported. However, spontaneous degenerative rupture of the plantar fascia is not well documented in the literature. This paper reports a patient with degenerative rupture of the plantar fascia.

  5. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong


    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  6. Rupture of Renal Transplant

    Shona Baker


    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L. LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

  7. Rupture of the uterus in Malawi and Tanzania.

    Armon, P J


    This paper describes the presenting features and possible etiology of 115 cases of rupture of the uterus occurring in Malawi and Tanzania. The series included 62 spontaneous ruptures, 24 traumatic ruptures, and 29 scar ruptures. The rupture was complete in 100 cases but the peritoneum was intact in 15. 72 cases involved obstructed labor and 29 occurred in women with previous cesarean sections. Only 22% of subjects were grand multiparae (7 or more pregnancies), and the average parity was 4.5. Classical symptoms and signs either did not occur or were late in appearing in most cases, and none of the women complained of a tearing or bursting sensation. 23 of the cases died during treatment. Sterilization is recommended in cases where the initial rupture extends into or is primarily situated in the upper segment of the uterus due to the probability of recurrence. Delays in reaching medical care and a lack of medical facilities contribute to the incidence of uterine rupture in developing countries. Careful screening for at-riskmothers and use of partograms to diagnose cephalopelvic disproportion during labor would diminish the occurrence of this complication, however. Also recommended is avoidance of unnecessary cesarean section procedures and extreme caution in the management of patients with uterine scars. The limitation of family size and improvements in maternal haalth education are further important preventive measures.

  8. Dynamic rupture of megathrust earthquakes with branching on splay faults

    Somala, S.; Ampuero, J. P.; Lapusta, N.


    The accretionary prism of subduction margins generally contains splay faults that approach the surface at steeper angles than the megathrust interface. Rupture propagating onto splay faults during megathrust earthquakes can increase seafloor uplift significantly and contribute to the potential of tsunami. Another key aspect of tsunamigenic earthquakes is their relatively low radiation efficiency, which could be related to slow rupture at shallow depth due to frictionally stable fault properties. We present here results of numerical simulations of dynamic rupture on megathrust/splay fault systems that address the mechanical plausibility and characteristics of coseismic slip on splay faults. As a case study, we consider a possible earthquake scenario for the Nankai subduction zone. Previous dynamic rupture simulations (Wendt et. al., 2009) considered a splay fault that cuts through the overriding crust and reaches the surface more than 100 km away from the trench. We examine instead a model geometry based on seismic reflection profiling in Nankai, in which a megasplay fault branches off at around 50 km from the trench, cuts through the sedimentary wedge and reaches the seafloor at about 25 km from the trench. We first investigate the 2D dynamics of this splay fault system, governed by slip-weakening friction law. We compare rupture propagation on this faulting model using a finite-element code (PyLith) and a spectral element code (SEM2DPACK). We report on the favorable conditions for splay faults to rupture, the degree of slip partitioning and the effects of arresting rupture at different depths on the plate-boundary. We also show how well our work correlates with previous works on branched fault systems. We then select a small set of 3D simulations that illustrates the main aspects. Finally the effect of velocity-strengthening fault properties at shallow depth is studied in the context of rate-and-state friction, with particular emphasis on the conditions to produce

  9. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  10. A case of testicular rupture

    野俣, 浩一郎; 林, 幹男


    A case of testicular rupture is reported. A 26-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of testicular trauma. Ultrasound of the testis was performed preoperatively. Ultrasonography revealed a disruption of the tunica albuginea and dense clusters of echoes in the tunica vaginalis. In the case of acute testicular trauma, this echo pattern suggests testicular rupture.

  11. Splenic rupture following colonoscopy

    Juan Francisco Guerra; Ignacio San Francisco; Fernando Pimentel; Luis Ibanez


    Colonoscopy is a safe and routinely performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for different colorectal diseases. Although the most common complications are bleeding and perforation, extracolonic or visceral injuries have also been described. Splenic rupture is a rare complication following colonoscopy, with few cases reported. We report a 60-year-old female who presented to surgical consultation 8 h after a diagnostic colonoscopy. Clinical, laboratory and imaging findings were suggestive for a massive hemoperitoneum. At surgery, an almost complete splenic disruption was evident, and an urgent splenectomy was performed. After an uneventful postoperative period, she was discharged home. Splenic injury following colonoscopy is considered infrequent. Direct trauma and excessive traction of the splenocolic ligament can explain the occurrence of this complication. Many times the diagnosis is delayed because the symptoms are due to colonic insufflation, so the most frequent treatment is an urgent splenectomy. A high index of suspicion needs an early diagnosis and adequate therapy.

  12. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira


    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  13. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    Fatemeh Mallah


    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra.

  14. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    Mallah, Fatemeh; Eftekhar, Tahere; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad


    Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra. PMID:24024054

  15. Mechanics of cutaneous wound rupture.

    Swain, Digendranath; Gupta, Anurag


    A cutaneous wound may rupture during healing as a result of stretching in the skin and incompatibility at the wound-skin interface, among other factors. By treating both wound and skin as hyperelastic membranes, and using a biomechanical framework of interfacial growth, we study rupturing as a problem of cavitation in nonlinear elastic materials. We obtain analytical solutions for deformation and residual stress field in the skin-wound configuration while emphasizing the coupling between wound rupture and wrinkling in the skin. The solutions are analyzed in detail for variations in stretching environment, healing condition, and membrane stiffness.

  16. Global reach and engagement


    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  17. Teratology testing under REACH.

    Barton, Steve


    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  18. Reaching affects saccade trajectories.

    Tipper, S P; Howard, L A; Paul, M A


    The pre-motor theory suggests that, when attention is oriented to a location, the motor systems that are involved in achieving current behavioural goals are activated. For example, when a task requires accurate reaching, attention to a location activates the motor circuits controlling saccades and manual reaches. These actions involve separate neural systems for the control of eye and hand, but we believe that the selection processes acting on neural population codes within these systems are similar and can affect each other. The attentional effect can be revealed in the subsequent movement. The present study shows that the path the eye takes as it saccades to a target is affected by whether a reach to the target is also produced. This effect is interpreted as the influence of a hand-centred frame used in reaching on the spatial frame of reference required for the saccade.

  19. Elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures: epicondylitis, biceps and triceps ruptures.

    Rineer, Craig A; Ruch, David S


    Lateral and medial epicondylitis are common causes of elbow pain in the general population, with the lateral variety being more common than the medial by a ratio reportedly ranging from 4:1 to 7:1. Initially thought to be an inflammatory condition, epicondylitis has ultimately been shown to result from tendinous microtearing followed by an incomplete reparative response. Numerous nonoperative and operative treatment options have been employed in the treatment of epicondylitis, without the emergence of a single, consistent, universally accepted treatment protocol. Tendon ruptures about the elbow are much less frequent, but result in more significant disability and loss of function. Distal biceps tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males as a result of an event that causes a sudden, eccentric contraction of the biceps. Triceps tendon ruptures are exceedingly rare but usually have a similar etiology with a forceful eccentric contraction of the triceps that causes avulsion of the tendon from the olecranon. The diagnosis of these injuries is not always readily made. Complete ruptures of the biceps or triceps tendons have traditionally been treated surgically with good results. With regard to biceps ruptures, there continues to be debate about the best surgical approach, as well as the best method of fixation of tendon to bone. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review of the broad topics of elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures, but rather is a review of recently published information on the topics that will assist the clinician in diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  20. Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten


    In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of unscarred gravid uterus.

    Gurudut, Kolala S; Gouda, Hareesh S; Aramani, Sunil C; Patil, Raju H


    Rupture of gravid uterus during pregnancy is a rare entity. Overall incidence of rupture of uterus during pregnancy is 0.07%. The maternal and fetal prognoses are bad especially when the rupture occurs in an unscarred uterus. Fortunately, the sole major risk factor of spontaneous rupture of unscarred uterus is preventable, which is "multiparity." In this article, we report the death of a pregnant woman and her unborn child because of spontaneous rupture of unscarred uterus.

  2. Reaching for the Stars

    Terry, Dorothy Givens


    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  3. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  4. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  5. Reaching into Pictorial Spaces

    Volcic, Robert; Vishwanath, Dhanraj; Domini, Fulvio


    While binocular viewing of 2D pictures generates an impression of 3D objects and space, viewing a picture monocularly through an aperture produces a more compelling impression of depth and the feeling that the objects are "out there", almost touchable. Here, we asked observers to actually reach into pictorial space under both binocular- and monocular-aperture viewing. Images of natural scenes were presented at different physical distances via a mirror-system and their retinal size was kept constant. Targets that observers had to reach for in physical space were marked on the image plane, but at different pictorial depths. We measured the 3D position of the index finger at the end of each reach-to-point movement. Observers found the task intuitive. Reaching responses varied as a function of both pictorial depth and physical distance. Under binocular viewing, responses were mainly modulated by the different physical distances. Instead, under monocular viewing, responses were modulated by the different pictorial depths. Importantly, individual variations over time were minor, that is, observers conformed to a consistent pictorial space. Monocular viewing of 2D pictures thus produces a compelling experience of an immersive space and tangible solid objects that can be easily explored through motor actions.

  6. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  7. Reaching for the Stars

    Terry, Dorothy Givens


    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  8. Quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture.

    Ramseier, L E; Werner, C M L; Heinzelmann, M


    Ruptures of the patellar and/or quadriceps tendon are rare injuries that require immediate repair to re-establish knee extensor continuity and to allow early motion. We evaluated 36 consecutive patients with quadriceps or patellar tendon rupture between 1993 and 2000. There were 37 primary ruptures, 3 reruptures, 21 quadriceps and 19 patellar tendon ruptures. Follow up examination (>24 months postoperatively) included the patient's history, assessment of risk factors, clinical examination of both knees, isometric muscle strength measurements and three specific knee scores, Hospital for Special Surgery Score, Knee Society Score and Turba Score, and a short form SF-36. We evaluated 29 patients (26 men) with 33 ruptures (16 patellar tendon, 17 quadriceps tendon). Seven patients were lost to follow up. We found no difference between the range of motion and muscle strength when the injured leg was compared to the non-injured leg. Risk factors did not influence the four scores, patient satisfaction, pain, muscle strength or range of motion. Multiple injured patients had a significant reduction in muscle strength and circumference, however patient satisfaction did not differ to the non-multiple injured patient group.

  9. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten


    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether...... untreated ruptures are associated with changes over time in magnetic resonance imaging findings, serologic markers, or self-reported breast symptoms. A baseline magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 1999 on 271 women who were randomly chosen from a larger cohort of women having cosmetic...... breast implants for a median period of 12 years (range, 3 to 25 years). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging examination was carried out in 2001, excluding women who underwent explantation in the period between the two magnetic resonance imaging examinations (n = 44). On the basis of these examinations...

  10. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Porter, D.W.


    Potential rupture disk applications in geothermal operations are reviewed. Several wells manifolded together, to form the geothermal feed, cause erratic pressure. Rupture disks are used for relief. Flash tanks are equipped with rupture disks. Brine separators, heat exchanger shells, and turbine casings are protected by rupture disks. An analysis of geothermal steam will determine the rupture disk metal. Reverse Buckling disks are recommended over tension loaded disks for dealing with geothermal pressure cycling. Erratic temperature suggests that metals which retain tensile strength with temperature be used (Inconel is mentioned). In summary, geothermal projects represent an excellent rupture disk market.

  11. Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve

    Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart


    For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self

  12. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K


    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  13. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K


    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  14. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  15. Solar Hydrogen Reaching Maturity

    Rongé Jan


    Full Text Available Increasingly vast research efforts are devoted to the development of materials and processes for solar hydrogen production by light-driven dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Storage of solar energy in chemical bonds resolves the issues associated with the intermittent nature of sunlight, by decoupling energy generation and consumption. This paper investigates recent advances and prospects in solar hydrogen processes that are reaching market readiness. Future energy scenarios involving solar hydrogen are proposed and a case is made for systems producing hydrogen from water vapor present in air, supported by advanced modeling.

  16. Rupture of Achilles Tendon : Usefulness of Ultrasonography

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Ki, Won Woo; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Song Mun; Shin, Myeong Jin [Ulsan Medical College, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    To differentiate a complete rupture of Achilles tendon from an incomplete one which is important because its treatment is quite different. And it is necessary to know the exact site of the rupture preoperatively. Fifteen cases of fourteen patients which were diagnosed as Achilles tendon rupture by ultrasonography and surgery were reviewed. We compared sonographic rupture site with surgical findings. Ultrasonographic criteria for differentiation of complete and incomplete rupture was defined as follows : the discreteness, which means the proximal intervening hypoechogenicity to the interface echogenicity of distal margin of ruptured tendon : the slant sign, which represents the interface of ruptured distal margin which was seen over the 3/4 of the thickness of the tendon without intervening low echogeneicity : the invagination sign, which means the echogenic invagination from Kager triangle into posterior aspect of Achilles tendon over the half thickness of the tendon. The sites of complete tendon rupture were exactly corresponded to surgical finding in four cases of ten complete ruptures. And the discrepancy between sonographic and surgical findings in the site of complete rupture was 1.2 {+-} 0.4 cm in six cases. Three of ten complete ruptures showed the discreteness sign, all of ten showed the slant sign and two of ten showed the invagination sign. It is helpful to differentiate a complete from incomplete rupture of the Achilles tendon and to localize the site of the complete rupture with the ultrasonographic evaluation

  17. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner


    Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place...

  18. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Hadi Mirfazaelian


    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  19. Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture.

    Vigneswaran, N; Lee, K; Yegappan, M


    Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 30-year-old man with end-stage renal failure, who sustained this injury, and subsequently had surgical repair of both tendons on separate occasions. He has since regained full range of movement of both knees.

  20. Westar reaches critical crossroads


    Westar Mining Ltd. has applied for court protection until September 30, 1992 to gain time to draw up a final reorganization plan. The Companies' Creditors Arrangement Act is a federal statute that allows a business to restructure financially without having to declare bankruptcy. Normal trade terms with suppliers are usually maintained during this period. The company is struggling under the effects of falling coal prices, a high Canadian dollar and a high debt burden. Changes in work practices at the company's Balmer mine are a major part of the restructuring. An agreement must be reached with the United Mineworkers of America and other stakeholders or the Balmer mine will close permanently. Employees have been locked out since May 1, 1992 when union members rejected the company's final offer.

  1. Mechanics of Multifault Earthquake Ruptures

    Fletcher, J. M.; Oskin, M. E.; Teran, O.


    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.2 produced the most complex rupture ever documented on the Pacific-North American plate margin, and the network of high- and low-angle faults activated in the event record systematic changes in kinematics with fault orientation. Individual faults have a broad and continuous spectrum of slip sense ranging from endmember dextral strike slip to normal slip, and even faults with thrust sense of dip slip were commonly observed in the aftershock sequence. Patterns of coseismic slip are consistent with three-dimensional constrictional strain and show that integrated transtensional shearing can be accommodated in a single earthquake. Stress inversions of coseismic surface rupture and aftershock focal mechanisms define two coaxial, but permuted stress states. The maximum (σ1) and intermediate (σ2) principal stresses are close in magnitude, but flip orientations due to topography- and density-controlled gradients in lithostatic load along the length of the rupture. Although most large earthquakes throughout the world activate slip on multiple faults, the mechanical conditions of their genesis remain poorly understood. Our work attempts to answer several key questions. 1) Why do complex fault systems exist? They must do something that simple, optimally-oriented fault systems cannot because the two types of faults are commonly located in close proximity. 2) How are faults with diverse orientations and slip senses prepared throughout the interseismic period to fail spontaneously together in a single earthquake? 3) Can a single stress state produce multi-fault failure? 4) Are variations in pore pressure, friction and cohesion required to produce simultaneous rupture? 5) How is the fabric of surface rupture affected by variations in orientation, kinematics, total geologic slip and fault zone architecture?

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute tendon ruptures

    Daffner, R.H.; Lupetin, A.R.; Dash, N.; Riemer, B.L.


    The diagnosis of acute tendon ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee or the Achilles tendon of the ankle may usually be made by clinical means. Massive soft tissue swelling accompanying these injuries often obscures the findings, however. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can rapidly demonstrate these tendon ruptures. Examples of the use of MRI for quadriceps tendon, and Achilles tendon rupture are presented.

  3. Reaching Fleming's dicrimination bound

    Gruebl, Gebhard


    Any rule for identifying a quantum system's state within a set of two non-orthogonal pure states by a single measurement is flawed. It has a non-zero probability of either yielding the wrong result or leaving the query undecided. This also holds if the measurement of an observable $A$ is repeated on a finite sample of $n$ state copies. We formulate a state identification rule for such a sample. This rule's probability of giving the wrong result turns out to be bounded from above by $1/n\\delta_{A}^{2}$ with $\\delta_{A}=|_{1}-_{2}|/(\\Delta_{1}A+\\Delta_{2}A).$ A larger $\\delta_{A}$ results in a smaller upper bound. Yet, according to Fleming, $\\delta_{A}$ cannot exceed $\\tan\\theta$ with $\\theta\\in(0,\\pi/2) $ being the angle between the pure states under consideration. We demonstrate that there exist observables $A$ which reach the bound $\\tan\\theta$ and we determine all of them.

  4. UX-15 Reaches LEP


    The creation of the world's largest sandstone cavern, not a small feat! At the bottom, cave-in preventing steel mesh can be seen clinging to the top of the tunnel. The digging of UX-15, the cavern that will house ATLAS, reached the upper ceiling of LEP on October 10th. The breakthrough which took place nearly 100 metres underground occurred precisely on schedule and exactly as planned. But much caution was taken beforehand to make the LEP breakthrough clean and safe. To prevent the possibility of cave-ins in the side tunnels that will eventually be attached to the completed UX-15 cavern, reinforcing steel mesh was fixed into the walls with bolts. Obviously no people were allowed in the LEP tunnels below UX-15 as the breakthrough occurred. The area was completely evacuated and fences were put into place to keep all personnel out. However, while personnel were being kept out of the tunnels below, this has been anything but the case for the work taking place up above. With the creation of the world's largest...

  5. Repair of Chronic Achilles Ruptures Has a High Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism.

    Bullock, Mark J; DeCarbo, William T; Hofbauer, Mark H; Thun, Joshua D


    Background Despite the low incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in foot and ankle surgery, some authors report a high incidence of symptomatic DVT following Achilles tendon rupture. The purpose of this study was to identify DVT risk factors inherent to Achilles tendon repair to determine which patients may benefit from prophylaxis. Methods One hundred and thirteen patient charts were reviewed following elective and nonelective Achilles tendon repair. For elective repair of insertional or noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy, parameters examined included lateral versus prone positioning and the presence versus absence of a flexor hallucis longus transfer. For nonelective repair, acute Achilles tendon ruptures were compared to chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. Results Of 113 Achilles tendon repairs, 3 venous thromboembolism (VTE) events (2.65%) occurred including 2 pulmonary emboli (1.77%). Seventeen of these repairs were chronic Achilles tendon ruptures, and all 3 VTE events (17.6%) occurred within this subgroup. Elevated body mass index was associated with VTE in patients with chronic Achilles ruptures although this did not reach significance (P = .064). No VTE events were reported after repair of 28 acute tendon ruptures or after 68 elective repairs of tendinopathy. Two patients with misdiagnosed partial Achilles tendon tears were excluded because they experienced a VTE event 3 weeks and 5 weeks after injury, prior to surgery. Conclusion In our retrospective review, chronic Achilles ruptures had a statistically significant higher incidence of VTE compared with acute Achilles ruptures (P = .048) or elective repair (P = .0069). Pharmaceutical anticoagulation may be considered for repair of chronic ruptures. Repair of acute ruptures and elective repair may not warrant routine prophylaxis due to a lower incidence of VTE.

  6. Ultrasonography in traumatic rupture of Schilles tendon

    Cho, Kil Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Se Dong; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Ultrasonography was performed prospectively in 16 patients with suspected rupture of Achilles tendon from March to October 1992 to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography. Ultrasonography examinations were done according to standard techniques, and then dynamic evaluations were performed during passive plantar flexion of the ankle. We reviewed 10 confirmed cases of ruptured tendons, among which 9 cases were confirmed by operation,and one by ultrasonography and MRI. ultrasonic results were compared with the findings at physical examination and surgery. The normal thickness of the Achilles tendons in healthy sides on ultrasonography ranged from 3 to 5mm.The ruptured tendons were 6-10mm thick at 1-2cm superior to the upper margin of Os Calcis. Rupture sites on ultrasonography were exactly predicted in 7 among the 9 operative cases. In on non-operative case, the rupture site on ultrasonography corresponded to that seen on MRI. Tendon bucking on dynamic ultrasonography was positive in all 4 complete ruptures. In 2 of the 6 partial ruptures which were near complete tears, tendon buckling was also observed. In conclusion, ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture, the differentiation between total and partial rupture, and in determining the rupture site. We consider ultrasonography of tendon as an important diagnostic toot that may guide the treatment plan in the traumatic rupture of the Achilles tendon

  7. The diagnosis of breast implant rupture

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse; Conrad, Carsten;


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as performed according to a strict study protocol in diagnosing rupture of silicone breast implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 64 women with 118 implants, who had...... participated in either one or two study MRI examinations, aiming at determining the prevalence and incidence of silent implant rupture, respectively, and who subsequently underwent explantation. Implant rupture status was determined by four independent readers and a consensus diagnosis of either rupture...... (intracapsular or extracapsular), possible rupture or intact implant was then obtained. Strict predetermined rupture criteria were applied as described in this report and findings at surgery were abstracted in a standardised manner and results compared. RESULTS: At MRI, 66 implants were diagnosed as ruptured...

  8. [Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures].

    Grim, C; Lorbach, O; Engelhardt, M


    Ruptures of the quadriceps or patellar tendon are uncommon but extremely relevant injuries. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment with a stable suture construction are mandatory for a good postoperative clinical outcome. The standard methods of repair for quadriceps and patellar tendon injuries include the placement of suture loops through transpatellar tunnels. Reinforcement with either a wire cerclage or a PDS cord is used in patellar tendon repair. The PDS cord can also be applied as augmentation in quadriceps tendon repair. In secondary patellar tendon repair an autologous semitendinosus graft can be used. For chronic quadriceps tendon defects a V-shaped tendon flap with a distal footing is recommended. The different methods of repair should lead to early functional postoperative treatment. The clinical outcome after surgical treatment of patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures is mainly good.

  9. Bubble rupture in bubble electrospinning

    Chen Rouxi


    Full Text Available As the distinctive properties and different applications of nanofibers, the demand of nanofibers increased sharply in recently years. Bubble electrospinning is one of the most effective and industrialized methods for nanofiber production. To optimize the set-up of bubble electrospinning and improve its mass production, the dynamic properties of un-charged and charged bubbles are studied experimentally, the growth and rupture process of a bubble are also discussed in this paper.

  10. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.


    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  11. Quadriceps tendon rupture - treatment results

    Popov Iva


    Full Text Available Introduction. Quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare but rather serious injury. If this injury is not promptly recognized and early operated, it may lead to disability. This research was aimed at pointing out the results and complications of the quadriceps tendon rupture surgical treatment. Material and Methods. This retrospective multicentric study was conducted in a group of 29 patients (mostly elderly men. Lysholm knee scoring scale was used to evaluate the surgical results. The post-operative results were compared in relation to the type of tendon rupture reconstructions (acute or chronic, various surgical techniques, type of injuries (unilateral or bilateral as well as the presence or absence of comorbid risk factors in the patients. Results. The average value of a Lysholm score was 87.6. Excellent and satisfactory Lysholm score results dominated in our sample of patients. Better post-operative results were recorded in the group of patients without risk factors, in case of a bilateral injury, and in case of an acute injury. The best result was obtained after performing the reconstruction using anchors, and the worst result came after using Codivilla technique. Discussion and Conclusion. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment are an absolute imperative in management of this injury. We have not proven that a certain surgical technique has an advantage over the others. A comorbid risk factor is related to a lower Lysholm score. Despite a few cases of complications, we can conclude that the surgical treatment yields satisfactory results.

  12. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy.

    Rasul, Tabraze; Leung, Edmund; McArdle, Kirsten; Pathak, Rajiv; Dalmia, Sanjay


    Splenic rupture is a life-threatening condition characterized by internal hemorrhage, often difficult to diagnose. Colonoscopy is a gold standard routine diagnostic test to investigate patients with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as to those on the screening program for colorectal cancer. Splenic injury is seldomly discussed during consent for colonoscopy, as opposed to colonic perforation, as its prevalence accounts for less than 0.1%. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with no history of collagen disorder was electively admitted for routine colonoscopy for surveillance of adenoma. She was admitted following the procedure for re-dosing of warfarin, which was stopped prior to the colonoscopy. The patient was found collapsed on the ward the following day with clinical shock and anemia. Computed tomography demonstrated grade 4 splenic rupture. Immediate blood transfusion and splenectomy was required. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy is extremely rare. Awareness of it on this occasion saved the patient's life. Despite it being a rare association, the seriousness warrants inclusion in all information leaflets concerning colonoscopy and during its consent.

  13. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.


    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  14. Histologic analysis of ruptured quadriceps tendons.

    Trobisch, Per David; Bauman, Matthias; Weise, Kuno; Stuby, Fabian; Hak, David J


    Quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries. Degenerative changes in the tendon are felt to be an important precondition for rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 45 quadriceps tendon ruptures in 42 patients. Quadriceps tendon ruptures occurred most often in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Men were affected six times as often as women. A tissue sample from the rupture-zone was obtained in 22 cases and histologic analysis was performed. Degenerative changes were present in only 14 (64%) of the 22 samples. We observed an increasing ratio of degenerative to nondegenerative tendons with increasing patient age. Our data suggests that quadriceps tendon rupture, especially in younger patients, can occur in the absence of pathologic tendon degeneration.

  15. Source rupture processes of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquakes estimated from strong-motion waveforms

    Kubo, Hisahiko; Suzuki, Wataru; Aoi, Shin; Sekiguchi, Haruko


    The detailed source rupture process of the M 7.3 event (April 16, 2016, 01:25, JST) of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquakes was derived from strong-motion waveforms using multiple-time-window linear waveform inversion. Based on the observations of surface ruptures, the spatial distribution of aftershocks, and the geodetic data, a realistic curved fault model was developed for source-process analysis of this event. The seismic moment and maximum slip were estimated as 5.5 × 1019 Nm ( M w 7.1) and 3.8 m, respectively. The source model of the M 7.3 event had two significant ruptures. One rupture propagated toward the northeastern shallow region at 4 s after rupture initiation and continued with large slips to approximately 16 s. This rupture caused a large slip region 10-30 km northeast of the hypocenter that reached the caldera of Mt. Aso. Another rupture propagated toward the surface from the hypocenter at 2-6 s and then propagated toward the northeast along the near surface at 6-10 s. A comparison with the result of using a single fault plane model demonstrated that the use of the curved fault model led to improved waveform fit at the stations south of the fault. The source process of the M 6.5 event (April 14, 2016, 21:26, JST) was also estimated. In the source model obtained for the M 6.5 event, the seismic moment was 1.7 × 1018 Nm ( M w 6.1), and the rupture with large slips propagated from the hypocenter to the surface along the north-northeast direction at 1-6 s. The results in this study are consistent with observations of the surface ruptures. [Figure not available: see fulltext. Caption: .

  16. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations Across Interacting Faults: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Aagaard, B.


    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during an earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a fault segment sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g.i, 2002 M7.9Denali and 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial segment and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of moderate magnitude. This is the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigatethe rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacenent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a Finite Element Model to simulate the nucleation and propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence. The best-fit simulation is in remarkable agreement with several finite fault inversions and predicts ground displacement in very good agreement with geodetic and geological observations. The two slip patches inferred from finite-fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure. Although our simulation results replicate well the ground deformation consistent with the geodetic surface observation but convolving the ground motion with the soil amplification from the microzonation study will correctly account for the heterogeneity of the PGA throughout the rupture area.

  17. Treatment of bronchial ruptures by delayed surgery


    Objective:To study the causes that resulted in delayed surgery for bronchial ruptures and the results.Methods:The cases with the bronchial ruptures by the delayed surgery last decade were retrospectively reviewed.The causes and unsatisfactory results were analysed.Results:The severe complications usually occurred after the delayed surgery and the results were not as satisfactory as those by early surgery.Conclusion:The bronchial ruptures ought to be operated in the early stage after being wounded.

  18. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner


    BACKGROUND: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains...... and Sweden. Immediate weight-bearing was found to be safe and recommendable in non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. The novel ultrasound measurement showed excellent reliability and acceptable validity and agreement....

  19. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Troelsen, Anders


    BACKGROUND: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment ofacute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains...... and Sweden. Immediate weight-bearing was found to be safe and recommendable in non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. The novel ultrasound measurement showed excellent reliability and acceptable validity and agreement....

  20. Pathological rupture of malarial spleen.

    Mokashi A


    Full Text Available Two cases of spontaneous rupture of malarial spleen are reported here. One of them was a male who was on chloroquine for an acute attack of malaria. While on therapy, he complained of pain in left hypochondrium followed by palpitations. The other patient was a female who was admitted for continuous dull aching pain and fever. In both the patients, exploratory laparotomy revealed an enlarged spleen with tear. Splenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed dilated congested sinusoid with follicular atrophy, and RBCs with malarial parasites. The post-operative course was smooth in both patients.

  1. Ruptured jejunum following Heimlich maneuver.

    Razaboni, R M; Brathwaite, C E; Dwyer, W A


    The Heimlich maneuver, over time, has proved to be a useful resuscitative procedure in the management of cases with airway occlusion secondary to foreign body. Medical treatments, however, can have side effects, and this maneuver is no exception. A previously unreported complication is presented, that of jejunal rupture. The proper application of the maneuver minimizes the number of side effects; however, since they do occur, it is suggested that all persons subject to this maneuver be subsequently evaluated by a physician as soon after the incident as is practicable.

  2. The rupture in visual language:

    Kula, Ömür; Kula, Omur


    The shift of arts from conventional forms of canvas-painting and sculpture to collage, ready-mades, installations and performances as it had occurred in the history of western art follow a linear and natural unfolding in parallel with sociopolitical evolvements. In the case of Turkish visual arts, this kind of a transformation projects to the time period between 1960s to 1990s where the face of arts change not smoothly but rather in the form of a 'rupture' as new tendencies are embraced, prac...

  3. Mechanical model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    SU; Haijun; ZHANG; Mei; ZHANG; Yun


    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque is the main trigger of acute cardiovascular events, but the mechanism of plaque rupture is still unknown. We have constructed a model describing the motion of the fibrous cap of the plaque using the theory of elastic mechanics and studied the stability of the plaque theoretically. It has shown that plaque rupture is the result of a dynamic interplay between factors intrinsic to the plaque itself and extrinsic factors. We have proposed a new mechanism of plaque rupture, given a new explanation about the nonlinear dynamic progress of atherosclerosis and suggested a method to identify the vulnerable plaques to manage atherosclerosis.

  4. Delayed presentation of traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture

    Brown, D.; Magill, H.L.; Black, T.L.


    A child with urine ascites as a delayed manifestation of post-traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture is presented. The diagnosis was suggested by abdominal CT scan and confirmed with a cystogram. While uncommon, late presentation of intraperitoneal bladder rupture following trauma may occur from masking of a primary laceration or development of secondary rupture at the site of a hematoma in the bladder wall. Since CT may be a primary diagnostic study performed following abdominal trauma, the radiologist should be aware of CT findings suggesting bladder rupture and of the possibility of delayed presentation of this injury.

  5. Stress rupture properties of GH4169 superalloy

    Xudong Lu


    Full Text Available GH4169 alloy is a nickel-based superalloy extensively used in the aircraft engine industry because of its excellent mechanical properties and good fabrication ability. The mechanical properties of the GH4169 at high temperature, rupture stress under severe condition deserves a close attention. In this paper, the creep rupture of the GH4169 alloy under constant load and different temperatures from 550 °C to 700 °C conditions is systematically evaluated and major impact factors in the stress rupture behavior are analyzed. Furthermore, an improving method for the alloy stress rupture is proposed.

  6. Rupture model of Mw 7.8 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake: Constraints from GPS measurements of coseismic offsets

    Yadav, Rajeev Kumar; Roy, P. N. S.; Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Khan, P. K.; Catherine, J. K.; Prajapati, Sanjay K.; Kumar, Amit; Puviarasan, N.; Bhu, Harsh; Devachandra, M.; Malik, Javed; Kundu, Bhaskar; Debbarma, Chandrani; Gahalaut, V. K.


    We estimate coseismic offsets at 20 sites in India due to the 25 April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal (Mw 7.8) earthquake. Only four sites in the Indian region, immediately to the south of the rupture, showed discernible coseismic horizontal offsets ranging between 3 and 7 mm toward north. We invert these offsets along with 13 other offsets at GPS sites in Nepal and 33 offsets at sites in China, for the estimation of slip distribution on the causative rupture. We assume that rupture occurred on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). In our estimated slip model, high slip reaching ∼5 m occurred east of the mainshock epicenter, and the slip on rupture terminated close to the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Thus the rupture for this earthquake remained blind, increasing the potential for future earthquake in the shallow, updip unruptured part of the MHT.

  7. Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures.

    Lee, Dennis; Stinner, Daniel; Mir, Hassan


    The diagnosis of quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures requires a high index of suspicion and thorough history-taking to assess for medical comorbidities that may predispose patients to tendon degeneration. Radiographic assessment with plain films supplemented by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging when the work-up is equivocal further aids diagnosis; however, advanced imaging is often unnecessary in patients with functional extensor mechanism deficits. Acute repair is preferred, and transpatellar bone tunnels serve as the primary form of fixation when the tendon rupture occurs at the patellar insertion, with or without augmentation depending on surgeon preference. Chronic tears and disruptions following total knee arthroplasty are special cases requiring reconstructions with allograft, synthetic mesh, or autograft. Rehabilitation protocols generally allow immediate weight-bearing with the knee locked in extension and crutch support. Limited arc motion is started early with active flexion and passive extension and then advanced progressively, followed by full active range of motion and strengthening. Complications are few but include quadriceps atrophy, knee stiffness, and rerupture. Outcomes are excellent if repair is done acutely, with poorer outcomes associated with delayed repair.

  8. Tracheal rupture post-emergency intubation

    Andrea Billè; Luca Errico; Francesco Ardissone; Luciano Cardinale


    Tracheal rupture is an uncommon and potentially lifethreatening complication of endotracheal intubation. We present a case of intrathoracic tracheal rupture in a female patient who required emergent endotracheal intubation for acute respiratory distress related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Possible contributing factors to tracheal injury included overinflation of the tube cuff, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic steroid use. The patient underwent surg...

  9. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  10. Ruptured liver abscess in a neonate

    Prashant Jain


    Full Text Available We report a rare case of 17-day-old neonate, diagnosed to have ruptured liver abscess secondary to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus infection. The child presented with septicemia and abdominal distension. On exploration, there was pyoperitoneum with ruptured liver abscess.

  11. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre


    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin.

  12. Migraine before rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Gurary, Natalia M; Sakovich, Vladimir P


    Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA.......Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA....

  13. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Lopez Garcia, R


    Despite advances in perinatal medicine in the past decade, the diagnosis and treatment of premature rupture of membranes remain controversial. Premature rupture occurs in 2.7-7.0% of pregnancies and most cases occur spontaneously without apparent cause. The disparity in reported rates of premature rupture is due to differences in the definition and diagnostic criteria for premature rupture and lack of comparability in the populations studied. Mexico's National Institute of Perinatology has adopted the definition of the American COllege of Gynecology and Obstetrics which views premature rupture as that occurring before regular uterine contractions that produce cervical dilation. 8.8% of its patients have premature rupture according to this definition. 20% of cases occur before the 36th week of pregnancy. Treatment of rupture occurring before 37 weeks must balance the threat of amniotic infection with the dangers of premature birth. Infections appear more common in low income patient populations. Chorioamnionitis is a serious complication of pregnancy and is the main argument against conservative treatment of premature rupture. The rate of maternal infection is directly related to the time elapsing between rupture of the membranes and birth. The rate increases after the 1st 24 hours and is at least 10 times higher after 72 hours. But recent studies suggest that there is no considerable increase in infection if vaginal explorations are avoided and careful techniques are used in treating the patient. Those who advise conservative treatment believe that prenatal outcomes are better because respiratory disease syndrome due to prematurity is avoided. Conservative management requires a white cell count at least every 24 hours and measurement of pulse, maternal temperature, and fetal heart rate ideally every 4 hours. Perinatal mortality rates due to premature rupture of membranes range from 2.5-50%. The principal causes are respiratory disease syndrome, infection, asphyxia

  14. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    LU Hua-ding


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  15. Should the ruptured renal allograft be removed?

    Dryburgh, P; Porter, K A; Krom, R A; Uchida, K; West, J C; Weil, R; Starzl, T E


    During a 16-month period when 93 renal transplants were performed, eight kidney graft ruptures were detected within 18 days of transplantation, without evidence of venous obstruction. Six grafts were removed at the time of an exploratory operation for rupture and only one showed signs of probable irreversible rejection when examined by microscopy. Two graft ruptures were repaired and one of these grafts has had good long-term function 22 months later. These observations suggest that if bleeding at the site of grafts has had good long-term function 22 months later. These observations suggest that if bleeding at the site of graft rupture can be securely controlled and if the conditions of the patient and of the graft are favorable except for the rupture, it may be possible to save more than one of eight grafts.

  16. Rupture process and coseismic deformations of the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake, Chile

    Pulido, Nelson; Yagi, Yuji; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Naoki


    We estimated the spatial and temporal slip distribution for the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake from teleseismic body wave data. To obtain a stable inversion solution, we used the data covariance matrix from the observation and modeling errors, incorporated smoothing constraints and determined their optimal values by using the Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The fault rupture can be divided into three stages. For the first 30 s the rupture started as an elliptical crack elongated in the in-plane direction along the dip. After 30 s the rupture propagated bi-laterally along strike reaching the maximum moment release rate at around 50 s near the hypocenter. Finally the rupture propagated mainly to the north reaching another peak of moment release rate at 80 s and 130 km north-east from the hypocenter. Main rupture lasted for about 110 s. In order to evaluate our source model, we calculated the predicted coseismic vertical displacements and compare them with observed uplift/subsidence values measured along the coastline, as well as displacements obtained from strong ground motion and high-sampling GPS records in Concepción. Our model provides good estimations of the static displacements in the northern source region, but under-estimates the coseismic uplifts in the southern region.

  17. A case of spontaneous gastric rupture in a 5 years girl

    D. Salerno


    Full Text Available We describe a case of spontaneous gastric rupture in a child of 5 years old. The patient reached us in a serious condition; the anamnesis was negative for traumatic events or gastrointestinal disorders. An abdominal X-ray and CT scan revealed free air and fluid in the abdominal cavity, leading to the diagnosis of gastro-intestinal perforation. Submitted to urgent surgery, a rupture of the posterior wall of the stomach was found that was treated with gastrectomy “à la demande”. The surgery follow-up was regular. Morphological and immunohistochemical study showed some muscular abnormalities of the muscular gastric wall.

  18. Spontaneous oesophageal rupture: a diagnostic challenge in resource-limited setting.

    Shao, Elichilia R; Joseph, Pantaleo M; Slootweg, Piet; Mkwizu, Elifuraha W; Kilonzo, Kajiru G; Mwasamwaja, Amos O


    Spontaneous oesophageal rupture after swallowing a bolus of food is a very rare condition. In resource-limited settings, it is very challenging to diagnose this condition especially when its presentation is atypical. Its prognosis is very poor when diagnosis is delayed due to risk of mediastinitis. We report a case of 37-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital complaining of sudden onset of chest tightness and pain after a meal 8 h prior to admission. Urgent chest radiograph revealed right hydropneumothorax with collapsed lung. Water-seal drainage was established gushing 1200 ml of food materials. Definitive diagnosis of oesophageal rupture was reached after post-mortem.

  19. Pro gaming tips Halo Reach

    Greene, Nicholas


    ABOUT THE BOOK Halo Reach is the latest installment, and goes back to Halo's roots in more ways than one. Set around one of the most frequently referenced events in the Haloverse-The Fall of Reach-Reach puts you in the shoes of Noble 6, an unnamed Spartan, fighting a doomed battle to save the planet. Dual-wielding's gone, health is back, and equipment now takes the form of different "classes," with different weapon loadouts and special abilities (such as sprinting, cloaking, or flight). If you're reading this guide, you're either new to the Halo franchise and looking to get a leg up on all

  20. Size dependent rupture growth at the scale of real earthquake

    Colombelli, Simona; Festa, Gaetano; Zollo, Aldo


    When an earthquake starts, the rupture process may evolve in a variety of ways, resulting in the occurrence of different magnitude earthquakes, with variable areal extent and slip, and this may produce an unpredictable damage distribution around the fault zone. The cause of the observed diversity of the rupture process evolution is unknown. There are studies supporting the idea that all earthquakes arise in the same way, while the mechanical conditions of the fault zone may determine the propagation and generation of small or large earthquakes. Other studies show that small and large earthquakes are different from the initial stage of the rupture beginning. Among them, Colombelli et al. (2014) observed that the initial slope of the P-wave peak displacement could be a discriminant for the final earthquake size, so that small and large ruptures show a different behavior in their initial stage. In this work we perform a detailed analysis of the time evolution of the P-wave peak amplitude for a set of few, co-located events, during the 2008, Iwate-Miyagi (Japan) earthquake sequence. The events have magnitude between 3.2 and 7.2 and their epicentral coordinates vary in a narrow range, with a maximum distance among the epicenters of about 15 km. After applying a refined technique for data processing, we measured the initial Peak Displacement (Pd) as the absolute value of the vertical component of displacement records, starting from the P-wave arrival time and progressively expanding the time window. For each event, we corrected the observed Pd values at different stations for the distance effect and computed the average logarithm of Pd as a function of time. The overall shape of the Pd curves (in log-lin scale) is consistent with what has been previously observed for a larger dataset by Colombelli et al. (2014). The initial amplitude begins with small values and then increases with time, until a plateau level is reached. However, we observed essential differences in the

  1. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila


    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  2. Patellar tendon: From tendinopathy to rupture

    Federica Rosso


    Full Text Available Patellar tendinopathy is very common in patients complaining of anterior knee pain. Its aetiology is still unclear, but neovascularisation seems to play a role. Different treatments have been proposed overtime, from rehabilitation to platelet-rich-plasma injections, but there is no agreement on the best treatment protocol. The final stage of patellar tendinopathy is patellar tendon rupture. In these cases surgical treatment is often required. The aim of this literature review is to focus on the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of both patellar tendinopathy and rupture. We report the conservative treatments proposed for patellar tendinopathy and the surgical techniques described for its rupture.

  3. Plantar fascia rupture: diagnosis and treatment.

    Rolf, C; Guntner, P; Ericsäter, J; Turan, I


    Two patients with spontaneous medial plantar fascia rupture due to a definite injury with no prior symptoms, were referred to our institution. Clinically, there was a tender lump in the sole, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis. Nonoperative treatment was sufficient in curing the acute total rupture. Endoscopic release was used on the partially ruptured plantar fascia, but it is probably more optimal in the acute phase. The literature provides no comparative data on operative or nonoperative treatment efficacy for this rare condition.


    Vijay Kumar


    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus can sometimes be associated with rudimentary horn. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and usually ends up in rupture. Diagnosis is difficult and can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and is usually detected after rupture. We report a case of G1P1 with rudimentary horn pregnancy which raised suspicion on ultr asound and was later diagnosed by MR imaging. Patient refused termination and presented next day with shock. Laparotomy revealed ruptured right rudimentary horn pregnancy.

  5. Gastric rupture after the Heimlich maneuver.

    Bintz, M; Cogbill, T H


    Since 1975, the Heimlich maneuver has been widely applied to relieve upper airway obstruction caused by aspirated material. Life-threatening complications have been documented following this simple procedure. We report two cases of gastric rupture after use of the Heimlich maneuver. Both patients experienced pulmonary and abdominal symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by the demonstration of free intraperitoneal air on an upright chest roentgenogram. Full-thickness gastric rupture along the lesser curvature of the stomach was repaired in both patients; one patient died. Abdominal pain or persistent abdominal distention despite nasogastric suction after the Heimlich maneuver should prompt evaluation for possible gastric rupture.

  6. Lunar Probe Reaches Deep Space


    @@ China's second lunar probe, Chang'e-2, has reached an orbit 1.5 million kilometers from Earth for an additional mission of deep space exploration, the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense announced.

  7. A Fault Evolution Model Including the Rupture Dynamic Simulation

    Wu, Y.; Chen, X.


    We perform a preliminary numerical simulation of seismicity and stress evolution along a strike-slip fault in a 3D elastic half space. Following work of Ben-Zion (1996), the fault geometry is devised as a vertical plane which is about 70 km long and 17 km wide, comparable to the size of San Andreas Fault around Parkfield. The loading mechanism is described by "backslip" method. The fault failure is governed by a static/kinetic friction law, and induced stress transfer is calculated with Okada's static solution. In order to track the rupture propagation in detail, we allow induced stress to propagate through the medium at the shear wave velocity by introducing a distance-dependent time delay to responses to stress changes. Current simulation indicates small to moderate earthquakes following the Gutenberg-Richter law and quasi-periodical characteristic large earthquakes, which are consistent with previous work by others. Next we will consider introducing a more realistic friction law, namely, the laboratory-derived rate- and state- dependent law, which can simulate more realistic and complicated sliding behavior such as the stable and unstable slip, the aseismic sliding and the slip nucleation process. In addition, the long duration of aftershocks is expected to be reproduced due to this time-dependent friction law, which is not available in current seismicity simulation. The other difference from previous work is that we are trying to include the dynamic ruptures in this study. Most previous study on seismicity simulation is based on the static solution when dealing with failure induced stress changes. However, studies of numerical simulation of rupture dynamics have revealed lots of important details which are missing in the quasi-static/quasi- dynamic simulation. For example, dynamic simulations indicate that the slip on the ground surface becomes larger if the dynamic rupture process reaches the free surface. The concentration of stress on the propagating crack

  8. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Bomfim, Lucas Novais [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Maceio, AL, (Brazil)


    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. (author)

  9. Creep-rupture reliability analysis

    Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.


    A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

  10. Achilles tendon rupture in atypical patient populations.

    Kingsley, Peter


    Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a significant injury, and the likelihood of a good recovery is directly associated with early diagnosis and appropriate referral. Such injuries are commonly assessed and identified by practitioners working in 'minors' areas of emergency departments or urgent care settings. The literature frequently describes rupture of the Achilles tendon as 'typically sport-related' affecting 'middle-aged weekend warriors', but this aetiology accounts for only about 70% of such injuries. Factors such as the natural ageing process, obesity and use of some commonly prescribed medications, can increase the risk of developing a tendinopathy and subsequent rupture, often from a seemingly insignificant incident. However, research suggests that injuries in this patient population are more likely be missed on first examination. This article describes risk factors that should alert clinicians to the possibility of Achilles tendon rupture in 'atypical' patient populations.

  11. Spontaneous splenic rupture in typhoid fever.

    Ali, G; Kamili, M. A.; Rashid, S; Mansoor, A; Lone, B. A.; Allaqaband, G. Q.


    Three cases of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi infection presenting as spontaneous splenic rupture are presented. One patient died and two recovered completely. This is a previously unreported presentation of typhoid fever.

  12. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Duilio Divisi


    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  13. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures.

    Yurevich, Andrey V


    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.

  14. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone


    .3/100,000 deliveries. Multiparity (RR 8.99 (95% CI 1.86-43.29)), induction of labour (RR 3.26 (95% CI 1.24-8.57)), epidural analgesia (RR 10.78 (95% CI 4.25-27.39)), and augmentation by oxytocin (RR 9.50 (95% CI 3.15-28.63)) were associated with uterine rupture. Induction of labour was not significantly related...... to uterine rupture when adjusted for parity, epidural analgesia and augmentation by oxytocin. CONCLUSION: Although uterine rupture is rare, its association with epidural analgesia and augmentation of labour with oxytocin in multipara should be considered. Thus, vigilance should be exercised when labour...... is obstructed and there is need for epidural analgesia and/or augmentation by oxytocin in multiparous women. Due to the rare occurrence of uterine rupture caution should be exerted when interpreting the findings of this study....

  15. Micromechanical properties and collagen composition of ruptured human achilles tendon

    Hansen, Philip; Kovanen, Vuokko; Hölmich, Per


    The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive.......The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive....

  16. Quadriceps tendon rupture through a superolateral bipartite patella.

    Woods, G William; O'Connor, Daniel P; Elkousy, Hussein A


    We report a case of a quadriceps tendon rupture through a bipartite patella. Although quadriceps tendon ruptures and patella fractures are common, rupture through a bipartite patella fragment is rare. This case was managed similar to a quadriceps rupture with an excellent result.

  17. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J


    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  18. Large Steel Tank Fails and Rockets to Height of 30 meters - Rupture Disc Installed Incorrectly

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Selig, Robert Simon; Kragh, Eva K.


    responsible for the failure was an estimated 60 kPa. A rupture disc rated at tank from being covered by the European Pressure Equipment Directive. This safeguard failed and it was later discovered that the rupture disc had been installed upside......At a brewery, the base plate-to-shell weld seam of a 90-m3 vertical cylindrical steel tank failed catastrophically. The 4 ton tank “took off” like a rocket leaving its contents behind, and landed on a van, crushing it. The top of the tank reached a height of 30 m. The internal overpressure...... down. The organizational root cause of this incident may be a fundamental lack of appreciation of the hazards of large volumes of low-pressure compressed air or gas. A contributing factor may be that the standard piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) symbol for a rupture disc may confuse and lead...

  19. Evolution and rupture of vulnerable plaques: a review of mechanical effects

    Assemat P


    Full Text Available Pauline Assemat, Kerry Hourigan Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Atherosclerosis occurs as a result of the buildup and infiltration of lipid streaks in artery walls, leading to plaques. Understanding the development of atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability is of critical importance, since plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke. Plaques can be divided into two distinct types: those that rupture (vulnerable and those that are less likely to rupture (stable. In the last few decades, researchers have been interested in studying the influence of the mechanical effects (blood shear stress, pressure forces, and structural stress on the plaque formation and rupture processes. In the literature, physiological experimental studies are limited by the complexity of in vivo experiments to study such effects, whereas the numerical approach often uses simplified models compared with realistic conditions, so that no general agreement of the mechanisms responsible for plaque formation has yet been reached. In addition, in a large number of cases, the presence of plaques in arteries is asymptomatic. The prediction of plaque rupture remains a complex question to elucidate, not only because of the interaction of numerous phenomena involved in this process (biological, chemical, and mechanical but also because of the large time scale on which plaques develop. The purpose of the present article is to review the current mechanical models used to describe the blood flow in arteries in the presence of plaques, as well as reviewing the literature treating the influence of mechanical effects on plaque formation, development, and rupture. Finally, some directions of research, including those being undertaken by the authors, are described. Keywords: atherosclerosis, rupture

  20. Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture Reconstructed With Achilles Tendon Allograft and Xenograft Combination.

    Hollawell, Shane; Baione, William


    More than 20% of acute Achilles tendon injuries are misdiagnosed, leading to chronic or neglected ruptures. Some controversy exists regarding how to best manage an acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, a general consensus has been reached that chronic rupture with ≥3 cm of separation is associated with functional morbidity and, therefore, should be managed operatively. It has been demonstrated that the functional outcomes of surgically treated Achilles ruptures are superior to the nonoperative outcomes in a chronic setting. In the present report, we reviewed 4 patients with chronic Achilles tendon ruptures that were successfully treated with an Achilles tendon interposition allograft and simultaneous augmentation with a xenograft. The median duration of rupture was 11 (range 8 to 16) weeks, the median gap between the proximal and distal segments of the tendon was 4.75 (range 3.5 to 6) cm, and the patients were able to return pain-free to all preinjury activities at a median of 14.5 (range 13.8 to 15.5) weeks, without the need for tendon transfer, lengthening, or additional intervention. The median duration of follow up was 37.25 (range 15.25 to 51.5) months, at which point the mean Foot and Ankle Outcomes Instrument core scale score was 97 ± 1 (mean normative score 53 ± 1), and the Foot and Ankle Outcomes Instrument shoe comfort core scale score was 100 ± 0 (mean normative score 59 ± 0). The combined Achilles allograft plus xenograft augmentation technique appears to be a reasonable option for the surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo


    obtained dynamic source model. Our result shows that in general large stress drop occurred around areas with a large slip except the shallow part around the hypocenter. Although kinematic source model shows that this area has a large slip, the stress drop is not so large comparing with the deep areas that has a similar amount of slip. The estimated strength excess is generally small and that suggests the tectonic shear stress has reached near the level of the fault strength before the main shock. Usually, the area with a large strength excess on the fault surface will delay the rupture propagation. Thus, the rupture propagation becomes slow down at these areas. Faster rupture is observed at the main asperity area whereas slower rupture at the northwestern deep part is shown in the dynamic source model. Based on the dynamic source model, near-source ground motions are simulated. Generally, the synthetic waveforms show well the observed record characteristics. This shows that our dynamic source model reproduces the main features of the long period ground motions in this earthquake.




    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  3. The Reach of the Arts

    J. de Haan; W.P. Knulst


    Original title: Het bereik van de kunsten. The reach of the arts (Het bereik van de kunsten) is the fourth study in a series which periodically analyses the status of cultural participation, reading and use of other media. The series, Support for culture (Het culturele draagvlak) is sponsored by th

  4. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong [Shilla General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture.

  5. General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon


    Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair.

  6. Spatial and temporal rupture process of the January 26, 2001, Gujarat, India, MS=7.8 earthquake

    许力生; 陈运秦; 高孟潭


    strike-slip faulting, but rather rare for thrust faulting. The eastern portion of the rupture area above the initiation point was larger than the western portion below the initiation point, which was indicative of the asymmetrical rupture. In other words, the rupturing was kind of unilateral from west to east and from down to up. From the snapshots of the slip-rate variation with time and space, the slip rate reached the largest at the 4th second, that was 0.2 m/s, and the rupture in this period occurred only around the initiation point. At the 6th second, the rupture around the initiation point nearly stopped, and started moving outwards. The velocity of the westward rupture was smaller than that of the eastward rupture. Such rupture behavior like a circle mostly stopped near the 15th second. After the 16th second, only some patches of rupture distributed in the outer region. From the snapshots of the slip variation with time and space, the rupture started at the initiation point and propagated outwards. The main rupture on the area with the slip amplitude greater than 5 m extended unilaterally from west to east and from down to up between the 6th and the 10th seconds, and the western segment extended a bit westwards and downwards between the 11th and the 13th seconds. The whole process lasted about 19 s. The rupture velocity over the whole rupture process was estimated to be 3.3 km/s.

  7. Environmental Degradation, Disproportionality, and the Double Diversion: Reaching out, Reaching ahead, and Reaching beyond

    Freudenburg, William R.


    Rather than seeking ivory-tower isolation, members of the Rural Sociological Society have always been distinguished by a willingness to work with specialists from a broad range of disciplines, and to work on some of the world's most challenging problems. What is less commonly recognized is that the willingness to reach beyond disciplinary…

  8. Light microscopic histology of quadriceps tendon ruptures.

    Maffulli, Nicola; Del Buono, Angelo; Spiezia, Filippo; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Denaro, Vincenzo


    To assess histological changes and possible differences in the quadriceps of patients undergoing open repair of the tendon after spontaneous rupture, and subjects with no history of tendon pathology. Biopsies were harvested from the quadriceps tendon of 46 patients (34 men, 12 women) who had reported unilateral atraumatic quadriceps tendon rupture and had undergone surgical repair of the tendon. Samples were also harvested from both the tendons in 11 (N = 11 × 2) patients, nine males and two females, dying from cardiovascular disorders. For each tendon, three slides were randomly selected and examined under light microscopy, and assessed using a semiquantitative grading scale (range 0-21) which considers fibre structure, fibre arrangement, rounding of the nuclei, regional variations in cellularity, increased vascularity, decreased collagen stainability, and hyalinisation. The pathological sum-score averaged 19.2 ± 3.7 in ruptured tendons and 5.6 ± 2.0 in controls, and all variables considered were significantly different between the two groups, showing an association between tendon abnormalities and rupture (0.05 tendons increases the risk of rupture.

  9. Dynamic rupture processes inferred from laboratory microearthquakes

    Passelègue, François. X.; Schubnel, Alexandre; Nielsen, Stefan; Bhat, Harsha S.; Deldicque, Damien; Madariaga, Raúl


    We report macroscopic stick-slip events in saw-cut Westerly granite samples deformed under controlled upper crustal stress conditions in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted under triaxial loading (σ1>σ2=σ3) at confining pressures (σ3) ranging from 10 to 100 MPa. A high-frequency acoustic monitoring array recorded particle acceleration during macroscopic stick-slip events allowing us to estimate rupture speed. In addition, we record the stress drop dynamically and we show that the dynamic stress drop measured locally close to the fault plane is almost total in the breakdown zone (for normal stress >75 MPa), while the friction f recovers to values of f > 0.4 within only a few hundred microseconds. Enhanced dynamic weakening is observed to be linked to the melting of asperities which can be well explained by flash heating theory in agreement with our postmortem microstructural analysis. Relationships between initial state of stress, rupture velocities, stress drop, and energy budget suggest that at high normal stress (leading to supershear rupture velocities), the rupture processes are more dissipative. Our observations question the current dichotomy between the fracture energy and the frictional energy in terms of rupture processes. A power law scaling of the fracture energy with final slip is observed over 8 orders of magnitude in slip, from a few microns to tens of meters.

  10. Investigations Into Early Magnitude Estimation From Predominant Period, Using Synthetic Rupture Models

    Hildyard, M.; Rietbrock, A.


    Considerable interest has been shown in a method for estimating predominant period in the time domain (TpMax), first proposed by Nakamura (1988) and currently being developed for other early warning systems (e.g. Lockman and Allen, BSSA, 2005). Issues still exist as to the causes of the scatter evident in empirical work, and how effective the method is for characterising large events whose time to rupture is longer than the few seconds desired to estimate the magnitude. Our work on applying this method to an aftershock dataset motivated us to investigate the method through the use of synthetic rupture models. The rupture model we use prescribes a stress-drop with a prescribed rise-time over a small patch of the fault surface. This stress-drop is propagated to other patches of the fault according to a prescribed rupture rate. The same finite difference model geometry and fault patch size was then used to model events ranging from magnitude 3.7 to 7.2. Moment Magnitude was calculated directly by integrating the resultant slip on the fault, and TpMax was calculated from seismograms recorded on surface 50 km from the centre of the fault. The initial modelling used a homogenous stress drop, rise-time, and rupture rate. A dataset of 165 events, showed a significant increasing relationship between the TpMax calculation and magnitude. Isolating similar events initiating at the same point on the fault, gave a near straight-line trend. Scatter in the relationship is shown to result from variations in the position, initiation point, stress drop, rise time, and rupture velocity. Low frequency filtering was found to significantly affect the TpMax calculations and trends. Without filtering, the relationship saturated from just after magnitude 6, as the time to rupture becomes longer than the window used to calculate TpMax. However, low frequency filtering actually reduces the time to reach a maximum in the calculation, and this can cause the increasing trend to continue into

  11. Ruptured venous aneurysm of cervicomedullary junction

    Ashish Aggarwal


    Full Text Available Background: Ruptured venous aneurysm is often seen with arterio-venous malformation (AVM or developmental venous anomaly (DVA. However, isolated venous aneurysm is unusual. Case Description: We present a case of ruptured venous aneurysm that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH. Digital substraction angiography (DSA revealed a saccular contrast filling pouch in the left lateral aspect of cervicomedullary junction (CMJ. Endovascular intervention was not a viable option. During surgery, a saccular pliable structure approx. 1.5 Χ 1 cm was found in the subarachnoid space that was clipped and excised. There were no arterial feeders, no evidence of surrounding AVM, and no dilated perimedullary vein. Conclusion: This is perhaps the first reported case of ruptured venous aneurysm (without associated AVM of CMJ, which was successfully managed surgically. The possible etiologies remain an unnoticed head trauma or a congenital vessel wall abnormality. Surgically clipping and excision remains the treatment of choice for such lesion.

  12. The Identity Process in Times of Ruptures

    Awad, Sarah H.


    revolution, at which time Egypt has witnessed major social and political changes. The aim is to understand the identity process of individuals as they develop and adapt through changing social contexts and how they create alternative social relations as they engage in prefigurative politics. The findings......This is a longitudinal study of the identity process through times of dramatic social change. Using a narrative psychological approach this research follows the life stories of five Egyptian bloggers as they write their stories on online blogs over the course of the three years following the 2011...... shed light on how ruptures trigger a process of reflexivity, adaptive learning, and sense-making that facilitates coping and the reconstruction of a positive identity after ruptures. It also suggests that the narration of the experience of rupture through storytelling creates a heightened sense...

  13. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Feridoun Sabzi


    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  14. The Identity Process in Times of Ruptures

    Awad, Sarah H.


    This is a longitudinal study of the identity process through times of dramatic social change. Using a narrative psychological approach this research follows the life stories of five Egyptian bloggers as they write their stories on online blogs over the course of the three years following the 2011...... revolution, at which time Egypt has witnessed major social and political changes. The aim is to understand the identity process of individuals as they develop and adapt through changing social contexts and how they create alternative social relations as they engage in prefigurative politics. The findings...... shed light on how ruptures trigger a process of reflexivity, adaptive learning, and sense-making that facilitates coping and the reconstruction of a positive identity after ruptures. It also suggests that the narration of the experience of rupture through storytelling creates a heightened sense...

  15. Creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites

    Yeow, Y. T.


    A 'material modeling' methodology for predicting the creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites is proposed. In this approach the parameters (obtained from short-term tests) required to make the predictions are the three principal creep compliance master curves and their corresponding quasi-static strengths tested at room temperature (22 C). Using these parameters in conjunction with a failure criterion, creep rupture envelopes can be generated for any combination of in-plane loading conditions and ambient temperature. The analysis was validated experimentally for one composite system, the T300/934 graphite-epoxy system. This was done by performing short-term creep tests (to generate the principal creep compliance master curves with the time-temperature superposition principle) and relatively long-term creep rupture tensile tests of off-axis specimens at 180 C. Good to reasonable agreement between experimental and analytical results is observed.

  16. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

    Guity MR


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  17. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)


    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  18. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Wei Yee Leong


    Full Text Available Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. Keywords: Quadriceps tendon rupture; Achilles tendon rupture; Bilateral.

  19. Gravid med spontan ruptur af arteria uterina

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte


    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo......-dynamic instable 24 hours after vaginal delivery, and emergency laparotomi revealed a spontaneous rupture of the right uterine artery. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery is rare but should be considered as a possible cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnant women....

  20. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    Raakhi Mistry, MBChB


    Full Text Available Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient.

  1. Thoracic outlet syndrome following breast implant rupture.

    Mistry, Raakhi; Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus


    We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient.


    Pietro Zedde


    Full Text Available Achilles tendon rupture is currently one of the most frequent injuries in athletes. Such rupture may be caused by a sudden dorsiflexion of the ankle, pushing off with the weight bearing forefoot while extending the knee or violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot. The treatment goal consists of restoring the normal tendon length and tension, as well as the function and strength of the gastrocnemius-soleus complex. The biological repair process can be enhanced in all stages of recovery with the use of PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma without any side effects.

  3. Rupture of the plantar fascia in athletes.

    Leach, R; Jones, R; Silva, T


    Symptoms resembling those of plantar fasciitis were seen in six athletes who were thought to have a partial rupture of the plantar fascia. Treatment, which included the use of crutches, anti-inflammatory agents, strapping of the arch, and ice packs, was successful in all but one patient who had a painful mass in the area of the previous rupture. After surgical excision of the painful mass and release of the fascia, he recovered. Five of the six athletes had been previously treated with repeated local injections of steroid.


    Miroslav Kezunović


    Full Text Available One of the most important goals of the treatment of sports injuries is athletes’ early return to normal sporting activities. Time when the athletes will return to normal sporting activities, after Achilles tendon acute rupture, depends on the level of sports involvement. Average time of return to sport is usually between 5-6 months after rupture. Patients, who are treated using postoperative functional cast, can expect an average return to their sport a month earlier than those who after surgery used solid cast immobilization. The most important signs that indicate possible slow rehabilitation process are the pain and swelling after activity and late recovery of the tissue.

  5. Mycotic aneurysm rupture of the descending aorta

    Gufler, H.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Nesbitt, E.; Hauenstein, K.H. [Department of Radiology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (Germany)


    A 69-year-old diabetic male with salmonella bacteremia developed hypovolemic shock and swelling of the neck. A CT examination revealed massive mediastinal hemorrhage extending into the neck soft tissues caused by false aneurysm rupture of the descending thoracic aorta. Aortography showed continuous extravasation from a large leak at the medial side of the descending thoracic aorta. Although surgical intervention was immediately performed, the patient died 3 weeks later from multiple-organ failure. In this report, CT and angiographic findings of mycotic aneurysm rupture are presented and a review is given. (orig.) With 2 figs., 11 refs.

  6. Sampling hard to reach populations.

    Faugier, J; Sargeant, M


    Studies on 'hidden populations', such as homeless people, prostitutes and drug addicts, raise a number of specific methodological questions usually absent from research involving known populations and less sensitive subjects. This paper examines the advantages and limitations of nonrandom methods of data collection such as snowball sampling. It reviews the currently available literature on sampling hard to reach populations and highlights the dearth of material currently available on this subject. The paper also assesses the potential for using these methods in nursing research. The sampling methodology used by Faugier (1996) in her study of prostitutes, HIV and drugs is used as a current example within this context.

  7. How to reach library users who cannot reach libraries?

    Dragana Ljuić


    Full Text Available The article discusses the ways of getting library activities closer to the individuals or groups of users who have difficulties to or cannot visit the library themselves. The author presents the services offered by the Maribor Public Library and discusses how one of the basic human rights – the right to the access of cultural goods, knowledge and information - is exercised also through library activities. By enabling access to library material and information, public libraries help to fulfill basic human rights and thus raise the quality of living in a social environment. The following forms of library activities are presented in the article: »distance library« – borrowing books at home, in hospital, station for the bibliobus for disabled users, »mobile collections« in the institutions where users, due to their age or illness, have difficulties in accessing or even cannot reach library materials and information by themselves.

  8. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test: Part 2. Part 2

    Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezirian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Leifeste, Mark; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren


    One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPY has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. A more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F, was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval ofthe model. In phase 3, the vessel pressure was increased to above maximum operating pressure while maintaining the phase 2 temperature. After reaching enough effectives hours to reach the 99.99% confidence level of the model phase 4 testing began when the temperature was increased to greater than 170 F. The vessel was maintained at phase 4 conditions until it failed after over 3 million effect hours. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

  9. Spontaneous Uterine Rupture during Pregnancy: Case Report and ...

    After ultrasound scan, uterine rupture was diagnosed and an emergency .... Uterine rupture in multiparity occurs usually during labour. We think that our patient may have had uterine scar from ... abdominal pains and signs of shock, at which.

  10. Source rupture process of the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake: how did the two subparallel faults rupture?

    Tanaka, Miho; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Kubo, Hisahiko


    The 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (MW 6.6) occurred about a month after the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (MW 9.0), and it is thought to have been induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. After the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, two subparallel faults (the Itozawa and Yunodake faults) were identified by field surveys. The hypocenter was located nearby the Itozawa fault, and it is probable that the Itozawa fault ruptured before the Yunodake fault rupture. Here, we estimated the source rupture process of the 2011 Hamadori earthquake using a model with two subparallel faults based on strong motion data. The rupture starting point and rupture delay time of the Yunodake fault were determined based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The results show that the Yunodake fault started to rupture from the northern deep point 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture. The estimated slip distribution in the shallow part is consistent with the surface slip distribution identified by field surveys. Time-dependent Coulomb failure function changes (ΔCFF) were calculated using the stress change from the Itozawa fault rupture in order to evaluate the effect of the rupture on the Yunodake fault. The ΔCFF is positive at the rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture; therefore, it is concluded that during the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, the Yunodake fault rupture was triggered by the Itozawa fault rupture.

  11. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    Ellanti, P


    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  12. The electrocardiogram in traumatic right atrial rupture

    van Veldhuisen, DJ; van den Berg, MP


    We:report the case of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who had a traumatic rupture of the right atrium. On admission an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded which is highly remarkable and, retrospectively, suggestive for the diagnosis. The patient died soon after the EGG, and the diagnosis was m


    N. A. Koryshkov


    Full Text Available From 1998 to 2010 32 patients (14 men, 18 women, aged 15-65 years, underwent surgical treatment for old Achilles tendon rupture. In all cases correct diagnosis was made not earlier than 1 month after injury. The importance of clinical Thompson test and sonographic examination for diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is underlined. For the restoration of Achilles tendon V-Y plasty was used. Surgery was performed in a period of 1 to 13 months in patients with subcutaneous Achilles tendon ruptures. Follow-up results of patients in the postoperative period ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean follow-up 1 year 7 months. Date of observation in the postoperative period ranged from 6 months to 19 years. Marginal necrosis wound occurred in 3 (10% patients, re-rupture of the Achilles tendon to tendon suture zone - in one patient, even in one patient on day 14 became infected. Violations of the foot innervation were no detected.

  14. Plantar fascia rupture associated with corticosteroid injection.

    Sellman, J R


    A series of 37 patients, all with a presumptive diagnosis of plantar fascia rupture, is presented. All had had prior heel pain diagnosed as plantar fasciitis, and all had been treated with corticosteroid injection into the calcaneal origin of the fascia. One third described a sudden tearing episode in the heel, while the rest had a gradual change in symptoms. Most of the patients had relief of the original heel pain, which had been replaced by a variety of new foot problems, including dorsal and lateral midfoot pain, swelling, foot weakness, metatarsal pain, and metatarsal fracture. In all 37 patients, there was a palpable diminution in the tension of the plantar fascia on the involved side, and footprints often showed a flattening of the involved arch. Magnetic resonance imaging done on one patient showed attenuation of the plantar fascia. From these observations and data, the author concluded that plantar fascia rupture had occurred. Treatment following rupture included supportive shoes, orthoses, and time. The majority had resolution of their new symptoms, but this often took 6 to 12 months to occur. In the remainder, there were persisting symptoms. Corticosteroid injections, although helpful in the treatment of plantar fasciitis, appear to predispose to plantar fascia rupture.

  15. Muscle rupture associated with statin use

    Ekhart, C.; Jong, L.A.W.; Gross-Martirosyan, L.; Hunsel, F. van


    AIM: Statins are used in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. They are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. Statins have been linked to musculoskeletal adverse drug reactions. However muscle rupture has not been discussed as an adverse drug reaction to statins so far. The aim of this

  16. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    Natasha J.G. Bauer


    Conclusion: Emergency assessment and diagnosis as well as scrotal exploration are important components of the management of acute testicular rupture. Analysis of the literature proves that timely surgical intervention is crucial; early intervention results in higher rates of preservation and avoids the need for an orchidectomy.

  17. Diagnosis and management of testicular ruptures.

    Buckley, Jill C; McAninch, Jack W


    Testicular ruptures are a common occurrence in scrotal trauma that can go undetected ifa thorough examination or scrotal ultrasonography is not performed. Timely operative exploration and reconstruction is the standard of care and leads to high testicular salvage rates with hormonal, reproductive, and cosmetic benefits for the patient.

  18. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior


    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  19. Validation of the rupture properties of the 2001 Kunlun, China (Ms = 8.1), earthquake from seismological and geological observations

    Wen, Y.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Song, T.R.-A.; Mooney, W.D.


    We determine the finite-fault slip distribution of the 2001 Kunlun earthquake (Ms = 8.1) by inverting teleseismic waveforms, as constrained by geological and remote sensing field observations. The spatial slip distribution along the 400-km-long fault was divided into five segments in accordance with geological observations. Forward modelling of regional surface waves was performed to estimate the variation of the speed of rupture propagation during faulting. For our modelling, the regional 1-D velocity structure was carefully constructed for each of six regional seismic stations using three events with magnitudes of 5.1-5.4 distributed along the ruptured portion of the Kunlun fault. Our result shows that the average rupture velocity is about 3.6 km s-1, consistent with teleseismic long period wave modelling. The initial rupture was almost purely strike-slip with a rupture velocity of 1.9 km s-1, increasing to 3.5 km s-1 in the second fault segment, and reaching a rupture velocity of about 6 km s-1 in the third segment and the fourth segment, where the maximum surface offset, with a broad fault zone, was observed. The rupture velocity decelerated to a value of 3.3 km s-1 in the fifth and final segment. Coseismic slip on the fault was concentrated between the surface and a depth of about 10 km. We infer that significant variations in rupture velocity and the observed fault segmentation are indicative of variations in strength along the interface of the Kunlun fault, as well as variations in fault geometry. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  20. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations across interacting faults: The Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti earthquake

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.


    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during a large earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a smaller fault sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g., 2002 M7.9 Denali USA and 2010 M7.1 Darfield New Zealand earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial fault and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of more moderate magnitude. This was the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a finite element model to simulate propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence, in particular, the ground displacement. The two slip patches inferred from finite fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure.

  1. Reach Envelope of Human Extremities

    YANG Jingzhou(杨景周); ZHANG Yunqing(张云清); CHEN Liping(陈立平); ABDEL-MALEK Karim


    Significant attention in recent years has been given to obtain a better understanding of human joint ranges, measurement, and functionality, especially in conjunction with commands issued by the central nervous system. While researchers have studied motor commands needed to drive a limb to follow a path trajectory, various computer algorithms have been reported that provide adequate analysis of limb modeling and motion. This paper uses a rigorous mathematical formulation to model human limbs, understand their reach envelope, delineate barriers therein where a trajectory becomes difficult to control, and help visualize these barriers. Workspaces of a typical forearm with 9 degrees of freedom, a typical finger modeled as a 4- degree-of-freedom system, and a lower extremity with 4 degrees of freedom are discussed. The results show that using the proposed formulation, joint limits play an important role in distinguishing the barriers.

  2. [Simultaneous rupture of a patellar tendon and contralateral quadriceps tendon].

    Horas, U; Ernst, S; Meyer, C; Halbsguth, A; Herbst, U


    The simultaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare injury; only occasional reports exist about the bilateral simultaneous rupture of the patellar tendon. Degenerative changes of the tendon due to drugs or diseases lead to the rupture. We describe two cases of simultaneous rupture of the patellar and contralateral quadriceps tendons; only one patient had special risks. We report the management of therapy and the functional results using the Lysholm score and Knee Rating Scale.

  3. A case of splenic torsion and rupture presenting as ruptured ectopic pregnancy

    Somdatta Lahiri


    Full Text Available Splenic torsion with rupture of spleen is an extremely rare phenomenon. The clinical picture mimics several common conditions which are causes of acute abdomen and so it is seldom detected pre-operatively. An 18 year old female patient was admitted with an acute abdomen and shock. The provisional diagnosis was of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Peri-operatively we found a spontaneous rupture of the spleen following torsion along with early intrauterine pregnancy. Splenectomy was carried out and patient recovered well. Our report confirms that this rare entity can present as an acute abdomen which is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively and can masquerade as ruptured ectopic pregnancy in women of childbearing age group.

  4. Surface rupture of the 1911 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake, Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Arrowsmith, J. R.; Crosby, C. J.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I.


    The 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake in the Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan is one of the largest historic intraplate reverse-faulting events. Documentation of slip distribution and fault geometry for major historic earthquakes, such as the Chon-Kemin event, provide important data on their source physics and seismotectonics. These data also provide insight into mechanical interaction with other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik events. Through detailed aerial photo mapping, examination of historic data (Bogdonovich et al., 1914), and two seasons of fieldwork, we mapped the entire 200 km of the1911 rupture and associated off-fault deformation and mass movements at > 1:50,000. At the 1911 events western end, the south dipping Djel Aryk section closely follows the range front at the southern edge of the Djel Aryk Valley. Mapping by Bogdonovich et al. indicates 1.5 km of rupture west of the Chu River in 1911 but 10-20 m high fault scarps further west in the Djel Aryk Valley indicate late Pleistocene paleoseismic activity. The Lower Chon-Kemin section stretches from the Chon-Kemin gorge to Chundi-Su. The fault dips steeply south and offset landforms indicate a left-lateral slip component. Vertical 1911 displacements are 1-3 m. Most of this portion of the 1911 rupture is located 500-1500 m above the Chon-Kemin Valley on the northern flank of the Kungei-Alatau Range. Bogdonovich et al. do not report 1911 rupture between Dyure River and Chundi-Su despite clear 10-30 m tall scarps offsetting Holocene landforms. The lack of mapped ground rupture in this area in 1911 suggests either a failure of the Bogdonovich team to reach this section of fault or that the earthquake failed to rupture here, despite clearly having done so prehistorically. The Upper Chon-Kemin section comprises steeply dipping to vertical discontinuous fractures located on steep slopes above the valley floor. Bogdonovich et al. report discontinuous

  5. Challenging Friesian horse diseases : aortic rupture and megaesophagus

    Ploeg, M.


    Aortic rupture is quite rare in Warmblood horses and is best known as an acute and fatal rupture of the aortic root in older breeding stallions. It has now become clear that aortic rupture, which is diagnosed around an age of 4 years, is more frequent in the Friesian breed than in others. The high p

  6. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    O'Sullivan, S T


    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  7. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?


    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  8. Brittle dynamic damage due to earthquake rupture

    Bhat, Harsha; Thomas, Marion


    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990, and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over wide range of strain rates. We then implement this constitutive response to understand the role of dynamic brittle off-fault damage on earthquake ruptures. We show that off-fault damage plays an important role in asymmetry of rupture propagation and is a source of high-frequency ground motion in the near source region.

  9. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.


    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  10. Ruptured Pebbles - a coseismic and paleoseismic indicator?

    Weismüller, Christopher; Reicherter, Klaus


    To increase the understanding of paleo-earthquakes and deformation patterns, and the propagation of surface waves in the proximity of active faults, we use the mainly disregarded features of ruptured or broken pebbles within in a clayey matrix. Deformation of unconsolidated sediments (alluvium, colluvium) due to earthquake ruptures is a long investigated topic, including the degradation of the fault scarp. However, during many trenching studies aligned pebbles along the fault planes have been described, and attributed to coseismic deformation. Over the last decades, we have found many ruptured pebbles in trenches at active faults with historic earthquakes, but also aligned (rotated?) pebbles. Here, we describe ruptured pebbles from a Pleistocene debris flow near the coastline between the towns Carboneras and Mojácar (SE Spain), East of the Sierra Cabrera. The outcrop is on-fault at the transition of the active Carboneras and Palomares faults (major historical earthquakes with M 7 in 1518 and 1522), implying proximity to the earthquakes epicenters. The Carboneras (NE-SW), Gafarillos (E-W) and Palomares (NNE-SSW) faults form major faults in eastern Andalucia. The outcrop contains ruptured pebbles in an only slightly consolidated, Pleistocene debris flow with 50 % matrix content. Similar near-fault ruptured pebbles have already been observed in the Carrizales quarry near Baelo Claudia, S Spain, and many other sites (e.g., Italy, Greece, Russia), but always in the proximity of active faults. We measured the fractures of 100 pebbles as planes, if possible, or trend, in case no measureable plane was accessible. Complementary 3D-models of the outcrop and each ruptured pebble were created using Structure from Motion, allowing us to further study the pebbles morphology and geometry. Mode II and conjugate fractures are prevailing in the pebbles and the lack of surface-loading such as striations and dissolution pits neglects clast-interaction. Un-cemented shear planes

  11. [Conservative functional treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures].

    Hüfner, T; Gaulke, R; Imrecke, J; Krettek, C; Stübig, T


    The conservative functional treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures has developed further over the last 20 years and is basically possible for 60-80% of patients. The treatment leads to success if the indications obtained by dynamic sonography are correctly interpreted (adaptation of the tendon ends up to 20 degrees plantar flexion), if the patient presents sufficient compliance and the physiotherapy is increasingly intensified depending on tendon healing. Modern ortheses allow an increased equinus position and therefore improved protection of the healing tendon. If these factors are present a relatively low re-rupture rate of only 7% can be achieved. The decisive advantage of conservative functional therapy is the avoidance of specific operative risks, such as infection and injury to the sural nerve. After removal of the orthesis the tendon should continue to be modeled using shoe insoles and raised heels.


    Shergill Harbhajan K, Grover Suparna, Chhabra Ajay


    Full Text Available It is a rare occurrence for the rudimentary horn of uterus to harbour a pregnancy and the usual outcome is devastating leading to a spontaneous rupture in second trimester with the patient presenting in shock with massive intra-peritoneal haemorrhage and if appropriate management is not instituted in time it may lead to high rate of mortality. We report an unusual case of rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy who presented as a chronic ectopic with an adnexal mass and surprisingly with no sign of shock. Diagnosis is often difficult in such a situation which puts the treating gynaecologist in dilemma. High clinical suspicion supplemented with radiological findings helped clinch the diagnosis and laparotomy was performed followed by resection of the rudimentary horn to prevent future complications.

  13. Plaque rupture in humans and mice

    Schwartz, Stephen M; Galis, Zorina S; Rosenfeld, Michael E


    Despite the many studies of murine atherosclerosis, we do not yet know the relevance of the natural history of this model to the final events precipitated by plaque disruption of human atherosclerotic lesions. The literature has become particularly confused because of the common use of terms...... such as "instability", "vulnerable", "rupture", or even "thrombosis" for features of plaques in murine model systems not yet shown to rupture spontaneously and in an animal surprisingly resistant to formation of thrombi at sites of atherosclerosis. We suggest that use of conclusory terms like "vulnerable" and "stable...... that various forms of data have implicated in plaque progression. For example, formation of the fibrous cap, protease activation, and cell death in the necrotic core can be well described and have all been modeled in well-defined experiments. The relevance of such well-defined, objective, descriptive...

  14. Case report: rupture of popliteal artery aneurysm

    Altino Ono Moraes


    Full Text Available An 83-year-old female patient with a history of prior endovascular treatment to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm presented with intense pain and edema in the left leg, with hyperemia and localized temperature increase. Doppler ultrasonography revealed a voluminous aneurysm of the popliteal artery with a contained rupture, and hematoma involving the popliteal fossa and the medial and anterior surfaces of the knee causing compression of the popliteal vein. Endovascular repair was accomplished with covered stents and the rupture was confirmed. during the procedure The aneurysm was excluded and the signs and symptoms it had caused resolved completely, but during the postoperative period the patient developed sepsis of pulmonary origin and died.

  15. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment.

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner


    Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains to be clarified, particularly the role of weight-bearing during early rehabilitation. Also, there is a need for a clinically applicable and accurate measurement to detect patients in risk of developing Achilles tendon elongation. The aim of this PhD thesis was to evaluate non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. In study I, a cross-sectional survey was performed investigating the chosen treatment protocols across Scandinavia. In study II, the effect of immediate weight-bearing on patient reported and functional outcomes was investigated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In study III, the effect of immediate weight-bearing on the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex was investigated in an RCT. In study IV, validity, reliability and agreement of a novel ultrasound measurement of Achilles tendon length and elongation was tested. Study I found surgery to be the preferred treatment in 83% of departments in Denmark, 92% in Norway, 65% in Sweden, and 30% in Finland (p tendon complex. Study IV showed excellent intra-rater reliability (ICC 0.96, SEM 3.7 mm and MDC 10.3 mm), inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.97, SEM 3.3 mm and MDC 9.3 mm) and validity (measurement error 2%). Treatment algorithms across Scandinavia showed considerable variation, though operative treatment and controlled early weight-bearing was the preferred treatment in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Immediate weight-bearing was found to be safe and recommendable in non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. The novel ultrasound measurement showed excellent reliability and acceptable validity and agreement.

  16. Spontaneous rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Ahstrom, J P


    In this study, rupture of the plantar fascia was seen in five feet, of which four had had plantar fasciitis. At the time of the injury, which is an acceleration type of motion, there is severe pain in the heel followed by the development of ecchymosis in the sole and toward the heel of the foot. With conservative symptomatic care, the acute symptoms as well as the plantar fasciitis symptoms subside, generally allowing full activity in 3 to 4 weeks.

  17. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

    Bahjat Barakat


    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  18. Fan-structure waves in shear ruptures

    Tarasov, Boris


    This presentation introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new slabs), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the correspondingly low transient strength of the lithosphere, which favours generation of new earthquake faults in the intact rock mass adjoining pre-existing faults in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along these faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created, while further dynamic propagation of the new fault (earthquake) occurs at low field stresses even below the frictional strength.

  19. Pneumatic Rupture of Rectosigmoid; a Case Report

    Mohammad Montazeri; Bahman Farhangi; Mahmood Montazeri


    Pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture is usually occurred following the inappropriate fun by direct entering a high volume of the air through the pneumatic device to the anus. Such an event was reported for the first time in 1904 by Stone. Diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are often delayed because of some social limitations and preventing the patient form explaining the event. Colon sigmoid rupture and pneumoperitoneum is one of the most dangerous and life treating complications of entering ...

  20. Radiological evaluation of sinus valsalva rupture

    Lee, Yul; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We obtained the following results by reviewing the radiographic findings of 15 cases of Sinus valsalva rupture who were diagnosed surgically at Seoul National University Hospital since 1979. 1. Among distribution was from 15 years to 40 years with the mean age of 24 years. Among the 15 cases, 9 cases were male and 7 were female. 2. Ruptured sinus is right coronary sinus projecting to right ventricle in all 15 cases. Combined diseases are ventricular septal defect in 12 cases, Aortic Valvular heart disease in 4 cases, and narrowing of right ventricular outflow tract in 2 cases, and aneurysmal dilatation of right pulmonary artery in 1 cases. 3. Chest X-ray findings were that of left to right shunt, i.e, cardiomegaly, increased pulmonary vascularity but were normal in 3 cases. 4. Aortography showed sequential leakage of dye from right coronary sinus to right ventricle and finally to pulmonary artery in 9 cases, and in 9 cases of them the leakage is directly to right ventricular outflow tract without filling of sinus portion of the ventricle., i.e., type I. 5. The leakage was well shown in left ventricular diastolic phase and not shown in systolic phase. 6. Ventricular septal defects were not detected definitely in spite of taking left ventriculography. 7. Cine angiography is essential for detecting accurate site, degree and direction of sinus valsalva rupture and other associated cardiac abnormality.

  1. Endovascular treatment for ruptured basilar apex aneurysm

    Sheng LI


    Full Text Available Objective The present study aims to prove the effectiveness and safety of endovascular interventional therapy for ruptured basilar apex aneurysm.Methods The imaging data,methods of endovascular treatment,and clinical results of 12 patients suffering from ruptured basilar apex aneurysms from January 2001 to December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed.The 12 patients were composed of 5 males and 7 females,and their ages ranged from 21 years to 58 years.Results Nine patients suffered from narrow-necked aneurysms,which were directly embolized,and the other three suffered from wide-necked aneurysms,which were embolized using a microstent.Eight aneurysms were completely embolized,and the other four were partly embolized.No rebleeding occurred within the follow-up period of 12 months to 36 months,and all patients recovered well without neurological defects.Conclusions Therefore,endovascular treatment for ruptured basilar apex aneurysm is a semi-invasive,safe,and effective method.

  2. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling


    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment.

  3. Effects of Apparent Supersonic Ruptures for Strike-slip Rupture: Should We Consider it in the Seismic Hazard Analysis?

    Barrows, M. B.; Shao, G.; Ji, C.


    Recent numerical studies indicated that the supersonic rupture could produce larger off-fault damage at distant sites than the sub-shear rupture, due to the famous "mach cone" effect (Dunham and Archuleta, 2005; Bhat et al, 2007). These results were obtained using the steady-state rupture simulations in a half-space earth. For more realistic layered or 3D earth models, we should also consider the effects of apparent supersonic rupture, i.e., the deep rupture is still in a speed slower than the local shear velocity, but faster than the near surface S or even the P wave velocity. The apparent super-shear rupture could excite the mach effect, but how large it is has not yet been quantitatively addressed. In this study, we explore this possibility by performing numerical simulations for pure strike-slip ruptures on a vertical fault inside various layered earth models.

  4. Simultaneous reconstruction of quadriceps tendon rupture after TKA and neglected Achilles tendon rupture.

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Jae Ho; Han, Seung Hwan; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Oh, Kyung Soo


    We report a case of simultaneous reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and neglected Achilles tendon rupture, which occurred before TKA with an ipsilateral hamstring autograft. A 64-year-old woman presented with persistent right knee pain. She also had right heel pain and had received multiple steroid injections at the knee joint and heel. On examination, she showed osteoarthritis in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee joint and an Achilles tendon rupture in the ipsilateral limb. There was skin dimpling and the proximal portion of tendon was migrated. We performed TKA, and the postoperative course was satisfactory. She returned 3 months postoperatively, however, with skin dimpling around the suprapatellar area and weakness of knee extension. Her ankle symptoms were also aggravated because she could not use the knee joint freely. We performed simultaneous reconstruction of the quadriceps tendon and the Achilles tendon using an ipsilateral hamstring autograft.Hamstring autograft offers a good alternative treatment option for rupture repair, particularly with concommitant ruptures of multiple sites when primary repair is not possible or the viability of repaired tissue is poor.

  5. The Preliminary Research on Rupture and Factors Affecting Rupturing of the Hoh Sai Hu Segment in Eastern Kunlun

    Bai Yuzhu; Xu Jie; Zhou Qing; Zhou Bengang


    On November 14, 2001, an extraordinarily large earthquake (Ms8. 1) occurred on the Hoh Sai Hu segment of the Eastern Kunlun Fault, in the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The seismogenic fault, the Hoh Sai Hu segment, is a left-lateral fault with a high slip rate in geological history, with the average slip rate reaching( 14. 8± 2. 8)mm/a since the late Pleistocene. Different slip rates of the Hoh Sai Hu segment can affect fault motion in the future. Therefore, this paper analyzes the effect of different slip rates and different initial friction coefficients on the fault plane of the Hoh Sai Hu segment of the eastern Kunlun Fault on the rupture behaviors of the fault. In this research, we apply the single degree of spring block model controlled by the rate- and state-dependent frictional constitutive laws. Using the fault dislocation model and based on ancient earthquake research, historical earthquakes data and the achievements of previous researchers, we obtained the parameters of this model. Through numerical simulation of the rupturing motion of the Hoh Sai Hu segment in the next 6500 years under different slip rates, we find that a faster annual slip rate will shorten the recurrence interval of the earthquake. For example, the earthquake recurrence interval is 2100a at a slip rate of 0. 014m/a, which agrees with previous research, but, the recurrence interval will be 1000 - 1500a and 2100 - 2500a, corresponding to the slip rates of 0. 018m/a and 0. 008m/a, respectively. The fault slip rate has no regular effect on the coseismic slip rate and fault displacement in an earthquake. The initial friction coefficient on the fault surface has an effect on the earthquake recurrence interval. A smaller initial friction coefficient will lengthen the earthquake recurrence interval. At the same time, the smaller initial friction coefficient will lead to larger slip rates and fault displacement when earthquakes occur.

  6. Spontaneous Rupture of the Bile Duct Associated with Pancreatitis. A Rare Presentation

    Mahesh K Goenka


    Full Text Available Context Spontaneous rupture of the bile duct, although rare, has been described as a known surgical cause of jaundice in infancy after biliary atresia. Case report This article describes a four-year-old girl who presented with severe abdominal pain and features suggestive of acute pancreatitis, who developed gradual distension of the abdomen, and was found to have a ruptured bile duct, producing biliary peritonitis. She was managed with laparoscopic drainage of the peritoneal cavity. However, in view of the persistent biliary drainage, an ERCP was performed followed by stent placement for a bile duct leak. She was subsequently diagnosed as having a choledochal cyst. Conclusion A high index of suspicion, appropriate investigation, such as MRCP, combined with early drainage can help in reaching an early diagnosis, and reduced morbidity and mortality in this rare disorder.

  7. Which Dynamic Rupture Parameters can be Resolved?

    Peyrat, S.; Olsen, K.; Madariaga, R.


    We use finite-difference simulations in models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake to examine which dynamic rupture parameters may be recovered for large crustal earthquakes. By trial-and-error inversion Peyrat et al. (2001) found two simple models with constant slip-weakening friction which generated a satisfactory fit between synthetic and observed strong motion data: an asperity model, with spatially-varying initial stress and constant yield stress, and a barrier model with constant initial stress and spatially-varying yield stress. However, there is some evidence from inversion of seismic data for large earthquakes (i.e., Ide and Takeo, 1997, for the 1995 Kobe earthquake), that the slip-weakening distance Dc may vary spatially. In particular, Ide and Takeo found a larger Dc in the shallower parts of the crust compared to the deeper parts. Possible causes of such variation include the increase of elastic rigidity with depth and a fundamentally different friction in the near-surface layers. Here, we examine the effects of laterally and vertically varying Dc on the strong motion synthetics computed by our dynamic rupture models. We generate an alternative barrier model with constant initial and yield stress but spatially-varying Dc which, as our two previous rupture models of the Landers event, generate synthetics in agreement with strong motion data. Thus, we have constructed three well-posed mechanical models of the Landers earthquake that satisfy available strong motion data and which are end-members of a large family of dynamically correct models. Our findings confirm an earlier hypothesis that barrier and asperity models of an earthquake generate similar signature in the seismic radiation (Madariaga, 1979). Therefore, it may not be possible to separate stress and Dc using rupture modeling. Instead, we propose to characterize dynamic rupture propagation by the local non-dimensional parameter κ introduced by Madariaga and Olsen (2000), which is expressed in


    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari


    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  9. Coupling geodynamic earthquake cycles and dynamic ruptures

    van Zelst, Iris; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Heuret, Arnauld


    Studying the seismicity in a subduction zone and its effects on tsunamis requires diverse modelling methods that span spatial and temporal scales. Hundreds of years are necessary to build the stresses and strengths on a fault, while consequent earthquake rupture propagation is determined by both these initial fault conditions and the feedback of seismic waves over periods of seconds up to minutes. This dynamic rupture displaces the sea floor, thereby causing tsunamis. The aim of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulations of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project is to study all these aspects and their interactions. Here, we present preliminary results of the first aspects in this modelling chain: the coupling of a seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) code to the dynamic rupture model SeisSol. STM models of earthquake cycles have the advantage of solving multiple earthquake events in a self-consistent manner concerning stress, strength and geometry. However, the drawback of these models is that they often lack in spatial or temporal resolution and do not include wave propagation. In contrast, dynamic rupture models solve for frictional failure coupled to seismic wave propagation. We use the software package SeisSol ( based on an ADER-DG discretization allowing high-order accuracy in space and time as well as flexible tetrahedral meshing. However, such simulations require assumptions on the initial fault stresses and strengths and its geometry, which are hard to constrain due to the lack of near-field observations and the complexity of coseismic conditions. By adapting the geometry as well as the stress and strength properties of the self-consistently developing non-finite fault zones from the geodynamic models as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture models, the advantages of both methods are exploited and modelling results may be compared. Our results show that a dynamic rupture can be triggered spontaneously and that the propagating rupture is

  10. ALMA telescope reaches new heights


    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  11. Investigation of creep rupture properties in air and He environments of alloy 617 at 800 °C

    Kim, Woo-Gon, E-mail: [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ekaputra, I.M.W.; Park, Jae-Young [Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    Creep rupture properties for Alloy 617 were investigated by a series of creep tests under different applied stresses in air and He environments at 800 °C. The creep rupture time in air and He environments exhibited almost similar life in a short rupture time. However, when the creep rupture time reaches above 3000 h, the creep life in the He environment reduced compared with those of the air environment. The creep strain rate in the He environment was a little faster than that in the air environment above 3000 h. The reduction of creep life in the He environment was due to the difference of various microstructure features such as the carbide depleted zone, oxidation structures, surface cracking, voids below the surface, and voids in the matrix in air and He environments. Alloy 617 followed Norton’s power law and the Monkman–Grant relationship well. As the stress decreased, the creep ductility decreased slightly. The thickness of the outer and internal oxide layers presented the trend of a parabolic increase with an increase in creep rupture time in both the air and He environments. The thickness in the He environment was found to be thicker than in the air environment, although pure helium gas of 99.999% was used in the present investigation. The differences in the oxide-layer thickness caused detrimental effects on the creep resistance, even in a low oxygen-containing He agent.

  12. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  13. Missed Iatrogenic Bladder Rupture Following Normal Vaginal Delivery.

    Baheti, Vidyasagar H; Wagaskar, Vinayak G; Patwardhan, Sujata K


    Bladder rupture following caesarian section is well documented complications. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture following normal vaginal delivery is very rare. Hereby, we present a case report of intraperitoneal bladder rupture presented late following normal vaginal delivery. We report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture following uneventful outlet forceps delivery in a 22-year-old primi gravid woman with gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal macrosomia who presented with large urinary ascites, anuria and renal failure. Emergent exploratory laparotomy with repair of the intraperitoneal bladder rupture helped to prevent its potential complications. Postpartum patients who undergo episiotomy or perineal repair may land up in unnoticed urinary retention which may rarely terminate in spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. Awareness of its manifestations amongst emergency physician would help to initiate appropriate timely management.

  14. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    van de Kimmenade, R. J. L. L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Deurzen, P. J. E.; Verhagen, R. A. W.


    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  15. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    R. J. L. L. van de Kimmenade


    Full Text Available An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture.

  16. Misdiagnosed Uterine Rupture of an Advanced Cornual Pregnancy

    Christian Linus Hastrup Sant


    Full Text Available Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine rupture should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability.

  17. Misdiagnosed uterine rupture of an advanced cornual pregnancy

    Sant, Christian Linus Hastrup; Andersen, Poul Erik


    Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination...... and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine rupture should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability....

  18. Venous rupture complicating hemodialysis access angioplasty: percutaneous treatments and outcomes

    La, Young Jong; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyoung; Hong, Hyun Suk; Kwon, Gui Hyang; Choi, Duk Lin; Ynag, Sung Boo [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous management and prognosis in venous rupture during angioplasty of hemodialytic arteriovenous fistulas. Among 814 patients who underwent angioplasty on account of inadequate hemodialysis, 63(39 women and 24 men aged 20-78 (mean, 55.8) years) were included in this study. All 63 had peripheral venous stenosis. Venous rupture was diagnosed when contrast leakage was seen at venography after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA). In order to manage venous rupture, the sites at which this occurred were compressed manually for 3-5 minutes or blood flow was blocked with a balloon catheter for the same period. In one case, a stent was inserted at the rupture site. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we investigated the patency rate of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in cases of successful PTA. We also compared PTA patency rates in cases with and without peripheral venous rupture. Venous rupture occurred in 38 cephalic, 16 brachial, and 9 basilic veins. In 63 patients, bleeding stopped and in 54 (85.7 %) of thee, PTA was successful. Among the nine failed cases, dilatation was incomplete in five, though bleeding had stopped. In patients with brachial and cephalic vein rupture the venous tract at the rupture site was not located. Two patients underwent surgery: one of these experienced brachial venous rupture, with incontrollable bleeding, and the other had nerve compression symptoms due to hematoma. Among 54 patients in whom PTA was successful, the primary and secondary six-months rates for angioaccess were 47.9% and 81.2%, and the mean patency period was 6.1 and 15.8 months, respectively. In cases of non-venous rupture, the mean patency period was 9.6 months, significantly longer than in cases involving venous rupture (p=0.02). Venous rupture occurring during the PTA of hemodialytic AVF can be managed percutaneously.

  19. Alliance ruptures, impasses, and enactments: a relational perspective.

    Safran, Jeremy D; Kraus, Jessica


    Alliance ruptures, impasses, and transference-countertransference enactments are inevitable in therapy. A growing body of evidence suggests that repairing ruptures in the alliance is related to positive outcome (Safran, Muran, & Eubanks-Carter, 2011). Our research program has led to the development of training methods to enhance therapists' abilities to detect and work constructively with alliance ruptures and negative therapeutic process (Safran et al., 2014). This article outlines relevant theoretical underpinnings, intervention principles, and empirical findings.

  20. MRI in flexor tendon rupture after collagenase injection

    Khurana, Shruti [Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi (India); Wadhwa, Vibhor [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Amirlak, Bardia [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)


    Flexor tendon rupture is an unusual complication following collagenase injection to relieve contractures. These patients require a close follow-up and in the event of tendon rupture, a decision has to be made whether to repair the tendon or manage the complication conservatively. The authors report the utility of MRI in the prognostication and management of a patient with Dupuytren's contracture, who underwent collagenase injection and subsequently developed flexor digitorum profundus tendon rupture. (orig.)

  1. The Road Less Traveled: Why the 2002 Denali Rupture Took the Totschunda Exit

    Schwartz, D. P.; Haeussler, P. J.; Seitz, G. G.; Dawson, T. E.


    ). On the EDF, 17 km east of the intersection, dated peat layers and historical seismicity indicate the most recent surface rupture occurred 100-340 years before 2002, with the event closer to the younger date. The penultimate event on the TF occurred 580-700 years before 2002 based on dating at a site 12 km east of the intersection. When the 2002 rupture reached the CDF-TF intersection insufficient potential slip (0.6-3.2m) inhibited a continuation on the EDF. The TF, with larger potential slip (2.8-4.9 m), was primed and was triggered. Observed offset in 2002 approached 3m along much of the length of the TF rupture; slip in the penultimate event was similar. From paleoearthquake dates on the CDF (AD1430-1650, 930-1300), EDF (AD1660-1900, between or prior to 1320-1450, between or post 720-990), and TF (AD 1302-1422, 612-822) it appears unlikely that the two prior CDF ruptures extended beyond the intersection. We suggest that data on event history, slip rate, paleo offsets, and fault geometry, especially on high slip rate-short recurrence interval faults, can be used to assess the likelihood of branching and its direction at other fault intersections such the San Andreas-San Gregorio and the San Andreas-San Jacinto.

  2. Kinetics of hole nucleation in biomembrane rupture

    Evans, Evan [Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Smith, Benjamin A, E-mail: [Departments of Physics and Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A6 (Canada)


    The core component of a biological membrane is a fluid-lipid bilayer held together by interfacial-hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions, which are balanced for the most part by acyl chain entropy confinement. If biomembranes are subjected to persistent tensions, an unstable (nanoscale) hole will emerge at some time to cause rupture. Because of the large energy required to create a hole, thermal activation appears to be requisite for initiating a hole and the activation energy is expected to depend significantly on mechanical tension. Although models exist for the kinetic process of hole nucleation in tense membranes, studies of membrane survival have failed to cover the ranges of tension and lifetime needed to critically examine nucleation theory. Hence, rupturing giant ({approx}20 {mu}m) membrane vesicles ultra-slowly to ultra-quickly with slow to fast ramps of tension, we demonstrate a method to directly quantify kinetic rates at which unstable holes form in fluid membranes, at the same time providing a range of kinetic rates from <0.01 to >100 s{sup -1}. Measuring lifetimes of many hundreds of vesicles, each tensed by precision control of micropipette suction, we have determined the rates of failure for vesicles made from several synthetic phospholipids plus 1:1 mixtures of phospho- and sphingo-lipids with cholesterol, all of which represent prominent constituents of eukaryotic cell membranes. Plotted on a logarithmic scale, the failure rates for vesicles are found to rise dramatically with an increase in tension. Converting the experimental profiles of kinetic rates into changes of activation energy versus tension, we show that the results closely match expressions for thermal activation derived from a combination of meso-scale theory and molecular-scale simulations of hole formation. Moreover, we demonstrate a generic approach to transform analytical fits of activation energies obtained from rupture experiments into energy landscapes characterizing the

  3. 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture

    ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui


    Objective: To investigate the effect of 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture and evaluate the related factors associated with prognosis.Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 28 consecutive patients, 18 men and 10 women, with severe ocular rupture admitted to the Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 1999 and January 2002. The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 58 years, mean 29.5years. All operations were performed by the first author.All patients underwent standard 3-port pars plana vitrectomy with scleral encircling buckle,endophotocoagulation, and tamponaded with silicone oil.Lensectomy were performed on 15 eyes. 360-degree retinotomy and retinectomy were performed at anterior equator on 16 eyes, and posterior equator on 12 eyes.Results: During operation, all patients were confirmed to have vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment, in which hemorrhagic ciliary body detachment was found in 9 eyes, suprachoroidal hemorrhage in 12 eyes,retinal twisting like flower stalk in 11 eyes, and retinal incarceration in 17 eyes. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 26 cases, ranged from 6 months to 46 months.Retinal reattachment achieved in 20 eyes (76. 9%), in which three patients' retina was reattached after revitrectomy. The silicone oil was removed at the fourth month in 8 eyes postoperatively. Corrected visual acuity of 0.02 or more was in 14 eyes (70. 0%) among the 20patients with reattached retina. Visual acuity of 0.05 or more was in 7 eyes ( 35.0 % ), and 0.1 or more was in 3eyes. The best visual acuity was 0.3 in 1 eye.Conclusions: Retinectomy may improve the prognosis of severe ocular rupture and save the visual function of some patients.

  4. Bladder rupture causing pseudo acute renal failure

    Luciana Andrea Avena Smeili


    Full Text Available Bladder rupture is a rare condition associated with significant morbidityand mortality. It is classified into traumatic, nontraumatic or idiopathic andspontaneous. The nonspecific initial clinical presentation is followed bydiscomfort in the lower abdomen, oliguria, hematuria and ascitis. Laboratoryabnormalities simulate the picture of acute renal failure and occurs by amechanism called auto reverse dialysis, with absorption of excreta throughthe peritoneal membrane. The authors describe a case of bladder rupturein morphologically and functionally normal urinary bladder associated withalcohol intake in young healthy man, manifested by abdominal discomfort,pseudo renal failure and massive ascitis. The diagnosis was made by anabdominal multidetector computed tomography confirmed by the finding of7 cm laceration at laparotomy.

  5. Closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii in wakeboarders.

    Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Swanson, Britta L; Bannar, Stephen M


    Closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii is a rare injury. In this report, two cases of closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii after wakeboard traumas are described. Both patients presented with a swollen arm, weakness during flexion, and a mass in the affected forearm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed displacement of the biceps brachii into the forearm. The rupture was successfully treated with muscle removal in one case and muscle repair in the other. In patients with a wakeboard trauma and similar presentations, closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii should be suspected.

  6. Thrombosis and morphology of plaque rupture using optical coherence tomography

    GUO Jun; CHEN Yun-dai; TIAN Feng; LIU Hong-bin; CHEN Lian; SUN Zhi-jun; REN Yi-hong


    Background Thrombosis following plaque rupture is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome,but not all plaque ruptures lead to thrombosis.There are limited in vivo data on the relationship between the morphology of ruptured plaque and thrombosis.Methods We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate the morphology of plaque rupture and its relation to coronary artery thrombosis in patients with coronary heart disease.Forty-two patients with coronary artery plaque rupture detected by OCT were divided into two groups (with or without thrombus) and the morphological characteristics of ruptured plaque,including fibrous cap thickness and broken cap site,were recorded.Results The fibrous cap of ruptured plaque with thrombus was significantly thinner compared to caps without thrombus ((57.00±17.00) μm vs.(96.00±48.00) μm; P=0.0076).Conclusions Plaque rupture associated with thrombosis occurs primarily in plaque covered by a thin fibrous cap.Thick fibrous caps are associated with greater stability of ruptured plaque.

  7. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung


    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  8. Rupture Process During the 2015 Illapel, Chile Earthquake: Zigzag-Along-Dip Rupture Episodes

    Okuwaki, Ryo; Yagi, Yuji; Aránguiz, Rafael; González, Juan; González, Gabriel


    We constructed a seismic source model for the 2015 M W 8.3 Illapel, Chile earthquake, which was carried out with the kinematic waveform inversion method adopting a novel inversion formulation that takes into account the uncertainty in the Green's function, together with the hybrid backprojection method enabling us to track the spatiotemporal distribution of high-frequency (0.3-2.0 Hz) sources at high resolution by using globally observed teleseismic P-waveforms. A maximum slip amounted to 10.4 m in the shallow part of the seismic source region centered 72 km northwest of the epicenter and generated a following tsunami inundated along the coast. In a gross sense, the rupture front propagated almost unilaterally to northward from the hypocenter at event at the down-dip edge of the seismic source region. High-frequency sources tends to be distributed at deeper parts of the slip area, a pattern also documented in other subduction zone megathrust earthquakes that may reflect the heterogeneous distribution of fracture energy or stress drop along the fault. The weak excitation of high-frequency radiation at the termination of rupture may represent the gradual deceleration of rupture velocity at the transition zone of frictional property or stress state between the megathrust rupture zone and the swarm area.

  9. Long-term results after repair of ruptured and non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Kuzmanović Ilija B.


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be repaired by elective procedure while asymptomatic, or immediately when it is complicated - mostly due to rupture. Treating abdominal aneurysm electively, before it becomes urgent, has medical and economical reason. Today, the first month mortality after elective operations of the abdominal aorta aneurysm is less than 3%; on the other hand, significant mortality (25%-70% has been recorded in patients operated immediately because of rupture of the abdominal aneurysm. In addition, the costs of elective surgical treatment are significantly lower. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to compare long-term survival of patients that underwent elective or immediate repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (due to rupture, and to find out the factors influencing the long-term survival of these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Through retrospective review of prospectively collected data of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, 56 patients that had elective surgery and 35 patients that underwent urgent operation due to rupture of abdominal aneurysm were followed up. Only the patients that survived 30 postoperative days were included in this review, and were followed up (ranging from 2 to 126 months. Electively operated patients were followed during 58.82 months on the average (range 7 to 122, and urgently operated were followed over 52.26 months (range 2 to 126. There was no significant difference of the length of postoperative follow-up between these two groups. RESULTS During this period, out of electively operated and immediately operated patients, 27 and 22 cases died, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0,05a of long-term survival between these two groups. Obesity and early postoperative complications significantly decreased long-term survival of both electively and immediately operated patients. Graft infection, ventral hernia, aneurysm of

  10. Earthquake behavior of variable rupture- scale on active faults and application of the cascade-rupturing model



    This study reveals preliminarily the earthquake behavior of variable rupture-scale on active faults of the Chinese mainland, that is that on an individual fault portion earthquake¢s rupture-scale varies cycle to cycle, and hence earthquake¢s strength changes with time. The tendency of this variation has no necessity. On defining relative size of rupture scales, a statistical result shows that it is of the lowest probability that ruptures with the same scale occur in two successive cycles. While the rupture¢s scale in the preceding cycle is 2small2, the probability of the follow-ing rupture¢s scale being 2large2 is as many as 0.48. While the rupture¢s scale in the preceding cycle is 2middle2, the probability of the succeeding rupture being 2small2 or 2large2 scale is 0.69 or 0.25. While the rupture¢s scale in the preceding cycle is 2large2, the probability must be zero for the following rupture with 2large2 scale, and is 0.36 or 0.64 for the following rupture with 2small2 or 2middle2 scale. The author introduces and improves the cascade-rupturing model, and uses it to describe the variability and complexity of rupture scale on individual fault portions. Basic features of some active strike-slip faults on which cascade ruptures have occurred are summarized. Basing on these features the author proposes principles of cascade-rupture segmentation for this type of faults. As an ex-ample to application, the author segments one portion of the Anninghe fault zone, western Sichuan, for its future cascade rupture, and further assesses the probable strength and its corresponding probability of the coming earth-quake.

  11. Resection of left ventricular fibroma with subacute papillary muscle rupture.

    Leja, Monika J; Perryman, Lynda; Reardon, Michael J


    Cardiac fibroma is a rare, benign tumor that occurs chiefly in children and rarely in adults. Most fibromas occur in the ventricles and may reach a very large size that complicates surgical removal. Herein, we report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with shortness of breath, fatigue, and lightheadedness and was found to have a 6 × 8-cm fibroma of the left ventricle. Surgical resection was successful, but 7 days later she developed sudden-onset severe mitral regurgitation due to partial disruption of the posterolateral papillary muscle. Mitral valve replacement with a 27-mm mechanical valve was performed. Five years later, the patient remained well, without evident tumor recurrence or cardiac dysfunction.Mitral valve dysfunction with regurgitation has been reported to occur before, immediately after, and late after the resection of left ventricular fibromas. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of subacute papillary muscle rupture after the resection of a left ventricular fibroma. This case highlights the need to evaluate mitral valve function by carefully inspecting the resection margins after surgery and interpreting the echocardiographic results during the acute, subacute, and late time frames.

  12. Diagnostic Modalities in Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Fatma Eskicioğlu


    Full Text Available Objectives: Rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor is known as Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM. Early and correct diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent fetal and maternal risks that can be life threatening. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic ability of the tests in PROM. Materials and Methods: Nitrazine test, fern test, amnio-dye test, biochemical tests (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental alpha microglobulin-1 were evaluated in terms of effectiveness in diagnosis of PROM. Results: A gold standard method has not yet been defined in PROM. Diagnostic tests (nitrazine test, fern test, Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 “IGFBP-1” and Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 “PAMG-1” should be used when the diagnosis is not certain following history, examination with sterile speculum and ultrasonography evaluation. Conclusion: IGFBP-1 and PAMG-1 are tests based on bedside immunochromatographic method. Especially, PAMG-1 comes into prominence with its high sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Ruptures of the distal biceps tendon.

    Ward, James P; Shreve, Mark C; Youm, Thomas; Strauss, Eric J


    Distal biceps ruptures occur most commonly in middle-aged males and result from eccentric contraction of the biceps tendon. The injury typically presents with pain and a tearing sensation in the antecubital fossa with resultant weakness in flexion and supination strength. Physical exam maneuvers and diagnostic imaging aid in determining the diagnosis. Nonoperative management is reserved for elderly, low demand patients, while operative intervention is generally pursued for younger patients and can consist of nonanatomic repair to the brachialis or anatomic repair to the radial tuberosity. Anatomic repair through a one-incision or two-incision approach is commonplace, while the nonanatomic repairs are rarely performed. No clear advantage exists in operative management with a one-incision versus two-incision techniques. Chronic ruptures present a more difficult situation, and allograft augmentation is often necessary. Common complications after repair include transient nerve palsy, which often resolves, and heterotopic ossification. Despite these possible complications, most studies suggest that better patient outcomes are obtained with operative, anatomic reattachment of the distal biceps tendon.

  14. The Reasons of Steam Pipeline Elbow Rupture

    Mesjasz A.


    Full Text Available In the paper the reasons for steam pipeline’s elbow material rupture, made of steel 13CrMo4-5 (15HM that is being used in the energetics. Based on the mechanical properties in the ambient temperature (Rm, Rp0,2 and elongation A5 and in the increased temperature (Rp0,2t it was found, that the pipeline elbow’s material sampled from the ruptured area has lower Rp0,2 i Rp0,2t by around 2% than it is a requirement for 13CrMo4-5 steel in it’s base state. The damage appeared as a result of complex stress state, that substantially exceeded the admissible tensions, what was the consequence of considerable structure degradation level. As a result of the microstructure tests on HITACHI S4200 microscope, the considerable development of the creeping process associates were found. Also the advances progress of the microstructure degradation was observed, which is substantial decomposition of bainite and multiple, with varied secretion size, and in most cases forming the micro cracks chains. With the use of lateral micro sections the creeping voids were observed, that creates at some places the shrinkage porosities clusters and micro pores.

  15. Probability of rupture of multiple fault segments

    Andrews, D.J.; Schwerer, E.


    Fault segments identified from geologic and historic evidence have sometimes been adopted as features limiting the likely extends of earthquake ruptures. There is no doubt that individual segments can sometimes join together to produce larger earthquakes. This work is a trial of an objective method to determine the probability of multisegment ruptures. The frequency of occurrence of events on all conjectured combinations of adjacent segments in northern California is found by fitting to both geologic slip rates and to an assumed distribution of event sizes for the region as a whole. Uncertainty in the shape of the distribution near the maximum magnitude has a large effect on the solution. Frequencies of individual events cannot be determined, but it is possible to find a set of frequencies to fit a model closely. A robust conclusion for the San Francisco Bay region is that large multisegment events occur on the San Andreas and San Gregorio faults, but single-segment events predominate on the extended Hayward and Calaveras strands of segments.

  16. Rupture of Right Ventricular Free Wall Following Ventricular Septal Rupture in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy with Right Ventricular Involvement.

    Sung, June Min; Hong, Sung Jin; Chung, In Hyun; Lee, Hye Young; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Byun, Young Sup; Kim, Byung Ok; Rhee, Kun Joo


    Most patients diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathies are expected to almost completely recover, and their prognosis is excellent. However, complications can occur in the acute phase. We present a case of a woman with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with right ventricular involvement who developed a rupture of the right ventricular free wall following ventricular septal rupture, as a consequence of an acute increase in right ventricular afterload by left-to-right shunt. Our case report illustrates that takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be life threatening in the acute phase. Ventricular septal rupture in biventricular takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a harbinger of cardiac tamponade by right ventricular rupture.

  17. Investigation of possibility of surface rupture derived from PFDHA and calculation of surface displacement based on dislocation

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Irikura, K.


    A probability of surface rupture is important to configure the seismic source, such as area sources or fault models, for a seismic hazard evaluation. In Japan, Takemura (1998) estimated the probability based on the historical earthquake data. Kagawa et al. (2004) evaluated the probability based on a numerical simulation of surface displacements. The estimated probability indicates a sigmoid curve and increases between Mj (the local magnitude defined and calculated by Japan Meteorological Agency) =6.5 and Mj=7.0. The probability of surface rupture is also used in a probabilistic fault displacement analysis (PFDHA). The probability is determined from the collected earthquake catalog, which were classified into two categories: with surface rupture or without surface rupture. The logistic regression is performed for the classified earthquake data. Youngs et al. (2003), Ross and Moss (2011) and Petersen et al. (2011) indicate the logistic curves of the probability of surface rupture by normal, reverse and strike-slip faults, respectively. Takao et al. (2013) shows the logistic curve derived from only Japanese earthquake data. The Japanese probability curve shows the sharply increasing in narrow magnitude range by comparison with other curves. In this study, we estimated the probability of surface rupture applying the logistic analysis to the surface displacement derived from a surface displacement calculation. A source fault was defined in according to the procedure of Kagawa et al. (2004), which determined a seismic moment from a magnitude and estimated the area size of the asperity and the amount of slip. Strike slip and reverse faults were considered as source faults. We applied Wang et al. (2003) for calculations. The surface displacements with defined source faults were calculated by varying the depth of the fault. A threshold value as 5cm of surface displacement was used to evaluate whether a surface rupture reach or do not reach to the surface. We carried out the

  18. Symptomatic Lumbar Facet Synovial Cysts: Clinical Outcomes Following Percutaneous CT-Guided Cyst Rupture with Intra-articular Steroid Injection.

    Haider, Steffen J; Na, Nu R; Eskey, Clifford J; Fried, Jessica G; Ring, Natalie Y; Bao, Mike H; Pastel, David A


    To evaluate clinical outcomes following percutaneous rupture of symptomatic lumbar facet synovial cysts (LFSCs) with intra-articular steroid injection. In this retrospective review, 44 consecutive patients with symptomatic LFSCs received primary treatment with CT-guided synovial cyst rupture with intra-articular steroid injection. Outcomes questionnaires were obtained before and 1, 4, 26, and 52 weeks after LFSC rupture. Assessment included pain medication use and numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and 12-item short form health survey (SF-12) physical and mental composite scores (PCS and MCS). Clinical endpoint was 52-week survey response or surgery. LFSC rupture was technically successful in 84% (37/44) of cases. Clinical endpoint was reached in 68% (30/44) of patients with 82% overall 1-year follow-up. Lumbar spine surgery was performed in 25% (11/44) of patients within 1 year after procedure. Mean NRS, ODI, and SF-12 PCS demonstrated significant improvement at all follow-up time points (P < .001). At 52-week follow-up, NRS decreased from 8.1 to 3.7 (P < .001), ODI improved from 35 to 24 (P = .006), and SF-12 PCS improved from 31 to 42 (P < .001). Daily pain medication decreased from 71% (31/44) of patients before procedure to 29% (9/26) at 52-week follow-up (P = .012). History of prior lumbar intervention was associated with poorer LFSC rupture success (P = .025) and ODI (P = .047). NRS, ODI, and SF-12 PCS indices improved and pain medication use decreased significantly at all time points over 1-year follow-up after percutaneous rupture of symptomatic LFSCs with intra-articular steroid injection. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of hydatid cyst due to strain-defecation

    Koray Daş; Selim Sözen; Abdurrahman Selçuk Uzun; Ebru Menekşe; Faruk Karateke; Ilhan Bali


    We report a case of strain-induced spontaneous rupture of hydatid cyst. Hydatid cyst rupture was diagnosed in a 19-year-old girl who presented with swelling and pain in the the right upper quadrant of sudden onset after straining for defecation.

  20. Morphological predictors of posterior communicating artery aneurysms rupture

    Nan Lv; Yibin Fang; Ying Yu; Jinyu Xu; Jianmin Liu; Qinghai Huang


    Objective:The conflicting findings of previous morphological studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the different locations of aneurysms. We aimed to determine the independent risk factors of aneurysm rupture by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PcomA) aneurysms. Methods:In 89 PcomA aneurysms (58 ruptured, 31 unruptured), clinical and morphological characteristics were compared between the ruptured and unruptured groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent predictors for the rupture status of PcomA aneurysms. Results:In univariate analyses, the aneurysm dome size, aspect ratio, size ratio, dome‐to‐neck ratio, and inflow angle were significant parameters. With multivariate analyses, only the aneurysm dome size and inflow angle were significantly associated with the rupture status of PcomA aneurysms. Conclusions:Morphology was related with rupture of PcomA aneurysms. The aneurysm dome size and inflow angle were found to be the independent parameters characterizing the rupture status of PcomA aneurysms.

  1. Unusual Cause of Acute Abdomen—Ruptured Retroperitoneal Paraganglioma

    Kwok-Kay Yau


    Full Text Available Ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Its clinical presentation and laparoscopic features have seldom been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma that presented as acute abdomen, and its subsequent management.

  2. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie


    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes.

  3. Spontaneous rupture of a liver hemangioma. A case report.

    Guillén-Paredes, María Pilar; Martínez Fernández, Josefa; Morales González, Álvaro; Pardo-García, José Luis


    Spontaneous rupture of a liver hemangioma is a very uncommon disease, but extremely seriousness because it is associated to a 75% of mortality caused by hipovolemic shock. A case of an spontaneous rupture of liver hemangioma, which was previously unknow, is presented.

  4. Hemorrhagic shock due to spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma

    Bittencourt José A.


    Full Text Available The spontaneous rupture of an adrenal pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare event; however, it is potentially fatal. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of pheochromocytoma followed by an extensive retroperitoneal hematoma and hypovolemic shock. The correct diagnostic assessment determined the adequate surgical approach and a favorable outcome for the patient.

  5. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.


    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least

  6. Control of seafloor roughness on earthquake rupture behavior

    Bilek, Susan L.; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Deshon, Heather R.


    Earthquake rupture complexity is described for three recent large underthrusting earthquakes along the Costa Rican subduction zone, the 1983 Osa, 1990 Nicoya Gulf, and 1999 Quepos events. These earthquakes occurred in regions characterized by distinctly different morphologic features on the subducting plate. The 1990 and 1999 events occurred along linear projections of subducting seamount chains and had fairly simple earthquake rupture histories. Both events are interpreted as failure of the basal contact of closely spaced isolated seamounts acting as asperities. In contrast, the 1983 event occurred along the subducting Cocos Ridge and had a complex rupture history. Comparison of rupture characteristics of these large underthrusting earthquakes with size and location of subducting features provides evidence that seamounts can be subducted to seismogenic depths and that variations in seafloor bathymetry of the subducting plate strongly influence the earthquake rupture process.

  7. Use of fluroquinolone and risk of Achilles tendon rupture

    Sode, Jacob; Obel, Niels; Hallas, Jesper


    OBJECTIVE: Several case-control studies have reported that the use of fluoroquinolone increases the risk of rupture of the Achilles tendon. Our aim was to estimate this risk by means of a population-based cohort approach. SETTING: Data on Achilles tendon ruptures and fluoroquinolone use were...... retrieved from three population-based databases that include information on residents of Funen County (population: 470,000) in primary and secondary care during the period 1991-1999. A study cohort of all 28,262 first-time users of fluoroquinolone and all incident cases of Achilles tendon ruptures were...... identified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence rate of Achilles tendon ruptures among users and non-users of fluoroquinolones and the standardised incidence rate ratio associating fluoroquinolon use with Achilles tendon rupture were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Between 1991 and 2002 the incidence...

  8. Spontaneous rupture of multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma: case report

    Özen Ö


    Full Text Available Özkan Özen, Alptekin Tosun, Çiğdem Akgül Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey Abstract: Hemoperitoneum due to nontraumatic liver rupture is rare. The most common cause of nontraumatic rupture of the liver is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The other causes of nontraumatic liver ruptures are peliosis hepatis, polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, preeclampsia, metastatic carcinoma, and other primary liver tumors. In this report, we present the computed tomography findings of spontaneous liver rupture in a 52-year-old male patient due to multifocal HCC, with the diagnosis proven by surgical specimen. Keywords: computed tomography, hemoperitoneum, liver, nontraumatic liver rupture

  9. Incidence of plantar fascia ruptures following corticosteroid injection.

    Kim, Chul; Cashdollar, Michael R; Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Fuge, LaDonna


    Plantar fasciitis is commonly treated with corticosteroid injections to decrease pain and inflammation. Therapeutic benefits often vary in terms of efficacy and duration. Rupture of the plantar fascia has been reported as a possible complication following corticosteroid injection. A retrospective chart review of 120 patients who received corticosteroid injection for plantar fasciitis was performed at the authors' institution to determine the incidence of plantar fascia rupture. The plantar fascia rupture was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Various factors were analyzed, including the number of injections, interval between injections, body mass index (BMI), and activity level. Four patients (2.4%) consequently experienced plantar fascia rupture following an average of 2.67 injections. The average BMI of these patients was 38.6 kg/m². The authors conclude that corticosteroid injection therapy appears to be a safe and effective form of nonoperative treatment with minimal complications and a relatively low incident of plantar fascia rupture.

  10. Chest radiography in acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

    Heystraten, F.M.; Rosenbusch, G.; Kingma, L.M.; Lacquet, L.K.; Boo, T. de; Lemmens, W.A.

    Of 123 patients who had suffered blunt trauma to the chest traumatic aortic rupture was eventually confirmed in 61 and absent in 62 patients. The chest radiographs of these patients were examined for 15 signs reported in the literature as being associated with traumatic aortic rupture. Although many individual signs were significantly more frequent in the aortic rupture group they were not useful in differentiating between patients with and those without rupture of the aorta. By using discriminant analysis combining 2 or 3 signs, patients were classified as having aortic rupture or not. The best discrimination between the two groups was obtained using the combined signs of a widened paratracheal stripe, and opacified pulmonary window, a widened right paraspinal interface and a displaced nasogastric tube.

  11. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma presenting as hemoperitoneum mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma rupture


    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a pleomorphic mesenchynal sarcoma. It is uncommonly arises primarily from the intra-peritoneal cavity. Primary peritoneal MFH with tumor bleeding and rupture is rare. We describe the imaging features of a 70-year-old patient presenting with ruptured hemorrhagic peritoneal MFH at subhepatic area, accompanied by massive hemoperitoneum,mimicking a ruptured pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a large heterogeneous enhanced subhepatic mass with adjacent liver, gallbladder and colon invasion. Tumor hemorrhage and rupture complicated with peritoneal seeding and massive bloody ascites were also detected.Angiography showed a hypervascular tumor fed by enlarged right hepatic arteries, cystic artery and omental branches of gastroepiploic artery. The patient underwent laparotomy for tumor resection, but the tumor recurred one month after operation. To our knowledge, the CT appearance of ruptured intraperitoneal MFH complicated by hemoperitoneum has not been previously described.

  12. [Histologic chorioamnionitis prevalence in patients with premature rupture membranes].

    Garcia-de la Torre, José Ignacio; Delgado-Rosas, Antonio; Gonzélez-Cantú, Gerardo


    Search Histologic Chorioamnionitis frequency in patients in week 28 (+/-) and pregnancy with premature rupture of membranes. Retrospective and observational study in which we studied all patients who came between June 28, 2011 and November 15, 2011 to receive obstetric care in the service of Tocochirurgical of the University Hospital of Saltillo, with greater than or equal 28 weeks of pregnancy. 598 patients were studied, and the frequency of premature rupture of membranes with histologic chorioamnionitis at term patients was, respectively, 1.7 and 5.3% in preterm labor. In the total sample frequency of histologic chorioamnionitis was 0.6% (4 patients) and, of these, 25% were term and 75% with preterm rupture. In patients with premature rupture of membranes the clinical chorioamnionitis was 0% valued by the criteria of Gibbs. The premature rupture of membranes is a risk factor important for histological chorioamnionitis. To decrease risk factors and possible complications, an established protocol must be taken.

  13. Anomalous statistics of aftershock sequences generated by supershear ruptures

    Pathikrit Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Most earthquake ruptures propagate with speeds smaller than the Rayleigh wave velocity of the medium. These are called sub- Rayleigh ruptures. However, under suitable conditions, segments of otherwise sub- Rayleigh seismogenic ruptures can occasionally accelerate to speeds higher than the local shear wave velocity, giving rise to so-called supershear ruptures. The occurrence of supershear ruptures is usually associated with a locally higher value of pre-stress on the fault segment compared to the sub-Rayleigh segments of the same fault. Additionally, shear stress changes generated by the supershear rupture are radiated out unattenuated to distances comparable to the depth of rupture instead of rapidly decaying at much smaller distances from the rupture. This leads to aftershocks being distributed away from the fault on the supershear segment. This study attempts to verify whether these pre- and postseismic stress conditions and the resultant spatial aftershock distributions lead to discernible features in the statistical properties of the aftershock sequences of the earthquakes known to be associated with supershear ruptures. We analyze the Gutenberg-Richter scaling, the modified Omori law and Båth’s law for the aftershock sequences of two supershear mainshocks: the 1979 MW 6.5 Imperial Valley (California and 2002 MW 7.9 Denali (Alaska earthquakes. We observe that the b-value is always higher in the supershear zone than the rest of the sequence. We also observe that there is no systematic trend in the exponent of the modified Omori law when comparing the aftershocks in the supershear zone with the rest of the aftershocks. We argue that the b-value anomaly can be explained in terms of the off-fault distribution of aftershocks around the supershear segment of the rupture.

  14. Ruptured Giant Omphalocele. A Case Report

    Víctor Manuel González Valdez


    Full Text Available Omphalocele is one of the abdominal wall defects. It can be associated with other malformations including imperforate anus, agenesis of the colon, bladder exstrophy and cardiovascular disease, frequently leading to non-viable fetuses. A case of a female newborn who was prematurely delivered (35.3 weeks in Belize with low birth weight (1860 g is presented. This first-born child required emergency surgery at ten hours of life for ruptured giant omphalocele associated with tetralogy of Fallot, hypoglycemia, and severe general malaise. The aim of this report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in such cases. Given the appropriate prenatal diagnosis implemented in Cuba, it is unusual for Cuban doctors, except those working abroad, to treat these patients; hence, this paper may be useful in the teaching context.

  15. Imaging of diaphragmatic rupture after trauma

    Eren, S. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Kantarci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Okur, A. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)


    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm usually results from blunt or penetrating injuries, or iatrogenic causes. Most cases are initially overlooked in the acute phase because they present with variable clinical and radiological signs. An overlooked diaphragmatic injury presents as a hernia many years later with potentially serious complications, therefore selection of the most appropriate radiological technique and accurate diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (DH) on the first admission is important. Although the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is problematic, various investigations may be used for diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of 19 traumatic DH cases with various imaging techniques. The patients were acute trauma cases or cases with prior trauma or thoraco-abdominal surgery with clinical suspicion of DH. An evaluation of the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of DH is presented.

  16. Essentials of anterior cruciate ligament rupture management.

    Klinge, Stephen A; Sawyer, Gregory A; Hulstyn, Michael J


    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common knee injury and an understanding of current medical knowledge regarding its management is essential. Accurate and prompt diagnosis requires an awareness of injury mechanisms and risk factors, common symptoms and physical/radiologic findings. Early mobilization and physical therapy improves outcomes regardless of treatment modality. Many older patients regain sufficient stability and function after non-operative rehabilitation. Early ACL reconstruction is appropriate for younger patients and those who engage in activities requiring frequent pivoting and rapid direction changes. ACL surgery involves reconstruction of the torn ligament tissue with various replacement graft options, each with advantages and disadvantages. The guidance of a knowledgeable and experienced therapist is required throughout an intensive and prolonged rehabilitation course. Generally excellent outcomes and low complication rates are expected, but treatment does not prevent late osteoarthritis.

  17. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Porter, D.W.


    All geothermal operations begin similarly in that oil field type drilling methods are used to produce a geothermal well that will produce naturally occurring steam or hot water. In some cases, parallel wells are drilled for the purpose of injecting water into one of the 2 to provide additional water that can be heated and returned from the remaining bore, thus enhancing the output. All geothermal operations also conclude similarly, with the heat-spent condensate (brine) being re-injected into the ground, if for no other purpose than disposal. In steam operations (vs. hot water), a condensing unit is required to convert any remaining steam into brine before re-injection. The potential rupture disk applications are outlined.

  18. Pneumatic Rupture of Rectosigmoid; a Case Report.

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Farhangi, Bahman; Montazeri, Mahmood


    Pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture is usually occurred following the inappropriate fun by direct entering a high volume of the air through the pneumatic device to the anus. Such an event was reported for the first time in 1904 by Stone. Diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are often delayed because of some social limitations and preventing the patient form explaining the event. Colon sigmoid rupture and pneumoperitoneum is one of the most dangerous and life treating complications of entering a high volume of the air to the rectum in a short time. There are only a few reports regarding the similar cases. Here, a case of pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture was reported in a 53 year-old male following an inappropriate fun.

  19. Pneumatic Rupture of Rectosigmoid; a Case Report

    Mohammad Montazeri


    Full Text Available Pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture is usually occurred following the inappropriate fun by direct entering a high volume of the air through the pneumatic device to the anus. Such an event was reported for the first time in 1904 by Stone. Diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are often delayed because of some social limitations and preventing the patient form explaining the event. Colon sigmoid rupture and pneumoperitoneum is one of the most dangerous and life treating complications of entering a high volume of the air to the rectum in a short time. There are only a few reports regarding the similar cases. Here, a case of pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture was reported in a 53 year-old male following an inappropriate fun.

  20. Heating and Weakening of Major Faults During Seismic Rupture

    Rice, J. R.


    The absence of significant heat flow from major fault zones, and scarcity of evidence for their seismic melting, means that during earthquake slip such zones could not retain shear strength comparable to the typically high static friction strength of rocks. One line of explanation is that they are actually statically weak, which could be because materials of exceptionally low friction (smectites, talc) accumulate along fault zones, or perhaps because pore pressure within the fault core is far closer to lithostatic than hydrostatic. Without dismissing either, the focus here is on how thermal processes during the rapid slips of seismic rupture can weaken a fault which is indeed statically strong. (The discussion also leaves aside another kind of non- thermal dynamic weakening, possible when there is dissimilarity in seismic properties across the fault, and/or in poroelastic properties and permeability within fringes of damaged material immediately adjoining the slip surface. Spatially nonuniform mode II slip like near a propagating rupture front may then induce a substantial reduction in the effective normal stress \\barσ.) The heating and weakening processes to be discussed divide roughly into two camps: (1) Those which are expected to be active from the start of seismic slip, and hence will be present in all earthquakes; and (2) Those that kick-in after threshold conditions of rise of temperature T or accumulation of slip are reached, and hence become a feature of larger, or at least deeper slipping, earthquakes. It has been argued that the two major players of (1) are as follows: (1.1) Flash heating and weakening of frictional contact asperities in rapid slip [Rice, 1999, 2006; Tullis and Goldsby, 2003; Goldsby and Hirth, 2006; Beeler et al., 2007; Yuan and Prakash, 2007]. That gives a strong velocity-weakening character to the friction coefficient, which is consistent with inducing self-healing rupture modes [Noda et al., 2006; Lu et al., 2007]. It is a process

  1. Reach preparation enhances visual performance and appearance.

    Rolfs, Martin; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Carrasco, Marisa


    We investigated the impact of the preparation of reach movements on visual perception by simultaneously quantifying both an objective measure of visual sensitivity and the subjective experience of apparent contrast. Using a two-by-two alternative forced choice task, observers compared the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the contrast (higher or lower) of a Standard Gabor and a Test Gabor, the latter of which was presented during reach preparation, at the reach target location or the opposite location. Discrimination performance was better overall at the reach target than at the opposite location. Perceived contrast increased continuously at the target relative to the opposite location during reach preparation, that is, after the onset of the cue indicating the reach target. The finding that performance and appearance do not evolve in parallel during reach preparation points to a distinction with saccade preparation, for which we have shown previously there is a parallel temporal evolution of performance and appearance. Yet akin to saccade preparation, this study reveals that overall reach preparation enhances both visual performance and appearance.

  2. Soft, Brown Rupture: Clinical Signs and Symptoms Associated with Ruptured PIP Breast Implants

    Yvette Godwin, FRCS


    Conclusions: Preoperative signs can be predictive of PIP implant failure. Brown-stained implants are more prone to rupture. The presence of iodine in the gel suggests unacceptable permeability of the shell early in the implant’s life span. A noninvasive screening test to detect brown implants in situ could help identify implants at risk of failure in those who elect to keep their implants.

  3. Insight into electric field-induced rupture mechanism of water-in-toluene emulsion films from a model system

    Dimova, Desislava; Pisov, Stoyan; Panchev, Nikolay; Nedyalkova, Miroslava; Madurga, Sergio; Proykova, Ana


    This paper presents a model, which we have designed to get insight into the development of electro-induced instability of a thin toluene emulsion film in contact with the saline aqueous phase. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrate the role of charge accumulation in the toluene-film rupture induced by a DC electric field. Two ensembles—NVT and NPT—are used to determine the critical value of the external field at which the film ruptures, the charge distribution and capacitance of the thin film, number densities, and the film structure. The rupture mechanism as seen from this model is the following: in both NVT and NPT ensembles, condenser plates, where the charge density is maximal, are situated at the very border between the bulk aqueous (water) phase and the mixed layer. No ion penetration is observed within the toluene core, thus leaving all the distribution of charges within the mixed zone and the bulk phase that could be attributed to the formation of hydration shells. When the critical electric field is reached within a certain time after the field application, electric discharge occurs indicating the beginning of the rupturing process. The MD simulations indicate that the NPT ensemble predicts a value of the critical field that is closer to the experimental finding.

  4. Total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee

    Diogo Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This was a retrospective case-control study on total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee, aimed to compare patella fractures with tendinous ruptures. METHODS: The sample included 190 patients and 198 total ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus. All patients were evaluated by the same examiner after a minimum one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Tendinous ruptures occurred most frequently in men, in younger patients, and had better clinical and functional outcomes when compared with patella fractures; however, the former presented higher levels of thigh atrophy. Patella fractures occurred most frequently in women and in older patients and caused most frequently caused residual pain, muscle weakness, and limitations in daily activities. Comminuted fractures were related to high-energy trauma, lower clinical and functional outcomes, and higher levels of residual pain and osteosynthesis failure. Early removal of osteosynthesis material was related to better outcomes. Regarding the tendinous ruptures, over half of the patients presented risk conditions for tendinous degeneration; a longer delay until surgery was related to lower Kujala scores. CONCLUSION: The surgical repair of bilateral ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcomes, which were better for tendinous ruptures when compared with patella fractures. However, these lesions are associated with non-negligible levels of residual pain, muscle weakness, atrophy, and other complications.

  5. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost


    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion.

  6. Pectoralis major ruptures in professional American football players.

    Tarity, T David; Garrigues, Grant E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Zooker, Chad C; Cohen, Steven B; Frederick, Robert W; Williams, Gerald R; DeLuca, Peter F; Dodson, Christopher C


    Pectoralis major injuries are an infrequent shoulder injury that can result in pain, weakness, and deformity. These injuries may occur during the course of an athletic competition, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pectoralis major ruptures in professional football players and time lost from the sport following injury. We hypothesized that ruptures most frequently occur during bench-press strength training. The National Football League Injury Surveillance System was reviewed for all pectoralis major injuries in all players from 2000 to 2010. Details regarding injury setting, player demographics, method of treatment, and time lost were recorded. A total of 10 injuries-complete ruptures-were identified during this period. Five of the 10 were sustained in defensive players, generally while tackling. Nine occurred during game situations, and 1 occurred during practice. Specific data pertinent to the practice injury was not available. No rupture occurred during weight lifting. Eight ruptures were treated operatively, and 2 cases did not report the method of definitive treatment. The average days lost was 111 days (range, 42-189). The incidence was 0.004 pectoralis major ruptures during the 11-year study period. Pectoralis major injuries are uncommon while playing football. In the National Football League, these injuries primarily occur not during practice or while bench pressing but rather during games. When pectoralis major ruptures do occur, they are successfully treated operatively. Surgery may allow for return to full sports participation. IV, case series.

  7. Improving exposure scenario definitions within REACH

    Lee, Jihyun; Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne

    instruments to support a precautionary chemicals management system and to protect receptor’s health have also been increasing. Since 2007, the European Union adopted REACH (the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals): REACH makes industry responsible for assessing...... the different background exposure between two countries allows in fact the definition of a common framework for improving exposure scenarios within REACH system, for monitoring environmental health, and for increasing degree of circularity of resource and substance flows. References 1. European Commission...

  8. Validity and Reliability of the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score

    Ganestam, Ann; Barfod, Kristoffer; Klit, Jakob


    The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture remains debated. Patient-reported outcome measures have become cornerstones in treatment evaluations. The Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) has been developed for this purpose but requires additional validation. The purpose of the present...... study was to validate a Danish translation of the ATRS. The ATRS was translated into Danish according to internationally adopted standards. Of 142 patients, 90 with previous rupture of the Achilles tendon participated in the validity study and 52 in the reliability study. The ATRS showed moderately...

  9. Rupture of the triceps tendon — A case series

    Atin Jaiswal; Naiman Deep Kacchap; Yashwant Singh Tanwar; Devendra Kumar; Birendra Kumar


    Triceps rupture is the least common among all tendon injuries.The usual mechanism of injury is a fall on an outstretched hand,although direct contact injuries have also been reported to cause this injury.The diagnosis of acute triceps tendon rupture may be missed,which can result in prolonged disability and delayed operative management.We presented three cases of acute triceps tendon rupture each at different site showing the spectrum of injury to the muscle and mechanism of injury and management were also discussed.

  10. Endovascular Repair of a Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    DeFrain, Michael; Strickman, Neil E.; Ljubic, Branimir J.; Dougherty, Kathryn G.; Gregoric, Igor D.


    Endovascular aneurysm repair has considerable potential advantages over the surgical approach as a treatment for thoracic aortic rupture, in part because open surgical repair of ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. We describe the successful endovascular deployment of stent-grafts to repair a contained rupture of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an 86-year-old man whose comorbidities prohibited surgery. Two months after the procedure, magnetic resonance angiography showed a patent stent-graft, a patent left subclavian artery, and complete exclusion of the aneurysm. PMID:16878637

  11. Creep rupture behavior of welded Grade 91 steel

    Shrestha, Triratna [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Basirat, Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Alsagabi, Sultan; Sittiho, Anumat [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Charit, Indrajit, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Potirniche, Gabriel P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)


    Creep rupture behavior of fusion welded Grade 91 steel was studied in the temperature range of 600 – 700 °C and at stresses of 50–200 MPa. The creep data were analyzed in terms of the Monkman-Grant relation and Larson-Miller parameter. The creep damage tolerance factor was used to identify the origin of creep damage. The creep damage was identified as the void growth in combination with microstructural degradation. The fracture surface morphology of the ruptured specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy and deformed microstructure examined by transmission electron microscopy, to further elucidate the rupture mechanisms.

  12. Bilateral patellar tendon rupture associated with statin use


    Patellar tendon rupture is an uncommon clinical presentation, which generally affects the under 40s who are active in sport. Bilateral rupture of both tendons is much rarer. It occurs most frequently in patients with predisposing factors such as corticosteroid use or systemic diseases. The authors present the case of a 56-year-old male on long-term statin therapy who sustained this injury following a fall on ice. He had no known risk factors for tendon rupture. Surgical treatment involved ten...

  13. Adductor longus tendon rupture mistaken for incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Aerts, Bas R J; Plaisier, Peter W; Jakma, Tijs S C


    An incarcerated inguinal hernia is a common diagnosis, since the risk of an inguinal hernia incarcerating or strangulating is around 0.3-3%. An acute rupture of the adductor longus tendon is rarely seen and mostly affects (semi-) professional sportsmen. We present a case of a patient with an assumed incarcerated inguinal hernia which turned out to be a proximal adductor longus tendon rupture. If patients without a history of inguinal hernia present themselves with acute groin pain after suddenly exorotating the upper leg, a rupture of the adductor longus tendon should be considered. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment can be performed.

  14. Distal rupture of the adductor longus in a skier.

    Greditzer, Harry G; Nawabi, Danyal; Li, Angela Eh; Jawetz, Shari T

    Acute adductor longus ruptures occur infrequently and have been rarely described in the literature. Schlegel et al. reviewed a series of adductor longus tendon ruptures and found that all ruptured proximally. A 42-year-old man with right hip pain 3 weeks following a skiing injury underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a distal adductor longus avulsion. The diagnosis of acute adductor longus injury can be difficult on physical examination alone, but MRI can accurately depict the site of injury. Surgery may be indicated for a proximal avulsion, but a distal injury may heal with nonoperative treatment, as in our case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A ruptured large extraluminal ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumor causing hemoperitoneum

    Shoji Hirasaki; Kohei Fujita; Minoru Matsubara; Hiromitsu Kanzaki; Hiromichi Yamane; Masato Okuda; Seiyuu Suzuki; Atsuko Shirakawa; Hideyuki Saeki


    We describe an 87-year-old woman with a large ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) causing hernoperitoneum. A CT scan demonstrated a large heterogeneous mass measuring about 13 crn × 11 cmin the pelvis and hemoperitoneurn, with a non-uniform enhancement pattern. The mass was diagnosed as a GIST originating from the gastrointestinal tract. She underwent an urgent laparotomy and an ileal GIST with a rupture was found 130 cm from the anal to the Treitz's ligament. Hernoperitoneum caused by ileal GIST rupture is a rare condition. Bleeding in the large tumor leading to rupture of the capsule might cause hemoperitoneurn in the present case.

  16. Design and Experimental Research on a New Pipe Rupture Valve

    HU Guo-liang; XU Bing; YANG Hua-yong; ZHANG Yi-ding


    A new pipe rupture valve for hydraulic elevator is designed.Mathematical models established for the hydraulic elevator system are used in numefical simulations on the Simulink environment of Matlab kits.The effects of different viscous damping diameters.inlet pressures of pipe rupture valve.and elevator loads on the hydraulic elevator system's dynamic performance are analyzed.Expefimenml research is also carried out using a hydraulic elevator experiment rig.The numerical simulations accord with experimental results in general.Dynamic performance indexes are assessed by the EN812 standard.The results show that the newly designed pipe rupture valve meets the designing requirement for hydraulic elevators.

  17. Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field


    Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)

  18. Hanford Reach - Ringold Russian Knapweed Treatment

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increase the diversity of the seed mix on approximately 250 acres in the Ringold Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument (Monument) treated with aminopyralid as...



    Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) training in. Zambia and critically analyses ... excellence in skills such as sport, music or dance, so it is ... only improve through reaching every child both physically and in .... Non-verbal communication.

  20. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    ... page: Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also ... 25, 2016 MONDAY, Oct. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women have made major strides towards equality with men, ...

  1. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad


    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  2. Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes.

    Kenyon, Sara; Boulvain, Michel; Neilson, James P


    Premature birth carries substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Subclinical infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Prophylactic maternal antibiotic therapy might lessen infectious morbidity and delay labour, but could suppress labour without treating underlying infection. To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of administering antibiotics to women with PROM before 37 weeks, on maternal infectious morbidity, neonatal morbidity and mortality, and longer-term childhood development. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic administration with placebo that reported clinically relevant outcomes were included as were trials of different antibiotics. Trials in which no placebo was used were included for the outcome of perinatal death alone. We extracted data from each report without blinding of either the results or the treatments that women received. We sought unpublished data from a number of authors. We included 22 trials, involving 6872 women and babies.The use of antibiotics following PROM is associated with statistically significant reductions in chorioamnionitis (average risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.96, and a reduction in the numbers of babies born within 48 hours (average RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87) and seven days of randomisation (average RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.89). The following markers of neonatal morbidity were reduced: neonatal infection (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.85), use of surfactant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), oxygen therapy (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96), and abnormal cerebral ultrasound scan prior to discharge from hospital (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98). Co-amoxiclav was associated with an increased risk of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (RR 4.72, 95% CI 1.57 to 14.23).One study evaluated the children's health at seven years of age (ORACLE Children Study) and found

  3. Impact of the REACH II and REACH VA Dementia Caregiver Interventions on Healthcare Costs.

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Zhu, Carolyn W; Kaplan, Erin K; Zuber, Jeffrey K; Waters, Teresa M


    Examine caregiver and care recipient healthcare costs associated with caregivers' participation in Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH II or REACH VA) behavioral interventions to improve coping skills and care recipient management. RCT (REACH II); propensity-score matched, retrospective cohort study (REACH VA). Five community sites (REACH II); 24 VA facilities (REACH VA). Care recipients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) and their caregivers who participated in REACH II study (analysis sample of 110 caregivers and 197 care recipients); care recipients whose caregivers participated in REACH VA and a propensity matched control group (analysis sample of 491). Previously collected data plus Medicare expenditures (REACH II) and VA costs plus Medicare expenditures (REACH VA). There was no increase in VA or Medicare expenditures for care recipients or their caregivers who participated in either REACH intervention. For VA care recipients, REACH was associated with significantly lower total VA costs of care (33.6%). VA caregiver cost data was not available. In previous research, both REACH II and REACH VA have been shown to provide benefit for dementia caregivers at a cost of less than $5/day; however, concerns about additional healthcare costs may have hindered REACH's widespread adoption. Neither REACH intervention was associated with additional healthcare costs for caregivers or patients; in fact, for VA patients, there were significantly lower healthcare costs. The VA costs savings may be related to the addition of a structured format for addressing the caregiver's role in managing complex ADRD care to an existing, integrated care system. These findings suggest that behavioral interventions are a viable mechanism to support burdened dementia caregivers without additional healthcare costs. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Surface Fault Rupture from the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake of Aug. 24, 2014

    Ponti, D. J.; Dawson, T. E.; Schwartz, D. P.; Brooks, B. A.; DeLong, S. B.; Hecker, S.; Hudnut, K. W.; Kelson, K. I.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Prentice, C. S.; Rosa, C. M.; Rubin, R. S.; Seitz, G. G.; Sickler, R. R.; Wesling, J. R.


    The South Napa earthquake produced the largest and most extensive coseismic surface rupture of any documented California earthquake of similar magnitude. More than 14 km of complex surface faulting, extending from the Napa River at Cuttings Wharf northward beyond the north boundary of Alston Park in the city of Napa, occurred on two principal sub-parallel N-NW trending fault strands. Other minor sub-parallel rupture zones (≤1.5 km in length with ~1-3 cm displacements) were identified near the principal strands. The surface rupture lies primarily NW of the epicenter and W of most of the mapped traces of the West Napa fault zone, but rupture was locally coincident with portions of some mapped late Quaternary and older fault traces. Geomorphic expressions of prior faulting are observed intermittently along the main traces. Surface displacements are predominantly right lateral and typically expressed as discontinuous en echelonleft-stepping fractures within zones that range from pipelines, and residential structures produced significant damage. The ~7 km-long eastern strand had coseismic dextral offsets of 2-8 cm. Its southern end lies 7.5 km NW of the epicenter and 1.1 km E of the western strand, while its northern end approaches the western strand where the two appear to merge a few hundred meters south of Alston Park. Afterslip has been documented along the western strand but was not observed on the eastern strand. It was most rapid in the middle third of the western strand, increasing initial slip by ≥20 cm one day after the mainshock. Repeated measurements suggest total slip may reach ~40 cm along half of the western strand. The complex character and locations of surface rupture produced by this event have significant implications for current approaches to fault hazard mapping in California. Additional contributors: USGS: N. Avdievitch, M. Bennett, B. Collins, T. Holzer, A. Pickering, J. Tinsley. CGS: D. Branum, B. Bryant, C. Davenport, M. Delattre, W

  5. Conditions Under Which Megathrust Ruptures Propagate Through Shallow Velocity-Weakening Regions to the Trench

    Dunham, E. M.; Kozdon, J. E.; Lotto, G. C.


    We have conducted dynamic rupture simulations of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake to identify conditions that permit megathrust ruptures to reach the trench, even when the uppermost portion of the plate interface is frictionally stable. Our models incorporate rate-and-state friction featuring depth-dependent properties that transition from velocity-weakening at depth to velocity-strengthening beneath the accretionary prism. Earthquake nucleation is thus restricted to greater depths, consistent with the lack of shallow seismicity near the trench. Despite this, we find that unless the uppermost velocity-strengthening section of the fault extends beyond about 50 km along dip, ruptures propagating upward from depth break through to the trench. Stress changes, carried by seismic waves released by deep slip, provide the necessary driving force that maintains propagation even in the absence of frictional weakening and stress drop. In our present set of simulations, we assume ideally elastic response of the off-fault material. We therefore caution that our conclusions will likely be modified by the occurrence of plastic deformation within the accretionary prism, which we are planning to explore in the near future. Our models are calibrated through comparison with seafloor deformation measurements and onshore 1-Hz GPS data. We explore the ability of these data sets to constrain frictional properties along the plate interface, particularly in the near-trench region. Our modeling efforts thus far suggest strong trade-offs between stress drop along the deeper part of the fault and the shallow frictional properties. In addition to our preferred model featuring a shallow velocity-strengthening section, we can equally well fit the data with velocity-weakening properties extending all the way to the trench, provided we decrease the average stress drop by reducing the initial effective normal stress. We are also examining the signature of extreme shallow slip in hydroacoustic

  6. Pulse-Like Rupture Induced by Three-Dimensional Fault Zone Flower Structures

    Pelties, Christian


    © 2014, Springer Basel. Faults are often embedded in low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) caused by material damage. Previous 2D dynamic rupture simulations (Huang and Ampuero, 2011; Huang et al., 2014) showed that if the wave velocity contrast between the LVFZ and the country rock is strong enough, ruptures can behave as pulses, i.e. with local slip duration (rise time) much shorter than whole rupture duration. Local slip arrest (healing) is generated by waves reflected from the LVFZ–country rock interface. This effect is robust against a wide range of fault zone widths, absence of frictional healing, variation of initial stress conditions, attenuation, and off-fault plasticity. These numerical studies covered two-dimensional problems with fault-parallel fault zone structures. Here, we extend previous work to 3D and geometries that are more typical of natural fault zones, including complexities such as flower structures with depth-dependent velocity and thickness, and limited fault zone depth extent. This investigation requires high resolution and flexible mesh generation, which are enabled here by the high-order accurate arbitrary high-order derivatives discontinuous Galerkin method with an unstructured tetrahedral element discretization (Peltieset al., 2012). We show that the healing mechanism induced by waves reflected in the LVFZ also operates efficiently in such three-dimensional fault zone structures and that, in addition, a new healing mechanism is induced by unloading waves generated when the rupture reaches the surface. The first mechanism leads to very short rise time controlled by the LVFZ width to wave speed ratio. The second mechanism leads to generally longer, depth-increasing rise times, is also conditioned by the existence of an LVFZ, and persists at some depth below the bottom of the LVFZ. Our simulations show that the generation of slip pulses by these two mechanisms is robust to the depth extent of the LVFZ and to the position of the hypocenter

  7. Spontaneous Ureteral Rupture Diagnosis and Treatment

    E. Pampana


    Full Text Available Rupture of the urinary collecting system associated with perinephric or retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition and it is commonly associated with renal obstructing disease. Perforation could occur at any level from the calix to the bladder but it is usually seen at the fornices and upper ureter. It may lead to several serious consequences including urinoma, abscess formation, urosepsis, infection, and subsequent irreversible renal impairment. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented at the emergency department of our institution with severe abdominal pain. Due to symptomatology worsening, complete laboratory evaluation was performed and the patient underwent abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT evaluation which showed contrast agent extravasation outside the excretory system without any evidence of renal calculi at basal acquisition. It was decided to perform a double-J stent placement which was followed by complete healing of the ureter and its removal was performed 8 weeks later. Diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  8. Coronary spasm, a pathogenic trigger of vulnerable plaque rupture

    WANG Li-xin; L(U) Shu-zheng; ZHANG Wei-jun; SONG Xian-tao; CHEN Hui; ZHANG Li-jie


    Objective This coronary artery spasm review aimed to explore the most possible pathogenic trigger mechanism of vulnerable plaque rupture.Data sources Data used in this coronary artery spasm review were mainly from Medline and Pubmed in English.Study selection These reports from major review on coronary artery spasm.and these research included coronary artery conception,pathogenesis of spasm,mechanisms of plaque rupture,epidemiological evidence,clinical manifestation and the relationship between coronary artery spasm and vulnerable plaque rupture.Results Coronary artery spasm is somehow related to the presence of atherosclerotic intima disease in the coronary artery.However,chronic low-grade inflammation causes coronary vessel smooth muscle cell hypersensitivity,which can directely cause coronary artery spasm.Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death may be initiated by a sudden intense localized contraction of coronary artery smooth muscle.Conclusion Coronary artery spasm may be one trigger that can initiate and exacerbate vulnerable plaque rupture.

  9. Uroperitoneum attributable to ruptured urachus in a yearling bull.

    Baxter, G M; Zamos, D T; Mueller, P O


    Ruptured urachus was found to result in uroperitoneum in a yearling Beefmaster bull. The uroperitoneum was initially believed to be attributable to ruptured bladder secondary to urolithiasis; however, catheter decompression of the bladder through an ischiatic urethrotomy did not resolve the uroperitoneum. The persistent urachus was diagnosed and removed through caudal right flank laparotomy with the bull standing. The urachus was attached to the umbilicus, communicated with the lumen of the bladder, and had a mucosal lining. Ruptured urachus is an unusual cause of uroperitoneum, but can cause clinical signs identical to those of ruptured bladder. Persistent urachus is a congenital abnormality in many species, but may be hereditary in Beefmaster cattle. In addition, the bull in this report developed hyperkalemia, which is considered an unusual finding in cattle with uroperitoneum.

  10. A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture

    Engin Cetinkaya


    Conclusion: We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy.

  11. A case report of left ventricular wall rupture

    Kordovani H


    Full Text Available Cardiac rupture, particularly rupture of the left ventricular wall, has a very high mortality rate. In this occasion, even if injured patients being alive when carried to the hospital, many of them will die due to following possible reasons: severe bleeding, cardiac tamponade, wasting time for routine and usual diagnostic procedures or transferring the injured to other hospital equipped for cardiac surgery. The only way to avoid these dangerous hazards is prompt thoracotomy and repair of the wound, which must be done in any surgical ward available. We report a case of cardiact rupture due to penetrating injury caused by a slender sharp object, passing through the heart anteroposteriorly. The patient was successfully rescued. This report indicates that in hospital, where no facility for cardiac surgery is available, this kind of emergency surgery for cardiac rupture is very indicative and may save the life of injured patient.

  12. Functional rehabilitation of patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture

    Mark-Christensen, Troels; Troelsen, Anders; Kallemose, Thomas


    PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is continuously debated. Recent studies have proposed that the choice of either operative or non-operative treatment may not be as important as rehabilitation, suggesting that functional rehabilitation should be preferred over......, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PEDro using the search terms: "Achilles tendon," "rupture," "mobilization" and "immobilization". Seven RCTs involving 427 participants were eligible for inclusion, with a total of 211 participants treated with functional rehabilitation and 216 treated with immobilization....... CONCLUSION: Functional rehabilitation after acute Achilles tendon rupture does not increase the rate of re-rupture or other complications. A trend toward earlier return to work and sport, and increased patient satisfaction was found when functional rehabilitation was used. The present literature is of low...

  13. Automatic rupture of unused intraport catheter. Case report.

    Pappas, Paris; Dalianis, Nikolaos; Filippou, Dimitrios K; Condiis, Nicolas; Rizos, Spiros; Skandalakis, Panagiotis


    Totally Implantable Central Venous Access Devices (Intraports) are commonly used in cancer patients to administer chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition. These devices are placed by Seldinger technique. We report an unusual case of intraport catheter rupture before the use of the device. The ruptured part of the catheter migrated into the left pulmonary vein via right ventricle. The ruptured part was removed by means of interventional radiology before causing any problems to the patient. All the reported ruptures of port catheters refer to port devices that had been used to administer chemotherapy, fluids, or parenteral nutrition. The unique feature of this case is that the catheter had not been used at all. It is of great interest also the removal of the broken part from the pulmonary vein.

  14. Plantar fascia rupture in a professional soccer player.

    Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Kato, Kenji; Takao, Shoichiro; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoshitsugu; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sairyo, Koichi


    We report the case of a 29-year-old male professional soccer player who presented with symptoms of plantar fasciitis. His symptoms occurred with no remarkable triggers and gradually worsened despite conservative treatments including taping, use of insoles, and physical therapy. Local corticosteroid injection was given twice as a further intervention, but his plantar fascia partially ruptured 49 days after the second injection. He was treated conservatively with platelet-rich plasma, and magnetic resonance imaging showed regenerative change of the ruptured fascia. Five months after the rupture, he returned to his original level of training. If professional athletes find it difficult to refrain from athletic activity, as in the present case, the risk of rupture due to corticosteroid injection should not be overlooked.

  15. Endobronchial Cartilage Rupture: A Rare Cause of Lobar Collapse

    Siddiqui, Nauman; Javaid, Toseef


    Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare clinical condition, which can present in patients with severe emphysema with sudden onset shortness of breath. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with sudden onset shortness of breath. Chest X-ray showed lung hyperinflation and a right lung field vague small density. Chest Computed Tomography confirmed the presence of right middle lobe collapse. Bronchoscopy revealed partial right middle lobe atelectasis and an endobronchial cartilage rupture. Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare condition that can present as sudden onset shortness of breath due to lobar collapse in patients with emphysema and can be triggered by cough. Bronchoscopic findings include finding a collapsed lung lobe and a visible ruptured endobronchial cartilage. A high index of suspicion, chest imaging, and early bronchoscopy can aid in the diagnosis and help prevent complications. PMID:27525149

  16. Ruptured chordae tendineae in acromegaly. An autopsy case.

    Kaku, T; Nakashima, Y; Ichiyasu, H; Soejima, M; Baba, K; Kuroiwa, A


    A 57-year-old woman with acromegaly associated with mitral chordal rupture is reported. She was noted to have abnormal development in the size of her hands and feet in childhood. She occasionally suffered from shortness of breath on exertion and nocturnal dyspnea for several years, and was diagnosed and treated as having congestive heart failure due to valvular heart disease. On admission to our hospital, chordal rupture was suspected on the basis of M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography. Seven years after discharge, she died of congestive heart failure. On autopsy, the heart weight and ventricular wall thickness were increased. Rupture of the posterior chordae was confirmed, but evidence of an old myocardial infarction was not found. There was severe interstitial fibrosis in the left ventricular wall. A possible etiology of the chordal rupture in this case was thought to be the excessive stretching caused by the disproportional visceromegaly of the heart.

  17. Uterine rupture an obstetrics catastrophy; incidence, risk factors ...

    Uterine rupture an obstetrics catastrophy; incidence, risk factors, management ... at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital Bauchi Nigeria. ... is 0.35% and the common risk factors include high parity, exposure to oxytocin in ...

  18. An unusual case of cardiac tamponade: ruptured subaortic diverticulum.

    Salemi, Arash; Lee, Ben; Ivascu, Natalia; Webber, Geoffrey; Paul, Subroto


    Cardiac diverticula are rare congenital anomalies found as outpouchings from various chambers of the heart. We present a case of a diverticulum arising from the membranous septum with free rupture into the pericardial space and tamponade.

  19. Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of ...

    Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of labor versus expectant ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Methods: One hundred and fifty two women with PROM at term were ...

  20. Asymptomatic spontaneous rupture of suprasellar dermoid cyst : a case report.

    Venkatesh S


    Full Text Available Suprasellar dermoid cysts are uncommon intracranial lesions. CT and MRI findings in a rare case of asymptomatic rupture of suprasellar dermoid cyst with subarachnoid dissemination is described.


    管珩; 郑月宏; 李拥军; 刘昌伟; 刘暴; 叶炜


    Objective. To describe our surgical experience on rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm .Methods. Two cases of ruptured aortic aneurysms with severe complication were analyzed. Aorta re-construction procedures were performed using bifurcated e-PTFE grafts during emergency operation. Diag-nosis, preoperative resuscitation, emergency surgical intervention, and postoperative complications of thesepatients were summarized and discussed.Results. Rupture of aortic aneurysm in both patients presented as a huge retroperitoneum haematomaby computed tomography scan. They were successfully saved by prompt body fluid compensation, emer-gency procedure, intraoperative resuscitation, and postoperative intensive care.Conclusions. Correct diagnosis, prompt surgical management, immediate intraoperative proximal aortaclamping during procedure, and effective management of postoperative complications were the key pointsto successful treatment of ruptured aortic aneurysm.

  2. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    Nesselroade, Ryan D


    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors.The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(4:306-309.

  3. Cohesive zone length of metagabbro at supershear rupture velocity

    Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo


    We investigated the shear strain field ahead of a supershear rupture. The strain array data along the sliding fault surfaces were obtained during the large-scale biaxial friction experiments at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience. These friction experiments were done using a pair of meter-scale metagabbro rock specimens whose simulated fault area was 1.5 m × 0.1 m. A 2.6-MPa normal stress was applied with loading velocity of 0.1 mm/s. Near-fault strain was measured by 32 two-component semiconductor strain gauges installed at an interval of 50 mm and 10 mm off the fault and recorded at an interval of 1 MHz. Many stick-slip events were observed in the experiments. We chose ten unilateral rupture events that propagated with supershear rupture velocity without preceding foreshocks. Focusing on the rupture front, stress concentration was observed and sharp stress drop occurred immediately inside the ruptured area. The temporal variation of strain array data is converted to the spatial variation of strain assuming a constant rupture velocity. We picked up the peak strain and zero-crossing strain locations to measure the cohesive zone length. By compiling the stick-slip event data, the cohesive zone length is about 50 mm although it scattered among the events. We could not see any systematic variation at the location but some dependence on the rupture velocity. The cohesive zone length decreases as the rupture velocity increases, especially larger than √{2} times the shear wave velocity. This feature is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  4. Isolated duodenal rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma

    Celik Atilla


    Full Text Available Duodenal rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is rare and it usually seen with other abdominal organ injuries. It represents approximately 2% to 20% of patients with blunt abdominal injury and often occurs after blows to the upper abdomen, or abdominal compression from high-riding seat belts. Two cases of blunt duodenal rupture successfully treated surgically, are presented with their preoperative diagnosis and final out comes.

  5. Blunt cardiac rupture in patient with liver laceration

    王文林; 曾伟生; 蒋仁超


    The early diagnosis of cardiac rupture is one of the key factors for a successful outcome. However, the accurate diagnosis is often difficult in the early stage of injury, especially when some obvious severe wounds are found in other regions of the body,1,2 for they are easy to disguise the symptom of the heart. We report a case with cardiac rupture and liver trauma caused by traffic accident.

  6. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Radiology)

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  7. Complications of plantar fascia rupture associated with corticosteroid injection.

    Acevedo, J I; Beskin, J L


    From 1992 to 1995, 765 patients with a clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were evaluated by one of the authors. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with plantar fascia rupture, and 44 of these ruptures were associated with corticosteroid injection. The authors injected 122 of the 765 patients, resulting in 12 of the 44 plantar fascia ruptures. Subjective and objective evaluations were conducted through chart and radiographic review. Thirty-nine of these patients were evaluated at an average 27-month follow-up. Thirty patients (68%) reported a sudden onset of tearing at the heel, and 14 (32%) had a gradual onset of symptoms. In most cases the original heel pain was relieved by rupture. However, these patients subsequently developed new problems including longitudinal arch strain, lateral and dorsal midfoot strain, lateral plantar nerve dysfunction, stress fracture, hammertoe deformity, swelling, and/or antalgia. All patients exhibited diminished tension of the plantar fascia upon examination by the stretch test. Comparison of calcaneal pitch angles in the affected and uninvolved foot showed a statistically significant difference of 3.7 degrees (P = 0.0001). Treatment included NSAIDs, rest or cross-training, stretching, orthotics, and boot-brace immobilization. At an average 27-month follow-up, 50% had good/excellent scores and 50% had fair/poor scores. Recovery time was varied. Ten feet were asymptomatic by 6 months post rupture, four feet by 12 months post rupture, and 26 feet remained symptomatic 1 year post rupture. Our findings demonstrate that plantar fascia rupture after corticosteroid injection may result in long-term sequelae that are difficult to resolve.

  8. Multiple barriers in forced rupture of protein complexes

    Hyeon, Changbong


    Curvatures in the most probable rupture force ($f^*$) versus log-loading rate ($\\log{r_f}$) observed in dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) on biomolecular complexes are interpreted using a one-dimensional free energy profile with multiple barriers or a single barrier with force-dependent transition state. Here, we provide a criterion to select one scenario over another. If the rupture dynamics occurs by crossing a single barrier in a physical free energy profile describing unbinding, the exponent $\

  9. Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after radio-frequency ablation.

    Shin, J H; Jung, S L; Baek, J H; Kim, J-H


    Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after RFA is very rare. We experienced 6 cases in 4 institutions. All patients presented with abrupt neck swelling and pain between 9 and 60 days after RFA. Imaging and clinical findings of the ruptured tumors were anterior subcapsular location, mixed composition, large size, and repeated ablations. Conservative treatment was sufficient in 3 cases, whereas surgical management was required in 3.

  10. Multiple branching rupture of the 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.; Ji, Chen; Bassett, Dan


    Several source models have been proposed to explain the enigmatic 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake. The long-period data require a composite source model and can be fit with a normal-faulting subevent followed by one or more reverse-faulting subevents. The short-period data, in contrast, indicate a more compact rupture pattern around the epicenter. The lack of a unified source model reflects the complexity of the event. We analyze the spatiotemporal evolution of this earthquake with P wave back-projection from globally distributed stations in different frequency bands (low frequency: 0.05-0.2 Hz, high frequency: 0.2-2 Hz) and a multiple moment tensor inversion. The rupture propagation revealed by back-projection exhibits frequency-dependent behavior, with two branches of high-frequency-enriched bilateral rupture around the epicenter and a high-frequency-deficient rupture branch at the subduction interface. A composite source model with one Mw 8.0 normal-faulting earthquake east of the trench axis (seaward) followed by one Mw 8.1 reverse-faulting earthquake along the subduction interface west of the trench axis (landward) can explain the very long period data (200˜500 s). Combined with high-resolution swath bathymetry data, the back-projection images show that the azimuth of rupture branches east of the trench axis were controlled by the geometry of bending-related faults on the Pacific plate and that the rupture branch west of the trench axis may correlate with the along-strike fore-arc segmentation. The rupture along the subduction interface was triggered by the seaward rupture and a partially subducted normal fault may have played a key role in facilitating the triggering. The apparent normal-reverse faulting interactions pose a higher seismic risk to this region than their individual strands at the northernmost corner of the Tonga subduction zone.

  11. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture


    Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate de...

  12. Supraspinatus rupture at the musculotendinous junction in a young woman

    Benazzo, Francesco; MARULLO, MATTEO; Pietrobono, Luigi


    The vast majority of rotator cuff tears occur within the tendon or as an avulsion from the greater tuberosity. Supraspinatus injury at the musculotendinous junction is a very uncommon event. We describe a case of supraspinatus rupture at the musculotendinous junction, with successful conservative treatment. It occurred in a 23-year-old woman, the youngest patient with this uncommon type of injury. To our knowledge, this is the first case of rupture of the supraspinatus muscle at the musculote...

  13. Emergency endovascular repair of ruptured visceral artery aneurysms

    Tang Tjun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral artery aneurysms although rare, have very high mortality if they rupture. Case presentation An interesting case of a bleeding inferior pancreaticduodenal artery aneurysm is reported in a young patient who presented with hypovolemic shock while being treated in the hospital after undergoing total knee replacement. Endovascular embolization was successfully employed to treat this patient, with early hospital discharge. Conclusion Prompt diagnosis and endovascular management of ruptured visceral aneuryms can decrease the associated mortality and morbidity.

  14. Spontaneous splenic rupture: A rare presentation of dengue fever

    Mainak Mukhopadhyay


    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of the spleen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare, but serious manifestation of dengue fever (DF. We report a case of a young female who was presented with atraumatic abdominal pain, hypovolemic shock, anemia, ascites and hepatosplenomegaly with a recent history of a febrile illness. Subsequent investigations proved the presence of hemoperitoneum with spontaneous splenic rupture with seropositivity for DF. Early diagnosis and conservative management in this case resulted in a favorable outcome.

  15. Obstetric performance, perinatal outcome and risk of infection to the newborn in spontaneous and artificial rupture of membranes during labour.

    Seneviratne, H R; de Silva, G D; de Silva, M V; Rudra, T


    Artificial rupture of the membranes during established labor is believed to augment labor progression, but this practice carries the risk of maternal and neonatal infection. A prospective study conducted at De Soysa Hospital for Women in Colombo, Ceylon, in 1995 compared the obstetric performance, perinatal outcome, and risk of neonatal infection in 151 women with spontaneous rupture of membranes (SROM) and 173 women with artificial rupture of membranes (AROM). The need for oxytocin was higher in both primi- and multigravidae in the AROM group (37.5% and 38.8%, respectively) than the SROM group (24.7% and 18.9%, respectively), but this association reached statistical significance only among multigravidae. Also higher in the AROM group than the SROM group, but not significantly, were the rates of instrumental delivery and emergency cesarean section. Compared with primigravid AROM women, a significantly larger number of primigravid AROM women had abnormal auscultated fetal heart rates and cardiotopographic patterns. The appearance of meconium in liquor and the occurrence of low Apgar scores were similar in both groups. There were no clinical maternal or neonatal infections, but the intrauterine sites showed evidence of inflammation soon after membrane rupture. 36.1% of women in the SROM group and 24.0% of those in the AROM group whose cord and membranes were evaluated had histologic evidence of inflammation. Choreoamnionitis and funisitis were slightly more common in the AROM group. The potential for infection at intrauterine sites had no linear relationship to the mean membrane rupture-delivery interval or the number of vaginal examinations.

  16. Sexual intercourse and cerebral aneurysmal rupture: potential mechanisms and precipitants.

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Willie, Jon T; Zipfel, Gregory J; Dacey, Ralph G


    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a significant cause of death in young and middle-aged individuals and causes tremendous morbidity in affected patients. Despite the identification of various risk factors, the series of events leading to the formation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms is poorly understood. Cerebral aneurysm rupture has been associated with sexual intercourse and other forms of physical exercise. In fact, multiple case series reported that coitus was the immediate preceding activity in 3.8-14.5% of patients suffering from aneurysmal SAH. This may be related to the large elevations in mean arterial blood pressure that occur in both males and females during sexual intercourse (130-175 and 125-160 mm Hg, respectively). While coitus and physical exercise share important physiological similarities, each may differentially affect the probability that a preformed aneurysm will rupture. In this literature review and synthesis, the authors analyze the physiological human response to sexual intercourse in an effort to delineate those factors that may precipitate aneurysmal rupture. The authors' analysis is based on the original data collected by Masters and Johnson. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review to address the link between sexual intercourse and intracranial aneurysmal rupture. While actual measurements of the physiological variables relevant to SAH were not performed in this article, the authors make reasonable assumptions based on the available data to help elucidate the mechanism of sexually induced aneurysmal rupture.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed radiography in Achilles tendon rupture

    Korenaga, Tateo; Hachiya, Junichi; Miyasaka, Yasuo and others


    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Radiography (CR) were performed in 15 patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture who were treated conservatively without surgery. MRI was obtained using Toshiba MRT 50 A superconductive machine, operaing at 0.5 Tesla. CR was performed by CR-101, Fuji Medical System. In fresh cases, ruptured tendons showed intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. Thickening of the tendon was observed in all cases except in very acute stage. Configuration of thickend tendons tends to be dumbbell shape in subacute stage and fusiform in chronic stage of more than six months after the initial trauma. In cases which showed high signal intensity at the ruptured area both on T1 and T2 weighted images, migration of fat into the sapces between the ruptured tendons was considered to be the major source of increased signal intensity. Computed radiography showed thickening of the tendon, blurring of anterior margin of the tendon, and decreased translucency of pre-Achilles fat pad. However, MRI better demonstrated the details of ruptured tendons when compared to CR, and thought to be an usefull way of following up the healing process of the ruptured tendon to facilitate more reasonable judgement of the time of removing plaster casts and stating exercise.

  18. Stochastic Earthquake Rupture Modeling Using Nonparametric Co-Regionalization

    Lee, Kyungbook; Song, Seok Goo


    Accurate predictions of the intensity and variability of ground motions are essential in simulation-based seismic hazard assessment. Advanced simulation-based ground motion prediction methods have been proposed to complement the empirical approach, which suffers from the lack of observed ground motion data, especially in the near-source region for large events. It is important to quantify the variability of the earthquake rupture process for future events and to produce a number of rupture scenario models to capture the variability in simulation-based ground motion predictions. In this study, we improved the previously developed stochastic earthquake rupture modeling method by applying the nonparametric co-regionalization, which was proposed in geostatistics, to the correlation models estimated from dynamically derived earthquake rupture models. The nonparametric approach adopted in this study is computationally efficient and, therefore, enables us to simulate numerous rupture scenarios, including large events (M > 7.0). It also gives us an opportunity to check the shape of true input correlation models in stochastic modeling after being deformed for permissibility. We expect that this type of modeling will improve our ability to simulate a wide range of rupture scenario models and thereby predict ground motions and perform seismic hazard assessment more accurately.

  19. Venous rupture during percutaneous treatment of hemodialysis fistulas and grafts.

    Bittl, John A


    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk and consequences of venous rupture during angioplasty of malfunctioning hemodialysis grafts and fistulas. Venous stenoses in the outflow limb of hemodialysis accesses often require ultra-high balloon pressure for optimal dilatation. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were analyzed for a consecutive series of patients treated between 1999 and 2008. Venous rupture or perforation occurred in 11 of 1242 (0.9%) procedures. No patient with a rupture or perforation died or required emergency or urgent surgical repair. Two of 11 patients (18.2%) required transfusions, 8 of 11 patients (72.7%) required stenting, and 6 of 8 (75.0%) who needed stenting received covered stents to achieve hemostasis. Rupture led to access thrombosis within 30 days in 9 of 11 cases (82%). Multivariable logistical regression analysis suggested that using a balloon catheter more than 2 mm larger than the diameter of the hemodialysis access or using peripheral cutting balloons increased the risk of rupture or perforation. Rupture or perforation is a rare complication of treatment of malfunctioning hemodialysis grafts and fistulas. The complication may be managed with nonsurgical methods and might be avoided by optimal balloon selection and sizing.

  20. Ground-motion signature of dynamic ruptures on rough faults

    Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Vyas, Jagdish C.


    Natural earthquakes occur on faults characterized by large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. This multi-scale geometrical complexity controls the dynamic rupture process, and hence strongly affects the radiated seismic waves and near-field shaking. For a fault system with given segmentation, the question arises what are the conditions for producing large-magnitude multi-segment ruptures, as opposed to smaller single-segment events. Similarly, for variable degrees of roughness, ruptures may be arrested prematurely or may break the entire fault. In addition, fault roughness induces rupture incoherence that determines the level of high-frequency radiation. Using HPC-enabled dynamic-rupture simulations, we generate physically self-consistent rough-fault earthquake scenarios (M~6.8) and their associated near-source seismic radiation. Because these computations are too expensive to be conducted routinely for simulation-based seismic hazard assessment, we thrive to develop an effective pseudo-dynamic source characterization that produces (almost) the same ground-motion characteristics. Therefore, we examine how variable degrees of fault roughness affect rupture properties and the seismic wavefield, and develop a planar-fault kinematic source representation that emulates the observed dynamic behaviour. We propose an effective workflow for improved pseudo-dynamic source modelling that incorporates rough-fault effects and its associated high-frequency radiation in broadband ground-motion computation for simulation-based seismic hazard assessment.

  1. Reduction in the occurrence of uterine rupture in Central India.

    Chhabra, S; Bhagwat, N; Chakravorty, Anupama


    This study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. In the 12 years between 1989 and 2000 a total of 16 cases of ruptured uterus were managed, the incidence of rupture of the pregnant uterus being 0.62 per 1000 births. One-quarter of the cases occurred between 1983 and 1988. No teenager or elderly woman (over 40) or grandmultipara sustained a uterine rupture. Four women had a rupture of a previous scar. In five rupture had occurred in association with malpresentations, one was a case of hydrocephalus, two had a morbidly adherent placenta praevia and four had a normal presentation, with lack of progress in labour. Two of these 16 women had twins. One had come with a retained second twin with transverse lie and the other was a booked case with multiple problems, including a previous caesarean section, present twin pregnancy and placenta praevia accreta and she died. This was the only maternal death. Perinatal mortality was 77.77% compared to 5.88% maternal and 100% perinatal mortality in the cases reported previously between 83 and 88, from the same institution. Overall, there is some improvement in perinatal survival and one-quarter incidence of rupture of the pregnant uterus.

  2. Nontraumatic spontaneous rupture of the kidney : etiology and CT findings

    Heo, Tae Haeng; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Shin, Hyun Joon [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Hyun [Seongkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoung Sik [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwa [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Churl Min [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness of CT scanning in determining the etiology of spontaneous rupture of the kidney We retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of spontaneous rupture of the kidney in eleven patients, Four were male and seven were female, and they were aged between 20 and 71 (mean, 46.6) years. Both pre- and post-contrast enhanced CT scanning was performed in all patients. Spontaneous renal rupture was induced in seven cases by neoplasms (three angiomyolipomas, three renal cell carcinomas, and one metastatic choriocarcinoma), in three cases by infection or inflammation (acute and chronic pyelonephritis, and renal abscess), and in one, by renal cyst. Common CT findings of rupture of the kidney were the accumulation of high density fluid in the perirenal and anterior pararenal space, and inhomogeneous irregular low density of renal parenchyma and the rupture site. Angiomyolipoma showed fat and an angiomatous component in the lesion, while acute and chronic pyelonephrities revealed thinning of the renal parenchyma and an irregular renal outline. Renal cell carcinoma showed a dense soft tissue mass in the parenchyma. Well-defined, round low-density lesions were noted in the case of renal cyst and renal abscess. CT is very useful in diagnosing and determining the etiology of non-traumatic spontaneous rupture of the kidney and plays an important role in the evaluation of emergency cases.

  3. Relap5/Mod3.1 analysis of main steam header rupture in VVER- 440/213 NPP

    Kral, P. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez (Switzerland)


    The presentation is focused on two main topics. First the applied modelling of PGV-4 steam generator for RELAP5 code are described. The results of steady-state calculation under reference conditions are compared against measured data. The problem of longitudinal subdivision of SG tubes is analysed and evaluated. Secondly, a best-estimate analysis of main steam header (MSH) rupture accident in WWER-440/213 NPP is presented. The low reliability of initiation of ESFAS signal `MSH Rupture` leads in this accident to big loss of secondary coolant, full depressurization of main steam system, extremely fast cool-down of both secondary and primary system, opening of PRZ SV-bypass valve with later liquid outflow, potential reaching of secondary criticality by failure of HPIS. 7 refs.

  4. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene


    workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership......PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  5. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data

    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter


    An extensive data set of teleseismic and strong-motion waveforms and geodetic offsets is used to study the rupture history of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1.0 × 1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  6. REACH. Analytical characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances

    De Graaff, R.; Forbes, S.; Gennart, J.P.; Gimeno Cortes, M.J.; Hovius, H.; King, D.; Kleise, H.; Martinez Martin, C.; Montanari, L.; Pinzuti, M.; Pollack, H.; Ruggieri, P.; Thomas, M.; Walton, A.; Dmytrasz, B.


    The purpose of this report is to summarise the findings of the scientific and technical work undertaken by CONCAWE to assess the feasibility and potential benefit of characterising petroleum UVCB substances (Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex reaction products or Biological Materials) beyond the recommendations issued by CONCAWE for the substance identification of petroleum substances under REACH. REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances. The report is based on Member Company experience of the chemical analysis of petroleum UVCB substances, including analysis in support of REACH registrations undertaken in 2010. This report is structured into four main sections, namely: Section 1 which provides an introduction to the subject of petroleum UVCB substance identification including the purpose of the report, regulatory requirements, the nature of petroleum UVCB substances, and CONCAWE's guidance to Member Companies and other potential registrants. Section 2 provides a description of the capabilities of each of the analytical techniques described in the REACH Regulation. This section also includes details on the type of analytical information obtained by each technique and an evaluation of what each technique can provide for the characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances. Section 3 provides a series of case studies for six petroleum substance categories (low boiling point naphthas, kerosene, heavy fuel oils, other lubricant base oils, residual aromatic extracts and bitumens) to illustrate the value of the information derived from each analytical procedure, and provide an explanation for why some techniques are not scientifically necessary. Section 4 provides a summary of the conclusions reached from the technical investigations undertaken by CONCAWE Member Companies, and summarising the

  7. Long-term functional outcome of bilateral spontaneous and simultaneous Achilles tendon ruptures.

    Ellanti, Prasad


    Bilateral simultaneous ruptures are rare comprising less than 1% of all Achilles tendon ruptures. Risk factors for bilateral ruptures include chronic diseases and medications such as corticosteroids and fluoroquinolones. There is little in the literature on the long-term functional outcome of bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures. This article present a series of 3 cases of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures with a minimum of 5-year follow up suggesting a good functional outcome.

  8. Rehabilitation of the gas pipeline that had a rupture in service caused by SCC (Stress Corrosion C raking); Rehabilitacion al servicio de un gasoducto que ha sufrido una ruptura en servicio por SCC

    Silva, Fernando; Carzoglio, Eduardo; Hryciuk, Pedro [TGN - Transportadora de Gas del Norte S.A. (Argentina). Depto. de Integridad


    TGN had a rupture in service on Gasoducto Troncal Norte. After initial evaluation of the causes of the rupture it was concluded that it had been caused by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). Subsequent investigation in the area of the rupture revealed that colonies of cracks, typical of SCC were found in pipes located near the rupture. In order to put back in service the pipeline in a safety condition, SCC mitigation activities were performed. A decision was made to conduct a hydro test along approximately 30 kilometers of pipe. The stages of the works, the problems faced and the solutions found are dealt with, as well as the conclusions reached upon completion of the works which allowed a better understanding of SCC phenomenon. The methodology for the identification of those areas susceptible to SCC is also described. (author)

  9. Surface Rupture and Co-seismic Displacement Produced by the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake of May 12th, 2008, Sichuan, China: Eastwards Growth of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    DONG Shuwen; ZHANG Yueqiao; WU Zhenhan; YANG Nong; MA Yinsheng; SHI Wei; CHEN Zhengle; LONG Changxing; AN Meijian


    An earthquake of Ms 8 struck Wenchuan County, western Sichuan, China, on May 12th, 2008 and resulted in long surface ruptures (>300 km). The first-hand observations about the surface ruptures produced by the earthquake in the worst-hit areas of Yingxiu, Beichuan and Qingchuan, ascertained that the causative structure of the earthquake was in the central fault zones of the Longmenshan tectonic belt. Average co-seismic vertical displacements along the individual fault of the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone reach 2.5-4 m and the cumulative vertical displacements across the central and frontal Longmenshan fault belt is about 5-6 m. The surface rupture strength was reduced from north of Beichuan to Qingchuan County and shows 2-3 m dextral strike-slip component. The Wenchuan thrust-faulting earthquake is a manifestation of eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau under the action of continuous convergence of the Indian and Eurasian continents.

  10. [Fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendon rupture].

    Maurin, N


    A 72-year-old female dialysis patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who was under long-term medication with oral prednisolone due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was given levofloxacin for one week to treat an acute bronchitis (one 500 mg dose on the first day, 125 mg/day orally from second day onwards). One day after the end of levofloxacin treatment, the patient complained about a constant dragging pain above the right heel that receded under local application of diclofenac ointment and inactivity of the right foot. Twelve days after ending administration of levofloxacin, strong pains in the right calf were suddenly felt during normal walking, and active plantar flexion was lost. Palpation showed the right calf to be soft; a distinct gap was found in the middle third of the Achilles tendon. The Thompson test was positive, and the patient was unable to stand on her right toes. Ultrasonography showed a discontinuity of the right Achilles tendon. A spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture after taking fluoroquinolone was diagnosed. Conservative treatment was applied due to the reduced general condition. Initial treatment involved a below-knee plaster cast in equinus position; the cast was replaced on the fourth day by a pneumatic walker, which was also worn during mobilisation by physiotherapy. A typical feature of fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy (FIT) is a considerable latency period in some cases between the commencement of treatment with a fluoroquinolone and the onset of FIT symptoms. In addition to fluoroquinolone intake, there are three other predisposing risk factors for tendinopathy: age over 60 years, long-term treatment with systemic glucocorticoids, and chronic kidney disease. The patient showed a combination of all the aforementioned risk factors. In patients with these risk factors, especially among people with a combination of said risk factors - which is frequently the case with nephrologic and dialysis patients, especially

  11. A model to forecast magma chamber rupture

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust


    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we present a model to calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath active volcanoes. Here we discuss our model in the context of Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  12. Esophageal Rupture After Ghost Pepper Ingestion.

    Arens, Ann; Ben-Youssef, Leila; Hayashi, Sandra; Smollin, Craig


    The ghost pepper, or "bhut jolokia," is one of the hottest chili peppers in the world. Ghost peppers have a measured "heat" of > 1,000,000 Scoville heat units (SHU), more than twice the strength of a habanero pepper. To our knowledge, no significant adverse effects of ghost pepper ingestion have been reported. A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe abdominal and chest pain subsequent to violent retching and vomiting after eating ghost peppers as part of a contest. A subsequent chest x-ray study showed evidence of a left-sided pleural effusion and patchy infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed pneumomediastinum with air around the distal esophagus, suggestive of a spontaneous esophageal perforation and a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was intubated and taken immediately to the operating room, where he was noted to have a 2.5-cm tear in the distal esophagus, with a mediastinal fluid collection including food debris, as well as a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was extubated on hospital day 14, and was discharged home with a gastric tube in place on hospital day 23. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Spontaneous esophageal rupture, Boerhaave syndrome, is a rare condition encountered by emergency physicians, with a high mortality rate. This case serves as an important reminder of a potentially life- threatening surgical emergency initially interpreted as discomfort after a large spicy meal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Polishing Difficult-To-Reach Cavities

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.


    Springy abrasive tool used to finish surfaces of narrow cavities made by electrical-discharge machining. Robot arm moves vibrator around perimeters of cavities, polishing walls of cavities as it does so. Tool needed because such cavities inaccessible or at least difficult to reach with most surface-finishing tools.

  14. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  15. Reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART)

    Schinkel, J.; Fransman, W.; McDonnell, P.E.; Entink, R.K.; Tielemans, E.; Kromhout, H.


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) by (i) studying interassessor agreement of the resulting exposure estimates generated by the ART mechanistic model, (ii) studying interassessor agreement per model parameters of the ART mechanistic model

  16. Reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART)

    Schinkel, J.; Fransman, W.; McDonnell, P.E.; Entink, R.K.; Tielemans, E.; Kromhout, H.


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) by (i) studying interassessor agreement of the resulting exposure estimates generated by the ART mechanistic model, (ii) studying interassessor agreement per model parameters of the ART mechanistic

  17. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo...

  18. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field


     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  19. Science Experiments: Reaching Out to Our Users

    Nolan, Maureen; Tschirhart, Lori; Wright, Stephanie; Barrett, Laura; Parsons, Matthew; Whang, Linda


    As more users access library services remotely, it has become increasingly important for librarians to reach out to their user communities and promote the value of libraries. Convincing the faculty and students in the sciences of the value of libraries and librarians can be a particularly "hard sell" as more and more of their primary…

  20. The REACH Youth Program Learning Toolkit

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2011


    Believing in the value of using video documentaries and data as learning tools, members of the REACH technical assistance team collaborated to develop this toolkit. The learning toolkit was designed using and/or incorporating components of the "Engaging Youth in Community Change: Outcomes and Lessons Learned from Sierra Health Foundation's…

  1. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  2. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  3. Dynamic rupture in a damage-breakage rheology model

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ilchev, Assen; Mendecki, Aleksander


    We present a thermodynamically based formulation for modelling dynamic rupture processes in the brittle crust using a continuum damage-breakage rheology. The model combines aspects of a continuum viscoelastic damage framework for brittle solids with a continuum breakage mechanics for granular flow within dynamically generated slip zones. The formulation accounts for the density of distributed cracking and other internal flaws in damaged rocks with a scalar damage parameter, and addresses the grain size distribution of a granular phase in the slip zone with a breakage parameter. A dynamic brittle instability is associated with a critical level of damage in the solid, leading to loss of convexity of the solid strain energy, localization and transition to a granular phase associated with lower energy level. The continuum damage-breakage rheology model treats the localization to a slip zone at the onset of dynamic rupture and post-failure recovery process as phase transitions between solid and granular states. The model generates sub- and supershear rupture velocities and pulse-type ruptures seen also in frictional models, and additional important features such as strong dynamic changes of volumetric strain near the rupture front and diversity of nucleation mechanisms. The propagation of rupture front and slip accumulation at a point are correlated with sharp dynamic dilation followed by a gradual decay to a level associated with the final volumetric change associated with the granular phase transition in the slipping zone. The local brittle failure process associated with the solid-granular transition is expected to produce isotropic radiation in addition to the deviatoric terms. The framework significantly extends the ability to model brittle processes in complex geometrical structures and allows analysing the roles of gouge thickness and other parameters on nucleation, rupture and radiation characteristics.

  4. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  5. Tendon Graft and Platelet Concentrate for Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture. A Case Report

    Yovanny Ferrer Lozano


    Full Text Available Achilles tendon is third most common tendon torn, following the rotator cuff and the quadriceps extensor mechanism. Ruptures can be partial or complete and their etiology is multifactorial. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman who attended the Orthopedics service because of discomfort when walking that had been present for several months and persistent pain in his right heel related to an acetonide triamcinolone injection into the back of the calcaneus. The gap in the tendon (hatchet strike defect and a Thompson test confirmed the Achilles tendon rupture. The tendon was repaired using a peroneus brevis tendon graft and the repair was reinforced with gastrocnemius aponeurosis. The skin flap necrosis led to conservative debridement, graft exposure, and daily application of a platelet lysate, which was subsequently alternated due to the successful formation of the scar tissue. Epithelialization was reached in the fourth postoperative week. Twelve weeks after surgery, the patient began to resume her normal life. The use of platelet concentrates as adjuvant therapy is rare in these patients. For this reason, we decided to publish this case.

  6. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas;


    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  7. Rupture de la pédagogie et pédagogie de la rupture

    Frank Jablonka


    Full Text Available 1. Discours et contre-discours de la rupture1.1. La présente contribution a pour but de proposer quelques considérations intempestives par rapport aux conceptions pédagogiques dominantes et à la politique éducative actuellement mise en œuvre en France. Si les problèmes ne sont, certes, pas nouveaux, ils ont été exacerbés depuis 2007, conjointement aux conceptions sous-jacentes et à leur mise en œuvre autoritaire et "décomplexée" par le nouveau gouvernement. Ce symptôme de décadence apparaît d...

  8. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH.

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus


    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  9. Mucus Rupture in A Collapsed airway: An Experimental Study

    Hu, Yingying; Bian, Shiyao; Grotberg, James B.


    Mucus plugs can completely obstruct an airway. Difficulty in mucus clearance results in lost gas exchange and inflammation. Non-Newtonian properties of mucus, yielding stress and shear-thinning, play significant roles in mucus clearance. We use aqueous carbopol 940 as a mucus stimulant to study clearance of a mucus plug with properties of yielding stress and shear-thinning in a bench-top experiment. A collapsed airway of the 12th generation in a human lung is simulated in a two-dimensional PDMS channel. A stable pressure drop is set along the plug to drive rupture. A micro-PIV technique is used to acquire velocity fields during the rupture process. A yielding pressure drop (initiating plug yielding) is nearly independent of initial plug length. Plug rupture can occur by focused deformation along the centerline or by total plug propagation where the trailing film is thicker than the precursor film. Maximum velocity appears at the rupture moment, and increases at higher pressure drop or smaller plug length. The wall shear gradient can undergo a rapid reversal when rupture occurs, possibly an injurious event to underlying airway epithelial cells. This work is supported by NIH: HL84370 and HL85156.

  10. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test

    Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren


    One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPV has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. The more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval of the model. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

  11. Surgical treatment of the neglected achilles tendon rupture with Hyalonect.

    Esenyel, Cem Zeki; Tekin, Cagri; Cakar, Murat; Bayraktar, Kursat; Saygili, Selcuk; Esenyel, Meltem; Tekin, Zeynep N


    The purpose of this study was to report the management and outcomes of ten patients with chronic Achilles tendon rupture treated with a turndown gastrocnemius-soleus fascial flap wrapped with a surgical mesh (Hyalonect). Ten men with neglected Achilles tendon rupture were treated with a centrally based turndown gastrocnemius fascial flap wrapped with Hyalonect. Hyalonect is a knitted mesh composed of HYAFF, a benzyl ester of hyaluronic acid. The Achilles tendon ruptures were diagnosed more than 1 month after injury. The mean patient age was 41 years. All of the patients had weakness of active plantarflexion. The mean preoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 64.8. The functional outcome was excellent. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 97.8 at the latest follow-up. There were significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative scores. Ankle range of motion was similar in both ankles. Neither rerupture nor major complication, particularly of wound healing, was observed. For patients with chronic Achilles tendon rupture with a rupture gap of at least 5 cm, surgical repair using a single turndown fascial flap covered with Hyalonect achieved excellent outcomes.

  12. Calculation of the local rupture speed of dynamically propagating earthquakes

    Andrea Bizzarri


    Full Text Available The velocity at which a propagating earthquake advances on the fault surface is of pivotal importance in the contest of the source dynamics and in the modeling of the ground motions generation. In this paper the problem of the determination of the rupture speed (v_r is considered. The comparison of different numerical schemes to compute vr from the rupture time (t_r shows that, in general, central finite differences schemes are more accurate than forward or backward schemes, regardless the order of accuracy. Overall, the most efficient and accurate algorithm is the five–points stencil method at the second–order of accuracy. It is also shown how the determination of t_r can affect v_r ; numerical results indicate that if the fault slip velocity threshold (v_l used to define t_r is too high (v_l ≥ 0.1 m/s the details of the rupture are missed, for instance the rupture tip bifurcation occurring for 2–D supershear rupture. On the other hand, for v_l ≤ 0.01 m/s the results appear to be stable and independent on the choice of v_l . Finally, it is demonstrated that in the special case of the linear slip–weakening friction law the definitions of t_r from the threshold criterion on the fault slip velocity and from the achievement of the maximum yield stress are practically equivalent.

  13. Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament in soccer.

    Rochcongar, P; Laboute, E; Jan, J; Carling, C


    Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are serious, common and costly injuries. The present 12-year investigation was undertaken to examine the frequency of ACL ruptures and identify the game events that may have contributed to the cause of these injuries in male soccer players across a French district. A retrospective questionnaire was used to record the players' age at the time of injury, laterality, standard of play, playing position and injured side. The characteristics of the injury situations were described in detail to investigate the game events involved in each case. A total of 934 ruptures was reported. Significantly more ruptures were sustained in a non-contact versus a contact situation (pgame events reported in the injury situations were shown to be related to player's age, standard and position. While these results have confirmed observations from previous investigations on ACL ruptures in soccer, the analysis of a considerably larger number of injury cases has brought new findings to the literature as well as recommendations for future research.

  14. Spontaneous splenic rupture in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: a case report

    Charakidis Michail


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report the case of a patient with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia complicated by spontaneous splenic rupture. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our emergency department by her general practitioner following a three-week history of malaise, night sweats, six kilograms of weight loss, intermittent nausea and vomiting, progressive upper abdominal pain and easy bruising. On the fourth day following her admission, she had a rapid clinical deterioration, with subsequent radiological investigations revealing a splenic rupture. Her morphology, biochemistry, flow cytometry and histology were strongly suggestive of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Conclusions Spontaneous splenic rupture is not an expected complication of low-grade lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, such as Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only reported case of early spontaneous splenic rupture due to Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Our case highlights that despite the typical disease course of low-grade hematological malignancies, signs and symptoms of imminent splenic rupture should be considered when formulating a clinical assessment.

  15. Spontaneous unscarred fundal rupture after normal vaginal delivery

    Shreya Thapa


    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is one of the most dangerous obstetric situation carrying an increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, associated with poorly managed labour. The incidence of spontaneous rupture of unscarred uterus is around 1 in 8000 to 1 in 15000 deliveries. We report this unusual case of spontaneous unscarred fundal rupture after normal vaginal delivery. This case under reference developed shock soon after delivery and was explored due to suspected intraperitoneal hemorrhage. This case is being reported to emphasis the need for proper post-delivery monitoring not only to diagnose post-partum hemorrhage but also to suspect uterine rupture as a cause of unexplained shock developing after delivery inspite of all resuscitative measures. Although unexpected in a woman with an unscarred uterus, rupture should be considered as a possible cause of unusual pain or hypotension in the mother. The most effective way to reduce the number of morbidity and mortality would be to prevent unwanted pregnancies by informed and effective use of contraception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 780-782

  16. Direct visualization of microalgae rupture by ultrasound-driven bubbles

    Pommella, Angelo; Harun, Irina; Pouliopoulos, Antonis; Choi, James J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Garbin, Valeria


    Cell rupture induced by ultrasound is central to applications in biotechnology. For instance, cell disruption is required in the production of biofuels from microalgae (unicellular species of algae). Ultrasound-induced cavitation, bubble collapse and jetting are exploited to induce sufficiently large viscous stresses to cause rupture of the cell membranes. It has recently been shown that seeding the flow with bubbles that act as cavitation nuclei significantly reduces the energy cost for cell processing. However, a fundamental understanding of the conditions for rupture of microalgae in the complex flow fields generated by ultrasound-driven bubbles is currently lacking. We perform high-speed video microscopy to visualize the miscroscale details of the interaction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , microalgae of about 10 μm in size, with ultrasound-driven microbubbles of 2-200 μm in diameter. We investigate the efficiency of cell rupture depending on ultrasound frequency and pressure amplitude (from 10 kPa up to 1 MPa), and the resulting bubble dynamics regimes. In particular we compare the efficiency of membrane rupture in the acoustic microstreaming flow induced by linear oscillations, with the case of violent bubble collapse and jetting. V.G. acknowledges partial support from the European Commission (FP7-PEOPLE-2013-CIG), Grant No. 618333.

  17. Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length

    Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.


    The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

  18. LiDAR-derived measurements of slip in the most recent ground-rupturing earthquakes along elements of the San Andreas fault system

    Haddad, D. E.; Madden, C.; Salisbury, J. B.; Arrowsmith, R.; Weldon, R. J.


    Tectonically displaced geomorphic markers record the surface manifestation of earthquake-induced ground ruptures. Of particular interest to earthquake forecast models is the slip produced during the most recent ground-rupturing earthquake. High-resolution digital topography from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is a powerful tool for measuring the most recent meter-scale slip along fault zones. We present surface slip measurements of recent ground-rupturing earthquakes along the Garlock, Owens Valley, Elsinore, and Blackwater-Calico fault zones. Fault scarp traces were mapped using LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs), local topographic gradient and relief maps, and aerial photography. An individual slip measurement was made for each offset feature by iteratively reconstructing the topography on either side of the fault and finding the best-matching vertically backslipped value. A goodness-of-fit approach was then used to calculate the best laterally backslipped displacement using a combination of vertical backslip, horizontal backslip, and topographic scaling. Along-strike, reach-averaged surface displacement distributions of the most recent earthquakes were then generated from the LiDAR-derived offsets and compared to published field-derived offset measurements. For the eastern section of the Garlock fault, our LiDAR-derived offsets compared well with those measured in the field and attained an R2 value of 0.88 with reach-averaged slip in the last event of 4.19 m ±0.69 m for the Searles Valley area (2.67 km reach), 4.65 m +0.76/-0.92 m for the Pilot Knob Valley area (24.68 km reach), and 3.45 m +0.82/-0.87 m for the Leach Lake and Avawatz Mountains areas (12.65 km reach), computed from a total of 129 offsets. Our results show that LiDAR-derived offset measurements compare well with field measurements in the comprehensive documentation of along-strike surface slip distributions of the most recent earthquake. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the

  19. [Neurologic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J


    The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.

  20. "Ruptured" malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case report

    Ditsatham C


    Full Text Available Chagkrit Ditsatham, Areewan Somwangprasert, Kirati Watcharachan, Phanchaporn WongmaneerungDivision of Head, Neck and Breast, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandAbstract: Phyllodes tumor or cystosarcoma phyllodes is a rare disease and is usually seen in middle-aged patients. Ruptured phyllodes tumor is a very rare condition. Our study reports patient presentation, diagnosis method, and treatment of an unusual case. A 58-year-old premenopausal female was diagnosed with a phyllodes tumor and presented with a rapidly growing mass for 2 months that ruptured 1 month later. She underwent simple mastectomy at the left side of her breast and received adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was found 4 months after operation.Keywords: ruptured, malignant, phyllodes tumor, breast 

  1. Spontaneous Rupture of Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Report of Two Cases

    Ricardo Rocha


    Full Text Available Introduction. Pancreatic pseudocysts are a common complication of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic pseudocyst’s natural history ranges between its spontaneous regression and the settlement of serious complications if untreated, such as splenic complications, hemorrhage, infection, biliary complications, portal hypertension, and rupture. The rupture of a pancreatic pseudocyst to the peritoneal cavity is a dangerous complication leading to severe peritonitis and septic conditions. It requires emergent surgical exploration that is often of great technical difficulty and with important morbidity and mortality. Case Study. We present two cases of spontaneous rupture of pancreatic pseudocysts, managed differently according to the local and systemic conditions. Conclusion. The best surgical choice is the internal drainage of the cyst to the GI tract; however, in some conditions, the external drainage is the only choice available.

  2. Standards for Documenting Finite‐Fault Earthquake Rupture Models

    Mai, Paul Martin


    In this article, we propose standards for documenting and disseminating finite‐fault earthquake rupture models, and related data and metadata. A comprehensive documentation of the rupture models, a detailed description of the data processing steps, and facilitating the access to the actual data that went into the earthquake source inversion are required to promote follow‐up research and to ensure interoperability, transparency, and reproducibility of the published slip‐inversion solutions. We suggest a formatting scheme that describes the kinematic rupture process in an unambiguous way to support subsequent research. We also provide guidelines on how to document the data, metadata, and data processing. The proposed standards and formats represent a first step to establishing best practices for comprehensively documenting input and output of finite‐fault earthquake source studies.

  3. Nonoperative dynamic treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Bencke, Jesper; Bloch Lauridsen, Hanne


    BACKGROUND: Dynamic rehabilitation has been suggested to be an important part of nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture that results in functional outcome and rerupture rates comparable with those of operative treatment. However, the optimal role of weight-bearing during early...... rehabilitation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare immediate weight-bearing with non-weight-bearing in a nonoperative dynamic treatment protocol for Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS: The study was conducted as a blinded, randomized, controlled, parallel superiority trial. Patients eighteen...... to sixty years of age were eligible for inclusion. Both groups were treated nonoperatively with controlled early motion. The intervention group was allowed full weight-bearing from day one, and the control group was non-weight-bearing for six weeks. The primary outcome was the Achilles tendon Total Rupture...

  4. [Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon].

    Karahasanoğlu, İlker; Yoloğlu, Osman; Kerimoğlu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet Uğur


    Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome.

  5. Rupture of adductor longus tendon due to ciprofloxacin.

    Mouzopoulos, George; Stamatakos, Mihalis; Vasiliadis, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis


    We present a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the adductor longus tendon induced by ciprofloxacin. A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with pneumonia and was recommended ciprofloxacin 500 mg iv twice a day for 7 days. Three days after receiving the initial dose, he developed discomfort in his left medial thigh, and pain and swelling in the same area followed ten days later. He consulted us when he noted a palpable mass on the medial side of his left thigh, and MRI study revealed adductor longus tendon rupture. There was no obvious underlying disease or other factor causing fragility of his adductor longus tendon. We review the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to fluoroquinolone-related tendon rupture as well as the risk factors and discuss proper management.

  6. A Case of Ruptured Splenic Artery Aneurysm in Pregnancy

    Elizabeth K. Corey


    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm is rare complication of pregnancy that is associated with a significant maternal and fetal mortality. Case. A multiparous female presented in the third trimester with hypotension, tachycardia, and altered mental status. A ruptured splenic artery aneurysm was discovered at the time of laparotomy and cesarean delivery. The patient made a full recovery following resection of the aneurysm. The neonate survived but suffered severe neurologic impairment. Conclusion. The diagnosis of ruptured splenic artery aneurysm should be considered in a pregnant woman presenting with signs of intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Early intervention by a multidisciplinary surgical team is key to preserving the life of the mother and fetus.

  7. The temporal distribution of seismic radiation during deep earthquake rupture.

    Houston, H; Vidale, J E


    The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.

  8. Advancements in identifying biomechanical determinants for abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Tavlas, Emmanouil; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Christos


    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common health problem and currently the need for surgical intervention is determined based on maximum diameter and growth rate criteria. Since these universal variables often fail to predict accurately every abdominal aortic aneurysms evolution, there is a considerable effort in the literature for other markers to be identified towards individualized rupture risk estimations and growth rate predictions. To this effort, biomechanical tools have been extensively used since abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is in fact a material failure of the diseased arterial wall to compensate the stress acting on it. The peak wall stress, the role of the unique geometry of every individual abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as the mechanical properties and the local strength of the degenerated aneurysmal wall, all confer to rupture risk. In this review article, the assessment of these variables through mechanical testing, advanced imaging and computational modeling is reviewed and the clinical perspective is discussed.

  9. CT Imaging Findings of Ruptured Ovarian Endometriotic Cysts: Emphasis on the Differential Diagnosis with Ruptured Ovarian Functional Cysts

    Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of abnormal CT findings in patients with surgically proven ruptured endometriotic cysts, as compared with those abnormal CT findings of ruptured ovarian functional cysts. This study included 13 retrospectively identified patients with surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian endometriotic cysts and who had also undergone preoperative CT scanning during the previous seven years. As a comparative group, 25 cases of surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian functional cysts were included. We assessed the morphologic features of the cysts and the ancillary findings based on CT. For the endometriotic cysts, the mean maximum cyst diameter was significantly larger than that of the functional cysts (70.1 mm versus 36.4 mm, respectively, p < 0.05). The endometriotic cysts frequently had a multilocular shape and a thicker cyst wall, as compared to that of functional cysts, and these differences were statistically significant. Among the ancillary findings, endometriotic cysts showed a significantly higher prevalence of loculated ascites, ascites confined to the pelvic cavity without extension to the upper abdomen, and peritoneal strandings and infiltrations (p < 0.05). Although 11 of the 25 cases of functional cysts showed active extravasation of contrast material at the ovarian bleeding site, only one of 13 cases of endometriotic cysts showed active extravasation. The diagnosis of ruptured endometriotic cyst should be suspected for a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of multilocular or bilateral ovarian cysts with a thick wall and loculated ascites confined to the pelvic cavity with pelvic fat infiltrations

  10. Clinical characteristics and surgical problems of ruptured globe injury.

    Bi, Hongsheng; Cui, Yan; Li, Yang; Wang, Xingrong; Zhang, Jianhua


    Ocular trauma is a major cause of vision loss, especially in the young patients, and is the leading cause of unilateral blind in China. The aims of this report are to analyze ciliary and choroidal lesion characteristics and outcomes of a group of patients with ruptured globe injuries and discuss finding a more effective treatment protocol. Here we report our experience treating ruptured globe injuries. Seventy-five patients (75 eyes) with a diagnosis of ruptured globe injuries were selected from 264 patients with open globe injuries at the Shierming Eye Hospital of Shandong Province between January 2009 and December 2011. General information and clinical characteristics such as ciliary and choroidal lesion features were reviewed. Of the 75 patients, 85.3% were men, and the average age of the patients was 37.2 years (range, 6-63 years). The right eye was injured in 52.0%; enucleation was performed in 9 patients. There was no light perception, in the final corrected visual acuity in another 3 patients. The ratio of better visual acuity (better than 0.1) increased from 0 preoperatively to 16.0% postoperatively. Among the 75 patients with ruptured globe injuries, 13 had ciliary injury and 47 (62.7%) had choroidal injuries. Both ciliary and choroidal injuries were detected in 15 patients. Retinal tissue incarceration during sclera suturing was usually the vital point leading to unfavorable results. Ruptured globe injury usually results in severe visual acuity damage. Active treatment could help to restore visual acuity in patients to some degree. Some effective treatment protocols for ruptured globe injuries could be followed. Some unsuitable procedures in primary treatment should be avoided to achieve a better prognosis.

  11. Clinical Characteristics and Surgical Problems of Ruptured Globe Injury☆

    Bi, Hongsheng; Cui, Yan; Li, Yang; Wang, Xingrong; Zhang, Jianhua


    Background Ocular trauma is a major cause of vision loss, especially in the young patients, and is the leading cause of unilateral blind in China. Objective The aims of this report are to analyze ciliary and choroidal lesion characteristics and outcomes of a group of patients with ruptured globe injuries and discuss finding a more effective treatment protocol. Here we report our experience treating ruptured globe injuries. Methods Seventy-five patients (75 eyes) with a diagnosis of ruptured globe injuries were selected from 264 patients with open globe injuries at the Shierming Eye Hospital of Shandong Province between January 2009 and December 2011. General information and clinical characteristics such as ciliary and choroidal lesion features were reviewed. Results Of the 75 patients, 85.3% were men, and the average age of the patients was 37.2 years (range, 6–63 years). The right eye was injured in 52.0%; enucleation was performed in 9 patients. There was no light perception, in the final corrected visual acuity in another 3 patients. The ratio of better visual acuity (better than 0.1) increased from 0 preoperatively to 16.0% postoperatively. Among the 75 patients with ruptured globe injuries, 13 had ciliary injury and 47 (62.7%) had choroidal injuries. Both ciliary and choroidal injuries were detected in 15 patients. Retinal tissue incarceration during sclera suturing was usually the vital point leading to unfavorable results. Conclusions Ruptured globe injury usually results in severe visual acuity damage. Active treatment could help to restore visual acuity in patients to some degree. Some effective treatment protocols for ruptured globe injuries could be followed. Some unsuitable procedures in primary treatment should be avoided to achieve a better prognosis. PMID:24385006

  12. Treatment of Chronic Achilles Tendon Ruptures With Large Defects.

    Ahmad, Jamal; Jones, Kennis; Raikin, Steven M


    Background When Achilles tendon ruptures become chronic, a defect often forms at the rupture site. There is scant literature regarding the treatment of chronic Achilles ruptures with defects of 6 cm or larger. We examined outcomes from combining a turndown of the proximal, central Achilles with a flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer to treat this condition. Materials Between September 2002 and December 2013, 32 patients presented with a chronic Achilles rupture and a defect of 6 cm or more. Twenty patients were male and 12 were female. Patient age was between 20 and 74 years, with a mean of 53.3 years. Eighteen and 14 patients had their right and left Achilles tendon affected, respectively. The number of days between injury and surgery ranged from 30 to 315 days, with a mean of 102 days. Reconstruction of the Achilles involved a turndown of the proximal, central tendon and FHL augmentation. Final patient follow-up ranged from 18 to 150 months, with a mean of 62.3 months. At surgery, the gap between the ruptured ends of the Achilles ranged from 6 to 12 cm, with a mean gap of 7.5 cm. Full healing was achieved in all 32 patients (100%) by 5 months postoperatively. Mean Foot and Ankle Ability Measures scores increased from 36.3% to 90.2% between initial and latest follow-up (P Achilles ruptures with large defects are scant within the orthopaedic literature. Our method of Achilles reconstruction results in a high rate of improved function and pain relief. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Validation of statistical models for creep rupture by parametric analysis

    Bolton, J., E-mail: [65, Fisher Ave., Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)


    Statistical analysis is an efficient method for the optimisation of any candidate mathematical model of creep rupture data, and for the comparative ranking of competing models. However, when a series of candidate models has been examined and the best of the series has been identified, there is no statistical criterion to determine whether a yet more accurate model might be devised. Hence there remains some uncertainty that the best of any series examined is sufficiently accurate to be considered reliable as a basis for extrapolation. This paper proposes that models should be validated primarily by parametric graphical comparison to rupture data and rupture gradient data. It proposes that no mathematical model should be considered reliable for extrapolation unless the visible divergence between model and data is so small as to leave no apparent scope for further reduction. This study is based on the data for a 12% Cr alloy steel used in BS PD6605:1998 to exemplify its recommended statistical analysis procedure. The models considered in this paper include a) a relatively simple model, b) the PD6605 recommended model and c) a more accurate model of somewhat greater complexity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper discusses the validation of creep rupture models derived from statistical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It demonstrates that models can be satisfactorily validated by a visual-graphic comparison of models to data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method proposed utilises test data both as conventional rupture stress and as rupture stress gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is shown to be more reliable than a well-established and widely used method (BS PD6605).

  14. Determine Earthquake Rupture Directivity Using Taiwan TSMIP Strong Motion Waveforms

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lai, Ying-Ju; Gung, YuanCheng


    Inverting seismic waveforms for the finite fault source parameters is important for studying the physics of earthquake rupture processes. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyze the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for the mainshock and aftershocks were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions. We then use the seismograms generated by the aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) to retrieve the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of near-field stations using projected Landweber deconvolution approach. The method for identifying the fault plane relies on the spatial patterns of the apparent source time function durations which depend on the angle between rupture direction and the take-off angle and azimuth of the ray. These derived duration patterns then are compared with the theoretical patterns, which are functions of the following parameters, including focal depth, epicentral distance, average crustal 1D velocity, fault plane attitude, and rupture direction on the fault plane. As a result, the ASTFs derived from EGFs can be used to infer the ruptured fault plane and the rupture direction. Finally we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Chiayi, Taiwan, where a damaging earthquake has occurred about a century ago. The preliminary results show a strike-slip earthquake on 22 October 1999 (Mw 5.6) has ruptured unilaterally toward SSW on a sub-vertical fault. The procedure developed from this study can be applied to other strong motion waveforms recorded from other earthquakes to better understand their kinematic source parameters.

  15. Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns

    Suter, Max


    During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ≥41.0 km, dips ~70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

  16. Identification of Necessary Conditions for Super-shear Wave Rupture Speeds: The San Andreas Fault

    Das, S.


    The 2001 Kunlun, Tibet earthquake taught us that the portion of a strike-slip fault most likely to propagate at super-shear speeds are the long straight portions. This is only a necessary (but not sufficient) condition. That is, once a fault accelerates to the maximum permissible speed, it can continue at this speed provided it is straight and there are no obstacles along the way, and provided the fault friction is low. For the Tibet earthquake, the 100 km region of highest rupture speed also had the highest slip rate, the highest slip and the highest stress drop (Robinson et al., JGR, 2006). Off-fault cracks due to the passage of the Mach cone exists in only that portion of the fault identified as travelling at super-shear speed and not in other places along the fault (Bhat et al., JGR, 2007). Re-examination of earlier reports of super-shear rupture speeds on the North Anatolian fault and the Denali fault show that such speeds did occur on the straight section of these faults. Of course all straight portions of faults will not reach super-shear speeds. So what can the Tibet earthquake teach us about the San Andreas fault? Both the 1906 and the 1857 have long, straight portions, the former having been identified by Song et al. (EOS, 2005) as having reached super-shear speeds to the north of San Francisco, the region of highest slip. If the repeat of the 1857 starts in the central valley, as it is believed to have done in 1857, it has the potential to propagate at super-shear speeds through the long, straight portion of the San Andread fault in the Carrizo Plain, the region believed to have had the largest displacement in 1857 based on paleoseismic studies. The resulting shock waves would strike the highly populated regions of Santa Barbara and the Los Angeles Basin (Das, Science, 2007).

  17. Reaching Diverse Audiences through NOAO Education Programs

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, R. T.; Walker, C. E.


    NOAO education programs are designed to reach diverse audiences. Examples described in this poster include the Hands-On Optics Project nationwide, an extension of the Hands-On Optics program at Boys and Girls Clubs in Arizona and in Hawaii, a professional development program for Navajo and Hopi teachers, a number of programs for the Tohono O'odham Nation, and a project collecting and reviewing Spanish language astronomy materials. Additionally NOAO is also involved in several local outreach projects for diverse and underserved audiences.

  18. Setting the standards for reporting ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Soong, Chee V; Dasari, Bobby V M; Loan, William; Hannon, Ray; Lee, Bernard; Lau, Louis; Thompson, Matthew


    Reported mortality rates for endovascular repair (EVR) of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) vary from 0% to 50%. Selection bias, inaccurate reporting, and lack of uniform reporting standards are responsible for this significant discrepancy. Existing literature about the classification/reporting systems of rAAA is reviewed. A standard way of reporting rAAA based on the physiological, radiological, and operative findings is proposed. The proposed system attempts to provide a universal language of communicating the severity of rupture, address the reporting bias, and allow comparing the outcomes of rAAA.

  19. A pregnant woman with spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte


    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo......-dynamic instable 24 hours after vaginal delivery, and emergency laparotomi revealed a spontaneous rupture of the right uterine artery. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery is rare but should be considered as a possible cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnant women....

  20. Deflate-gate: Conservative Management of a Large Ruptured Hydrocele

    Viktor X. Flores


    Full Text Available A hydrocele is a common cause of intrascrotal swelling that results when fluid accumulates between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Over time, fluid may collect to form a massive hydrocele and result in significant discomfort for the patient. In this case report, we present a rare event of a 28-year-old gentleman with a documented massive hydrocele measuring 14.1 × 8.9 cm who ruptured his hydrocele during sexual intercourse. We expectantly managed the patient's ruptured hydrocele and encountered no complications throughout the course of his recovery.

  1. Deflate-gate: Conservative Management of a Large Ruptured Hydrocele.

    Flores, Viktor X; Wallen, Jared J; Martinez, Danny R; Carrion, Rafael


    A hydrocele is a common cause of intrascrotal swelling that results when fluid accumulates between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Over time, fluid may collect to form a massive hydrocele and result in significant discomfort for the patient. In this case report, we present a rare event of a 28-year-old gentleman with a documented massive hydrocele measuring 14.1 × 8.9 cm who ruptured his hydrocele during sexual intercourse. We expectantly managed the patient's ruptured hydrocele and encountered no complications throughout the course of his recovery.

  2. Spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic biliary ducts with biliary peritonitis.

    Aydin, Unal; Yazici, Pinar; Coker, Ahmet


    Spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic biliary ducts is a rare cause of acute abdomen due to biliary peritonitis. We report a 92-year-old woman with 48-h history of upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting and peritoneal signs. CT scan showed free fluid in the abdomen and mild dilatation of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy showed bile in the abdominal cavity with leak-age from a ruptured bile duct radicle in segment 3, as confirmed on intraoperative cholangiography. She underwent cholecystectomy, choledochotomy with removal of gallstones, repair of the perforation with primary suture and placement of a T-tube. She had an uneventful recovery.

  3. Aneurysmal re-rupture during selective cerebral angiography

    Zaehringer, Markus; Gossmann, Axel; Krueger, Karsten; Trenschel, Gertrud; Landwehr, Peter [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Wedekind, Christoph [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany)


    Two cases of aneurysmal re-rupture during intracranial angiography are presented. This event is accompanied by disastrous consequences with regard to the clinical condition of the patient, as is evident from the cases presented as well as from the literature. Acute alterations of intraluminal pressure as well as a time interval of less than 6 h seems to increase the risk of re-bleeding during angiography. The introduction of and the growing experience with CT and MR angiography may in the near future provide sufficient diagnostic information for surgical planning and thus help to overcome the risk of aneurysmal re-rupture during intra-arterial angiography. (orig.)

  4. Survival after blunt left ventricular rupture with cardiac tamponade

    Yu-Jang Su; Chang-Chih Chen


    A34-year-old man was drunk and drove to hit a traffic island.Cold sweating and unconscious status were found on arrival.Vital signs revealedBP42/25, and heart rate121/min.There was massive pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade found byCT.Immediate surgical intervention and rupture of left ventricular(LV) free wall was found.He was discharged after2 d intensive care unit(ICU) observation and5-day regular ward care.There is high mortality rate in traumatic heart rupture although timely repair, over all mortality is around20%-36% in recent3 years.

  5. Survival after blunt left ventricular rupture with cardiac tamponade

    Yu-Jang Su


    Full Text Available A 34-year-old man was drunk and drove to hit a traffic island. Cold sweating and unconscious status were found on arrival. Vital signs revealed BP 42/25, and heart rate 121/min. There was massive pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade found by CT. Immediate surgical intervention and rupture of left ventricular (LV free wall was found. He was discharged after 2 d intensive care unit (ICU observation and 5-day regular ward care. There is high mortality rate in traumatic heart rupture although timely repair, over all mortality is around 20%-36% in recent 3 years.

  6. Prepatellar continuation rupture: Report of an unusual case.

    Majeed, Haroon; dos Remedios, Ian; Datta, Praveen; Griffiths, David


    In anatomical studies the deepest soft tissue layer, related to the deep rectus femoris tendinous fibers, has been described as the "prepatellar quadriceps continuation". We present an unusual case of an isolated prepatellar continuation rupture, which to our knowledge is the first described case in the literature. Injuries to the extensor mechanism may include isolated rupture of the prepatellar continuation with intact quadriceps and patellar tendons. Diagnosis may be difficult with ultrasound scan and requires MRI scan for confirmation. Appropriate clinical assessment and regular physiotherapy lead to a full functional recovery.

  7. Seat belt trauma: pectoralis muscle rupture and delayed mesh repair.

    Harvey, Kyle P; Adair, James D; Ali, M Azhar


    To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a seat belt-related rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and its successful delayed repair using mesh. We report a case of a 34-year-old white man who sustained a right pectoralis major muscle rupture from a seat belt during a motor vehicle crash. The patient presented to us 2 years after the injury. We introduce a technique using mesh that results in a successful repair of a cosmetically disfiguring chest wall defect.

  8. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    Ismael, T


    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  9. Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Rupture and Entrapment

    Artan Jahollari


    Full Text Available Intra-aortic balloon pump is used frequently to support a failing myocardium in cardiac patients. Due to the invasive nature of this device, usage is accompanied by consistent risk of complications. Balloon rupture, although it occurs rarely, may lead to entrapment if diagnosis delays. A 78-year male who underwent cardiac surgery experienced balloon rupture and entrapment in the right femoral artery during the postoperative follow-up. Surgical extraction under local anesthesia was performed and the patient had an uneventful course. Fast and gentle solution of the problem is necessary to prevent further morbidity or mortality related to a retained balloon catheter in these delicate patients.

  10. Detailed Surface Rupture Geometry from the 2016 Amatrice Earthquake

    Mildon, Z. K.; Iezzi, F.; Wedmore, L. N. J.; Gregory, L. C.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Wilkinson, M. W.; Faure Walker, J.; Roberts, G.; Livio, F.; Vittori, E.; Michetti, A.; Frigerio, C.; Ferrario, F.; Blumetti, A. M.; Guerrieri, L.; Di Manna, P.; Comerci, V.


    The Amatrice earthquake was generated by co-rupture of the Mt. Vettore and Laga faults at depth. Surface ruptures were observed for 5km along the Mt. Vettore fault, with no clear observations on the Laga fault reported to date. The surface rupture on Mt. Vettore manifests as a 15-20cm pale stripe at the base of a 60-80o dipping bedrock fault scarp and similar magnitude vertical offsets of colluvial deposits. We have measured the strike and dip of the fault alongside the coseismic throw, heave, and slip azimuth along the length of the rupture with high spatial resolution (c.2-6m, >2000 measurements). The slip azimuth is relatively constant between 210-270° even where the rupture faces uphill at its SE termination which is consistent with the regional NW-SE extension direction, defined by focal mechanisms and borehole break-out data. The simplest coseismic throw profile that would be expected is quasi-symmetric. However we found the highest values of throw (Inter Quartile Range 15-19.5cm) are skewed towards the NW end on a 1.7 km section of the fault that is oblique relative to the overall fault strike. In the centre of the rupture, orientated close to the overall fault strike, the throw is lower (IQR 7.5-13cm) and discontinuous along strike. We suggest that the skewed throw profile occurs because the strike, dip and throw must vary systematically in order to preserve the principal strain rate across a fault, in agreement with previous publications. The density of our measurements, crucially including the slip azimuth, allows us to resolve the regional debate over whether normal fault ruptures are primary tectonic features or landslides of hangingwall sediments. If the surface offsets are due to landslides, then the slip azimuth should correlate with the downslope direction of the hangingwall. We show using an available 10m DEM that this is not the case and hence the surface offsets described herein are a primary tectonic feature. This presentation offers new

  11. Traumatic rupture of the stomach after Heimlich maneuver.

    van der Ham, A C; Lange, J F


    Fatal complications following the performance of the Heimlich maneuver have been reported. A 76-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with signs of respiratory distress, abdominal pain and distension one day after airway obstruction and subsequent resuscitation. Despite successful immediate laparotomy and repair of a ruptured stomach, she later succumbed to the sequelae of aspiration of gastric contents and dehiscence of the gastric tear. This is the 4th case of stomach rupture and the 7th reported fatal complication following the Heimlich maneuver. It is recommended that persons who undergo the Heimlich maneuver be examined and observed by a physician, as soon as possible, to rule out complications.

  12. Stability and rupture of archaebacterial cell membrane: a model study.

    Li, Shuangyang; Zheng, Fengxian; Zhang, Xianren; Wang, Wenchuan


    It is known that the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius can grow in hot springs at 65-80 degrees C and live in acidic environments (pH 2-3); however, the origin of its unusual thermal stability remains unclear. In this work, using a vesicle as a model, we study the thermal stability and rupture of archaebacterial cell membrane. We perform a simulation investigation of the structure-property relationship of monolayer membrane formed by bolaform lipids and compare it with that of bilayer membrane formed by monopolar lipids. The origin of the unusually thermal stability of archaebacterial cell and the mechanism for its rupture are presented in molecular details.

  13. Spontaneous rupture of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma: A case report

    Park, Chan Yeong; Lee, In Jae; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is a rare neoplasm with tendencies of local invasion and metastasis. Usually, it is detected incidentally or by its symptoms caused by mass effect. Rupture of the tumor is extremely rare. In this study, we report a case of a ruptured thymic NEC that was combined with a potentially fatal hemorrhage. This lesion was manifested as a progressive bulging of the right cardiac border on serial chest radiographs, and on CT as a large anterior mediastinal mass with heterogeneous enhancement, internal necrosis, and hematoma.

  14. Left ventricular rupture postmitral valve replacement: Surviving a catastrophe

    Samarjit Bisoyi


    Full Text Available One of the dreaded mechanical complications of mitral valve replacement (MVR is rupture of the left ventricle (LV. This report describes the early diagnosis and successful repair of rupture of posterior wall of LV in an elderly patient who underwent MVR. We have discussed the risk factors and perioperative issues implicated in such complication. The anesthesiologist as an intra-operative echocardiographer can aid in identifying the patient at risk. Though important surgical steps are necessary to prevent the complication; nonetheless, the anesthesiologist needs to take key measures in the perioperative period.

  15. Endovascular coil oclusion of spontaneous ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm

    Chiriac A.


    Full Text Available Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of vertebral artery is known as a rare pathological condition causing a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the posterior circulation. The treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms is still an important subject of debates in the literature. We present a particular case of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms that was treated by only endovascular Guglielmi detachable coils occlusion. A brief review of technical possibilities of treatment of these types of vascular lesions, with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  16. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey


    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  17. Extended-reach wells tap outlying reserves

    Nazzal, G. (Eastman Teleco, Houston, TX (United States))


    Extended-reach drilling (ERD) is being used to exploit fields and reserves that are located far from existing platforms. Effective wellbore placement from fewer platforms can reduce development costs, maximize production and increase reserve recovery. Six wells drilled offshore in the US, North Sea and Australia illustrate how to get the most economic benefit from available infrastructure. These wells are divided into three categories by depth (shallow, medium and deep). Vertical depth of these wells range from 963 to 12,791 ft TVD and displacements range from 4,871 to 23,917 ft. Important factors for successful extended-reach drilling included: careful, comprehensive pre-planning; adequate cuttings removal in all sections; hole stability in long, exposed intervals; torque and drag modeling of drilling BHAs, casing and liners; buoyancy-assisted casing techniques where appropriate; critical modifications to drilling rig and top drive, for medium and deep ERD; modified power swivels for shallow operations; drill pipe rubbers or other casing protection during extended periods of drill string rotation; heavy-wall casting across anticipated high-wear areas; survey accuracy and frequency; sound drilling practices and creativity to accomplish goals and objectives. This paper reviews the case history of these sites and records planning and design procedures.

  18. Napa River Restoration Project: Rutherford Reach Completion and Oakville to Oak Knoll Reach

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Restoration Project: Rutherford Reach Completion/Oakville to Oak Knoll, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst and external drainage through a lumbar surgical scar in a male patient with cervical spinal cord injury: a case report

    Vaidyanathan Subramanian


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst is a rare event. Spontaneous rupture with drainage to the exterior through a surgical scar has not been reported previously. Case presentation A 49-year-old male with tetraplegia had undergone extended right pyelolithotomy in 1999. Deroofing and marsupialisation of a cyst in the upper pole of the right kidney was performed in 2003. Subsequently there was recurrence of a thick-walled cystic space-occupying lesion in the upper pole of the right kidney. Thick pus was aspirated from the renal cyst on six occasions between September 2003 and November 2004. In March 2006, ultrasound examination revealed a cyst measuring 6.2 cm in diameter in the upper pole of the right kidney. Aspiration was planned when the renal cyst reached 7.5 cm in diameter. However, 11 months later, the cyst ruptured spontaneously and drained through the previous surgical scar in the flank, while the patient was recovering from a severe chest infection in the spinal unit. Ultrasound examination showed a fistulous tract running between the renal cyst and the abdominal wall. Repeated minor trauma sustained during turning, hoisting and chest physiotherapy all may have contributed to the rupture of the infected renal cyst and drainage through a weak spot in the abdominal wall. Conclusion In hindsight, we might have prevented rupture of the renal cyst had we considered aspiration of the renal cyst before it reached 7.5 cm in diameter, although this 7.5 cm diameter, as the threshold for percutaneous aspiration, is an arbitrary setting. This patient could have been advised to wear an abdominal corset to protect the right flank from pressure applied unintentionally during turning, hoisting or assisted coughing.

  20. Reach and get capability in a computing environment

    Bouchard, Ann M [Albuquerque, NM; Osbourn, Gordon C [Albuquerque, NM


    A reach and get technique includes invoking a reach command from a reach location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the reach location and the object copied into the reach location.

  1. Impact of Partial and complete rupture of anterior cruciate ligament on medial meniscus: A cadavaric study

    Wei Jiang


    Conclusions: Similar to complete rupture, partial rupture of ACL can also trigger strain concentration on medial meniscus, especially posterior horn, which may be a more critical reason for meniscus injury associated with chronic ACL deficiency.

  2. Ruptured spinal arteriovenous malformation: Presenting as stunned myocardium and neurogenic shock

    Tasneem H Mehesry


    Conclusions: Spinal AVM rupture can present as neurogenic shock, stunned myocardium, and pulmonary edema. Early recognition of AVM rupture and prompt surgical intervention, as well as aggressive treatment of shock, may enhance recovery and decrease the long-term morbidity.

  3. Spontaneous Rupture of Pheochromocytoma: Computed Tomography-Pathologic Features and Correlation

    Park, B.K.; Kim, C.K.; Kwon, G.Y. (Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, and Dept. of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (KR))


    Spontaneous rupture is a rare complication of pheochromocytoma. Its preoperative diagnosis is of great importance in determining treatment and prognosis. We describe computed tomography pathologic findings and correlate their features in a case with ruptured pheochromocytoma

  4. Speeded reaching movements around invisible obstacles.

    Todd E Hudson

    Full Text Available We analyze the problem of obstacle avoidance from a Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective using an experimental task in which reaches around a virtual obstacle were made toward targets on an upright monitor. Subjects received monetary rewards for touching the target and incurred losses for accidentally touching the intervening obstacle. The locations of target-obstacle pairs within the workspace were varied from trial to trial. We compared human performance to that of a Bayesian ideal movement planner (who chooses motor strategies maximizing expected gain using the Dominance Test employed in Hudson et al. (2007. The ideal movement planner suffers from the same sources of noise as the human, but selects movement plans that maximize expected gain in the presence of that noise. We find good agreement between the predictions of the model and actual performance in most but not all experimental conditions.

  5. Priority setting in the REACH system.

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Rudén, Christina


    Due to the large number of chemicals for which toxicological and ecotoxicological information is lacking, priority setting for data acquisition is a major concern in chemicals regulation. In the current European system, two administrative priority-setting criteria are used, namely novelty (i.e., time of market introduction) and production volume. In the proposed Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) system, the novelty criterion is no longer used, and production volume will be the main priority-setting criterion for testing requirements, supplemented in some cases with hazard indications obtained from QSAR modelling. This system for priority setting has severe weaknesses. In this paper we propose that a multicriteria system should be developed that includes at least three additional criteria: chemical properties, results from initial testing in a tiered system, and voluntary testing for which efficient incentives can be created. Toxicological and decision-theoretical research is needed to design testing systems with validated priority-setting mechanisms.

  6. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.


    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form.

  7. Morphodynamics of a pseudomeandering gravel bar reach

    Bartholdy, J.; Billi, P.


    A large number of rivers in Tuscany have channel planforms, which are neither straight nor what is usually understood as meandering. In the typical case, they consist of an almost straight, slightly incised main channel fringed with large lateral bars and lunate-shaped embayments eroded into the former flood plain. In the past, these rivers have not been recognised as an individual category and have often been considered to be either braided or meandering. It is suggested here that this type of river planform be termed pseudomeandering. A typical pseudomeandering river (the Cecina River) is described and analysed to investigate the main factors responsible for producing this channel pattern. A study reach (100×300 m) was surveyed in detail and related to data on discharge, channel changes after floods and grain-size distribution of bed sediments. During 18 months of topographic monitoring, the inner lateral bar in the study reach expanded and migrated towards the concave outer bank which, concurrently, retreated by as much as 25 m. A sediment balance was constructed to analyse bar growth and bank retreat in relation to sediment supply and channel morphology. The conditions necessary to maintain the pseudomeandering morphology of these rivers by preventing them from developing a meandering planform, are discussed and interpreted as a combination of a few main factors such as the flashy character of floods, sediment supply (influenced by both natural processes and human impact), the morphological effects of discharges with contrasting return intervals and the short duration of flood events. Finally, the channel response to floods with variable sediment transport capacity (represented by bed shear stress) is analysed using a simple model. It is demonstrated that bend migration is associated with moderate floods while major floods are responsible for the development of chute channels, which act to suppress bend growth and maintain the low sinuosity configuration of

  8. Traumatic ruptured globe eye injuries in a large urban center.

    Burstein, Eitan S; Lazzaro, Douglas R


    The purpose of this study was to examine patient characteristics and outcomes in a group of consecutive patients with ruptured globe eye injuries at Kings County Hospital Center, a large, urban, level 1 trauma center. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all patients with ruptured globe eye injuries seen between January 2009 and October 2011. Thirty-eight patients who sustained ruptured globe eye injuries from all causes were investigated for etiology and final visual outcomes. Eight eyes in which vision could be assessed were evaluated as having no light perception at presentation and three of these eyes required primary enucleation. Of the 38 eyes, orbit fractures were found in 15 eyes and an intraocular foreign body was found in six eyes. Our cohort revealed a 37.5% rate of primary enucleation in eyes with no light perception, which we believe to be a reflection of the severity of injury. All three cases were secondary to a gunshot wound. Further, our sample, although small in size, revealed a very high percentage of eyes that were ruptured secondary to violent causes compared with other studies.

  9. Rupture uterus: changing trends in etiology and management.

    Nagarkatti R


    Full Text Available Sixty-four cases of rupture uterus which occurred during the period 1980-89 were studied and compared with 70 cases in the preceding decade (1970-79. The changing trends in etiological factors and management of this condition have been demonstrated. While spontaneous rupture continued to account for about two-thirds of the cases (70.3%, the incidence of traumatic rupture uterus has become less than half, from 17.1 to 7.8%, and that of scar rupture has increased to more than double (from 11.4 to 23.4%. As regards management, there are improved results seen with conservative repair of the uterus. It was also seen that a subtotal hysterectomy was more commonly resorted to than total hysterectomy in the later decade. There was a decrease in the overall morbidity from 42.8 to 35.9% and also in the mortality rate from 24.3 to 18.7%.

  10. Use of ICD-10 codes to monitor uterine rupture

    Thisted, Dorthe L A; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Hvidman, Lone


    . We retrieved the medical records of all women in the MBR with a code for uterine rupture during labor regardless of whether or not a prior cesarean section had been reported to the registry. In addition medical records of all women with a code for previous cesarean section and delivery of a child...

  11. Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures

    Thorborg, Kristian; Petersen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann


    BACKGROUND: Non-operative treatment of acute hip adductor longus ruptures in athletes has been described in the literature. However, very limited information concerning the recovery of this type of injury exists. This case represented a unique possibility to study the recovery of two acute adduct...

  12. Outcomes of Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    Jonker, Frederik H. W.; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Lin, Peter H.; Heijmen, Robin H.; Trimarchi, Santi; Lee, W. Anthony; Moll, Frans L.; Athamneh, Husam; Muhs, Bart E.


    Background-Thoracic endovascular aortic repair offers a less invasive approach for the treatment of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (rDTAA). Due to the low incidence of this life-threatening condition, little is known about the outcomes of endovascular repair of rDTAA and the factors t

  13. Outcomes of endovascular repair of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms

    F.H.W. Jonker; H.J.M. Verhagen (Hence); P.H. Lin (Peter); R.H. Heijmen (Robin); S. Trimarchi (Santi); W.A. Lee (Anthony); F.L. Moll (Frans); H. Athamneh (Husam); B.E. Muhs (Bart)


    textabstractBackground-: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair offers a less invasive approach for the treatment of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (rDTAA). Due to the low incidence of this life-threatening condition, little is known about the outcomes of endovascular repair of rDTAA and

  14. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.


    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  15. Surgical repair of subacute left ventricular free wall rupture

    Zeebregts, CJ; Noyez, L; Hensens, AG; Skotnicki, SH; Lacquet, LK


    Background: The natural course of subacute ventricular free wall rupture (FWR) as a complication of acute myocardial infarction (MI) is usually lethal. The aim of this study was to investigate the curability of this entity and to report on five patients successfully treated by rapid diagnosis, hemod


    Mercy Rodrigo


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The objectives of this study are 1 To find out the incidence of premature rupture of membranes, 2 To evaluate the aetiology of premature rupture of membranes, 3 To assess foetal and maternal outcome in premature rupture of membranes. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective case control study was conducted in Govt. RSRM Lying In Hospital, Chennai, over a period of 6 months and 100 cases of spontaneous rupture of membranes attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology were studied. Maternal and neonatal outcome were compared with controls. RESULTS Incidence of PROM was 9.06%. Most of them belonged to low socioeconomic class and in the age group 20-29 years, commonly seen primi gravida and in unbooked cases. Aetiological analysis revealed infection in 15% of cases, which is evident by positive amniotic fluid culture, h/o recent coitus in 20%, mal-presentation in 7%. Cause is unknown in most of the cases. The caesarean section rate is 24% when compared to 12% in control group. The PROM group had higher morbidities like postpartum haemorrhage, postpartum fever, wound infection, neonatal sepsis. CONCLUSION This study showed significantly increased morbidity for both mother and baby. PROM causes major increase in the incidence of prematurity, hence careful screening of high risk factors and treatment of infection promptly is needed to decrease the perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  17. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.


    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of A Case of Spontaneous Rupture of Achille's Tendon



    @@ Mr. Guo, 51 years old, paid his first visit on November 7, 2001. The patient felt sudden pain in the right Achille's tendon in June 1999 with no apparent predisposing factors. Several months later he palpated a small pitting in the middle of the right Achille's tendon, which expanded gradually in size. In June 2000, two thirds of the tendon was diagnosed to be ruptured in a local hospital. Ten days later the tendon was ruptured completely when he felt sudden severe pain, numbness and distention, and he was unable to raise the heel. The lesion was healed three months later after being treated with a plaster model, but it was partially ruptured again 6 months later. Though the ruptured tendon was healed again with the help of a plaster model, he still suffered from local swelling and pain, which was aggravated during movement and made him difficult in walking, squatting down and standing up. During the examination, the right heel was found hyperemic and swollen with ecchymosis and tenderness. The tongue proper was dark red and the pulse thready and rapid. The condition was due to depletion and deficiency of liver-qi, stagnant blood with dampheat obstructing the collaterals. The principle of nourishing the liver and soothing the tendon was adopted, assisted by invigorating blood circulation and removing blood stasis, clearing heat and transforming dampness.

  19. Acute Achilles tendon rupture Treatment strategies and outcomes

    Metz, R.


    Based on the results of the studies presented in this thesis it is concluded that minimally invasive surgical treatment of acute AT ruptures with functional after-treatment allows patients to return to their original level of their professional and athletic activities and should be regarded best tre

  20. Surgical Strategy for the Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Lin, Yangjing; Yang, Liu; Yin, Li; Duan, Xiaojun


    Background. Chronic Achilles tendon rupture is usually misdiagnosed and treated improperly. This study aims to better understand the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Methods. Patients who were not able to perform a single-limb heel rise were chosen. Pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were conducted. By evaluating the presence or absence of Achilles tendon stumps and the gap length of rupture, V-Y advancement, gastrocnemius fascial turndown flap, or flexor halluces longus tendon transfer were selected for tendon repair. The function of ankle and foot was assessed by American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scores and Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS). Results. Twenty-nine patients were followed up. One patient had superficial incision infection, which was healed after debridement and oral antibiotics. Three months postoperatively, MRI showed some signs of inflammation, which disappeared at one or two years postoperatively. All patients were able to perform a single-limb heel rise. Mean AOFAS scores and ATRS scores were increased at the latest follow-up. Conclusion. Surgical options can be determined by evaluating the presence of the Achilles tendon stumps and the gap length, which can avoid using the nearby tendon and yield satisfactory functional results.

  1. New finding in the radiographic diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture

    Newmark, H.; Mellon, W.S. Jr.; Malhotra, A.K.; Olken, S.M.; Halls, J.


    The authors describe a new radiographic sign of rupture of the Achilles tendon system. It is a fracture, with separation through an osteophyte at the insertion of this tendon. Previously reported signs are also discussed as well as the present case report.

  2. Surgical Strategy for the Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Yangjing Lin


    Full Text Available Background. Chronic Achilles tendon rupture is usually misdiagnosed and treated improperly. This study aims to better understand the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Methods. Patients who were not able to perform a single-limb heel rise were chosen. Pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were conducted. By evaluating the presence or absence of Achilles tendon stumps and the gap length of rupture, V-Y advancement, gastrocnemius fascial turndown flap, or flexor halluces longus tendon transfer were selected for tendon repair. The function of ankle and foot was assessed by American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scores and Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS. Results. Twenty-nine patients were followed up. One patient had superficial incision infection, which was healed after debridement and oral antibiotics. Three months postoperatively, MRI showed some signs of inflammation, which disappeared at one or two years postoperatively. All patients were able to perform a single-limb heel rise. Mean AOFAS scores and ATRS scores were increased at the latest follow-up. Conclusion. Surgical options can be determined by evaluating the presence of the Achilles tendon stumps and the gap length, which can avoid using the nearby tendon and yield satisfactory functional results.

  3. [Surgical treatment for chronic achilles tendon rupture and severe scarring].

    Sun, Chuan-Xiu; He, Sheng-Wei; Fang, Xu; Mi, Li-Dong; Du, Guang-Yu; Sun, Xue-Gang


    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of autologous semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafting with anchor repair for the treatment of chronic achilles tendon rupture and severe scarring. From April 2010 to October 2012,26 patients with chronic achilles tendon rupture(with Myerson type III ) and severe scarring were treated with autologous semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafting with anchor repair. There were 19 males and 7 females,with an average age of 32 years old (ranged, 22 to 47 years). The time from injury to surgery was from 3 to 12 months (7 months on average). The plantar flexion strength of all injuried feet attenuated and single heel rise test were positive in 26 cases before operation. Plaster immobilization and routine rehabilitation therapy were performed after operation. Clinical effects were evaluated by Arner-lindholm criterion and complications were observed after operation. All the patients were followed up from 12 to 24 months with a mean of 16 months. No complications such as achilles tendon re-rupture, wound infection, etc were found during follow-up period. According to the Arner-Lindholm standard, 15 cases got excellent results and 11 good. Using autologous semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafts with anchor repair to treat chronic achilles tendon rupture and severe scarring is a perfect surgical procedure.

  4. Ultrasound evaluation of a spontaneous plantar fascia rupture.

    Louwers, Michael J; Sabb, Brian; Pangilinan, Percival H


    Plantar fascia rupture is an occasional complication in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis or in patients with plantar fasciitis treated with steroid injection. Very few cases of spontaneous plantar fascia rupture have been reported in the literature (Herrick and Herrick, Am J Sports Med 1983;11:95; Lun et al, Clin J Sports Med 1999;9:48-9; Rolf et al, J Foot Ankle Surg 1997;36:112-4; Saxena and Fullem, Am J Sports Med 2004;32:662-5). Spontaneous medial plantar fascia rupture in a 37-yr-old man with no preceding symptoms or steroid injections was confirmed with diagnostic ultrasound, which revealed severe fasciitis at the calcaneal insertion with partial tearing. After conservative treatment, the patient returned to full activities. We discuss the anatomy, risk factors, examination findings, and treatment for this condition, as well as the unique benefits that ultrasound offers over magnetic resonance imaging. It is important to consider plantar fascia rupture in patients with hindfoot pain and medioplantar ecchymosis, particularly if an injury occurred during acceleration maneuvers. Ultrasound in these cases can be used to diagnose a plantar fascia tear quickly, accurately, and cost-effectively.

  5. Spontaneous splenic rupture during the recovery phase of dengue fever.

    de Silva, W T T; Gunasekera, M


    Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but known complication of dengue fever. Previously reported cases have occurred early during the course of the disease and most cases have led to a fatal outcome. Here we report a case of spontaneous splenic rupture in a patient with dengue fever, which occurred during the recovery phase of the illness. A 28-year-old Sinhalese, Sri Lankan man presented with a history of fever, myalgia and vomiting of 4 days duration. Investigations revealed a diagnosis of dengue fever with no signs of plasma leakage. He was managed in the ward as per local protocol. During the recovery phase the patient developed severe abdominal distention with circulatory failure. Radiology revealed splenic rupture with massive amounts of abdominal free fluid. The patient was resuscitated and Emergency laparotomy with splenectomy was performed. The outcome was excellent with the patient making a complete recovery. Although splenic rupture is a known complication of dengue fever it may be manifested late in the disease process. A high degree of suspicion should be maintained and patients must be monitored even during the recovery phase of dengue fever. Early diagnosis and intervention can prevent mortality.

  6. [Plurifragmentary ruptures of the kidney. Wrapping by absorbable mesh].

    Spay, G


    In two patients presenting with rupture of the kidney, the fragments of that organ were kept together by wrapping in a resorbable mesh after haemostasis and trimming. The post-operative period was uneventful. This method facilitates conservative renal surgery, even in cases with severe damage.

  7. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik


    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  8. Spontaneous ureteric rupture secondary to an invasive desmoid tumour

    Peter Daechul Yoon


    CONCLUSION: Spontaneous rupture of the ureter is often misdiagnosed as other conditions. History taking and examination can be unreliable, hence a high level of suspicion and further investigations should be utilised. Once the diagnosis is made, treatment can be individualised based on aetiology.

  9. Ruptured Intracranial Mycotic Aneurysm in Infective Endocarditis: A Natural History

    Isabel Kuo


    discovered on CT Angiography. His lesion quickly progressed into an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, requiring emergent craniotomy and aneurysm clipping. Current recommendations on the management of intracranial Mycotic Aneurysms are based on few retrospective case studies. The natural history of the patient's ruptured aneurysm is presented, as well as a literature review on the management and available treatment modalities.

  10. Spontaneous Rupture of Splenic Hemangioma in a Neonate

    Martinez-Leo, Bruno; Vidal-Medina, Jorge; Cervantes-Ledezma, Jesús; Díaz De León-Rivera, Arid; Díaz-Velasco, Edith


    Spleen vascular tumors such as hemangiomas, albeit rare, can present during neonatal period with unexplained circulatory shock. We present a case of a newborn with refractory hypovolemic shock and acute abdomen that underwent emergency splenectomy due to spontaneous rupture of a splenic hemangioma. PMID:27433454

  11. Spontaneous Rupture of Splenic Hemangioma in a Neonate

    Bruno Martinez-Leo


    Full Text Available Spleen vascular tumors such as hemangiomas, albeit rare, can present during neonatal period with unexplained circulatory shock. We present a case of a newborn with refractory hypovolemic shock and acute abdomen that underwent emergency splenectomy due to spontaneous rupture of a splenic hemangioma.

  12. Ruptured aortic valve cusp: a complication of the Heimlich maneuver.

    Chapman, J H; Menapace, F J; Howell, R R


    A case of traumatic rupture of the aortic valve as a complication of the Heimlich maneuver is presented. Conformation was made by comparative echocardiographic studies available from three months before and immediately following the incident. The patient refused surgical intervention and died one month later with severe congestive heart failure despite vigorous medical therapy.

  13. Contribution of scarred uterus to ruptured uterus in rural Nigeria

    Esike Chidi O. U.


    Conclusions: Scarred uterus is a significant cause of uterine rupture, every effort must be made to reduce uterine scars and our women should be encouraged to utilize available health services. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1790-1795

  14. Spontaneous liver rupture in pregnancy complicating HELLP syndrome: case report

    Sariyeh Golmahammadlou


    Conclusion: Spontaneous liver rupture associated with HELLP syndrome is a rare and life-threatening complication of pregnancy. Unruptured liver hematoma is also a rare condition during pregnancy with a very difficult diagnosis. Using clinical diagnostic tests such as CT scan or MRI would be helpful to improve clinical outcomes.

  15. Massive Pellet and Rupture Disk Testing for Disruption Mitigation Applications

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL


    Injection of massive quantities of noble gases or D2 has proven to be effective at mitigating some of the deleterious effects of disruptions in tokamaks. Two alternative methods that might offer some advantages over the present technique for massive gas injection are shattering massive pellets and employing close-coupled rupture disks. Laboratory testing has been carried out to evaluate their feasibility. For the study of massive pellets, a pipe gun pellet injector cooled with a cryogenic refrigerator was fitted with a relatively large barrel (16.5 mm bore), and D2 and Ne pellets were made and were accelerated to speeds of ~600 and 300 m/s, respectively. Based on the successful proof-of-principle testing with the injector and a special double-impact target to shatter pellets, a similar system has been prepared and installed on DIII-D and should be ready for experiments later this year. To study the applicability of rupture disks for disruption mitigation, a simple test apparatus was assembled in the lab. Commercially available rupture disks of 1 in. nominal diameter were tested at conditions relevant for the application on tokamaks, including tests with Ar and He gases and rupture pressures of ~54 bar. Some technical and practical issues of implementing this technique on a tokamak are discussed.

  16. Acute Achilles tendon rupture Treatment strategies and outcomes

    Metz, R.


    Based on the results of the studies presented in this thesis it is concluded that minimally invasive surgical treatment of acute AT ruptures with functional after-treatment allows patients to return to their original level of their professional and athletic activities and should be regarded best tre

  17. [Pseudomembranous colitis after surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Lozano Sánchez, F; Sánchez Fernández, J; Palacios, E; Fernández, M; Ingelmo Morin, A; Gómez Alonso, A


    We present a rare postoperative complication after surgical procedures for rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The disease, a pseudomembranous colitis, was early recognized (by evidence of clostridium difficile after a coprocultive) and satisfactorily treated with vancomycin. From the literature review we found only a similar case but results were absolutely different from our case.

  18. Mapping the rupture process of moderate earthquakes by inverting accelerograms

    Hellweg, M.; Boatwright, J.


    We present a waveform inversion method that uses recordings of small events as Green's functions to map the rupture growth of moderate earthquakes. The method fits P and S waveforms from many stations simultaneously in an iterative procedure to estimate the subevent rupture time and amplitude relative to the Green's function event. We invert the accelerograms written by two moderate Parkfield earthquakes using smaller events as Green's functions. The first earthquake (M = 4.6) occurred on November 14, 1993, at a depth of 11 km under Middle Mountain, in the assumed preparation zone for the next Parkfield main shock. The second earthquake (M = 4.7) occurred on December 20, 1994, some 6 km to the southeast, at a depth of 9 km on a section of the San Andreas fault with no previous microseismicity and little inferred coseismic slip in the 1966 Parkfield earthquake. The inversion results are strikingly different for the two events. The average stress release in the 1993 event was 50 bars, distributed over a geometrically complex area of 0.9 km2. The average stress release in the 1994 event was only 6 bars, distributed over a roughly elliptical area of 20 km2. The ruptures of both events appear to grow spasmodically into relatively complex shapes: the inversion only constrains the ruptures to grow more slowly than the S wave velocity but does not use smoothness constraints. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Simultaneous Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Vasospasm

    Cho, Young Dae; Han, Moon Hee; Kang, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jun Hyoung [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Stroke Center, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jeong Wook [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Sun Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The management of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms and severe vasospasm is subject to considerable controversy. We intended to describe herein an endovascular technique for the simultaneous treatment of aneurysms and vasospasm. A series of 11 patients undergoing simultaneous endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms and vasospasm were reviewed. After placement of a guiding catheter within the proximal internal carotid artery for coil embolization, an infusion line of nimodipine was wired to one hub, and of a microcatheter was advanced through another hub (to select and deliver detachable coils). Nimodipine was then infused continuously during the coil embolization. This technique was applied to 11 ruptured aneurysms accompanied by vasospasm (anterior communicating artery, 6 patients; internal carotid artery, 2 patients; posterior communicating and middle cerebral arteries, 1 patient each). Aneurysmal occlusion by coils and nimodipine-induced angioplasty were simultaneously achieved, resulting in excellent outcomes for all patients, and there were no procedure-related complications. Eight patients required repeated nimodipine infusions. Our small series of patients suggests that the simultaneous endovascular management of ruptured cerebral aneurysms and vasospasm is a viable approach in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe vasospasm.

  20. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults.

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J; Bhat, Harsha S; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo


    Many of Earth's great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent 'flapping' of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus associated with pyometra.

    Parkinson, D. J.; Alderman, B.


    A case is reported in which an elderly patient was admitted with signs and symptoms of an acute abdomen. A laparotomy revealed uterine rupture with free pus in the peritoneal cavity and subsequent histology of the uterus showed no evidence of malignancy. PMID:4039437

  2. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture

    Brent Hanson


    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate definitive calculi. After a temporary improvement in flank pain with medication, the patient experienced acute worsening of her left flank pain. Urology was consulted and further imaging was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was consistent with bilateral hydronephrosis and rupture of the left renal calyx. Given the patient’s worsening pain in the setting of left calyceal rupture, the urology team planned for placement of a left ureteral stent. However, before the patient could receive her stent, she progressed to active labor and delivered a viable female infant vaginally. Following delivery, the patient’s flank pain resolved rapidly and spontaneously, so no surgical intervention was performed. A summary of the literature and the details of this specific clinical situation are provided.

  3. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture

    Hanson, Brent; Tabbarah, Rami


    Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate definitive calculi. After a temporary improvement in flank pain with medication, the patient experienced acute worsening of her left flank pain. Urology was consulted and further imaging was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was consistent with bilateral hydronephrosis and rupture of the left renal calyx. Given the patient's worsening pain in the setting of left calyceal rupture, the urology team planned for placement of a left ureteral stent. However, before the patient could receive her stent, she progressed to active labor and delivered a viable female infant vaginally. Following delivery, the patient's flank pain resolved rapidly and spontaneously, so no surgical intervention was performed. A summary of the literature and the details of this specific clinical situation are provided. PMID:26483981

  4. Mitigation measures for soil embankments against fault rupture using geosynthetics

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos


    In the current study the ability of geosynthetics to reduce the permanent deformations developed due to a fault rupture propagation in a soil embankment is investigated. For this purpose parametric numerical analyses were performed and the effect of the material properties of the geosynthetics...

  5. Spontaneous oesophageal rupture with duodenal atresia in a newborn infant.


    A newborn infant with spontaneous oesophageal rupture associated with duodenal atresia is described. The diagnosis was established by the pattern of hydropneumothorax on the chest x-ray film and by the aspiration of gastric juice by thoracocentesis. Necropsy showed a tear, which extended from the oesophagogastric junction to the upper portion of the stomach.

  6. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J.; Bhat, Harsha S.; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo


    Many of Earth’s great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent ‘flapping’ of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  7. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie


    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  8. Pathologic splenic rupture in a patient with follicular lymphoma

    Aniruddha P Dayama


    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is the most common indolent Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL . It presents primarily with widespread disease which may be asymptomatic and involves the bone marrow in around 40% of patients . Although the disease is widespread at presentation the incidence of complications such as splenic rupture which are usually seen with other aggressive lymphomas is rare

  9. Can release of urinary retention trigger abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture?

    Luhmann, Andreas; Powell-Bowns, Matilda; Elseedawy, Emad


    Only 50% of abdominal aortic aneurysms present with the classic triad of hypotension, back pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass. This variability in symptoms can delay diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient presenting with a unique combination of symptoms suggesting that decompression of urinary retention can lead to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

  10. Surgical treatment of pectoralis major rupture in athletes.

    Pavlik, A; Csépai, D; Berkes, I


    Complete rupture of the pectoralis major muscle, first described by Patissier in 1822, is a rare sports injury. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the literature since 1822. In this study, we describe our surgical technique and summarize our results and experience of the surgical treatment of pectoralis major rupture. Seven athletes (4 wrestlers, 2 handball players, 1 body-builder) were surgically treated in our department from 1981 to 1996. During the follow-up examination, five patients had excellent and two had good results, and six athletes could return to sports activity at their preoperative level. Among our patients we emphasize that of a wrestler, who had suffered an acute rupture, and 3 months after the surgery he won an Olympic gold medal. According to the literature and our experience, we suggest that only surgical repair of the acute pectoralis major rupture will result in both complete recovery and restoration of the full strength of the muscle, essential for active athletes.

  11. Multidetector computed tomography findings of spontaneous renal allograft ruptures

    Basaran, C. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail:; Donmez, F.Y.; Tarhan, N.C.; Coskun, M. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Haberal, M. [Department of General Surgery, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)


    Aim: To describe the characteristics of spontaneous renal allograft rupture using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Method: Five patients with spontaneous renal allograft rupture, as confirmed by pathologic examination, were referred to our institution between 1985 and 2008. The clinical records and preoperative MDCT findings of the patients were studied retrospectively. Results: Clinical and/or histological findings were consistent with acute rejection in all cases. Using MDCT, disruption of the capsular integrity and parenchymal rupture was seen in four patients. Four of the five patients showed decreased enhancement and swollen grafts. Perirenal (n = 4), subcapsular (n = 1), and intraparenchymal (n = 1) haematomas were also seen. In the patient with an intraparenchymal haematoma there was no disruption of capsular integrity, but capsular irregularities were seen near the haematoma. Conclusion: MDCT is a useful investigative tool for the evaluation of suspected spontaneous renal allograft rupture. As well as a swollen graft, disruption of the capsule, parenchyma, and/or haematoma should prompt the radiologist to consider this diagnosis.

  12. Statin use and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Wemmelund, H; Høgh, A; Hundborg, H H


    BACKGROUND: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) is associated with high mortality. Research suggests that statins may reduce abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth and improve rAAA outcomes. However, the clinical impact of statins remains uncertain in relation to both the risk and prognosis...

  13. Identification of rupture locations in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms using experimental and computational techniques

    Doyle, Barry J.; Cloonan, Aidan J.; Walsh, Michael T.; Vorp, David A.; McGloughlin, Timothy M


    peer-reviewed In the event of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture, the outcome is often death. This paper aims to experimentally identify the rupture locations of in vitro AAA models and validate these rupture sites using finite element analysis (FEA). Silicone rubber AAA models were manufactured using two different materials (Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170, Dow Corning) and imaged using computed tomography (CT). Experimental models were inflated until rupture with high speed photograp...

  14. Abdominal wall abscess secondary to spontaneous rupture of pyogenic liver abscess

    Maurizio Zizzo


    Conclusion: Pyogenic liver abscess is a serious and life-threatening illness. Abscess rupture might occur. Many authors consider this complication a surgical emergency, but the site of abscess rupture changes the clinical history of the disease: in case of free rupture into the peritoneum, emergency surgery is mandatory, while a rupture localized in neighboring tissues or organs can be successfully treated by a combination of systemic antibiotics and fine needle aspiration and/or percutaneous drainage of the abscess.

  15. Spontaneous flexor tendon rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus: A case report.

    Oda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Kishida, Aiko; Taniguchi, Daigo; Seno, Takahiro; Kawahito, Yutaka; Kubo, Toshikazu


    Spontaneous flexor tendon rupture is an unusual complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and has not previously been reported. While tendon ruptures in association with SLE have been focused on the previous studies, upper extremity tendon ruptures are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we present an uncommon case of spontaneous flexor tendon rupture of the ring and little fingers in a patient with SLE and discuss the mechanism of injury and its surgical treatment.

  16. Rapid Mapping of Surface Rupture from the South Napa Earthquake

    Trexler, C. C.; Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.


    Rapid documentation (3D data collection technique known as Structure from Motion (SfM), used in conjunction with traditional field reconnaissance, enabled us to rapidly locate and document surface ruptures from the Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake. On the morning of the event, our field team used information available on social media to identify locations with potential surface rupture. Preliminary observations of surface rupture (measurements and geo-tagged photographs) were texted to the office-based team member who created digital maps of the rupture trace and shared them online via Twitter in near-real time. We documented many ephemeral features (such as offset roads, curbs, and driveways) along the rupture trace within 12 hours of the event, before these features were destroyed by road and infrastructure repair. We were able to return to most sites again within several days, allowing us to document continuing slip and create time-series datasets of offset features. After the collection and re-collection of data at selected sites, we made detailed measurements remotely using 3D models constructed with SfM. The ability to quantitatively project features into the fault plane using these models allows for accurate measurements of small features often difficult to observe and quantify in the field. Traditionally, even preliminary maps of rupture extent and offset magnitudes are not available for several days after an event because office-based processing and compilation is required. Because we were able to compile our data in real time, we distributed our results while they were still valuable for ongoing scientific response. Our work helped other science teams efficiently target fieldwork and instrument deployment; for example, one geodetic survey team used our surface rupture map to adjust their field deployment plans in an effort to capture rapidly-decaying postseismic movement. With social media and rapid, inexpensive data collection methods like SfM in mind

  17. Kinematic Seismic Rupture Parameters from a Doppler Analysis

    Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.


    The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, mainly when the rupture spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the rupture occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of rupture and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral rupture can be viewed as a sequence of shocks produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the rupture process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the rupture direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining

  18. Modelling earthquake ruptures with dynamic off-fault damage

    Okubo, Kurama; Bhat, Harsha S.; Klinger, Yann; Rougier, Esteban


    Earthquake rupture modelling has been developed for producing scenario earthquakes. This includes understanding the source mechanisms and estimating far-field ground motion with given a priori constraints like fault geometry, constitutive law of the medium and friction law operating on the fault. It is necessary to consider all of the above complexities of a fault systems to conduct realistic earthquake rupture modelling. In addition to the complexity of the fault geometry in nature, coseismic off-fault damage, which is observed by a variety of geological and seismological methods, plays a considerable role on the resultant ground motion and its spectrum compared to a model with simple planer fault surrounded by purely elastic media. Ideally all of these complexities should be considered in earthquake modelling. State of the art techniques developed so far, however, cannot treat all of them simultaneously due to a variety of computational restrictions. Therefore, we adopt the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which can effectively deal with pre-existing complex fault geometry such as fault branches and kinks and can describe coseismic off-fault damage generated during the dynamic rupture. The advantage of FDEM is that it can handle a wide range of length scales, from metric to kilometric scale, corresponding to the off-fault damage and complex fault geometry respectively. We used the FDEM-based software tool called HOSSedu (Hybrid Optimization Software Suite - Educational Version) for the earthquake rupture modelling, which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We firstly conducted the cross-validation of this new methodology against other conventional numerical schemes such as the finite difference method (FDM), the spectral element method (SEM) and the boundary integral equation method (BIEM), to evaluate the accuracy with various element sizes and artificial viscous damping values. We demonstrate the capability of the FDEM tool for


    Damir Lukac

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Tennis leg, a common injury of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle in the muscle-tendon junction, is usually reported in men during recreational sports. Sudden pain is the main symptom accompanied by the feeling of rupture in the calf. Clinical examination followed by ultrasound is the standard diagnostic procedure. Objective: The main objectives of this study are to compare clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cases of tennis leg, evaluate the location and type of lesion in the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, and evaluate the edema volume and the presence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Second, the healing process was monitored with ultrasound to distinguish the level of recovery and to record the presence of chronic sequelae. Methods: Eighty-one subjects with clinical symptoms of rupture of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle participated in the study. A linear probe (7-12 MHz was used for ultrasonographic (US and a Doppler was used to verify the presence of DVT. Results: In 78 of 81 subjects examined, we found obvious US changes (96.3% and three of them had no positive findings. In 67 of them, we diagnosed rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Most of them had partial rupture (73.13% and the remaining had total rupture (26.87%. The edema (30.84% was found in the space between the aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. DVT with the clinical signs of tennis leg was observed in 5 of 81 patients (6.17%. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ultrasound is very important for early diagnosis of muscle-tendon injuries in the leg. In addition, monitoring the healing process and assessing the chosen treatment showed a high efficiency. Ultrasonography is an effective method to identify and differentiate the sequelae of the injured muscles and vascular complications.

  20. Graphene mechanics: II. Atomic stress distribution during indentation until rupture.

    Costescu, Bogdan I; Gräter, Frauke


    Previous Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments found single layers of defect-free graphene to rupture at unexpectedly high loads in the micronewton range. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we modeled an AFM spherical tip pressing on a circular graphene sheet and studied the stress distribution during the indentation process until rupture. We found the graphene rupture force to have no dependency on the sheet size and a very weak dependency on the indenter velocity, allowing a direct comparison to experiment. The deformation showed a non-linear elastic behavior, with a two-dimensional elastic modulus in good agreement with previous experimental and computational studies. In line with theoretical predictions for linearly elastic sheets, rupture forces of non-linearly elastic graphene are proportional to the tip radius. However, as a deviation from the theory, the atomic stress concentrates under the indenter tip more strongly than predicted and causes a high probability of bond breaking only in this area. In turn, stress levels decrease rapidly towards the edge of the sheet, most of which thus only serves the role of mechanical support for the region under the indenter. As a consequence, the high ratio between graphene sheets and sphere radii, hitherto supposed to be necessary for reliable deformation and rupture studies, could be reduced to a factor of only 5-10 without affecting the outcome. Our study suggests time-resolved analysis of forces at the atomic level as a valuable tool to predict and interpret the nano-scale response of stressed materials beyond graphene.

  1. Ruptured renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: a rare case presentation

    Prameela RC


    Full Text Available Malignancy in pregnancy is rare. Carcinomas in pregnancy are mostly kidney cell mass. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the commonest malignancy in pregnancy. Because of softness and increased vascularity, rupture of renal cell carcinoma is not uncommon. Here we are presenting a rare case of renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy with spontaneous rupture resulting in massive hemoperitoneum and serious outcome because of late presentation renal cell carcinoma seldom ruptures. A 26 year old woman G2P1L1 with term pregnancy was referred to hospital 80kms away from periphery with non-progression of labour. There was antenatal record suggesting hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in second trimester. On examination, patient was in hypovolemic shock with profuse distension of abdomen. Diagnosis of abruption grade 3 or rupture uterus was made and immediate laparotomy was done. On opening the abdomen, there was hemoperitoneum but uterus was intact. Emergency LSCS done extracted a stillborn baby. There were no retro placental clots also. There was lot of necrotic tissue in the abdomen and there was a tumour arising from lower pole of left kidney which had invaded the renal vessels and had ruptured. Peripartum hysterectomy and left nephrectomy was done. Women did not respond to treatment and died. The objective of presenting this case is the dilemmas faced by the obstetrician in case of shock in 2nd stage of labour. Simple diagnostic tool like renal ultrasound will help to detect at an early stage which could improve the outcome. All cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy should be investigated for secondary causes of hypertension. Abdominal USG must be done for all cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in 2nd trimester. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment is the key in management of such condition in pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1677-1679

  2. Can Intrapartum Cardiotocography Predict Uterine Rupture among Women with Prior Caesarean Delivery?

    Andersen, Malene M; Thisted, Dorthe L A; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis;


    OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiotocographic abnormalities recorded during labour in women with prior caesarean delivery (CD) and complete uterine rupture with those recorded in controls with prior CD without uterine rupture. STUDY DESIGN: Women with complete uterine rupture during labour between 1997...

  3. The use of suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

    Bushnell, Brandon D; Whitener, George B; Rubright, James H; Creighton, R Alexander; Logel, Kevin J; Wood, Mark L


    Quadriceps tendon rupture is an incapacitating injury that usually requires surgical repair. Traditional repair methods involve transpatellar suture tunnels, but recent reports have introduced the idea of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured tendon. We present 5 cases of our technique of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

  4. Computed tomography features and predictive findings of ruptured gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    Kim, Jin Sil; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the CT features of ruptured GISTs and factors that might be predictive of rupture through comparison with CTs taken prior to rupture and CTs of non-ruptured GIST. Forty-nine patients with ruptured GIST and forty-nine patients with non-ruptured GIST matched by age, gender and location were included. Clinical data including pharmacotherapy were reviewed. The imaging features were analyzed. Prior CT obtained before rupture were evaluated. The most common location of ruptured GIST was small bowel with mean size of 12.1 cm. Ruptured GIST commonly showed wall defects, >40 % eccentric necrosis, lobulated shaped, air density in mass, pneumoperitoneum, peritonitis, hemoperitoneum and ascites (p < 0.001-0.030). Twenty-seven of 30 patients with follow up imaging received targeted therapy. During follow-up, thickness of the tumour wall decreased. Increase in size and progression of necrosis were common during targeted therapy (p = 0.017). Newly developed ascites, peritonitis and hemoperitoneum was more common (p < 0.001-0.036). Ruptured GISTs commonly demonstrate large size, >40 % eccentric necrosis, wall defects and lobulated shape. The progression of necrosis with increase in size and decreased wall thickness during targeted therapy may increase the risk of rupture. Rupture should be considered when newly developed peritonitis, hemoperitoneum, or ascites are noted during the follow-up. (orig.)

  5. Thoracic Aortic Rupture and Aortopulmonary Fistulation in the Friesian Horse : Histomorphologic Characterization

    Ploeg, M; Saey, V; Delesalle, C; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; de Bruijn, M; Back, W; van Weeren, P R; van Loon, G; Chiers, K

    Aortic rupture in horses is a rare condition. Although it is relatively common in the Friesian breed, only limited histopathologic information is available. Twenty Friesian horses (1-10 years old) were diagnosed with aortic rupture by postmortem examination. Ruptured aortic walls were analyzed with

  6. Pregnancy with asymptomatic uterine complete rupture after uterine artery embolization for postpartum hemorrhage

    Hiroaki Soyama


    Conclusion: Many studies have been reported that uterine artery embolization for postpartum hemorrhage did not affect subsequent pregnancy outcomes. However, we report that this procedure contains a potential risk for asymptomatic uterine rupture in a subsequent pregnancy. Although it is difficult to diagnose uterine rupture without symptoms, the obstetrician should be aware of the possibility of uterine rupture.

  7. Continental reach: The Westcoast Energy story

    Newman, P. C.


    A historical account is given of the spectacular success that was Westcoast Energy Inc., a Canadian natural gas giant that charted a wilderness pipeline from natural gas fields in Canada's sub-arctic solitude. The beginning of the company is traced to an event in 1934 when near the bank of the Pouce Coupe River, close to the Alberta-British Columbia border, Frank McMahon, a solitary wildcatter and the eventual founder of the company, first sighted the fiery inferno of a runaway wildcat well, drilled by geologists of the Imperial Oil Company during their original search for the Canadian petroleum basin's motherlode. It was on this occasion in 1934 that McMahon first conceived a geological profile that connected the gas-bearing sandstone of Pouce Coupe with the reservoir rock of the biggest natural gas field of Alberta, and a pipeline from this sandstone storehouse across the rugged heart of British Columbia to Vancouver, and south into the United States. It took the better part of a quarter century to realize the dream of that pipeline which, in due course, turned out to be only the first step towards reaching the top rank of Canadian corporations in operational and financial terms, and becoming one of only a handful in terms of a story that became a Canadian corporate legend. By chronicling the lives and contributions of the company's founder and senior officials over the years, the book traces the company's meteoric rise from a gleam in its founder's eye to a cautious regional utility, and to the aggressive Canadian adventurer that went on to burst the boundaries of its Pacific Coast world, until the continental reach of its operations and interests run from Canada's Pacific shoreline to its Atlantic basins and Mexico's Campeche Bay to Alaska's Prudhoe Bay. The company's independent existence came to an end in 2002 when Westcoast Energy, by then a $15 billion operation, was acquired by Duke Energy Limited of North

  8. New symmetry of intended curved reaches

    Torres Elizabeth B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement regularities are inherently present in automated goal-directed motions of the primate's arm system. They can provide important signatures of intentional behaviours driven by sensory-motor strategies, but it remains unknown if during motor learning new regularities can be uncovered despite high variability in the temporal dynamics of the hand motions. Methods We investigated the conservation and violation of new movement regularity obtained from the hand motions traced by two untrained monkeys as they learned to reach outwardly towards spatial targets while avoiding obstacles in the dark. The regularity pertains to the transformation from postural to hand paths that aim at visual goals. Results In length-minimizing curves the area enclosed between the Euclidean straight line and the curve up to its point of maximum curvature is 1/2 of the total area. Similar trend is found if one examines the perimeter. This new movement regularity remained robust to striking changes in arm dynamics that gave rise to changes in the speed of the reach, to changes in the hand path curvature, and to changes in the arm's postural paths. The area and perimeter ratios characterizing the regularity co-varied across repeats of randomly presented targets whenever the transformation from posture to hand paths was compliant with the intended goals. To interpret this conservation and the cases in which the regularity was violated and recovered, we provide a geometric model that characterizes arm-to-hand and hand-to-arm motion paths as length minimizing curves (geodesics in a non-Euclidean space. Whenever the transformation from one space to the other is distance-metric preserving (isometric the two symmetric ratios co-vary. Otherwise, the symmetric ratios and their co-variation are violated. As predicted by the model we found empirical evidence for the violation of this movement regularity whenever the intended goals mismatched the actions. This

  9. Important ATLAS Forward Calorimeter Milestone Reached

    Loch, P.

    The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter working group has reached an important milestone in the production of their detectors. The mechanical assembly of the first electromagnetic module (FCal1C) has been completed at the University of Arizona on February 25, 2002, only ten days after the originally scheduled date. The photo shows the University of Arizona FCal group in the clean room, together with the assembled FCal1C module. The module consists of a stack of 18 round copper plates, each about one inch thick. Each plate is about 90 cm in diameter, and has 12260 precision-drilled holes in it, to accommodate the tube/rod electrode assembly. The machining of the plates, which was done at the Science Technology Center (STC) at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, required high precision to allow for easy insertion of the electrode copper tube. The plates have been carefully cleaned at the University of Arizona, to remove any machining residue and metal flakes. This process alone took about eleven weeks. Exactly 122...

  10. LEP Dismantling Reaches Half-Way Stage


    LEP's last superconducting module leaves its home port... Just seven months into the operation, LEP dismantling is forging ahead. Two of the eight arcs which form the tunnel have already been emptied and the last of the accelerator's radiofrequency (RF) cavities has just been raised to the surface. The 160 people working on LEP dismantling have reason to feel pleased with their progress. All of the accelerator's 72 superconducting RF modules have already been brought to the surface, with the last one being extracted on 2nd May. This represents an important step in the dismantling process, as head of the project, John Poole, explains. 'This was the most delicate part of the project, because the modules are very big and they could only come out at one place', he says. The shaft at point 1.8 through which the RF cavity modules pass is 18 metres in diameter, while each module is 11.5 metres long. Some modules had to travel more than 10 kilometres to reach the shaft. ... is lifted up the PM 1.8 shaft, after a m...

  11. CAST reaches milestone but keeps on searching

    CERN Courier (september 2011 issue)


    After eight years of searching for the emission of a dark matter candidate particle, the axion, from the Sun, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has fulfilled its original physics programme.   Members of the CAST collaboration in July, together with dipole-based helioscope. CAST, the world’s most sensitive axion helioscope, points a recycled prototype LHC dipole magnet at the Sun at dawn and dusk, looking for the conversion of axions to X-rays. It incorporates four state-of-the-art X-ray detectors: three Micromegas detectors and a pn-CCD imaging camera attached to a focusing X-ray telescope that was recovered from the German space programme (see CERN Courier April 2010).  Over the years, CAST has operated with the magnet bores - the location of the axion conversion - in different conditions: first in vacuum, covering axion masses up to 20 meV/c2, and then with a buffer gas (4He and later 3He) at various densities, finally reaching the goal of 1.17 eV/c2 on 22 ...

  12. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences

    Haswell, Katy


    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  13. Unusual balloon rupture during direct stenting with a TaxusExpress stent in a venous graft complicated by vessel rupture: a device-related fatal event

    Christiansen, Evald H


    proximally with a diameter of 4.5 mm, and the balloon ruptured. Angiography showed rupture of the vessel proximal to the implanted stent, and the patient developed severe hypotension. The rupture was treated with a covered stent and pericardiocentesis was performed with evacuation of 600 mL blood. However......, it was not possible to resuscitate the patient, who died due to severe pump failure and incessant ventricular fibrillation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb...

  14. Dynamic rupture simulations on complex fault zone structures with off-fault plasticity using the ADER-DG method

    Wollherr, Stephanie; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Igel, Heiner


    In dynamic rupture models, high stress concentrations at rupture fronts have to to be accommodated by off-fault inelastic processes such as plastic deformation. As presented in (Roten et al., 2014), incorporating plastic yielding can significantly reduce earlier predictions of ground motions in the Los Angeles Basin. Further, an inelastic response of materials surrounding a fault potentially has a strong impact on surface displacement and is therefore a key aspect in understanding the triggering of tsunamis through floor uplifting. We present an implementation of off-fault-plasticity and its verification for the software package SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method. The software recently reached multi-petaflop/s performance on some of the largest supercomputers worldwide and was a Gordon Bell prize finalist application in 2014 (Heinecke et al., 2014). For the nonelastic calculations we impose a Drucker-Prager yield criterion in shear stress with a viscous regularization following (Andrews, 2005). It permits the smooth relaxation of high stress concentrations induced in the dynamic rupture process. We verify the implementation by comparison to the SCEC/USGS Spontaneous Rupture Code Verification Benchmarks. The results of test problem TPV13 with a 60-degree dipping normal fault show that SeisSol is in good accordance with other codes. Additionally we aim to explore the numerical characteristics of the off-fault plasticity implementation by performing convergence tests for the 2D code. The ADER-DG method is especially suited for complex geometries by using unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Local adaptation of the mesh resolution enables a fine sampling of the cohesive zone on the fault while simultaneously satisfying the dispersion requirements of wave propagation away from the fault. In this context we will investigate the influence of off-fault-plasticity on geometrically complex fault zone structures like subduction

  15. Planning of the Extended Reach well Dieksand 2; Planung der Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2

    Frank, U.; Berners, H. [RWE-DEA AG, Hamburg (Germany). Drilling Team Mittelplate und Dieksand; Hadow, A.; Klop, G.; Sickinger, W. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Barnstdorf (Germany); Sudron, K.


    The Mittelplate oil field is located 7 km offshore the town of Friedrichskoog. Reserves are estimated at 30 million tonnes of oil. At a production rate of 2,500 t/d, it will last about 33 years. The transport capacity of the offshore platform is limited, so that attempts were made to enhance production by constructing the extended reach borehole Dieksand 2. Details are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Erdoelfeld Mittelplate liegt am suedlichen Rand des Nationalparks Schleswig Holsteinisches Wattenmeer, ca. 7000 m westlich der Ortschaft Friedrichskoog. Die gewinnbaren Reserven betragen ca. 30 Millionen t Oel. Bei einer Foerderkapazitaet von 2.500 t/Tag betraegt die Foerderdauer ca. 33 Jahre. Aufgrund der begrenzten Transportkapazitaeten von der Insel, laesst sich durch zusaetzliche Bohrungen von der kuenstlichen Insel Mittelplate keine entscheidende Erhoehung der Foerderkapazitaet erzielen. Ab Sommer 1996 wurde erstmals die Moeglichkeit der Lagerstaettenerschliessung von Land untersucht. Ein im Mai 1997 in Hamburg etabliertes Drilling Team wurde mit der Aufgabe betraut, die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 zu planen und abzuteufen. Die Planungsphasen fuer die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 wurden aufgezeigt. Die fuer den Erfolg einer Extended Reach Bohrung wichtigen Planungsparameter wurden erlaeutert. Es wurden Wege gezeigt, wie bei diesem Projekt technische und geologische Risiken in der Planung mit beruecksichtigt und nach Beginn der Bohrung weiter bearbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  16. Open re-rupture of the Achilles tendon after surgical treatment

    Mitsuru Hanada


    Full Text Available The rate of re-rupture of Achilles tendon after surgical treatment were reported to 1.7-5.6% previously. Re-rupture of Achilles tendon generally occurs subcutaneously. We experienced two rare cases of the open re-ruptures of Achilles tendon with a transverse wound perpendicular to the primary surgical incision. Re-rupture occurred 4 and 13 weeks after surgical treatment. We suggest that open re-rupture correlates more closely with skin scaring and shortening. Another factor may be adhesion between the subcutaneous scar and the suture of the paratenon and Achilles tendon with post-operative immobilization.

  17. One- / Two-Dimensional versus Three-Dimensional Rupture Propagation in Brittle Solids

    Uenishi, K.


    Source dynamics of normal earthquakes is usually considered in the framework of 3D rupture in brittle solids. However, our understanding of mechanical details of actual 3D rupture is limited and most of the frequently utilized rupture criteria in earthquake science have been derived from 1D (or at most 2D) experiments. Typically, criteria based on 1D frictional observations of sliding materials are quite often employed in seismological simulations, but we are not sure whether these rupture criteria are really valid for the generation and complex propagation process of 3D rupture. Indeed, our recent experimental observations on dynamic rupture of monolithic brittle solids using a high-speed digital video camera system indicate rather complicated histories of rupture development in 3D solid materials but at the same time they show simple final rupture patterns (rupture networks). For example, by concurrently applying high-voltage electric discharge impulses, a controlled and geometrically plain dynamic rupture pattern can be really obtained in cylindrical concrete specimens, but the simple final rupture pattern is formed not by unidirectional rupture propagation but by multi-directional one. Another example of plain final rupture patterns can be found by dynamic experiments of ice spheres that impinge upon a flat polycarbonate or ice plate. Rupture of the ice spheres induced by the mechanical impact (free fall) shows two representative rupture patterns: (i) The ice sphere is mainly divided into three or four large segments of comparable size (similar to orange segments); and (ii) Only some portions near the bottom of the ice sphere are ruptured into pieces upon collision and a relatively large "top"-shaped part remains unbroken. Both experimental observations indicate generation of remarkably simple and frequently flat rupture surfaces in 3D specimens even without the clear existence of planes of weakness, but it seems difficult to explain the dynamic rupture

  18. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith


    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  19. Parallel explicit and implicit control of reaching.

    Pietro Mazzoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control or attentively (explicit control. Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested human subjects' ability to segregate sensorimotor signals to parallel control processes by requiring dual (explicit and implicit control of the same reaching movement and testing for interference between these processes. Healthy control subjects were able to engage dual explicit and implicit motor control without degradation of performance compared to explicit or implicit control alone. We then asked whether segregation of explicit and implicit motor control can be selectively disrupted by studying dual-control performance in subjects with no clinically manifest neurologic deficits in the presymptomatic stage of Huntington's disease (HD. These subjects performed successfully under either explicit or implicit control alone, but were impaired in the dual-control condition. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human nervous system can exert dual control on a single action, and is therefore able to accurately segregate sensorimotor signals to explicit and implicit control. The impairment observed in the presymptomatic stage of HD points to a possible crucial contribution of the striatum to the segregation of sensorimotor signals to multiple control processes.

  20. The role of a keystone fault in triggering the complex El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake rupture

    Fletcher, John M.; Oskin, Michael E.; Teran, Orlando J.


    The 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in Baja California, Mexico activated slip on multiple faults of diverse orientations, which is commonly the case for large earthquakes. The critical stress level for fault failure depends on fault orientation and is lowest for optimally oriented faults positioned approximately 30° to the greatest principal compressive stress. Yet, misoriented faults whose positioning is not conducive to rupture are also common. Here we use stress inversions of surface displacement and seismic data to show that the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake initiated on a fault that, owing to its orientation, was among those that required the greatest stress for failure. Although other optimally oriented faults must have reached critical stress earlier in the interseismic period, Coulomb stress modelling shows that slip on these faults was initially muted because they were pinned, held in place by misoriented faults that helped regulate their slip. In this way, faults of diverse orientations could be maintained at critical stress without destabilizing the network. We propose that regional stress build-up continues until a misoriented keystone fault reaches its threshold and its failure then spreads spontaneously across the network in a large earthquake. Our keystone fault hypothesis explains seismogenic failure of severely misoriented faults such as the San Andreas fault and the entire class of low-angle normal faults.

  1. Clinical characteristics of ruptured distal middle cerebral artery aneurysms: Review of the literature.

    Tsutsumi, Keiji; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nagm, Alhusain; Toba, Yasuyuki; Hongo, Kazuhiro


    Middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms usually arise at the primary MCA bifurcation or trifurcation. Distal MCA aneurysms are rarely considered as sources of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It has been reported that ruptured distal MCA aneurysms are associated with head trauma, neoplastic emboli, arterial dissection, or bacterial infection. We experienced five cases of ruptured distal MCA aneurysms and evaluated their clinical characteristics. Retrospective analysis of aneurysmal SAH at Kobayashi Neurosurgical Neurological Hospital was performed from January, 2004 to December, 2014. Clinical characteristics of ruptured distal MCA aneurysms were analyzed using our database. Among 191 aneurysmal SAH patients, there were five ruptured distal MCA aneurysms. All patients did not have any specific medical problems such as infectious disease, head trauma, or cardiac disorders. The incidence of ruptured distal MCA aneurysm was higher than expected and was equivalent to 9.4% of the total ruptured MCA aneurysms. Strong male predominance (80%) and M2-3 junction aneurysm preponderance (80%) were observed. In addition, there were only two patients (40%) with intracerebral hematoma in our study. We reported five cases of ruptured distal MCA aneurysms. Although ruptured distal MCA aneurysms are thought to be rare as sources of aneurysmal SAH, the incidence of ruptured distal MCA aneurysm was 9.4% of all ruptured MCA aneurysms in our study. Ruptured distal MCA aneurysms should be considered as sources of aneurysmal SAH without intracerebral hematoma.

  2. First Trimester Spontaneous Uterine Rupture in a Young Woman with Uterine Anomaly

    Esra Nur Tola


    Full Text Available Spontaneous uterine rupture is a life-threatening obstetrical emergency carrying a high risk for the mother and the fetus. Spontaneous uterine rupture in early pregnancy is very rare complication and it occurs usually in scarred uterus. Uterine anomalies are one of the reasons for spontaneous unscarred uterine rupture in early pregnancy. Obstetricians must consider this diagnosis when a pregnant patient presented with acute abdomen in early pregnancy. We present a case of spontaneous uterine rupture at 12 weeks of gestation in 24-year-old multigravida who had uterine anomaly presenting as an acute abdomen. Our preoperative diagnosis was ectopic pregnancy. Emergency laparotomy confirmed a spontaneous uterine rupture. Uterine anomaly is a risk factor for spontaneous uterine rupture in the early pregnancy. Clinical signs of uterine rupture in early pregnancy are nonspecific and must be distinguished from acute abdominal emergencies.

  3. [Atypical Achilles tendon rupture in Haglund exostosis--a case report].

    Porsch, M; Hackenbroch, M H; König, D P


    We report about an unusual case of a rupture of the Achilles tendon in a patient with Haglund's exostosis and long term achillodynia. Intraoperatively, we found a fresh superficial typically located tendon-rupture and an old deep round shaped rupture which was located directly over the cranial edge of the calcaneous bone spur. We presume that the sharp edge of Haglund's deformity was the cause of the deep tendon rupture, because the location of the round shaped rupture was near the exostosis. The additional superficial rupture, caused by an inadequate trauma, induced operative revision consisting of double layer transosseous suturing. In conclusion early operative resection of Haglund's deformity in cases of repeated irritations of the Achilles tendon should be performed to avoid mechanical damage, including the risk of rupture by the hypomochlion-like effect of the exostosis.

  4. Resolution of alliance ruptures: The special case of animal-assisted psychotherapy.

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal


    Many therapists regard alliance ruptures as one of the greatest challenges therapists face in the therapy room. Alliance ruptures has been previously defined as breakdowns in the process of negotiation of treatment tasks and goals and a deterioration in the affective bond between patient and therapist. Alliance ruptures have been found to predict premature termination of treatment and poor treatment outcomes. But ruptures can also present important opportunities for gaining insight and awareness and for facilitating therapeutic change. A process of rupture resolution may lead to beneficial outcomes and serve as a corrective emotional experience. The article describes unique processes of alliance rupture resolution inherent in animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP). Building on Safran and Muran's model and on clinical examples, the article describes strategies for identifying ruptures in AAP and techniques for repairing them to facilitate a corrective experience in treatment. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  5. Diagnosis and management of testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma: a literature review.

    Wang, Zhao; Yang, Jin-Rui; Huang, Yu-Meng; Wang, Long; Liu, Long-Fei; Wei, Yong-Bao; Huang, Liang; Zhu, Quan; Zeng, Ming-Qiang; Tang, Zheng-Yan


    Testicular rupture, one of the most common complications in blunt scrotal trauma, is the rupture of tunica albuginea and extrusion of seminiferous tubules. Testicular rupture is more inclined to young men, and injury mechanisms are associated with sports and motor accidents. After history taking and essential physical examination, scrotal ultrasound is the first-line auxiliary examination. MRI is also one of the vital complementary examinations to evaluate testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma. Surgical exploration and repair may be necessary when the diagnosis of testicular rupture is definite or suspicious. Postoperative follow-up is to monitor the relief of local symptoms and changes of testicular functions. This review sums up the literatures about testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma in recent 16 years and also refers some new advantages and perspectives on diagnosis and management of testicular rupture.

  6. Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed reaches


    The spiking activity in the parietal reach region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending reach when the reach is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the reach goal when the reach is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended reach goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, reach goals are not always based on the location of a visual obj...

  7. Earthquake Surface Rupture of the Salt Range Thrust at the Himalayan Thrust Front in Pakistan

    Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Madden, C.; Yeats, R.; Hussain, A.; Akhtar, S. S.; Latif, A.; Waliullah, A.; Ashraf, M.; Ramzan, S.; Dasti, N.


    Considerable evidence from Nepal and India now indicates that the basal detachment of the Himalaya produces great earthquakes that result in large coseismic displacements at the thrust front in India and Nepal (the Main Frontal thrust). In contrast, knowledge of the earthquake potential of the Salt Range thrust in Pakistan (SRT) is virtually absent. It has been clear since the publication of the Salt Range maps of Gee (1989) that the SRT deforms young surficial deposits and is an active fault. What remains uncertain is whether surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, with what frequency those events occur, and what is the size of the associated earthquakes. In a field reconnaissance of the SRT in Spring, 2007, we were able to confirm that this thrust is an active fault, and we discovered numerous localities where the fault nearly reaches the surface, cutting all but the youngest few meters of colluvial deposits. Whereas our observations suggest that surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, a number of characteristics of the Pakistani Himalaya suggests the earthquake behavior of the basal detachment and thrust front may be substantially different than it is in India and Nepal to the southeast. Key differences include an uncertain, but lower, convergence rate at the thrust front (5 to 13 mm/yr), a low tapered thrust wedge, and localization of the basal detachment in a weak evaporite unit. In this sense, the front of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in Iran may be a more appropriate analog for the thrust front in Pakistan than the Himalayan thrust front to the southeast. Future mapping of deformed geomorphic surfaces and paleoseismic trenching along the SRT will provide the first direct evidence of the earthquake potential and recurrence of plate- boundary earthquakes in Pakistan. This knowledge is critical for hazard assessment in north-central Pakistan where more than 7 million people are likely to be affected by a great earthquake on the plate boundary.

  8. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    Jaimes, R


    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  9. Hypophysitis secondary to ruptured Rathke's cyst mimicking neurosarcoidosis.

    Janeczko, Cassandra


    Hypophysitis secondary to a ruptured Rathke\\'s cyst is rare. We describe a 53-year-old female who presented with headache and subsequently developed aseptic meningitis and panhypopituitarism. MRI findings and concomitant cardiac arrhythmia and peripheral vasculitis led to a provisional diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. There were no respiratory manifestations of sarcoidosis. Improvement was noted with empirical treatment with steroids. Pituitary biopsy was undertaken to confirm the diagnosis prior to treatment with long-term immunosuppression for putative neurosarcoidosis. The biopsy revealed lymphocytic hypophysitis secondary to a ruptured Rathke\\'s cyst. This report highlights a rare pathology and the importance of a tissue diagnosis before undertaking non-surgical management of a pituitary mass.

  10. A Ruptured Digital Epidermal Inclusion Cyst: A Sinister Presentation.

    Bohler, Iain; Fletcher, Phillip; Ragg, Amanda; Vane, Andrew


    Epidermal inclusion cysts are benign cutaneous lesions caused by dermal or subdermal implantation and proliferation of epidermal squamous epithelium as a result of trauma or surgery. They are typically located on the scalp, face, trunk, neck, or back; however they can be found anywhere on the body. Lesions are asymptomatic unless complicated by rupture, malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma, or infection at which point they can clinically appear as more sinister pathologies. We present the case of a 45-year-old laborer with a ruptured epidermal inclusion cyst, manifesting clinically and radiographically as a malignancy. Following MRI, definitive surgical management may appear to be a logical progression in management of the patient. This case however is a good example of why meticulously following surgical protocol when evaluating an unknown soft tissue mass is imperative. By following protocol, an alternate diagnosis was made and the patient has since gone on to a make a full recovery without life transforming surgery.

  11. Conservation of the ruptured spleen in children: an African series.

    Mabogunje, O A


    In the Zaria region of northern Nigeria, which is endemic for malaria and schistosomiasis, laparotomy was performed for traumatic rupture of the spleen in 27 children, 10 of whom had splenomegaly. Eleven of the children were pedestrians knocked down by motor vehicles while crossing the road and six were boys who fell off mango or guava trees. Using suture techniques, 17 ruptured spleens were repaired and one was partially resected: eight of them were enlarged. Total splenectomy was performed in nine cases. Five of the children in the splenic conservation group died within 4 days of surgery owing to severe associated injuries. It is concluded that splenorrhaphy is quite feasible in both normal-sized and enlarged spleens and should be encouraged in similar tropical countries where splenomegaly is a common response to endemic malaria and schistosoma.

  12. Acute longitudinal ligament rupture following acute spinal trauma

    Donald Hansom


    Full Text Available The authors present a rare case of anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL rupture in a 47- year-old gentleman following a bicycle accident. The ALL is a continuous band of a variable thickness that acts as a primary spinal stabiliser. Stress, strain or rupture of the ALL usually occurs as a result of hyperextension, with the primary perpetrator being whiplash injuries. Such injuries have been shown to result in cervical spine instability during extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending modes. Spine radiographs of such patients may be routinely assessed as normal, therefore this specific type of injury does not lend itself to identification by traditional imaging methods. This account demonstrates the importance of having a high index of suspicion of a ligamentous neck injury in the setting of normal plain radiographs but abnormal clinical examination.

  13. Telomere length of anterior crucial ligament after rupture

    Ponsot, Elodie; Langberg, Henning; Krogsgaard, Michael R


    ) and there was no relationship between mean telomere length in ACL and the healing duration after rupture. This implies that despite the occurrence of ligament repair including a phase of intense cell proliferation the proliferative potential of ruptured ACL is not impaired. This knowledge is important for scientists......The regeneration of ligaments following injury is a slow process compared to the healing of many other tissues and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the proliferative potential of ligaments by assessing telomere length within three distinct parts...... tissues indicating that the endogenous machinery responsible for the proliferative potential of ligament is not implicated in its poor healing capacity. The three ACL parts showed similar mean TRF lengths (distal part: 11.5 ± 0.8 kbp, mid-portion: 11.8 ± 1.2 kbp, proximal part: 11.9 ± 1.6 kbp...

  14. Bile peritonitis due to intra-hepatic bile duct rupture.

    Lochan, R; Joypaul, B V


    Generalized biliary peritonitis is a serious intra-abdominal emergency. Most of them occur due to duodenal ulcer perforation and rapidly evolve into bacterial peritonitis due to contamination by gut organisms and food. In this situation, recognition of the pathology and its treatment is straightforward and is usually associated with a good outcome. There are a few unusual causes of biliary peritonitis, of which rupture of the biliary tree is one. We describe a rare case of biliary peritonitis due to rupture of an intra-hepatic biliary radical. Unusual causes of peritonitis do interrupt our daily routine emergency surgical experience. Rapid recognition of the presence of peritonitis, adequate resuscitation, recognition of operative findings, establishment of biliary anatomy, and performance of a meticulous surgical procedure resulted in a good outcome.

  15. Flexor Tendon Ruptures After Distal Scaphoid Excision for Scaphotrapeziotrapezoid Osteoarthritis.

    Deren, Matthew E; Mitchell, Charles H; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C


    Distal scaphoid excision is one treatment option for osteoarthritis of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT) joint following failure of conservative measures. Potential complications of this procedure include injury to the carpal ligaments, cartilage, and radial artery. A single case was identified by the senior author, and the medical record was reviewed for surgical notes, progress notes, and radiographs. A 68-year-old male sustained ruptures of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger 3 years following a distal scaphoid excision for symptomatic STT osteoarthritis. He required a flexor tendon reconstruction using the remaining FDS tendon for graft incorporated with a Pulvertaft weave. His midcarpal pain continued after recovery of his index finger function, eventually requiring a 4-corner fusion of the wrist. Flexor tendon rupture is a previously unreported complication of distal scaphoid excision for STT arthritis.

  16. Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy

    Emek Doger


    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs.

  17. Management of Hepatic Rupture Diagnosed after an Emergency Cesarean Section

    Gianluca Raffaello Damiani


    Full Text Available A careful management of hepatic capsular rupture, with massive hemoperitoneum which occurred 14 hours after an emergency cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation, is meticulously reported. The grade of hepatic involvement varies from minor capsular laceration to extensive parenchymal rupture. Our management involved a combination of surgical interventions and aggressive supportive care. The patient was discharged after 53 days and 4 laparotomies and an unsuccessful attempt of superselective artery embolization. Ultrasound after 40 days from the last surgery showed uniform hepatic parenchyma free of focal lesions. Due to the rarity and the unpredictability nature of this devastating event we believe necessary to report our experience, reinforcing the importance of the postsurgery management.

  18. Nonoperative, dynamic treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Bencke, Jesper; Lauridsen, Hanne Bloch


    Acute Achilles tendon rupture alters the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex that can affect functional performance and the risk of repeat injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon...... complex in patients randomized to early weightbearing or non-weightbearing in the nonoperative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture. A total of 60 patients were randomized to full weightbearing from day 1 of treatment or non-weightbearing for 6 weeks. After 6 and 12 months, the peak passive torque at 20......° dorsiflexion, the stiffness during slow stretching, and the maximal strength were measured in both limbs. The stiffness of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex in the terminal part of dorsiflexion was significantly increased (p = .024) in the non-weightbearing group at 12 months. The peak passive torque...

  19. Chronic Achilles Tendon Disorders: Tendinopathy and Chronic Rupture.

    Maffulli, Nicola; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco


    Tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon involves clinical conditions in and around the tendon and it is the result of a failure of a chronic healing response. Although several conservative therapeutic options have been proposed, few of them are supported by randomized controlled trials. The management is primarily conservative and many patients respond well to conservative measures. If clinical conditions do not improve after 6 months of conservative management, surgery is recommended. The management of chronic ruptures is different from that of acute ruptures. The optimal surgical procedure is still debated. In this article chronic Achilles tendon disorders are debated and evidence-based medicine treatment strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bile peritonitis due to intra-hepatic bile duct rupture

    R Lochan; BV Joypaul


    Generalized biliary peritonitis is a serious intra-abdominal emergency. Most of them occur due to duodenal ulcer perforation and rapidly evolve into bacterial peritonitis due to contamination by gut organisms and food. In this situation, recognition of the pathology and its treatment is straightforward and is usually associated with a good outcome. There are a few unusual causes of biliary peritonitis, of which rupture of the biliary tree is one.We describe a rare case of biliary peritonitis due to rupture of an intra-hepatic biliary radical. Unusual causes of peritonitis do interrupt our daily routine emergency surgical experience. Rapid recognition of the presence of peritonitis, adequate resuscitation, recognition of operative findings, establishment of biliary anatomy, and performance of a meticulous surgical procedure resulted in a good outcome.

  1. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst.

    Ogbodo, Elisha


    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst.

  2. Syncope as the Presenting Feature of Splenic Rupture after Colonoscopy

    Daniel Jamorabo


    Full Text Available Splenic rupture is a rare, catastrophic complication of colonoscopy and an exceptional cause of syncope. This injury is believed to be from direct trauma or tension on the splenocolic ligament with subsequent capsule avulsion or else from direct instrument-induced splenic injury. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion that may be absent because presentation can be subtle, nonspecific, and delayed anywhere from hours to days and therefore not easily attributed to a recent endoscopy. We describe a case of syncope as the initial manifestation of splenic rupture after colonoscopy. Our patient’s pain was delayed; his discomfort was mild and not localized to the left upper quadrant. Clinicians should consider syncope, lightheadedness, and drop in hemoglobin in absence of rectal bleeding following a colonoscopy as possible warning signs of imminent or emergent splenic injury.

  3. Meshing scheme in the computation of spontaneous fault rupture process

    LIU Qi-ming; HEN Xiao-fei


    The choice of spatial grid size has been being a crucial issue in all kinds of numerical algorithms. By using BIEM (Boundary Integral Equation Method) to calculate the rupture process of a planar fault embedded in an isotropic and homogeneous full space with simple discretization scheme, this paper focuses on what grid size should be applied to control the error as well as maintaining the computing efficiency for different parameter combinations of (Dc, Te), where Dc is the critical slip-weakening dis-tance and Te is the initial stress on the fault plane. We have preliminarily found the way of properly choosing the spatial grid size, which is of great significance in the computation of seismic source rup-ture process with BIEM.

  4. [Traumatic Testicular Rupture Complicated with Hydrocele: A Case Report].

    Yamamichi, Gaku; Tsutahara, Koichi; Okusa, Takuya; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji


    A 17-year-old man presented with right hydrocele because of an athletic injury. His scrotum was hit with a ball 2 months ago while playing baseball. He was diagnosed with post-traumatic hydrocele and underwent needle puncture at another hospital 1 month after the trauma. However, the hydrocele did not improve. Therefore, he was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment. For diagnosis of the traumatic hydrocele testis, a hydrocelectomy was scheduled. When we opened the tunica vaginalis, we realized that the tunica albuginea had been ruptured and the testicular parenchyma had gushed out. We tried to replace all the escaped testicular parenchyma into the tunica albuginea, but it was impossible. Therefore were moved some of the redundant testicular parenchyma, and replaced the remnants into the tunica albuginea. After the operation, right hydrocele and testicular atrophy did not occur. Traumatic testicular rupture complicated with hydrocele is rare.

  5. Kernohan's phenomenon associated with left ruptured occipital arteriovenous malformation.

    Fujimoto, A; Sato, H; Katayama, W; Nakai, K; Tsunoda, T; Kobayashi, E; Nose, T


    A 23-year-old woman presented with ipsilateral hemiparesia due to rupture of a left occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Emergency decompression (the onset-operation interval was 46 minutes,) was carried out and the patient could leave the hospital upon recovery without neurological deficits. In general, Kernohan's phenomenon is caused by the gradual displacement of the cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge caused by compression by the contralateral mass. This phenomenon is very rare among the cases with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and only three cases including the present one have been reported in the literature. In all cases the onset-operation intervals of were very short. Kernohan's phenomenon associated with a ruptured AVM is a rare condition and emergency decompression is required.

  6. Anaphylaxis from intravascular rupture of Hydatid disease following liver trauma

    Paul J Marriott


    Full Text Available Cystic Echinococcosis also known as cystic hydatid disease is a parasitic infection endemic in many parts of the world. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts with cysts most commonly developing in the liver. This case describes a rare presentation of hydatid disease following trauma to the liver. Intraparenchymal cyst rupture led to haemodynamic instability with release of the parasites protoscolices into hepatic venules producing severe life threatening anaphylaxis.

  7. Reducing maternal mortality from ruptured uterus--the Sokoto initiative.

    Ahmed, Y; Shehu, C E; Nwobodo, E I; Ekele, B A


    Uterine rupture is the most common cause of maternal mortality in our institution. Case fatality for the year 2001 was 47%. Health care including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is not free, hence, delays in receiving care could occur in patients with limited resources. The objectives of the study were to promote access to emergency obstetric care through a loan scheme for indigent patients with ruptured uterus and determine the success or otherwise of the scheme. The scheme was initiated in January 2002, with the sum of thirty eight Thousand Naira (about 300 US dollars) by consultant obstetricians in the department. Funds were released to the patient only after assessment of her financial capability to enable her get emergency surgical packs. All that was required was a promise to pay back the loan before discharge. Following resuscitation, surgery was performed by one of the consultants. Eighteen cases of ruptured uterus have been managed. Treatment was initiated within 30 minutes of admission. Admission-laparotomy interval averaged 3.5 hours (+/-1.2). There were two maternal deaths, giving a case fatality of 11% (2/ 18). The case fatality from a previous study from the same centre was 38% (16/42). There was a significant difference in case fatality between the two studies (Ploan before discharge (94% loan recovery). Only one patient defaulted with five thousand Naira (40 US dollars). A loan scheme for indigent patients with ruptured uterus that enabled them receive emergency obstetric care reduced case fatality. Loan recovery was good. In our quest to reduce maternal mortality in low-income countries without health insurance policies, there might be a need to extend similar initiative to other obstetric emergencies.

  8. Bile peritonitis due to intra-hepatic bile duct rupture

    Lochan, R.; Joypaul, BV


    Generalized biliary peritonitis is a serious intra-abdominal emergency. Most of them occur due to duodenal ulcer perforation and rapidly evolve into bacterial peritonitis due to contamination by gut organisms and food. In this situation, recognition of the pathology and its treatment is straightforward and is usually associated with a good outcome. There are a few unusual causes of biliary peritonitis, of which rupture of the biliary tree is one. We describe a rare case of biliary peritonitis...

  9. Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture Interaction with Building Foundations

    Oettle, Nicolas Karl


    Recent earthquakes have provided numerous examples of the devastating effects of earthquake surface fault rupture on structures. Several major cities are built in areas containing active faults that can break the ground surface (e.g., Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, and Seattle). Along with the often spectacular observations of damage, examples of satisfactory performance of structures were also observed. These examples of satisfactory performance indicate that similar ...

  10. Hemoperitoneum Secondary to Arterial Rupture of Subserosal Uterine Leiomyoma

    Pankaj Aggarwal


    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyomatas (ULs affect up to 80% of women during their reproductive years. Though relatively benign, they can have life-threatening complications. This case report presents a 50-year-old, postmenopausal female who presented with severe abdominal pain secondary to massive hemoperitoneum. Upon exploratory laparotomy, a large, pulsing artery was seen on the uterus, consistent with a ruptured subserosal uterine fibroid. This case offers unique insight into the presentation and management of this surgical emergency.

  11. Plantar Fascia Rupture in a Professional Soccer Player

    Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Kato, Kenji; Takao, Shoichiro; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoshitsugu; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sairyo, Koichi


    We report the case of a 29-year-old male professional soccer player who presented with symptoms of plantar fasciitis. His symptoms occurred with no remarkable triggers and gradually worsened despite conservative treatments including taping, use of insoles, and physical therapy. Local corticosteroid injection was given twice as a further intervention, but his plantar fascia partially ruptured 49 days after the second injection. He was treated conservatively with platelet-rich plasma, and magne...

  12. Earthquake rupture process recreated from a natural fault surface

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Minasian, Diane L.


    What exactly happens on the rupture surface as an earthquake nucleates, spreads, and stops? We cannot observe this directly, and models depend on assumptions about physical conditions and geometry at depth. We thus measure a natural fault surface and use its 3D coordinates to construct a replica at 0.1 m resolution to obviate geometry uncertainty. We can recreate stick-slip behavior on the resulting finite element model that depends solely on observed fault geometry. We clamp the fault together and apply steady state tectonic stress until seismic slip initiates and terminates. Our recreated M~1 earthquake initiates at contact points where there are steep surface gradients because infinitesimal lateral displacements reduce clamping stress most efficiently there. Unclamping enables accelerating slip to spread across the surface, but the fault soon jams up because its uneven, anisotropic shape begins to juxtapose new high-relief sticking points. These contacts would ultimately need to be sheared off or strongly deformed before another similar earthquake could occur. Our model shows that an important role is played by fault-wall geometry, though we do not include effects of varying fluid pressure or exotic rheologies on the fault surfaces. We extrapolate our results to large fault systems using observed self-similarity properties, and suggest that larger ruptures might begin and end in a similar way, though the scale of geometrical variation in fault shape that can arrest a rupture necessarily scales with magnitude. In other words, fault segmentation may be a magnitude dependent phenomenon and could vary with each subsequent rupture.

  13. Cyclophilin A in Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: A Prognostic Biomarker.

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Tseng, Wan-Min; Liu, Chin-San; Lin, Ching-Po


    Cyclophilin A (CyPA), an oxidative stress-induced factor, was found to play an important role in the aneurysm formation. Our working hypothesis was that the plasma level of CyPA in ruptured intracranial aneurysm could predict the neurological outcome. From 2011 to 2013, a total of 36 patients with ruptured saccular intracranial aneurysm were recruited in our study. Before coil embolization, we draw blood samples at the orifice of a culprit aneurysm and in the remote peripheral vein for measurements of the CyPA levels. We utilized the modified Rankin scale 30 days after aneurysm rupture as the outcome measure. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios of the poor neurological outcome given the presence of high plasma level of CyPA. The aneurysmal and venous CyPA levels were significantly associated with the initial clinical severity (P = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively) and 30-day outcome (P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The aneurysmal CyPA levels modestly correlated with age and high Fisher grade (ρ = 0.39 and 0.41; P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). The aneurysmal CyPA levels strongly correlated with the venous counterpart (ρ = 0.89; P aneurysmal CyPA were 15.66 times (95% CI, 1.48-166.24; P = 0.02) more likely to have worse neurological outcome than those with the low levels after adjustment of the age, gender, and the documented confounding factors. High plasma level of CyPA is a significant prognostic biomarker for poor neurological outcome in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

  14. Delayed diagnosis of isolated alar ligament rupture: A case report.

    Kaufmann, Robin A; Marzi, Ingo; Vogl, Thomas J


    Ligament disruptions at the craniovertebral junction are typically associated with atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation during upper cervical spine injuries and require external orthoses or surgical stabilization. Only in few patients isolated ruptures of the alar ligament have been reported. Here we present a further case, in which the diagnosis was initially obscured by a misleading clinical symptomatology but finally established six month following the trauma, demonstrating the value of contrast-enhanced high resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in identifying this particular lesion.

  15. Percutaneous suturing of the ruptured Achilles tendon with endoscopic control.

    Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Bozkurt, Murat; Turhan, Egemen; Ayvaz, Mehmet; Atay, Ozgür Ahmet; Uzümcügil, Akin; Leblebicioğlu, Gürsel; Kaya, Defne; Aydoğ, Tolga


    A prospective study of modified percutaneous Achilles tendon repair performed between 1999 and 2005 under local infiltration anesthesia is presented; the study evaluated the results of percutaneous repair technique by visualization of the synovia under endoscopic control, followed by early functional postoperative treatment for surgical intervention of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Sixty-two patients (58 males, 4 females, mean age 32) were treated by percutaneous suturing with modified Bunnel technique under endoscopic control within 10 days after acute total rupture. Physiotherapy was initiated immediately after the operation and patients were encouraged to weight-bearing ambulation with a walking brace-moon boot as tolerated. Full weight-bearing was allowed minimum after 3 weeks postoperatively without brace. The procedure was tolerated in all patients. There were no significant ROM limitation was observed. Two patients experienced transient hypoesthesia in the region of sural nerve that spontaneously resolved in 6 months. Fifty-nine patients (95%) including professional athletes returned to their previous sportive activities, while 18 of them (29%) had some minor complaints. The interval from injury to return to regular work and rehabilitation training was 11.7 weeks (10-13 weeks). At the latest follow-up (mean: 46 months; range: 12-78 months), all the patients had satisfactory results with a mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society's ankle-hindfoot score of 94.6. No re-ruptures, deep venous thrombosis or wound problems occurred. The proposed method offers a reasonable treatment option for acute total Achilles tendon rupture with a low number of complications. The rerupture rate and return to preinjury activities are comparable to open and percutaneous without endoscopic control procedures.

  16. Gastric rupture after Heimlich maneuver and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Tung, P H; Law, S; Chu, K M; Law, W L; Wong, J


    Choking is a common emergency problem. The Heimlich maneuver is unquestionably effective in relieving airway obstruction. Serious and life-threatening complications may arise, however, if the maneuver is applied incorrectly. Two cases of gastric rupture after Heimlich maneuver are reported. Lay public, paramedics and the medical professionals should be educated with the correct technique of Heimlich maneuver and its potential complications. All patients receiving Heimlich maneuver should be examined by an experienced physician.

  17. Corpus Luteum Cyst Rupture - US Findings and Clinical Features

    Shin, Shang Hun; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Jeong, Yoong Ki [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hung [Dong Kang General Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    To describe the US findings of corpus luteum cyst rupture in order to elucidate the associated clinical features. Twenty patients with proven corpus luteum cyst rupture were included in this study. The US findings of these patients were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the presence of designable cyst, size of the cyst, thickness and blood flow of the cyst wall, extension and echogenicity of peritoneal fluid, and involved site (right or left ovary). We also surveyed the clinical features such as the onset period according to the menstrual cycle, and the presence of suspectable cause. Fourteen of the 20 patients revealed designable cysts (mean diameter of 2.6 cm) with thick walled cysts (mean thickness, 4.6 mm, 2.4-6.8 mm) and increased blood flow. Six patients didn't reveal any cyst but only hematoma in adnexa. All patients had hemoperitoneum in the pelvic cavity, and the hemoperitoneum was extended to Morrison's pouch in 8 patients and to the subphrenic space in 6. The cysts occurred in the right adnexa in 15 patients and in the left in 5. Mean interval from the last menstrual period (LMP) was 26 days (13-44 days) and 6 of the 8 patients for whom it had been possible to obtain detailed history taking had had coitus just before the occurrence of symptom. When women who are hospitalized for acute abdomen and who are in luteal phase reveal US findings of hematoma or thick-walled cyst in adnexa and hemoperitoneum, a corpus luteum cyst rupture is highly suspected. In our case study the corpus luteum cyst rupture predominantly occurred in the right side, and the most suspectable cause was trauma such as coitus in the luteal phase

  18. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    John Browning; Kyriaki Drymoni; Agust Gudmundsson


    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techni...

  19. Endometrioid ovarian carcinoma during pregnancy presenting with acute rupture.

    Gottheil, Stephanie; McGee, Jacob


    Contexte : Le carcinome endométroïde de l’ovaire est rarement diagnostiqué pendant la grossesse et est généralement asymptomatique. Nous faisons état d’un cas de carcinome endométroïde de l’ovaire pendant la grossesse ayant présenté une rupture aiguë et nous discutons des options de prise en charge. Cas : Une primigravide présentait, à 26 semaines de gestation, de graves douleurs abdominales. Au moment de la laparotomie, nous avons constaté la présence d’une masse annexielle ayant connu une rupture. Cette masse a postopératoirement été identifiée comme étant un carcinome endométroïde de l’ovaire. En vue de maximiser les issues maternelles et fœtales, nous avons pris la décision de procéder, à 34 semaines, à une césarienne au moyen d’une prise en charge chirurgicale permettant de sauvegarder la fertilité. Conclusion : À notre connaissance, il s’agit du premier cas signalé de carcinome endométroïde de l’ovaire présentant une rupture pendant la grossesse. En présence de graves douleurs abdominales pendant la grossesse, le diagnostic différentiel devrait inclure la rupture d’une tumeur ovarienne maligne.

  20. Seminoma presented as testicular rupture: Case report and literature review

    Lunawat, Rahul; Craciun, Marius; Omorphos, Savvas; Weston, Philip M.T.; Biyani, Shekhar C.


    Rupture of the testis as a result of blunt trauma is rarely seen in daily urological practice. We report an unusual case of incidental seminoma diagnosed after surgical exploration and subsequent orchidectomy of a severed testis following testicular injury as a result of trivial blunt trauma. This case highlights the inability of investigative tools, such as a scrotal ultrasound, in distinguishing an underlying tumour in the presence of testicular parenchymal damage. We therefore advocate a h...