Sample records for reach pro-democracy activists

  1. Activist Educational Research (United States)

    DeMeulenaere, Eric J.; Cann, Colette N.


    In the field of education, critical theorists, critical pedagogues, and critical race theorists call for academics to engage in activist academic work to promote the social transformation of the material conditions created by racism and other forms of oppression. This article is a response to this call for academics, particularly those in the…

  2. Social media and activist communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.; Atton, C.


    While the rise of social media has made activists much less dependent on television and mainstream newspapers, this certainly does not mean that activists have more control over the media environments in which they operate. Media power has neither been transferred to the public, nor to activists for

  3. How Activists Use Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan


    Non-governmental organisations use benchmarks as a form of symbolic violence to place political pressure on firms, states, and international organisations. The development of benchmarks requires three elements: (1) salience, that the community of concern is aware of the issue and views...... are put to the test. The first is a reformist benchmarking cycle where organisations defer to experts to create a benchmark that conforms with the broader system of politico-economic norms. The second is a revolutionary benchmarking cycle driven by expert-activists that seek to contest strong vested...... interests and challenge established politico-economic norms. Differentiating these cycles provides insights into how activists work through organisations and with expert networks, as well as how campaigns on complex economic issues can be mounted and sustained....

  4. What Recourse for the Principal Abused by Community Activists? The Case of "Stevens v. Tillman." (United States)

    Menacker, Julius


    "Stevens v. Tillman" illustrates the limited reach of federal law in controversies where community activists use extreme, even illegal, methods to exert their will over objecting school officials. Defamation charges against activists for verbal abuses will apparently be very difficult to sustain, given court views that being called a…

  5. Self Perceptions of Student Activists (United States)

    Astin, Helen S.


    This study examines personality differences and similarities between student groups in protest activities by comparing activists to student leaders and random students. Results indicate many similarities in personality dimensions but protesters are more adventurous, autocratic and individualistic. They are also more spontaneous and irresponsible.…

  6. Radical feminists & trans activists truce


    Mackay, F.


    #GenderWeek: Truce! When radical feminists and trans feminists empathise\\ud Feminist Times\\ud By Finn Mackay \\ud read all #GenderWeek articles.\\ud We wanted to explore the ground between the polarised, entrenched positions in the so-called “TERF-war”. Radical feminists on one pole, trans-inclusionary feminists and trans activists on the other. The disputed territory being women-only space, language and the ever changing legal framework surrounding gender.\\ud Entrenchment leads to stalemate. S...

  7. Surreptitious symbiosis: engagement between activists and NGOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasius, M.; Ishkanian, A.


    Based on research conducted in Athens, Cairo, London and Yerevan, the article analyzes the relationship between activists engaged in street protests or direct action since 2011 and NGOs. It examines how activists relate to NGOs and whether it is possible to do sustained activism to bring about

  8. Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2007 ... Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan. Anon. Ahmedabad – When kites take to the skies on Uttarayan, animal activists will be biting their nails in apprehension. Their main concern is the White-rumped. Vulture, a highly endangered species, of which only 137 birds are left in the city, according to figures ...

  9. Interview with Chilean Activist Victor Toro

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    Clyde Lanford Smith


    Full Text Available Victor Toro Ramirez. Immigrant activist in the United States, ex-political prisoner of the military dictatorship in Chile and in process of deportation by the Bush government and its immigration scandal.

  10. MILITANTES Y ESTADO Activists and State

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    Full Text Available This paper presents results on youth share in Peronist political organizations in the city of La Plata, Capital of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the second term of President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner (from 2011 to 2015. It presents some new elements to think the articulation of notions about the State and the State bureaucracy and its relationship to the everyday practice of youth’s political activism, focusing on the subject and different political practices that circulate around the State as articulating element of politics. This paper is divided into two stages: the first one is about some representations that young activists have themselves of what the State itself is, and which should be its functions in relation to the world of politics; the second one consists of an analysis of the practices of young activists that appear in State management through the interpretations of young activists about themselves.

  11. In Search of Activist Pedagogies in SMTE (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Bencze, Larry


    David Burns and Stephen Norris's (2012) article entitled "Activist Environmental Education and Moral Philosophy" offers a thought-provoking response to the CJSMTE special edition. The authors would like to thank these authors for their supportive and philosophically adroit arguments. Burns and Norris provide an opportunity to continue…

  12. Educators as Activists: Five Women from Chicago. (United States)

    Munro, Petra


    Maintains that during the early 20th century the work of women teacher activists brought issues of social reform to the forefront. Describes the work of five Chicago women who helped advance women's rights, women's suffrage, and other social reform efforts. Contends that their work has not be adequately recognized. (CFR)

  13. Comparison of communication skill of medical students between activist and non activist


    Kasyiva, Mahdea; Aulia Rakhman, Warenda Wisnu; Akhmad, Syaefudin Ali


    Background: In Globalization era, the advancement in communication affects human included medical profession. It is crucial for a doctor to practice good communication in order to interact with patients and non-patients. Communication skill can be gained either in class or outside class by joining organization.Objective: The aim of this research is to compare communication skill between activist students (ASs) and non-activist students (NASs) in Medical Faculty of UII.Methods: This study meth...

  14. "Frayed All Over:" the Causes and Consequences of Activist Burnout among Social Justice Education Activists (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Chen, Cher


    Despite the growing body of scholarship on burnout among social justice activists who are working on a variety of issues, from labor rights to queer justice, little attention has been paid to burnout among those whose activism focuses on issues of educational justice. To begin to address this omission and understand what supports might help social…

  15. Teacher Activist Organizations and the Development of Professional Agency (United States)

    Quinn, Rand; Carl, Nicole Mittenfelner


    Teacher professional agency refers to the ability of teachers to control their work within structural constraints. In this paper, we show how teacher activist organizations can assist in the development of professional agency. We focus on a teacher activist organization in a large urban district in the United States and identify three…

  16. Sense of Cohesion among Community Activists Engaging in Volunteer Activity (United States)

    Levy, Drorit; Itzhaky, Haya; Zanbar, Lea; Schwartz, Chaya


    The present article attempts to shed light on the direct and indirect contribution of personal resources and community indices to Sense of Cohesion among activists engaging in community volunteer work. The sample comprised 481 activists. Based on social systems theory, three levels of variables were examined: (1) inputs, which included personal…

  17. Clout, activists and budget: The road to presidency. (United States)

    Böttcher, Lucas; Herrmann, Hans J; Gersbach, Hans


    Political campaigns involve, in the simplest case, two competing campaign groups which try to obtain a majority of votes. We propose a novel mathematical framework to study political campaign dynamics on social networks whose constituents are either political activists or persuadable individuals. Activists are convinced and do not change their opinion and they are able to move around in the social network to motivate persuadable individuals to vote according to their opinion. We describe the influence of the complex interplay between the number of activists, political clout, budgets, and campaign costs on the campaign result. We also identify situations where the choice of one campaign group to send a certain number of activists already pre-determines their victory. Moreover, we show that a candidate's advantage in terms of political clout can overcome a substantial budget disadvantage or a lower number of activists, as illustrated by the US presidential election 2016.

  18. Clout, activists and budget: The road to presidency (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans J.; Gersbach, Hans


    Political campaigns involve, in the simplest case, two competing campaign groups which try to obtain a majority of votes. We propose a novel mathematical framework to study political campaign dynamics on social networks whose constituents are either political activists or persuadable individuals. Activists are convinced and do not change their opinion and they are able to move around in the social network to motivate persuadable individuals to vote according to their opinion. We describe the influence of the complex interplay between the number of activists, political clout, budgets, and campaign costs on the campaign result. We also identify situations where the choice of one campaign group to send a certain number of activists already pre-determines their victory. Moreover, we show that a candidate’s advantage in terms of political clout can overcome a substantial budget disadvantage or a lower number of activists, as illustrated by the US presidential election 2016. PMID:29494627

  19. Egyptian activists and state supporting media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Nina Grønlykke

    Mark Allen Peterson (2011) has argued for seeing revolutions as periods of liminality, maintaining that unlike traditional rites of passage, where the outcome of the process is known, the transformational possibilities in a social and political revolution seem endless. In this presentation, I argue...... that the uncertainties of the transformational possibilities encourage shifting and unlikely media alliances in which people, who would previously see themselves as fierce opponents momentarily find common objectives and cooperate around them. I look particularly at relationships between corporate journalists...... and activists from the No to Military Trials for Civilians campaign and Operation Anti Sexual Harassment and Assault (OpAntiSH) and describe their very different media dynamics. No to Military Trials for Civilians managed to get through to corporate media after months of insistent efforts and a substantial...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Samardžić


    Full Text Available Today’s managers are asked to find new approaches in solving both existing and upcoming problems. They need to posses clear understanding of the future, new ways of competition, timely knowledge of opportunities and how to efficiently use those opportunities. Here, we analyze pro-activist and inter-activist planning as a possible solution to ever growing problems which sports organizations and institutions face today. Pro-activist and inter-activist planning demands analyzing strengths which function in surroundings, and timely decision making when it comes to lack of resources. With this kind of approach, sports organization manager can influence the organization to find its rightful place in upcoming month, year or decade. The sports manager of today has to be pro-activist and inter-activist in his/her orientation. Manager has to be able to do everything that is required in business surroundings, to make decisions depending on strategic plans which foresee every step on the way to success

  1. Queer Calendars: Art-Activist Project of Contemporary Transition Art

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    Biljana Kosmogina


    Full Text Available This text is about an art-activist project in the context of transition art: Queer Calendars, a project by the 3a3or Group. These calendars are a reaction to the necropolitics of post-socialism, as the setting of different, critical, activist platforms and procedures in every homogeneous field of identification and control in neoliberal capitalism. As in the time of the global project of totalizing, it is necessary to use queer tactics for the politicization of art, which work as political strategies of subversion of every stable structure of power, including governing in micro- or macro- cultures and societies.

  2. Rethinking Youth Political Socialization: Teenage Activists Talk Back (United States)

    Gordon, Hava R.; Taft, Jessica K.


    This article draws from the experiences and narratives of teenage activists throughout the Americas in order to add a needed dimension, that of peer political socialization, to the larger political and civic socialization literature. The authors argue that although the existing literature emphasizes the roles and responsibilities of adults in…

  3. Activist Research and Organizing: Blurring the Boundaries, Challenging the Binaries (United States)

    Choudry, Aziz


    This article draws from ongoing research into the practices and processes of activist researchers. It discusses social relations of knowledge production located outside of academia with/in social movement milieus. Focusing on the politics of research in people's organizations and social movement organizations in the Philippines, it builds on…

  4. Delirium and Resistance: activist art and the crisis of capitalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sholette, G.G.


    Delirium and Resistance: Activist Art and the Crisis of Capitalism is an investigation into specific cultural changes that have taken place in a period of intense socio-economic change and instability beginning roughly in the late 1970s with the era of globalization and counter-globalization

  5. Lysistratus, Lysistrata, Lysistratum: Coconstructing the Identities of Mother and Activist (United States)

    Capdevila, Rose


    Instances of women's involvement in politics are prevalent both in the historical and cross-cultural literature. However, as we know, the involvement of some women in political life has not always produced greater access to political power for women in everyday life. This article aims to examine how the identities of mother and activist have been…

  6. Shaping Student Activists: Discursive Sensemaking of Activism and Participation Research (United States)

    Taha, Diane E.; Hastings, Sally O.; Minei, Elizabeth M.


    As social media becomes a more potent force in society, particularly for younger generations, the role in activism has been contested. This qualitative study examines 35 interviews with students regarding their perceptions of the use of social media in social change, their perceptions of activists, and their level of self-identification as an…

  7. Sexual Minority Teachers as Activist-Educators for Social Justice (United States)

    Wells, Kristopher


    This empirical research explores the conditions, challenges, and lived experiences of how four diverse Canadian educators transcended heteronormative and gender-normative educational environments to become activist-educators for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer inclusion in their K-12 schools and communities. The co-creation of queer…

  8. The Making of an Environmental Activist: A Developmental Psychological Perspective (United States)

    Matsuba, M. Kyle; Pratt, Michael W.


    This chapter reviews the research on environmental exemplars, or activists. General themes that have been identified in the literature include early experiences in nature, the influence of other people and organizations, opportunities for environmental education, environmental self and identity formation, and generativity. With these themes in…

  9. Lenin: An Activist Burdened by a Passivist Philosophy. (United States)

    Johnson, Karen S.

    The paper discusses Lenin's attempts to alleviate discrepancies between Marxist philosophy and his own personal activist creed by, first, introducing Hegelian logic into dialectical materialism and, second, by creating an ideology of organizational activity. Lenin the man is examined in order to understand his interpretation of Marx and the gap…

  10. Reaching the hard to reach. (United States)

    Bhiwandi, P; Campbell, M; Potts, M


    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development proposed increasing contraceptive couple protection from 550 million in 1995 to 880 million in 2015. The task for family planning (FP) programs is to provide access to services for, sometimes, inaccessible rural populations. FP need based on desire for no more children has ranged from under 20% in Senegal to almost 80% in Peru. Socioeconomic development was found not to be a prerequisite for fertility change. Gender inequalities in education and social autonomy must be changed. FP access is very important among women with a disadvantaged background or among women unsure about FP. Bangladesh is a good example of a country with increased contraceptive prevalence despite low income. The rule of thumb is that contraception increases of 15% contribute to a drop in family size of about one child. Program effectiveness is related to a variety of factors: contraceptive availability at many locations, acceptable price of contraception, delivery of the oral contraceptives without prescriptions, and other strategies. FP is a service not a medical treatment. A range of methods must be promoted and available from a range of facilities. Contraceptive use is dependent on the woman's stage in her lifecycle and is dependent on informed choice. Community-based distribution systems are effective, whereas free distribution by poorly-trained field workers is not always very effective because patient payment of all or part of the cost assures quality and freedom of choice. Effective programs for underprivileged groups involve aggressive, easy to manage programs that can be replicated rapidly. FP serves a useful function in depressing maternal mortality among the poor in Africa, who have no access to quality health services. Social marketing is an effective strategy for reaching remote areas. Political will and robust management are necessary commodities.

  11. The Making of Allan Aubrey Boesak: Theologian and Political Activist

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    Maluleke, Tinyiko


    Full Text Available Although no conventional biography of Allan Boesak has been published, either by himself or others, we have enough data and information in various places. This is especially true since the 2009 publication of his Running with Horses. In this essay, we attempt an appraisal of the contribution of Allan Boesak to politics and theology by focusing on key milestones and reflections in his life. We take our cue from Boesak’s own self-definition of being a theologian and a political activist. While this article is not a thorough-going theological, the roots and sources of his theology and politics will be explored.

  12. Public Health Activist Skills Pyramid: A Model for Implementing Health in All Policies. (United States)

    Damari, Behzad; Ehsani Chimeh, Elham


    Affecting public health for society requires various competencies. In fact, the prerequisite for the implementation of health in all policies should be effectiveness of public health activists (PHAs) in these competencies. This study aims to determine the competencies of the activists in public health. The present qualitative study reviewed the literature and adopted qualitative methods like content analysis, stakeholder interviews, and conducted focus group discussions with related experts. In each stage, the required competencies were extracted through drawing the main action processes of a PHA. Thereafter, the authors reached an ultimately best-suited working model by classifying and approving extracted competencies. The competencies comprise a pyramid set of three main categories of basic, specialized/professional, and individual updating competencies. Personal management, communication, teamwork, project management, ability to apply principles and concepts of public health, anatomy, physiology, and pathology in the organizations of the society should be included in the basic category. Specialized skills should include ability to plan, public participation, intersectoral collaboration, social marketing, working with the media/media friendly attitude, advocacy, research management and knowledge translation, evaluation of health programs, network establishment and management, deployment and institutionalization, operational research, empowerment and consultation, and protocol and service pack design. Last but not least, individual updating is defined as being informed of the latest scientific articles and reports about health and its situation in different countries as well as determinants that affect health. Implementation of this pyramid requires design and establishment of specific centers for transferring effective public health competencies. This pyramid has also functional use for the revision of educational curriculums in all health study fields. Moreover

  13. Revolutionaries, wanderers, converts, and compliants: Life histories of extreme right activists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, A.; Klandermans, P.G.


    Life-history interviews were conducted with thirty-six extreme right activists in the Netherlands (1996-1998). Becoming an activist was a matter of continuity, of conversion, or of compliance. Continuity denotes life histories wherein movement membership and participation are a natural consequence

  14. The Making of a Feminist: Spaces of Self-Formation among Latina Immigrant Activists in Madrid (United States)

    Dyrness, Andrea


    This article explores the role and meaning of auto-formación (self-formation) in the making of feminist, activist identities among Latin American activist women in Madrid, Spain. I argue that auto-formación, a collective process of self-recovery and consciousness-raising that is shared by third world feminists around the world, allows migrant…

  15. Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists. (United States)

    Reiner, L; Sollom, R


    This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do.

  16. Stigma Consciousness in the case of Romanian Roma Activists

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    Laura SURDU


    Full Text Available Roma people are often stigmatized by the members of the out-groups, the process of stigmatization being enforced through a selection of stereotypically assigned characteristics of the group. In the last two decades, the stigmatization of Roma was contributed by scientists, policy makers and mass media. Stigma is a basis for social exclusion of Roma people and it is transferred from the whole group to the individual level. The negative labelling of the entire Roma group affects identity and stigma consciousness for each individual Roma. This paper addresses ethnic stigma consciousness in a sample of 96 Roma activists, women and men. The results show that stigma consciousness is highly present among Roma participants from the sample, although there are not significant differences between Roma women and Roma men regarding ethnic stigma consciousness.

  17. Social entrepreneur competencies of social activists involved with children and youths: A case study of Nan province, Thailand

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    Kanyarach Wongphuka


    Thus, a competency development model should be appropriately designed to increase social activist ability. Competency assessment should also be used to assess social activists in order to promote them to be effective social entrepreneurs.

  18. Activist engineering: changing engineering practice by deploying praxis. (United States)

    Karwat, Darshan M A; Eagle, Walter E; Wooldridge, Margaret S; Princen, Thomas E


    In this paper, we reflect on current notions of engineering practice by examining some of the motives for engineered solutions to the problem of climate change. We draw on fields such as science and technology studies, the philosophy of technology, and environmental ethics to highlight how dominant notions of apoliticism and ahistoricity are ingrained in contemporary engineering practice. We argue that a solely technological response to climate change does not question the social, political, and cultural tenet of infinite material growth, one of the root causes of climate change. In response to the contemporary engineering practice, we define an activist engineer as someone who not only can provide specific engineered solutions, but who also steps back from their work and tackles the question, What is the real problem and does this problem "require" an engineering intervention? Solving complex problems like climate change requires radical cultural change, and a significant obstacle is educating engineers about how to conceive of and create "authentic alternatives," that is, solutions that differ from the paradigm of "technologically improving" our way out of problems. As a means to realize radically new solutions, we investigate how engineers might (re)deploy the concept of praxis, which raises awareness in engineers of the inherent politics of technological design. Praxis empowers engineers with a more comprehensive understanding of problems, and thus transforms technologies, when appropriate, into more socially just and ecologically sensitive interventions. Most importantly, praxis also raises a radical alternative rarely considered-not "engineering a solution." Activist engineering offers a contrasting method to contemporary engineering practice and leads toward social justice and ecological protection through problem solving by asking not, How will we technologize our way out of the problems we face? but instead, What really needs to be done?

  19. #Indigenous: A Technical and Decolonial Analysis of Activist Uses of Hashtags Across Social Movements

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    Marisa Elena Duarte


    Full Text Available A mixed methods network analysis of the content, circulation, and amount of data Native American activists circulated through Twitter during the 2016 US presidential election reveals contours of the technical challenges and social and political boundaries shaping Native American political life. A comparison of the results with a mainstream American dataset reveals how tweets propagated by Native American rights activists are characteristically more likely to focus on life-and-death issues. Analysis of the findings from an Indigenous perspective opens possibilities for considering activist, scientific, experiential, technical, governmental, political, and metaphysical aspects of Indigenous Internet research.

  20. Social Media Participation in an Activist Movement for Racial Equality. (United States)

    De Choudhury, Munmun; Jhaver, Shagun; Sugar, Benjamin; Weber, Ingmar


    From the Arab Spring to the Occupy Movement, social media has been instrumental in driving and supporting socio-political movements throughout the world. In this paper, we present one of the first social media investigations of an activist movement around racial discrimination and police violence, known as "Black Lives Matter". Considering Twitter as a sensor for the broader community's perception of the events related to the movement, we study participation over time, the geographical differences in this participation, and its relationship to protests that unfolded on the ground. We find evidence for continued participation across four temporally separated events related to the movement, with notable changes in engagement and language over time. We also find that participants from regions of historically high rates of black victimization due to police violence tend to express greater negativity and make more references to loss of life. Finally, we observe that social media attributes of affect, behavior and language can predict future protest participation on the ground. We discuss the role of social media in enabling collective action around this unique movement and how social media platforms may help understand perceptions on a socially contested and sensitive issue like race.

  1. AIDS activists take South African government to court. (United States)

    Baleta, A


    In South Africa, AIDS activists are taking legal action against their government because of its refusal to provide HIV-positive women with drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The Treatment Action Campaign gave the health department an ultimatum to make moves to change policy on treating infected mothers; however, since the department had not responded, the legal process was set to begin. Mark Heywood, the Campaign's spokesman, said that the campaign is pushing for the implementation of programs on a phased basis to provide zidovudine or nevirapine at facilities where it is possible. It is noted that the government has remained steadfast in its opposition to an expansion of the program to all HIV-positive women attending state health services. Although Health Minister Mantho Tshabalala Msimang said that the drug regulatory authority is reviewing results of studies on nevirapine use, with a view to possible registration of the drug, Heywood argues that such an action continues to question the efficacy of antiretrovirals since these tests have already been done.

  2. A spirited response: Malaysia's AIDS activists woo Muslim clerics. (United States)

    Oorjitham, S


    Islamic clerics, scholars, activists, and other authorities in Malaysia decided to lay in education for everyone as a solution to the AIDS epidemic in their country. In addition, they called on the community to be caring towards sufferers, which they believe is the way of Islam. This resolution was agreed upon during a meeting wherein religious officials recognized their role in AIDS prevention by equipping people with spiritual values and teaching everyone compassion. The resolution, however, has challenged the orthodoxy in some Islamic circles where AIDS is regarded as a "manifestation of God's punishment" which has consequently scared off many Muslim sufferers from approaching religious bodies. Religious advisers also admits that their call for full information about prevention, from urging abstinence and marital fidelity to promoting the use of condoms, still needs to be supported by individual state authorities. Among the AIDS council's future plans are to set up an information booth at a Kuala Lumpur mosque and to raise awareness in state religious departments through a booklet entitled AIDS Education Through Imams.

  3. Don Bates: the medical historian as educator, activist, and historian of science. (United States)

    Weisz, George


    The author outlines the academic and extra-academic career of Don Bates as a physician-historian, political activist, and creator of the interdisciplinary Department of Social Studies of Medicine at McGill University.

  4. Albertina Sisulu 1918-2011 Nurse and South African anti-apartheid activist. (United States)

    Earl, Geoff


    Albertina Sisulu, nurse and political activist, has died at the age of 92. In a message read to mourners at her state funeral, former president Nelson Mandela paid tribute to her as 'one of the greatest South Africans'.

  5. Forming Social Justice Projects: Student Activists Reflect on Coalition-Building

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    Darren E. Lund


    Full Text Available Student activists share their experiences with racism and more specifically, their attempts to form school diversity initiatives. The author outlines a problematic lack of engagement of student activists in the scholarly literature on social justice, particularly related to their undervalued role as leaders in school-based antiracist coalitions. Excerpts from in-depth interviews with seven student participants in western Canadian schools offer new understandings on the potential of school-based activists. They explain the challenges and successes in building and sustaining activist coalitions and in pursuing their social justice efforts beyond school. Their contributions represent new voices to join the ongoing conversation in educational research and community activism.

  6. An Analytic Glossary to Social Inquiry Using Institutional and Political Activist Ethnography

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    Laura Bisaillon PhD


    Full Text Available This analytic glossary, composed of 52 terms, is a practical reference and working tool for persons preparing to conduct theoretically informed qualitative social science research drawing from institutional and political activist ethnography. Researchers using these approaches examine social problems and move beyond interpretation by explicating how these problems are organized and what social and ruling relations coordinate them. Political activist ethnography emerges from, and extends, institutional ethnography by producing knowledge explicitly for activism and social movement organizing ends. The assemblage of vocabulary and ideas in this word list are new, and build on existing methodological resources. This glossary offers an extensive, analytic, and challenging inventory of language that brings together terms from these ethnographic approaches with shared ancestry. This compilation is designed to serve as an accessible “one-stop-shop” resource for persons using or contemplating using institutional and political activist ethnography in their research and/or activist projects.

  7. Chapter Leadership Profiles among Citizen Activists in the Drunk Driving Movement. (United States)

    Ungerleider, Steven; Bloch, Steven


    Study of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) analyzed the chapter emphasis, levels of satisfaction and relationship to national office on several measures. Surveying 212 chapters, MADD leadership provided profile of independent, autonomous activists in the drunk driving countermeasure movement. (Author)

  8. Promoting Practices : How Activists Employ Online Tactics to Promote Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, M.; Broek, T.A. van den


    Activist groups increasingly use computer-mediated communication (CMC) channels to mobilize large groups of consumers to persuade incumbent firms to change their contested strategies or practices. The attributes of CMC channels change the effectiveness of persuasion processes in organizations.

  9. Laying Claim to Social Media by Activists: A Cyber-Material Détournement


    Galis, Vasilis; Neumayer, Christina


    This article examines current appropriations of social media by activists of the radical left in Greece and Sweden. Previous research has shown that the discourse concerning social media’s empowering potential is embedded in commercial values that contradict the value systems of many activists who engage in struggles against the current economic system. We employ the notion of détournement, which describes how social movements turn something aside from its normal course or purpose. Based on i...

  10. Profiling Twitter Activists: The Protests Against the Republic of Croatia’s Government

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    Mato Brautović


    Full Text Available Twitter s a social network and a microblogging service. Examples from Iran, Tunisia and Egypt have shown the possibilities of using Twitter as a platform for activism. This research looks at the manner in which Croatian activists use this tool and how such users and uses are distinct from average users. This paper establishes that activist users differ vastly from average Twitter users. Activist users have a significantly higher number of friends and followers. An increase in the number of friends leads to an increase in the number of followers (and vice versa. In addition, activist users publish a large number of posts regardless of their follower number, even though that number is significantly higher than that of friends. Activist users forward interesting information more often, while they disregard Twitter as a tool for conversation or coordination. Still, activist users and average users are similar in regard to the poster’s profile and posting quantity. Both categories of users follow the power-law distribution.

  11. African Voices and Activists at the WSF in Nairobi: The Uncertain Ways of Transnational African Activism

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    Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle


    Full Text Available Transnational social movement studies have long neglected the way activists from the South, and particularly from Africa, have participated in World Social Forum processes. Alterglobal activists have also been accused of neglecting or dominating southern voices. The organization of the WSF in Nairobi was seen as an opportunity to make African voices be heard. This examines how Africans activists participated in Nairobi, and the complex relationship they have to northern and other southern (such as Asia and Latin America activists. The African alterglobal movement is seen as a space of tensions (i.e. between South Africans and the rest of the continent, between French and English speaking Africa, or between NGOs and more radical organizations reflected in national mobilizations. Our team of 23 French and 12 Kenyan scholars made collective ethnographic observations in more than a hundred workshops and conducted 150 biographical interviews of African activists in order to examine how: Africa was referred to in the WSF; activists financed their trip to Nairobi; and Afrocentric, anti-imperialist, and anticolonial arguments have been used.

  12. Liberating the Temple Mount: apocalyptic tendencies among Jewish temple activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leppäkari


    Full Text Available Every now and then instances of violence are played out at the Temple Mount area in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram-esh-sharif. Some of the cases are referred to as results of the so-called ‘Jerusalem syndrome’, incidents when individuals’ manifestations of pre-existing psychopathology culminate in violent actions. Israeli psychiatrists and others have treated such incidents as examples of when peoples’ expectations of a heavenly Jerusalem collide with the very earthly reality in the city. For some people, such encounters may create anxiety that may threaten the victim’s very sanity. In such situations, an apocalyptic mission may become the only way for them to cope with the situation at hand. But the Temple Mount does not only attract lone-acting individuals, it also attracts organized groups who refer to the very spot as an important identity marker. In this article, the author draws on her field research material and interviews with Jewish Third Temple activists in Jerusalem collected on and off between 1998 and 2004. Here Yehuda Etzion’s, Gershon Salomon’s and Yoel Lerner’s theology and activities are studied in light of apocalyptic representations, and how these are expressed in relation to religious longing for the Third Temple in the light of the Gaza withdrawal. Not all those who are engaged in endtime scenarios act upon their visions. In Jerusalem, there have been, and still are, several religious-political groups that more or less ritually perambulate the Temple Mount area.

  13. Framing a 'social problem': Emotion in anti-abortion activists' depiction of the abortion debate. (United States)

    Ntontis, Evangelos; Hopkins, Nick


    Social psychological research on activism typically focuses on individuals' social identifications. We complement such research through exploring how activists frame an issue as a social problem. Specifically, we explore anti-abortion activists' representation of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists so as to recruit support for the anti-abortion cause. Using interview data obtained with UK-based anti-abortion activists (N = 15), we consider how activists characterized women having abortions, pro-abortion campaigners, and anti-abortion campaigners. In particular, we consider the varied ways in which emotion featured in the representation of these social actors. Emotion featured in different ways. Sometimes, it was depicted as constituting embodied testament to the nature of reality. Sometimes, it was depicted as blocking the rational appraisal of reality. Our analysis considers how such varied meanings of emotion shaped the characterization of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists such that anti-abortion activists were construed as speaking for women and their interests. We discuss how our analysis of the framing of issues as social problems complements and extends social psychological analyses of activism. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Reach Address Database (RAD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  15. Rhetorical Strategies of Consumer Activists: Reframing Market Offers to Promote Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Scaraboto


    Full Text Available Consumer researchers have most frequently looked at the influence the marketplace has on consumers’ identity projects, while the reverse process – how consumers’ identity projects influence the marketplace and general culture – is an important issue that has received less attention. Aiming to contribute to the development of this literature, we conduct a qualitative netnographic investigation of the Fat Acceptance Movement, an online-based movement led by consumer-activists who attempt to change societal attitudes about people who are fat. Our main goal is, therefore, to investigate how consumer activists who congregate online, that is, cyberactivists, reframe market offers while attempting to promote market and cultural change. We identify several rhetorical strategies employed by online consumer activists in their quests to change themselves, other consumers, and the broader culture. Our findings advance consumer research on how consumers may mobilize resources to initiate and promote self-, market-, and cultural transformations.

  16. Understanding political development through an intersectionality framework: Life stories of disability activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Nishida


    Full Text Available This article explores how those who do not share their marginalized identities with their surrounding people (e.g., family members and thus community resources relating to these identities, initiate and experience political development. The concept of intersectionality is used as an analytical tool to examine how one's political development is mediated via one's intersecting identities, communities, and experience of social in/justices. Life story interviews were conducted with disabled activists to explore this question. The stories reveal how these activists, who had initially resisted identifying as disabled for various reasons, eventually used the politicizing experiences from nondisability identities and communities to reframe and reclaim their disability status. By tracing the political developments of disabled people, this article places importance on understanding the process in a holistic way and on developing activist communities and movements that acknowledge intersecting identities and in/justices.

  17. Revisiting a Dramatic Triangle: The State, Villagers, and Social Activists in Chinese Rural Reconstruction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Thøgersen


    Full Text Available As part of the movement to “construct a new socialist countryside”, Chinese officials and social activists are experimenting with transforming rural social and economic relations. They often draw on discourses dating back to the Rural Reconstruction Movement of the 1920s and 1930s, which saw urban intellectuals making similar efforts to modernize the villages and their inhabitants. This paper analyses the different types of relationships between the state, social activists, and villagers in a number of rural reconstruction projects. The state is still the major player in this field, but traditional top-down procedures are often perceived to be unproductive when it comes to micro-level community building, so state actors are forced to find allies among village elites and social activists.

  18. What Motivates Student Environmental Activists on College Campuses? An In-Depth Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadi Y. Fung


    Full Text Available Public concern for the natural environment continues to grow as complex environmental problems emerge. One avenue where concern for the environment has been expressed is through activism. However, research on environmental activism, often aimed at understanding the motivations behind activist behavior, has largely focused on older adults. In this study, we extend the state of knowledge on environmental activism further by focusing on college students. We use qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and observations to examine the motivations behind student involvement in environmental activism on a state university campus. Our findings underscore that young people’s activist motivations are not stand-alone phenomena; they work in tandem with other processes and factors in a dynamic way and are influenced by an individual’s history, previous experiences and passion, a sense of community, existing incentives, and self-satisfaction derived from activist behavior.

  19. Reaching the hard-to-reach. (United States)

    Valdes, C


    Guatemala's family planning (FP) programs are innovative but contraceptive use is only 23%. Total fertility is 5.3 children/woman, and the 9.5 million population will double in 23 years. The problem is poverty and illiteracy among rural residents removed from health services. 80% live in poverty and 80% are illiterate. Government effort is devoted to combating diseases such as diarrhea so there are few funds for implementing a comprehensive population policy. There is support within the national government but FP lacks priority status. APROFAM's goals are to use innovative marketing methods to inform the rural population who lack access to and knowledge about FP. Service delivery is constrained by the difficulty in reaching remote areas where 4 out of 10 indigenous Guatemalans live. Infant mortality can reach as high as 200/1000 live births. Population growth has slowed, and APROFAM plans to reach 16,000 more in the future. Promotions are conducted in several languages and aired on radio, television, and in the print media. It has been found that market research is the most effective strategy in reaching indigenous families. APROFAM has also been effective in upgrading service facilities through training, client surveys, and setting improved clinic standards. Breastfeeding, training, and voluntary sterilization programs contribute to the primary care effort. The example is given of Paulina Lebron from a very poor area who has learned how to space her children and thus improve the standard of living for her family. Eventually, she convinced herself and her family that sterilization was necessary, and now the couple enjoy the bliss of newlyweds without fear of pregnancy.

  20. Social media and the transformation of activist communication: exploring the social media ecology of the 2010 Toronto G20 protests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.


    How does the massive use of social media in contemporary protests affect the character of activist communication? Moving away from the conceptualization of social media as tools, this research explores how activist social media communication is entangled with and shaped by heterogeneous

  1. Relieving Burnout and the "Martyr Syndrome" among Social Justice Education Activists: The Implications and Effects of Mindfulness (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.


    Activist burnout, which causes activists to disengage from their activism, is a formidable barrier to the sustainability of social justice movements, including those focused on social justice in educational contexts. However, the cultures of these movements often disregard the importance of self-care, seeing it as self-indulgence, putting…

  2. Beyond Batteries and Bulbs, Circuits and Conductors: Building Green, Activist-Oriented Student Communities (United States)

    Haun-Frank, Julie; Matthews, Catherine E.; Allen, Melony Holyfield


    In this article we provide an example of how to foster an activist-oriented student community by critically examining green technology. We designed this curriculum unit to teach students about the fundamentals of electricity, green technology, and experimental design. Additionally, we viewed this activity as an opportunity for students to apply…

  3. Talking the Talk: The Construction of Activist Capital in Argentinian Popular Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Palumbo


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the socialization and construction of social and political capital in popular movements in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To analyze this case, we employ a theoretical framework which draws on the concepts of activist social capital and political socialization. These concepts serve to illuminate the native Argentinian concept of “talking the talk”, which is a key skill that contributes to the construction of one’s social capital as an activist. We argue that this know how is particularly important in determining one’s trajectory as an activist. However, understanding how to employ political discourse requires the adoption of a gender lens given that the mastery of “talking the talk” represents a greater challenge for female activists who have to overcome the impossibility of speaking. The reflections developed in this article problematize the everyday politics and practices of popular social movements given that the know-how of “talking the talk” contributes to the crystallization of the gendered social division of labor in social movements.

  4. Speaking Truth to Power: Du Bois as Educator and Community Activist (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Grant, Paul D.


    This article uses W. E. B. Du Bois's work as an education and community activist to discuss race, oppression, and speaking-back to power in this time of racialized policies enacted by the Trump administration. This article centers a comparative discussion of the racialization of democracy by presidents Wilson and Trump to show the ways Du Bois was…

  5. Activist Forest Monks, Adult Learning and the Buddhist Environmental Movement in Thailand (United States)

    Walter, Pierre


    In the tradition of grassroots environmental movements worldwide, activist Buddhist monks in rural Thailand have, since the late 1980s, led a popular movement to protect local forest, water and land resources while at the same time challenging dominant state and corporate "economist" development paradigms. Most famously, these…

  6. The Movement We Make Is the Community We Become: On Being an Activist in the Academy (United States)

    Madeloni, Barbara


    As social justice educators we operate within an academy that often denies the necessity of activism in our work. In this article the author explores, through one person's story, how hierarchies of knowledge and status work within neoliberal paradigms to marginalize scholar-activists and embodied knowledge, and offers possible paths toward…

  7. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.


    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  8. "Where Do I Go from Here?": Learning to Become Activist Teachers through a Community of Practice (United States)

    Oliver, Kimberly L.; Luguetti, Carla; Aranda, Raquel; Nuñez Enriquez, Oscar; Rodriguez, Ana-Alycia


    Background: Student-Centered Inquiry as Curriculum (SCIC) is an activist approach [Oliver, K. L., and H. A. Oesterreich. 2013. "Student-Centered Inquiry as Curriculum as a Model for Field-Based Teacher Education." "Journal of Curriculum Studies" 45 (3): 394-417. doi:10.1080/00220272.2012.719550] inspired by years of research…

  9. Ideologically motivated activism: How activist groups influence corporate social change activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hond, F.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Hickman, G. R.


    Using insights from the social movement literature and institutional change theory, we explore how activism influences corporate social change activities. As the responsibility for addressing a variety of social issues is transferred from the state to the private sector, activist groups increasingly

  10. Teratology testing under REACH. (United States)

    Barton, Steve


    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  11. Global reach and engagement (United States)


    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  12. Activist Infighting among Courts and Breakdown of Mutual Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig


    had itself created it out of nowhere. In turn this appeared to be an implicit reference to the widely criticized interpretative approach of the CJEU, resulting in a far-reaching willingness to espouse judicial activism. But in acting as it did, it seems ironic that the Danish Supreme Court itself......, in this article the judgments are analysed in depth and placed into their wider context. Among other matters, we have considered how the courts should strike a sensitive balance, which has to exist in the relationship between the national courts and the CJEU, requiring mutual trust or, at the least, judicial......In its combative Ajos judgment recently rendered by the Danish Supreme Court, the court openly and controversially challenged the authority of the CJEU. By the same token, in the preliminary ruling by the CJEU preceding it, the CJEU had continued to develop the controversial general principle...

  13. Strategies employed by inner-city activists to reduce alcohol-related problems and advance social justice. (United States)

    Drabble, Laurie; Herd, Denise


    This study explored strategies employed by activists engaged in efforts to change policies and laws related to selling and promoting alcoholic beverages based on in-depth interviews with 184 social activists in seven U.S. major cities. Nine strategies aimed at improving local conditions and influencing policy were described by activists across regional contexts. Grassroots mobilization was central to all other strategies, which included the creation or enforcement of laws, meeting with elected officials, media advocacy, working with police/law enforcement, education and training, direct action, changing community norms, and negotiating with store owners.

  14. Laying Claim to Social Media by Activists: A Cyber-Material Détournement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Galis


    Full Text Available This article examines current appropriations of social media by activists of the radical left in Greece and Sweden. Previous research has shown that the discourse concerning social media’s empowering potential is embedded in commercial values that contradict the value systems of many activists who engage in struggles against the current economic system. We employ the notion of détournement, which describes how social movements turn something aside from its normal course or purpose. Based on interviews and online ethnographic observations, we seek to understand how and with what consequences social media facilitate and limit collective action. The article enhances our understanding of activists’ social media use by turning our attention to the sociotechnical impact of social media on collective action initiated by leftist groups as well as the relationship between ideological loyalties and the political economy of corporate social media.

  15. The Militant Nun as Political Activist and Feminist in Martial Law Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Roces


    Full Text Available During the martial law era (1972-1986, the militant nuns were the most visible symbols of political activism: they dominated the Task Force Detainees, they were active in the underground press, and were present in the labour strikes and demonstrations. But, in becoming political activists, they discovered the potential of moral power as women religious figures. During the People Power revolution, for example, the nuns – armed only with rosaries, confronted the military (the supreme example of machismo politics and triumphed. In the process of attacking political oppression, these nuns also began to challenge cultural constructions of the feminine – becoming the first overt feminists to do so in Philippine history. This paper explores how martial law transformed these women into militant activists and feminists. Although driven by their struggle to protect the victims of martial law, they also succeeded in empowering themselves. This new ‘moral power’ has since been harnessed for women’s issues.

  16. Impact of Religious Affiliation on Ethical Values of Spanish Environmental Activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Chuvieco


    Full Text Available We analyzed the impact of religious affiliation on the ethical and environmental values of Spanish environmental activists, based on an internet survey and a working seminar held with representatives of major environmental non-government organizations (ENGO of Spain. Respondents’ religious affiliations were significantly different compared with those of Spanish society in general, with a much higher proportion of Buddhists, agnostics and atheists and a lower proportion of Catholics. Strict environmental values of ENGOs activists did not show significant differences between the religious groups, which imply that religious beliefs did not impact actual environmental values. However, they did have a significant influence on the activists’ opinions on other bioethical issues. We found that Catholics and believers of other religions were more in favor than agnostics and atheists of introducing ethical limits on abortion, euthanasia or human embryo manipulation.

  17. Tactical mediatization and activist ageing: pressures, push-backs, and the story of RECAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sawchuk


    Full Text Available This case study examines the incorporation of digital media technologies and practices into Respecting Elders: Communities Against elder Abuse (RECAA, an organization of activist elders. By studying RECAA’s specific transition and following the work of Michel de Certeau (1988, I distinguish between tactical mediatization and strategic mediatization. Organizations such as RECAA must negotiate with political, ideological, administrative, and economic agendas that exert pressure and provide incentives for organizations “to mediatize” in order to survive in the current Canadian context. ‘Tactical mediatization’ is used to understand RECAA’s very deliberate and considered response to these pressures. This distinction provides a framework for conceptualizing how activist organizations such as RECAA struggle to exert agency within meta-processes that place mounting and insistent pressure on the organization to incorporate digital media technologies into its mandate and system of values.

  18. Political Dysmetropsia – Activist tactics in the (under)formatted world of social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Hjalmar Alexander Bang; Birkbak, Andreas; Madsen, Anders Koed

    in the Arctic. Should the small but home grown salad be evaluated in relation to the precarious situation of distant polar bears? Or is the familiar relationship to the brother and his garden a reminder that there are limits to the range of issues we can care for? Such challenges can be referred...... contribution is to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing how activists handle this challenge. Thévenot proposes three different regimes of engagement ranging from the most familiar to the most public. Each of these regimes come with their specific engaged reality and specific engaged good, which means...... regimes of engagement. A central focus lies on the appropriate formatting of both the communicated object and its environment. This points towards an analysis of the role of technical infrastructures like social media in activist engagement. Bennett and Segerberg (2012:745) take a step in this direction...

  19. Profile of a leader. Alena Jean MacMaster: administrator, educator, professional activist and community advocate. (United States)

    Gautreau, G; Winans, P


    This paper profiles Alena Jean MacMaster, an extraordinary nurse leader, activist, visionary and humanitarian from New Brunswick. Her determination and drive were instrumental in fostering the development and progression of health care, nursing education and nursing services at the local, provincial, federal and international levels. "First, loyalty to the institution in which you serve. The patient is the most important person in the entire institution," was Miss MacMaster's guiding principle throughout her career.

  20. Moving Up or Moving Out? Anti-Sweatshop Activists and Labor Market Outcomes


    Ann Harrison; Jason Scorse


    During the 1990s, human rights and anti-sweatshop activists increased their efforts to improve working conditions and raise wages for workers in developing countries. These campaigns took many different forms: direct pressure to change legislation in developing countries, pressure on firms, newspaper campaigns, and grassroots organizing. This paper analyzes the impact of two different types of interventions on labor market outcomes in Indonesian manufacturing: (1) direct US government pressur...

  1. Thank You For Smoking! Assessing the Influence of Corporations and Activists on Tobacco Legislation in 22 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Johannes Cornelis; van den Broek, Tijs Adriaan; Ehrenhard, Michel Léon; Need, Ariana


    There are significant cross-national difference in tobacco legislation across European countries. Tobacco activism and the counter mobilized tobacco industry may influence legislation and explain these differences. Social movement theories extensively studied the political influence of activists

  2. Organisational adaptation in an activist network: social networks, leadership, and change in al-Muhajiroun. (United States)

    Kenney, Michael; Horgan, John; Horne, Cale; Vining, Peter; Carley, Kathleen M; Bigrigg, Michael W; Bloom, Mia; Braddock, Kurt


    Social networks are said to facilitate learning and adaptation by providing the connections through which network nodes (or agents) share information and experience. Yet, our understanding of how this process unfolds in real-world networks remains underdeveloped. This paper explores this gap through a case study of al-Muhajiroun, an activist network that continues to call for the establishment of an Islamic state in Britain despite being formally outlawed by British authorities. Drawing on organisation theory and social network analysis, we formulate three hypotheses regarding the learning capacity and social network properties of al-Muhajiroun (AM) and its successor groups. We then test these hypotheses using mixed methods. Our methods combine quantitative analysis of three agent-based networks in AM measured for structural properties that facilitate learning, including connectedness, betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality, with qualitative analysis of interviews with AM activists focusing organisational adaptation and learning. The results of these analyses confirm that al-Muhajiroun activists respond to government pressure by changing their operations, including creating new platforms under different names and adjusting leadership roles among movement veterans to accommodate their spiritual leader's unwelcome exodus to Lebanon. Simple as they are effective, these adaptations have allowed al-Muhajiroun and its successor groups to continue their activism in an increasingly hostile environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. From Wasteland to Flower Bed: Ritual in the Website Communication of Urban Activist Gardeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to explore the website communication of urban activist gardeners by focusing on the concept of ritual as a heuristic category. In contrast to the majority of those doing research on ritual, I use a systems-theoretical approach in applying the concept of ritual to communication processes. I explore the role played by ritual in communication in order to answer questions such as, "What is specifically unique about the ritual mode of communicating?" and, following from this, "What function do these rituals serve in communication?" My subject, urban garden activism, is thus addressed from the perspective of media- and communication research. First, I briefly describe urban activist gardening and how communication is usually structured on their websites. Second, I present an outline of some theories and concepts of communication and ritual within media studies, and give a brief account of the systems-theoretical approach that I use. Third, I define some areas of ritual - that is, ritualized patterns of communication found in the urban activist gardeners' empirical material - so as to provide answers regarding the means and function of ritual in communication.

  4. [Lee Jungsook, a Korean independence activist and a nurse during the Japanese colonial period]. (United States)

    Kim, Sook Young


    This article examines the life of Lee Jungsook, a Korean nurse, as a independence activist during the Japanese colonial period. Lee Jungsook(1896-1950) was born in Bukchung in Hamnam province. She studied at Chungshin girl's high school and worked at Severance hospital. The characteristics and culture of her educational background and work place were very important factors which influenced greatly the life of Lee Jungsook. She learned independent spirit and nationalism from Chungshin girls' high school and worked as nurse at the Severance hospital which were full of intense aspiration for Korea's independence. Many of doctors, professors and medical students were participated in the 3.1 Independence Movement. Lee Jungsook was a founding member of Hyulsungdan who tried to help the independence activists in prison and their families and worked as a main member of Korean Women's Association for Korean Independece and Kyungsung branch of the Korean Red Cross. She was sent to jail by the Japanese government for her independence activism. After being released after serving two years confinement, she worked for the Union for Women's Liberation as a founding member. Lee Joungsook was a great independence activist who had a nursing care spirit as a nurse.

  5. Stings and Scams: ‘Fake News,’ the First Amendment, and the New Activist Journalism


    Dorf, Michael; Tarrow, Sidney


    Constitutional law, technological innovations, and the rise of a cultural “right to know” have recently combined to yield “fake news,” as illustrated by an anti-abortion citizen-journalist sting operation that scammed Planned Parenthood. We find that the First Amendment, as construed by the Supreme Court, offers scant protection for activist journalists to go undercover to uncover wrongdoing, while providing substantial protection for the spread of falsehoods. By providing activists the means...

  6. Reaching the unreached. (United States)

    Ariyaratne, A T


    Embodied in the child survival revolution are ideological, methodological, and organizational innovations aimed at radical change in the condition of the world's children as rapidly as possible. In countries such as Sri Lanka, child survival and health for all by the year 2000 often seem to be impossible goals, given the tumultuous socioeconomic and political conditions. In Sri Lanka, the quality of life has been eroded, not enhanced, by the importation of Western technology and managerial capitalism and the destruction of indigenous processes. The chaos and violence that have been brought into the country have made it difficult to reach the poor children, women, and refugees in rural areas with primary health care interventions. Sri Lanka's unreachable--the decision making elites--have blocked access to the unreached--the urban and rural poor. If governments are to reach the unreached, they must remove the obstacles to a people-centered, community development process. It is the people themselves, and the institutions of their creation, that can reach the children amidst them in greatest need. To achieve this task, local communities must be provided with basic human rights, the power to make decisions that affect their lives, necessary resources, and appropriate technologies. Nongovernmental organizations can play a crucial role as bridges between the unreached and the unreachable by promoting community empowerment, aiding in the formation of networks of community organizations, and establishing linkages with government programs. If the ruling elites in developing countries can be persuaded to accommodate the needs and aspirations of those who, to date, have been excluded from the development process, the child survival revolution can be a nonviolent one.

  7. Solar Hydrogen Reaching Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongé Jan


    Full Text Available Increasingly vast research efforts are devoted to the development of materials and processes for solar hydrogen production by light-driven dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Storage of solar energy in chemical bonds resolves the issues associated with the intermittent nature of sunlight, by decoupling energy generation and consumption. This paper investigates recent advances and prospects in solar hydrogen processes that are reaching market readiness. Future energy scenarios involving solar hydrogen are proposed and a case is made for systems producing hydrogen from water vapor present in air, supported by advanced modeling.

  8. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10 13 ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10 13 ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10 13 ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found

  9. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10{sup 13} ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10{sup 13} ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10{sup 13} ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found.

  10. Strange Bedfellows: Youth Activists, Government Sponsorship, and the Company of Young Canadians (CYC, 1965-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A. Dickenson


    Full Text Available 1. IntroductionThroughout the 1950s small groups of anti-conformists from Greenwich Village, New York City left the east coast and relocated to the North Beach area of San Francisco. Influenced by the writings of Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs, The Beats often chose to settle in rundown neighborhoods that had been in decline since the Depression called The Haight. By the summer of 1967 it was not the cheap rent that lured many prominent activists and hordes of youth to ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABURICI Matei


    Full Text Available This paper investigates, through an example-based scenario, the extent to which corporate activists create or destroy shareholder value; there are five high-profile campaigns analyzed related to four major players. The foundation of the analysis is a variant of DCF model which examines the cash flows to equity. In 4 out of 5 cases the financial metrics are computed in order to assess the performance of the subject company ex-ante and ex-post activists’ involvement.

  12. Reel news in the digital age: Framing Britain’s radical video-activists


    Presence, S.


    The most recent book-length study of radical British filmmaking, Margaret Dickinson’s Rogue Reels: Oppositional Film in Britain, 1945-90 (1999), ends by noting the emergence Undercurrents in 1994 as an example of the burgeoning use of video as a propaganda tool. Indeed, Undercurrents went on to become one of the most established British video-activist groups in the 1990s, among others such as Despite TV and Conscious Cinema. \\ud \\ud However, while Undercurrents remain a key part of contempora...

  13. Experiencing fan activism: Understanding the power of fan activist organizations through members' narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta Kligler-Vilenchik


    Full Text Available Fan activism, forms of civic engagement and political participation growing out of experiences of fandom, is a powerful mode of mobilization, particularly for young people. Building on 40 interviews with members of two organizations representing different configurations of fan activism, this article discusses three emerging elements that are key to the experience of membership in such groups. We suggest that the strength of fan activist groups builds on successfully combining these elements: two that are common to fandom, shared media experiences and a sense of community, and one that is traditionally ascribed to volunteerism and activism, the wish to help.

  14. Reaching Beyond The Stars (United States)

    Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.


    Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

  15. GAP-REACH (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E.; Alarcón, Renato D.; Oquendo, María A.; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C.; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N.; Jacobsen, Frederick M.; Foulks, Edward F.; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E.


    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-itemGAP-REACH© checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article. PMID:24080673

  16. UX-15 Reaches LEP

    CERN Multimedia


    The creation of the world's largest sandstone cavern, not a small feat! At the bottom, cave-in preventing steel mesh can be seen clinging to the top of the tunnel. The digging of UX-15, the cavern that will house ATLAS, reached the upper ceiling of LEP on October 10th. The breakthrough which took place nearly 100 metres underground occurred precisely on schedule and exactly as planned. But much caution was taken beforehand to make the LEP breakthrough clean and safe. To prevent the possibility of cave-ins in the side tunnels that will eventually be attached to the completed UX-15 cavern, reinforcing steel mesh was fixed into the walls with bolts. Obviously no people were allowed in the LEP tunnels below UX-15 as the breakthrough occurred. The area was completely evacuated and fences were put into place to keep all personnel out. However, while personnel were being kept out of the tunnels below, this has been anything but the case for the work taking place up above. With the creation of the world's largest...

  17. Gender differences in personal values of national and local Italian politicians, activists and voters. (United States)

    Francescato, Donata; Mebane, Minou E; Vecchione, Michele


    Theorists of politics of presence postulate that women elected to political office would still hold values similar to ordinary women and therefore represent them better than male politicians. Gender differences in personal values, which underline and give coherence to core political values, have been found among voters: males score higher on self-enhancement values (power and achievement) and females higher on self-transcendence values (universalism and benevolence). Our study aims to explore if gender differences in personal values are still present among activists, local and national politicians. We administer a shortened version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire to 233 Italian national politicians (46% females), 425 local politicians (56% females), 626 political activists (44% females), and 3249 ordinary citizens (49% females). Our results confirm only partially politics of presence theory: females at all levels of political involvement score higher in self-transcendent values that emphasise concern for the welfare of others, but no significant gender differences emerge for self-enhancement, which favour the pursuit of self-interest. Our findings support ethical struggles for more balanced gender representation: a higher proportion of women in politics could strengthen the political representation of self-transcendence values. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Seize the Hospital to Serve the People: A video interview with activist Cleo Silvers

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    Carolyn Chu


    Full Text Available Cleo Silvers is an activist and community/labor organizer who has been working in New York City since the 1960s. In this interview, she illustrates her background growing up in Philadelphia and how it led to experiences as a young VISTA volunteer in New York. Although her initial advocacy efforts and organizing began in the South Bronx school systems, Cleo relates how she quickly became fascinated with emerging public health issues in the Bronx and specifically with the poor care given to disadvantaged community members by local hospitals. As a community mental health worker and member of the Black Panther Party and Young Lords, Cleo played key roles in events which led to the 1970 peoples’ takeover of Lincoln Hospital (See Social Medicine, Volume 2, No 2, 2007, one of the most poorly-run city hospitals in the late 1960s. She recounts approaches and specific tactics used by community groups that helped reform the delivery of health care in previously-neglected neighborhoods of the South Bronx. This interview describes the birth of Cleo’s long-standing dedication to civil and social justice, and is an important example of how activists and workers can effectively implement change in the social conditions of their communities. This video can be viewed at:

  19. Dr Oen Boen Ing Patriot doctor, social activist, and doctor of the poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravando Lie


    Full Text Available This article examines the efforts and achievements of Oen Boen Ing, a Tionghoa doctor, to improve the quality of health of the poorer inhabitants of Surakarta. Dr Oen played an important role in five different periods: Dutch colonialism, the Japanese occupation, the Indonesian revolution, Soekarno’s regime, and Suharto’s New Order. Known for being a benevolent doctor, activist, and patriot of the revolution during his life-time, Dr Oen also gave medical assistance to the needy, which famously earned him the accolade of “doctor of the poor”. During the Indonesian revolution, Dr Oen assisted the Student Soldiers (Tentara Pelajar and afterwards was appointed the member of Supreme Advisory Council (Dewan Pertimbangan Agung/DPA by Soekarno in 1949. As a benevolent doctor and activist, Dr Oen is remembered for founding the Panti Kosala Hospital which was renamed to perpetuate his name on 30 October 1983, exactly a year after his passing. When he died, thousands of peoples gathered to pay their final respects to the doctor. He was honoured with a ceremony conducted in the Mangkunegaran Palace. Dr Oen’s name will be eternally respected, especially in Surakarta.

  20. The Open Data Movement: Young Activists between Data Disclosure and Digital Reputation

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    Davide Arcidiacono


    Full Text Available Young citizens show an increasing interest for direct democracy tools and for the building of a new relationship with public administration through the use of digital platforms. The Open Data issue is part of this transformation. The paper analyzes the Open Data issue from the perspective of a spontaneous and informal group of digital activists with the aim of promoting data disclosure. The study is focused mainly on the case of a specific local movement, named Open Data Sicilia (ODS, combining traditional ethnographic observation with an ethnographic approach. The aim of the study is to detect the social pro-file of the Open Data movement activists, understanding how is it organized their network, what are the common purposes and solidarity models embodied by this type of movement, what are the resources mo-bilized and their strategies between on-line and off-line. The ODS case appears interesting for its evolu-tion, its strategy and organizational structure: an elitist and technocratic movement that aspires to a broad constituency. It is an expressive or a reformist movement, rather than an anti-system actor, with features that are similar to a lobby. The case study also shows all the typical characteristics of digital activism, with its fluid boundaries between ethical inspiration of civic engagement and individual interests

  1. If it matters for the group then it matters to me: collective action outcomes for seasoned activists. (United States)

    Blackwood, Leda M; Louis, Winnifred R


    The present article reports a longitudinal study of the psychological antecedents for, and outcomes of, collective action for a community sample of activists. At Time 1, activist identification influenced intentions to engage in collective action behaviours protesting the Iraq war, both directly and indirectly via perceptions of the efficacy of these behaviours for achieving group goals, as well as perceptions of individual-level benefits. At Time 2, identification was associated with differences in the dimensions on which the movement's success was evaluated. In the context of the movement's failure to achieve its stated objectives of troop withdrawal, those with strong activist identity placed less importance on influencing government decision making. The implications are discussed in terms of models of collective action and social identity, focusing on a dynamic model that relates identification with a group to evaluations of instrumentality at a group and individual level; and to beliefs about strategic responses to achieve group goals. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  2. FCJ-194 From #RaceFail to #Ferguson: The Digital Intimacies of Race-Activist Hashtag Publics

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    Nathan Rambukanna


    Full Text Available This paper explores the rough, emergent and partial public culture of race-activist hashtags through the discourses of #RaceFail, a critical race quarrel that started in the sci-fi and fantasy blogosphere, and expanded from there into a broader, sustained discussion over social media; and #Ferguson, a recent race-activist hashtag raising issues around censorship, filtering and ‘gated discourse’. It ends with a discussion of how the frictions between the neoliberal desire to reduce hashtag publics to product publicity, and the activist desire to use hashtags to further public sphere awareness of political issues, is exemplified in the controversy over Facebook’s ‘algorithmic filtering’ of #Ferguson, and how, nevertheless, critical race hashtags are tapping into a developing tradition of vocal social media–supported dissent.

  3. Agents of Change - Frauenaktivistinnen in Aceh [Agents of Change - Women Activists in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Großmann


    reconstruction of Aceh since the beginning of the peace process. The transformation process causes huge challenges for women and at the same time provides a wide range of opportunities for participation and modelling the new province Aceh. In this vibrant atmosphere, where tensions between Islamic religiosity, traditional-cultural structures and Western values are immense, women activists design positions and strategies to aim their desire of gender justice, equity and women’s rights. The present impact of the multiple efforts of women activists to take influence in the political and socio-cultural area can be described as opening a window of opportunities. They could benefit from emancipative objectives of international organisations and from the national and international monetary funds. Women activists could develop capacity and raise their bargaining power through the networks with international organisations. Hurdles in the long-term success of implementing the aims of woman activists are the short time-frames of the aid-programmes and the top-down approach of most programmes. The power of the political elite in Aceh and of religious leaders is strong and the agendas of woman activists are constrained by socio-political and religious acceptance.

  4. New Order, end of illusions and the activist matrix of the first National Front

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    Nicolas LEBOURG


    Full Text Available Ordre nouveau was the most important French neo-fascist movement after 1945. It lasted only for four years (1969-1973 but it induced seve-ral changes shaking the radical right wing. As it was defined as a revolutionary party, ordre nouveau spread its identity onto activists on the one hand, while it also collaborated with state authorities fighting against leftists on the other hand. Following the successful italian model of the MSI, the movement oscillated between media coverage — which gave it an identity but also led to its dissolution in 1973 — and acceptance of the electoral game for which Front national had been founded. The disappearance of ordre nouveau meant the end of dreams of revolutionary right sustained by some active minorities using political violence, as well as it stood for a transition to a post-industrial radical right symbolized by the rise of Front National.

  5. Autonomous Activist-Research. The case of the squatters' movement in Madrid

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    Martínez López, Miguel Ángel


    Full Text Available Citizen participation has been recently incorporated in the design and implementation of different public policies but participants have often criticised that there is little room for autonomous modes of citizen participation within institutional frameworks. Which are the specific features of autonomous processes of citizen participation compared to the most institutional ones? How does autonomous participation develop? This article deals with the methodological aspects of autonomous participation. In doing so, we will present an experience of autonomous activist-research within the squatters’ movement of Madrid which lasted for two and a half years. In particular, we focus on the methodological decisions taken by activist-researchers and describe the major contributions of this participatory process. We argue that such an activist-research process was based upon three different strategies which provided a productive framework for the participants’ involvement: a an open, horizontal and self-managed group of activist-researchers; b an open-source and copy-left commitment in order to fulfill an equal access to the production of knowledge; c a qualitative and comprehensive methodology which allowed to gather a wide range of information taking into account the social diversity within the squatters’ movement.

    La participación ciudadana ha sido recientemente incorporada en el diseño e implementación de diferentes políticas públicas, pero quienes participan han criticado a menudo que existe poco espacio para las modalidades autónomas de participación ciudadana dentro de los marcos institucionales. ¿Cuáles son los rasgos específicos de los procesos autónomos de participación ciudadana comparados a los más institucionales? ¿Cómo se desarrolla la participación autónoma? Este artículo expone algunos aspectos metodológicos de la participación autónoma. Presentamos una experiencia de investigación activista aut

  6. Is accredited social health activists' basic oral health knowledge appropriate in educating rural Indian population?

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    Narayana Rao Vinnakota


    Full Text Available Introduction: Accredited social health activists (ASHAs are the grassroot level health activists in the community who are involved in health education and community mobilization toward utilizing the health services. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the oral health knowledge among ASHAs working in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Five Primary Health Centers were randomly selected, and the total sample was 275. Categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The mean age was 32 ± 5.11 years and mean education was 9 ± 1.329 years of schooling. ASHAs were categorized into two groups based on their education levels, i.e., Group I whose education qualification is <10th class and Group II whose education qualification is above 10th class to observe any difference in knowledge based on their education. Overall knowledge among ASHAs was poor and also it was observed that both the groups were having poor knowledge regarding dental caries, calculus, dental plaque, oral cancer, and change of tooth brush. About 69.5% of the ASHAs were approached by public with dental problems, but only a few, i.e., 15.8% have referred the patients to the nearby dentist. Conclusion: As we know that most of the dental diseases are preventable, there is a dire need that ASHAs should be thoroughly educated in the aspects of oral health and diseases during their training period. This not only helps in creating awareness among them but also serves the ultimate purpose of improving the oral health of rural population.

  7. Becoming a Youth Activist in the Internet Age: A Case Study on Social Media Activism and Identity Development (United States)

    Fullam, Jordan


    This paper draws on a case study of one youth activist, and explores connections between social media activism, identity development, and critical education. Justin Rodriguez, a 17-year-old high school student in Newark, New Jersey, leveraged social media and texting as organizing tools and garnered support for a school walkout to protest…

  8. The impact of generalized and institutional trust on donating to activist, leisure, and interest organizations: individual and contextual effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.B.; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.


    In this paper, we answer the question as to what extent donating to activist, interest, and leisure organizations is affected by both individual and national levels of generalized and institutional trust. We use the European Social Survey 2002 to estimate multilevel random intercept models, based on

  9. How activists and target organizations collaborate in the face of emerging contingencies : setbacks and inaction: constraining or enablers of change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loohuis, Raymond Petrus Antonius; von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; Hutsch, B.; Groen, Arend J.


    In this paper, we attempt to examine the sources of agency of target organizations when engaged in collective change processes organized by activists concerned with environmental issues and sustainable development in the eastern part of the Netherlands. In combining social movement and institutional

  10. From prowar soldier to antiwar activist: Change and continuity in the narratives of political conversion among Iraq War veterans (United States)

    David Flores


    This study examines conversion narratives of Iraq War military veterans who have become antiwar political activists. I examine how antiwar veterans construct and emplot prewar, wartime, and postwar narrative periods to shape and reclaim their moral identities as patriots fighting for a just cause, and how through a communal antiwar story they work to both...

  11. Ellen N. La Motte: the making of a nurse, writer, and activist. (United States)

    Williams, Lea M


    This article examines the early career of Ellen N. La Motte (1873-1961) to trace how her training at the Johns Hopkins Training School for Nurses and years spent as a tuberculosis nurse in Baltimore shaped her perception of tuberculosis prevention and women's suffrage. Although studies of tuberculosis have frequently alluded to her work, no sustained biocritical discussion of her development as a nurse and scholar exists. Between 1902, when she graduated from nursing school, and 1914, the start of the Great War, La Motte published a textbook and dozens of articles in journals devoted to nursing and social reform and delivered many speeches at local, regional, and national meetings. In addition, as her reputation as an expert in the field of tuberculosis nursing grew, her advocacy for the vote for women increased, and she used her writing and speaking skills on behalf of the suffrage cause. This article assesses how the skills La Motte acquired during these years helped mold her into a successful and respected nurse, writer, and activist.

  12. The antecedents of identification: a rhetorical analysis of British Muslim activists' constructions of community and identity. (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered


    This paper takes as its focus the perception of community. This is analysed through reference to the literature concerning the adoption of more inclusive, superordinate social categories. Whilst most research tends to focus on the consequences of these social categories for self and other perception, we focus on their antecedents. These are typically hypothesized to include such issues as the perception of the subordinate groups' common fate and factors affecting their perceptual differentiation (e.g. their similarity and entitativity). However, rather than conceiving of such issues as pre-given antecedent variables, we explore how these issues (and others) are actively constructed in and through discourse. More specifically, we explore how such issues are sites of contestation as activists with different political projects seek to construct quite different versions of the relevant superordinate community identity. Our data are qualitative and are drawn from contemporary debates amongst British Muslims concerning their relations with non-Muslim Britons and non-British Muslims across the globe. A key issue in these deliberations concerns the nature of British Muslims' identity and the superordinate identifications that best facilitate its expression and realization. We suggest that constructions of common fate, similarity, entitativity etc., far from being 'givens', are the means through which different definitions of Muslim identity are constructed and different forms of collective action mobilized.

  13. Masculinities in Cyberspace: An Analysis of Portrayals of Manhood in Men’s Rights Activist Websites

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    Rachel M. Schmitz


    Full Text Available A growth in cultural ideologies concerned with men and masculinities in contemporary American society has recently emerged. Men’s rights activist (MRA groups embody a movement emphasizing the crisis of masculinity. Despite men’s privileged societal status, MRAs seek to establish resources for men to utilize in elevating their perceived subordinated position in society in relation to women and social minorities. Little research has systematically investigated MRAs on the Internet, which is rapidly becoming a primary source of information and social connectedness for people. Through a content analysis of the 12 most prominent MRA websites, we explore the various strategies used by contemporary men’s groups designed to provide support for men in their pursuit of social legitimacy and power. Two primary categories of MRAs with distinctive ideological strategies emerged from this analysis: Cyber Lads in Search of Masculinity and Virtual Victims in Search of Equality. Though both groups promoted men’s entitlement to social power, Cyber Lads utilized themes of explicit aggression towards and devaluation of women, while Virtual Victims adopted political and social movement rhetoric to address men’s issues. The implications of these websites are discussed in terms of gender equality and their potential effects on individual men and women.

  14. Drums Cannot be Silenced: candombe and new activist ethos in the public space of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lamborghini


    Full Text Available In the past two decades, Buenos Aires has witnessed a surprising growth and popularity of Afro-Latin American cultural practices. Foremost among them, and most visible in the city’s public space, is Afro-Uruguayan candombe. Having spread beyond the Uruguayan immigrant community that contributed to its re-localization in the 1970s, it is nowadays widely part of the youth urban culture along the country. The paper discusses the re-significations following this vigorous development and how it intersects with other social processes of contemporary Argentine society. Focusing on the re-signification of candombe as “resistance”, as performed by a collective of drummers and dancers known as “Los Tambores No Callan” (Drums cannot be silenced, it highlights the connections they establish between this cultural practice and politics as social struggle. It suggests that this cultural practice is part of –and helps shape– new activist ethos in the public space of Buenos Aires, a historically alleged “White” and “European” city.

  15. “Communities,” Anthropology and the Politics of Stakeholding: The Challenges of an Inorganic Activist Anthropology


    Kristen E.G. Hudgins


    This paper draws on my experiences creating and implementing the South Carolina Migrant Farmworker Resource Project, an activist endeavor with an anthropological approach. My discussion of the project focuses on the difficulties of managing stakeholder interests while working among various community organizations and simultaneously accessing the input of the community to be served. I use community in quotes to problematize assumptions and to question what makes a community, if not self-define...

  16. Reaching ignition in the tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.


    This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project

  17. From anti-smoking activist to archivist and back again: how museum exhibitions on the history of tobacco control are helping to educate a new generation

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    Alan Blum


    This illustrated presentation provides excerpts from these exhibitions, some of which are available for use by health organizations to inspire the next generation of anti-tobacco activists. Online versions are also being created.

  18. Development and implementation of a science training course for breast cancer activists: Project LEAD (leadership, education and advocacy development). (United States)

    Dickersin, K; Braun, L; Mead, M; Millikan, R; Wu, A M; Pietenpol, J; Troyan, S; Anderson, B; Visco, F


    To develop and implement Project LEAD (leadership, education, and advocacy development), a science course for breast cancer activists. Students were breast cancer activists and other consumers, mainly affiliated with advocacy organizations in the United States of America. Project LEAD is offered by the National Breast Cancer Coalition; the course takes place over 5 days and is offered 4 times a year, in various cities in the United States of America. The Project LEAD curriculum has developed over 5 years to include lectures, problem-based study groups, case studies, interactive critical appraisal sessions, a seminar by an 'expert' scientist, role play, and homework components. A core faculty has been valuable for evaluating and revising the course and has proved necessary to provide consistent high quality teaching. Course evaluations indicated that students gained critical appraisal skills, enhanced their knowledge and developed confidence in selected areas of basic science and epidemiology. Project LEAD comprises a unique curriculum for training breast cancer activists in science and critical appraisal. Course evaluations indicate that students gain confidence and skills from the course.

  19. How a network of conservationists and population control activists created the contemporary US anti-immigration movement. (United States)

    Normandin, Sebastian; Valles, Sean A


    Continuing historical narratives of the early twentieth century nexus of conservationism, eugenics, and nativism (exemplified by Madison Grant), this paper traces the history of the contemporary US anti-immigration movement's roots in environmentalism and global population control activism, through an exploration of the thoughts and activities of the activist, John Tanton, who has been called "the most influential unknown man in America." We explore the "neo-Malthusian" ideas that sparked a seminal moment for population control advocacy in the late 1960s and early 1970s, leading to the creation of Zero Population Growth (ZPG). After rising to the presidency of ZPG, Tanton, and ZPG spun off the Federation for American Immigration Reform. After leaving ZPG's leadership, Tanton created additional anti-immigration advocacy groups and built up connections with existing organizations such as the Pioneer Fund. We trace Tanton's increasingly radical conservative network of anti-immigration advocates, conservationists, and population control activists to the present day. Tanton's archived papers illustrate, among other things, his interactions with collaborators such as ecologist Garrett Hardin (author of the famous "Tragedy of the Commons") and his documented interest in reviving eugenics. We contend that this history of Tanton's network provides key insights into understanding how there came to be an overlap between the ideologies and activist communities of immigration restrictionism, population control, conservationism and eugenics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. “Awakening Asia”: Korean Student Activists in Japan, "The Asia Kunglun," and Asian Solidarity, 1910-1923

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    Dolf-Alexander Neuhaus


    Full Text Available The contributions of Korean and Taiwanese authors to the many and varied formulations of interwar pan-Asianism have so far remained a relatively unexplored subject of scholarly research, despite an unbroken interest in the trajectory of state-based Japanese pan-Asianism. Focusing on Korean students and independence activists, this article discusses alternative configurations of regional unity and solidarity that emanated from the interactions among Korean, Taiwanese, and other Asian actors who resided in Tokyo during the 1910s and 1920s. When the ethnic-nationalist interpretations of the Wilsonian principle of self-determination failed to materialize, a portion of anti-colonial activists in Asia began to emphasize the need for solidarity by drawing on what they perceived as traditional and shared “Asian” values. While challenging the Western-dominated international order of nation-states that perpetuated imperialism, such notions of Asian solidarity at the same time served as an ideology of liberation from Japanese imperialism. Examining journals published by Korean students and activists, including The Asia Kunglun, this article adds another layer to the history of pan-Asianism from below, a perspective that has often been neglected within the larger context of scholarship on pan-Asianism and Japanese imperialism in Asia.

  1. Examining Prejudice Reduction Through Solidarity and Togetherness Experiences Among Gezi Park Activists in Turkey

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    Yasemin Gülsüm Acar


    Full Text Available Prejudice reduction research has focused on reducing negative regard as a means to improve relations between various groups (e.g., religious, ethnic, political. Though positive regard between groups may be created, these forms of contact and common identification do not alter policy orientations of advantaged groups toward disadvantaged ones. Rather than intergroup contact, it is suggested that a collective action model of prejudice reduction (Dixon, J., Levine, M., Reicher, S., & Durrheim, K. (2012. Beyond prejudice: Are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 411-425 would create ties between disadvantaged groups to work toward beneficial policy change. We seek to show that the Gezi Park protests in Taksim, İstanbul functioned as an intergroup phenomenon, requiring the cooperation of a number of disadvantaged groups (e.g., feminists, Kurds working together to improve the status of all present. In a series of interviews with 34 activists from the Gezi Park protests, participants were to reflect on their individual and group-based experiences during their time in the Gezi Park protests. Data indicate that although a few groups remained distant or disconnected during the protests, a common ground was achieved such that some participants were able to overcome past prejudices. Data also indicate that through group perceptions and individuals’ descriptions of events, groups who had previously not been able to cooperate were able to work and stick together at Gezi. Results also imply, in line with Dixon et al. (2012, that if disadvantaged groups work together, they might change the position of their groups and improve each group’s disadvantaged position via collective action.

  2. Evaluation of a training program of hypertension for accredited social health activists (ASHA) in rural India. (United States)

    Abdel-All, Marwa; Thrift, Amanda Gay; Riddell, Michaela; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan; Mini, Gomathyamma Krishnakurup; Chow, Clara K; Maulik, Pallab Kumar; Mahal, Ajay; Guggilla, Rama; Kalyanram, Kartik; Kartik, Kamakshi; Suresh, Oduru; Evans, Roger George; Oldenburg, Brian; Thomas, Nihal; Joshi, Rohina


    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of premature death and disability in India. Since access to health services is poor in rural India and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are available throughout India for maternal and child health, a potential solution for improving hypertension control is by utilising this available workforce. We aimed to develop and implement a training package for ASHAs to identify and control hypertension in the community, and evaluate the effectiveness of the training program using the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model. The training program was part of a cluster randomised feasibility trial of a 3-month intervention to improve hypertension outcomes in South India. Training materials incorporated details on managing hypertension, goal setting, facilitating group meetings, and how to measure blood pressure and weight. The 15 ASHAs attended a five-day training workshop that was delivered using interactive instructional strategies. ASHAs then led community-based education support groups for 3 months. Training was evaluated using Kirkpatrick's evaluation model for measuring reactions, learning, behaviour and results using tests on knowledge at baseline, post-training and post-intervention, observation of performance during meetings and post-intervention interviews. The ASHAs' knowledge of hypertension improved from a mean score of 64% at baseline to 76% post-training and 84% after the 3-month intervention. Research officers, who observed the community meetings, reported that ASHAs delivered the self-management content effectively without additional assistance. The ASHAs reported that the training materials were easy to understand and useful in educating community members. ASHAs can be trained to lead community-based group educational discussions and support individuals for the management of high blood pressure. The feasibility trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zamecka-Zalas


    Full Text Available Bringing up the generation of young Poles, who were born and educated in free democratic world in the spirit of patriotism, who were aware of their roots, who spoke Polish and knew the Polish culture, was a very difficult task to undertake by the Polish community in exile after the Second World War. This task was tackled by many Polish people residing in Great Britain with Aleksandra Podhorecka among them. As the title implies the article describes the issue of upbringing of young Poles abroad which is still relevant. The aim of the article is to introduce Aleksandra Podhorecka as an educator, a teacher, and a journalist, who has been involved and still plays an important role in the educating Polish children and young people in the UK. The article outlines the main facts of Aleksandra Podhorecka’s life and activities. She was a teacher, an education activist and a long-standing headmistress of Polish School Motherland, an organization which ran schools of mother tongue for Polish emigrants’ children. In addition, she was a journalist for a number of magazines for children such as “Dziatwa” (“Children” and “Razem Młodzi Przyjaciele” (“Together Young Friends”. She also published curriculums, textbooks, journals, information bulletins, methodological tutorials for teachers and parents. She tried to make young people closer to each other so that they could be proud of being Poles. The main task of PSM was to bring up young Poles on the principles of Christianity and it has been unchangeable for many years. PSM works in different branches which include Polish Saturday School, meetings and competitions, a bookshop in POSK in London. Thanks to Aleksandra Podhorecka the popularity of PSM increased. Every year about twenty thousand of Polish children are born in the UK. Due to Aleksandra Podhorecka’s activities they have an opportunity to learn the Polish language and take an active part in the life of their native country.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik


    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  5. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.


    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, S.L.K.


    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multi-disciplinary research facility that experienced several environmental incidents, resulting in an immediate and intense reaction from community members, activist groups, elected officials and regulators. A new management firm with a strong commitment to environmental stewardship, open communication, and cultural change, assumed management of BNL in March 1998, and immediately began to develop an IS0 14001 Environmental Management System that emphasized community outreach. This paper describes how BSA reengineered their external communications program to regain the trust of their stakeholders. The underlying goal was to ''inform and involve.'' A Community Involvement Plan was developed to solicit input from interested parties and use it in Laboratory decision-making processes. A Community Advisory Committee was formed to provide direct input to the Laboratory Director. A formal channel for two-way communication with elected officials and regulators was created. Finally, BNL utilized a previously untapped yet invaluable resource to reach out to the community: their employees

  7. REACH and nanomaterials: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia; Castelli, Stefano; Pettirossi, Flavio


    New challenges for regulators are emerging about a specific assessment and appropriate management of the potential risks of nanomaterials. In the framework of European legislation on chemicals, Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 REACH aims to ensure the safety of human health and the environment through the collection of information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the substances and on their profile (eco) toxicological and the identification of appropriate risk management linked to 'exposure to these substances without impeding scientific progress and the competitiveness of industry. In order to cover the current shortage of information on the safety of nanomaterials and tackle the acknowledged legal vacuum, are being a rich activities, carried out both by regulators both by stake holders, and discussions on the proposals for adapting the European regulatory framework for chemicals . The European Commission is geared to strengthen the REACH Regulation by means of updates of its annexes. The importance of responding to the regulatory requirements has highlighted the need for cooperation between European organizations, scientists and industries to promote and ensure the safe use of nanomaterials. [it

  8. Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and dominance: A possible explanation for the feminist paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eMadison


    Full Text Available The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e. those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda.

  9. Reaching for the red planet (United States)

    David, L


    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  10. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency. (United States)

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang


    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures--so-called metasurfaces--have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.

  11. Nuclear power: renaissance or relapse? Global climate change and long-term Three Mile Island activists' narratives. (United States)

    Culley, Marci R; Angelique, Holly


    Community narratives are increasingly important as people move towards an ecologically sustainable society. Global climate change is a multi-faceted problem with multiple stakeholders. The voices of affected communities must be heard as we make decisions of global significance. We document the narratives of long-term anti-nuclear activists near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant who speak out in the dawn of a nuclear renaissance/relapse. While nuclear power is marketed as a "green" solution to global warming, their narratives reveal three areas for consideration; (1) significant problems with nuclear technology, (2) lessons "not" learned from the TMI disaster, and (3) hopes for a sustainable future. Nuclear waste, untrustworthy officials and economic issues were among the problems cited. Deceptive shaping of public opinion, nuclear illiteracy, and an aging anti-nuclear movement were reasons cited for the lessons not learned. However, many remain optimistic and envision increased participation to create an ecologically-balanced world.

  12. Effect of participatory women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists on birth outcomes in rural eastern India: A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Tripathy (Prasanta); N. Nair (Nirmala); R. Sinha (Rajesh); S. Rath (Santosh); R. Gope (Rajkumar); S. Rath (Santosh); S.S. Roy (Swati Sarbani); A. Bajpai (Aparna); V. Singh (Vijay); V. Nath (Vikash); S. Ali (Sarfraz); A.K. Kundu (Alok Kumar); D. Choudhury (Dibakar); S.K. Ghosh (Sanjib Kumar); S. Kumar (Sanjay); R. Mahapatra (Rajendra); A. Costello (Anthony); E. Fottrell (Edward); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); A. Prost (Audrey)


    textabstractBackground: A quarter of the world's neonatal deaths and 15% of maternal deaths happen in India. Few community-based strategies to improve maternal and newborn health have been tested through the country's government-approved Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs). We aimed to test

  13. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights (United States)


    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  14. Operational Reach: Is Current Army Doctrine Adequate?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heintzelman, Scott


    The term operational reach, an element of operational design, is new to U.S. Army doctrine. Operational reach is not found in the previous edition of the Army's basic operational doctrine, Field Manual...

  15. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  16. REACH: impact on the US cosmetics industry? (United States)

    Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Barbara; Polla, Ada


    The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH.

  17. World hazards and nuclear weapons: right and wrong answers. To reach a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons is possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Daniel; Nivet, Roland


    A first article notices that modernisation of nuclear weapons are resumed with the emergence of new nuclear temptations: ambitious modernisation programme in the USA, catching-up race by Russia to be able to pierce antimissile defences, Chinese modernisation, renewal of the British Trident programme, doubling of nuclear military budgets in France, developments in India and Pakistan. However, the author discusses the possible emergence of new opportunities for a nuclear disarmament: humanitarian ICAN campaign for a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons. He highlights the need of a debate in France on these issues even though no politician dares to take a strong position in favour of nuclear disarmament. In a third article, a member of an activist association shows that, after the adoption of a U N resolution on favour of the elaboration of a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons, reaching such a treaty is possible. The action of civil society seems necessary

  18. Triggering Solidarity Actions towards Contingent Workers and the Unemployed. The Point of View of Grassroots Trade Unionists and Labour Activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Karakioulafis


    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, trade unions have suffered a decrease in membership, public legitimacy and the capacity to achieve their core objectives. Renewal strategies have varied, depending on the national context. Part of them focused on rank-and-file mobilization and social movement unionism. In the Greek context, the academic discussion about the crisis of trade unions took place mainly during the 2000s, but without having an impact within union circles or on union strategies. Additionally, grassroots and rank-and-file unions that adopted a social movement and radical unionism approach, and contested the 'institu-tionalized official' trade unions, remained marginal and their actions were not very visible. The recent fis-cal crisis and the implementation of the Memoranda brought up previous dysfunctions. In a context of in-creasing employment precarity and unemployment, the general position of official trade unions towards contingent workers and the unemployed has been strongly contested, while grassroots rank-and-file un-ions claim a more active role in this area. Given the above considerations, this article focuses on the strat-egies of trade unions towards contingent workers and the unemployed, in the Greek context. Results de-rive from interviews with Greek grassroots trade unionists and labour activists in the framework of the TransSOL (Transnational Solidarity at Times of Crisis EU-funded program.

  19. REACH: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary (United States)

    Sibieta, Luke


    REACH is a targeted reading support programme designed to improve reading accuracy and comprehension in pupils with reading difficulties in Years 7 and 8. It is based on research by the Centre for Reading and Language at York and is delivered by specially trained teaching assistants (TAs). This evaluation tested two REACH interventions, one based…

  20. The three betrayals of the medical cannabis growing activist: From multiple victimhood to reconstruction, redemption and activism. (United States)

    Klein, Axel; Potter, Gary R


    While cannabis has been widely used in the UK for over 50 years, it is only in recent decades that domestic cultivation has become established. Public concern, media reporting and policing policy has emphasised the role of profit motivated criminal organisations often working on a large scale and with coerced labour. However, increasingly, another population are growing for medical reasons, to help themselves and others treat or manage difficult, poorly understood, or incurable conditions. Our study sought to further understand the motives, techniques and interactions of cannabis cultivators through interviews with 48 growers and supplementary ethnographic work. As well as those motivated to grow for personal use, social and commercial supply purposes we identified a cohort growing to provide themselves and others with cannabis used for therapeutic purposes. This paper draws primarily on interviews with a sub-group of sixteen medically-motivated growers who were not only involved in treatment, but also embraced the label "activist". Rather than develop techniques of deception they were organising to effect a change in legislation. Rejecting the image of criminal perpetrators, they presented themselves as victims of unjust government policy, an indifferent medical establishment, and brutal and immoral criminal markets. Through cultivation, association, self-healing and apomedication, they have found voice and are shifting the debate over the status of growers and of cannabis itself. The ambiguity of their position as both producers and patients challenges the assumptions underlying legal distinctions between suppliers and users, with potentially profound implications for policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The database for reaching experiments and models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Walker

    Full Text Available Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc. from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM. DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis.

  2. Enhancing US Operational Reach in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, David


    .... While this treat continues to exist, the US Pacific Command (PACOM) must also pursue a neat term methodology to expand its operational reach and ability to respond to contingencies throughout the East Asian littoral, especially within Southeast Asia...

  3. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education (United States)

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad


    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  4. Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field

    CERN Multimedia


    Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)

  5. The Population Activist's Handbook. (United States)

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  6. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers? (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas


    Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.

  7. What is Happening in the Petišovci Fields? An Edited Conversation with an Activist of the Initiative “Stop the Fracking in Slovenia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Tamše


    Full Text Available The article is an edited conversation with an activist of an initiative “Stop the fracking in Slovenia”. In order to start the process of fracking for natural gas extraction in the Prekmurje region, companies still have to obtain some environmental permits from the government environmental agency, which seems to have taken the companies’ side. The initiative is struggling to stop this. The conversation was focused on the developments in the Petišovci fields, formal procedures connected to obtaining permits, and the companies involved. The article also contains the explanation of what fracking is.

  8. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...... of developing best practices in the education and implementation of IHL in capacity building of security forces....

  9. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene


    PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  10. Reaching Reluctant Students: Insights from Torey Hayden. (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike


    Illustrates principles of reaching students who fight or avoid adults by using examples drawn from the writings of Torey Hayden. Presents ten concepts that can serve as guidelines for building relationships with resistant children, and gives excerpts from Hayden's works to illustrate each concept. Demonstrates how books provide teachers with…

  11. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia


     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  12. Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and social dominance: a possible explanation for the feminist paradox. (United States)

    Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika; Wallert, John; Woodley, Michael A


    The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e., those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands) and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale) in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda.

  13. Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and social dominance: a possible explanation for the feminist paradox (United States)

    Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika; Wallert, John; Woodley, Michael A.


    The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e., those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands) and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale) in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda. PMID:25250010

  14. Inactivation of Parietal Reach Region Affects Reaching But Not Saccade Choices in Internally Guided Decisions. (United States)

    Christopoulos, Vassilios N; Bonaiuto, James; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A


    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been considered important for awareness, spatial perception, and attention. However, recent findings provide evidence that the PPC also encodes information important for making decisions. These findings have initiated a running argument of whether the PPC is critically involved in decision making. To examine this issue, we reversibly inactivated the parietal reach region (PRR), the area of the PPC that is specialized for reaching movements, while two monkeys performed a memory-guided reaching or saccade task. The task included choices between two equally rewarded targets presented simultaneously in opposite visual fields. Free-choice trials were interleaved with instructed trials, in which a single cue presented in the peripheral visual field defined the reach and saccade target unequivocally. We found that PRR inactivation led to a strong reduction of contralesional choices, but only for reaches. On the other hand, saccade choices were not affected by PRR inactivation. Importantly, reaching and saccade movements to single instructed targets remained largely intact. These results cannot be explained as an effector-nonspecific deficit in spatial attention or awareness, since the temporary "lesion" had an impact only on reach choices. Hence, the PPR is a part of a network for reach decisions and not just reach planning. There has been an ongoing debate on whether the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents only spatial awareness, perception, and attention or whether it is also involved in decision making for actions. In this study we explore whether the parietal reach region (PRR), the region of the PPC that is specialized for reaches, is involved in the decision process. We inactivated the PRR while two monkeys performed reach and saccade choices between two targets presented simultaneously in both hemifields. We found that inactivation affected only the reach choices, while leaving saccade choices intact

  15. Improving exposure scenario definitions within REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne

    In recent years, the paradigm of chemical management system has changed from being toxicity oriented and media based to being risk oriented and receptor based. This trend is evident not only regarding environmental quality standards, but also for industrial chemical regulations. Political...... instruments to support a precautionary chemicals management system and to protect receptor’s health have also been increasing. Since 2007, the European Union adopted REACH (the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals): REACH makes industry responsible for assessing...... and managing the risks posed by industrial chemicals and providing appropriate safety information to their users (EC, 2007). However, to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment, there is a need to consider ‘aggregate exposure’ including background exposures from environment which...

  16. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas


    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  17. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH. (United States)

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus


    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  18. Performance reach in the LHC for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduini, G.


    Based on the 2011 experience and Machine Development study results, the performance reach of the LHC with 25 and 50 ns beams will be addressed for operation at 3.5 and 4 TeV. The possible scrubbing scenarios and potential intensity limitations resulting from vacuum, heating will be taken into account wherever possible. The paper mainly covers the performance of the two high luminosity regions in IR1 and IR5. (author)

  19. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  20. Long-reach manipulators for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D.A.; Challinor, S.F.


    A survey of redundant facilities at Sellafield has identified that in many cases the conventional means of deploying remote handling equipment are not appropriate and that novel means must be employed. However, decommissioning is not a value adding activity and so expensive one off designs must be avoided. The paper will describe BNFL's approach to the synthesis from proprietary parts of a manipulator which can lift 3 te at a horizontal reach of over 5 metres and yet can still perform the dextrous manipulation necessary to remove small items. It will also cover the development of the manipulator control systems and the adaption of commercial handtools to be manipulator friendly. (author)

  1. Luminosity performance reach after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W.


    Based on past experience (2010/2011), in particular expected limitations from beam-beam effects, and taking into account the expected beam quality from the LHC injectors, the peak and integrated luminosity at top energy is discussed for different scenarios (e.g. bunch spacing, beta*). In particular it will be shown which are the key parameters to reach the nominal luminosity and it is also shown that peak luminosities two times larger than nominal (or higher) are possible. Possible test in 2012 are discussed

  2. City Reach Code Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frankel, Mark [New Buildings Inst., Portland, OR (United States); Lyles, Mark [New Buildings Inst., Portland, OR (United States)


    This report describes and analyzes a set of energy efficiency measures that will save 20% energy over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013. The measures will be used to formulate a Reach Code for cities aiming to go beyond national model energy codes. A coalition of U.S. cities together with other stakeholders wanted to facilitate the development of voluntary guidelines and standards that can be implemented in stages at the city level to improve building energy efficiency. The coalition's efforts are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy via Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and in collaboration with the New Buildings Institute.

  3. Community health workers in rural India: analysing the opportunities and challenges Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) face in realising their multiple roles. (United States)

    Saprii, Lipekho; Richards, Esther; Kokho, Puni; Theobald, Sally


    Globally, there is increasing interest in community health worker's (CHW) performance; however, there are gaps in the evidence with respect to CHWs' role in community participation and empowerment. Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), whose roles include social activism, are the key cadre in India's CHW programme which is designed to improve maternal and child health. In a diverse country like India, there is a need to understand how the ASHA programme operates in different underserved Indian contexts, such as rural Manipur. We undertook qualitative research to explore stakeholders' perceptions and experiences of the ASHA scheme in strengthening maternal health and uncover the opportunities and challenges ASHAs face in realising their multiple roles in rural Manipur, India. Data was collected through in-depth interviews (n = 18) and focus group discussions (n = 3 FGDs, 18 participants). Participants included ASHAs, key stakeholders and community members. They were purposively sampled based on remoteness of villages and primary health centres to capture diverse and relevant constituencies, as we believed experiences of ASHAs can be shaped by remoteness. Data were analysed using the thematic framework approach. Findings suggested that ASHAs are mostly understood as link workers. ASHA's ability to address the immediate needs of rural and marginalised communities meant that they were valued as service providers. The programme is perceived to be beneficial as it improves awareness and behaviour change towards maternal care. However, there are a number of challenges; the selection of ASHAs is influenced by power structures and poor community sensitisation of the ASHA programme presents a major risk to success and sustainability. The primary health centres which ASHAs link to are ill-equipped. Thus, ASHAs experience adverse consequences in their ability to inspire trust and credibility in the community. Small and irregular monetary incentives demotivate

  4. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences? (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey


    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  5. Efficacy of REACH Forgiveness across cultures. (United States)

    Lin, Yin; Worthington, Everett L; Griffin, Brandon J; Greer, Chelsea L; Opare-Henaku, Annabella; Lavelock, Caroline R; Hook, Joshua N; Ho, Man Yee; Muller, Holly


    This study investigates the efficacy of the 6-hour REACH Forgiveness intervention among culturally diverse undergraduates. Female undergraduates (N = 102) and foreign extraction (46.2%) and domestic (43.8%) students in the United States were randomly assigned to immediate treatment or waitlist conditions. Treatment efficacy and the effect of culture on treatment response were assessed using measures of emotional and decisional forgiveness across 3 time periods. Students in the treatment condition reported greater improvement in emotional forgiveness, but not decisional forgiveness, relative to those in the waitlist condition. Gains were maintained at a 1-week follow-up. Although culture did not moderate the effect of treatment, a main effect of culture on emotional forgiveness and marginally significant interaction effect of culture on decisional forgiveness were found. The REACH Forgiveness intervention was efficacious for college students from different cultural backgrounds when conducted in the United States. However, some evidence may warrant development of culturally adapted forgiveness interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  7. Do We All Mean the Same when We Talk about Participation? Perspectives of Local Officials, Politicians and Social Activists Revealed through Q-methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Canal


    Full Text Available The article analyses and compares the thinking on citizen participation of elected and non-elected officials, as well as social activists of the Spanish cities of Madrid, Barcelona, San Sebastián and Lleida. The research is based on Q methodology, whose combination of quantitative and qualitative elements can generate systematic, rigorous and quantifiable evidence, without sacrificing the complexity and richness of language. The results reveal three distinct perspectives on participation (integral, regenerative and distrustful, that differ notably in their appreciation of political institutions and social organizations. However, results also point to the existence of a core of consensus beliefs, which opens the door to building more legitimate and effective participatory institutions.

  8. Reach and get capability in a computing environment (United States)

    Bouchard, Ann M [Albuquerque, NM; Osbourn, Gordon C [Albuquerque, NM


    A reach and get technique includes invoking a reach command from a reach location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the reach location and the object copied into the reach location.

  9. Unified communication to reach vulnerable mothers. (United States)

    Tezcan, B; Von Rege, I; Henkson, H; Oteng-Ntim, E


    The feasibility of using a mobile text to reach vulnerable patient groups was assessed in this study. A total of 121 pregnant or postnatal women were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire was given to them in the antenatal clinic, postnatal ward, antenatal ward or in the day assessment unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. The forms were collected and analysed using an Excel database. The results of this survey show that mobile technology is readily available for 97% of the obstetric population. In mothers from vulnerable groups and in mothers from deprived areas, 61% possessed 3rd generation mobile technology. The majority of mothers surveyed wanted their care supplemented by the use of their mobile phones.

  10. Validity of an Interactive Functional Reach Test. (United States)

    Galen, Sujay S; Pardo, Vicky; Wyatt, Douglas; Diamond, Andrew; Brodith, Victor; Pavlov, Alex


    Videogaming platforms such as the Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Kinect(®) are increasingly being used in rehabilitation to improve balance performance and mobility. These gaming platforms do not have built-in clinical measures that offer clinically meaningful data. We have now developed software that will enable the Kinect sensor to assess a patient's balance using an interactive functional reach test (I-FRT). The aim of the study was to test the concurrent validity of the I-FRT and to establish the feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting. The concurrent validity of the I-FRT was tested among 20 healthy adults (mean age, 25.8±3.4 years; 14 women). The Functional Reach Test (FRT) was measured simultaneously by both the Kinect sensor using the I-FRT software and the Optotrak Certus(®) 3D motion-capture system (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, ON, Canada). The feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting was assessed by performing the I-FRT in 10 participants with mild balance impairments recruited from the outpatient physical therapy clinic (mean age, 55.8±13.5 years; four women) and obtaining their feedback using a NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. There was moderate to good agreement between FRT measures made by the two measurement systems. The greatest agreement between the two measurement system was found with the Kinect sensor placed at a distance of 2.5 m [intraclass correlation coefficient (2,k)=0.786; PNASA/TLX questionnaire. FRT measures made using the Kinect sensor I-FRT software provides a valid clinical measure that can be used with the gaming platforms.

  11. Toxicological comments to the discussion about REACH. (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Arand, Michael; Autrup, Herman; Bolt, Hermann M; Bridges, James; Dybing, Erik; Glomot, Rémi; Foa, Vito; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf


    It is the ultimate goal of the intended REACH process (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) of the European Union to identify substances of hazardous properties and to evaluate the risks of human and environmental exposure. During the last few months there has been a controversial discussion as to what extent in vitro studies and consideration of structure activity relationship provide sufficient information to waive repeated exposure studies. Industry as well as certain regulatory agencies or NGOs support this approach and propose that repeated dose studies may only be required beyond 100 t/a. From a toxicological point of view it has to be stressed that this discussion primarily considers the cost reduction and protection of animals, whereas protection of human health and the environment are secondary. In vitro studies only allow identification of specific hazardous properties which can be detected by the specific test system. Moreover, appropriate information on the dose response of adverse effects, identification of thresholds and NOELs that are essential for risk characterization cannot be obtained from these studies. Consequently, identification of all relevant hazardous properties and endpoints of adverse effects can only be determined in the intact animal by repeated dose studies such as 28-day or 90-day studies. In the absence of such information the hazard identification is incomplete and there is no basis for appropriate risk assessment of human exposure. Thus, any waiving of repeated dose studies in animals bears the probability of unforeseen effects in case of acute or continuous human exposure. From this the undersigning European Toxicologists conclude: 1. The intention of REACH is to identify hazardous properties in order that a reliable risk assessment can be made and measures taken to deal with chemicals posing a significant risk. 2. The recent debate has centered on ways in which the well established in vivo methods for risk

  12. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out (United States)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.


    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  13. Using New Media to Reach Broad Audiences (United States)

    Gay, P. L.


    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Working Group (IYA NMWG) has a singular mission: To flood the Internet with ways to learn about astronomy, interact with astronomers and astronomy content, and socially network with astronomy. Within each of these areas, we seek to build lasting programs and partnerships that will continue beyond 2009. Our weapon of choice is New Media. It is often easiest to define New Media by what it is not. Television, radio, print and their online redistribution of content are not New Media. Many forms of New Media start as user provided content and content infrastructures that answer that individual's creative whim in a way that is adopted by a broader audience. Classic examples include Blogs and Podcasts. This media is typically distributed through content specific websites and RSS feeds, which allow syndication. RSS aggregators (iTunes has audio and video aggregation abilities) allow subscribers to have content delivered to their computers automatically when they connect to the Internet. RSS technology is also being used in such creative ways as allowing automatically updating Google-maps that show the location of someone with an intelligent GPS system, and in sharing 100 word microblogs from anyone (Twitters) through a single feed. In this poster, we outline how the IYA NMWG plans to use New Media to reach target primary audiences of astronomy enthusiasts, image lovers, and amateur astronomers, as well as secondary audiences, including: science fiction fans, online gamers, and skeptics.

  14. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences (United States)

    Haswell, Katy


    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  15. Has Athletic Performance Reached its Peak? (United States)

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Marck, Adrien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Schipman, Julien; Saulière, Guillaume; Marc, Andy; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François


    Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules.

  16. LEP Dismantling Reaches Half-Way Stage

    CERN Multimedia


    LEP's last superconducting module leaves its home port... Just seven months into the operation, LEP dismantling is forging ahead. Two of the eight arcs which form the tunnel have already been emptied and the last of the accelerator's radiofrequency (RF) cavities has just been raised to the surface. The 160 people working on LEP dismantling have reason to feel pleased with their progress. All of the accelerator's 72 superconducting RF modules have already been brought to the surface, with the last one being extracted on 2nd May. This represents an important step in the dismantling process, as head of the project, John Poole, explains. 'This was the most delicate part of the project, because the modules are very big and they could only come out at one place', he says. The shaft at point 1.8 through which the RF cavity modules pass is 18 metres in diameter, while each module is 11.5 metres long. Some modules had to travel more than 10 kilometres to reach the shaft. ... is lifted up the PM 1.8 shaft, after a m...

  17. CAST reaches milestone but keeps on searching

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Courier (september 2011 issue)


    After eight years of searching for the emission of a dark matter candidate particle, the axion, from the Sun, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has fulfilled its original physics programme.   Members of the CAST collaboration in July, together with dipole-based helioscope. CAST, the world’s most sensitive axion helioscope, points a recycled prototype LHC dipole magnet at the Sun at dawn and dusk, looking for the conversion of axions to X-rays. It incorporates four state-of-the-art X-ray detectors: three Micromegas detectors and a pn-CCD imaging camera attached to a focusing X-ray telescope that was recovered from the German space programme (see CERN Courier April 2010).  Over the years, CAST has operated with the magnet bores - the location of the axion conversion - in different conditions: first in vacuum, covering axion masses up to 20 meV/c2, and then with a buffer gas (4He and later 3He) at various densities, finally reaching the goal of 1.17 eV/c2 on 22 ...

  18. Important ATLAS Forward Calorimeter Milestone Reached

    CERN Document Server

    Loch, P.

    The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter working group has reached an important milestone in the production of their detectors. The mechanical assembly of the first electromagnetic module (FCal1C) has been completed at the University of Arizona on February 25, 2002, only ten days after the originally scheduled date. The photo shows the University of Arizona FCal group in the clean room, together with the assembled FCal1C module. The module consists of a stack of 18 round copper plates, each about one inch thick. Each plate is about 90 cm in diameter, and has 12260 precision-drilled holes in it, to accommodate the tube/rod electrode assembly. The machining of the plates, which was done at the Science Technology Center (STC) at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, required high precision to allow for easy insertion of the electrode copper tube. The plates have been carefully cleaned at the University of Arizona, to remove any machining residue and metal flakes. This process alone took about eleven weeks. Exactly 122...

  19. Planning of the Extended Reach well Dieksand 2; Planung der Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, U.; Berners, H. [RWE-DEA AG, Hamburg (Germany). Drilling Team Mittelplate und Dieksand; Hadow, A.; Klop, G.; Sickinger, W. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Barnstdorf (Germany); Sudron, K.


    The Mittelplate oil field is located 7 km offshore the town of Friedrichskoog. Reserves are estimated at 30 million tonnes of oil. At a production rate of 2,500 t/d, it will last about 33 years. The transport capacity of the offshore platform is limited, so that attempts were made to enhance production by constructing the extended reach borehole Dieksand 2. Details are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Erdoelfeld Mittelplate liegt am suedlichen Rand des Nationalparks Schleswig Holsteinisches Wattenmeer, ca. 7000 m westlich der Ortschaft Friedrichskoog. Die gewinnbaren Reserven betragen ca. 30 Millionen t Oel. Bei einer Foerderkapazitaet von 2.500 t/Tag betraegt die Foerderdauer ca. 33 Jahre. Aufgrund der begrenzten Transportkapazitaeten von der Insel, laesst sich durch zusaetzliche Bohrungen von der kuenstlichen Insel Mittelplate keine entscheidende Erhoehung der Foerderkapazitaet erzielen. Ab Sommer 1996 wurde erstmals die Moeglichkeit der Lagerstaettenerschliessung von Land untersucht. Ein im Mai 1997 in Hamburg etabliertes Drilling Team wurde mit der Aufgabe betraut, die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 zu planen und abzuteufen. Die Planungsphasen fuer die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 wurden aufgezeigt. Die fuer den Erfolg einer Extended Reach Bohrung wichtigen Planungsparameter wurden erlaeutert. Es wurden Wege gezeigt, wie bei diesem Projekt technische und geologische Risiken in der Planung mit beruecksichtigt und nach Beginn der Bohrung weiter bearbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  20. Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation improves quality of reaching movements more than traditional reaching therapy following stroke. (United States)

    Duff, Margaret; Chen, Yinpeng; Cheng, Long; Liu, Sheng-Min; Blake, Paul; Wolf, Steven L; Rikakis, Thanassis


    Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation (AMRR) is a novel integration of motion capture technology and high-level media computing that provides precise kinematic measurements and engaging multimodal feedback for self-assessment during a therapeutic task. We describe the first proof-of-concept study to compare outcomes of AMRR and traditional upper-extremity physical therapy. Two groups of participants with chronic stroke received either a month of AMRR therapy (n = 11) or matched dosing of traditional repetitive task therapy (n = 10). Participants were right handed, between 35 and 85 years old, and could independently reach to and at least partially grasp an object in front of them. Upper-extremity clinical scale scores and kinematic performances were measured before and after treatment. Both groups showed increased function after therapy, demonstrated by statistically significant improvements in Wolf Motor Function Test and upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scores, with the traditional therapy group improving significantly more on the FMA. However, only participants who received AMRR therapy showed a consistent improvement in kinematic measurements, both for the trained task of reaching to grasp a cone and the untrained task of reaching to push a lighted button. AMRR may be useful in improving both functionality and the kinematics of reaching. Further study is needed to determine if AMRR therapy induces long-term changes in movement quality that foster better functional recovery.

  1. Can coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures? (United States)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Doyle, J. G.


    Aims: The present study aims to provide observational evidence of whether coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures. Methods: We combine multi-instrument co-observations obtained with the SUMER/SoHO and with the EIS/SOT/XRT/Hinode. Results: The analysed three large spicules were found to be comprised of numerous thin spicules that rise, rotate, and descend simultaneously forming a bush-like feature. Their rotation resembles the untwisting of a large flux rope. They show velocities ranging from 50 to 250 kms-1. We clearly associated the red- and blue-shifted emissions in transition region lines not only with rotating but also with rising and descending plasmas. Our main result is that these spicules although very large and dynamic, are not present in the spectral lines formed at temperatures above 300 000 K. Conclusions: In this paper we present the analysis of three Ca ii H large spicules that are composed of numerous dynamic thin spicules but appear as macrospicules in lower resolution EUV images. We found no coronal counterpart of these and smaller spicules. We believe that the identification of phenomena that have very different origins as macrospicules is due to the interpretation of the transition region emission, and especially the He ii emission, wherein both chromospheric large spicules and coronal X-ray jets are present. We suggest that the recent observation of spicules in the coronal AIA/SDO 171 Å and 211 Å channels probably comes from the existence of transition region emission there. Movie is available in electronic form at

  2. When Does the Warmest Water Reach Greenland? (United States)

    Grist, J. P.; Josey, S. A.; Boehme, L.; Meredith, M. P.; Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Kovacs, K. M.; Lydersen, C.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Stenson, G. B.; Hammill, M. O.; Marsh, R.; Coward, A.


    The warmest water reaching the east and west coast of Greenland is found between 200 and 600 m, in the warm Atlantic Water Layer (WL). Temperature changes within the WL have been highlighted as a possible cause of accelerated melting of tidewater glaciers and therefore are an important consideration for understanding global sea level rise. However, a limited number of winter observations of the WL have prohibited determining its seasonal variability. To address this, temperature data from Argo profiling floats, a range of sources within the World Ocean Database, and unprecedented coverage from marine-mammal borne sensors have been analyzed for the period 2002-2011. A significant seasonal range in temperature ( 1-2°C) is found in the warm layer, in contrast to most of the surrounding ocean. The magnitude of the seasonal cycle is thus comparable with the 1990s warming that was associated with an increased melt rate in a marine terminating glacier of West Greenland. The phase of the seasonal cycle exhibits considerable spatial variability; with high-resolution ocean model trajectory analysis suggesting it is determined by the time taken for waters to be advected from the subduction site in the Irminger Basin. For western Greenland, the annual temperature maximum occurs near or after the turn of the calendar year. This is significant because a recent study suggested that it is in the non-summer months when fjord-shelf exchanges allow the WL to most strongly influence glacier melt rate. However this is also the time of the year when the WL is least well observed. It is therefore clear that year-round subsurface temperature measurements are still required for a complete description of the WL seasonality, and in particular to ensure that the ice-melting potential of the WL is not underestimated.

  3. Reaching remote areas in Latin America. (United States)

    Jaimes, R


    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  4. Functional reach and lateral reach tests adapted for aquatic physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Angélica Ribeiro de Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional reach (FR and lateral reach (LR tests are widely used in scientific research and clinical practice. Assessment tools are useful in assessing subjects with greater accuracy and are usually adapted according to the limitations of each condition. Objective: To adapt FR and LR tests for use in an aquatic environment and assess the performance of healthy young adults. Methods: We collected anthropometric data and information on whether the participant exercised regularly or not. The FR and LR tests were adapted for use in an aquatic environment and administered to 47 healthy subjects aged 20-30 years. Each test was repeated three times. Results: Forty-one females and six males were assessed. The mean FR test score for men was 24.06 cm, whereas the mean value for right lateral reach (RLR was 10.94 cm and for left lateral reach (LLR was 9.78 cm. For females, the mean FR score was 17.57 cm, while the mean values for RLR was 8.84cm and for LLR was 7.76 cm. Men performed better in the FR (p < 0.001 and RLR tests than women (p = 0.037. Individuals who exercised regularly showed no differences in performance level when compared with their counterparts. Conclusion: The FR and LR tests were adapted for use in an aquatic environment. Males performed better on the FR and RLR tests, when compared to females. There was no correlation between the FR and LR tests and weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI, foot length or length of the dominant upper limb.

  5. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order ... Reaching mode; sliding mode controlled systems; output tracking ... The uncertainty in the input distribution function g is expressed as.

  6. Nanomaterials under REACH. Nanosilver as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk MEJ; Wijnhoven SWP; Bleeker EAJ; Heugens EHW; Peijnenburg WJGM; Luttik R; Hakkert BC; SEC; SIR; LER


    Om de risico's van nanomaterialen te kunnen inschatten en beheersen, zijn enkele aanpassingen nodig in de Europese chemicalienwetgeving REACH. De gegevens over stoffen waar REACH standaard om vraagt, zijn namelijk onvoldoende om de specifieke eigenschappen van nanomaterialen te bepalen. Hetzelfde

  7. Reaching Adolescents and Youth in Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    typical profile of individuals in contact with peer educators or attending youth ... being reached (versus not reached) by programs ... characteristics in order to serve groups that may be ... places for counseling services but the frequency of.

  8. Reaching Hard-to-Reach Individuals: Nonselective Versus Targeted Outbreak Response Vaccination for Measles (United States)

    Minetti, Andrea; Hurtado, Northan; Grais, Rebecca F.; Ferrari, Matthew


    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureable effective campaign impact (i.e., a reduction in measles cases in the targeted age groups greater than that observed in nonvaccinated districts). Simulation models suggest that selective campaigns targeting hard-to-reach individuals are of greater benefit, particularly in highly vaccinated populations, even for low target coverage and with late implementation. However, the choice between targeted and nonselective campaigns should be context specific, achieving a reasonable balance of feasibility, cost, and expected impact. In addition, it is critical to develop operational strategies to identify and target hard-to-reach individuals. PMID:24131555

  9. Os desafios da alteridade: considerações sobre gênero e sexualidade entre militantes de uma ONG/Aids carioca The challenges of otherness: thoughts on gender and sexuality among activists from a Rio de Janeiro Aids NGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula V. Zaquieu


    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as experiências de um grupo de ativistas do movimento de luta contra a Aids que atuaram numa ONG/Aids carioca entre 1989 e 2001. Nosso objetivo é examinar os desdobramentos do encontro entre os discursos que orientaram a atuação das ONGs perante o avanço da doença e a discriminação dos doentes: eqüidade entre os gêneros, liberdade sexual e experiências relatadas pelos militantes da instituição, no que se refere a sexualidade, gênero e Aids. Foram realizadas treze entrevistas com militantes, sendo nove soropositivos, da ONG Grupo Pela Vidda-RJ. Os entrevistados são oito mulheres, dois heterossexuais masculinos, dois homossexuais masculinos e um bissexual.The article analyzes the experiences of a group of activists in the AIDS movement who belonged to an AIDS NGO in Rio de Janeiro between 1989 and 2001. It examines the encounter between the various discourses that guided the action of NGOs in their battles against the advance of the disease and against the discrimination of AIDS victims: gender equity, sexual freedom, and experiences with sexuality, gender, and AIDS recounted by the institute's activists. Interviews were conducted with thirteen activists from the NGO known as Grupo Pela Vidda-RJ, nine of whom were HIV-positive. Interviewees comprised eight women, two male heterosexuals, two male homosexuals, and one male bisexual.

  10. Perméabilité et osmose des avant-gardes. Sur le Manifeste activiste adressé à la Jeunesse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Robert Velescu


    Full Text Available Notre étude – centrée sur l’avantgarde historique – se propose d’analyser un phénomène complexe, résultat de la tension exercée entre deux termes, supposés être corrélatifs : la «perméabilité» et «l’osmose ». Comme en physique, le premier n’est que la condition nécessaire du second. Nous sommes persuadés que les trois mouvements de l’avant-garde historique, porteurs d’une valeur fondatrice – futurisme, dadaïsme, surréalisme –, loin de s’être isolés hermétiquement entre les limites infranchissables de leurs convictions, ont communiqué d’une manière plus ou moins discrète, au niveau même de leurs «actes d’identité», la «perméabilité» et l’«osmose» étant donc à découvrir à travers leurs manifestes. Notre analyse porte surtout sur le Manifeste activiste adressé à la jeunesse, paru en 1924, à Bucarest, dans les pages de la revue d’avant-garde Contimporanul. Nous tâchons de démontrer que l’origine de ce manifeste doit être cherchée dans les manifestes futuristes, étant le résultat palpable d’un échange direct d’idées, engendré par le processus «osmotique». Celui-ci peut se manifester également à la limite qui sépare l’avantgarde historique de la modernité, comme l’exposition internationale de 1924 organisée par la revue bucarestoise Contimporanul semble le démontrer.

  11. Did the Tea Party Movement Fuel the Trump-Train? The Role of Social Media in Activist Persistence and Political Change in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deana A. Rohlinger


    Full Text Available Arguably, the Tea Party movement played a role in Trump’s rise to power. Indeed, it is difficult to ignore the similarities in the populist claims made by Tea Partiers and those made by Trump throughout his campaign. Yet, we know very little about the potential connections between the Tea Party Movement and the “Trump-train” that crashed through the White House doors in 2017. We take a first step at tracing the connection between the two by examining who stayed involved in the Tea Party Movement at the local level and why. Drawing on interview and participant observation data with supporters of the Florida Tea Party Movement (FTPM over a 2-year time period, we use qualitative comparative analysis (QCA to assess the factors that determine whether individuals stay with or leave the movement and how the structure of the movement, which relied heavily on social media, contributed to this decision. We find that individuals who identified as libertarian left the FTPM, while those who identified as “fiscal conservatives” stayed. The FTPM’s reliance on social media further explains these results. Individuals who left the movement blamed the “openness” of social media, which, in their view, enabled the Republican Party to “hijack” the FTPM for its own purposes. Individuals who stayed in the movement attributed social media’s “openness” with the movement’s successes. We find that social media helped politically like-minded people locate one another and cultivate political communities that likely sustained activist commitment to changing the Republican Party over time.

  12. Readiness of Accredited Social Health Activist Workers for Tobacco Cessation Counseling after a Brief Intervention in Odisha, India: A Quasi-experimental Study. (United States)

    Sudhakar, Knv; Pathi, Jugajyothi; Avinash, J; Raju, P V Krishnam; Sureshan, Vinay; Vidya, K C


    The aim of the study was (1) to explore the baseline beliefs and practices of accredited social health activist (ASHA) workers of Khurda district of Orissa with respect to tobacco cessation and (2) to assess whether a brief intervention will be effective in improving the beliefs and practices of ASHA workers. The results of this study could be utilized by policy makers for framing important strategies for tobacco cessation in rural areas utilizing ASHA workers. A quasi-experimental study (before and after comparison) was performed in Khurda district of Orissa to find out whether a brief intervention could improve the beliefs and practices of ASHA workers related to antitobacco counseling in rural areas. A 14-item structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire, written in English (translated in Odiya), was used. The final sample size was estimated as 135. Data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 21) for analysis. All the mean belief items, practice items, degree of preparedness, and interest in training scores of study population increased significantly from baseline to postintervention. The study population showed a statistically significant improvement in postintervention composite belief and composite practices score. The majority of ASHA workers had positive beliefs and favorable practices after attending a brief intervention toward smoking cessation in their community. After attending the intervention, nearly half of the respondents felt themselves either somewhat or very well prepared for tobacco cessation. Most of them showed their interest toward getting further training in the field. Training programs and regular tobacco cessation activities should be planned in the primary health-care delivery system of India.

  13. Action plans can interact to hinder or facilitate reach performance. (United States)

    Fournier, Lisa R; Wiediger, Matthew D; Taddese, Ezana F


    Executing a reach action can be delayed while retaining another action in working memory (WM) if the two action plans partly overlap rather than do not overlap. This delay (partial repetition cost) occurs when reach responses are under cognitive control. In this study, we investigated whether facilitation (a partial repetition benefit) occurs when reach responses are automatic. We also examined whether the hemisphere controlling the limb or selection of the preferred limb (based on a free-reach task) influences reach performance when the actions partly overlap. Left- and right-handers reached to different stimulus locations to the left and right of body midline with their ipsilateral hand while maintaining an action plan in WM that required the same or the different hand. The results showed a partial repetition benefit for spatially compatible reaches to left and right stimulus locations far from the body midline, but not for those near the body midline. Also, no partial repetition cost was found at any of the stimulus-reach locations. This indicates that automatic reach responses that partly overlap with an action plan maintained in WM are not delayed, but instead can be facilitated (partial repetition benefit). The roles of hemisphere and reach-hand preference in action control and the importance of the degree of feature overlap in obtaining a partial repetition benefit (and cost) are discussed.

  14. Reach/frequency for printed media: Personal probabilities or models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl


    The author evaluates two different ways of estimating reach and frequency of plans for printed media. The first assigns reading probabilities to groups of respondents and calculates reach and frequency by simulation. the second estimates parameters to a model for reach/frequency. It is concluded ...... and estiamtes from such models are shown to be closer to panel data. the problem, however, is to get valid input for such models from readership surveys. Means for this are discussed....

  15. Should these potential CMR substances have been registered under REACH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Dybdahl, Marianne


    (Q)SAR models were applied to screen around 68,000 REACH pre-registered substances for CMR properties (carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction). Predictions from 14 relevant models were combined to reach overall calls for C, M and R. Combining predictions may reduce “noise” and increase...

  16. Peggy Charren: Pioneer TV Activist. (United States)

    Potter, Rosemary Lee; Charren, Peggy


    In this interview, Peggy Charren, the founder and president of Action for Children's Television (ACT), talks about the organization's concerns, goals, and activities, as well as its effect on television programing and commericals intended for children. (Editor/SJL)

  17. An investigation of the neural circuits underlying reaching and reach-to-grasp movements: from planning to execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eBegliomini


    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests the existence of a sophisticated brain circuit specifically dedicated to reach-to-grasp planning and execution, both in human and non human primates (Castiello, 2005. Studies accomplished by means of neuroimaging techniques suggest the hypothesis of a dichotomy between a reach-to-grasp circuit, involving the intraparietal area (AIP, the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv - Castiello and Begliomini, 2008; Filimon, 2010 and a reaching circuit involving the medial intraparietal area (mIP and the Superior Parieto-Occipital Cortex (SPOC (Culham et al., 2006. However, the time course characterizing the involvement of these regions during the planning and execution of these two types of movements has yet to be delineated. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study has been conducted, including reach-to grasp and reaching only movements, performed towards either a small or a large stimulus, and Finite Impulse Response model (FIR - Henson, 2003 was adopted to monitor activation patterns from stimulus onset for a time window of 10 seconds duration. Data analysis focused on brain regions belonging either to the reaching or to the grasping network, as suggested by Castiello & Begliomini (2008.Results suggest that reaching and grasping movements planning and execution might share a common brain network, providing further confirmation to the idea that the neural underpinnings of reaching and grasping may overlap in both spatial and temporal terms (Verhagen et al., 2013.

  18. Proprioceptive body illusions modulate the visual perception of reaching distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Petroni

    Full Text Available The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide-without engaging in explicit action-whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas.

  19. Environmental stressors afflicting tailwater stream reaches across the United States (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.


    The tailwater is the reach of a stream immediately below an impoundment that is hydrologically, physicochemically and biologically altered by the presence and operation of a dam. The overall goal of this study was to gain a nationwide awareness of the issues afflicting tailwater reaches in the United States. Specific objectives included the following: (i) estimate the percentage of reservoirs that support tailwater reaches with environmental conditions suitable for fish assemblages throughout the year, (ii) identify and quantify major sources of environmental stress in those tailwaters that do support fish assemblages and (iii) identify environmental features of tailwater reaches that determine prevalence of key fish taxa. Data were collected through an online survey of fishery managers. Relative to objective 1, 42% of the 1306 reservoirs included in this study had tailwater reaches with sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. The surface area of the reservoir and catchment most strongly delineated reservoirs maintaining tailwater reaches with or without sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. Relative to objective 2, major sources of environmental stress generally reflected flow variables, followed by water quality variables. Relative to objective 3, zoogeography was the primary factor discriminating fish taxa in tailwaters, followed by a wide range of flow and water quality variables. Results for objectives 1–3 varied greatly among nine geographic regions distributed throughout the continental United States. Our results provide a large-scale view of the effects of reservoirs on tailwater reaches and may help guide research and management needs.

  20. 'Before reaching the last mile'- Knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers related to tuberculosis directly observed therapy among ASHA workers in Central India: A mixed method study. (United States)

    Singh, Akash Ranjan; Pakhare, Abhijit; Kokane, Arun M; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Chauhan, Ashish; Singh, Abhishek; Gangwar, Arti; Thakur, Prahlad Singh


    Community-based direct observed treatment (DOT) providers are an important bridge for the national tuberculosis programme in India to reach the unreached. The present study has explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers perceived by the community-based DOT providers. Mixed-methods study design was used among 41 community-based DOT providers (Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHAs)) working in 67 villages from a primary health center in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional quantitative component assessed the knowledge and practices and three focus-group discussions explored the attitude and perceived barriers related to DOT provision. 'Adequate knowledge' and 'satisfactory practice' related to DOT provision was seen in 14 (34%) and 13 (32%) ASHAs respectively. Only two (5%) received any amount of honorarium for completion of DOT in last 3years. The focus-group discussions revealed unfavourable attitude; inadequate training and supervision, non-payment of honorarium, issues related to assured services after referral and patient related factors as the barriers to satisfactory practice of DOT. Study revealed inadequate knowledge and unsatisfactory practice related to DOT provision among ASHAs. Innovations addressing the perceived barriers to improve practice of DOT provision by ASHAs are urgently required. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior in preterm infants. (United States)

    de Toledo, Aline Martins; Soares, Daniele de Almeida; Tudella, Eloisa


    The authors aimed to investigate proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior and grasping in 5-, 6-, and 7-month-old preterm infants. Nine low-risk preterm and 10 full-term infants participated. Both groups showed the predominance of unimanual reaching, an age-related increase in the frequency of vertical-oriented and open hand movement, and also an increase in successful grasping from 6 to 7 months. The frequency of open hand was higher in the preterm group at 6 months. Intrinsic restrictions imposed by prematurity did not seem to have impaired reaching performance of preterm infants throughout the months of age.

  2. Peer Support for the Hardly Reached: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Sokol, Rebeccah; Fisher, Edwin


    Health disparities are aggravated when prevention and care initiatives fail to reach those they are intended to help. Groups can be classified as hardly reached according to a variety of circumstances that fall into 3 domains: individual (e.g., psychological factors), demographic (e.g., socioeconomic status), and cultural-environmental (e.g., social network). Several reports have indicated that peer support is an effective means of reaching hardly reached individuals. However, no review has explored peer support effectiveness in relation to the circumstances associated with being hardly reached or across diverse health problems. To conduct a systematic review assessing the reach and effectiveness of peer support among hardly reached individuals, as well as peer support strategies used. Three systematic searches conducted in PubMed identified studies that evaluated peer support programs among hardly reached individuals. In aggregate, the searches covered articles published from 2000 to 2015. Eligible interventions provided ongoing support for complex health behaviors, including prioritization of hardly reached populations, assistance in applying behavior change plans, and social-emotional support directed toward disease management or quality of life. Studies were excluded if they addressed temporally isolated behaviors, were limited to protocol group classes, included peer support as the dependent variable, did not include statistical tests of significance, or incorporated comparison conditions that provided appreciable social support. We abstracted data regarding the primary health topic, categorizations of hardly reached groups, program reach, outcomes, and strategies employed. We conducted a 2-sample t test to determine whether reported strategies were related to reach. Forty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria, and these studies represented each of the 3 domains of circumstances assessed (individual, demographic, and cultural-environmental). Interventions

  3. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k Watercourses (arcs) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the ARC features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes are also...

  4. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k Waterbodies (polygons) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the POLYGON waterbody features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes...

  5. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  6. LTRM Fish Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  7. LTRM Water Quality Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  8. Decoding natural reach-and-grasp actions from human EEG (United States)

    Schwarz, Andreas; Ofner, Patrick; Pereira, Joana; Ioana Sburlea, Andreea; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.


    Objective. Despite the high number of degrees of freedom of the human hand, most actions of daily life can be executed incorporating only palmar, pincer and lateral grasp. In this study we attempt to discriminate these three different executed reach-and-grasp actions utilizing their EEG neural correlates. Approach. In a cue-guided experiment, 15 healthy individuals were asked to perform these actions using daily life objects. We recorded 72 trials for each reach-and-grasp condition and from a no-movement condition. Main results. Using low-frequency time domain features from 0.3 to 3 Hz, we achieved binary classification accuracies of 72.4%, STD  ±  5.8% between grasp types, for grasps versus no-movement condition peak performances of 93.5%, STD  ±  4.6% could be reached. In an offline multiclass classification scenario which incorporated not only all reach-and-grasp actions but also the no-movement condition, the highest performance could be reached using a window of 1000 ms for feature extraction. Classification performance peaked at 65.9%, STD  ±  8.1%. Underlying neural correlates of the reach-and-grasp actions, investigated over the primary motor cortex, showed significant differences starting from approximately 800 ms to 1200 ms after the movement onset which is also the same time frame where classification performance reached its maximum. Significance. We could show that it is possible to discriminate three executed reach-and-grasp actions prominent in people’s everyday use from non-invasive EEG. Underlying neural correlates showed significant differences between all tested conditions. These findings will eventually contribute to our attempt of controlling a neuroprosthesis in a natural and intuitive way, which could ultimately benefit motor impaired end users in their daily life actions.

  9. REACH: next step to a sound chemicals management. (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Arnold


    REACH is the new European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on new and on existing chemical substances of the European Union. Companies which manufacture or import more than 1 tonne of a substance per year will be required to register the substance at the new EU Chemicals Agency located in Helsinki. REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment and to provide safety information that will be passed down the supply chain. In principle, REACH applies to all chemicals as such, as components in preparations and as used in articles. REACH is a radical step forward in the EU chemicals management. The onus will move from the authorities to industry. In addition, REACH will allow the further evaluation of substances where there are grounds for concern, foresees an authorisation system for the use of substances of very high concern and a system of restrictions, where applicable, for substances of concern. The Authorisation system will require companies to switch progressively to safer alternatives where a suitable alternative exists. Current use restrictions will remain under REACH system.

  10. Memory-guided reaching in a patient with visual hemiagnosia. (United States)

    Cornelsen, Sonja; Rennig, Johannes; Himmelbach, Marc


    The two-visual-systems hypothesis (TVSH) postulates that memory-guided movements rely on intact functions of the ventral stream. Its particular importance for memory-guided actions was initially inferred from behavioral dissociations in the well-known patient DF. Despite of rather accurate reaching and grasping movements to visible targets, she demonstrated grossly impaired memory-guided grasping as much as impaired memory-guided reaching. These dissociations were later complemented by apparently reversed dissociations in patients with dorsal damage and optic ataxia. However, grasping studies in DF and optic ataxia patients differed with respect to the retinotopic position of target objects, questioning the interpretation of the respective findings as a double dissociation. In contrast, the findings for reaching errors in both types of patients came from similar peripheral target presentations. However, new data on brain structural changes and visuomotor deficits in DF also questioned the validity of a double dissociation in reaching. A severe visuospatial short-term memory deficit in DF further questioned the specificity of her memory-guided reaching deficit. Therefore, we compared movement accuracy in visually-guided and memory-guided reaching in a new patient who suffered a confined unilateral damage to the ventral visual system due to stroke. Our results indeed support previous descriptions of memory-guided movements' inaccuracies in DF. Furthermore, our data suggest that recently discovered optic-ataxia like misreaching in DF is most likely caused by her parieto-occipital and not by her ventral stream damage. Finally, multiple visuospatial memory measurements in HWS suggest that inaccuracies in memory-guided reaching tasks in patients with ventral damage cannot be explained by visuospatial short-term memory or perceptual deficits, but by a specific deficit in visuomotor processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring communication competence and effectiveness of ASHAs (accredited social health activist) in their leadership role at rural settings of Uttar Pradesh (India). (United States)

    Shrivastava, Archana; Srivastava, Arun


    Purpose - This paper aims to find out accredited social health activists' (ASHA) communication competence and effectiveness while working as leaders with groups in the rural setting. ASHA, as the "first point of contact" for pregnant women in rural areas, plays a significant role in building awareness and disseminating key information at critical times (e.g. antenatal and post-natal period), promotes healthy maternal and newborn care practices and facilitates identification and referral of maternal and newborn complications. ASHA plays critical role of a leader in bridging the gap between health system and community. In the entire process, effective communication competency is the key to her effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopts seven items from the farmers communication (FACOM) scale of communication measures developed by Udai Pareek and Y.P Singh. Preliminary editing of the items was done keeping certain points in mind such as the items should not be judgemental, should be acts of behaviour, should be observable and should be simple. This scale was adopted for the study, as it was designed to measure farmers' communication competence and suited the context. The evaluation criteria included the seven essential elements of communication identified in the FACOM scale. Findings - Results from the study identified a need to sensitise ASHAs on the critical role of effective communication and need for investing more in building her capacity for health communication. The trainings being imparted to ASHAs have to be strengthened in terms of communication skills. They should focus upon developing all three variables of communication skills equally and integrating them to get desired results. Research limitations/implications - The study was conducted in one state while the programme is running across the country. The sample size was small. Practical implications - The learning of the study will help in developing a better understanding of the

  12. [The REACH legislation: the consumer and environment protection perspective]. (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula


    REACH has been initiated with the aim of improving existing legislation. In order to assist in the interpretation of the REACH legislation, guidance documents have been developed, which have only lately become available. According to the REACH annexes and supported by guidance documents, waiving of test requirements will be possible, thus, opening the possibility that under REACH no new (eco)toxicological data will be required. Concerning products, a guidance document was released in April 2008 stating that the substance concentration threshold of 0.1 % (w/w) applies to the article as produced or imported and it does not relate to the homogeneous materials or parts of an article, but relates to the article as such (i.e., as produced or imported). Hence, notification will not be required for many products containing chemicals with properties which place them on the candidate list for authorization. In summary, it is at present not foreseeable whether the expected benefit of the REACH legislation will materialise for the environment and for the health of consumers and at the work place.

  13. REACH-related substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten; Markussen, Helene

    are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual......The accomplishment of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... fulfil one or more of the criteria (e.g. CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (authorisation). The paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results of the actual substitutions. Keywords: REACH, chemicals, substitution, printing industry....

  14. Composite Coiled Tubing for Extended Reach in Horizontal Oil Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Berggreen, Christian


    Conventional steel coiled tubing cannot reach along the entire length of very long horizontal oil wells. A lighter and more buoyant coiled tube is made possible using composite materials. The high stiffness to weight ratio of fiber reinforced polymers, coupled with a lower coefficient of friction......, has the potential of greatly extending the reach in horizontal oil wells. This study shows how to design composite coiled tubing and gives a comprehensive discussion about the most influential parameters. Several solutions, using glass-fiber and carbon are considered. Finite element models are used...

  15. Telerobotic operation of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.


    As a part of the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, long-reach manipulators are being considered for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Long-reach manipulators may have characteristics significantly different from those of typical industrial robots because of the flexibility of long links needed to cover the large workspace. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A new approach that uses embedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, generation of joint trajectories considering link flexibility was also investigated

  16. Task-dependent vestibular feedback responses in reaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyser, J.; Medendorp, W.P.; Selen, L.P.J.


    When reaching for an earth-fixed object during self-rotation, the motor system should appropriately integrate vestibular signals and sensory predictions to compensate for the intervening motion and its induced inertial forces. While it is well established that this integration occurs rapidly, it is

  17. Reaching the Unreached - Special Emphasis on the Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an overview of the existing communication component in the Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) training in Zambia and critically analyses the need for a humane touch in the communication process so as to reach the target audience effectively. Interpersonal Communication (IPC) in Zambia has ...

  18. Shaping of Reach-to-Grasp Kinematics by Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Køppe, Simo


    is primarily associated with transporting the hand to the object (i.e., extrinsic object properties), the decelerating part of the reach is used as a preparation for object manipulation (i.e., prepare the grasp or the subsequent action), and the grasp is associated with manipulating the object's intrinsic...

  19. Recognition for reaching the most vulnerable populations in Burkina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Recognition for reaching the most vulnerable populations in Burkina Faso. 07 novembre 2016. An IDRC supported project was recognized for its efforts to improve health service provision and the monitoring of pregnant women, new mothers, children, and people living with HIV in Burkina Faso's Nouna district. Dr Maurice ...

  20. Object Permanence, Reaching, and Locomotion in Infants Who Are Blind. (United States)

    Ross, S.; Tobin, M. J.


    The literature on the effects of congenital blindness on infants' development of motor functions and concepts of object permanence is reviewed. The article questions the idea that infants must first develop an object concept before sound clues alone will elicit reaching. Possible interventions to redress the effects of congenital blindness on…

  1. Reaching an understanding innovations in how we view reading assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Sabatini, John; O'Reilly, Tenaha


    Reaching an Understanding: Innovations in How We View Reading Assessment builds upon the editors previous book Measuring Up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability by representing some early attempts to apply theory to help guide the development of new assessments and measurement models.

  2. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  3. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach? (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin


    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  4. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, IBM; Stremmelaar, EF; Touwen, BCL


    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment

  5. Evaluation of the Implementation of the Reaching Every District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Background: In 2003, the Government of Zambia in collaboration with implementing partners in immunisation introduced the Reaching Every District. (RED) strategy to improve immunization coverage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the. RED strategy in Lusaka district. Methods: A ...

  6. Reach for the Stars: Visions for Literacy Coaching Programs (United States)

    DeFord, Diane


    This brief by the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse is about reaching for the stars--stories of vision and commitment from educators in small and large schools. Everyone knows of people who are held up as "visionaries" throughout history: Leonardo Da Vinci, Mahatma Gandhi, Jules Verne, Thomas Edison, Susan Anthony, or John Dewey, to name a few. The…

  7. Advanced reach tool (ART) : Development of the mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Tongeren, M. van; Cherrie, J.W.; Tischer, M.; Schneider, T.; Schinkel, J.; Kromhout, H.; Warren, N.; Goede, H.; Tielemans, E.


    This paper describes the development of the mechanistic model within a collaborative project, referred to as the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) project, to develop a tool to model inhalation exposure for workers sharing similar operational conditions across different industries and locations in Europe.

  8. Reaching the Summit: Deaf Adults as Essential Partners in Education (United States)

    Bourne-Firl, Bridgetta


    How do we reach the summit in terms of supporting the best transition possible for each young deaf or hard of hearing individual in the United States? Should professionals who are hearing work alone to succeed with deaf and hard of hearing students? No matter how good the intention, if we want deaf and hard of hearing students to transition from…

  9. Reaching the Millennium Development Goals : Mauritania Should Care


    Magnoli Bocchi, Alessandro; Pontara, Nicola; Fall, Khayar; Tejada, Catalina M.; Gallego Cuervo, Pablo


    Mauritania is a resource-rich developing country. As many other African nations, it will not reach most of the Millennium Development Goals, unless the authorities commit to accelerating progress. To succeed by 2015, the government needs to: mobilize additional financial resources, introduce policy changes at the sector level, and strengthen the links between strategic objectives and the b...

  10. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements. (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B


    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm.

  11. How infants' reaches reveal principles of sensorimotor decision making (United States)

    Dineva, Evelina; Schöner, Gregor


    In Piaget's classical A-not-B-task, infants repeatedly make a sensorimotor decision to reach to one of two cued targets. Perseverative errors are induced by switching the cue from A to B, while spontaneous errors are unsolicited reaches to B when only A is cued. We argue that theoretical accounts of sensorimotor decision-making fail to address how motor decisions leave a memory trace that may impact future sensorimotor decisions. Instead, in extant neural models, perseveration is caused solely by the history of stimulation. We present a neural dynamic model of sensorimotor decision-making within the framework of Dynamic Field Theory, in which a dynamic instability amplifies fluctuations in neural activation into macroscopic, stable neural activation states that leave memory traces. The model predicts perseveration, but also a tendency to repeat spontaneous errors. To test the account, we pool data from several A-not-B experiments. A conditional probabilities analysis accounts quantitatively how motor decisions depend on the history of reaching. The results provide evidence for the interdependence among subsequent reaching decisions that is explained by the model, showing that by amplifying small differences in activation and affecting learning, decisions have consequences beyond the individual behavioural act.

  12. Advanced REACH tool: A Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNally, K.; Warren, N.; Fransman, W.; Entink, R.K.; Schinkel, J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Kromhout, H.; Schneider, T.; Tielemans, E.


    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate

  13. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.


    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  14. Challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in Enugu State Nigeria. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample size of 52 extension workers. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean statistic, chart and factor analysis. Results revealed that training and visit ...

  15. Quality, Reach, and Impact of Open Scholarly Publishing in Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Quality, Reach, and Impact of Open Scholarly Publishing in Latin America. Better understanding Open Access of scholarly research will help determine how it contributes to the greater circulation of knowledge and disseminating research in Latin America. Open Access (defined as unrestricted access to articles published in ...

  16. The Internet and the Global Reach of EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    and learning; international negotiation; coercion and conditionality; and blocking recognition of third country legal measures. The EU’s actions in exercising its global reach implicate important normative issues, such as distinguishing between the furtherance of core EU legal values and the advancement...

  17. Amplified Erosion above Waterfalls and Oversteepened Bedrock Reaches (United States)

    Haviv, I.; Enzel, Y.; Whipple, K. X.; Zilberman, E.; Stone, J.; Matmon, A.; Fifield, K. L.


    Although waterfalls are abundant along steep bedrock channels, none of the conventional erosion laws can predict incision at the lip of a waterfall where flow is non-uniform and bed slope can be vertical. Considering the expected increase in flow velocity and shear stress at the lip of a vertical waterfall we determine erosion amplification at a waterfall lip as: Elip/Enormal= (1+0.4/Fr2)3n, where Fr is the Froude number and n ranges between 0.5-1.7. This amplification expression suggests that erosion at the lip could be as much as 2-5 times higher than normally expected in a setting with identical hydraulic geometry. It also demonstrates that a freefall is expected to amplify upstream incision rates even when the flow approaching the waterfall is highly supercritical. Utilizing this erosion amplification expression in numerical simulations in conjunction with a standard detachment-limited incision model we demonstrate its impact on reach-scale morphology above waterfalls. These simulations indicate that amplified erosion at the lip of a waterfall can trigger the formation of an oversteepened reach whose length is longer than the flow acceleration zone, provided incision velocity (Vi) at the edge of the flow acceleration zone is higher than the retreat velocity of the waterfall face. Such an oversteepened reach is expected to be more pronounced when Vi increases with increasing slope. The simulations also suggest that oversteepening can eventually lead to quasi steady-state gradients upstream from a waterfall provided Vi decreases with increasing slope. Flow acceleration above waterfalls can thus account, at least partially, for oversteepened bedrock reaches that are prevalent above waterfalls. Such reaches have been reported for the escarpments of southeast Australia, western Dead Sea, and at Niagara Falls. Using the cosmogenic isotope 36Cl we demonstrate that Vi upstream of a waterfall at the Dead Sea western escarpment is high enough for freefall

  18. Task-dependent vestibular feedback responses in reaching. (United States)

    Keyser, Johannes; Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc P J


    When reaching for an earth-fixed object during self-rotation, the motor system should appropriately integrate vestibular signals and sensory predictions to compensate for the intervening motion and its induced inertial forces. While it is well established that this integration occurs rapidly, it is unknown whether vestibular feedback is specifically processed dependent on the behavioral goal. Here, we studied whether vestibular signals evoke fixed responses with the aim to preserve the hand trajectory in space or are processed more flexibly, correcting trajectories only in task-relevant spatial dimensions. We used galvanic vestibular stimulation to perturb reaching movements toward a narrow or a wide target. Results show that the same vestibular stimulation led to smaller trajectory corrections to the wide than the narrow target. We interpret this reduced compensation as a task-dependent modulation of vestibular feedback responses, tuned to minimally intervene with the task-irrelevant dimension of the reach. These task-dependent vestibular feedback corrections are in accordance with a central prediction of optimal feedback control theory and mirror the sophistication seen in feedback responses to mechanical and visual perturbations of the upper limb. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Correcting limb movements for external perturbations is a hallmark of flexible sensorimotor behavior. While visual and mechanical perturbations are corrected in a task-dependent manner, it is unclear whether a vestibular perturbation, naturally arising when the body moves, is selectively processed in reach control. We show, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, that reach corrections to vestibular perturbations are task dependent, consistent with a prediction of optimal feedback control theory. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Bimanual reach to grasp movements after cervical spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Britten

    Full Text Available Injury to the cervical spinal cord results in bilateral deficits in arm/hand function reducing functional independence and quality of life. To date little research has been undertaken to investigate control strategies of arm/hand movements following cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI. This study aimed to investigate unimanual and bimanual coordination in patients with acute cSCI using 3D kinematic analysis as they performed naturalistic reach to grasp actions with one hand, or with both hands together (symmetrical task, and compare this to the movement patterns of uninjured younger and older adults. Eighteen adults with a cSCI (mean 61.61 years with lesions at C4-C8, with an American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA grade B to D and 16 uninjured younger adults (mean 23.68 years and sixteen uninjured older adults (mean 70.92 years were recruited. Participants with a cSCI produced reach-to-grasp actions which took longer, were slower, and had longer deceleration phases than uninjured participants. These differences were exacerbated during bimanual reach-to-grasp tasks. Maximal grasp aperture was no different between groups, but reached earlier by people with cSCI. Participants with a cSCI were less synchronous than younger and older adults but all groups used the deceleration phase for error correction to end the movement in a synchronous fashion. Overall, this study suggests that after cSCI a level of bimanual coordination is retained. While there seems to be a greater reliance on feedback to produce both the reach to grasp, we observed minimal disruption of the more impaired limb on the less impaired limb. This suggests that bimanual movements should be integrated into therapy.

  20. Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program (United States)

    Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…

  1. Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Change Management--Key Theories to Consider when Extending Reach (United States)

    Barrett, Sharon Kebschull


    As schools, their teachers, and outside facilitators redesign jobs and incorporate technology to extend the reach of excellent teachers to more students and develop an Opportunity Culture for all, choosing the right school models is just one part of the task. The human experience--and experience in education--says that even perfect design will not…

  2. Perceiver as polar planimeter: Direct perception of jumping, reaching, and jump-reaching affordances for the self and others. (United States)

    Thomas, Brandon J; Hawkins, Matthew M; Nalepka, Patrick


    Runeson (Scandanavian Journal of Psychology 18:172-179, 1977) suggested that the polar planimeter might serve as an informative model system of perceptual mechanism. The key aspect of the polar planimeter is that it registers a higher order property of the environment without computational mediation on the basis of lower order properties, detecting task-specific information only. This aspect was posited as a hypothesis for the perception of jumping and reaching affordances for the self and another person. The findings supported this hypothesis. The perception of reaching while jumping significantly differed from an additive combination of jump-without-reaching and reach-without-jumping perception. The results are consistent with Gibson's (The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1966; The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1979) theory of information-that aspects of the environment are specified by patterns in energetic media.

  3. Simulation of Columbia River Floods in the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Serkowski, John A.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.


    Columbia River water elevations and flows in the Hanford Reach affect the environment and facilities along the shoreline, including movement of contaminants in groundwater, fish habitat, and infrastructure subject to flooding. This report describes the hydraulic simulation of hypothetical flood flows using the best available topographic and bathymetric data for the Hanford Reach and the Modular Aquatic Simulation System in 1 Dimension (MASS1) hydrodynamic model. The MASS1 model of the Hanford Reach was previously calibrated to field measurements of water surface elevations. The current model setup can be used for other studies of flow, water levels, and temperature in the Reach. The existing MASS1 channel geometry and roughness and other model configuration inputs for the Hanford Reach were used for this study, and previous calibration and validation results for the model are reprinted here for reference. The flood flows for this study were simulated by setting constant flow rates obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers, and a constant water level at McNary Dam, and then running the model to steady state. The discharge levels simulated were all low-probability events; for example, a 100-year flood is one that would occur on average every 100 years, or put another way, in any given year there is a 1% chance that a discharge of that level or higher will occur. The simulated floods and their corresponding Columbia River discharges were 100-year (445,000 cfs), 500-year (520,000 cfs), and the USACE-defined Standard Project Flood (960,000 cfs). The resulting water levels from the steady-state floods can be viewed as “worst case” outcomes for the respective discharge levels. The MASS1 output for water surface elevations was converted to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 and projected across the channel and land surface to enable mapping of the floodplain for each scenario. Floodplain maps show that for

  4. Reach-to-grasp movement as a minimization process. (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Feldman, Anatol G


    It is known that hand transport and grasping are functionally different but spatially coordinated components of reach-to-grasp (RTG) movements. As an extension of this notion, we suggested that body segments involved in RTG movements are controlled as a coherent ensemble by a global minimization process associated with the necessity for the hand to reach the motor goal. Different RTG components emerge following this process without pre-programming. Specifically, the minimization process may result from the tendency of neuromuscular elements to diminish the spatial gap between the actual arm-hand configuration and its virtual (referent) configuration specified by the brain. The referent configuration is specified depending on the object shape, localization, and orientation. Since the minimization process is gradual, it can be interrupted and resumed following mechanical perturbations, at any phase during RTG movements, including hand closure. To test this prediction of the minimization hypothesis, we asked subjects to reach and grasp a cube placed within the reach of the arm. Vision was prevented during movement until the hand returned to its initial position. As predicted, by arresting wrist motion at different points of hand transport in randomly selected trials, it was possible to halt changes in hand aperture at any phase, not only during hand opening but also during hand closure. Aperture changes resumed soon after the wrist was released. Another test of the minimization hypothesis was made in RTG movements to an object placed beyond the reach of the arm. It has previously been shown (Rossi et al. in J Physiol 538:659-671, 2002) that in such movements, the trunk motion begins to contribute to hand transport only after a critical phase when the shifts in the referent arm configuration have finished (at about the time when hand velocity is maximal). The minimization rule suggests that when the virtual contribution of the arm to hand transport is completed

  5. Doing Language: Narratives from an Activists' World in the Austrian Art World of the 1990s. The Art Activism of WochenKlausur, Martin Krenn, Oliver Ressler and maiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotiadi, Eva


    Full Text Available The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All case-studies engage with issues of immigration in Austria, touching also upon official immigration policies and practices in the European Union after 1989. In the case studies the artists transfer political activism practices (giving people a voice to art practices by means of participatory, public art projects, where, for instance, migrants are interviewed. In reverse, the activists transfer artistic practices (e.g., performance to their political activism practices.

  6. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio


    in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we......REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported...... present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo...

  7. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, D.S.


    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  8. Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.


    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  9. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.


    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  10. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations


    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror


    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging...

  11. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.


    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  12. The processing of visual and auditory information for reaching movements. (United States)

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Welsh, Timothy N; Tremblay, Luc


    Presenting target and non-target information in different modalities influences target localization if the non-target is within the spatiotemporal limits of perceptual integration. When using auditory and visual stimuli, the influence of a visual non-target on auditory target localization is greater than the reverse. It is not known, however, whether or how such perceptual effects extend to goal-directed behaviours. To gain insight into how audio-visual stimuli are integrated for motor tasks, the kinematics of reaching movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a non-target in the other modality were examined. When present, the simultaneously presented non-target could be spatially coincident, to the left, or to the right of the target. Results revealed that auditory non-targets did not influence reaching trajectories towards a visual target, whereas visual non-targets influenced trajectories towards an auditory target. Interestingly, the biases induced by visual non-targets were present early in the trajectory and persisted until movement end. Subsequent experimentation indicated that the magnitude of the biases was equivalent whether participants performed a perceptual or motor task, whereas variability was greater for the motor versus the perceptual tasks. We propose that visually induced trajectory biases were driven by the perceived mislocation of the auditory target, which in turn affected both the movement plan and subsequent control of the movement. Such findings provide further evidence of the dominant role visual information processing plays in encoding spatial locations as well as planning and executing reaching action, even when reaching towards auditory targets.

  13. Taking family planning services to hard-to-reach populations. (United States)

    Donovan, P


    Interviews were conducted in 1995 among 100 US family planning program personnel who serve hard-to-reach populations, such as drug abusers, prisoners, the disabled, homeless persons, and non-English speaking minorities. Findings indicate that a range of services is available for hard-to-reach groups. Most family planning agencies focus on drug abusers because of the severity of HIV infections and the availability of funding. This article describes the activities of various agencies in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts that serve substance abuse centers with family planning services. One recommendation for a service provider is to present services in an environment where it is safe to talk about a person's needs. One other program offered personal greetings upon arrival and the continuity of having a familiar face to oversee all reproductive and health needs. Programs for prisoners ranged from basic sex education classes to comprehensive reproductive health care. Some prisons offered individual counseling. Some programs were presented in juvenile offender facilities. Outreach to the homeless involved services at homeless shelters, outreach workers who recruited women into traditional family planning clinics, and establishment of nontraditional sites for the homeless and other hard-to-reach persons. One provider's suggestion was to offer services where high-risk women already go for other services. Most services to the disabled target the developmentally disabled rather than the physically disabled. Experience has shown that many professionals working with the disabled do not recognize their clients' sexual needs. Other hard-to-reach groups include women in housing projects and shelters for battered women, welfare applicants, and sex workers. Key to service provision is creating trust, overcoming language and cultural differences, and subsidizing the cost of care.

  14. International reach of tobacco marketing among young children. (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Cohen, Joanna E


    Prosmoking messages, delivered through marketing and the media, can reach very young children and influence attitudes and behaviors around smoking. This study examined the reach of tobacco marketing to 5 and 6 year olds in 6 low- and middle-income countries. Researchers worked one-on-one with 5 and 6 year olds in Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Russia (N = 2423). The children were asked to match logos with pictures of products, including 8 logos for cigarette brands. Analyses examined, overall and by country, whether gender, age, location, household use of tobacco, and knowledge of media characters were associated with awareness of cigarette brand logos. Additional analyses considered the relationship between cigarette brand logo awareness and intentions to smoke. Overall, 68% of 5 and 6 year olds could identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo, ranging from 50% in Russia to 86% in China. Across countries, being slightly older and having someone in the household who used tobacco, were significantly associated with greater odds of being able to identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo. The majority of young children from low- and middle-income countries are familiar with cigarette brands. This study's findings suggest that more effective measures are needed to restrict the reach of tobacco marketing.

  15. The German REACH Congress 2016: a workshop report. (United States)

    Reihlen, Antonia; Jepsen, Dirk; Broschinski, Lutz; Luch, Andreas; Schulte, Agnes


    In October 2016, the German REACH Congress was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. Here, the associated improvement made in the fields of consumer protection and the progress in and experiences gained from the implementation of the authorisation procedure were discussed. Several speakers from EU institutions, German authorities, industry, and civil society organisations were invited to present their views. There was a shared consensus that REACH contributes to the advancement of consumer protection against chemical risks, mainly because more and higher quality information on substance-related hazards and potential exposures becomes available. In addition, risk management measures, particularly regarding restrictions on uses, scale down consumer exposures to chemicals. Opportunities for improvements identified at the congress include the quality of registration dossiers and the management of and communication on substances of very high concern (SVHC) that may be present in consumer articles. Although regarded as being in an early implementation phase, the authorisation process was generally found to be operational and progressing well. Criticism was expressed with regard to the consistency of authorisation decisions and the costs and uncertainties related to authorisation applications. Consumer protection legislation consists of several legal provisions which are interlinked. The congress participants agreed that REACH is an important element of this legal framework as it enhances and complements other legal provisions.

  16. Do older adults perceive postural constraints for reach estimation? (United States)

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl


    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Recent evidence indicates that older persons have difficulty mentally representing intended movements. Furthermore, in an estimation of reach paradigm using motor imagery, a form of mental representation, older persons significantly overestimated their ability compared with young adults. The authors tested the notion that older adults may also have difficulty perceiving the postural constraints associated with reach estimation. The authors compared young (Mage = 22 years) and older (Mage = 67) adults on reach estimation while seated and in a more postural demanding standing and leaning forward position. The expectation was a significant postural effect with the standing condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Whereas there was no difference between groups in the seated condition (both overestimated), older adults underestimated whereas the younger group once again overestimated in the standing condition. From one perspective, these results show that older adults do perceive postural constraints in light of their own physical capabilities. That is, that group perceived greater postural demands with the standing posture and elected to program a more conservative strategy, resulting in underestimation.

  17. Distractor interference during a choice limb reaching task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ray

    Full Text Available According to action-centered models of attention, the patterns of distractor interference that emerge in selective reaching tasks are related to the time and effort required to resolve a race for activation between competing target and non-target response producing processes. Previous studies have only used unimanual aiming tasks and, as such, only examined the effects of competition that occurs within a limb. The results of studies using unimanual aiming movements often reveal an "ipsilateral effect"--distractors on the same side of space as the effector cause greater interference than distractors on the opposite side of space. The cost of the competition when response selection is between the limbs has yet to be addressed. Participants in the present study executed reaching movements to 1 of 4 (2 left, 2 right possible target locations with and without a distractor. Participants made ipsilateral reaches (left hand to left targets, right hand to right targets. In contrast to studies using unimanual aiming movements, a "contralateral effect" was observed; distractors affording responses for the other hand (in contralateral space caused more interference than distractors affording responses for the same hand. The findings from the present research demonstrate that when certain portions of response planning must be resolved prior to response initiation, distractors that code for that dimension cause the greatest interference.

  18. Why and how to make a REACH registration of combustion ash; Moejligheter vid REACH-registrering av energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevgren, Linnea; Wik, Ola


    The new chemical regulation, REACH (1997/2006/EC), Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals, took effect the 1st of June 2007. The background to this report was the introduction of REACH and the difficulties to understand the implications for ash. The most important consequence of REACH is that all chemical substances that are manufactured, handled and used above one tonne per annum per legal entity shall be registered according to this regulation. The registration includes specifying the chemical, physical, toxicity and ecotoxicity properties of the substance and risk assessing the identified areas of use. The report describes the use of ash in connection to the waste legislation and its planned end-of-waste-criteria, the chemical legislation and the Construction Products Directive. The target audience of this report is companies producing ashes and having a use or seeing a use for its ash. The report describes how to make a REACH registration of ash independent if a company did or did not pre-register ash during 2008. It describes how to change from one ash registration into another if the pre-registration was done for one type of ash but the company changes opinion during the sameness check, i.e. changing SIEF (Appendix A). Taking part in REACH registration projects during 2009-2010 can be advantageous since knowledge and financing are shared. Ash can be REACH registered also in the future but it is important to know that the registration have to be done prior the production and marketing starts. If ash is consider to be a waste the handling is covered by the community and national waste legislation. In Sweden ashes are by and large being regarded as waste, and recycling is risk assessed and permits are given case by case. End-of-waste criteria for different waste material are being elaborated within the EU. Such criteria will among other details cover chemical safety. When a material fulfils the end-of-waste criteria such material

  19. Access to expert stroke care with telemedicine: REACH MUSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Swanson Kazley


    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and rtPA can significantly reduce the long-term impact of acute ischemic stroke (AIS if given within 3 hours of symptom onset. South Carolina is located in the stroke belt and has a high rate of stroke and stroke mortality. Many small rural SC hospitals do not maintain the expertise needed to treat AIS patients with rtPA. MUSC is an academic medical center using REACH MUSC telemedicine to deliver stroke care to 15 hospitals in the state, increasing the likelihood of timely treatment with rtPA. The purpose of this study is to determine the increase in access to rtPA through the use of telemedicine for AIS in the general population and in specific segments of the population based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality.We used a retrospective cross-sectional design examining Census data from 2000 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS analysis to identify South Carolina residents that live within 30 or 60 minutes of a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC site. We include all South Carolina citizens in our analysis and specifically examine the population’s age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality. Our sample includes 4,012,012 South Carolinians. The main measure is access to expert stroke care at a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC hospital within 30 or 60 minutes. We find that without REACH MUSC, only 38% of the population has potential access to expert stroke care in SC within sixty minutes given that most PSCs will maintain expert stroke coverage. REACH MUSC allows 76% of the population to be within sixty minutes of expert stroke care, and 43% of the population to be within 30 minute drive time of expert stroke care. These increases in access are especially significant for groups that have faced disparities in care and high rates of AIS. The use of telemedicine can

  20. The Mobilization of Memory and Tradition: Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement and Beijing’s 1989 Tiananmen Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lagerkvist


    Full Text Available The 2014 Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong has been the most important pro-democracy protest on Chinese soil since the rise and fall of the Tiananmen Movement of 1989. Moreover, the 1989 Beijing Massacre has politicized a generation of pro-democracy activists in Hong Kong that has shaped Hong Kong’s vibrant civil society. However, while this “Tiananmen generation” has been crucial for the preparation and initial stage of the Umbrella Movement, the actual occupation was dominated by a new generation that is almost exclusively concerned with local Hong Kong politics. In light of this background, this paper compares the two democracy movements. The external environment and the goals of the two movements are markedly different. However, our comparison demonstrates striking similarities between the two movements, e.g. their internal structure and framing. Moreover, what we see as the “mobilization of memory” reflects both the continued importance of civil society structures that have been shaped by the “Tiananmen veterans” as well as the on-going renegotiation of the SAR’s relationship with the Mainland. Finally, these findings entail that the Chinese party-state will need to utilize different means to pacify the Umbrella Movement than what was done to placate democracy activists after the 1989 crackdown.

  1. Restoring Maximum Vertical Browsing Reach in Sauropod Dinosaurs. (United States)

    Paul, Gregory S


    The ongoing controversy centered on neck posture and function in sauropod dinosaurs is misplaced for a number of reasons. Because of an absence of pertinent data it is not possible to accurately restore the posture and range of motion in long necked fossil animals, only gross approximations are possible. The existence of a single "neutral posture" in animals with long, slender necks may not exist, and its relationship to feeding habits is weak. Restorations of neutral osteological neck posture based on seemingly detailed diagrams of cervical articulations are not reliable because the pictures are not sufficiently accurate due to a combination of illustration errors, and distortion of the fossil cervicals. This is all the more true because fossil cervical series lack the critical inter-centra cartilage. Maximum vertical reach is more readily restorable and biologically informative for long necked herbivores. Modest extension of 10° between each caudal cervical allowed high shouldered sauropods to raise the cranial portion of their necks to vertical postures that allowed them to reach floral resources far higher than seen in the tallest mammals. This hypothesis is supported by the dorsally extended articulation of the only known co-fused sauropod cervicals. Many sauropods appear to have been well adapted for rearing in order to boost vertical reach, some possessed retroverted pelves that may have allowed them to walk slowly while bipedal. A combination of improved high browsing abilities and sexual selection probably explains the unusually long necks of tall ungulates and super tall sauropods. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1802-1825, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Vestibular feedback maintains reaching accuracy during body movement (United States)

    Reynolds, Raymond F.


    Key points Reaching movements can be perturbed by vestibular input, but the function of this response is unclear.Here, we applied galvanic vestibular stimulation concurrently with real body movement while subjects maintained arm position either fixed in space or fixed with respect to their body.During the fixed‐in‐space conditions, galvanic vestibular stimulation caused large changes in arm trajectory consistent with a compensatory response to maintain upper‐limb accuracy in the face of body movement.Galvanic vestibular stimulation responses were absent during the body‐fixed task, demonstrating task dependency in vestibular control of the upper limb.The results suggest that the function of vestibular‐evoked arm movements is to maintain the accuracy of the upper limb during unpredictable body movement, but only when reaching in an earth‐fixed reference frame. Abstract When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism that could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should operate only when the arm is being controlled in an earth‐fixed rather than a body‐fixed reference frame. In the latter case, compensation would be unnecessary and even deleterious. To test this hypothesis, subjects were gently rotated in a chair while being asked to maintain their outstretched arm pointing towards either earth‐fixed or body‐fixed memorized targets. Galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied concurrently during rotation to isolate the influence of vestibular input, uncontaminated by inertial factors. During the earth‐fixed task, galvanic vestibular stimulation produced large polarity‐dependent corrections in arm

  3. Optical fiber reach extended FMCW radar for remote respiratory tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José


    Wireless monitoring of human vital signs such as breathing rate is a nonintrusive alternative to contemporary solutions relying on physical contact. To ease the installment, fiber optical transmission is used to extend the reach from the transmitter and receiver circuitry to the antenna subsystem....... In this paper, a frequency modulated carrier wave radar, operating at 25.7–26.6 GHz and utilizing optical fiber extension, was experimentally demonstrated to accurately recover the breathing rate of a human placed 1 m away from the radar antennas....

  4. Family (oikos Evangelism for reaching forward caste Hindus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DW Fowlkes


    Full Text Available This article acknowledges the need for Church Planting Movements among the unreached peoples of India. Of particular concern to this study is the application of Church Planting Movement strategy to forward caste Hindus of India. It is shown that evangelizing households (family or �oikos� evangelism is a New Testament strategy and the most appropriate strategy for reaching forward caste Hindus. It is concluded that Christian disciples remaining within Hindu culture and familial systems hold the potential for the most indigenous approach to evangelizing forward caste Hindus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa González Mendoza


    Full Text Available The massive growth of Internet and all the possibilities that it offers, have made us beings of instant gratification. The need to know, to be informed, and to communicate at all times, stands above many other things, and rules our daily life. Tools like Twitter provide the citizen a way in which they can express their ideas, either to be heard or to make a change even in the political atmosphere. This article searches to determine the influence and the reach of Twitter in the political activism of a country.

  6. Interaction torque contributes to planar reaching at slow speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshi Fumihiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background How the central nervous system (CNS organizes the joint dynamics for multi-joint movement is a complex problem, because of the passive interaction among segmental movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that the CNS predictively compensates for interaction torque (INT which is arising from the movement of the adjacent joints. However, most of these studies have mainly examined quick movements, presumably because the current belief is that the effects of INT are not significant at slow speeds. The functional contribution of INT for multijoint movements performed in various speeds is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of INT to a planer reaching in a wide range of motion speeds for healthy subjects. Methods Subjects performed reaching movements toward five targets under three different speed conditions. Joint position data were recorded using a 3-D motion analysis device (50 Hz. Torque components, muscle torque (MUS, interaction torque (INT, gravity torque (G, and net torque (NET were calculated by solving the dynamic equations for the shoulder and elbow. NET at a joint which produces the joint kinematics will be an algebraic sum of torque components; NET = MUS - G - INT. Dynamic muscle torque (DMUS = MUS-G was also calculated. Contributions of INT impulse and DMUS impulse to NET impulse were examined. Results The relative contribution of INT to NET was not dependent on speed for both joints at every target. INT was additive (same direction to DMUS at the shoulder joint, while in the elbow DMUS counteracted (opposed to INT. The trajectory of reach was linear and two-joint movements were coordinated with a specific combination at each target, regardless of motion speed. However, DMUS at the elbow was opposed to the direction of elbow movement, and its magnitude varied from trial to trial in order to compensate for the variability of INT. Conclusion Interaction torque was important at

  7. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events. (United States)

    Sadr, Karim


    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  8. Record reach : ExxonMobil extends its own world record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.


    Extended reach drilling (ERD) records are now regularly being broken by ExxonMobil Corporation's Sakhalin project on Russia's east coast. In 2008, an oil well on the coast established a new record by achieving a measured depth of 11,680 meters. The well was punched out by a Texas-based drilling company using the world's largest land-based drilling rig. The use of ERD has reduced the capital and operating costs of the project in addition to reducing its environmental impacts. ERD has been used to drill onshore beneath the seafloor and has eliminated the need for additional offshore structure and pipelines. The horizontal reach of the wells has improved productivity while also avoiding disturbing whale migrations in the region. The rig features a 1.5 million pound load capacity, 3000 horsepower draw-works. The top-drive drilling systems were used to transmit real time data to external locations for further evaluation. Oil and gas is also produced from a gravity-based offshore platform. It was concluded that longer wellbore are now being developed by the corporation in order to drill under the Beaufort Sea. 2 figs.

  9. Reaching the hip-hop generation: Final (symposium proceedings) report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The goal of this final (closing) report is to capture the flavor of the symposium held March 1 and 2, 1993 in New York City convened by Motivational Educational Entertainment, Inc. (MEE), a black-owned communications research, consulting, and video production company based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The mission of MEE is to understand, reach, and positively affect inner-city youth. Traditional communication approaches from mainstream sources to at-risk youth often don`t account for the unique way youth communicate among themselves and how they relate to the media. This understanding, however, is crucial. To understand youth communication, the people who create and send both entertaining and educational messages to urban youth must be brought into the dialogue. The meeting in New York was intended to provide an important opportunity for senders to meet and evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of their messages. In addition, the MEE symposium provided a forum for the continuing public debate about what needs to be done to reach today`s urban teens. Included in this document is a description of symposium goals/objectives, symposium activities, the reaction to and analysis of the symposium, recommendations for future MEE courses of action, and an appendix containing copies of press articles.

  10. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu


    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum

  11. Recovery of Three Arctic Stream Reaches From Experimental Nutrient Enrichment. (United States)

    Green, A. C.; Benstead, J. P.; Deegan, L. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Bowden, W. B.; Huryn, A. D.; Slavik, K.; Hershey, A. E.


    We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient (N+P and P only) enrichment in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (USA). Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2 to 13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass and C:P ratio of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of enrichment duration. Bryophyte cover, which increased greatly after long-term enrichment (>8 years), recovered to reference levels only after 7 years, when a storm scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. Persistence of bryophytes slowed recovery rates of insect taxa that had either been positively (e.g., Ephemerella, most chironomid taxa) or negatively (e.g., Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer and its consequence for benthic habitat. Growth of Arctic grayling (adults and young-of-year), the top predator, returned to reference rates within two years. Recovery of these Arctic stream ecosystems from nutrient enrichment was consequently controlled largely by interactions between duration of enrichment and physical disturbance, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by bryophytes.

  12. Google Hangouts: Leveraging Social Media to Reach the Education Community (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, Frank; McCallister, Dan; Ryer, Holly


    Research shows that educator professional development is most effective when it is sustained and/or when a follow-on component is included to support the learning process. In order to create more comprehensive learning experiences for our workshop participants, the education team at the Space Telescope Science Institute is working collaboratively with scientific staff and other experts to create a follow-on component for our professional development program. The new component utilizes video conferencing platforms, such as Google's Hangouts On Air, to provide educators with content updates and extended learning opportunities in between in-person professional development experiences. The goal is to enhance our professional development program in a cost-effective way while reaching a greater cross-section of educators. Video broadcasts go live on Google+, YouTube, and our website - thus providing access to any user with a web browser. Additionally, the broadcasts are automatically recorded and archived for future viewing on our YouTube channel. This provides educators with anywhere, anytime training that best suits their needs and schedules. This poster will highlight our new Hangouts for educators as well as our cross-departmental efforts to expand the reach of our Hubble Hangouts for the public through a targeted recruitment strategy.

  13. Adaptation to delayed force perturbations in reaching movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Levy

    Full Text Available Adaptation to deterministic force perturbations during reaching movements was extensively studied in the last few decades. Here, we use this methodology to explore the ability of the brain to adapt to a delayed velocity-dependent force field. Two groups of subjects preformed a standard reaching experiment under a velocity dependent force field. The force was either immediately proportional to the current velocity (Control or lagged it by 50 ms (Test. The results demonstrate clear adaptation to the delayed force perturbations. Deviations from a straight line during catch trials were shifted in time compared to post-adaptation to a non-delayed velocity dependent field (Control, indicating expectation to the delayed force field. Adaptation to force fields is considered to be a process in which the motor system predicts the forces to be expected based on the state that a limb will assume in response to motor commands. This study demonstrates for the first time that the temporal window of this prediction needs not to be fixed. This is relevant to the ability of the adaptive mechanisms to compensate for variability in the transmission of information across the sensory-motor system.

  14. Generalization of unconstrained reaching with hand-weight changes. (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Wang, Qining; Lu, Zhengchuan; Stevenson, Ian H; Körding, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin


    Studies of motor generalization usually perturb hand reaches by distorting visual feedback with virtual reality or by applying forces with a robotic manipulandum. Whereas such perturbations are useful for studying how the central nervous system adapts and generalizes to novel dynamics, they are rarely encountered in daily life. The most common perturbations that we experience are changes in the weights of objects that we hold. Here, we use a center-out, free-reaching task, in which we can manipulate the weight of a participant's hand to examine adaptation and generalization following naturalistic perturbations. In both trial-by-trial paradigms and block-based paradigms, we find that learning converges rapidly (on a timescale of approximately two trials), and this learning generalizes mostly to movements in nearby directions with a unimodal pattern. However, contrary to studies using more artificial perturbations, we find that the generalization has a strong global component. Furthermore, the generalization is enhanced with repeated exposure of the same perturbation. These results suggest that the familiarity of a perturbation is a major factor in movement generalization and that several theories of the neural control of movement, based on perturbations applied by robots or in virtual reality, may need to be extended by incorporating prior influence that is characterized by the familiarity of the perturbation.

  15. From reaching every district to reaching every community: analysis and response to the challenge of equity in immunization in Cambodia (United States)

    Chan Soeung, Sann; Grundy, John; Duncan, Richard; Thor, Rasoka; Bilous, Julian B


    Background An international review of the Cambodian Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2010 and other data show that despite immunization coverage increases and vaccine preventable diseases incidence reductions, inequities in access to immunization services exist. Utilizing immunization and health systems literature, analysis of global health databases and the EPI review findings, this paper examines the characteristics of immunization access and outcome inequities, and describes proposed longer-term strategic and operational responses to these problems. Findings The national programme has evolved from earlier central and provincial level planning to strengthening routine immunization coverage through the District level ‘Reaching Every District Strategy’. However, despite remarkable improvements, the review found over 20% of children surveyed were not fully immunized, primarily from communities where inequities of both access and impact persist. These inequities relate mainly to socio-economic exposures including wealth and education level, population mobility and ethnicity. To address these problems, a shift in strategic and operational response is proposed that will include (a) a re-focus of planning on facility level to detect disadvantaged communities, (b) establishment of monitoring systems to provide detailed information on community access and utilization, (c) development of communication strategies and health networks that enable providers to adjust service delivery according to the needs of vulnerable populations, and (d) securing financial, management and political commitment for ‘reaching every community’. Conclusions For Cambodia to achieve its immunization equity objectives and disease reduction goals, a shift of emphasis to health centre and community is needed. This approach will maximize the benefits of new vaccine introduction in the coming ‘Decade of Vaccines’, plus potentially extend the reach of other life-saving maternal

  16. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework. (United States)

    Shekar, Meera; Kakietek, Jakub; D'Alimonte, Mary R; Rogers, Hilary E; Eberwein, Julia Dayton; Akuoku, Jon Kweku; Pereira, Audrey; Soe-Lin, Shan; Hecht, Robert


    Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing. We focus on a key intervention package for stunting (KIPS) with strong evidence of effectiveness. Annual scale-up costs for the period of 2016-25 were estimated for a sample of 37 high burden countries and extrapolated to all low and middle income countries. The Lives Saved Tool was used to model the impact of the scale-up on stunting prevalence. We analysed data on KIPS budget allocations and expenditure by governments, donors and households to derive a global baseline financing estimate. We modelled two financing scenarios, a 'business as usual', which extends the current trends in domestic and international financing for nutrition through 2025, and another that proposes increases in financing from all sources under a set of burden-sharing rules. The 10-year financial need to scale up KIPS is US$49.5 billion. Under 'business as usual', this financial need is not met and the global stunting target is not reached. To reach the target, current financing will have to increase from US$2.6 billion to US$7.4 billion a year on average. Reaching the stunting target is feasible but will require large coordinated investments in KIPS and a supportive enabling environment. The example of HIV scale-up over 2001-11 is instructive in identifying the factors that could drive such a global response to childhood stunting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  17. Transparency of chemical risk assessment data under REACH. (United States)

    Ingre-Khans, Ellen; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Beronius, Anna; Rudén, Christina


    The REACH regulation requires EU manufacturers and importers of substances to register information on the hazard and risk of their substances with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Risk management of the substances is based on the provided information. It is known that conclusions on hazard and risk are influenced by expert judgements as well as potential conflict of interests. Thus, it is important that hazard and risk assessments are transparent and can be evaluated by a third party. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the transparency, i.e. the accessibility and comprehensibility, of information on substances registered under REACH. Data on repeated dose toxicity and hazard assessment conclusions were extracted for 60 substances from the REACH registration database available on the ECHA website. The data were compiled in a database for systematically evaluating the transparency of information related to the conclusions on hazard or risk. In addition, chemical safety reports (CSR) were requested from ECHA for five substances. The transparency of information on the hazard and risk of substances was found to be limited for several reasons. First, certain information was removed due to confidentiality and certain fields were not published because they could contain confidential information although the information had not been claimed confidential. Also, the extent to which registrants reported information varied, and the presentation of some data and certain terminology required further clarification. In addition, the data source for the majority of the key and supporting studies could not be identified due to confidentiality. Since registrants are only required to summarise studies, it cannot be verified whether all relevant information from non-public industry reports have been reported. Lastly, certain information related to the hazard and risk assessment were only reported in the CSR which is only available upon request; a time-consuming and work

  18. Reaching out to the hard to reach: using a science centre model to deliver public engagement with research. (United States)

    Gagen, M.; Allton, C.; Bryan, W. A.; O'Leary, M.


    Science communication is at an all-time high but public faith in expertise is low. However, within this climate of suspicion, research scientists remain a publicly trusted expert group. While there is both academic and public appetite for Public Engagement with Research (PER), there are barriers to reaching a wide range of publics. Attempts to connect the public with research often end up targeting the `already engaged'; the hard-to-reach remain just that. Engaging scientific curiosity in a wider demographic is crucial to promote scientific curiosity, itself known to profoundly counter the politically motivated reasoning that threatens informed debate around contemporary environmental issues. This requires the creation of opportunities for the public to engage with research in places in which they feel they belong. We report here on an 8 month pilot of a science centre model for PER. Oriel Science ( is a research-led science exhibition in Swansea city centre delivering Swansea University's PER and run by academics and student ambassadors. Oriel Science (Oriel is Gallery in Welsh) received 16,000 visitors in 8 months, 40% of whom had no previous interaction with the university or its research and >40% of whom came from socio-economically deprived areas. We report on the public engagement leadership we enabled, working with 18 research groups over 8 months and our achievements in giving a broad range of publics the most direct access to participate in contemporary science.

  19. Rapid Automatic Motor Encoding of Competing Reach Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Gallivan


    Full Text Available Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea. Our results offer strong empirical support for theories suggesting that competing action options are automatically represented in terms of the movements required to attain them. The rapid motor encoding of potential targets may support the fast optimization of motor costs under conditions of target uncertainty and allow the motor system to inform decisions about target selection.

  20. The long reach of Alzheimer's disease: patients, practice, and policy. (United States)

    Bynum, Julie P W


    The impact of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias reaches well beyond the health care needs of the person with dementia. As dementia inexorably progresses, the patient becomes increasingly dependent on others for basic daily care and routine tasks, a physically safe environment, and protection from exploitation or abuse. Addressing the diverse medical and social care needs of the burgeoning US population with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias requires the adoption of a broad-based policy framework and agenda that explicitly acknowledge the complex and unique needs of people with dementia and the impacts of dementia on caregivers and society at large. Public policies related to social service providers, agencies that provide appropriate housing, financial and legal services, and law enforcement must complement other policies focused on prevention and risk reduction, effective treatment development, and efficient health care delivery.

  1. Naturalness reach of the large hadron collider in minimal supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allanach, B.C.; Hetherington, J.P.J.; Parker, M.A.; Webber, B.R.


    We re-analyse the prospects of discovering supersymmetry at the LHC, in order to re-express coverage in terms of a fine-tuning parameter and to extend the analysis to scalar masses (m 0 ) above 2 TeV. We use minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) unification assumptions for the SUSY breaking parameters. Such high values of m 0 have recently been found to have a focus point, leading to relatively low fine-tuning. In addition, improvements in the simulations since the last study mean that this region no longer lacks radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The best fine tuning reach is found in a mono-leptonic channel, where for μ>0, A 0 =0 and tan β=10 (corresponding to the focus point), all points in mSUGRA with m 0 0 , mSUGRA does not evade detection provided the gaugino mass parameter M 1/2 < 460 GeV. (author)

  2. The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Dawn Stone


    Full Text Available This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually-guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically-guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference.

  3. Undoing Racism Through Genesee County's REACH Infant Mortality Reduction Initiative. (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Carty, Denise C; Turbeville, Ashley R; French-Turner, Tonya M; Brownlee, Shannon


    Genesee County Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Program (REACH) is a Community-Based Public Health partnership for reducing African American infant mortality rates that hosts the Undoing Racism Workshop (URW). Assess the URW's effectiveness in promoting an understanding of racism, institutional racism, and how issues related to race/ethnicity can affect maternal and infant health. Recent URW participants (n=84) completed brief preassessment and postassessment forms; participants (n=101) also completed an on-line, long-term assessment (LTA). URWs promoted understanding of racism and institutional racism, although they were less effective in addressing racism as related to maternal and infant health. The URWs were most effective in the domains related to their standard content. Additional effort is necessary to customize URWs when utilized for activities beyond their original purpose of community mobilization.

  4. Visuo-proprioceptive interactions during adaptation of the human reach. (United States)

    Judkins, Timothy; Scheidt, Robert A


    We examined whether visual and proprioceptive estimates of transient (midreach) target capture errors contribute to motor adaptation according to the probabilistic rules of information integration used for perception. Healthy adult humans grasped and moved a robotic handle between targets in the horizontal plane while the robot generated springlike loads that varied unpredictably from trial to trial. For some trials, a visual cursor faithfully tracked hand motion. In others, the handle's position was locked and subjects viewed motion of a point-mass cursor driven by hand forces. In yet other trials, cursor feedback was dissociated from hand motion or altogether eliminated. We used time- and frequency-domain analyses to characterize how sensorimotor memories influence performance on subsequent reaches. When the senses were used separately, subjects were better at rejecting physical disturbances applied to the hand than virtual disturbances applied to the cursor. In part, this observation reflected differences in how participants used sensorimotor memories to adapt to perturbations when performance feedback was limited to only proprioceptive or visual information channels. When both vision and proprioception were available to guide movement, subjects processed memories in a manner indistinguishable from the vision-only condition, regardless of whether the cursor tracked the hand faithfully or whether we experimentally dissociated motions of the hand and cursor. This was true even though, on average, perceptual uncertainty in the proprioceptive estimation of movement extent exceeded that of visual estimation by just 47%. In contrast to perceptual tasks wherein vision and proprioception both contribute to an optimal estimate of limb state, our findings support a switched-input, multisensory model of predictive load compensation wherein visual feedback of transient performance errors overwhelmingly dominates proprioception in determining adaptive reach performance.

  5. Nueva política europea en productos químicos. REACH New European policy on chemical products. REACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos


    Full Text Available En febrero de 2001, la Comisión Europea publicó el Libro Blanco relativo a la estrategia para la futura política en materia de sustancias y preparados químicos, que se fundamenta en una revisión del sistema comunitario actual de regulación de las sustancias y preparados químicos. Como consecuencia, el 29 de octubre de 2003, la Comisión adoptó la propuesta de Reglamento sobre registro, evaluación, autorización y restricción de las sustancias químicas (REACH. Mediante esta propuesta, además de crearse la Agencia Europea de Sustancias Químicas, se establece el sistema REACH que consta de los siguientes elementos:Registro, que exige a la industria que facilite información sobre sus sustancias con el objeto de conseguir una utilización segura de las mismas.Evaluación, que garantiza que la industria cumple sus obligaciones y evita que se realicen ensayos innecesarios.Autorización de sustancias con propiedades extremadamente preocupantes (CMR, PBT, disruptores endocrinos, etc. para unos usos particulares.Restricción, como red de seguridad para la reducción de riesgos que no hayan sido abordados en las etapas anteriores.Este sistema de recogida de información en varias fases permitirá conocer y reducir los riesgos derivados del uso de unas 30.000 sustancias químicas que se producen/importan en la Unión Europea en cantidad superior a una tonelada/año. La información, una vez validada, se almacenará en una base de datos y podrá utilizarse para el establecimiento de un vínculo causal entre los factores medioambientales y los efectos negativos sobre la salud derivados de la producción y utilización de los productos químicos.In February 2001 the European Commission issued a White Paper on a “Strategy for a future Chemicals Policy” based on a review of the current European Union system for regulating the dangerous substances and preparations. As a result, on 29 October 2003, the Commission endorsed a Proposal for a

  6. Climate Resilience: Outreach and Engagement with Hard to Reach Communities (United States)

    Baja, K.


    Baltimore faces a unique combination of shocks and stresses that cut across social, economic, and environmental sectors. Like many postindustrial cities, Baltimore has experienced a decline in its population - resulting in a lower tax base. These trends have had deleterious effects on the city's ability to attend to much needed infrastructure improvements and human services. Furthermore, Baltimore has an unfortunate history of deliberate racial segregation that is directly responsible for many of the economic and social challenges the City faces today. In addition to considerable social and economic issues, the city is already experiencing negative impacts from climate change. Baltimore is vulnerable to many natural hazards including heavy precipitation, sea level rise, storm surge, and extreme heat. Impacts from hazards and the capacity to adapt to them is not equal across all populations. Low-income residents and communities of color are most vulnerable and lack access to the resources to effectively plan, react and recover. They are also less likely to engage in government processes or input sessions, either due to distrust or ineffective outreach efforts by government employees and partners. This session is focused on sharing best practices and lessons learned from Baltimore's approach to community outreach and engagement as well as its focus on power shifting and relationship building with hard-to-reach communities. Reducing neighborhood vulnerability and strengthening the fabric that holds systems together requires a large number of diverse stakeholders coordinated around resiliency efforts. With the history of deliberate segregation and current disparities it remains critical to build trust, shift power from government to residents, and focus on relationship building. Baltimore City utilized this approach in planning, implementation and evaluation of resiliency work. This session will highlight two plan development processes, several projects, and innovative

  7. The electromagnetic rocket gun - a means to reach ultrahigh velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.


    A novel kind of electromagnetic launcher for the acceleration of multigram-size macroparticles, up to velocities required for impact fusion, is proposed. The novel launcher concept combines the efficiency of a gun with the much higher velocities attainable by a rocket. In the proposed concept a rocket-like projectile is launched inside a gun barrel, drawing its energy from a travelling magnetic wave. The travelling magnetic wave heats and ionizes the exhaust jet of the rocket. As a result, the projectile i propelled both by the recoil from the jet and the magnetic pressure of the travelling magnetic wave. In comparison to magnetic linear accelerators, accelerating either superconducting or ferromagnetic projectiles, the proposed concept has several important advantages. First, the exhaust jet is much longer than the rocket-like projectile and which permits a much longer switching time to turn on the travelling magnetic wave. Second, the proposed concept does not require superconducting projectiles, or projectiles made from expensive ferromagnetic material. Third, unlike in railgun accelerators, the projectile can be kept away from the wall, and thereby can reach much larger velocities. (orig.)

  8. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.


    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  9. Milestone reached for the Big Wheels of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Sandro Palestini

    The assembly and integration of the Big Wheels sectors of the Muon Spectrometer is reaching its conclusion, with only a few sectors of Wheel TGC-A-3 remaining on the assembly stations in building 180. The six trigger chambers (TGCs) wheels and two precision chambers wheels (MDTs) contain in total 104 sectors, which were assembled, equipped with detectors and fully tested over a period of two years. The few remaining Big Wheel sectors still stored in building 180 Most of the sectors left building 180 over the last twelve months, and form the six Wheels currently installed in the ATLAS detector. The remaining two will be installed before the end of the summer. The commitment of the personnel from the many teams who contributed to different parts of the project was essential to its success. In particular, teams coming from countries of different traditions and languages, such as China, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Russia and USA contributed and collaborated very effectively to the timely completion of the p...

  10. The dipoles reach the half-way mark

    CERN Multimedia


    With the positioning of the 616th magnet, installation of the LHC dipoles has reached the half-way mark. Only half the dipoles remain to be installed! The 616th dipole out of a total of 1232 was installed at 3 a.m on Wednesday 12 July. Night and day, the tunnel is the setting for a never-ending series of carefully choreographed installation operations. At a rate of around twenty per week, there has been a steady underground flow of dipole magnets, each measuring 15 metres in length and weighing 34 tonnes. 'In order to recover the accumulated delays, installation is proceeding three times faster than planned', confides Claude Hauviller, who is supervising LHC installation. Four dipoles can be transported underground at the same time. It is a real challenge, which the 65-man team responsible for this difficult task faces on a daily basis. This is because there is very little space in the tunnel and there are no passing places for the magnet transport vehicles. The room for manoeuvre can sometimes be measured ...

  11. East-West European economic integration: Difficult to reach target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ermo, V.; Manca, S.


    The energy sector of Western Europe is now undergoing a slow growth period due largely to the socio-economic upheavals of East and West German unification and the political-economic restructuring of the countries making up Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. This paper evidences this fact by tabling and commenting on 1991-1992 coal, petroleum, natural gas and electric power production/consumption/export statistical data representing energy sector activities in the former COMECON member countries. The poor performance of these countries can be attributed to the effects of energy market liberalization, the restructuring of utility assets, limited production capacities and inflation. It is estimated that the adjustment time to reach economic parity with Western nations will be long but that the waiting period could be shortened through the implementation of technology transfer and financial cooperation programs with the more prosperous countries capable of providing the investment capital and know-how needed for the restructuring of production systems and resource development

  12. How Physics World reaches out in a digital age (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    Physics World is an award-winning international magazine that exists in print and digital formats. Exploiting the opportunities available with digital publishing and apps, our output has expanded hugely in recent years to include technology-linked focus issues, regional special reports on the likes of China, India, Mexico and Brazil, plus audio, video and interactive material too. This growth in content - and new media for presenting physics - reflects wider changes in communication. People increasingly want to access content in a manner and time of their choosing, seeking out information presented in a way that suits them and their needs. That can be challenging for physics communicators because it means tailoring your message to different audiences and the medium they are using. But it's exciting too as you can reach out to many more people into physics - and in many different ways - than was possible in the past. This talk outlines some principles of good communication, including telling a good story, bearing the reader, viewer or listener in mind, using appropriate media, keeping up with social media, and exploiting the power of video. But with new forms of communication constantly emerging, it's worth remembering there is no one ``right answer''.

  13. Parametric design studies of long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Hamel, W.R.


    A number of different approaches have been studied for remediation of waste storage tanks at various sites. One of the most promising approaches is the use of a high-capacity, long-reach manipulation (LRM) system with a variety of end effectors for dislodging the waste. LRMs may have characteristics significantly different from those of industrial robots due to the long links needed to cover the large workspace. Because link lengths are much greater than their diameters, link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. LRMs will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, a design approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics considering link flexibility is presented with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. This paper addresses key design issues for LRM-based waste retrieval systems. It discusses the effects of parameters such as payload capacity, storage tanks size, and access port diameter on manipulator structural design. The estimated weight, fundamental natural frequency, and static deflection of the manipulator have been calculated for various parameter conditions

  14. Sure start: voices of the 'hard-to-reach'. (United States)

    Coe, C; Gibson, A; Spencer, N; Stuttaford, M


    This research aimed to look in depth at the factors affecting the ability of four Sure Start local programmes, based in a multicultural Midlands city, to engage with 'hard-to-reach' populations. A variety of research strategies and methods were employed. Geographical information systems, participatory research methods and interviews were used in order to understand the extent of the challenge, and hear first hand, why parents may not get involved with Sure Start. The mapping exercise involved collation and mapping of postcode data with respect to boundaries and potential and actual users of Sure Start services. This made possible the identification of any geographical patterning in the distribution of service users and non-users. Participatory research methods were used with parents, enabling them to conduct short interviews within their own communities and make sense of the data collected. Interviews were also conducted with 70 parents across the city, recruited through local schools. The results indicate that parental decisions regarding Sure Start are the product of a complex interaction between numerous factors which may act as either barriers or facilitators to service utilization. The results suggest that a multi-method approach to data collection is useful and appropriate in gaining access to those parents who are non-users of the Sure Start services and enabling their voices to be heard. These findings offer some explanations and insight into the apparent ambivalent attitudes of some families toward Sure Start services. Implications for future practice are discussed.

  15. Real-time well condition monitoring in extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucs, R.; Spoerker, H.F. [OMV Austria Exploration and Production GmbH, Gaenserndorf (Austria); Thonhauser, G. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)


    Ever rising daily operating cost for offshore operations make the risk of running into drilling problems due to torque and drag developments in extended reach applications a growing concern. One option to reduce cost related to torque and drag problems can be to monitor torque and drag trends in real time without additional workload on the platform drilling team. To evaluate observed torque or drag trends it is necessary to automatically recognize operations and to have a 'standard value' to compare the measurements to. The presented systematic approach features both options - fully automated operations recognition and real time analysis. Trends can be discussed between rig- and shore-based teams, and decisions can be based on up to date information. Since the system is focused on visualization of real-time torque and drag trends, instead of highly complex and repeated simulations, calculation time is reduced by comparing the real-time rig data against predictions imported from a commercial drilling engineering application. The system allows reacting to emerging stuck pipe situations or developing cuttings beds long before the situations become severe enough to result in substantial lost time. The ability to compare real-time data with historical data from the same or other wells makes the system a valuable tool in supporting a learning organization. The system has been developed in a joint research initiative for field application on the development of an offshore heavy oil field in New Zealand. (orig.)

  16. Muscle synergy extraction during arm reaching movements at different speeds. (United States)

    Sabzevari, Vahid Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun; Boostani, Reza


    Muscle synergy is the activation of a group of muscles that contribute to a particular movement. The goal of the present study is to examine the hypothesis that human reaching movements at different speeds share similar muscle synergies and to investigate the kinesiology basis and innervation of muscles. Electromyographic activity from six muscles of the upper limb and shoulder girdle were recorded during three movements at different speeds, i.e. slow, moderate and fast. The effect of window length on the RMS signal of the EMG was analyzed and then EMG envelope signals were decomposed using non-negative matrix factorization. For each of the ten subjects, three synergies were extracted which accounted for at least 99% of the VAF. For each movement, the muscle synergies and muscle activation coefficients of all participants were clustered in to three partitions. Investigation showed a high similarity and dependency of cluster members due to the cosine similarity and mutual information in muscle synergy clustering. For further verification, the EMG envelope signals for all subjects were reconstructed. The results indicated a lower reconstruction error using the center of the muscle synergy clusters in comparison with the average of the activation coefficients, which confirms the current research's hypothesis.

  17. Flow model for open-channel reach or network (United States)

    Schaffranek, R.W.


    Formulation of a one-dimensional model for simulating unsteady flow in a single open-channel reach or in a network of interconnected channels is presented. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be used to simulate a wide range of flow conditions for various channel configurations. It is based on a four-point (box), implicit, finite-difference approximation of the governing nonlinear flow equations with user-definable weighting coefficients to permit varying the solution scheme from box-centered to fully forward. Unique transformation equations are formulated that permit correlation of the unknowns at the extremities of the channels, thereby reducing coefficient matrix and execution time requirements. Discharges and water-surface elevations computed at intermediate locations within a channel are determined following solution of the transformation equations. The matrix of transformation and boundary-condition equations is solved by Gauss elimination using maximum pivot strategy. Two diverse applications of the model are presented to illustrate its broad utility. (USGS)

  18. Reaching for the true overlay in advanced nodes (United States)

    Koay, Chiew-seng; Hamieh, Bassem; Felix, Nelson; Gaudiello, John


    Traditionally, the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) of overlay metrology focuses on dynamic precision, toolinduced-shift, and matching, while rarely examining inaccuracy. However, some researchers have recently shown that measurement inaccuracy can still be large despite optimized small TMU. Moreover, this inaccuracy can consume a significant portion of the overlay budget in the advanced nodes. In addition to qualifying the overlay error of inline wafers, overlay metrology is also used for improving on-product overlay as it provides corrective feedback to the lithography scanner. The accuracy of the correction terms as a result depends directly upon the measurement accuracy. As such, enhanced overlay accuracy will improve the overlay performance of reworked wafers, or subsequently exposed wafers. We have previously shown that a segmented Blossom target is more prone to asymmetry-induced inaccuracy than a nonsegmented target is [1]. Since target segmentation is inevitable for SADP and SAQP patterning processes, their resulting overlay performance leaves a lot to be desired. In our quest to reach for the true overlay, this paper reports our investigations on accuracy enhancement techniques for image-based targets, such as redundancy and self-calibration, and on the use of simulation-optimized scatterometry-based targets.

  19. Naturalness Reach of the Large Hadron Collider in Minimal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B.C.; Parker, Michael Andrew; Webber, B.R.


    We re-analyse the prospects of discovering supersymmetry at the LHC, in order to re-express coverage in terms of a fine-tuning parameter and to extend the analysis to scalar masses (m_0) above 2 TeV. We use minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) unification assumptions for the SUSY breaking parameters. Such high values of m_0 have recently been found to have a focus point, leading to relatively low fine-tuning. In addition, improvements in the simulations since the last study mean that this region no longer lacks radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The best fine tuning reach is found in a mono-leptonic channel, where for mu>0, A_0=0 and tan beta=10 (corresponding to the focus point), all points in mSUGRA with m_0 < 4000 GeV, with a fine tuning measure up to 300 (570) are covered by the search, where the definition of fine-tuning excludes (includes) the contribution from the top Yukawa coupling. Even for arbitrarily high m_0, mSUGRA does not evade detection provided the gaugino mass parameter M_{1/2} < 460 G...

  20. Over one million followers reached in CERN TweetUp

    CERN Multimedia

    Katherine Chapman


    More than a million followers were reached on Twitter during CERN’s first ever “TweetUp”. On 25 July, 5 lucky Twitter followers, or "Tweeps" as they are known, visited CERN to take part in events held on the same day with the STS-134 astronauts. The Tweetup gave the online community a chance to ask questions and explore areas of CERN through the eyes of the tweeps, prompting over 1,000 tweets and re-tweets between them in 24 hours.   Loic Bommersbach, Lucy McKenna, Astrid Chantelauze (KIT), Nick Howes, Angeliki Kanellopoulou, Maud Ali-Cherif (ESA), Julien Harrod (ESA), Katherine Chapman (CERN), and Simon Bierwald outside the CERN Control Centre. Five winners of a competition announced on Twitter were invited to come to CERN and spend a day behind the scenes, taking part in events organised to celebrate the AMS experiment that was launched in May 2011. The aim was to give tweeps the opportunity to explore CERN and share their experiences, allowi...

  1. Electromyographic activity of beating and reaching during simulated boardsailing. (United States)

    Buchanan, M; Cunningham, P; Dyson, R J; Hurrion, P D


    This study examined the responses of six competitive boardsailors (three males, three females) during laboratory-based simulation tasks while the electromyographic activity of up to 13 muscles was recorded. A sailboard, mounted in a steel frame and resting on a waterbed, allowed simulation of roll and pitch movements. Wind force was simulated by attaching the boom to a weight stack with a hydraulically controlled buffered release phase. The progression of the simulation test was controlled by the sailor copying movements on an edited video of each subject boardsailing on the open water. Analysis of individual pumping movements for mean peak percentage of maximal enveloped voluntary contraction (%MEVC) in 'beating' and 'reaching' showed that muscular activity in the arm (flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis and biceps brachii) was greatest (66-94% MEVC), with considerable activity (58-75% MEVC) in the deltoid and trapezius shoulder muscles, but much less activity in the leg muscles (16-40% MEVC). For the combined upper and lower body muscles there was a significant difference (P reflecting the current dynamic nature of the sport.

  2. Taking OSCE examiner training on the road: reaching the masses. (United States)

    Reid, Katharine; Smallwood, David; Collins, Margo; Sutherland, Ruth; Dodds, Agnes

    To ensure the rigour of objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) in assessing medical students, medical school educators must educate examiners with a view to standardising examiner assessment behaviour. Delivering OSCE examiner training is a necessary yet challenging part of the OSCE process. A novel approach to implementing training for current and potential OSCE examiners was trialled by delivering large-group education sessions at major teaching hospitals. The 'OSCE Roadshow' comprised a short training session delivered in the context of teaching hospital 'Grand Rounds' to current and potential OSCE examiners. The training was developed to educate clinicians about OSCE processes, clarify the examiners' role and required behaviours, and to review marking guides and mark allocation in an effort to standardise OSCE processes and encourage consistency in examiner marking behaviour. A short exercise allowed participants to practise marking a mock OSCE to investigate examiner marking behaviour after the training. OSCE Roadshows at four metropolitan and one rural teaching hospital were well received and well attended by 171 clinicians across six sessions. Unexpectedly, medical students also attended in large numbers ( n= 220). After training, participants' average scores for the mock OSCE clustered closely around the ideal score of 28 (out of 40), and the average scores did not differ according to the levels of clinical experience. The OSCE Roadshow demonstrated the potential of brief familiarisation training in reaching large numbers of current and potential OSCE examiners in a time and cost-effective manner to promote standardisation of OSCE processes.

  3. Can impurities from soil-contaminated coffees reach the cup?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferro, F.S.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Joacir De Franca, E.; Bode, P.


    Depending on the harvest conditions, coffee beans can be contaminated by soil when dropped to the ground. It is well known that agricultural soils act as sinks for agrochemicals applied to the crops. While coffee is brewed, substances present in the roasted and ground coffee beans are extracted by hot water, emphasizing the need to assess the possible transfer of impurities from the soil to the beverage. Soil-contaminated samples of roasted coffee beans were split into 2 groups according to the treatments: (a) washed and ground and (b) only ground. Brewing was performed in a household espresso machine for both coffees. The resulting beverage was freeze-dried and the elemental composition determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of the terrigenous elements Fe, La, Sc, Sm and Th in the freeze-dried non-washed coffee beverages were, at least, 2 times higher than in the washed samples. These elements are tracers of the soil, indicating that the impurities from the soil reached the beverage. (author)

  4. RiverCare communication strategy for reaching beyond (United States)

    Cortes Arevalo, Juliette; den Haan, Robert Jan; Berends, Koen; Leung, Nick; Augustijn, Denie; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.


    Effectively communicating river research to water professionals and researchers working in multiple disciplines or organizations is challenging. RiverCare studies the mid-term effects of innovative river interventions in the Netherlands to improve river governance and sustainable management. A total of 21 researchers working at 5 universities are part of the consortium, which also includes research institutes, consultancies, and water management authorities. RiverCare results do not only benefit Dutch river management, but can also provide useful insights to challenges abroad. Dutch partner organizations actively involved in RiverCare are our direct users. However, we want to reach water professionals from the Netherlands and beyond. To communicate with and disseminate to these users, we set up a communication strategy that includes the following approaches : (1) Netherlands Centre of River studies (NCR) website to announce activities post news, not limited to RiverCare; (2) A RiverCare newsletter that is published twice per year to update about our progress and activities; (3) A multimedia promotional providing a 'first glance' of RiverCare. It consists of four video episodes and an interactive menu; (4) An interactive knowledge platform to provide access, explain RiverCare results and gather feedback about the added value and potential use of these results; and (5) A serious gaming environment titled Virtual River where actors can play out flood scaling intervention and monitoring strategies to assess maintenance scenarios. The communication strategy and related approaches are being designed and developed during the project. We use participatory methods and systematic evaluation to understand communication needs and to identify needs for improvement. As a first step, RiverCare information is provided via the NCR website. The active collaboration with the NCR is important to extend communication efforts beyond the RiverCare consortium and after the program ends

  5. Expanding the reach of heavy neutrino searches at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Flórez


    Full Text Available The observation of neutrino oscillations establishes that neutrinos have non-zero mass and provides one of the more compelling arguments for physics beyond the standard model (SM of particle physics. We present a feasibility study to search for hypothetical Majorana neutrinos (N with TeV scale masses, predicted by extensions of the SM to explain the small but non-zero SM neutrino mass, using vector boson fusion (VBF processes at the 13 TeV LHC. In the context of the minimal Type-I seesaw mechanism (mTISM, the VBF production cross-section of a lepton (ℓ and associated heavy Majorana neutrino (Nℓ surpasses that of the Drell–Yan process at approximately mNℓ=1.4TeV. We consider second and third-generation heavy neutrino (Nμ or Nτ, where ℓ= muon (μ or tau (τ leptons production through VBF processes, with subsequent Nμ and Nτ decays to a lepton and two jets, as benchmark cases to show the effectiveness of the VBF topology for Nℓ searches at the 13 TeV LHC. The requirement of a dilepton pair combined with four jets, two of which are identified as VBF jets with large separation in pseudorapidity and a TeV scale dijet mass, is effective at reducing the SM background. These criteria may provide expected exclusion bounds, at 95% confidence level, of mNℓ<1.7 (2.4 TeV, assuming 100 (1000 fb−1 of 13 TeV data from the LHC and mixing |VℓNℓ|2=1. The use of the VBF topology to search for mNℓ increases the discovery reach at the LHC, with expected significances greater than 5σ (3σ for Nℓ masses up to 1.7 (2.05 TeV using 1000fb−1 of 13 TeV data from the LHC.

  6. Expanding the reach of heavy neutrino searches at the LHC (United States)

    Flórez, Andrés; Gui, Kaiwen; Gurrola, Alfredo; Patiño, Carlos; Restrepo, Diego


    The observation of neutrino oscillations establishes that neutrinos have non-zero mass and provides one of the more compelling arguments for physics beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics. We present a feasibility study to search for hypothetical Majorana neutrinos (N) with TeV scale masses, predicted by extensions of the SM to explain the small but non-zero SM neutrino mass, using vector boson fusion (VBF) processes at the 13 TeV LHC. In the context of the minimal Type-I seesaw mechanism (mTISM), the VBF production cross-section of a lepton (ℓ) and associated heavy Majorana neutrino (Nℓ) surpasses that of the Drell-Yan process at approximately mNℓ = 1.4TeV. We consider second and third-generation heavy neutrino (Nμ or Nτ, where ℓ= muon (μ) or tau (τ) leptons) production through VBF processes, with subsequent Nμ and Nτ decays to a lepton and two jets, as benchmark cases to show the effectiveness of the VBF topology for Nℓ searches at the 13 TeV LHC. The requirement of a dilepton pair combined with four jets, two of which are identified as VBF jets with large separation in pseudorapidity and a TeV scale dijet mass, is effective at reducing the SM background. These criteria may provide expected exclusion bounds, at 95% confidence level, of mNℓ < 1.7 (2.4) TeV, assuming 100 (1000) fb-1 of 13 TeV data from the LHC and mixing |VℓNℓ|2 = 1. The use of the VBF topology to search for mNℓ increases the discovery reach at the LHC, with expected significances greater than 5σ (3σ) for Nℓ masses up to 1.7 (2.05) TeV using 1000fb-1 of 13 TeV data from the LHC.

  7. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing. (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Carlson, Samantha C; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A


    Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646) were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%), content on tobacco company websites (39.1%), and tobacco coupons (15.7%). Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52-2.37). Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  8. Agreement reached on integrated safeguards in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with the European Commission, has reached agreement on arrangements to implement 'integrated safeguards' in all non-nuclear-weapon States of the European Union with significant nuclear activities. 'This important milestone is the result of the constructive common efforts of all parties concerned. It is a clear signal of the importance attributed by the EU and its Member States, as well as the IAEA, to the reinforcement of the nuclear non-proliferation regime,' said Andris Piebalgs, Member of the European Commission in charge of Energy. 'Once we have sufficient confidence that a State' s nuclear activities are purely peaceful, we can apply safeguards measures in a less prescriptive, more customised manner. This reduces the inspection burden on the State and the inspection effort of the IAEA, while enabling the IAEA to maintain the conclusion that all nuclear material has remained in peaceful activities,' said Olli Heinonen, Deputy Director General and Head of IAEA Safeguards Department. Background The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the main international Treaty prohibiting the spread of nuclear weapons. It entrusts the IAEA to verify that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices through the application of 'safeguards'. IAEA safeguards include comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols that enable the IAEA to conclude that all nuclear material has remained in peaceful activities in a State. Integrated Safeguards refers to the optimum combination of all safeguards measures available to the Agency under comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency in meeting the Agency ' s safeguards obligations. In the European Union, nuclear safeguards are implemented on the basis of the Euratom Treaty and trilateral agreements between Euratom, its Member States and the IAEA

  9. The Role of Absorption Cooling for Reaching Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Susanne


    This thesis focuses on the role and potential of absorption cooling in future energy systems. Two types of energy systems are investigated: a district energy system based on waste incineration and a distributed energy system with natural gas as fuel. In both cases, low temperature waste heat is used as driving energy for the absorption cooling. The main focus is to evaluate the absorption technology in an environmental perspective, in terms of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Economic evaluations are also performed. The reduced electricity when using absorption cooling instead of compression cooling is quantified and expressed as an increased net electrical yield. The results show that absorption cooling is an environmentally friendly way to produce cooling as it reduces the use of electrically driven cooling in the energy system and therefore also reduces global CO{sub 2} emissions. In the small-scale trigeneration system the electricity use is lowered with 84 % as compared to cooling production with compression chillers only. The CO{sub 2} emissions can be lowered to 45 CO{sub 2}/MWh{sub c} by using recoverable waste heat as driving heat for absorption chillers. However, the most cost effective cooling solution in a district energy system is a combination between absorption and compression cooling technologies according to the study. Absorption chillers have the potential to be suitable bottoming cycles for power production in distributed systems. Net electrical yields over 55 % may be reached in some cases with gas motors and absorption chillers. This small-scale system for cogeneration of power and cooling shows electrical efficiencies comparable to large-scale power plants and may contribute to reducing peak electricity demand associated with the cooling demand.

  10. Taking OSCE examiner training on the road: reaching the masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Reid


    Full Text Available Background: To ensure the rigour of objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs in assessing medical students, medical school educators must educate examiners with a view to standardising examiner assessment behaviour. Delivering OSCE examiner training is a necessary yet challenging part of the OSCE process. A novel approach to implementing training for current and potential OSCE examiners was trialled by delivering large-group education sessions at major teaching hospitals. Methods: The ‘OSCE Roadshow’ comprised a short training session delivered in the context of teaching hospital ‘Grand Rounds’ to current and potential OSCE examiners. The training was developed to educate clinicians about OSCE processes, clarify the examiners’ role and required behaviours, and to review marking guides and mark allocation in an effort to standardise OSCE processes and encourage consistency in examiner marking behaviour. A short exercise allowed participants to practise marking a mock OSCE to investigate examiner marking behaviour after the training. Results: OSCE Roadshows at four metropolitan and one rural teaching hospital were well received and well attended by 171 clinicians across six sessions. Unexpectedly, medical students also attended in large numbers (n=220. After training, participants’ average scores for the mock OSCE clustered closely around the ideal score of 28 (out of 40, and the average scores did not differ according to the levels of clinical experience. Conclusion: The OSCE Roadshow demonstrated the potential of brief familiarisation training in reaching large numbers of current and potential OSCE examiners in a time and cost-effective manner to promote standardisation of OSCE processes.

  11. Solid expandable systems put deepwater targets within reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Roca, Eduardo [Enventure Global Technology L.L.C., Houston, TX (United States). Latin America; Fristch, Jerry [Enventure Global Technology L.L.C., Houston, TX (United States)


    Enabling technologies that take drilling operations to deeper objectives have made a significant impact on the practicality of many projects, especially deep water offshore targets. Increasing vertical depth and lateral reach requires adequate hole size to attain the desired objectives of the well bore. Solid expandable technology can maintain and retain hole size to address both the physical limitations and the economic feasibility of deep water operations. With each and every casing point, the potential for adequate hole size at total depth (TD) decreases. Solid expandable open hole liners and single-diameter systems reduce and eliminate, respectively, the well bore tapering that dictates hole size at TD and subsequent completion size. Successful mitigation of this tapering, whether through the entire well bore or through select zones, enables operators to gain access to previously unreachable reserves. Solid expandable systems have proven to be reliable and effective with over 1,000 installations in a myriad of conditions and environments worldwide. To date, over 115 of those applications have been in deep water environments. The current operating envelope for solid expandable systems include the deepest installation at {approx}28,750 ft (8,763 m) and the longest at 6,867 ft (2,083 m) in water depth over 3,150 ft (960 m). This record-length application consisted of an open hole liner installed and expanded in a single run. This paper will discuss the effectiveness of solid expandable systems in deep water operations and how the technology brings value to offshore projects especially when planned into the initial design. Case histories will be used to further illustrate the features, advantages, and benefits of expandable technology. In addition, this paper will examine the state of the solid expandable technology and its continuing evolution to provide even more drilling solutions. (author)

  12. Integration of QSAR models for bioconcentration suitable for REACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gissi, Andrea; Nicolotti, Orazio; Carotti, Angelo; Gadaleta, Domenico; Lombardo, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio


    QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models can be a valuable alternative method to replace or reduce animal test required by REACH. In particular, some endpoints such as bioconcentration factor (BCF) are easier to predict and many useful models have been already developed. In this paper we describe how to integrate two popular BCF models to obtain more reliable predictions. In particular, the herein presented integrated model relies on the predictions of two among the most used BCF models (CAESAR and Meylan), together with the Applicability Domain Index (ADI) provided by the software VEGA. Using a set of simple rules, the integrated model selects the most reliable and conservative predictions and discards possible outliers. In this way, for the prediction of the 851 compounds included in the ANTARES BCF dataset, the integrated model discloses a R 2 (coefficient of determination) of 0.80, a RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of 0.61 log units and a sensitivity of 76%, with a considerable improvement in respect to the CAESAR (R 2 = 0.63; RMSE = 0.84 log units; sensitivity 55%) and Meylan (R 2 = 0.66; RMSE = 0.77 log units; sensitivity 65%) without discarding too many predictions (118 out of 851). Importantly, considering solely the compounds within the new integrated ADI, the R 2 increased to 0.92, and the sensitivity to 85%, with a RMSE of 0.44 log units. Finally, the use of properly set safety thresholds applied for monitoring the so called “suspicious” compounds, which are those chemicals predicted in proximity of the border normally accepted to discern non-bioaccumulative from bioaccumulative substances, permitted to obtain an integrated model with sensitivity equal to 100%. - Highlights: • Applying two independent QSAR models for bioconcentration factor increases the prediction. • The concordance of the models is an important component of the integration. • The measurement of the applicability domain improves the prediction. • The use of a

  13. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Brock


    Full Text Available Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646 were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%, content on tobacco company websites (39.1%, and tobacco coupons (15.7%. Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52–2.37. Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  14. Impulsivity modulates performance under response uncertainty in a reaching task. (United States)

    Tzagarakis, C; Pellizzer, G; Rogers, R D


    We sought to explore the interaction of the impulsivity trait with response uncertainty. To this end, we used a reaching task (Pellizzer and Hedges in Exp Brain Res 150:276-289, 2003) where a motor response direction was cued at different levels of uncertainty (1 cue, i.e., no uncertainty, 2 cues or 3 cues). Data from 95 healthy adults (54 F, 41 M) were analysed. Impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11). Behavioral variables recorded were reaction time (RT), errors of commission (referred to as 'early errors') and errors of precision. Data analysis employed generalised linear mixed models and generalised additive mixed models. For the early errors, there was an interaction of impulsivity with uncertainty and gender, with increased errors for high impulsivity in the one-cue condition for women and the three-cue condition for men. There was no effect of impulsivity on precision errors or RT. However, the analysis of the effect of RT and impulsivity on precision errors showed a different pattern for high versus low impulsives in the high uncertainty (3 cue) condition. In addition, there was a significant early error speed-accuracy trade-off for women, primarily in low uncertainty and a 'reverse' speed-accuracy trade-off for men in high uncertainty. These results extend those of past studies of impulsivity which help define it as a behavioural trait that modulates speed versus accuracy response styles depending on environmental constraints and highlight once more the importance of gender in the interplay of personality and behaviour.

  15. "Eu não preciso falar que eu sou branca, cara, eu sou Latina!" Ou a complexidade da identificação racial na ideologia de ativistas jovens (nãobrancas "I do not have to say that I am white, man, I am Latina!" Or the complexity of racial identification in the ideology of (nonwhite, young, female activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieuwertje Dyi Huijg


    Full Text Available Neste artigo procuro explorar a complexidade do processo de formação da identidade racial de mulheres, jovens ativistas (nãobrancas em São Paulo. Levando em conta a interação do indivíduo com o mundo social, distingue-se a identidade racial apropriada da atribuída e a identidade racial individual da coletiva. Isso requer atenção para o papel da posição social racial, com as subsequentes vantagens raciais, para os sentimentos da ativista neste processo e para a influência mútua da heterogeneidade de identidade racial, do deslocamento da identidade racial e, por conseguinte, do papel da formação de identidade como estratégia de ideologia e práxis ativista.In this article, I explore the complexity of racial identity formation of (nonwhite, young, female activists in São Paulo. Taking into account the interaction of the individual with the social world, one must distinguish between appropriated and attributed racial identities, as well as individual and collective identities. This requires attention to the role of racial social position and its subsequent racial advantages, to the feelings of activists about this process, and to the mutual influence of the heterogeneity of racial identity, the displacement of racial identity and, consequently, the role of identity formation as a strategy of activist ideology and praxis.

  16. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations. (United States)

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror


    Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging Web-based social media as a method of engaging people who experience auditory hallucinations and to evaluate their attitudes toward using social media platforms as a resource for Web-based support and technology-based treatment. We used Facebook advertisements to recruit individuals who experience auditory hallucinations to complete an 18-item Web-based survey focused on issues related to auditory hallucinations and technology use in American adults. We systematically tested multiple elements of the advertisement and survey layout including image selection, survey pagination, question ordering, and advertising targeting strategy. Each element was evaluated sequentially and the most cost-effective strategy was implemented in the subsequent steps, eventually deriving an optimized approach. Three open-ended question responses were analyzed using conventional inductive content analysis. Coded responses were quantified into binary codes, and frequencies were then calculated. Recruitment netted N=264 total sample over a 6-week period. Ninety-seven participants fully completed all measures at a total cost of $8.14 per participant across testing phases. Systematic adjustments to advertisement design, survey layout, and targeting strategies improved data quality and cost efficiency. People were willing to provide information on what triggered their auditory hallucinations along with strategies they use to cope, as well as provide suggestions to others who experience auditory hallucinations. Women, people

  17. Economic interpretation of environmental flow regime downstream diverted river reaches. (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Perona, Paolo


    feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. Our approach is a simple but effective step towards eco-sustainability in the growing market of mini hydropower plants, where operation rules like MFR are still widespread. As such, this method is a powerful instrument for political managers to explicit contradictions thus enlightening best compromise measures/decisions. References Perona, P., Characklis, G., Duerrenmatt, D.J., in revision. Inverse parameters estimation of simple riparian benefit economical models. Journal of Environmental Management . Gorla, L. and Perona, P., in revision. On quantifying ecologically sustainable flow releases in a diverted river reach. Journal of Hydrology.

  18. Integration of QSAR models for bioconcentration suitable for REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gissi, Andrea [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Farmacia — Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Nicolotti, Orazio; Carotti, Angelo; Gadaleta, Domenico [Dipartimento di Farmacia — Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Lombardo, Anna [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio, E-mail: [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy)


    QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models can be a valuable alternative method to replace or reduce animal test required by REACH. In particular, some endpoints such as bioconcentration factor (BCF) are easier to predict and many useful models have been already developed. In this paper we describe how to integrate two popular BCF models to obtain more reliable predictions. In particular, the herein presented integrated model relies on the predictions of two among the most used BCF models (CAESAR and Meylan), together with the Applicability Domain Index (ADI) provided by the software VEGA. Using a set of simple rules, the integrated model selects the most reliable and conservative predictions and discards possible outliers. In this way, for the prediction of the 851 compounds included in the ANTARES BCF dataset, the integrated model discloses a R{sup 2} (coefficient of determination) of 0.80, a RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of 0.61 log units and a sensitivity of 76%, with a considerable improvement in respect to the CAESAR (R{sup 2} = 0.63; RMSE = 0.84 log units; sensitivity 55%) and Meylan (R{sup 2} = 0.66; RMSE = 0.77 log units; sensitivity 65%) without discarding too many predictions (118 out of 851). Importantly, considering solely the compounds within the new integrated ADI, the R{sup 2} increased to 0.92, and the sensitivity to 85%, with a RMSE of 0.44 log units. Finally, the use of properly set safety thresholds applied for monitoring the so called “suspicious” compounds, which are those chemicals predicted in proximity of the border normally accepted to discern non-bioaccumulative from bioaccumulative substances, permitted to obtain an integrated model with sensitivity equal to 100%. - Highlights: • Applying two independent QSAR models for bioconcentration factor increases the prediction. • The concordance of the models is an important component of the integration. • The measurement of the applicability domain improves the

  19. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations (United States)

    Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror


    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging Web-based social media as a method of engaging people who experience auditory hallucinations and to evaluate their attitudes toward using social media platforms as a resource for Web-based support and technology-based treatment. Methods We used Facebook advertisements to recruit individuals who experience auditory hallucinations to complete an 18-item Web-based survey focused on issues related to auditory hallucinations and technology use in American adults. We systematically tested multiple elements of the advertisement and survey layout including image selection, survey pagination, question ordering, and advertising targeting strategy. Each element was evaluated sequentially and the most cost-effective strategy was implemented in the subsequent steps, eventually deriving an optimized approach. Three open-ended question responses were analyzed using conventional inductive content analysis. Coded responses were quantified into binary codes, and frequencies were then calculated. Results Recruitment netted N=264 total sample over a 6-week period. Ninety-seven participants fully completed all measures at a total cost of $8.14 per participant across testing phases. Systematic adjustments to advertisement design, survey layout, and targeting strategies improved data quality and cost efficiency. People were willing to provide information on what triggered their auditory hallucinations along with strategies they use to cope, as well as provide suggestions to others who experience

  20. Chemical placement in heterogeneous and long reach horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalker, Robert; Wahid, Fazrie; Graham, Gordon M.


    The effective placement of chemical squeeze treatments in heterogeneous wells and long reach horizontal wells has proved a significant challenge, with various factors including heterogeneity, crossflow and pressure gradients between otherwise non-communicating zones within the well, all contributing to an uneven placement of the scale squeeze treatment into the reservoir. Current methods to circumvent these problems often rely on extremely expensive coiled tubing operations, staged diversion (temporary shut off) treatments or by designing treatments to deliberately overdose some zones in order to gain placement in other (e.g. low permeability) zones. Moreover for deepwater sub sea horizontal wells the costs associated with ''spot'' treating along the length of horizontal wells by coil tubing tractor operations can often be prohibitively expensive. For other very near well bore treatments such as acid stimulation a number of self diverting strategies including gelled acid treatments, staged viscoelastic surfactant treatments and foams have been applied in field treatments with some success. However the properties which make such treatments applicable for acid stimulation may also make them inappropriate for bullhead scale squeeze treatments. Recent work by the current authors has however indicated the possible benefits of using modified injection fluids to aid uniform scale inhibitor placement in such wells in order to effect more even placement. In summary this paper will describe the various options available for achieving self diversion and describes the potential drawbacks associated with the viscous placement fluids commonly used for acid simulation techniques. In addition, various simulation packages commonly used for scale related calculations are reviewed and their limitations, primarily due to the inherent assumptions made and input parameters used, for modelling squeeze treatments using such modified fluids are described. The paper

  1. Bibliotherapy in a Library Setting: Reaching out to Vulnerable Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Tukhareli


    Full Text Available Bibliotherapy, as a part of expressive therapy, involves the systematic use of books to help people cope with mental, physical, emotional, or social problems. It has been widely recognized as an approach that holds great promise in helping librarians to better address emotional, behavioural and socials concerns of various groups of people. The benefits of bibliotherapeutic services such as reading groups, expanded readers’ advisory, books-on-prescription and information-on-prescription services as well as various outreach programs are well documented in the library literature. On the other hand, health professionals who work in cooperation with educators and librarians share medical records on the healing and consoling power of books. The paper will explore the role of bibliotherapy in a library setting and identify particular bibliotherapeutic schemes to be used when serving people affected by HIV/AIDS. The paper will provide an overview of the library project developed to address educational and recreational needs of the African people living with HIV/AIDS. The project was successfully implemented at the Nkosi’s Haven Library in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2010. Although the project targeted all the residents of Nkosi’s Haven, the paper will focus mostly on the part of the program developed for children and young adults. The paper will identify psychological and social factors that affect the targeted group of children within the African environment. Particularly, it will highlight a negative effect that stigmatization around the disease has on the lives of the HIV-infected individuals and their families. Within this context, bibliotherapy is seen as an effective way of reaching out and breaking the isolation of people, especially children living with HIV/AIDS. The paper will describe specific activities strategically chosen for the bibliotherapy sessions to provide a channel through which the participants of the program could analyze

  2. Dry blood spot testing for hepatitis C in people who injected drugs: reaching the populations other tests cannot reach. (United States)

    Tait, J M; Stephens, Brian P; McIntyre, Paul G; Evans, Morgan; Dillon, John F


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Dry Blood Spot testing (DBST) for hepatitis C within a geographical area. This is a prospective cohort study of all individuals living in Tayside who had received a hepatitis C virus (HCV) DBST between 2009 and 2011. During the study, 1123 DBSTs were carried out. 946 individuals had one test. 295 (31.2%) of these individuals were HCV antibody positive on their first test. Overall, 94.3% (902/956) individuals returned for the results of their test. During the course of the study 177 individuals were retested and 29 new cases of hepatitis C were detected. 249 individuals attended for further follow-up, and 164 (65.5%) were PCR positive. All 164 PCR-positive individuals were offered referral into specialist HCV services for further assessment. Data showed 62.5% were genotype 3, 65.1% had a low viral load (<600 000 iu/ml) and 77.5% had a Fibroscan score below 7 KPa. To date, 40 have commenced treatment and a further 16 are currently in the assessment period. Overall, we have retained in services or treated 63.6% (105/164) of patients who were initially referred and with effective support mechanisms in place we have achieved sustained viral response rates of 90%. The study has shown that DBST is a complementary technique to conventional venepuncture for the diagnosis of HCV. The majority of patients have low viral loads and low fibrosis scores, so that while this group of patients may be difficult to reach and may be challenging to maintain in therapy, they are easier to cure.

  3. Ulysses(*) reaches the South Pole of the Sun (United States)


    One of the many investigations being carried out is a search for the Sun's south magnetic pole. As in the case of the Earth, the magnetic pole is offset from the rotation axis, and at some time in September it should sweep directly into line with Ulysses. Just as the polar regions of the Earth were the last to be explored, so it is with the Sun. For more than thirty years spacecraft have investigated the stream of electric particles know as the solar wind. Ulysses, developed by ESA, built by European Industry and flown in collaboration with NASA, is the first to fly through the solar wind coming from the poles. As Ulysses reaches its highest solar latitude of 80.2 degrees on 13 September, European and American researchers will gather at the ESA/ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, for a scientific workshop at which they will assess the results from the nine experiments carried by the spacecraft. For the week of the workshop, the ESA/ESTEC conference centre will be transformed into a busy scientific laboratory. The large meeting rooms will be divided into 24 working areas, where the Ulysses experiment teams will take up temporary residence. Bringing a variety of computing equipment with them, the scientists will be able to retrieve the latest data from the spacecraft and perform detailed analyses. The emphasis will be on informality, with exchange of scientific ideas - and data - the key ingredient, leading ultimately to a better understanding of the fascinating information being gathered by Ulysses on its unique exploratory journey. Presentations to the media at ESA/ESTEC will start at 10h00 on 16 September. Media representatives wishing to attend are kindly requested to fill out the attached form and return it - preferably by fax (+ - to : ESA Public Relations Division, 8/10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS. Note to Television Editors : A video index, containing extensive background material on the

  4. Going deep : new generation of giant rigs extends drillers' reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverty Wilson, K.


    The Eirik Roude, an offshore super rig, arrived in Halifax Harbour from Florida in the summer 2001 for a retrofit before it is sent to work in the rugged environment offshore of Nova Scotia. The drilling platform is a joint venture between PanCanadian Petroleum and Ocean Rig. Is is the most technologically advanced and sophisticated deep water drilling platform in the world and can operate in 3,000 metre deep water for 365 days of the year. It is a fifth-generation semi-submersible rig. It floats on long legs that lower the centre of gravity below surface turbulence to provide a stable work platform even during Atlantic storms. The 110 metre long rig has three mud systems that store 593 cubic metres in mud pits, 1,260 cubic metres in pontoons, and can carry 26,140 barrels of fuel oil, 4,070 barrels of potable water and 13,210 barrels of drilling water. PanCanadian has provided $2 million to the Nova Scotia Community College to teach an appropriate curriculum for the required workforce. It is expected that 120 local workers will be recruited. PanCanadian plans to drill 3 or 4 offshore wells annually for the next 5 years. It is estimated that 700-800 workers will be on site at the peak of the retrofit. In addition, Marathon Oil has contracted the Smedvig-owned West Navion for Nova Scotia work. This vessel is designed to work in depths of up to 2,500 metres and can be upgraded to reach 3,000 metres. Its' dual handling capacity makes it suitable to do drilling and well completion simultaneously, thereby reducing the halts in operations and increasing the drilling efficiency. East Coast governments and trade associations are also committed to make the most of the offshore oil and gas revival, including the development of a petrochemical market. Their goal is to build a world class energy sector while protecting the environment and optimizing the financial, economic and social benefits to Nova Scotians. The Nova Scotia Benefits program requires that oil companies

  5. Seventh meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: reaching the vision by scaling up, scaling down, and reaching out (United States)


    This report summarizes the 7th meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF), Washington DC, November 18–19, 2012. The theme, “A Future Free of Lymphatic Filariasis: Reaching the Vision by Scaling Up, Scaling Down and Reaching Out”, emphasized new strategies and partnerships necessary to reach the 2020 goal of elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public-health problem. PMID:24450283

  6. Accessing completeness of pregnancy, delivery, and death registration by Accredited Social Health Activists [ASHA] in an innovative mHealth project in the tribal areas of Gujarat: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Modi


    Full Text Available Background: The Innovative Mobile-phone Technology for Community Health Operation (ImTeCHO is a mobile-phone application that helps Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs in complete registration through the strategies employed during implementation that is linking ASHAs′ incentives to digital records, regular feedback, onsite data entry, and demand generation among beneficiaries. Objective: To determine the proportion of pregnancies, deliveries, and infant deaths (events being registered through the ImTeCHO application against actual number of events in a random sample of villages. Materials and Methods: Five representative villages were randomly selected from the ImTeCHO project area in the tribal areas of Gujarat, India to obtain the required sample of 98 recently delivered women. A household survey was done in the entire villages to enumerate each family and create a line-listing of events since January 2014; the line-listing was compared with list of women registered through the ImTeCHO application. The proportion of events being registered through the ImTeCHO application was compared against the actual number of events to find sensitivity of the ImTeCHO application. Result: A total of 844 families were found during household enumeration. Out of actual line-listing of pregnancies (N = 39, deliveries (N = 102, and infant deaths (N = 5 found during household enumeration, 38 (97.43%, 101 (99.01%, and 5 (100% were registered by ASHAs through the ImTeCHO application. Conclusion: The use of mobile-phone technology and strategies applied during the ImTeCHO implementation should be upscaled to supplement efforts to improve the completeness of registration.

  7. Global Broadcast Service Reach Back Via Ultra High Frequency Demand Assigned Multiple Access Satellite Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur, Joseph


    .... An integral part of the user pull is the reach back channel. The reach back channel allows users to speciiy the information they need broadcast and tailor the information to meet their mission needs...

  8. Global Broadcast Service Reach Back via Ultra High Frequency Demand Assigned Multiple Satellite Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur, Joseph


    .... An integral part of the user pull is the reach back channel. The reach back channel allows users to specify' the information they need broadcast and tailor the information to meet their mission needs...

  9. The Ability of Sheep to Reach for Food Through Tombstone Barriers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    animal enterprises. (McIntire ... models for predicting forwards and sideways hori- zontal~~ach at different feeding-platform heights. Since the study ... models for predicting horizontal reach included body weight and withers height. Vertical reach.

  10. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve


    .... The six LTRMP study reaches are Pools 4 (excluding Lake Pepin), 8, 13, and 26 of the Upper Mississippi River, an unimpounded reach of the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and the La Grange Pool of the Illinois River...

  11. Influence of gravity compensation on muscle activity during reach and retrieval in healthy elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prange, Grada Berendina; Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Jannink, M.J.A.; Stienen, Arno; van der Kooij, Herman; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.


    INTRODUCTION: Arm support like gravity compensation may improve arm movements during stroke rehabilitation. It is unknown how gravity compensation affects muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval movements. Since muscle activity during reach is represented by a component varying with

  12. Scientific governance and the process for exposure scenario development in REACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Money, C.D.; Hemmen, J.J. van; Vermeire, T.G.


    The primary process established by the European Commission to address the science needed to define key REACH concepts and to help rationally implement REACH's ambitions is enshrined in a series of activities known as the REACH Implementation Projects (RIPs). These are projects that aim to define the

  13. Children's Visual Processing of Egocentric Cues in Action Planning for Reach (United States)

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl


    In this study the authors examined children's ability to code visual information into an egocentric frame of reference for planning reach movements. Children and adults estimated reach distance via motor imagery in immediate and response-delay conditions. Actual maximum reach was compared to estimates in multiple locations in peripersonal and…

  14. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine


    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. López-Miñarro


    Full Text Available This study compares the forward reach score, spine and pelvis postures, and hamstring criterion-related validity (concurrent validity between the sit-and-reach test (SR and the back-saver sit-and-reach test (BS. Seventy-six men (mean age ± SD: 23.45 ± 3.96 years and 67 women (mean age ± SD: 23.85 ± 5.36 years were asked to perform three trials of SR, BS left (BSl, right (BSr, and passive straight leg raise (PSLR right and left (hamstring criterion measure in a randomized order. The thoracic, lumbar, and pelvis angles (measured with a Uni-level inclinometer and forward reach scores were recorded once the subjects reached forward as far as possible without flexing the knees. A repeated measure ANOVA was performed followed by Bonferroni´s post hoc test. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to define the relationships between SR and BS scores with respect to PSLR. In both men and women, the thoracic angle in BS was significantly greater than in SR (p<0.016. However, no significant differences were found between the tests in lumbar angle, pelvic angle, and forward reach scores. The concurrent validity of the forward reach score as a measure of hamstring extensibility was moderate in women (0.66 0. 76 and weak to moderate in men (0.51 0.59. The concurrent validity was slightly higher in SR than in BS, although no significant differences between the correlation values were observed. There were significant differences in the thoracic angle between the SR and BS, but not in the forward reach score. There was no difference in concurrent validity between the two tests. However, the traditional SR was preferred because it reached better concurrent validity than the BS

  16. Activist Environmental Education and Moral Philosophy (United States)

    Burns, David Patrick; Norris, Stephen P.


    In this article the authors respond to a recent special issue of the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" (Alsop & Bencze, 2010) in which the role of environmental activism in science, mathematics, and technology education (SMTE) was addressed. Although they applaud this Special Issue's invitation to begin a new…

  17. Laying Claim to Social Media by Activists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Neumayer, Christina


    engage in struggles against the current economic system. We employ the notion of détournement, which describes how social movements turn something aside from its normal course or purpose. Based on interviews and online ethnographic observations, we seek to understand how and with what consequences social...... media facilitate and limit collective action. The article enhances our understanding of activists’ social media use by turning our attention to the sociotechnical impact of social media on collective action initiated by leftist groups as well as the relationship between ideological loyalties...

  18. Beijing and beyond: challenges for activists. (United States)

    Bunch, C


    As UN World Conferences have become "global town meetings," the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) provides an important opportunity for women to relate to the UN as an arena of global activism. The first WCW in 1975 led to the establishment of the UN Decade for Women that culminated in the third WCW in 1985 during which the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies were approved. During the 1990s, women's issues have been a major part of the agenda at the Earth Summit, the World Conference on Human Rights, the International Conference on Population and Development, and the World Summit on Social Development. Women must continue to increase international understanding of the central role women play in their communities, and they must learn to exert more international leadership even as religious and political forces attempt to keep women firmly "in their place." The Fourth WCW must mirror how women see the world and their vision for the future. In order to use the Fourth WCW effectively, participants should consider the following questions. 1) What issues should gain media exposure? 2) What policy objectives can be achieved in the Platform for Action, 3) What opportunities exist to learn from the conference process. 4) How can the WCW process be brought home as an educational tool? 5) How can the WCW promote women's networking at all levels? 6) Finally, what commitments can be gained and how can implementation of the promises made during the WCW be achieved?

  19. Congolese women activists in DRC and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Godin


    Full Text Available Congolese women are energetically engaged in peacebuilding, both in DRC and abroad.Their voices – inspired by different experiences and presenting different perspectives – deserve greater recognition.

  20. Geneva Smitherman: Translingualist, Code-Mesher, Activist (United States)

    Durst, Russel K.


    This article examines the work of Geneva Smitherman, its contribution to the development of composition studies, and its relation to recent scholarship on translingualism and code-meshing. Analyzing her prodigious output in relation to these contemporary studies of language diversity and writing instruction, the article considers Smitherman's…

  1. Grip type and task goal modify reach-to-grasp performance in post-stroke hemiparesis. (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y; DeJong, Stacey L; Cherry, Kendra M; Lang, Catherine E


    This study investigated whether grip type and/or task goal influenced reaching and grasping performance in poststroke hemiparesis. Sixteen adults with poststroke hemiparesis and twelve healthy adults reached to and grasped a cylindrical object using one of two grip types (3-finger or palmar) to achieve one of two task goals (hold or lift). Performance of the stroke group was characteristic of hemiparetic limb movement during reach-to-grasp, with more curved handpaths and slower velocities compared with the control group. These effects were present regardless of grip type or task goal. Other measures of reaching (reach time and reach velocity at object contact) and grasping (peak thumb-index finger aperture during the reach and peak grip force during the grasp) were differentially affected by grip type, task goal, or both, despite the presence of hemiparesis, providing new evidence that changes in motor patterns after stroke may occur to compensate for stroke-related motor impairment.

  2. A New Perspective for Ethics of Economy: Commercial Ethics for Activists--On the J. Cory's View of Economical Ethics%经济伦理学的一个新视角:活动家商业伦理--论雅克·科里的经济伦理观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦; 余潇枫


    @@ 雅克·科里(Jacques Cory)是近年来经济伦理学领域的著名学者,其主要著作有(Activist Business Ethics)和(Business Ethics-the Ethical Revolution of Minority Shareholders)等.科里的经济伦理观自成体系,见解独到,特别是其"活动家商业伦理"的思想为日益发展的经济伦理学提供了一个新的研究视角.

  3. Reaching Girls (United States)

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.


    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  4. Reach Out (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen


    The experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) is in trouble. Financial support for basic operant-conditioning research is difficult to obtain; teaching and research positions in colleges and universities are few; and bright undergraduates join other fields for graduate study. One reason for the difficulty is that EAB basic research does not focus…

  5. Reaching Out (United States)

    Moore, John W.


    In the United States, National Chemistry Week is November 7-13. (For more NCW information, go to NCW's theme, celebrating polymers, is echoed in this issue (pages 1497-1501, 1512-1513, 1521-1540). Almost certainly there will be chemists in your area spending a great deal of their time on outreach activities for children and the general public during NCW. Chances are good that many Journal readers like you will be among them. And there are probably many more outreach programs that you or your acquaintances lead during the rest of the year. This month of NCW seems an appropriate time to reflect on the tremendous benefits that outreach programs provide. Early examples of outreach involved books, public lectures, and chemical demonstrations. In 1800 Count Rumford collaborated with influential Londoners to establish the Royal Institution as a means of providing lectures on science and technology to help working people to improve their lot. Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday, and many others continued the tradition. Faraday's own interest in science was sparked in part by Jane Marcet's book Conversations in Chemistry, whose friendly style made its contents accessible and fascinating to the young, highly intelligent bookbinder's apprentice. In the United States, Benjamin Silliman, first professor of chemistry at Yale, became widely known for his textbooks on geology and chemistry and for his ability as a popular lecturer. Silliman's lecture tours took him as far from New Haven as St. Louis and New Orleans. By the mid-1800s societies for the advancement of science and of chemistry were being set up in Europe. In 1876 American chemists who gathered at Priestley's grave in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, to commemorate the centennial of the discovery of oxygen saw the need for a permanent organization and founded the American Chemical Society. By the beginning of the 20th century these societies were supporting education and public awareness of science. The first issue of this Journal described an outreach effort to place portraits of great American chemists in schools throughout the country, and a 1925 article dealt with "Educating the Public in the Use of the Metric System". A search of the JCE Online Index reveals many articles about chemistry and the public, with the number per year increasing steadily. During the last decade, for example, there have been 16 articles whose titles include "outreach" and many more that describe programs and resources for the general public. Current outreach efforts include a much broader range of activities and media. Hands-on science has become very popular, but so has virtual science on the World Wide Web. A combination of the two, which is aimed at K-8 children, can be found at the ACS Education Division's WonderNet site ( For older children there is Your Virtual Chemistry Club ( Many more ACS outreach materials are described at their Web site. Outreach activities described in this Journal include programs in which high school, college, or graduate students visit schools and work with children and teachers, events in which participants compete to carry out chemical tasks, programs aimed at women and minorities, van programs in which chemicals and instruments are transported throughout broad geographical areas to support teachers and students, chemistry summer camps, and many others. The International Chemistry Olympiad (see report on page 1480) involves large numbers of students and ACS local sectionsand more than 50 countries. Outreach to outreach leaders is provided by the Institute for Chemical Education, which distributes booklets that explain how to organize and carry out programs ( The concept that the public is interested in science and can benefit from learning about science has expanded far beyond what Count Rumford could have imagined. Today we have books, magazines, videos, television programs, museums, theme parks, Web sites, and many other venues that include science. However, I always have a twinge of disappointment when I look at the shelves in our local bookstore and find that there are far more titles in other sciences than in chemistry. Are other sciences inherently more interestingor their practitioners inherently more literate? I think not. Popularizing chemistry is more dependent on human interaction than is popularizing many other sciences. People deal with devices that approximate Newtonian physics every day. The stars, moon, and planets are there every night, and their vast number and regular motions inspire awe. Living systems are familiar to everyone, and we can observe their behavior and classify them. But chemistry is often hidden or complicated. Cooking food changes the food chemically, but both initial and final versions, like most other substances we encounter daily, are complicated mixtures. Chemists' atomic-scale models are not accessible to our senses. In order for chemistry not to be magic, someone needs to select simple, interesting, relevant examples, demonstrate them or help the average person work with them, and then relate those examples to everyday life. Participating in and supporting National Chemistry Week and other outreach programs is crucial to the health of our discipline. Without chemists who donate their time and expertise to helping people understand and become familiar with chemistry, our fascinating subject is likely to seem dullor even scary. During National Chemistry Week, and during every other week of the year, we should extend hearty thanks to the myriad chemists and teachers whose time, energy, and expertise contribute to helping the public recognize how important and interesting chemistry is.

  6. Channel morphodynamics in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River, 2006-07 (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.


    Channel morphodynamics in response to flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam are examined in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River. Measures include changes in channel morphology and indicators of sediment transport in four 6 kilometer long reaches located downstream from Gavins Point Dam, near Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri. Each of the four reaches was divided into 300 transects with a 20-meter spacing and surveyed during the summer in 2006 and 2007. A subset of 30 transects was randomly selected and surveyed 7-10 times in 2006-07 over a wide range of discharges including managed and natural flow events. Hydroacoustic mapping used a survey-grade echosounder and a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System to evaluate channel change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to evaluate bed-sediment velocity. Results indicate varying amounts of deposition, erosion, net change, and sediment transport in the four Lower Missouri River reaches. The Yankton reach was the most stable over monthly and annual time-frames. The Kenslers Bend and Little Sioux reaches exhibited substantial amounts of deposition and erosion, although net change was generally low in both reaches. Total, or gross geomorphic change was greatest in the Kenslers Bend reach. The Miami reach exhibited varying rates of deposition and erosion, and low net change. The Yankton, Kenslers Bend, and Miami reaches experienced net erosion during the time period that bracketed the managed May 2006 spring rise event from Gavins Point Dam.

  7. Differential Recruitment of Parietal Cortex during Spatial and Non-spatial Reach Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Michel Bernier


    Full Text Available The planning of goal-directed arm reaching movements is associated with activity in the dorsal parieto-frontal cortex, within which multiple regions subserve the integration of arm- and target-related sensory signals to encode a motor goal. Surprisingly, many of these regions show sustained activity during reach preparation even when target location is not specified, i.e., when a motor goal cannot be unambiguously formed. The functional role of these non-spatial preparatory signals remains unresolved. Here this process was investigated in humans by comparing reach preparatory activity in the presence or absence of information regarding upcoming target location. In order to isolate the processes specific to reaching and to control for visuospatial attentional factors, the reaching task was contrasted to a finger movement task. Functional MRI and electroencephalography (EEG were used to characterize the spatio-temporal pattern of reach-related activity in the parieto-frontal cortex. Reach planning with advance knowledge of target location induced robust blood oxygenated level dependent and EEG responses across parietal and premotor regions contralateral to the reaching arm. In contrast, reach preparation without knowledge of target location was associated with a significant BOLD response bilaterally in the parietal cortex. Furthermore, EEG alpha- and beta-band activity was restricted to parietal scalp sites, the magnitude of the latter being correlated with reach reaction times. These results suggest an intermediate stage of sensorimotor transformations in bilateral parietal cortex when target location is not specified.

  8. Whisker and Nose Tactile Sense Guide Rat Behavior in a Skilled Reaching Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierantonio Parmiani


    Full Text Available Skilled reaching is a complex movement in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food for eating. Video-recordings analysis of control rats enables us to distinguish several components of skilled reaching: Orient, approaching the front wall of the reaching box and poking the nose into the slot to locate the food pellet; Transport, advancing the forelimb through the slot to reach-grasp the pellet; and Withdrawal of the grasped food to eat. Although food location and skilled reaching is guided by olfaction, the importance of whisker/nose tactile sense in rats suggests that this too could play a role in reaching behavior. To test this hypothesis, we studied skilled reaching in rats trained in a single-pellet reaching task before and after bilateral whisker trimming and bilateral infraorbital nerve (ION severing. During the task, bilaterally trimmed rats showed impaired Orient with respect to controls. Specifically, they detected the presence of the wall by hitting it with their nose (rather than their whiskers, and then located the slot through repetitive nose touches. The number of nose touches preceding poking was significantly higher in comparison to controls. On the other hand, macrovibrissae trimming resulted in no change in reaching/grasping or withdrawal components of skilled reaching. Bilaterally ION-severed rats, displayed a marked change in the structure of their skilled reaching. With respect to controls, in ION-severed rats: (a approaches to the front wall were significantly reduced at 3–5 and 6–8 days; (b nose pokes were significantly reduced at 3–5 days, and the slot was only located after many repetitive nose touches; (c the reaching-grasping-retracting movement never appeared at 3–5 days; (d explorative paw movements, equal to zero in controls, reached significance at 9–11 days; and (e the restored reaching-grasping-retracting sequence was globally slower than in controls, but the success rate was the same. These findings

  9. Outcomes of senior reach gatekeeper referrals: comparison of the Spokane gatekeeper program, Colorado Senior Reach, and Mid-Kansas Senior Outreach. (United States)

    Bartsch, David A; Rodgers, Vicki K; Strong, Don


    Outcomes of older adults referred for care management and mental health services through the senior reach gatekeeper model of case finding were examined in this study and compared with the Spokane gatekeeper model Colorado Senior Reach and the Mid-Kansas Senior Outreach (MKSO) programs are the two Senior Reach Gatekeeper programs modeled after the Spokane program, employing the same community education and gatekeeper model and with mental health treatment for elderly adults in need of support. The three mature programs were compared on seniors served isolation, and depression ratings. Nontraditional community gatekeepers were trained and referred seniors in need. Findings indicate that individuals served by the two Senior Reach Gatekeeper programs demonstrated significant improvements. Isolation indicators such as social isolation decreased and depression symptoms and suicide ideation also decreased. These findings for two Senior Reach Gatekeeper programs demonstrate that the gatekeeper approach to training community partners worked in referring at-risk seniors in need in meeting their needs, and in having a positive impact on their lives.

  10. A Novel Line Coding Pair for Fully Passive Long Reach {WDM-PON}s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presi, Marco; Proietti, Roberto; Prince, Kamau


    A novel line coding pair allows to use unsaturated flective-SOAs as upstream remodulator in long-reach WDM-PONs. Full-duplex and symmetric 80 km reach is demonstrated without in-line amplification at 1.25 Gb/s......A novel line coding pair allows to use unsaturated flective-SOAs as upstream remodulator in long-reach WDM-PONs. Full-duplex and symmetric 80 km reach is demonstrated without in-line amplification at 1.25 Gb/s...

  11. Decoding Grasping Movements from the Parieto-Frontal Reaching Circuit in the Nonhuman Primate. (United States)

    Nelissen, Koen; Fiave, Prosper Agbesi; Vanduffel, Wim


    Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits. Indicative of their established role in grasping, object-specific grasp decoding was found in anterior intraparietal (AIP) area, inferior parietal lobule area PFG and ventral premotor region F5 of the lateral grasping circuit, and primary motor cortex. Importantly, the medial reaching circuit also conveyed robust grasp-specific information, as evidenced by significant decoding in parietal reach regions (particular V6A) and dorsal premotor region F2. These data support the proposed role of dorso-medial "reach" regions in controlling aspects of grasping and demonstrate the value of complementing univariate with more sensitive multivariate analyses of functional MRI (fMRI) data in uncovering information coding in the brain.

  12. Dry Stream Reaches in Carbonate Terranes: Surface Indicators of Ground-Water Reservoirs (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Hollyday, E.F.


    In areas where dry stream reaches occur, subsurface drainage successfully competes with surface drainage, and sheet-like dissolution openings have developed parallel to bedding creating the ground-water reservoir. Union Hollow in south-central Tennessee is the setting for a case study that illustrates the application of the dry stream reach technique. In this technique, dry stream reach identification is based on two types of readily acquired information: remotely sensed black and white infrared aerial photography; and surface reconnaissance of stream channel characteristics. Test drilling in Union Hollow subsequent to identification of the dry reach proved that a localized ground-water reservoir was present.

  13. Dynamic channel adjustments in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Deng, Shanshan; Lu, Jinyou; Xu, Quanxi; Zong, Quanli; Tan, Guangming


    Significant channel adjustments have occurred in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River, because of the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). The Jingjiang Reach is selected as the study area, covering the Upper Jingjiang Reach (UJR) and Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR). The reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions in the study reach were calculated annually from 2002 to 2013 by means of a reach-averaged approach and surveyed post-flood profiles at 171 sections. We find from the calculated results that: the reach-scale bankfull widths changed slightly in the UJR and LJR, with the corresponding depths increasing by 1.6 m and 1.0 m the channel adjustments occurred mainly with respect to bankfull depth because of the construction of large-scale bank revetment works, although there were significant bank erosion processes in local regions without the bank protection engineering. The reach-scale bankfull dimensions in the UJR and LJR generally responded to the previous five-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with higher correlations being obtained for the depth and cross-sectional area. It is concluded that these dynamic adjustments of the channel geometry are a direct result of recent human activities such as the TGP operation.

  14. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika


    of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception...... was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive...

  15. Cerebellar inactivation impairs memory of learned prism gaze-reach calibrations. (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Hathaway, Emily N; Taylor, Jordan A; Thach, W Thomas


    Three monkeys performed a visually guided reach-touch task with and without laterally displacing prisms. The prisms offset the normally aligned gaze/reach and subsequent touch. Naive monkeys showed adaptation, such that on repeated prism trials the gaze-reach angle widened and touches hit nearer the target. On the first subsequent no-prism trial the monkeys exhibited an aftereffect, such that the widened gaze-reach angle persisted and touches missed the target in the direction opposite that of initial prism-induced error. After 20-30 days of training, monkeys showed long-term learning and storage of the prism gaze-reach calibration: they switched between prism and no-prism and touched the target on the first trials without adaptation or aftereffect. Injections of lidocaine into posterolateral cerebellar cortex or muscimol or lidocaine into dentate nucleus temporarily inactivated these structures. Immediately after injections into cortex or dentate, reaches were displaced in the direction of prism-displaced gaze, but no-prism reaches were relatively unimpaired. There was little or no adaptation on the day of injection. On days after injection, there was no adaptation and both prism and no-prism reaches were horizontally, and often vertically, displaced. A single permanent lesion (kainic acid) in the lateral dentate nucleus of one monkey immediately impaired only the learned prism gaze-reach calibration and in subsequent days disrupted both learning and performance. This effect persisted for the 18 days of observation, with little or no adaptation.

  16. Probing the reaching-grasping network in humans through multivoxel pattern decoding. (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Begliomini, Chiara; Castiello, Umberto; Zorzi, Marco


    The quest for a putative human homolog of the reaching-grasping network identified in monkeys has been the focus of many neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies in recent years. These studies have shown that the network underlying reaching-only and reach-to-grasp movements includes the superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC), the anterior part of the human intraparietal sulcus (hAIP), the ventral and the dorsal portion of the premotor cortex, and the primary motor cortex (M1). Recent evidence for a wider frontoparietal network coding for different aspects of reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions calls for a more fine-grained assessment of the reaching-grasping network in humans by exploiting pattern decoding methods (multivoxel pattern analysis--MVPA). Here, we used MPVA on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to assess whether regions of the frontoparietal network discriminate between reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions, natural and constrained grasping, different grasp types, and object sizes. Participants were required to perform either reaching-only movements or two reach-to-grasp types (precision or whole hand grasp) upon spherical objects of different sizes. Multivoxel pattern analysis highlighted that, independently from the object size, all the selected regions of both hemispheres contribute in coding for grasp type, with the exception of SPOC and the right hAIP. Consistent with recent neurophysiological findings on monkeys, there was no evidence for a clear-cut distinction between a dorsomedial and a dorsolateral pathway that would be specialized for reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions, respectively. Nevertheless, the comparison of decoding accuracy across brain areas highlighted their different contributions to reaching-only and grasping actions. Altogether, our findings enrich the current knowledge regarding the functional role of key brain areas involved in the cortical control of reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions

  17. Phenomena and characteristics of barrier river reaches in the middle and lower Yangtze River, China (United States)

    You, Xingying; Tang, Jinwu


    Alluvial river self-adjustment describes the mechanism whereby a river that was originally in an equilibrium state of sediment transport encounters some disturbance that destroys the balance and results in responses such as riverbed deformation. A systematic study of historical and recent aerial photographs and topographic maps in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) shows that river self-adjustment has the distinguishing feature of transferring from upstream to downstream, which may affect flood safety, waterway morphology, bank stability, and aquatic environmental safety over relatively long reaches downstream. As a result, it is necessary to take measures to control or block this transfer. Using the relationship of the occurrence time of channel adjustments between the upstream and downstream, 34 single-thread river reaches in the MLYR were classified into four types: corresponding, basically corresponding, basically not corresponding, not corresponding. The latter two types, because of their ability to prevent upstream channel adjustment from transferring downstream, are called barrier river reaches in this study. Statistics indicate that barrier river reaches are generally single thread and slightly curved, with a narrow and deep cross-sectional morphology, and without flow deflecting nodes in the upper and middle parts of reaches. Moreover, in the MLYR, barrier river reaches have a hydrogeometric coefficient of {}1.2‱, a silty clay content of the concave bank {>}{9.5}%, and a median diameter of the bed sediment {>}{0.158} mm. The barrier river reach mechanism lies in that can effectively centralise the planimetric position of the main stream from different upstream directions, meaning that no matter how the upper channel adjusts, the main stream shows little change, providing relatively stable inflow conditions for the lower reaches. Regarding river regulation, it is necessary to optimise the benefits of barrier river reaches; long river

  18. Development of the quality of reaching in infants with cerebral palsy : a kinematic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxum, Anke G; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Dijkstra, Linze-Jaap; Hamer, Elisa G; Hielkema, Tjitske; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    AIM: To assess development of reaching and head stability in infants at very high risk (VHR-infants) of cerebral palsy (CP) who did and did not develop CP. METHOD: This explorative longitudinal study assessed the kinematics of reaching and head sway in sitting in 37 VHR-infants (18 CP) one to four

  19. Interactions REACH and other chemical legislation. Setting of environmental quality standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; Janssen MPM; Zweers PGPC; Sijm DTHM; SEC; mev


    Via de Europese wet- en regelgeving REACH wordt aangetoond of het gebruik van chemische stoffen veilig is. De informatie die REACH oplevert is gedeeltelijk bruikbaar voor andere beleidskaders waar normen een rol spelen, zoals de Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW), het Nederlandse stoffenbeleid en

  20. Taxation and the unequal reach of the state: mapping state capacity in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, I.


    Even though the unequal reach of the state has become an important concern in the literature on developing democracies in Latin America, empirical measures of intracountry variation in state capacity are scarce. So far, attempts to develop valid measures of the reach of the state have often been

  1. Kinematic analysis of head, trunk, and pelvis movement when people early after stroke reach sideways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheyden, G.; Duijnhoven, H.J.R. van; Burnett, M.; Littlewood, J.; Kunkel, D.; Ashburn, A.M.


    BACKGROUND: Sideways reaching with the unaffected arm while seated is a component of everyday activities and can be a challenging task early after stroke. Kinematic analysis of a lateral reach task may provide potential rehabilitation strategies. OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the difference

  2. Postural and Object-Oriented Experiences Advance Early Reaching, Object Exploration, and Means-End Behavior (United States)

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.


    The effects of 3 weeks of social (control), postural, or object-oriented experiences on 9- to 21-week-old infants' (N = 42) reaching, exploration, and means-end behaviors were assessed. Coders recorded object contacts, mouthing, fingering, attention, and affect from video. Postural and object-oriented experiences advanced reaching, haptic…

  3. Digital Immigrants, Digital Learning: Reaching Adults through Information Literacy Instruction Online (United States)

    Rapchak, Marcia; Behary, Robert


    As information literacy programs become more robust, finding methods of reaching students beyond the traditional undergraduate has become a priority for many institutions. At Duquesne University, efforts have been made to reach adult learners in an accelerated program targeted to nontraditional students, much of which is provided online. This…

  4. 37 CFR 1.47 - Filing when an inventor refuses to sign or cannot be reached. (United States)


    ... reached. (a) If a joint inventor refuses to join in an application for patent or cannot be found or reached after diligent effort, the application may be made by the other inventor on behalf of himself or... PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  5. Development of Reaching and Grasping Skills in Infants with Down Syndrome (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.


    Reaching and grasping skills have been described to emerge from a dynamic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of such intrinsic factors as age and Down syndrome on the development of reaching and grasping skills and on overall gross motor skill, and to test the influence of the…

  6. Exploring REACH as a potential data source for characterizing ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment. (United States)

    Müller, Nienke; de Zwart, Dick; Hauschild, Michael; Kijko, Gaël; Fantke, Peter


    Toxicity models in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) currently only characterize a small fraction of marketed substances, mostly because of limitations in the underlying ecotoxicity data. One approach to improve the current data situation in LCIA is to identify new data sources, such as the European Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) database. The present study explored REACH as a potential data source for LCIA based on matching reported ecotoxicity data for substances that are currently also included in the United Nations Environment Programme/Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) scientific consensus model USEtox for characterizing toxicity impacts. Data are evaluated with respect to number of data points, reported reliability, and test duration, and are compared with data listed in USEtox at the level of hazardous concentration for 50% of the covered species per substance. The results emphasize differences between data available via REACH and in USEtox. The comparison of ecotoxicity data from REACH and USEtox shows potential for using REACH ecotoxicity data in LCIA toxicity characterization, but also highlights issues related to compliance of submitted data with REACH requirements as well as different assumptions underlying regulatory risk assessment under REACH versus data needed for LCIA. Thus, further research is required to address data quality, pre-processing, and applicability, before considering data submitted under REACH as a data source for use in LCIA, and also to explore additionally available data sources, published studies, and reports. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:492-500. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Numerical modelling of ice floods in the Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.


    The Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin is located in the Inner Mongolia region at the Northern part of the Yellow River. Due to the special geographical conditions, the river flow direction is towards the North causing the Ning-Meng reach to freeze up every year in wintertime. Both during the

  8. Pilot study to test effectiveness of video game on reaching performance in stroke. (United States)

    Acosta, Ana Maria; Dewald, Hendrik A; Dewald, Jules P A


    Robotic systems currently used in upper-limb rehabilitation following stroke rely on some form of visual feedback as part of the intervention program. We evaluated the effect of a video game environment (air hockey) on reaching in stroke with various levels of arm support. We used the Arm Coordination Training 3D system to provide variable arm support and to control the hockey stick. We instructed seven subjects to reach to one of three targets covering the workspace of the impaired arm during the reaching task and to reach as far as possible while playing the video game. The results from this study showed that across subjects, support levels, and targets, the reaching distances achieved with the reaching task were greater than those covered with the video game. This held even after further restricting the mapped workspace of the arm to the area most affected by the flexion synergy (effectively forcing subjects to fight the synergy to reach the hockey puck). The results from this study highlight the importance of designing video games that include specific reaching targets in the workspace compromised by the expression of the flexion synergy. Such video games would also adapt the target location online as a subject's success rate increases.

  9. REACHing out to the bio-based economy : Perspectives and challenges of EU chemicals legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luit RJ; Waaijers-van der Loop SL; Heugens EHW; ICH; VSP


    The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (hereafter: RIVM) recently investigated how the bio-based economy, more specifically the bio-based chemistry sector, relates to the EU REACH Regulation on chemicals. From this investigation, RIVM learnt that REACH may actually be an

  10. Effect of Visual Field Presentation on Action Planning (Estimating Reach) in Children (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto


    In this article, the authors examined the effects of target information presented in different visual fields (lower, upper, central) on estimates of reach via use of motor imagery in children (5-11 years old) and young adults. Results indicated an advantage for estimating reach movements for targets placed in lower visual field (LoVF), with all…

  11. Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Financial Planning Summary (United States)

    Public Impact, 2012


    This brief summarizes the ways that schools and their teachers can simultaneously reach more students with excellent teaching, expand teachers' career opportunities, and sustainably fund higher pay and other priorities. This is based on Public Impact's school models that use job redesign and technology to extend the reach of excellent teachers to…

  12. The ability of sheep to reach for food through tombstone barriers, as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of sheep to reach for food through tombstone barriers, as affected by position of food, body weight and body dimensions. ... The barrier allowed the neck to pass through, but not the shoulders. It was hypothesised that horizontal reach forwards (F. distance from mid-point of barrier to uneaten meal) and sideways ...

  13. Development of Reaching and Grasping skills in infants with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Campos, A.C.; Rocha, N.A.C.F.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.


    Reaching and grasping skills have been described to emerge from a dynamic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of such intrinsic factors as age and Down syndrome on the development of reaching and grasping skills and on overall

  14. Interrupted object-based updating of reach program leads to a negative compatibility effect. (United States)

    Vainio, Lari


    The author investigated how the motor program elicited by an object's orientation is updated by object-based information while a participant reaches for the object. Participants selected the hand of response according to the thickness of the graspable object and then reached toward the location in which the object appeared. Reach initiation times decreased when the handle of the object was oriented toward the responding hand. This positive compatibility effect turned into a negative compatibility effect (NCE) during reach execution when the object was removed from the display 300 ms after object onset or replaced with a mask at movement onset. The results demonstrate that interrupted object-based updating of an ongoing reach movement triggers the NCE.

  15. Coal-tar pitch high temperature (CTPHT), transitional arrangements and way forward under REACH. REACH-SEA report of scoping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman M; Boersma AHR; Sijm DTHM; SEC


    Een beperking of autorisatie binnen de Europese wetgeving REACH is niet de meest geeigende manier om de risico's aan te pakken van PAK-emissies. Deze emissies, die vooral vrijkomen tijdens productie- of verbrandingsprocessen, worden namelijk niet goed ondervangen in deze wetgeving. Dit

  16. Adaptive upstream rate adjustment by RSOA-ONU depending on different injection power of seeding light in standard-reach and long-reach PON systems (United States)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Shih, F. Y.; Pan, C. L.


    The wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing (WDM-TDM) passive optical network (PON) using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based colorless optical networking units (ONUs) is considered as a promising candidate for the realization of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). And this architecture is actively considered by Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for the realization of FTTH in Taiwan. However, different fiber distances and optical components would introduce different power budgets to different ONUs in the PON. Besides, due to the aging of optical transmitter (Tx), the power decay of the distributed optical carrier from the central office (CO) could also reduce the injection power into each ONU. The situation will be more severe in the long-reach (LR) PON, which is considered as an option for the future access. In this work, we investigate a WDM-TDM PON using RSOA-based ONU for upstream data rate adjustment depending on different continuous wave (CW) injection powers. Both standard-reach (25 km) and LR (100 km) transmissions are evaluated. Moreover, a detail analysis of the upstream signal bit-error rate (BER) performances at different injection powers, upstream data rates, PON split-ratios under stand-reach and long-reach is presented.

  17. Factors associated with reaching or not reaching target HbA1c after initiation of basal or premixed insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Scheen, A J; Schmitt, H; Jiang, H H; Ivanyi, T


    To evaluate factors associated with reaching or not reaching target glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels by analysing the respective contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG), also referred to as basal hyperglycaemia, vs postprandial hyperglycaemia (PHG) before and after initiation of a basal or premixed insulin regimen in patients with type 2 diabetes. This post-hoc analysis of insulin-naïve patients in the DURABLE study randomised to receive either insulin glargine or insulin lispro mix 25 evaluated the percentages of patients achieving a target HbA 1c of <7.0% (<53mmol/mol) per baseline HbA 1c quartiles, and the effect of each insulin regimen on the relative contributions of PHG and FHG to overall hyperglycaemia. Patients had comparable demographic characteristics and similar HbA 1c and FHG values at baseline in each HbA 1c quartile regardless of whether they reached the target HbA 1c . The higher the HbA 1c quartile, the greater was the decrease in HbA 1c , but also the smaller the percentage of patients achieving the target HbA 1c . HbA 1c and FHG decreased more in patients reaching the target, resulting in significantly lower values at endpoint in all baseline HbA 1c quartiles with either insulin treatment. Patients not achieving the target HbA 1c had slightly higher insulin doses, but lower total hypoglycaemia rates. Smaller decreases in FHG were associated with not reaching the target HbA 1c , suggesting a need to increase basal or premixed insulin doses to achieve targeted fasting plasma glucose and improve patient response before introducing more intensive prandial insulin regimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Grip type and task goal modify reach-to-grasp performance in post-stroke hemiparesis (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y.; DeJong, Stacey L.; Cherry, Kendra M.; Lang, Catherine E.


    This study investigated whether grip type and/or task goal influenced reaching and grasping performance in post-stroke hemiparesis. Sixteen adults with post-stroke hemiparesis and twelve healthy adults reached to and grasped a cylindrical object using one of two grip types (3-finger or palmar) to achieve one of two task goals (hold or lift). Performance of the stroke group was characteristic of hemiparetic limb movement during reach-to-grasp, with more curved handpaths and slower velocities compared to the control group. These effects were present regardless of grip type or task goal. Other measures of reaching (reach time and reach velocity at object contact) and grasping (peak thumb-index finger aperture during the reach and peak grip force during the grasp) were differentially affected by grip type, task goal, or both, despite the presence of hemiparesis, providing new evidence that changes in motor patterns after stroke may occur to compensate for stroke-related motor impairment. PMID:22357103

  19. Association between imagined and actual functional reach (FR): a comparison of young and older adults. (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto


    Recent studies indicate that the ability to mentally represent action using motor imagery declines with advanced age (>64 years). As the ability to represent action declines, the elderly may experience increasing difficulty with movement planning and execution. Here, we determined the association between estimation of reach via use of motor imagery and actual FR. Young adults (M=22 years) and older adults (M=66 years) estimated reach while standing with targets randomly presented in peripersonal (within actual reach) and extrapersonal (beyond reach) space. Imagined responses were compared to the individual's scaled maximum reach. FR, also while standing, was assessed using the standardized Functional Reach Test (FRT). Results for total score estimation accuracy showed that there was no difference for age; however, results for mean bias and distribution of error revealed that the older group underestimated while the younger group overestimated. In reference to FR, younger adults outperformed older adults (30 versus 14in.) and most prominent, only the younger group showed a significant relationship between estimation and FR. In addition to gaining insight to the effects of advanced age on the ability to mentally represent action and its association with movement execution, these results although preliminary, may have clinical implications based on the question of whether motor imagery training could improve movement estimations and how that might affect actual reach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Muscle activation patterns in acceleration-based phases during reach-to-grasp movement. (United States)

    Tokuda, Keisuke; Lee, Bumsuk; Shiihara, Yasufumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Wada, Naoki; Shirakura, Kenji; Watanabe, Hideomi


    [Purpose] An earlier study divided reaching activity into characteristic phases based on hand velocity profiles. By synchronizing muscle activities and the acceleration profile, a phasing approach for reaching movement, based on hand acceleration profiles, was attempted in order to elucidate the roles of individual muscle activities in the different phases of the acceleration profile in reaching movements. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy volunteer subjects participated in this study. The aim was to electromyographically evaluate muscles around the shoulder, the upper trapezius, the anterior deltoid, the biceps brachii, and the triceps brachii, most of which have been used to evaluate arm motion, as well as the acceleration of the upper limb during simple reaching movement in the reach-to-grasp task. [Results] Analysis showed the kinematic trajectories of the acceleration during a simple biphasic profile of the reaching movement could be divided into four phases: increasing acceleration (IA), decreasing acceleration (DA), increasing deceleration (ID), and decreasing deceleration (DD). Muscles around the shoulder showed different activity patterns, which were closely associated with these acceleration phases. [Conclusion] These results suggest the important role of the four phases, derived from the acceleration trajectory, in the elucidation of the muscular mechanisms which regulate and coordinate the muscles around the shoulder in reaching movements.

  1. Emergent coordination underlying learning to reach to grasp with a brain-machine interface. (United States)

    Vaidya, Mukta; Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Southerland, Joshua; Badreldin, Islam; Eleryan, Ahmed; Shattuck, Kelsey; Gururangan, Suchin; Slutzky, Marc; Osborne, Leslie; Fagg, Andrew; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G


    The development of coordinated reach-to-grasp movement has been well studied in infants and children. However, the role of motor cortex during this development is unclear because it is difficult to study in humans. We took the approach of using a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus macaques with prior therapeutic amputations to examine the emergence of novel, coordinated reach to grasp. Previous research has shown that after amputation, the cortical area previously involved in the control of the lost limb undergoes reorganization, but prior BMI work has largely relied on finding neurons that already encode specific movement-related information. In this study, we taught macaques to cortically control a robotic arm and hand through operant conditioning, using neurons that were not explicitly reach or grasp related. Over the course of training, stereotypical patterns emerged and stabilized in the cross-covariance between the reaching and grasping velocity profiles, between pairs of neurons involved in controlling reach and grasp, and to a comparable, but lesser, extent between other stable neurons in the network. In fact, we found evidence of this structured coordination between pairs composed of all combinations of neurons decoding reach or grasp and other stable neurons in the network. The degree of and participation in coordination was highly correlated across all pair types. Our approach provides a unique model for studying the development of novel, coordinated reach-to-grasp movement at the behavioral and cortical levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Given that motor cortex undergoes reorganization after amputation, our work focuses on training nonhuman primates with chronic amputations to use neurons that are not reach or grasp related to control a robotic arm to reach to grasp through the use of operant conditioning, mimicking early development. We studied the development of a novel, coordinated behavior at the behavioral and cortical level, and the neural

  2. Investigation of PAM-4 for extending reach in data center interconnect applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Teipen, Brian; Eiselt, Nicklas


    Optical four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) is being widely studied for various short-reach optical interfaces, motivated by the need to keep cost structure low, and to increase link capacity despite various constraints in component bandwidth. When considering PAM-4 in applications...... with reach significantly greater than 10km, such as in extended data center interconnects which require optical amplification, impairments such as chromatic dispersion, optical filtering, and ASE must be controlled. We investigate and report on requirements of PAM-4 for extended-reach, data center...

  3. On the use of mixture toxicity assessment in REACH and the water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, T.S.; Cedergreen, Nina


      This review seeks to connect the scientific theory of mixture toxicity to its implementation within different regulatory frameworks. The aim is to demonstrate how mixture toxicity assessment can be more thoroughly integrated into the European chemical regulations, REACH and the Water Framework...... of how the methods could be applied within REACH and WFD. It is concluded that oncentration addition should be applied as a default model for mixture toxicity assessment. Furthermore, it is concluded that REACH and WFD only include mixture toxicity assessments in specific situations. However, it is shown...

  4. Analysis of reaching movements of upper arm in robot assisted exercises. Kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching single-joint movements. (United States)

    Iuppariello, Luigi; D'Addio, Giovanni; Romano, Maria; Bifulco, Paolo; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Pappone, Nicola; Cesarelli, Mario


    Robot-mediated therapy (RMT) has been a very dynamic area of research in recent years. Robotics devices are in fact capable to quantify the performances of a rehabilitation task in treatments of several disorders of the arm and the shoulder of various central and peripheral etiology. Different systems for robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation are available for upper limb rehabilitation but the biomechanical parameters proposed until today, to evaluate the quality of the movement, are related to the specific robot used and to the type of exercise performed. Besides, none study indicated a standardized quantitative evaluation of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, so the RMT is still far to be considered a standardised tool. In this paper a quantitative kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, considering also the effect of gravity on the quality of the movements, is proposed. We studied a group of 10 healthy subjects and results indicate that our advised protocol can be useful for characterising normal pattern in reaching movements.

  5. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve


    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 1,994 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1993...

  6. Your Turn to Run Your Country Just Ended: Global-Reach Regime Replacement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Paul J


    Global-Reach Regime Replacement, alternately referred to as GR3, is a proposed method to forcibly remove an existing regime from power, replace it with a new government, and conduct appropriate levels...

  7. Ability to Reach Orgasm in Patients with Prostate Cancer Treated with Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby-Deglum, Marie; Axcrona, K; Brennhovd, B.


    Objectives To study the ability to reach orgasm after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) in relation to demographic, cancer-related, and surgical variables, and the use of erectile aids. Methods In this cross-sectional study at a mean of 3 years after RALP at Oslo University Hospital......, 982 men were invited to complete a mailed questionnaire, and 777 responded. Respondents who reported postoperative radiotherapy or hormone treatment, or did not report on orgasm were omitted, leaving 609 patients for analysis. Ability to reach orgasm was rated on 1 question from The Expanded Prostate...... Cancer Index Composite 26-item version, and dichotomized into "good" or "poor." Results Overall, 27% of the men reported good ability to reach orgasm: 22% among those did not use erectile aids and 34% among those did (P =.001). Univariate analysis of men with good versus poor ability to reach orgasm...

  8. Sliding Mode Tracking Control of Manipulator Based on the Improved Reaching Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na ZHAI


    Full Text Available Due to the mechanical hand often have serious uncertainty, as the state in which the different and external changes, also its parameters are changing, this is very adverse to achieve precise control. In this paper, the traditional sliding mode variable structure was improved, the sign function is replaced by saturated function based on the double power reaching law, by adjusting the values of e1, e2, a, b, g and k to effectively improve the manipulator joint reaching speed, track expected trajectory fast and shorten the system response time. Finally, the method is used for simulation of manipulator trajectory tracking, compared to two reaching law control algorithms. The simulation results show that the control algorithm has good dynamic performance, which can effectively restrain the chattering and quickly track the desired trajectory. Therefore, the improved reaching law can effectively improve the performance of robotic manipulator.

  9. Passive reach and grasp with functional electrical stimulation and robotic arm support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Ard J.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Veltink, Peter H.; van der Kooij, Herman


    Rehabilitation of arm and hand function is crucial to increase functional independence of stroke subjects. Here, we investigate the technical feasibility of an integrated training system combining robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) to support reach and grasp during functional

  10. Estuarine characteristics of the lower reaches of the River Periyar (Cochin backwater)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Varma, P.U.; Balachandran, K.K.; Pylee, A.; Joseph, T.

    Lower reaches of river Periyar were studied to assess longitudinal extent of salt water intrusion into the system during different seasons and also its effect on the flushing of pollutants introduced by the industries. During SW monsoon season due...

  11. U.S. EPA River Reach File Version 1.0 (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Reach File Version 1.0 (RF1) is a vector database of approximately 700,000 miles of streams and open waters in the conterminous United States. It is used extensively...

  12. Flexion synergy overshadows flexor spasticity during reaching in chronic moderate to severe hemiparetic stroke. (United States)

    Ellis, Michael D; Schut, Ingrid; Dewald, Julius P A


    Pharmaceutical intervention targets arm flexor spasticity with an often-unsuccessful goal of improving function. Flexion synergy is a related motor impairment that may be inadvertently neglected. Here, flexor spasticity and flexion synergy are disentangled to determine their contributions to reaching dysfunction. Twenty-six individuals participated. A robotic device systematically modulated shoulder abduction loading during ballistic reaching. Elbow muscle electromyography data were partitioned into windows delineated by elbow joint velocity allowing for the separation of synergy- and spasticity-related activation. Reaching velocity decreased with abduction loading (psynergy increased with abduction loading (psynergy is the predominant contributor to reaching dysfunction while flexor spasticity appears only relevant during unnaturally occurring passively supported movement. Interventions targeting flexion synergy should be leveraged in future stroke recovery trials. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of circulation and salt balance in the upper reaches of Periyar river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varma, P.U.; Pylee, A.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    The Eulerian residual currents of the upper reaches of Periyar estuary (Kerala, India) were directed down the estuary throughout the water column during the monsoon season. During the summer months the residual flow was directed up the estuary...

  14. Development of an automated desktop procedure for defining macro-reaches for river longitudinal profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dollar, LH


    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated desktop procedure for delineating river longitudinal profiles into macro-reaches for use in Ecological Reserve assessments and to aid freshwater ecosystem conservation planning. The procedure was developed for use...

  15. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k LLID Routed Streams (routes) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the ROUTE features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes are also...

  16. Meningkatkan Kematangan Karier Peserta Didik SMA dengan Pelatihan Reach Your Dreams dan Konseling Karier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saifuddin


    Full Text Available Career maturity is a condition that needed to choice the program in higher level study. Henceforth, the low level of career maturity in senior high school student has to be solved with the comprehensive intervention as soon as possible. The purpose of this research is to know the effectivity of Reach Your Dreams Training and career counseling for improving career maturity in senior high school student. This research used Solomon Six Group Design. Subjects of this research are 42 senior high school students with average level of career maturity who are divided into two groups given Reach Your Dreams Training, two groups given career counseling, and two control groups. According to the result, the conclusion of this research is Reach Your Dreams Training and Counseling Career can improve career maturity level in senior high school students effectively. It is caused by the effect of Reach Your Dreams Training and career counseling, and not caused by the effect of pretest.

  17. Parallel Void Thread in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr; Shihada, Basem


    This work investigates void filling (idle periods) in long-reach Ethernet passive optical networks. We focus on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. We introduce a novel approach called parallel void thread (PVT), which

  18. Can we reach Pareto optimal outcomes using bottom-up approaches?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Sanchez-Anguix (Victor); R. Aydoğan (Reyhan); T. Baarslag (Tim); C.M. Jonker (Catholijn)


    textabstractClassically, disciplines like negotiation and decision making have focused on reaching Pareto optimal solutions due to its stability and efficiency properties. Despite the fact that many practical and theoretical algorithms have successfully attempted to provide Pareto optimal solutions,

  19. Neurons in Primary Motor Cortex Encode Hand Orientation in a Reach-to-Grasp Task. (United States)

    Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Fan, Jing; He, Jiping


    It is disputed whether those neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) that encode hand orientation constitute an independent channel for orientation control in reach-to-grasp behaviors. Here, we trained two monkeys to reach forward and grasp objects positioned in the frontal plane at different orientation angles, and simultaneously recorded the activity of M1 neurons. Among the 2235 neurons recorded in M1, we found that 18.7% had a high correlation exclusively with hand orientation, 15.9% with movement direction, and 29.5% with both movement direction and hand orientation. The distributions of neurons encoding hand orientation and those encoding movement direction were not uniform but coexisted in the same region. The trajectory of hand rotation was reproduced by the firing patterns of the orientation-related neurons independent of the hand reaching direction. These results suggest that hand orientation is an independent component for the control of reaching and grasping activity.

  20. Usefulness of the jump-and-reach test in assessment of vertical jump performance. (United States)

    Menzel, Hans-Joachim; Chagas, Mauro H; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Araujo, Silvia R; Campos, Carlos E; Giannetti, Marcus R


    The objective was to estimate the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Jump-and-Reach Test for the assessment of squat, countermovement, and drop jump performance of 32 male Brazilian professional volleyball players. Performance of squat, countermovement, and drop jumps with different dropping heights was assessed on the Jump-and-Reach Test and the measurement of flight time, then compared across different jump trials. The very high reliability coefficients of both assessment methods and the lower correlation coefficients between scores on the assessments indicate a very high consistency of each method but only moderate covariation, which means that they measure partly different items. As a consequence, the Jump-and-Reach Test has good ecological validity in situations when reaching height during the flight phase is critical for performance (e.g., basketball and volleyball) but only limited accuracy for the assessment of vertical impulse production with different jump techniques and conditions.

  1. New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; DeNeale, Scott T [ORNL; Yeasmin, Dilruba [California State University, Fresno; Pasha, M. Fayzul K. [California State University, Fresno; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL


    The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest

  2. 10 Gb/s bidirectional single fibre long reach PON link with distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Jeppesen, Palle


    We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only.......We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only....

  3. Reach and uptake of Internet- and phone-based smoking cessation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Dalum, P; Ekholm, O


    To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling).......To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling)....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameela .T .V


    Full Text Available Background: Among health care workers the highest level of work related back injuries are more affected in nurses. There were many studies done to assess low back pain by using different tools. So this study aimed to identify the prevalence low back pain disability among female nursing professionals and the association between BMI, functional reach test and low back pain, so that a better tool can be used during the clinical examination for the betterment of the patient. The objective of the study is to identify the prevalence of low back pain disability, the association of Low Back Pain(LBP with BMI and functional reach test among female nursing professionals. Methods: A total of 256 subjects were assessed for disability due to back pain using OswestryLBP Disability Questionnaire and the prevalence of disability was determined. The sit and reach test, forward reach test and their BMI were calculated for those who had a disability score of 20 and above (n=87. Results: Data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation.The study result showed a significant correlation (p=0.03 of sit and reach test with low back pain disability scores. There was a negative correlationseen among BMI and LBP disability score forward reach test and LBP disability score, and BMI and no low back pain disability score. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP disability among nursing professionals was 33.9%. This study suggest that sit and reach test can be used as an indicator of low back pain. Whereas BMI and forward reach test do not indicate low back pain.

  5. Multimodal decoding and congruent sensory information enhance reaching performance in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Anna Corbett


    Full Text Available Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI paralyzes muscles of the hand and arm, making it difficult to perform activities of daily living. Restoring the ability to reach can dramatically improve quality of life for people with cervical SCI. Any reaching system requires a user interface to decode parameters of an intended reach, such as trajectory and target. A challenge in developing such decoders is that often few physiological signals related to the intended reach remain under voluntary control, especially in patients with high cervical injuries. Furthermore, the decoding problem changes when the user is controlling the motion of their limb, as opposed to an external device. The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of combining disparate signal sources to control reach in people with a range of impairments, and to consider the effect of two feedback approaches. Subjects with cervical SCI performed robot-assisted reaching, controlling trajectories with either shoulder electromyograms (EMGs or EMGs combined with gaze. We then evaluated how reaching performance was influenced by task-related sensory feedback, testing the EMG-only decoder in two conditions. The first involved moving the arm with the robot, providing congruent sensory feedback through their remaining sense of proprioception. In the second, the subjects moved the robot without the arm attached, as in applications that control external devices. We found that the multimodal decoding algorithm worked well for all subjects, enabling them to perform straight, accurate reaches. The inclusion of gaze information, used to estimate target location, was especially important for the most impaired subjects. In the absence of gaze information, congruent sensory feedback improved performance. These results highlight the importance of proprioceptive feedback, and suggest that multi-modal decoders are likely to be most beneficial for highly impaired subjects and in tasks where such



    Ergezer, Çağrı


    Internet has become a platform which reached millions of users momentarily with increased use, also become a place where people spent most of their time during the day by gaining consumer and potential customer ID in addition to just being ordinary Internet users. Search engines also have earned the distinction of being the preferred reference for users in the Internet sea which draws attention with usage rate and allowing you to easily reach the sought-after content where millions of content...

  7. Experimental measure of arm stiffness during single reaching movements with a time-frequency analysis


    Piovesan, Davide; Pierobon, Alberto; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.


    We tested an innovative method to estimate joint stiffness and damping during multijoint unfettered arm movements. The technique employs impulsive perturbations and a time-frequency analysis to estimate the arm's mechanical properties along a reaching trajectory. Each single impulsive perturbation provides a continuous estimation on a single-reach basis, making our method ideal to investigate motor adaptation in the presence of force fields and to study the control of movement in impaired ind...

  8. Effects of Age, Gender and Target Location on Seated Reach Capacity and Posture




    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender, and target location upon arm reach capacity and posture. Background: The older adult population is growing in number. Their specific needs must be better understood to improve the design of work and life spaces. Method: Thirty-eight adults, divided into four groups according to their gender and age, participated in the experiment. They were asked to reach 84 targets located in a large space defined according to their anthrop...

  9. Virtual reality training improves turning capacity and functional reach in stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.N.; Masood, T.


    Objective: To determine the added effects of virtual reality training on turning capacity, gait parameters and functional reach capacity of stroke patients compared to task oriented training alone. Methodology: A randomized control trial was conducted from February 2016 to July 2106 at Physical Rehabilitation Department Pakistan Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Twenty stroke patients were selected through purposive sampling. The patients were randomly assigned through sealed envelope method into two groups; Task Oriented Training (TOT) and Virtual Reality Training (VRT) Group. The standardized tools were used for assessment. The TOT was provided for 4 days per week for 6 weeks while VRT group received additional exer-gaming training during sessions. Results: Significant improvement was observed in both groups regarding reaching forward, turning 360, gait pivot turn (p a 0.01) and FRT (p a 0.001). The two groups were statistically different from each other in terms of turning capacity, reaching forward, gait pivot turn and functional reach after 6 weeks of intervention (p a 0.05) Conclusion: Addition of virtual reality training further improves the significant improvement caused by task oriented training on turning capacity, reaching forward, gait pivot turn and functional reach in stroke patients. (author)

  10. Prediction of Reach Goals in Depth and Direction from the Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Filippini


    Full Text Available Summary: The posterior parietal cortex is well known to mediate sensorimotor transformations during the generation of movement plans, but its ability to control prosthetic limbs in 3D environments has not yet been fully demonstrated. With this aim, we trained monkeys to perform reaches to targets located at various depths and directions and tested whether the reach goal position can be extracted from parietal signals. The reach goal location was reliably decoded with accuracy close to optimal (>90%, and this occurred also well before movement onset. These results, together with recent work showing a reliable decoding of hand grip in the same area, suggest that this is a suitable site to decode the entire prehension action, to be considered in the development of brain-computer interfaces. : Filippini et al. show that it is possible to use parietal cortex activity to predict in which direction the arm will move and how far it will reach. This opens up the possibility of neural prostheses that can accurately guide reach and grasp using signals from this part of the brain. Keywords: neuroprosthetics, offline neural decoding, reaching in depth, monkey, V6A, machine learning, visuomotor transformations, hand guidance, prehension, robotics

  11. Do children perceive postural constraints when estimating reach or action planning? (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto; Lee, Sunghan


    Estimation of whether an object is reachable from a specific body position constitutes an important aspect in effective motor planning. Researchers who estimate reachability by way of motor imagery with adults consistently report the tendency to overestimate, with some evidence of a postural effect (postural stability hypothesis). This idea suggests that perceived reaching limits depend on an individual's perceived postural constraints. Based on previous work with adults, the authors expected a significant postural effect with the Reach 2 condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Furthermore, the authors hypothesized that the postural effect would be greater in younger children. They then tested these propositions among children aged 7, 9, and 11 years by asking them to estimate reach while seated (Reach 1) and in the more demanding posture of standing on 1 foot and leaning forward (Reach 2). Results indicated no age or condition difference, therefore providing no support for a postural effect. When the authors compared these data to a published report of adults, a developmental difference emerged. That is, adults recognize the perceived postural constraint of the standing position resulting in under- rather than overestimation, as displayed in the seated condition. Although preliminary, these observations suggest that estimates of reach (action planning) continue to be refined between late childhood and young adulthood.

  12. Contribution of River Mouth Reach to Sediment Load of the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang


    Full Text Available This paper examined the sediment gain and loss in the river mouth reach of the Yangtze River by considering sediment load from the local tributaries, erosion/accretion of the river course, impacts of sand mining, and water extraction. A quantitative estimation of the contribution of the river mouth reach to the sediment load of the Yangtze River was conducted before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003. The results showed that a net sediment load loss of 1.78 million ton/yr (Mt/yr occurred from 1965 to 2002 in the study area. The contribution of this reach to the sediment discharge into the sea is not as high as what was expected before the TGD. With impoundment of the TGD, channel deposition (29.90 Mt/yr and a net sediment loss of 30.89 Mt/yr occurred in the river mouth reach from 2003 to 2012. The river mouth reach has acted as a sink but not a source of sediment since impoundment of the TGD, which has exacerbated the decrease in sediment load. Technologies should be advanced to measure changes in river channel morphology, as well as in water and sediment discharges at the river mouth reach.

  13. Locations of serial reach targets are coded in multiple reference frames. (United States)

    Thompson, Aidan A; Henriques, Denise Y P


    Previous work from our lab, and elsewhere, has demonstrated that remembered target locations are stored and updated in an eye-fixed reference frame. That is, reach errors systematically vary as a function of gaze direction relative to a remembered target location, not only when the target is viewed in the periphery (Bock, 1986, known as the retinal magnification effect), but also when the target has been foveated, and the eyes subsequently move after the target has disappeared but prior to reaching (e.g., Henriques, Klier, Smith, Lowy, & Crawford, 1998; Sorrento & Henriques, 2008; Thompson & Henriques, 2008). These gaze-dependent errors, following intervening eye movements, cannot be explained by representations whose frame is fixed to the head, body or even the world. However, it is unknown whether targets presented sequentially would all be coded relative to gaze (i.e., egocentrically/absolutely), or if they would be coded relative to the previous target (i.e., allocentrically/relatively). It might be expected that the reaching movements to two targets separated by 5° would differ by that distance. But, if gaze were to shift between the first and second reaches, would the movement amplitude between the targets differ? If the target locations are coded allocentrically (i.e., the location of the second target coded relative to the first) then the movement amplitude should be about 5°. But, if the second target is coded egocentrically (i.e., relative to current gaze direction), then the reaches to this target and the distances between the subsequent movements should vary systematically with gaze as described above. We found that requiring an intervening saccade to the opposite side of 2 briefly presented targets between reaches to them resulted in a pattern of reaching error that systematically varied as a function of the distance between current gaze and target, and led to a systematic change in the distance between the sequential reach endpoints as predicted by

  14. Adaptation of reach-to-grasp movement in response to force perturbations. (United States)

    Rand, M K; Shimansky, Y; Stelmach, G E; Bloedel, J R


    This study examined how reach-to-grasp movements are modified during adaptation to external force perturbations applied on the arm during reach. Specifically, we examined whether the organization of these movements was dependent upon the condition under which the perturbation was applied. In response to an auditory signal, all subjects were asked to reach for a vertical dowel, grasp it between the index finger and thumb, and lift it a short distance off the table. The subjects were instructed to do the task as fast as possible. The perturbation was an elastic load acting on the wrist at an angle of 105 deg lateral to the reaching direction. The condition was modified by changing the predictability with which the perturbation was applied in a given trial. After recording unperturbed control trials, perturbations were applied first on successive trials (predictable perturbations) and then were applied randomly (unpredictable perturbations). In the early predictable perturbation trials, reach path length became longer and reaching duration increased. As more predictable perturbations were applied, the reach path length gradually decreased and became similar to that of control trials. Reaching duration also decreased gradually as the subjects adapted by exerting force against the perturbation. In addition, the amplitude of peak grip aperture during arm transport initially increased in response to repeated perturbations. During the course of learning, it reached its maximum and thereafter slightly decreased. However, it did not return to the normal level. The subjects also adapted to the unpredictable perturbations through changes in both arm transport and grasping components, indicating that they can compensate even when the occurrence of the perturbation cannot be predicted during the inter-trial interval. Throughout random perturbation trials, large grip aperture values were observed, suggesting that a conservative aperture level is set regardless of whether the

  15. Ability to Reach Orgasm in Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy. (United States)

    Østby-Deglum, Marie; Axcrona, Karol; Brennhovd, Bjørn; Dahl, Alv A


    To study the ability to reach orgasm after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) in relation to demographic, cancer-related, and surgical variables, and the use of erectile aids. In this cross-sectional study at a mean of 3 years after RALP at Oslo University Hospital, 982 men were invited to complete a mailed questionnaire, and 777 responded. Respondents who reported postoperative radiotherapy or hormone treatment, or did not report on orgasm were omitted, leaving 609 patients for analysis. Ability to reach orgasm was rated on 1 question from The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite 26-item version, and dichotomized into "good" or "poor." Overall, 27% of the men reported good ability to reach orgasm: 22% among those did not use erectile aids and 34% among those did (P = .001). Univariate analysis of men with good versus poor ability to reach orgasm showed many significant differences. In multivariate analysis, being older, having a reduced physical quality of life, and erectile dysfunction were significantly associated with poor ability to reach orgasm. Erectile dysfunction showed an odds ratio of 4.86 for poor orgasmic ability. The 48% of men who used erectile aids had significantly better orgasmic ability than the nonusers. In our sample, 27% had good ability to reach orgasm at a mean of 3 years after RALP. Poor orgasmic ability was associated with being older, poor erectile function, and a reduced physical quality of life. Using erectile aids increased the rate of good ability to reach orgasm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphological adjustments in a meandering reach of the middle Yangtze River caused by severe human activities (United States)

    Zhou, Meirong; Xia, Junqiang; Lu, Jinyou; Deng, Shanshan; Lin, Fenfen


    In the past 50 years, the Shishou reach in the middle Yangtze River underwent significant channel evolution owing to the implementation of an artificial cutoff, the construction of bank revetment works and the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). Based on the measured hydrological data and topographic data, the processes of channel evolution in this reach were investigated mainly from the adjustments in planform and cross-sectional geometries. The variation in planform geometry obtained in this study indicates that (i) the artificial cutoff at Zhongzhouzi caused the river regime to adjust drastically, with the mean rate of thalweg migration at reach scale of 42.0 m/a over the period 1966-1975; (ii) then the effect of this artificial cutoff reduced gradually, with the mean migration rate decreasing to 40 m/a owing to the occurrence of high water levels in 1993-1998; and (iii) the average annual rate of thalweg migration decreased to 29.3 m/a because of the impacts of various bank protection engineering and the TGP operation during the period 2002-2015. However, remarkable thalweg migration processes still occurred in local regions after the TGP operation, which resulted in significant bankline migration in local reaches of Beimenkou, Shijiatai, and Tiaoxiankou. In addition, the adjustments of bankfull channel geometry were investigated at section and reach scales after the TGP operation. Calculated results show that lateral channel migration in this reach was restricted by various river regulation works and that channel evolution was mainly characterized by an increase in bankfull depth and cross-sectional area. Empirical relationships were developed between the reach-scale bankfull dimensions (depth and area), the bankfull widths at specified sections, and the previous 5-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with high correlation degrees between them being obtained.

  17. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy S Bakker

    Full Text Available The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  18. REACH: an effective catalyst for scaling up priority nutrition interventions at the country level. (United States)

    Pearson, Brenda L; Ljungqvist, Björn


    Renewed Efforts Against Child Hunger (REACH) is the joint United Nations initiative to address Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 10, Target 3, i.e., to halve the proportion of underweight children under 5 years old by 2015. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) developed and tested a facilitation mechanism to act as a catalyst for scaling up multisectoral nutrition activities. The UN-REACH partners developed pilot projects in Mauritania and Lao PDR from 2008 to 2010 and deployed facilitators to improve nutrition governance and coordination. Review missions were conducted in February 2011 to assess the REACH approach and what it achieved. The UN review mission members reviewed documents, assessed policy and management indicators, conducted qualitative interviews, and discussed findings with key stakeholders, including the most senior UN nutrition directors from all agencies. Among other UN-REACH achievements, the Prime Minister of Mauritania agreed to preside over a new National Nutrition Development Council responsible for high-level decision-making and setting national policy objectives. REACH facilitated the completion of Lao's first national Nutrition Strategy and Plan of Action and formation of the multistakeholder Nutrition Task Force. During the REACH engagement, coordination, joint advocacy, situation analysis, policy development, and joint UN programming for nutrition were strengthened in Lao PDR and Mauritania. Improvements in the nutrition governance and management mechanisms in Mauritania and Lao PDR were observed during the period of REACH support through increased awareness of nutrition as a key development objective, establishment of governmental multisectoral coordinating mechanisms, improved government capacity, and new joint UN-government nutrition

  19. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David


    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in

  20. Switching from reaching to navigation: differential cognitive strategies for spatial memory in children and adults. (United States)

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain


    Navigational and reaching spaces are known to involve different cognitive strategies and brain networks, whose development in humans is still debated. In fact, high-level spatial processing, including allocentric location encoding, is already available to very young children, but navigational strategies are not mature until late childhood. The Magic Carpet (MC) is a new electronic device translating the traditional Corsi Block-tapping Test (CBT) to navigational space. In this study, the MC and the CBT were used to assess spatial memory for navigation and for reaching, respectively. Our hypothesis was that school-age children would not treat MC stimuli as navigational paths, assimilating them to reaching sequences. Ninety-one healthy children aged 6 to 11 years and 18 adults were enrolled. Overall short-term memory performance (span) on both tests, effects of sequence geometry, and error patterns according to a new classification were studied. Span increased with age on both tests, but relatively more in navigational than in reaching space, particularly in males. Sequence geometry specifically influenced navigation, not reaching. The number of body rotations along the path affected MC performance in children more than in adults, and in women more than in men. Error patterns indicated that navigational sequences were increasingly retained as global paths across development, in contrast to separately stored reaching locations. A sequence of spatial locations can be coded as a navigational path only if a cognitive switch from a reaching mode to a navigation mode occurs. This implies the integration of egocentric and allocentric reference frames, of visual and idiothetic cues, and access to long-term memory. This switch is not yet fulfilled at school age due to immature executive functions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluating Regime Change of Sediment Transport in the Jingjiang River Reach, Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He


    Full Text Available The sediment regime in the Jingjiang river reach of the middle Yangtze River has been significantly changed from quasi-equilibrium to unsaturated since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD. Vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration (SSC and sediment flux can be adopted to evaluate the sediment regime at the local and reach scale, respectively. However, the connection between the vertical concentration profiles and the hydrologic conditions of the sub-saturated channel has rarely been examined based on field data. Thus, vertical concentration data at three hydrological stations in the reach (Zhicheng, Shashi, and Jianli are collected. Analyses show that the near-bed concentration (within 10% of water depth from the riverbed may reach up to 15 times that of the vertical average concentration. By comparing the fractions of the suspended sediment and bed material before and after TGD operation, the geomorphic condition under which the distinct large near-bed concentrations occur have been examined. Based on daily discharge-sediment hydrographs, the reach scale sediment regime and availability of sediment sources are analyzed. In total, remarkable large near-bed concentrations may respond to the combination of wide grading suspended particles and bed material. Finally, several future challenges caused by the anomalous vertical concentration profiles in the unsaturated reach are discussed. This indicates that more detailed measurements or new measuring technologies may help us to provide accurate measurements, while a fractional dispersion equation may help us in describing. The present study aims to gain new insights into regime change of sediment suspension in the river reaches downstream of a very large reservoir.

  2. Action without awareness: reaching to an object you do not remember seeing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous work by our group has shown that the scaling of reach trajectories to target size is independent of obligatory awareness of that target property and that "action without awareness" can persist for up to 2000 ms of visual delay. In the present investigation we sought to determine if the ability to scale reaching trajectories to target size following a delay is related to the pre-computing of movement parameters during initial stimulus presentation or the maintenance of a sensory (i.e., visual representation for on-demand response parameterization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants completed immediate or delayed (i.e., 2000 ms perceptual reports and reaching responses to different sized targets under non-masked and masked target conditions. For the reaching task, the limb associated with a trial (i.e., left or right was not specified until the time of response cuing: a manipulation that prevented participants from pre-computing the effector-related parameters of their response. In terms of the immediate and delayed perceptual tasks, target size was accurately reported during non-masked trials; however, for masked trials only a chance level of accuracy was observed. For the immediate and delayed reaching tasks, movement time as well as other temporal kinematic measures (e.g., times to peak acceleration, velocity and deceleration increased in relation to decreasing target size across non-masked and masked trials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that speed-accuracy relations were observed regardless of whether participants were aware (i.e., non-masked trials or unaware (i.e., masked trials of target size. Moreover, the equivalent scaling of immediate and delayed reaches during masked trials indicates that a persistent sensory-based representation supports the unconscious and metrical scaling of memory-guided reaching.

  3. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth. (United States)

    Domellöf, Erik; Barbu-Roth, Marianne; Rönnqvist, Louise; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Fagard, Jacqueline


    Few studies have investigated manual performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored object-oriented behavioral strategies and side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left and right). Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and hand opening prior to grasping. Additionally, assessments of hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings regarding infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal path. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  4. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eDomellöf


    Full Text Available Few studies have observed investigated manual asymmetries performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored manual object-oriented behavioral strategies and hand side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left, and right, midline. Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and . The study also involved measurements of hand position opening prior to grasping., and Additionally, assessments of general hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings support the possibility of a shared underlying mechanism regarding for infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for horizontally objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal pathand vertically moving objects. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  5. Automated River Reach Definition Strategies: Applications for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (United States)

    Frasson, Renato Prata de Moraes; Wei, Rui; Durand, Michael; Minear, J. Toby; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy; Williams, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Picamilh, Christophe; Lion, Christine; Pavelsky, Tamlin; Garambois, Pierre-André


    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will measure water surface heights and widths for rivers wider than 100 m. At its native resolution, SWOT height errors are expected to be on the order of meters, which prevent the calculation of water surface slopes and the use of slope-dependent discharge equations. To mitigate height and width errors, the high-resolution measurements will be grouped into reaches (˜5 to 15 km), where slope and discharge are estimated. We describe three automated river segmentation strategies for defining optimum reaches for discharge estimation: (1) arbitrary lengths, (2) identification of hydraulic controls, and (3) sinuosity. We test our methodologies on 9 and 14 simulated SWOT overpasses over the Sacramento and the Po Rivers, respectively, which we compare against hydraulic models of each river. Our results show that generally, height, width, and slope errors decrease with increasing reach length. However, the hydraulic controls and the sinuosity methods led to better slopes and often height errors that were either smaller or comparable to those of arbitrary reaches of compatible sizes. Estimated discharge errors caused by the propagation of height, width, and slope errors through the discharge equation were often smaller for sinuosity (on average 8.5% for the Sacramento and 6.9% for the Po) and hydraulic control (Sacramento: 7.3% and Po: 5.9%) reaches than for arbitrary reaches of comparable lengths (Sacramento: 8.6% and Po: 7.8%). This analysis suggests that reach definition methods that preserve the hydraulic properties of the river network may lead to better discharge estimates.

  6. Heterogeneous hyporheic zone dechlorination of a TCE groundwater plume discharging to an urban river reach. (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G; Rivett, Michael O; Roche, Rachel S; Durrant Neé Cleverly, Megan; Walker, Caroline; Tellam, John H


    The typically elevated natural attenuation capacity of riverbed-hyporheic zones is expected to decrease chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) groundwater plume discharges to river receptors through dechlorination reactions. The aim of this study was to assess physico-chemical processes controlling field-scale variation in riverbed-hyporheic zone dechlorination of a TCE groundwater plume discharge to an urban river reach. The 50-m long pool-riffle-glide reach of the River Tame in Birmingham (UK) studied is a heterogeneous high energy river environment. The shallow riverbed was instrumented with a detailed network of multilevel samplers. Freeze coring revealed a geologically heterogeneous and poorly sorted riverbed. A chlorine number reduction approach provided a quantitative indicator of CHC dechlorination. Three sub-reaches of contrasting behaviour were identified. Greatest dechlorination occurred in the riffle sub-reach that was characterised by hyporheic zone flows, moderate sulphate concentrations and pH, anaerobic conditions, low iron, but elevated manganese concentrations with evidence of sulphate reduction. Transient hyporheic zone flows allowing input to varying riverbed depths of organic matter are anticipated to be a key control. The glide sub-reach displayed negligible dechlorination attributed to the predominant groundwater baseflow discharge condition, absence of hyporheic zone, transition to more oxic conditions and elevated sulphate concentrations expected to locally inhibit dechlorination. The tail-of-pool-riffle sub-reach exhibited patchy dechlorination that was attributed to sub-reach complexities including significant flow bypass of a low permeability, high organic matter, silty unit of high dechlorination potential. A process-based conceptual model of reach-scale dechlorination variability was developed. Key findings of practitioner relevance were: riverbed-hyporheic zone CHC dechlorination may provide only a partial, somewhat patchy barrier to CHC

  7. The profile of attention differs between locations orthogonal to and in line with reach direction. (United States)

    Stewart, Emma E M; Ma-Wyatt, Anna


    People make movements in a variety of directions when interacting with the world around them. It has been well documented that attention shifts to the goal of an upcoming movement, whether the movement is a saccade or a reach. However, recent evidence suggests that the direction of a movement may influence the spatial spread of attention (Stewart & Ma-Wyatt, 2015, Journal of Vision, 15(5), 10). We investigated whether the spatiotemporal profile of attention differs depending on where that location is situated relative to the direction of movement, and if this pattern is consistent across different movement effectors. We compared attentional facilitation at locations in line with or orthogonal to the movement, for reach-only, reach-plus-saccade, and saccade-only conditions. Results show that the spatiotemporal profile of attention differs across different movement combinations, and is also different at target locations orthogonal to and in line with the movement direction. Specifically, when a reach alone was made, there was a general decrease in attention at all locations during the movement and a general increase in attention at all locations with a saccade only. However, the concurrent reach and saccade condition showed a premovement attentional facilitation at locations orthogonal to movement direction, but not those in line with the movement direction. These results suggest attentional guidance may be more important at differing time points, depending on the type of movement.

  8. Channel evolution under changing hydrological regimes in anabranching reaches downstream of the Three Gorges Dam (United States)

    Han, Jianqiao; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Fan, Yongyang


    Elucidating the influence of dams on fluvial processes can benefit river protection and basin management. Based on hydrological and topographical data, we analyzed channel evolution in anabranching reaches under changing hydrological regimes influenced by the Three Gorges Dam. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) the channels of specific anabranching reaches were defined as flood trend channels or low-flow trend channels according to the distribution of their flow characteristics. The anabranching reaches were classified as T1 or T2. The former is characterized by the correspondence between the flood trend and branch channels, and the latter is characterized by the correspondence between the flood trend and main channels; 2) on the basis of the new classification, the discrepant patterns of channel evolution seen in anabranching reaches were unified into a pattern that showed flood trend channels shrinking and low-flow trend channels expanding; 3) flood abatement and the increased duration of moderate flow discharges are the main factors that affect channel adjustments in anabranching reaches after dam construction; and 4) in the next few decades, the pattern of channel evolution will remain the same as that of the Three Gorges Dam operation. That is, the morphology will fully adapt to a flow with a low coefficient of variation. Our results are of interest in the management of the Yangtze River and other rivers influenced by dams.

  9. Role of limb and target vision in the online control of memory-guided reaches. (United States)

    Heath, Matthew


    This investigation tested the proposal that a "highly accurate" and temporally unstable stored target representation is available to the motor system for the online control of memory-guided reaches. Participants reached to a target that was: (a) visible during the response, (b) extinguished at movement onset, and (c) occluded for 0, 500, 1,500 and 2,500 ms in advance of response cueing. Additionally, trials were performed with (i.e., limb visible) and without (i.e., limb occluded) vision of the reaching limb. Results showed that limb occluded trials undershot the target location in each target condition, and were characterized by a primarily offline mode of control. In contrast, limb visible trials showed a consistent level of endpoint accuracy for each target condition and elicited more online reaching corrections than limb occluded trials. It is therefore proposed that a reasonably accurate and temporally stable stored target representation can be combined with vision of the moving limb for the online control of memory-guided reaches.

  10. Evaluating Remapped Physical Reach for Hand Interactions with Passive Haptics in Virtual Reality. (United States)

    Han, Dustin T; Suhail, Mohamed; Ragan, Eric D


    Virtual reality often uses motion tracking to incorporate physical hand movements into interaction techniques for selection and manipulation of virtual objects. To increase realism and allow direct hand interaction, real-world physical objects can be aligned with virtual objects to provide tactile feedback and physical grasping. However, unless a physical space is custom configured to match a specific virtual reality experience, the ability to perfectly match the physical and virtual objects is limited. Our research addresses this challenge by studying methods that allow one physical object to be mapped to multiple virtual objects that can exist at different virtual locations in an egocentric reference frame. We study two such techniques: one that introduces a static translational offset between the virtual and physical hand before a reaching action, and one that dynamically interpolates the position of the virtual hand during a reaching motion. We conducted two experiments to assess how the two methods affect reaching effectiveness, comfort, and ability to adapt to the remapping techniques when reaching for objects with different types of mismatches between physical and virtual locations. We also present a case study to demonstrate how the hand remapping techniques could be used in an immersive game application to support realistic hand interaction while optimizing usability. Overall, the translational technique performed better than the interpolated reach technique and was more robust for situations with larger mismatches between virtual and physical objects.

  11. The Cognition of Maximal Reach Distance in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Otsuki


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the cognition of spatial distance in reaching movements was decreased in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and whether this cognition was associated with various symptoms of PD. Estimated and actual maximal reaching distances were measured in three directions in PD patients and healthy elderly volunteers. Differences between estimated and actual measurements were compared within each group. In the PD patients, the associations between “error in cognition” of reaching distance and “clinical findings” were also examined. The results showed that no differences were observed in any values regardless of dominance of hand and severity of symptoms. The differences between the estimated and actual measurements were negatively deviated in the PD patients, indicating that they tended to underestimate reaching distance. “Error in cognition” of reaching distance correlated with the items of posture in the motor section of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. This suggests that, in PD patients, postural deviation and postural instability might affect the cognition of the distance from a target object.

  12. Faculty Promotion and Attrition: The Importance of Coauthor Network Reach at an Academic Medical Center. (United States)

    Warner, Erica T; Carapinha, René; Weber, Griffin M; Hill, Emorcia V; Reede, Joan Y


    Business literature has demonstrated the importance of networking and connections in career advancement. This is a little-studied area in academic medicine. To examine predictors of intra-organizational connections, as measured by network reach (the number of first- and second-degree coauthors), and their association with probability of promotion and attrition. Prospective cohort study between 2008 and 2012. Academic medical center. A total of 5787 Harvard Medical School (HMS) faculty with a rank of assistant professor or full-time instructor as of January 1, 2008. Using negative binomial models, multivariable-adjusted predictors of continuous network reach were assessed according to rank. Poisson regression was used to compute relative risk (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between network reach (in four categories) and two outcomes: promotion or attrition. Models were adjusted for demographic, professional and productivity metrics. Network reach was positively associated with number of first-, last- and middle-author publications and h-index. Among assistant professors, men and whites had greater network reach than women and underrepresented minorities (p advancement and retention in academic medicine. They can and should be investigated at other institutions.

  13. Is there any difference between Back Saver Sit-Reach Test and Modified Back Saver Sit-Reach Test in estimating hamstring flexibility among the primary school children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomita Gadhiya


    Full Text Available Background: Modified back saver sit-and-reach test (MBSSRT has more advantages over Back saver sit-and-reach test (BSSRT in measuring hamstring flexibility among middle school children and adolescents. However, whether MBSSRT can be used instead of the other among the primary school going children is not yet clear. Objective : To estimate the association between BSSRT and MBSSRT for measuring hamstring flexibility. Procedure : One hundred and forty-one healthy children (5-12 years were selected from the primary school identified by the cluster sampling method for this cross-sectional study. The subjects were asked to perform three trials of BSSRT and MBSSRT (both leg in randomized order. Average was used for data analysis. The association between the two tests was established by Spearman Rank Correlation test. Results: The correlation between BSSRT and MBSSRT for right lower limb ranged from 0.43 to 0.77 with mean correlation of ρ = 0.66 (P < 0.01 and for left lower limb ranged from 0.46 to 0.78 with mean correlation of ρ = 0.68 (P < 0.01. Conclusion: MBSSRT can be used alternatively instead of BSSRT to measure hamstring flexibility among the primary school children.

  14. Dissolved organic carbon in the freshwater tidal reaches of the Schelde estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muylaert, K.; Dasseville, R.; De Brabandere, Loreto


    To unravel the factors that regulate DOC dynamics in the freshwater tidal reaches of the Schelde estuary, DOC concentration and biodegradability were monitored in the upper Schelde estuary and its major tributaries. Although the Schelde estuary possesses a densely populated and industrialized...... catchment, our data suggest that the bulk of DOC in the freshwater tidal reaches is not derived from waste water. This was concluded from the low biodegradability of DOC (on average 9%), DOC concentrations that are close to the mean for European rivers (4.61 mg/l) and the absence of an inverse relationship....../l), these blooms did not appear to produce large quantities of DOC in the freshwater tidal reaches as DOC concentrations were low when phytoplankton biomass was high. The fact that DOC concentrations were high in winter and decreased in summer suggests a predominantly terrestrial source of DOC in the freshwater...

  15. Experimental demonstration of polar coded IM/DD optical OFDM for short reach system (United States)

    Fang, Jiafei; Xiao, Shilin; Liu, Ling; Bi, Meihua; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yunhao; Hu, Weisheng


    In this paper, we propose a novel polar coded intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system for short reach system. A method of evaluating the channel signal noise ratio (SNR) is proposed for soft-demodulation. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the conventional case, ∼9.5 dB net coding gain (NCG) at the bit error rate (BER) of 1E-3 can be achieved after 40-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission. Based on the experimental result, (512,256) polar code with low complexity and satisfactory BER performance meets the requirement of low latency in short reach system, which is a promising candidate for latency-stringent short reach optical system.

  16. Predictors of Adoption and Reach Following Dialectical Behavior Therapy Intensive Training™. (United States)

    Navarro-Haro, Maria V; Harned, Melanie S; Korslund, Kathryn E; DuBose, Anthony; Chen, Tianying; Ivanoff, André; Linehan, Marsha M


    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder. The DBT Intensive Training™ is widely used to train community clinicians to deliver DBT, but little is known about its effectiveness. This study prospectively evaluated predictors of adoption and reach of DBT among 52 community teams (212 clinicians) after DBT Intensive Training™. Pre-post training questionnaires were completed by trainees and a follow-up survey by team leaders approximately 8 months later. Overall, 75% of teams adopted all DBT modes and delivered DBT to an average of 118 clients. Lower training and program needs, fewer bachelor's-level clinicians, and greater prior DBT experience predicted adoption of more DBT modes. More prior DBT experience, smaller team size, more negative team functioning, and staff with lower job satisfaction, growth, efficacy, and influence predicted greater DBT reach. DBT Intensive Training™ appears effective in promoting DBT adoption and reach in routine clinical practice settings.

  17. Workspace location influences joint coordination during reaching in post-stroke hemiparesis (United States)

    Reisman, Darcy S.; Scholz, John P.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of workspace location on joint coordination in persons with post-stroke hemiparesis when trunk motion was required to complete reaches beyond the arm’s functional reach length. Seven subjects with mild right hemiparesis following a stroke and seven age and gender matched control subjects participated. Joint motions and characteristics of hand and trunk movement were measured over multiple repetitions. The variance (across trials) of joint combinations was partitioned into two components at every point in the hand’s trajectory using the uncontrolled manifold approach; the first component is a measure of the extent to which equivalent joint combinations are used to control a given hand path, and reflects performance flexibility. The second component of joint variance reflects the use of non-equivalent joint combinations, which lead to hand path error. Compared to the control subjects, persons with hemiparesis demonstrated a significantly greater amount of non-equivalent joint variability related to control of the hand’s path and of the hand’s position relative to the trunk when reaching toward the hemiparetic side (ipsilaterally), but not when reaching to the less involved side. The relative timing of the hand and trunk was also altered when reaching ipsilaterally. The current findings support the idea that the previously proposed “arm compensatory synergy” may be deficient in subjects with hemiparesis. This deficiency may be due to one or a combination of factors: changes in central commands that are thought to set the gain of the arm compensatory synergy; a limited ability to combine shoulder abduction and elbow extension that limits the expression of an appropriately set arm compensatory synergy; or a reduction of the necessary degrees-of-freedom needed to adequately compensate for poor trunk control when reaching ipsilaterally. PMID:16328275

  18. Missing depth cues in virtual reality limit performance and quality of three dimensional reaching movements. (United States)

    Gerig, Nicolas; Mayo, Johnathan; Baur, Kilian; Wittmann, Frieder; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter


    Goal-directed reaching for real-world objects by humans is enabled through visual depth cues. In virtual environments, the number and quality of available visual depth cues is limited, which may affect reaching performance and quality of reaching movements. We assessed three-dimensional reaching movements in five experimental groups each with ten healthy volunteers. Three groups used a two-dimensional computer screen and two groups used a head-mounted display. The first screen group received the typically recreated visual depth cues, such as aerial and linear perspective, occlusion, shadows, and texture gradients. The second screen group received an abstract minimal rendering lacking those. The third screen group received the cues of the first screen group and absolute depth cues enabled by retinal image size of a known object, which realized with visual renderings of the handheld device and a ghost handheld at the target location. The two head-mounted display groups received the same virtually recreated visual depth cues as the second or the third screen group respectively. Additionally, they could rely on stereopsis and motion parallax due to head-movements. All groups using the screen performed significantly worse than both groups using the head-mounted display in terms of completion time normalized by the straight-line distance to the target. Both groups using the head-mounted display achieved the optimal minimum in number of speed peaks and in hand path ratio, indicating that our subjects performed natural movements when using a head-mounted display. Virtually recreated visual depth cues had a minor impact on reaching performance. Only the screen group with rendered handhelds could outperform the other screen groups. Thus, if reaching performance in virtual environments is in the main scope of a study, we suggest applying a head-mounted display. Otherwise, when two-dimensional screens are used, achievable performance is likely limited by the reduced depth

  19. Reaching out for patients: public relations and events with real results. (United States)

    Kuechel, Marie Czenko


    In today's market, the aesthetic physician needs to connect with patients using methods that are personal, educational, and that will glean the interest of prospective patients whose attention and dollars are sought by countless facial plastic surgery competitors near and far. Public relations, or reaching your prospective patient without a direct solicitation (advertising) for services, are traditional means that include media relations and charitable and social events. With the added component of social media, today the opportunities to reach out for new patients and garner real results are more varied and more affordable than ever before. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  20. Promotores As Advocates for Community Improvement: Experiences of the Western States REACH Su Comunidad Consortium. (United States)

    Kutcher, Rachel; Moore-Monroy, Martha; Bello, Elizur; Doyle, Seth; Ibarra, Jorge; Kunz, Susan; Munoz, Rocio; Patton-Lopez, Megan; Sharkey, Joseph R; Wilger, Susan; Alfero, Charlie


    The REACH Su Comunidad Consortium worked with 10 communities to address disparities in access to healthy food and physical activity opportunities among Hispanic populations through policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) strategies. Community health workers took leadership roles in the implementation of PSE strategies in partnership with local multisector coalitions. This article describes the role of community health workers in PSE change, the technical and professional development support provided to the REACH Su Comunidad Communities, and highlights professional development needs of community health workers engaging in PSE strategies.

  1. Bank retreat study of a meandering river reach case study : River Irwell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran, R.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.


    Lack of data is often considered a limitation when undertaking morphological studies. This research deals with morphological studies of small rivers experiencing bank erosion processes when only limited data are available. A reach of the meandering gravel-bed river Irwell (United Kingdom) is taken

  2. Can Microfinance Reach the Poorest: Evidence from a Community-Managed Microfinance Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonborg, J. H.; Rasmussen, O. D.


    Reaching the poorest is an important objective in many development interventions, and microfinance is no exception. We review performance indicators for effectiveness of targeting described in the literature and suggest a new metric in order to account for extent and severity of poverty as well...

  3. Distributed fiber Raman amplification in long reach PON bidirectional access links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Öhman, Filip


    Distributed Raman fiber amplification is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to support long reach passive optical network (PON) links. An 80 km, bidirectional, single fiber link is demonstrated using both standard intensity optical modulators at 10 Gb/s and up to 7.5 Gb/s using novel...

  4. Hybrid RSOA and fibre raman amplified long reach feeder link for WiMAX-on-fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando; Martinez, Javier; Yu, Xianbin


    A distributed fibre Raman amplified long reach optical access feeder link using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier in the remote base station is experimentally demonstrated for supporting WiMAXover- fibre transmission. The measured values for the error vector magnitude for quadrature...

  5. A Rotational Crofton Formula for Flagged Intrinsic Volumes of Sets of Positive Reach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel

    A rotational Crofton formula is derived relating the flagged intrinsic volumes of a compact set of positive reach with the flagged intrinsic volumes measured on sections passing through a fixed point. In particular cases, the flagged intrinsic volumes defined in the present paper are identical...

  6. Bank retreat of a meandering river reach case study : River Irwell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran, R.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.G.


    Lack of data is often considered a limitation when undertaking morphological studies. This research deals with the morphological study of a small river experiencing bank erosion for which only limited data are available. A reach of the meandering gravel-bed river Irwell (United Kingdom) is taken as

  7. Reaching consensus on Antarctic tourism regulation : Calibrating the human-nature relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, Kees; Lamers, Machiel


    The states that jointly manage Antarctica were not yet able to reach consensus on a number of specific management issues relating to Antarctic tourism. While recognizing that many factors influence the international decision-making process, this publication aims to explore one rarely discussed

  8. Reaching Consensus on Antarctic Tourism Regulation - Calibrating the Human-Nature Relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Lamers, M.A.J.


    The states that jointly manage Antarctica were not yet able to reach consensus on a number of specific Antarctic tourism management issues. While recognizing that many factors influence the international decision-making process, this chapter aims to explore one rarely discussed philosophical factor

  9. Trends in radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Reach fish, 1982 through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.


    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State since 1945. Fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, which borders the Site, are monitored annually. The two objectives of this report were (1) to evaluate trends in the concentrations of radionuclides [e.g., 90 Sr and 137 Cs] in two species of Columbia River fish [smallmouth bass and mountain whitefish] sampled from the Hanford Reach from 1982 through 1992; and (2) to determine the impact of Hanford Site releases on these two species and carp and fall chinook salmon collected during this time frame. The evaluation found gradual reductions of 137 Cs in bass muscle and 90 Sr in bass and whitefish carcass from 1982 through 1992. Concentrations of 90 Sr in bass and whitefish followed the pattern established by reported Hanford Site releases from 1982 through 1992 and was supported by significant regression analyses comparing annual releases to sample concentration. Because data for carp have been collected only since 1990, the data base was inadequate for determining trends. Moreover, fall chinook salmon were only sampled once in this 11-year period. Concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in fish samples collected from distant background locations exceeded concentrations in Hanford Reach fish. Estimates of the dose from consumption of Hanford Reach fish were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the US Department of Energy guideline of 100 mrem/yr

  10. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  11. Organic carbon in the sediments of the lower reaches of Periar River

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    reaches of Periyar River an area in Cochin Backwater, India which is polluted from different sources were studied for one year during 1981. Variations in colour and texture of sediments were brought about by changes in the grain size and state of oxidation...

  12. Predicting losing and gaining river reaches in lowland New Zealand based on a statistical methodology (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zammit, Christian; Dudley, Bruce


    The phenomenon of losing and gaining in rivers normally takes place in lowland where often there are various, sometimes conflicting uses for water resources, e.g., agriculture, industry, recreation, and maintenance of ecosystem function. To better support water allocation decisions, it is crucial to understand the location and seasonal dynamics of these losses and gains. We present a statistical methodology to predict losing and gaining river reaches in New Zealand based on 1) information surveys with surface water and groundwater experts from regional government, 2) A collection of river/watershed characteristics, including climate, soil and hydrogeologic information, and 3) the random forests technique. The surveys on losing and gaining reaches were conducted face-to-face at 16 New Zealand regional government authorities, and climate, soil, river geometry, and hydrogeologic data from various sources were collected and compiled to represent river/watershed characteristics. The random forests technique was used to build up the statistical relationship between river reach status (gain and loss) and river/watershed characteristics, and then to predict for river reaches at Strahler order one without prior losing and gaining information. Results show that the model has a classification error of around 10% for "gain" and "loss". The results will assist further research, and water allocation decisions in lowland New Zealand.

  13. Developmental Progression of Looking and Reaching Performance on the A-Not-B Task (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann


    From a neuropsychological perspective, the cognitive skills of working memory, inhibition, and attention and the maturation of the frontal lobe are requisites for successful A-not-B performance on both the looking and reaching versions of the task. This study used a longitudinal design to examine the developmental progression of infants'…

  14. Object Permanence and Method of Disappearance: Looking Measures Further Contradict Reaching Measures (United States)

    Charles, Eric P.; Rivera, Susan M.


    Piaget proposed that understanding permanency, understanding occlusion events, and forming mental representations were synonymous; however, accumulating evidence indicates that those concepts are "not" unified in development. Infants reach for endarkened objects at younger ages than for occluded objects, and infants' looking patterns suggest that…

  15. Reach on sound: a key to object permanence in visually impaired children. (United States)

    Fazzi, Elisa; Signorini, Sabrina Giovanna; Bomba, Monica; Luparia, Antonella; Lanners, Josée; Balottin, Umberto


    The capacity to reach an object presented through sound clue indicates, in the blind child, the acquisition of object permanence and gives information over his/her cognitive development. To assess cognitive development in congenitally blind children with or without multiple disabilities. Cohort study. Thirty-seven congenitally blind subjects (17 with associated multiple disabilities, 20 mainly blind) were enrolled. We used Bigelow's protocol to evaluate "reach on sound" capacity over time (at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months), and a battery of clinical, neurophysiological and cognitive instruments to assess clinical features. Tasks n.1 to 5 were acquired by most of the mainly blind children by 12 months of age. Task 6 coincided with a drop in performance, and the acquisition of the subsequent tasks showed a less agehomogeneous pattern. In blind children with multiple disabilities, task acquisition rates were lower, with the curves dipping in relation to the more complex tasks. The mainly blind subjects managed to overcome Fraiberg's "conceptual problem"--i.e., they acquired the ability to attribute an external object with identity and substance even when it manifested its presence through sound only--and thus developed the ability to reach an object presented through sound. Instead, most of the blind children with multiple disabilities presented poor performances on the "reach on sound" protocol and were unable, before 36 months of age, to develop the strategies needed to resolve Fraiberg's "conceptual problem". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid feedback responses correlate with reach adaptation and properties of novel upper limb loads. (United States)

    Cluff, Tyler; Scott, Stephen H


    A hallmark of voluntary motor control is the ability to adjust motor patterns for novel mechanical or visuomotor contexts. Recent work has also highlighted the importance of feedback for voluntary control, leading to the hypothesis that feedback responses should adapt when we learn new motor skills. We tested this prediction with a novel paradigm requiring that human subjects adapt to a viscous elbow load while reaching to three targets. Target 1 required combined shoulder and elbow motion, target 2 required only elbow motion, and target 3 (probe target) required shoulder but no elbow motion. This simple approach controlled muscle activity at the probe target before, during, and after the application of novel elbow loads. Our paradigm allowed us to perturb the elbow during reaching movements to the probe target and identify several key properties of adapted stretch responses. Adapted long-latency responses expressed (de-) adaptation similar to reaching errors observed when we introduced (removed) the elbow load. Moreover, reaching errors during learning correlated with changes in the long-latency response, showing subjects who adapted more to the elbow load displayed greater modulation of their stretch responses. These adapted responses were sensitive to the size and direction of the viscous training load. Our results highlight an important link between the adaptation of feedforward and feedback control and suggest a key part of motor adaptation is to adjust feedback responses to the requirements of novel motor skills.

  17. There May Be More to Reaching than Meets the Eye: Re-Thinking Optic Ataxia (United States)

    Jackson, Stephen R.; Newport, Roger; Husain, Masud; Fowlie, Jane E.; O'Donoghue, Michael; Bajaj, Nin


    Optic ataxia (OA) is generally thought of as a disorder of visually guided reaching movements that cannot be explained by any simple deficit in visual or motor processing. In this paper we offer a new perspective on optic ataxia; we argue that the popular characterisation of this disorder is misleading and is unrepresentative of the pattern of…

  18. Baan Company’s Corporate Web Strategy – An Effort To Reach Main Street

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Post (Henk); H.R. Commandeur (Harry)


    textabstractDuring the 1990s Baan Company became a market leader in the enterprise applications industry. Its mission was to become an independent software manufacturer, serving a global market. To speed up growth, Baan developed its Baan Web strategy which implied a far-reaching renewal of its

  19. Forum on Flexible Education. Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa. Summary Report (United States)

    de Souza, Alba


    This report describes the Forum on Flexible Education: Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa, which was held in Garissa, Kenya, from 20-23 June 2006. The objectives of the Forum were to share experiences and best practices, create linkages and encourage collaboration in order to make education more accessible to nomadic communities.…

  20. First generation long-reach manipulator for retrieval of waste from Hanford single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.; McDaniel, L.B.


    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, has established the Tank Waste Remediation System to resolve environmental and safety issues related to underground waste-storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Tank Waste Remediation System has identified the use of an advanced-technology, long-reach manipulator system as a low-water-addition retrieval alternative to past-practice sluicing

  1. An Inverse Optimal Control Approach to Explain Human Arm Reaching Control Based on Multiple Internal Models. (United States)

    Oguz, Ozgur S; Zhou, Zhehua; Glasauer, Stefan; Wollherr, Dirk


    Human motor control is highly efficient in generating accurate and appropriate motor behavior for a multitude of tasks. This paper examines how kinematic and dynamic properties of the musculoskeletal system are controlled to achieve such efficiency. Even though recent studies have shown that the human motor control relies on multiple models, how the central nervous system (CNS) controls this combination is not fully addressed. In this study, we utilize an Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) framework in order to find the combination of those internal models and how this combination changes for different reaching tasks. We conducted an experiment where participants executed a comprehensive set of free-space reaching motions. The results show that there is a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics based controllers depending on the reaching task. In addition, this trade-off depends on the initial and final arm configurations, which in turn affect the musculoskeletal load to be controlled. Given this insight, we further provide a discomfort metric to demonstrate its influence on the contribution of different inverse internal models. This formulation together with our analysis not only support the multiple internal models (MIMs) hypothesis but also suggest a hierarchical framework for the control of human reaching motions by the CNS.

  2. On the path to reach the SDG targets: Decreasing maternal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 3, 2018 ... (SA) did not reach the Millennium Development Goals targets for maternal and child health ... with an emphasis on interventions to ensure greater survival rates, ... are underpinned by a range of action areas: country leadership; financing for health; health system resilience; individual potential; community ...

  3. Pet Therapy: A New Way of Reaching Students with Additional Disabilities (United States)

    Mockler, Kimberly


    In this article, the author discusses pet therapy, using therapy dogs, as a new way of reaching students with additional disabilities. Therapy dogs aid in instruction in a variety of ways. They are particularly suited to work with preschool-aged children and special needs populations where the curriculum most easily can incorporate a therapy dog…

  4. Mechanical energy expenditures and movement efficiency in full body reaching movements. (United States)

    Sha, Daohang; France, Christopher R; Thomas, James S


    The effect of target location, speed, and handedness on the average total mechanical energy and movement efficiency is studied in 15 healthy subjects (7 males and 8 females with age 22.9 +/- 1.79 years old) performing full body reaching movements. The average total mechanical energy is measured as the time average of integration of joint power, potential energy, and kinetic energy respectively. Movement efficiency is calculated as the ratio of total kinetic energy to the total joint power and potential energy. Results show that speed and target location have significant effects on total mechanical energy and movement efficiency, but reaching hand only effects kinetic energy. From our findings we conclude that (1) efficiency in whole body reaching is dependent on whether the height of the body center of mass is raised or lowered during the task; (2) efficiency is increased as movement speed is increased, in part because of greater changes in potential energy; and (3) the CNS does not appear to use movement efficiency as a primary planning variable in full body reaching. It may be dependent on a combination of other factors or constraints.

  5. 77 FR 26049 - Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Substance-Impaired Driving Forum (United States)


    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Substance-Impaired Driving Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Forum to address Substance-Impaired Driving which will begin at 8:30 a.m., Tuesday, May 15, 2012. NTSB Chairman Deborah A.P...

  6. Parents' perception about their preterm child's social interaction reaching school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laansma, Frederike; Smidt, Eva; Crajé, Céline; Luinge, Margreet


    A key element in social development is interaction with others. Preterm infants have an increased risk for problems in this aspect. We aimed to gain insight into parents’ perception about their preterm child’s social interaction upon reaching school age. Twelve caregivers of preterm infants aged

  7. Delays in using chromatic and luminance information to correct rapid reaches. (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Wade, Alex; Ma-Wyatt, Anna


    People can use feedback to make online corrections to movements but only if there is sufficient time to integrate the new information and make the correction. A key variable in this process is therefore the speed at which the new information about the target location is coded. Conduction velocities for chromatic signals are lower than for achromatic signals so it may take longer to correct reaches to chromatic stimuli. In addition to this delay, the sensorimotor system may prefer achromatic information over the chromatic information as delayed information may be less valuable when movements are made under time pressure. A down-weighting of chromatic information may result in additional latencies for chromatically directed reaches. In our study, participants made online corrections to reaches to achromatic, (L-M)-cone, and S-cone stimuli. Our chromatic stimuli were carefully adjusted to minimize stimulation of achromatic pathways, and we equated stimuli both in terms of detection thresholds and also by their estimated neural responses. Similar stimuli were used throughout the subjective adjustments and final reaching experiment. Using this paradigm, we found that responses to achromatic stimuli were only slightly faster than responses to (L-M)-cone and S-cone stimuli. We conclude that the sensorimotor system treats chromatic and achromatic information similarly and that the delayed chromatic responses primarily reflect early conduction delays.

  8. A comparative survey of chemistry-driven in silico methods to identify hazardous substances under REACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nendza, M.; Gabbert, S.G.M.; Kühne, R.; Lombardo, A.; Roncaglioni, A.; Benfenati, E.; Benigi, R.; Bossa, C.; Strempel, S.; Scheringer, M.; Fernandez, A.; Rallo, R.; Giralt, F.; Dimitrov, S.; Mekenyan, O.; Bringezu, F.; Schüürmann, G.


    This paper presents an inventory of in silico screening tools to identify substance properties of concern under the European chemicals’ legislation REACH. The objective is to support the selection and implementation of appropriate tools as building blocks within integrated testing strategies (ITS).

  9. Using an accelerometer for analyzing a reach-to-grasp movement after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Michaelsen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was using an accelerometer to access the kinematics of reach-to-grasp movements in subjects with hemiparesis. Eight subjects (59.4 ± 6.9 years old with chronic hemiparesis (50.9 ± 25.8 months post-stroke participated in this study. Kinematic assessment was performed using a triaxial accelerometer (EMG Systems, Brazil attached to the subjects' forearm. Ten reach-to-grasp movements of grabbing a 500ml-size bottle were performed by the subjects with the paretic and the non-paretic upper limbs (ULs. The following space-temporal variables were calculated and used to compare the paretic and non-paretic ULs: movement time (MT, time to reach the peak velocity, absolute and relative (TPV and TPV%MT, relative deceleration duration (DEC%MT, time to peak acceleration (TPA and peak hand acceleration (PA. Movements were slower in the paretic UL with increased MT, TPA and DEC. The accelerometer allowed to identify of changes in reaching-to-grasp movements of subjects with hemiparesis. When complex systems are not available, accelerometers can be an alternative to measure UL movements.

  10. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits : can the population at risk of developing glaucoma be reached?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.


    Aim: To determine the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma, which can potentially be reached by conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods: 1200 inhabitants aged > 40 years were randomly selected from Dutch community population databases. A

  11. [How do Prevention Projects Reach their Target Groups? Results of a Survey with Prevention Projects]. (United States)

    Brand, T; Böttcher, S; Jahn, I


     The aim of this study was to assess methods used to access target groups in prevention projects funded within the prevention research framework by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.  A survey with prevention projects was conducted. Access strategies, communication channels, incentives, programme reach, and successful practical recruitment strategies were explored.  38 out of 60 projects took part in the survey. Most projects accessed their target group within structured settings (e. g., child day-care centers, schools, workplaces). Multiple communication channels and incentives were used, with written information and monetary incentives being used most frequently. Only few projects were able to report their programme reach adequately; programme reach was highest for programmes accessing the target groups in structured settings. The respondents viewed active recruitment via personal communication with the target group and key persons in the settings as the most successful strategy.  The paper provides an overview on recruitment strategies used in current preven-tion projects. More systematic research on programme reach is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. Biomechanics of the octopus reaching movement. (United States)

    Yekutieli, Yoram; Sagiv-Zohar, Roni; Aharonov, Ranit; Engel, Yaakov; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar


    The octopus arm requires special motor control schemes because it consists almost entirely of muscles and lacks a rigid skeletal support. Here we present a 2D dynamic model of the octopus arm to explore possible strategies of movement control in this muscular hydrostat. The arm is modeled as a multisegment structure, each segment containing longitudinal and transverse muscles and maintaining a constant volume, a prominent feature of muscular hydrostats. The input to the model is the degree of activation of each of its muscles. The model includes the external forces of gravity, buoyancy, and water drag forces (experimentally estimated here). It also includes the internal forces generated by the arm muscles and the forces responsible for maintaining a constant volume. Using this dynamic model to investigate the octopus reaching movement and to explore the mechanisms of bend propagation that characterize this movement, we found the following. 1) A simple command producing a wave of muscle activation moving at a constant velocity is sufficient to replicate the natural reaching movements with similar kinematic features. 2) The biomechanical mechanism that produces the reaching movement is a stiffening wave of muscle contraction that pushes a bend forward along the arm. 3) The perpendicular drag coefficient for an octopus arm is nearly 50 times larger than the tangential drag coefficient. During a reaching movement, only a small portion of the arm is oriented perpendicular to the direction of movement, thus minimizing the drag force.

  13. Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators through a Partnership with a Navajo Nation School District. (United States)

    Heimbecker, Connie; Medina, Catherine; Peterson, Patricia; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg


    This article describes the Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators (RAISE) program, a community-based native teacher education program located on the Navajo reservation in Kayenta, Arizona. The preservice teacher preparation partnership program is designed for uncertified Navajo special and elementary education preservice students…

  14. Fifty Strategies for Counseling Defiant, Aggressive Adolescents: Reaching, Accepting, and Relating. (United States)

    Hanna, Fred J.; Hanna, Constance A.; Keys, Susan G.


    Takes a transtheoretical approach using ideas from cognitive behavioral, existential, Gestalt, psychodynamic, and multicultural therapies to describe both new and established strategies for relationships building with defiant youth. Arranges strategies in three categories: reaching, accepting, and relating. Suggestions for counselors when working…

  15. The reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme in community football. (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Twomey, Dara M; Doyle, Tim L A; Lloyd, David G; Young, Warren; Elliott, Bruce C


    To determine the reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme for lower limb injury prevention. Secondary analysis of data from a group-clustered randomised controlled trial. A periodised exercise training warm-up programme was delivered to players during training sessions over an 8-week preseason (weeks 1-8) and 18-week playing season. 1564 community Australian football players. Reach, measured weekly, was the number of players who attended training sessions. Adoption was the number of attending players who completed the programme in full, partially or not at all. Reasons for partial or non-participation were recorded. In week 1, 599 players entered the programme; 55% attended 1 training session and 45% attended > 1 session. By week 12, 1540 players were recruited but training attendance (reach) decreased to <50%. When players attended training, the majority adopted the full programme-ranging from 96% (week 1) to above 80% until week 20. The most common reasons for low adoption were players being injured, too sore, being late for training or choosing their own warm-up. The training programme's reach was highest preseason and halved at the playing season's end. However, when players attended training sessions, their adoption was high and remained close to 70% by season end. For sports injury prevention programmes to be fully effective across a season, attention also needs to be given to (1) encouraging players to attend formal training sessions and (2) considering the possibility of some form of programme delivery outside of formal training.

  16. Cue Salience and Infant Perseverative Reaching: Tests of the Dynamic Field Theory (United States)

    Clearfield, Melissa W.; Dineva, Evelina; Smith, Linda B.; Diedrich, Frederick J.; Thelen, Esther


    Skilled behavior requires a balance between previously successful behaviors and new behaviors appropriate to the present context. We describe a dynamic field model for understanding this balance in infant perseverative reaching. The model predictions are tested with regard to the interaction of two aspects of the typical perseverative reaching…

  17. Advanced REACH Tool : Development and application of the substance emission potential modifying factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, M. van; Fransman, W.; Spankie, S.; Tischer, M.; Brouwer, D.; Schinkel, J.; Cherrie, J.W.; Tielemans, E.


    The Advanced REACH Tool (ART) is an exposure assessment tool that combines mechanistically modelled inhalation exposure estimates with available exposure data using a Bayesian approach. The mechanistic model is based on nine independent principal modifying factors (MF). One of these MF is the

  18. REACH, non-testing approaches and the urgent need for a change in mind set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Kroese, E.D.; Tielemans, E.L.J.P.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Leeuwen, C.J. van


    The objectives of REACH cannot be achieved under the current risk assessment approach. A change in mind set among all the relevant stakeholders is needed: risk assessment should move away from a labor-intensive and animal-consuming approach to intelligent and pragmatic testing, by combining exposure

  19. Anticipatory reaching of seven- to eleven-month-old infants in occlusion situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wermeskerken, M; van der Kamp, J.; te Velde, A.F.; Valero-Garcia, A.V.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.


    The present study examined 7- to 11-month-old infants' anticipatory and reactive reaching for temporarily occluded objects. Infants were presented with laterally approaching objects that moved at different velocities (10, 20, and 40. cm/s) in different occlusion situations (no-, 20. cm-, and 40.

  20. Digital Technology in Teaching International Business: Is a Tradeoff between Richness and Reach Required? (United States)

    Wymbs, Cliff; Kijne, Hugo


    This analysis extends the traditional marketing tradeoffs between richness (depth of knowledge) and reach (geographic area coverage) to the emerging technology-mediated education industry, and then specifically evaluates their effect on the teaching of international business. It asserts that interactive learning, particularly as it applies to team…

  1. Survey studies how to reach primary hardwood producers with new information (United States)

    Philip Araman; Robert Smith; Matthew Winn


    It is important for the timber industry to obtain new knowledge in order to stay competitive, increase productivity, or to produce new products from a sometime changing resource. We sought to understand how new knowledge— innovative techniques, improved technology, and marketing information—reach our primary forest industries in the United States. We surveyed hardwood...

  2. Reach-scale land use drives the stress responses of a resident stream fish. (United States)

    Blevins, Zachary W; Wahl, David H; Suski, Cory D


    Abstract To date, relatively few studies have tried to determine the practicality of using physiological information to help answer complex ecological questions and assist in conservation actions aimed at improving conditions for fish populations. In this study, the physiological stress responses of fish were evaluated in-stream between agricultural and forested stream reaches to determine whether differences in these responses can be used as tools to evaluate conservation actions. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus sampled directly from forested and agricultural stream segments did not show differences in a suite of physiological indicators. When given a thermal challenge in the laboratory, creek chub sampled from cooler forested stream reaches had higher cortisol levels and higher metabolic stress responses to thermal challenge than creek chub collected from warmer and more thermally variable agricultural reaches within the same stream. Despite fish from agricultural and forested stream segments having different primary and secondary stress responses, fish were able to maintain homeostasis of other physiological indicators to thermal challenge. These results demonstrate that local habitat conditions within discrete stream reaches may impact the stress responses of resident fish and provide insight into changes in community structure and the ability of tolerant fish species to persist in agricultural areas.

  3. Reaching and recruiting Turkish migrants for a clinical trial through Facebook: A process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Ünlü Ince


    Traditional recruitment strategies, such as research information leaflets and advertisements in newspapers, appear ineffective in recruiting ethnic minority groups for research purposes. The use of FB proved to be a more successful method. Future research should examine the factors that account for the potential effectiveness of FB as a recruitment method for hard-to-reach populations.

  4. Let's talk sex on the air: ReachOut launches radio campaign. (United States)

    This article reports on the launching of the National Radio and Public Relations Campaign to Promote Modern Methods of Contraception by the ReachOut AIDS Foundation Incorporated in the Philippines. ReachOut has tapped radio veteran Tiya Dely Magpayo as the official campaign spokesperson, thus, putting a mother's touch to a serious promotional drive to reach the far-flung areas of the country. It is noted that the project promotes the wider use of modern methods of contraception as its contribution to the Philippines Population Program goals of controlling the population rate. Since radio is the most patronized media in the country, ReachOut hopes that the radio soap opera format will attract the listeners to use contraceptives. The campaign encourages men and women of reproductive age to seek information and services regarding modern methods of contraception from health service providers in their respective areas. The Department of Health will provide the technical support to ensure that the campaign is keeping with the government's programs.

  5. Reaching High-Need Youth Populations With Evidence-Based Sexual Health Education in California. (United States)

    Campa, Mary I; Leff, Sarah Z; Tufts, Margaret


    To explore the programmatic reach and experience of high-need adolescents who received sexual health education in 3 distinct implementation settings (targeted-prevention settings, traditional schools, and alternative schools) through a statewide sexual health education program. Data are from youth surveys collected between September 2013 and December 2014 in the California Personal Responsibility Education Program. A sample of high-need participants (n = 747) provided data to examine the impact of implementation setting on reach and program experience. Implementation in targeted-prevention settings was equal to or more effective at providing a positive program experience for high-need participants. More than 5 times as many high-need participants were served in targeted-prevention settings compared with traditional schools. Reaching the same number of high-need participants served in targeted-prevention settings over 15 months would take nearly 7 years of programming in traditional schools. To maximize the reach and experience of high-need youth populations receiving sexual health education, state and local agencies should consider the importance of implementation setting. Targeted resources and efforts should be directed toward high-need young people by expanding beyond traditional school settings.

  6. Decision theory, motor planning, and visual memory: deciding where to reach when memory errors are costly. (United States)

    Lerch, Rachel A; Sims, Chris R


    Limitations in visual working memory (VWM) have been extensively studied in psychophysical tasks, but not well understood in terms of how these memory limits translate to performance in more natural domains. For example, in reaching to grasp an object based on a spatial memory representation, overshooting the intended target may be more costly than undershooting, such as when reaching for a cup of hot coffee. The current body of literature lacks a detailed account of how the costs or consequences of memory error influence what we encode in visual memory and how we act on the basis of remembered information. Here, we study how externally imposed monetary costs influence behavior in a motor decision task that involves reach planning based on recalled information from VWM. We approach this from a decision theoretic perspective, viewing decisions of where to aim in relation to the utility of their outcomes given the uncertainty of memory representations. Our results indicate that subjects accounted for the uncertainty in their visual memory, showing a significant difference in their reach planning when monetary costs were imposed for memory errors. However, our findings indicate that subjects memory representations per se were not biased by the imposed costs, but rather subjects adopted a near-optimal post-mnemonic decision strategy in their motor planning.

  7. Preparing Every Teacher to Reach English Learners: A Practical Guide for Teacher Educators (United States)

    Nutta, Joyce W., Ed.; Mokhtari, Kouider, Ed.; Strebel, Carine, Ed.


    "Preparing Every Teacher to Reach English Learners" presents a practical, flexible model for infusing English learner (EL) instruction into teacher education courses. The editors outline the key steps involved in this approach--winning faculty support, assessing needs, and developing capacity--and share strategies for avoiding pitfalls. The…

  8. How Do Object Size and Rigidity Affect Reaching and Grasping in Infants with Down Syndrome? (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; Francisco, Kelly Regina; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira


    Reaching and grasping skills have been described to emerge from a dynamic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between such an intrinsic factor, Down syndrome, and extrinsic factors, such as different object properties. Seven infants with Down syndrome and seven…

  9. Control of a long reach manipulator with suspension cables for waste storage tank remediation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.


    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  10. An explorative study into changes in reach performance after gravity compensation training in chronic stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prange, Grada Berendina; Krabben, T.; Renzenbrink, G.J.; de Boer, Jan; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Jannink, M.J.A.


    After stroke, arm function can be limited by a reduction in the selectivity of movements, due to involuntary coupling of shoulder abduction and elbow flexion, limiting the ability to reach. Gravity compensation reduces the required active shoulder abduction torques, which results in a larger range

  11. Temporal-spatial parameters of the upper limb during a Reach & Grasp Cycle for children. (United States)

    Butler, Erin E; Ladd, Amy L; Lamont, Lauren E; Rose, Jessica


    The objective of this study was to characterize normal temporal-spatial patterns during the Reach & Grasp Cycle and to identify upper limb motor deficits in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The Reach & Grasp Cycle encompasses six sequential tasks: reach, grasp cylinder, transport to self (T(1)), transport back to table (T(2)), release cylinder, and return to initial position. Three-dimensional motion data were recorded from 25 typically developing children (11 males, 14 females; ages 5-18 years) and 12 children with hemiplegic CP (2 males, 10 females; ages 5-17 years). Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation for the control group ranged from 0 to 0.19, indicating good repeatability of all parameters. The mean duration of the Cycle for children with CP was nearly twice as long as controls, 9.5±4.3s versus 5.1±1.2s (U=37.0, P=.002), partly due to prolonged grasp and release durations. Peak hand velocity occurred at approximately 40% of each phase and was greater during the transport (T(1), T(2)) than non-transport phases (reach, return) in controls (PGrasp Cycle (rho=.957, PGrasp Cycle for quantitative evaluation of upper limb motor deficits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A simple model of EG and G reverse reach-through APDs

    CERN Document Server

    Musienko, Y; Swain, J D


    A simple model of reverse reach-through APDs is described. APD parameters including the dependence of the electric field and gain on the bias voltage, dependence of gain on wavelength are calculated using the McIntyre approach and an assumed doping profile of the APD.

  13. A simple model of EG and G reverse reach-through APDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musienko, Y. E-mail:; Reucroft, S.; Swain, J


    A simple model of reverse reach-through APDs is described. APD parameters including the dependence of the electric field and gain on the bias voltage, dependence of gain on wavelength are calculated using the McIntyre approach and an assumed doping profile of the APD.

  14. Hydraulic alterations resulting from hydropower development in the Bonneville Reach of the Columbia River (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.


    We used a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model to simulate and compare the hydraulic characteristics in a 74-km reach of the Columbia River (the Bonneville Reach) before and after construction of Bonneville Dam. For hydrodynamic modeling, we created a bathymetric layer of the Bonneville Reach from single-beam and multi-beam echo-sounder surveys, digital elevation models, and navigation surveys. We calibrated the hydrodynamic model at 100 and 300 kcfs with a user-defined roughness layer, a variable-sized mesh, and a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers backwater curve. We verified the 2D model with acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data at 14 transects and three flows. The 2D model was 88% accurate for water depths, and 77% accurate for velocities. We verified a pre-dam 2D model run at 126 kcfs using pre-dam aerial photos from September 1935. Hydraulic simulations indicated that mean water depths in the Bonneville Reach increased by 34% following dam construction, while mean velocities decreased by 58%. There are numerous activities that would benefit from data output from the 2D model, including biological sampling, bioenergetics, and spatially explicit habitat modeling.

  15. Infants with Down Syndrome and Their Interactions with Objects: Development of Exploratory Actions after Reaching Onset (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; da Costa, Carolina Souza Neves; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira


    During infant development, objects and their functions are learned by means of active exploration. Factors that may influence exploration include reaching and grasping ability, object properties and the presence of developmental disorders. We assessed the development of exploratory actions in 16 typically-developing (TD) infants and 9 infants with…

  16. Data Quality in the Application of Tailored Calendar Methods in Hard-to-Reach Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarra, M.Q.; Vaart, van der W.; Niehof, Anke


    Abstract A tailored calendar method was used to collect retrospective data from hard-to-reach populations: people with very low levels of income, education and literacy that live in complex societal situations and have low trust in authorities. Recognizing the serious threats to data quality in

  17. Impact of measles supplementary immunization activities on reaching children missed by routine programs. (United States)

    Portnoy, Allison; Jit, Mark; Helleringer, Stéphane; Verguet, Stéphane


    Measles supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) are vaccination campaigns that supplement routine vaccination programs with a recommended second dose opportunity to children of different ages regardless of their previous history of measles vaccination. They are conducted every 2-4 years and over a few weeks in many low- and middle-income countries. While SIAs have high vaccination coverage, it is unclear whether they reach the children who miss their routine measles vaccine dose. Determining who is reached by SIAs is vital to understanding their effectiveness, as well as measure progress towards measles control. We examined SIAs in low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2014 using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Conditional on a child's routine measles vaccination status, we examined whether children participated in the most recent measles SIA. The average proportion of zero-dose children (no previous routine measles vaccination defined as no vaccination date before the SIA) reached by SIAs across 14 countries was 66%, ranging from 28% in São Tomé and Príncipe to 91% in Nigeria. However, when also including all children with routine measles vaccination data, this proportion decreased to 12% and to 58% when imputing data for children with vaccination reported by the mother and vaccination marks on the vaccination card across countries. Overall, the proportions of zero-dose children reached by SIAs declined with increasing household wealth. Some countries appeared to reach a higher proportion of zero-dose children using SIAs than others, with proportions reached varying according to the definition of measles vaccination (e.g., vaccination dates on the vaccination card, vaccination marks on the vaccination card, and/or self-reported data). This suggests that some countries could improve their targeting of SIAs to children who miss other measles vaccine opportunities. Across all countries, SIAs played an important role in reaching

  18. Stereotypical reaching movements of the octopus involve both bend propagation and arm elongation. (United States)

    Hanassy, S; Botvinnik, A; Flash, T; Hochner, B


    The bend propagation involved in the stereotypical reaching movement of the octopus arm has been extensively studied. While these studies have analyzed the kinematics of bend propagation along the arm during its extension, possible length changes have been ignored. Here, the elongation profiles of the reaching movements of Octopus vulgaris were assessed using three-dimensional reconstructions. The analysis revealed that, in addition to bend propagation, arm extension movements involve elongation of the proximal part of the arm, i.e., the section from the base of the arm to the propagating bend. The elongations are quite substantial and highly variable, ranging from an average strain along the arm of -0.12 (i.e. shortening) up to 1.8 at the end of the movement (0.57 ± 0.41, n = 64 movements, four animals). Less variability was discovered in an additional set of experiments on reaching movements (0.64 ± 0.28, n = 30 movements, two animals), where target and octopus positions were kept more stationary. Visual observation and subsequent kinematic analysis suggest that the reaching movements can be broadly segregated into two groups. The first group involves bend propagation beginning at the base of the arm and propagating towards the arm tip. In the second, the bend is formed or present more distally and reaching is achieved mainly by elongation and straightening of the segment proximal to the bend. Only in the second type of movements is elongation significantly positively correlated with the distance of the bend from the target. We suggest that reaching towards a target is generated by a combination of both propagation of a bend along the arm and arm elongation. These two motor primitives may be combined to create a broad spectrum of reaching movements. The dynamical model, which recapitulates the biomechanics of the octopus muscular hydrostatic arm, suggests that achieving the observed elongation requires an extremely low ratio of longitudinal to transverse muscle

  19. Quantitative model of transport-aperture coordination during reach-to-grasp movements. (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Y P; Hossain, Abul B M I; Stelmach, George E


    It has been found in our previous studies that the initiation of aperture closure during reach-to-grasp movements occurs when the hand distance to target crosses a threshold that is a function of peak aperture amplitude, hand velocity, and hand acceleration. Thus, a stable relationship between those four movement parameters is observed at the moment of aperture closure initiation. Based on the concept of optimal control of movements (Naslin 1969) and its application for reach-to-grasp movement regulation (Hoff and Arbib 1993), it was hypothesized that the mathematical equation expressing that relationship can be generalized to describe coordination between hand transport and finger aperture during the entire reach-to-grasp movement by adding aperture velocity and acceleration to the above four movement parameters. The present study examines whether this hypothesis is supported by the data obtained in experiments in which young adults performed reach-to-grasp movements in eight combinations of two reach-amplitude conditions and four movement-speed conditions. It was found that linear approximation of the mathematical model described the relationship among the six movement parameters for the entire aperture-closure phase with very high precision for each condition, thus supporting the hypothesis for that phase. Testing whether one mathematical model could approximate the data across all the experimental conditions revealed that it was possible to achieve the same high level of data-fitting precision only by including in the model two additional, condition-encoding parameters and using a nonlinear, artificial neural network-based approximator with two hidden layers comprising three and two neurons, respectively. This result indicates that transport-aperture coordination, as a specific relationship between the parameters of hand transport and finger aperture, significantly depends on the condition-encoding variables. The data from the aperture-opening phase also fit a

  20. Improving Posthospital Discharge Telephone Reach Rates Through Prehospital Discharge Face-to-Face Meetings. (United States)

    Vergara, Franz H; Sheridan, Daniel J; Sullivan, Nancy J; Budhathoki, Chakra

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a face-to-face meeting with patients by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge would result in increased telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates posthospital discharge. Acute care adult medicine inpatient units. A quasiexperimental design was utilized. Two adult inpatient medicine units were selected as the intervention and comparison groups. The framework of the study is the transitions theory. A convenience sampling technique was used, whereby 88 eligible patients on the intervention unit received face-to-face meetings prehospital discharge whereas 123 patients on the comparison unit received standard care (no face-to-face meetings). Cross-tabulation and chi-square tests were employed to examine the association of face-to-face meeting intervention and TFU reach rates. Implementing brief (face-to-face meetings by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge resulted in a TFU reach rate of 87% on the intervention unit, whereas the comparison unit only had a 58% TFU reach rate (p communication with more patients posthospital discharge. A brief prehospital discharge face-to-face meeting with patients assisted them to understand the reasons for a posthospital discharge telephone call, identified the best times to call using accurate telephone numbers, and taught patients how best to prepare for the call. In addition, by meeting patients face-to-face, the telephonic case manager was no longer an unknown person on the telephone asking them questions about their medical condition. These factors combined may have significantly helped to increase TFU reach rates.