WorldWideScience

Sample records for re-orient participants giving

  1. Alumni Satisfaction with Their Undergraduate Academic Experience and the Impact on Alumni Giving and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis for this research was that the higher the level of academic satisfaction, the more likely it is for alumni to be involved with the university. Alumni involvement was defined as alumni giving and/or alumni participating with their alma mater within the last three years. There were 1,608 alumni from a large state university who…

  2. Spatial re-orienting of visual attention along the horizontal or the vertical axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, E; Patria, F

    2007-06-01

    Neuroimaging data indicate functional segregation between voluntary and stimulus-driven control of spatial attention in dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal regions, respectively. While recent evidences demonstrated location-specific attentional effects in dorsal regions, little is known about any location or direction selectivity within the ventral network. Here, we used a spatial cueing paradigm to investigate stimulus-driven spatial re-orienting along different axes (horizontal or vertical). We found that re-orienting of attention activated the ventral attentional network, irrespective of axis-orientation. Statistical comparisons between homologous regions in the two hemispheres revealed significant main effects of attention re-orienting (common activation for the two hemispheres), irrespective of leftward or rightward re-orienting along the horizontal axis, or re-orienting along the vertical axis. We conclude that in healthy volunteers, a bilateral ventral network controls spatial covert re-orienting, and that this system is multidirectional.

  3. Re-orienting a remote acute care model towards a primary health care approach: key enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Vicki; Reeve, Carole A; Humphreys, John S; Wakerman, John; Carter, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the key enablers of change in re-orienting a remote acute care model to comprehensive primary healthcare delivery. The setting of the study was a 12-bed hospital in Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia. Individual key informant, in-depth interviews were completed with five of six identified senior leaders involved in the development of the Fitzroy Valley Health Partnership. Interviews were recorded and transcripts were thematically analysed by two investigators for shared views about the enabling factors strengthening primary healthcare delivery in a remote region of Australia. Participants described theestablishment of a culturally relevant primary healthcare service, using a community-driven, 'bottom up' approach characterised by extensive community participation. The formal partnership across the government and community controlled health services was essential, both to enable change to occur and to provide sustainability in the longer term. A hierarchy of major themes emerged. These included community participation, community readiness and desire for self-determination; linkages in the form of a government community controlled health service partnership; leadership; adequate infrastructure; enhanced workforce supply; supportive policy; and primary healthcare funding. The strong united leadership shown by the community and the health service enabled barriers to be overcome and it maximised the opportunities provided by government policy changes. The concurrent alignment around a common vision enabled implementation of change. The key principle learnt from this study is the importance of community and health service relationships and local leadership around a shared vision for the re-orientation of community health services.

  4. Are Parents of Preschool Children Inclined to Give Consent for Participation in Nutritional Clinical Trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipen Vasudev; Phatak, Ajay Gajanan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Micronutrient deficiencies can lead to anemia, growth restriction, and poor motor and cognitive development. A clinical trial was planned to assess the impact of nutritional supplementation on cognitive measures in preschool children. Conducting clinical trials in children is difficult due to underlying laws, hesitation of the research community, and difficult enrollment. We carried out a questionnaire-based feasibility survey to assess the interest of parents towards participation in such a nutrition-based study. Methods After approval from the Institutional Human Research Ethics Committee, the principals of four kindergarten schools at Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India consented to participate. Children at the participating schools were distributed a consent form and pre-tested questionnaire, to be taken home for parents to sign, fill and return. Results Out of a total of 1049 consent forms and questionnaires distributed, 602 (57.39%) signed and filled forms were returned. Despite fair awareness regarding the need of research, parents’ willingness to involve their children in a 6 month duration research study, not requiring invasive measures like blood pricks, was 180 (29.9%). Nearly half (250, 41.5%) did not respond and more than a quarter (172, 28.6%) declined participation on behalf of their children. Conclusion The interest level of a pre-school child's parents for participation of the child in a nutrition intervention study evaluating cognitive measures like memory is low. Understanding the study population’s motivating and inhibiting factors leading to decreased participation in clinical trials is necessary to facilitate the creation of a pertinent evidence base. PMID:27732680

  5. 53 ETHICO-RELIGIOUS RE-ORIENTATION OF NIGERIAN WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of different African communities, the Nigerian woman has ... In spite of the enormous contributions of women to the development of different African .... in a guest of the week programme in Delta Broadcasting Service remarked, 'if you think it is .... the rural area on the need for women to participate in politics. vii.

  6. Give the public and workers the full right to know and participate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orum, Paul; Heminway, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Industrial toxic chemicals are often introduced into our environment without the knowledge or consent of those harmed and exposed. Limited disclosure laws and practices currently inform workers and communities of some toxic chemical sources and exposures, but these laws amount to islands of knowledge amid seas of ignorance. Systematic disclosure of use, release, and exposure to industrial toxic chemicals and other environmental health hazards helps people protect themselves, improves oversight of government and industry decisions, and encourages development of safer alternatives. The means by which industries and governments provide information about environmental health hazards must be carefully constructed. Effective disclosure must provide both immediate and well-organized public access on both sides of the digital divide. Selected initiatives demonstrate the value, diversity, and limitations of current disclosure policies. Closely linked with our right to know is our essential right to participate in decisions about environmental hazards that affect our lives.

  7. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient...

  8. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salien...

  9. Human sperm pattern of movement during chemotactic re-orientation towards a progesterone source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia Soledad Blengini; Maria Eugenia Teves; Diego Rafael Unates; Hector Alejandro Guidobaldi; Laura Virginia Gatica; Laura Cecilia Giojalas

    2011-01-01

    @@ Human spermatozoa may chemotactically find out the egg by following an increasing gradient of attractant molecules.Although human spermatozoa have been observed to show several of the physiological characteristics of chemotaxis,the chemotactic pattern of movement has not been easy to describe.However,it is apparent that chemotactic cells may be identified while returning to the attractant source.This study characterizes the pattern of movement of human spermatozoa during chemotactic re-orientation towards a progesterone source,which is a physiological attractant candidate.By means of videomicroscopy and image analysis,a chemotactic pattern of movement was identified as the spermatozoon returned towards the source of a chemotactic concentration of progesterone (10 pmol l-1).First,as a continuation of its original path,the spermatozoon swims away from the progesterone source with linear movement and then turns back with a transitional movement that can be characterized by an increased velocity and decreased linearity.This sperm behaviour may help the spermatozoon to re-orient itself towards a progesterone source and may be used to identify the few cells that are undergoing chemotaxis at a given time.

  10. An image analysis approach for automatically re-orienteering CT images for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, Rita; Lamma, Evelina; Sansoni, Tommaso

    2004-06-01

    In the last decade, computerized tomography (CT) has become the most frequently used imaging modality to obtain a correct pre-operative implant planning. In this work, we present an image analysis and computer vision approach able to identify, from the reconstructed 3D data set, the optimal cutting plane specific to each implant to be planned, in order to obtain the best view of the implant site and to have correct measures. If the patient requires more implants, different cutting planes are automatically identified, and the axial and cross-sectional images can be re-oriented accordingly to each of them. In the paper, we describe the defined algorithms in order to recognize 3D markers (each one aligned with a missed tooth for which an implant has to be planned) in the 3D reconstructed space, and the results in processing real exams, in terms of effectiveness and precision and reproducibility of the measure.

  11. Re-orienting crop improvement for the changing climatic conditions of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mba Chikelu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 70% increase in food production is required over the next four decades to feed an ever-increasing population. The inherent difficulties in achieving this unprecedented increase are exacerbated by the yield-depressing consequences of climate change and variations and by the pressures on food supply by other competing demographic and socioeconomic demands. With the dwindling or stagnant agricultural land and water resources, the sought-after increases will therefore be attained mainly through the enhancement of crop productivity under eco-efficient crop production systems. ‘Smart’ crop varieties that yield more with fewer inputs will be pivotal to success. Plant breeding must be re-oriented in order to generate these ‘smart’ crop varieties. This paper highlights some of the scientific and technological tools that ought to be the staple of all breeding programs. We also make the case that plant breeding must be enabled by adequate policies, including those that spur innovation and investments. To arrest and reverse the worrisome trend of declining capacities for crop improvement, a new generation of plant breeders must also be trained. Equally important, winning partnerships, including public-private sector synergies, are needed for 21st century plant breeding to bear fruits. We also urge the adoption of the continuum approach to the management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture as means to improved cohesion of the components of its value chain. Compellingly also, the National Agricultural Research and Extension System of developing countries require comprehensive overhauling and strengthening as crop improvement and other interventions require a sustained platform to be effective. The development of a suite of actionable policy interventions to be packaged for assisting countries in developing result-oriented breeding programs is also called for.

  12. Re-orientation transition in molecular thin films: Potts model with dipolar interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Danh-Tai; Kasperski, Maciej; Puszkarski, Henryk; Diep, H T

    2013-02-06

    We study the low-temperature behavior and the phase transition of a thin film by Monte Carlo simulation. The thin film has a simple cubic lattice structure where each site is occupied by a Potts parameter which indicates the molecular orientation of the site. We take only three molecular orientations in this paper, which correspond to the three-state Potts model. The Hamiltonian of the system includes (i) the exchange interaction J(ij) between nearest-neighbor sites i and j, (ii) the long-range dipolar interaction of amplitude D truncated at a cutoff distance r(c), and (iii) a single-ion perpendicular anisotropy of amplitude A. We allow J(ij) = J(s) between surface spins, and J(ij) = J otherwise. We show that the ground state depends on the ratio D/A and r(c). For a single layer, for a given A, there is a critical value D(c) below (above) which the ground-state (GS) configuration of molecular axes is perpendicular (parallel) to the film surface. When the temperature T is increased, a re-orientation transition occurs near D(c): the low-T in-plane ordering undergoes a transition to the perpendicular ordering at a finite T, below the transition to the paramagnetic phase. The same phenomenon is observed in the case of a film with a thickness. Comparison with the Fe/Gd experiment is given. We show that the surface phase transition can occur below or above the bulk transition depending on the ratio J(s)/J. Surface and bulk order parameters as well as other physical quantities are shown and discussed.

  13. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, Elena V; Stroganova, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response-automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN), and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component,-found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased, or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, "sensory gating" studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants "at risk" who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions.

  14. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Orekhova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs and magnetic fields (ERFs may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response - automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN, and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component, - found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, ‘sensory gating’ studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants at risk who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions.

  15. Giving presentations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  16. Participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... there is still little theorising about those on the other side of the policy equation. ... The concept of participation designates human beings – their priorities, knowledge .... Thus, a person's mode of participation in the enterprise.

  17. Transparent Giving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Public trust in charities generally remains low, but the government is taking steps to improve their accountability Chen Xiaozhu, a civil servant in Beijing, follows the development of China's charities and enthusiastically participates in different charitable activities. But she cannot forget an incident at Shanghai's Fudan

  18. It's better to give than to receive: the role of social support, trust, and participation on health-related social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hether, Heather J; Murphy, Sheila T; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-12-01

    Nearly 60% of American adults and 80% of Internet users have sought health information online. Moreover, Internet users are no longer solely passive consumers of online health content; they are active producers as well. Social media, such as social networking sites, are increasingly being used as online venues for the exchange of health-related information and advice. However, little is known about how participation on health-related social networking sites affects users. Research has shown that women participate more on social networking sites and social networks are more influential among same-sex members. Therefore, this study examined how participation on a social networking site about pregnancy influenced members' health-related attitudes and behaviors. The authors surveyed 114 pregnant members of 8 popular pregnancy-related sites. Analyses revealed that time spent on the sites was less predictive of health-related outcomes than more qualitative assessments such as trust in the sites. Furthermore, providing support was associated with the most outcomes, including seeking more information from additional sources and following recommendations posted on the sites. The implications of these findings, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.

  19. Electric field control of spin re-orientation in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions—CoFeB and MgO thickness dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao; Naik, Vinayak Bharat; Liu, Ruisheng; Han, Guchang

    2014-07-01

    We report an investigation of electric-field (EF) control of spin re-orientation as functions of the thicknesses of CoFeB free layer (FL) and MgO layer in synthetic-antiferromagnetic pinned magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. It is found that the EF modulates the coercivity (Hc) of the FL almost linearly for all FL thicknesses, while the EF efficiency, i.e., the slope of the linearity, increases as the FL thickness increases. This linear variation in Hc is also observed for larger MgO thicknesses (≥1.5 nm), while the EF efficiency increases only slightly from 370 to 410 Oe nm/V when MgO thickness increases from 1.5 to 1.76 nm. We have further observed the absence of quasi-DC unipolar switching. We discuss its origin and highlight the underlying challenges to implement the EF controlled switching in a practical magnetic memory.

  20. Evaluation of Cast Re-Orientation on a Dental Surveyor Using Three Tripod Techniques: A Survey and In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Mohammed E; Busaily, Idris A; Nahari, Rana J; Hakami, Ruaa O; Maashi, Sami M; Ramireddy, Naveen R

    2017-01-18

    To survey different educational levels (i.e., students, interns, technicians, and prosthodontic faculty) with regard to their opinions, attitudes, and adoption of three selected tripod techniques. The study will also investigate the accuracy of these techniques to reposition casts on the dental surveyor in anterio-posterior (AP) and lateral directions at both technique and educational levels. Tripod points, scored lines, and cemented post tripod techniques were used in this study. Three Kennedy class II modification I stone casts, duplicated from a standard cast, were assigned to each of the tripod techniques. The tilt angles of all casts were set on the dental surveyor to 10° (control angle) in AP and lateral directions using a digital angle gauge with an accuracy of 0.2°. The casts were tripoded accordingly. A total of 243 participants were involved in this study. Participants were first asked to remount the three casts on three different dental surveyors using the tripod technique noted on each cast. Questionnaires were then given to each participant in an individual interview setting; this assured a 100% response rate. The angle differences were calculated. All data were coded and entered into an Excel Spreadsheet file. Statistical analyses were performed using a paired Chi-square, Wilcoxon Matched-pairs, ANOVA, and Tukey post hoc tests at 5% level of significance. No significant difference was found between the educational levels relative to the responses to technique demands, sensitivity, and time required for reorientation (p = 0.08202, 0.8108, 0.6874, respectively); however, the majority of respondents reported low technique demands, low sensitivity, and time saving for technique C in comparison to techniques A and B. Significant differences were noted among the educational levels in response to preference and adoption questions (p = 0.0035 and 0.0015, respectively). The highest percentage of faculty chose technique A for inclusion into the academic

  1. Electric field control of spin re-orientation in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions—CoFeB and MgO thickness dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Hao; Naik, Vinayak Bharat; Liu, Ruisheng; Han, Guchang, E-mail: han-guchang@dsi.a-star.edu.sg [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR (Agency for Science Technology and Research), 5 Engineering Drive 1, DSI Building, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2014-07-28

    We report an investigation of electric-field (EF) control of spin re-orientation as functions of the thicknesses of CoFeB free layer (FL) and MgO layer in synthetic-antiferromagnetic pinned magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. It is found that the EF modulates the coercivity (Hc) of the FL almost linearly for all FL thicknesses, while the EF efficiency, i.e., the slope of the linearity, increases as the FL thickness increases. This linear variation in Hc is also observed for larger MgO thicknesses (≥1.5 nm), while the EF efficiency increases only slightly from 370 to 410 Oe nm/V when MgO thickness increases from 1.5 to 1.76 nm. We have further observed the absence of quasi-DC unipolar switching. We discuss its origin and highlight the underlying challenges to implement the EF controlled switching in a practical magnetic memory.

  2. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  3. Giving Medicine to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos ...

  4. Giving Medication to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Giving Medication to Children Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... the upper limit. back to top Q: Are medications that are intended for children clinically tested on ...

  5. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  6. Giving behavior of millionaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.; Bauer, R.; Gneezy, U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies conditions influencing the generosity of wealthy people. We conduct incentivized experiments with individuals who have at least €1 million in their bank account. The results show that millionaires are more generous toward low-income individuals in a giving situation when the other

  7. Giving them a second chance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohn, L.

    Manaties are finding a haven in the warm water discharges from Florida power plants. They and other endangered species are the subject of a short film, A Second Chance, which tells the story of the efforts electric utilities are making to give wildlife another chance. The movie shows 15 programs of participating utilities to identify and promote activities with a positive environmental impact on bald eagles, crocodiles, bighorn sheep, and other threatened species. The film is available in print or broadcast tape form. (DCK)

  8. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  9. Ambivalent participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom...... they could not give open accounts about sexual practice. Attempting to overcome these barriers, I participated in excessive nightlife activities, and as a consequence they began viewing me as a more accepting and reliable person. Although breaking down these barriers provided invaluable insight......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....

  10. Give and Take in Dictator Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Sørensen, Erik Ø.;

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that participants in the dictator game are less willing to give money to the other participant when their choice set also includes the option to take money. We examine whether this effect is due to the choice set providing a signal about entitlements in a setting where...... in Denmark. The findings are consistent with dictator giving partly being motivated by a desire to signal that one is not entirely selfish or by a desire to follow a social norm that is choice-set dependent....

  11. Give and Take in Dictator Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Sørensen, Erik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that participants in the dictator game are less willing to give money to the other participant when their choice set also includes the option to take money. We examine whether this effect is due to the choice set providing a signal about entitlements in a setting where...... in Denmark. The findings are consistent with dictator giving partly being motivated by a desire to signal that one is not entirely selfish or by a desire to follow a social norm that is choice-set dependent....

  12. Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2013-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  13. Role-modeling and conversations about giving in the socialization of adolescent charitable giving and volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering.

  14. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  15. Present Action Spurs Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Jerry A.

    1985-01-01

    Examines ways parishes or schools can promote deferred gifts, payable on death to the parish or institution. Suggests that financial planning seminars and will clinics, planned-giving promotion committees, and dissemination of free pamphlets on estate planning are good ways to promote these bequests. (DMM)

  16. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the correct dosage. To give: Check the expiration date to make sure it's not expired. If it ... 3 tablets Reviewed by: Karla R. Hughes, RPh Date reviewed: March 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Medications: Using Them Safely Talking to the Pharmacist Headaches ...

  17. (Micro)Financing to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    and workings of microfinance. We illustrate how market-like elements are productively and problematically deployed in philanthropic giving and address the need to consider a broader range of socio-material relations involved in the framing of transactions. A complex network of actors and (trans)actions needs...

  18. Giving Voice: Studies in honour of Christine Anthonissen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Giving Voice: Studies in honour of Christine Anthonissen ... essay on discourse in the novel, defines the novel as “a diversity of social ... harmonious relationship. .... the effects are if the researcher does not share the participants' social class.

  19. Narcissism in women giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Slana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine, whether there are any, and if so, which differences there are in narcissism in puerperium between first-time mothers, third-time mothers and women, who have never been pregnant. There were 170 women participants, divided into three groups. The first group consisted of 71 first-time mothers and the second group of 21 third-time mothers. In the third, comparative, group there were 78 women, who have never been pregnant. The participants completed the questionnaire Narzißmusinventar (Deneke and Hilgenstock, 1989. The results showed no significant differences between both groups of mothers. Significant differences in narcissism were present mainly only between first-time mothers and the comparative group. They suggest lower narcissism of the group of the first-time mothers.

  20. (Micro)Financing to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    of transaction. We turn to recent efforts of hybridizing charity and venture finance, exemplified by microfinance platforms such as Kiva.org. We combine data from an existing study of Kiva and its online community, with additional participant observation and third-party accounts detailing the evolution......, less studied transaction context. The chapter shows that philanthropic gift relations can be reproduced through market-like elements and arrangements. Such production entails complex socio-material networks mobilizing a broad array of human and nonhuman actors....

  1. To Give or Not to Give, That Is the Question : How Methodology Is Destiny in Dutch Giving Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Wiepking, Pamala

    2006-01-01

    In research on giving, methodology is destiny. The volume of donations estimated from sample surveys strongly depends on the length of the questionnaire used to measure giving. By comparing two giving surveys from the Netherlands, the authors show that a short questionnaire on giving not only undere

  2. Bangladesh: giving girls the "key of keys".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.

  3. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  4. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  5. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  6. Mapping the imaginary of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2012-01-01

    The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative m...... across relatively stable assemblages of conceptions of poverty, donors, end-recipients and charitable giving. These assemblages are suggested to form a multifaceted imaginary that is both cultural (shared) and personal (individually performed)....

  7. Mapping the imaginary of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2012-01-01

    The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative m...... across relatively stable assemblages of conceptions of poverty, donors, end-recipients and charitable giving. These assemblages are suggested to form a multifaceted imaginary that is both cultural (shared) and personal (individually performed)....

  8. Income Tax Policy and Charitable Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Arthur C.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies over the past 20 years have looked at the response of charitable donations to tax incentives--the tax price elasticity of giving. Generally, authors have assumed this elasticity is constant across all types of giving. Using the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data on charitable giving, this paper estimates the tax price elasticity…

  9. Reprint of: Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  10. Reprint of : Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2014-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  11. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  12. Public Participation GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2004-01-01

    information in environmental planning and gives an overview over the various approaches to public participation. The current advances in Web-based GIS in many countries contain great possibilities for supporting good governance based on information and knowledge on the one hand and active involvement...

  13. Participation som organisatorisk praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe; Jønsson, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Hensigten med artiklen er at give et bidrag til forståelsen af begrebet organisatorisk participation både teoretisk og ud fra praksis. Det gøres ud fra analyser og tematiseringer af participationens mangfoldighed, participationssystemers konstituering, participationens substans og finalitet samt...

  14. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....

  15. Charity begins at home: How socialization experiences influence giving and volunteering

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, René

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that charity begins at home. Using retrospective reports on youth experiences from the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey (n=1,964, 2001) I find that (1) parents who volunteer when their children are young promote giving and volunteering of their children once they have become adults; (2) the intensity of youth participation in nonprofit organizations is positively related to current giving and volunteering; (3) that parental volunteering and youth participation promote c...

  16. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation.......The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies...

  17. Conceptualizing Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne

    Although participation is not a new issue, it would be fair to say that consequential participation, which implies young people engaging in meaningful dialogue with adults and institutions and influencing decision-making processes in matters that concern them, is still in its infancy. This document...... and society. It then describes different forms, modes or qualities of participation and proposes a specific model of facilitating participatory work with young people - the IVAC approach (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change). The concept of action, types of actions aimed at initiating change and corresponding...... aims to set the scene for discussing young people's participation in different domains that have an impact on their lives. It outlines the meaning and different interpretations of the concept of "participation" before reviewing why participation is an important issue in relation to young people...

  18. Authoring Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    . By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate...

  19. The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2012-01-01

    Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

  20. The Luxury of Igniting Change by Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Rosa; Uth Thomsen, Thyra

    2016-01-01

    of distant others by giving them valuable philanthropic gifts and thereby ultimately transforming the self of the giver. The paper shows how giving away economic capital (money and time), social capital (networks and influence), and cultural capital (skills and knowledge) to non-related others can provide...... the giver with a sense of luxury in terms of pleasure, purpose, and connection with humankind. Thus, the findings not only extend the traditional conceptualization of luxury from having to giving, but also challenge current conceptualizations of sharing out as a non-reciprocal pro-social behavior......This study investigates the phenomenon of luxury from a consumer perspective, by means of multisited phenomenological inquiry. The findings expand the pervasive view of luxury as accumulation of highly valued goods by offering a transformative perspective of luxury as transforming the life...

  1. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    or not the contract can be terminated by giving notice. The international UNIDROIT principles and the Lando Commission have included a rule allowing the parties to a contract which is for an indefinite period to give notice, but it can be very difficult to distinguish between indefinite and definite periods....... Furthermore, it is open to question whether the continuation of an expired contract is to be considered as a contract for an indefinite period, and whether contracts for definite periods are irrevocable. Even though these questions are not regulated, it is not recommended that new and more detailed principles......Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether...

  2. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty.

  3. Participating in Poltics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    NOW that I am a member of the Ninth National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), I feel the heavy weight of responsibility on my shoulders. As an editor of Women of China, however, I feel honored to have been chosen for this role. The CPPCC is an important institution which gives people from all walks of life the opportunity to participate in state

  4. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  5. CAS paleoichthyologist gives Artedi Lecture in Sweden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Prof. ZHANG Miman (CHANG Mee-mann), a CAS Member from the CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, was invited to give a talk at the Artedi Lectures at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on 5 December, 2008.

  6. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Religious Giving: Instilling Giving Habits across the Life Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Snell Herzog

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the research question: How do religious youth learn to give? While it is likely that youth learn religious financial giving from a variety of different sources, this investigation focuses primarily on how parents teach giving to their children. Supplementary data are also analyzed on the frequency in which youth hear extra-familial calls to give within their religious congregations. In focusing on parental transmission, the analysis identifies a number of approaches that parents report using to teach their children religious financial giving. It also investigates thoughts and feelings about religious financial giving by the children of these parents as a means of assessing the potential impacts of parental methods. Additionally, congregation member reflections on how they learned to give provide insights on giving as a process that develops across the life course, often instilled in childhood, but not appearing behaviorally until adulthood. As such, this paper contributes to a life course understanding of religious giving and has implications for giving across generations.

  8. Giving Reasons, A Contribution to Argumentation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bermejo-Luque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Giving Reasons: A Linguistic-pragmatic-approach to Argumentation Theory (Springer, 2011, I provide a new model for the semantic and pragmatic appraisal of argumentation. This model is based on a characterization of argumentation as a second order speech-act complex. I explain the advantages of this model respecting other proposals within Argumentation Theory, such as Pragma-dialectics, Informal Logic, the New Rhetoric or the Epistemic Approach.

  9. Claiming Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...

  10. 产业链重定位视角下对我国网上书店发展的思考%Consideration for the Development of China's Online Bookstores from the Perspective of Re-Orientation on the Industry Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈诚; 程蕾

    2011-01-01

    As the competition of the market becomes fierce,all the parties on the industry chain of the digital publishing are making relevant strategies for the sake of development :they are breaking down the traditional boundaries of different industries,infiltrating others' business,sharing others' profits.The development of China's online bookstores has to be based on this premise and tendency.Based on the perspective of re-orientation on the chain industry of digital publishing,this paper has made some suggestions for the development of online bookstores: integrating contents-provision organizations,emphasizing on the improvement of themselves,cooperating with the mobile networks providers.%伴随着市场竞争的加剧,数字出版产业链上各方采取不同的策略寻求各自的发展道路:打破传统的行业边界,互相渗透业务,彼此争夺利益。我国网上书店的发展必须利用这种趋势。基于在数字出版产业链上重定位的视角,提出网上书店的发展思路:整合上游内容提供商、加强自身建设,联合移动网络运营商。

  11. Advice on Giving a Scientific Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    2006-04-01

    What makes one speaker exciting and another boring? You have been to good talks and you have sat through far too many poor ones, so what makes the difference? It doesn't really matter whether it is a scientific talk, a public talk or a classroom lecture: Your prime concern is to think about the audience. You are talking to them. You are performing. Look at them; talk to them; think about what they are hearing and seeing. They very much want you to give a good talk -- that is why they have chosen to be your audience. But at the start of your talk they are worried you might not, so they are nervous. Your first job is to relax them and get their trust that you are going to do a good job. Then you will relax and you will be off to a great start. Of course your content matters; if you have a great discovery, they will forgive you anything. But it is still better to make a good presentation. I give some advice here on what to do, and what not to do, when giving any kind of talk, but with emphasis on short scientific talks presented at conferences. You should be a little nervous at the start of a talk - that is caused by your concern to do a good job. With a good start your talk will flow, you will then present your discoveries, and with a good ending your audience will applaud appreciatively and want to ask you questions. You will have enjoyed performing and want to do it again. Speaking can be fun for you, and rewarding for your audiences.

  12. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses.

  13. Measuring Social Cohesion: An Experiment Using the Canadian National Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulton, Fernando; Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Beaujot, Roderic

    2007-01-01

    Social cohesion is a concept difficult to define and to measure. As there can be many definitions, so there can be many measurements. The main problem, either in defining or measuring the concept, is its multilevel and multidimensional nature. At one extreme, "country" is the most commonly used level to view social cohesion but…

  14. Giving Literacy Away. Alternative Strategies for Increasing Adult Literacy Development, Training Capacity and Program Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Stephen M.

    The phenomenon of adult functional illiteracy in the United States is examined, and strategies are considered for addressing the problem. Reasons for the failure of existing programs (schools, adult education, and volunteer tutoring) to close the literacy gap are explored; among these factors are the relative growth of underserved populations,…

  15. Modeling of hydride precipitation and re-orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikare, Veena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, John Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-18

    In this report, we present a thermodynamic-­based model of hydride precipitation in Zr-based claddings. The model considers the state of the cladding immediately following drying, after removal from cooling-pools, and presents the evolution of precipitate formation upon cooling as follows: The pilgering process used to form Zr-based cladding imparts strong crystallographic and grain shape texture, with the basal plane of the hexagonal α-Zr grains being strongly aligned in the rolling-­direction and the grains are elongated with grain size being approximately twice as long parallel to the rolling direction, which is also the long axis of the tubular cladding, as it is in the orthogonal directions.

  16. CRACKS IN THE WALL: TOWARDS A RE-ORIENTATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    disorders resulting from developmental delays, brain injuries, mental retardation ... The various interfaces as it relates to language, criminology and the law will be ... Inter-Group Relations, Linguistics/Computer Sciences, Linguistics/. Physics ...

  17. Whose Better? (Re)orientating a Queer Ecopedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Previous invitations to queer environmental education research and practice have fallen largely silent. This paper seeks to address that silence by orientating ecopedagogy toward a phenomenology of queer experience. Inspired by the utopian promises of the "It Gets Better Project" and ecopedagogy generally, the author suggests that queer…

  18. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  19. Ethics – Information or Giving-Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin MURESAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are three ways of introducing and actually using ethics in schools: the informative one, the formative one and the institutional one. The first is theoretical teaching ethics. The second refers to character building. The third is related to the creation of “ethical infrastructures”. We shall advocate here for the second form and put it in contrast with the first which is considered today as the only one practicable in Romania. We refuse to admit that the role of the first years of human living is the most important period in the moral constitution of the child. In Romanian schools „character building” is almost inexistent. The profound root of this situation and the illusion that we did our best to change this state, is our incapacity to distinguish between giving a moral form to a human being and inform her on moral questions. The implications of adopting this distinction are vast: to reconsider the importance of kindergarten and of the initial learning as having a similar importance as higher education and therefore similar budgets and much more political support; rethinking the universities’ mission and the kind of relations they have with the secondary schools; the role of family, church, schools and local community in the formation of strong moral characters; and most difficult, to assure the convergence of all these factors.

  20. Giving what one should: explanations for the knowledge-behavior gap for altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter R

    2017-08-07

    Several studies have shown that children struggle to give what they believe that they should: the so-called knowledge-behavior gap. Over a dozen recent Dictator Game studies find that, although young children believe that they should give half of a set of resources to a peer, they typically give less and often keep all of the resources for themselves. This article reviews recent evidence for five potential explanations for the gap and how children close it with age: self-regulation, social distance, theory of mind, moral knowledge and social learning. I conclude that self-regulation, social distance, and social learning show the most promising evidence for understanding the mechanisms that can close the gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Giving start-ups a helping hand

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The French-Swiss foundation for research and technology (FFSRT) joined forces with CERN to organise an information day on setting up new businesses, at the Globe of Science and Innovation. The participants heard talks by entrepreneurs who started out at CERN, sharing their experiences and difficulties.CERN is a hot-bed of high-tech skills and know-how, and the Organization works actively to transfer this expertise to society. Some such innovations can lead to new business start-ups, but it can be extremely difficult to obtain the information and support you need to find your way through the inevitable administrative labyrinth. By opening its doors to the Fondation franco-suisse pour la recherche et la technologie (FFSRT) and hosting this "Entrepreneurial Day" on 7 March, CERN has clearly flagged its desire to assist budding entrepreneurs. The day was jointly kicked off by Olga Hooft, General Manager of the FFSRT, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN’s Se...

  2. Rethinking the social and cultural dimensions of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2009-01-01

    Gifts to distant others, such as charitable giving, represent an important segment of contemporary gift-giving that has often been overlooked due to the excessive focus on dyadic giving between intimate individuals. In response, this paper adopts a sociological systemic perspective on gift......-giving and focuses on charitable gifts as an emblem of postmodern gift-giving to distant others. Historical evidence and sociological theory on postmodern solidarity are combined to shed light on the fluid duality of contemporary giving and the importance of the imaginary in charitable giving. The outlined socially...

  3. Social support and ambulatory blood pressure: an examination of both receiving and giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piferi, Rachel L; Lawler, Kathleen A

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between the social network and physical health has been studied extensively and it has consistently been shown that individuals live longer, have fewer physical symptoms of illness, and have lower blood pressure when they are a member of a social network than when they are isolated. Much of the research has focused on the benefits of receiving social support from the network and the effects of giving to others within the network have been neglected. The goal of the present research was to systematically investigate the relationship between giving and ambulatory blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded every 30 min during the day and every 60 min at night during a 24-h period. Linear mixed models analyses revealed that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were related to giving social support. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed that participants with a higher tendency to give social support reported greater received social support, greater self-efficacy, greater self-esteem, less depression, and less stress than participants with a lower tendency to give social support to others. Structural equation modeling was also used to test a proposed model that giving and receiving social support represent separate pathways predicting blood pressure and health. From this study, it appears that giving social support may represent a unique construct from receiving social support and may exert a unique effect on health.

  4. Giving support to others reduces sympathetic nervous system-related responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-04-01

    Social support is a major contributor to the link between social ties and beneficial health outcomes. Research to date has focused on how receiving support from others might be good for us; however, we know less about the health effects of giving support to others. Based on prior work in animals showing that stimulating neural circuitry important for caregiving behavior can reduce sympathetic-related responses to stressors, it is possible that, in humans, giving to others can reduce stressor-evoked sympathetic nervous system responding, which has implications for health outcomes. To test the effect of giving support on the physiological stress response, participants either wrote a supportive note to a friend (support-giving condition) or wrote about their route to school/work (control condition) before undergoing a standard laboratory-based stress task. Physiological responses (heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol), and self-reported stress were collected throughout the protocol. In line with hypotheses, support giving (vs. control) reduced sympathetic-related responses (systolic blood pressure and alpha-amylase) to the stressor. No effects of support giving were found on self-reported psychological stress or cortisol levels. Results add to existing knowledge of the pathways by which support giving may lead to health benefits and highlight the contribution of giving to others in the broader social support-health link.

  5. Osteocyte regulation of bone mineral: a little give and take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, G J; Findlay, D M

    2012-08-01

    Osteocytes actively participate in almost every phase of mineral handling by bone. They regulate the mineralisation of osteoid during bone formation, and they are also a major RANKL-producing cell. Osteocytes are thus able to liberate bone mineral by regulating osteoclast differentiation and activity in response to a range of stimuli, including bone matrix damage, bone disuse and mechanical unloading, oestrogen deficiency, high-dose glucocorticoid and chemotherapeutic agents. At least some of these activities may be regulated by the osteocyte-secreted product, sclerostin. There is also mounting evidence that in addition to regulating phosphate homeostasis systemically, osteocytes contribute directly to calcium homeostasis in the mature skeleton. Osteocyte cell death and the local loss of control of bone mineralisation may be the cause of focal hypermineralisation of bone and osteopetrosis, as seen in aging and pathology. The sheer number of osteocytes in bone means that "a little give and take" in terms of regulation of bone mineral content translates into a powerful whole organism effect.

  6. Whose Expertise?: An Analysis of Advice Giving in Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood and early childhood special education programs have a focus on parent-educator partnerships. Parent-teacher conferences are a context for these partnerships, and advice giving is one type of exchange occurring within conferences. Parent-teacher conference advice was investigated through participant interviews and the methodology of…

  7. The impact of culture and recipient perspective on direction giving in the service of wayfinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hund, Alycia M.; Schmettow, Martin; Noordzij, Matthijs L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how culture and recipient perspective affect direction giving during wayfinding. Participants from the United States and the Netherlands provided directions from starting locations to destinations for fictional recipients driving through a town (route perspective) or looking at a map of

  8. The Mathematics of Tithing: A Study of Religious Giving and Mathematical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edd V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine children's mathematical understandings related to participation in tithing (giving 10% of earnings to the church). Observations of church services and events, as well as interviews with parents, children, and church leaders, were analyzed in an effort to capture the ways in which mathematical problem…

  9. The impact of culture and recipient perspective on direction giving in the service of wayfinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hund, Alycia M.; Schmettow, Martin; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert

    2012-01-01

    We examined how culture and recipient perspective affect direction giving during wayfinding. Participants from the United States and the Netherlands provided directions from starting locations to destinations for fictional recipients driving through a town (route perspective) or looking at a map of

  10. Who gives? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable giving, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility.

  11. Care-giving as a Canadian-Vietnamese tradition: 'it's like eating, you just do it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Rhonda; Williams, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how Vietnamese family caregivers (FCGs) perceive, manage and experience end-of-life care-giving for seriously ill family members. Using an instrumental case study design, this longitudinal qualitative research employed the use of cultural brokers/language interpreters to help ensure that the research was conducted in a culturally-appropriate manner. Participants (n = 18) discussed their experiences of care-giving within the context of a traditional cultural framework, which was found to influence their motivations and approaches to care-giving, as well as their propensities towards the use of various supports and services. The study was carried out in southern Ontario, Canada, and participants were providing home-based care-giving in the community. Data were collected throughout 2010 and 2011. The ways in which care-giving was perceived and expressed are reflected in three themes: (i) Natural: identity and care work; (ii) Intentional: whole-person care; and (iii) Intensive: standards, struggle and the context of care. This research confirms the need for culturally-appropriate services and supports while illustrating that Vietnamese FCGs not only value, but are also likely to use healthcare and social services if they are language-accessible, built on trust and demonstrate respect for their values as individuals, regardless of culture.

  12. Giving Life Gives Me Life: An Action Research Experience with Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilyn Arce-Chavarría

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a participatory action research project.  It expresses my experiences with nine of the fourteen families of students attending the special education school where I work.  Students are in Early Intervention (0-3 years old, Kinder Garden (3-6 and a half years old and the first cycle of elementary school (6 years and 6 months to 9 years old. Six of the participating families included a father and a mother, while the other three only included the mother. I met six times with the families for afternoon coffee over the course of a year.  These gatherings evidenced the need for synchronizing the work done at home with the work offered in the occupational therapy service of which I am in charge, in order to support families in developing their children’s every day skills.  This involves a process of analysis and reflection, which leads to the transformation of those of us who lived this experience.  The paper also presents the families’ reality first from their individual standpoint and later in synchronization with the group, change that was exhibited after sharing with the other families.  Important findings include the need for having a stronger relationship between the school and the families, creating a space for emotional growth for parents, finding similarities between families that would motivate them to be more involved, taking advantage of time, creating personal space for reflection and, last but not least, daring to change.

  13. Moving from ‘Giving Back’ to Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Bhan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Giving Back in Solidarity, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  14. Territorial Entanglements: Ambiguities of Giving Back in Northwestern Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benjamin Dwyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Limits to Giving Back, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  15. A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of Giving Spiritual Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to…

  16. Sources and Uses of Annual Giving at Private Research Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher L.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated why private research universities differ in the sources and uses of their annual giving using data from 74 private universities and a subset of 29 private universities. Findings identify some factors that determine giving, but models could explain only part of the differences in funding from different sources. (SLD)

  17. OPINION GIVING SERVICES AS A SOURCE OF CONSUMER INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wyrwisz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to determine the place and role of opinion giving services in consumer behaviours. The discussion is conducted around the thesis saying that in the information society, opinion giving services constitute an important source of information for consumers in the process of selecting and purchasing both products and services. In the article the research approach based on the theoretical and empirical examinations was presented. The discussion starts with presenting a defi nition and types of opinion giving services which constitute the base for the characteristics of activities and usefulness of web portals collecting consumers opinions. The use of opinion giving services provided in the purchase process was evaluated. An essential interest in other consumers opinions, placed in Internet, was observed together with perceiving them as credible. Positive assessment of the functionality of opinion giving services was noticed.

  18. The role of personal values in children's costly sharing and non-costly giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Lior; Daniel, Ella; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2017-04-22

    This study examined whether children's values, global and abstract motivations serving as guiding principles, are organized similarly to those of adults, whether values can predict individual differences in children's sharing behaviors, and whether the normative nature of the situation influences the expression of these individual differences. Children (N=243, ages 5-12years) participated in a values ranking task as part of a visit to a science museum. The majority of children (n=150) also participated in a task examining costly sharing (i.e., sharing that results in giving up part of one's own resources) and non-costly giving (i.e., giving that does not influence one's own share). Starting from 5years of age, children showed a structure of values similar to that of adolescents and adults, specifically contrasting preferences for opposing values (i.e., self-transcendence with self-enhancement and openness to change with conservation). Importance given to self-transcendence values related positively to costly sharing but not to non-costly giving, indicating that in situations where it is more normative to share, individual differences in values are less expressed in children's actual sharing. In addition, children's sex and age moderated the relation between values and behavior. Children's values are an important aspect of their developing personalities. Taking them into consideration can greatly promote the research of prosocial and normative development as well as our understanding of individual differences in children's behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parental care-giving and home environment predicting offspring's temperament and character traits after 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Kim; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Merjonen, Päivi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-10-30

    Although many personality theories emphasize the role of parental behaviors in shaping personality development, empirical data from longitudinal studies remain scarce. It is also not known, if parental behaviors affect character development more strongly than temperament or vice versa. In a prospective study, 1083 volunteer participants of the Young Finns study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Parents of the participants had answered questions about parenting attitudes, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and role satisfaction 18 years before. We studied the univariate and the cumulative effects of parental care-giving and family environment on offspring's personality traits. Parental care-giving and home-environment were more strongly associated with offspring character traits reflecting personality maturity (Self-directedness and Cooperativeness) than with offspring temperament traits (Novelty seeking, Harm avoidance, Reward dependence and Persistence) reflecting emotional and behavioral tendencies. The differences were most evident in the cumulative effects model. Maternal variables were stronger predictors than paternal variables. The present findings suggest that not all personality traits are similarly predicted by parental care-giving and home-environment. In particular, character development is more strongly related to such measures than temperament. Parental care-giving and home-environment are more strongly related to psychological maturity (character) than emotional and behavioral tendencies (temperament).

  20. Reciprocity revisited: Give and take in Dutch and immigrant families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Komter; J.M.D. Schans

    2008-01-01

    Classical theory suggests that "generalized reciprocity," giving without clear expectations of returns, is characteristic for exchange within the family. Modern theory assumes differences between Western, "individualistic" cultures, and non-Western, more "collectivistic" cultures, presumably leading

  1. Validating that palliative care giving is a stressful occupation: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-03

    Feb 3, 2010 ... Results: The study found the following aspects inherent in care giving to be immensely stressful and challenging: ... Inadequate food, psychological support and community support networks. ...... An experimental psychology of.

  2. "To All Stroke Survivors - Never, Ever Give Up"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation "To All Stroke Survivors – Never, Ever Give Up." Past Issues / Spring ... have for other Americans who are recovering from strokes and other serious health challenges? What about their ...

  3. Astronaut Twins Give Clues to Health Hazards of Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163391.html Astronaut Twins Give Clues to Health Hazards of Spaceflight NASA ... aboard the International Space Station, and his identical twin Mark, a retired astronaut. Mark remained on Earth ...

  4. developing skills of giving and receiving feedbacks between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the strategies to improve quality of teaching and learning at training institutes could be by developing the skill of giving and receiving feedbacks among the individuals involved in the training .... the two groups; one group of students and.

  5. Who, Who, Who Gives a Hoot about Bones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Describes a mouse skeleton reconstruction activity from owl pellets. Gives information about the materials, directions for students, and a five-day unit schedule. Provides some owl pellet sources. (YP)

  6. Reciprocity revisited: Give and take in Dutch and immigrant families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, A.; Schans, J.M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Classical theory suggests that "generalized reciprocity," giving without clear expectations of returns, is characteristic for exchange within the family. Modern theory assumes differences between Western, "individualistic" cultures, and non-Western, more "collectivistic" cultures, presumably leading

  7. Benefits of Giving (A Book Review Using Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamdar Arraiyyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a book review. It discusses a book entitled Give and Take. The book introduces a new approach to success. It makes three categories of people in doing interaction or communication. They are takers, matchers, and givers. The writer of the book, Adam Grant, explains the principles and characteristics of each category. He shows a lot of facts to prove that being a giver brings benefits for people and the doer as well. The objects of giving here comprise different kinds help like wealth, ideas, knowledge, skills and information. Therefore, he motivates people to become givers. In this connection, the reviewer would like to show that Islamic religion also motivates its followers to give helps to others. Though, there are some similarities and differences between the benefits of giving mentioned in the book and the verses of the Holy Qur’an and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him.

  8. Did El Nino Weather Give Zika a Boost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162611.html Did El Nino Weather Give Zika a Boost? Climate phenomenon could have helped infection- ... might have aided the explosive spread of the Zika virus throughout South America, a new study reports. ...

  9. Mouse Gives Birth to Pups Using 3-D Printed Ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165622.html Mouse Gives Birth to Pups Using 3-D Printed Ovary Breakthrough ... to use hormone replacement therapies in order to trigger puberty," explained co-researcher Monica Laronda. She's a ...

  10. The accompanying adult: authority to give consent in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Seema Madhur Lata; Parekh, Susan; Mason, Carol; Roberts, Graham

    2007-05-01

    Children may be accompanied by various people when attending for dental treatment. Before treatment is started, there is a legal requirement that the operator obtain informed consent for the proposed procedure. In the case of minors, the person authorized to give consent (parental responsibility) is usually a parent. To ascertain if accompanying persons of children attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the Eastman Dental Hospital, London were empowered to give consent for the child's dental treatment. A total of 250 accompanying persons of children attending were selected, over a 6-month period. A questionnaire was used to establish whether the accompanying person(s) were authorized to give consent. The study showed that 12% of accompanying persons had no legal authority to give consent for the child's dental treatment. Clinicians need to be aware of the status of persons accompanying children to ensure valid consent is obtained.

  11. Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About AOA Contact Us A A A Advancing the distinctive philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine Inside ... Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life ...

  12. We should give love to whoever needs without hesitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ The text Fog tells us a touching story, in which an old blind man helped a girl out of a thick fog by his unique sense of touch. From the text, we know the girl has never helped the old man, or even she doesn't know him. But he helped her! What's more, he thinks the fog gives him a chance to pay back the help that 'people give to him when it's sunny" .

  13. Innovative forms of citizen participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyseth, Torill; Ringholm, Toril; Agger, Annika

    Formal procedures of citizen participation in planning and urban governance in Norway and Denmark share many similarities. Although the planning laws are intended to give all affected stakeholders a chance to air their concerns within a limited time frame, then few use these channels for voice......: What characterises the new and innovative forms of citizen participation in urban planning in terms of innovation? And in what ways and to what degree is input from these processes fed into the formal planning processes? Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the concept of: ‘planning...... interact within the field of urban governance. This is for example seen in urban regeneration projects in Denmark and planning experiments in Norway where we are witnessing more inclusive and bottom-up initiated interactions between public authorities and local actors. The key question in this paper is...

  14. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  15. What drives the gender gap in charitable giving? Lower empathy leads men to give less to poverty relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Robb; Wimer, Christopher; Owens, Lindsay A

    2015-07-01

    We draw upon past research on gender and prosocial emotions in hypothesizing that empathy can help explain the gender gap in charitable giving. In a nationally representative survey, we found that men reported less willingness to give money or volunteer time to a poverty relief organization, gaps that were mediated by men's lower reported feelings of empathy toward others. We also experimentally tested how effective a variety of different ways of framing poverty relief were for promoting giving. Framing poverty as an issue that negatively affects all Americans increased men's willingness to donate to the cause, eliminating the gender gap. Mediation analysis revealed that this "aligned self-interest" framing worked by increasing men's reported poverty concern, not by changing their understanding of the causes of poverty. Thus, while men were generally less motivated by empathy, they responded to a framing that recast charitable giving as consistent with their self-interest. Exposure to the same framing, however, led women to report lower willingness to volunteer time for poverty relief, suggesting that framing giving as consistent with self-interest may discourage those who give because of an empathic response to poverty.

  16. Infants' online perception of give-and-take interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Claudia; Bakker, Marta; Rohlfing, Katharina; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2014-10-01

    This research investigated infants' online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants' gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a give-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants' online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the give-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants' online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of give-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective.

  17. User participation in implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... system by empirically analyzing how management, participating staff, and non-participating staff view the implementation process with respect to areas that have previously been linked to user participation such as system quality, emergent interactions, and psychological buy-in. The participating staff...... experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need...

  18. Collective Philanthropy: Describing and Modeling the Ecology of Giving

    CERN Document Server

    Gottesman, William L; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2013-01-01

    Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, art, public support, and religion. We find that the detailed forms of gift-size distributions differ across but are relatively constant within charity categories. We construct a model for how a donor's income affects their giving preferences in different charity categories, offering a mechanistic explanation for variations in institutional gift-size distributions. We discuss how knowledge of gift-sized distributions may be used to assess an institution's gift-giving profile, to help set fundraising goals, and to design an institution-specific giving pyramid.

  19. Connecting Participant Observation Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCurdy, Patrick; Uldam, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue for the importance of considering participant observation roles in relation to both insider/outsider and overt/covert roles. Through combining key academic debates on participant observation, which have separately considered insider/outsider and overt/covert participant...... observation, we develop a reflexive framework to assist researchers in (1) locating the type of participant observation research; (2) identifying implications of participant observation for both the research and the subjects under study; and (3) reflecting on how one’s role as participant observer shifts over...

  20. Gift-giving in the medical student--patient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Yassar Abdullah S

    2012-08-01

    There is paucity in the published literature that provides any ethical guidance guiding gift-giving within the student--patient relationship. This is perhaps because the dynamics of the medical student--patient relationship have not yet been explored as extensively as the doctor--patient relationship. More importantly, however, gift--giving in the doctor-patient relationship has traditionally been from the patient to the doctor and not vice versa. This article examines the literature published in this vicinity reflecting on an encounter with a patient.

  1. Participation and agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The article adresses the gap between the rhetoric and practice of participation in urban environmental planning in Europe.......The article adresses the gap between the rhetoric and practice of participation in urban environmental planning in Europe....

  2. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  3. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z > Participating in Clinical Trials: About Clinical Trials In This Topic About Clinical Trials Risks and Benefits ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study ...

  4. Participation and agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The article adresses the gap between the rhetoric and practice of participation in urban environmental planning in Europe.......The article adresses the gap between the rhetoric and practice of participation in urban environmental planning in Europe....

  5. Reciprocity Revisited : Give and Take in Dutch and Immigrant Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, Aafke; Schans, Djamila

    2008-01-01

    The idea that reciprocity is the basic principle underlying forms of social organization, among which the family, is as old as classical anthropology and sociology. The essence of the principle is that giving prompts receiving, thereby creating forms of ongoing exchange and durable cooperation. Reci

  6. New Trends in Name-Giving in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Sakallı

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a brief review of traditional customs of name-giving in Turkey and analyses some recent trends. The observations are based on 1270 Turkish names collected from the author’s students and reflecting naming practices in Turkey over last several decades. The data has been collected randomly regardless of social, regional, religious or ethnic backgrounds, all names being accompanied by the indication of the age of their bearers. The collected data were categorized into three groups: commemorative names, desiderata names and fortuitous names. This categorization shows the distribution of Turkish names and the changes in the stock of personal names over the years. The traditional name-giving customs are still observed in Turkey, however, new trends are becoming more prominent in the country. The author explains the changes with reference to social evolution which incites young educated parents, most of whom are university graduates living in urban areas and having only one child, to adopt new strategies of name-giving testifying their increasing individualism and weakening ties with traditions.

  7. A Conversation Model Enabling Intelligent Agents to Give Emotional Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, people frequently talk to others to help them deal with negative emotions. To some extent, everybody is capable of comforting other people, but so far conversational agents are unable to deal with this type of situation. To provide intelligent agents with the capability to give emo

  8. Formal Speaking——How to Give a Great Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    Most successful people in the world are very good at “public speaking”.They know how to get up in front of a crowd and give a “formal speech”. They know how to move people, how to get them to take action. It's not easy to do, but

  9. Undergraduate Financial Aid and Subsequent Giving Behavior. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Kelly; Mullin, Charles H.; Siegfried, John J.

    Data on 2,822 Vanderbilt University graduates were used to investigate alumni giving behavior during the 8 years after graduation. A two-stage model accounting for individual truncation was used first to estimate the likelihood of making a contribution and second to estimate the average gift size conditional on contributing. The type of financial…

  10. Advice-giving in the English lingua franca classroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and, if so, in what way? The results of this study show ... advice-giving a student employs in classroom discourse. ... a school subject form part of the Expanding Circle. ..... In Sulee's class, students responded to her queries about the best way to find a job .... The most obvious limitation of this study is the size of the data set.

  11. Alumni Giving to Elite Private Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, C. T.

    2003-01-01

    Examines patterns of alumni giving, using data on two cohorts of former students from a sample of private colleges and universities. Higher levels of contributions are associated with high income, whether or not the person graduated from the institution where he or she first attended college, and the degree of satisfaction with his or her…

  12. A Conversation Model Enabling Intelligent Agents to Give Emotional Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, people frequently talk to others to help them deal with negative emotions. To some extent, everybody is capable of comforting other people, but so far conversational agents are unable to deal with this type of situation. To provide intelligent agents with the capability to give emo

  13. It Is Better To Give Than It Is To Receive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙犁

    2015-01-01

    <正>Intro:In the world millions of people are suffering from hunger especially people in the African areas,while some other people are enjoying some luxuries,such as jewelry,concert tickets,i Pods and so on.Should people give up their luxuries to those who are suffering from hunger?The answer is definitely

  14. 2 Authors Say Routledge Recycled Their Work without Giving Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two authors' work that has been recycled by Routledge without giving credit or royalty. When William E. Deal casually flipped through "Theory for Performance Studies: A Student's Guide," published this year by Routledge, he noticed a few familiar sentences. After taking a closer look, Mr. Deal, a professor of religious…

  15. Participation in adult learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This entry presents an internationally comparative overview of adult learning patterns. Emphasis is placed on who is participating in adult learning and the observed unequal chances to participate. The entry covers three overarching questions that are central to participation research: a) What...

  16. Displacement Through Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Citizen participation is often regarded as a means to increase local democracy. Seldom is participation viewed as a means to legitimate disruptive practices of states. However, participation can become a tool for the effective implementation of policy rather than a means to enhance justice, if no po

  17. Effectiveness of a television advertisement campaign on giving cigarettes in a chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Hu, Yihe; Xu, Guanqun; Ma, Jiuhua; Shi, Zumin

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tobacco television advertisement campaigns may convey messages on smoking-related health consequences and create norms against giving cigarettes. Altogether, 156 and 112 slots of a television advertisement "Giving cigarettes is giving harm" were aired on Suzhou and Yizheng, respectively, over one month in 2010. Participants were recruited from 15 locations in Suzhou and 8 locations in Yizheng using a street intercept method. Overall 2306 residents aged 18-45 years completed questionnaires, including 1142 before the campaign and 1164 after, with respective response rates of 79.1% and 79.7%. Chi square tests were used to compare the difference between categorical variables. After the campaign, 36.0% of subjects recalled that they had seen the advertisement. Residents of Suzhou had a higher recall rate than those of Yizheng (47.6% vs. 20.6%, P advertisement were more likely not to give cigarettes in the future than those who reported not seeing the advertisement (38.7% vs. 27.5%, P advertisements helped change societal norms and improve health behavior. Continuous and adequate funding of anti-tobacco media campaigns targeted at different levels of the general population is needed, in conjunction with a comprehensive tobacco control effort.

  18. Mapping eParticipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2007-01-01

    The emerging research area of eParticipation can be characterized as the study of technology-facilitated citizen participation in (democratic) deliberation and decision-making. Using conventional literature study techniques, we identify 105 articles that are considered to be highly relevant to eParticipation......, and methods. We extend the analysis to define four central research challenges for the field: understanding technology and participation; the strategic challenge; the design challenge; and the evaluation challenge. This article thus contributes to a developing account of eParticipation, which will help future...

  19. Sustaining private sector participation (PSP) in solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria, a developing country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebola, G. [Richbol Environmental Services Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)

    2000-07-01

    Solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria includes refuse collection and transportation to a landfill site. Disposal of the refuse and maintenance of the landfill site is also included in this task which, in the past was always a responsibility of the Government Agencies at the local level as a social service. This service has recently been privatised in the name of Private Sector Participation (PSP) in domestic refuse collection and disposal. As a new operator in about 23 wards in the ongoing PSP of domestic refuse, Richbol Environmental Ltd., recognized the enormous effort that government will have to make to sustain PSP in solid waste management. Governments can maintain control through re-orientation, legislation, enforcement, strengthening the PSP operators, integrating existing operators, and monitoring the activities of PSP operators. This paper presented a brief overview of the institutional changes that solid waste management has undergone in Lagos since 1977. It was emphasized that integrated waste management is extremely capital intensive. An integrated PSP can be a long term solution to waste management in developing, cash poor countries. The economic importance of PSP lies in the fact that it will reduce government expenditure and will also create a healthier environment and provide employment opportunities for thousands of employees and contribute to the gross domestic product of the country. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Giving feedback in medical teaching: a case of lung function laboratory/spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2013-01-01

    Feedback in medical teaching is an important part of medical education, it encourages and enhances the learners' knowledge, skills and professional performance at various stages of their schooling. A constructive feedback enhances the awareness of strength and areas for improvement. An adequate, meaningful and fruitful feedback needs motivation, emphasis, objectivity, expertise, and active participation in the session. Before giving feedback, the instructor should be well prepared and must have practice on the task. The instructor should utilize all means such as good oral presentation, eye contact, visual cues, utilize body language to actively involve the learners in a session, all these activities enhance the knowledge, skill and attitude of the learners. The aim of this commentary is to highlight the basic issues in giving an appropriate feedback in medical teaching with special emphasis on a lung function laboratory / Spirometry.

  1. Arduino & RepRap - Creating Wealth by Giving it Away

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , growth in wealth is longevity and prosperity. Is it possible to grow wealth independently of money? This talk will be from Adrian Bowyer - creator of RepRap, the open-source replicating 3D printer - and from David Cuartielles - creator of Arduino, the open-source microcontroller. Both projects have...... founded significant and growing industries - and hence significant and growing wealth - by giving away all the data required to build RepRaps and Arduinos completely free. They have also short-circuited most conventional industrial infrastructure by placing the ability to create wealth directly...... in the hands of private individuals. The presenters contend that this is the way of the future: companies, and - more importantly - those private individuals will be giving away their primary products and making a living on the sideline activities that such donations attract. Software has been heading...

  2. Beijing Specialists Give Free Medical Treatment in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>To help improve the physical conditions of the people in the Hui ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province, from December 6 to 11,2005, a 10-member medical team of specialists from the Capital went to the Weishan Yi and Hui Ethnic Minority Autonomous County of Dali Prefecture and Xundian Hui and Yi Ethnic Minority Autonomous County of Kunming City to give free medical treatment for 6 days. This activity was

  3. A Conversation Model Enabling Intelligent Agents to Give Emotional Support

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, V; Jonker, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, people frequently talk to others to help them deal with negative emotions. To some extent, everybody is capable of comforting other people, but so far conversational agents are unable to deal with this type of situation. To provide intelligent agents with the capability to give emotional support, we propose a domain-independent conversational model that is based on topics suggested by cognitive appraisal theories of emotion and the 5-phase model that is used to structure onl...

  4. PC-give and David Hendry's econometric methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Neil R. Ericsson; Julia Campos; Hong-Anh Tran

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes David Hendry's empirical econometric methodology, unifying discussions in many of his and his co-authors' papers. Then, we describe how Hendry's suite of computer programs PC-GIVE helps users implement that methodology. Finally, we illustrate that methodology and the programs with three empirical examples: post­war narrow money demand in the United Kingdom, nominal income determination in the United Kingdom from Friedman and Schwartz (1982), and consumers' expenditure in...

  5. MP I joint giving way--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, H

    2001-02-01

    A case history of a 26 year old international class female 400 m hurdle sprinter is presented. While sprinting she felt a sudden and very intensive pain at her left hallux. After this she was unable to run and had episodes of giving way in the MP I joint elicited by minor activity. Operative investigation revealed a broad disruption of the MP I medial collateral ligament. After periosteal flap repair and early functional aftertreatment she returned to full high level sports ability.

  6. Giving an account of one's pain in the anthropological interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, I analyze the illness stories narrated by a mother and her 13-year-old son as part of an ethnographic study of child chronic pain sufferers and their families. In examining some of the moral, relational and communicative challenges of giving an account of one's pain, I focus on what is left out of some accounts of illness and suffering and explore some possible reasons for these elisions. Drawing on recent work by Judith Butler (Giving an Account of Oneself, 2005), I investigate how the pragmatic context of interviews can introduce a form of symbolic violence to narrative accounts. Specifically, I use the term "genre of complaint" to highlight how anthropological research interviews in biomedical settings invoke certain typified forms of suffering that call for the rectification of perceived injustices. Interview narratives articulated in the genre of complaint privilege specific types of pain and suffering and cast others into the background. Giving an account of one's pain is thus a strategic and selective process, creating interruptions and silences as much as moments of clarity. Therefore, I argue that medical anthropologists ought to attend more closely to the institutional structures and relations that shape the production of illness narratives in interview encounters.

  7. Self-Giving as Spiritual Dimension in Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benawa, A.; Tarigan, N.; Makmun, S.

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to show that today it is very important to consider the spiritual dimension in leadership, because the absence of the spiritual dimension makes it impossible for a human to evolve. As the leader, whoever should be accountable is not only on the horizontal level and at the vertical level as well. Phenomenological studies and literature about the practice of leadership are faced with a number of theories about leadership and then synthesized into more whole leadership rather than just to brand a leadership itself. Based on the assumption a leader is merely a sociological problem that needs to be completed with a spiritual dimension, while in its historical development of leadership, it is never excluded from the spiritual dimension. This article concludes that self-giving as a spiritual dimension in leadership will give more benefit to develop the life system as well as the purpose of leadership itself rather than the apparent leadership, which actually hurts or even manipulate the members for the sake of egoistic the leader and their inner circle. Therefore, it is very important for education to teach self-giving as a spiritual dimension to all students of the World, especially in Asia.

  8. The body participating:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Hanne; Lund, Lone Blak; Jensen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The literature on participation in rehabilitation by those with the most severe acquired brain injury is very sparse. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore how physiotherapists promote the participation of patients with severe brain injury in therapeutic and daily-...... and low level of consciousness in terms of their participation and functioning in everyday life.......-based analyses. The results were theoretically stated and supported. Results: In an effort to achieve patient participation, the following four themes seemed to be significant: 1) consciously encountering the patient in the moment, 2) the employment of concepts surrounding the interaction between body...

  9. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  10. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  11. "Give, but Give until It Hurts": The Modulatory Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence on the Motivation to Help

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agnoli, Sergio; Pittarello, Andrea; Hysenbelli, Dorina; Rubaltelli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    .... In Study 1, we developed a new computer-based paradigm that tested participants' motivation to help by measuring their performance on a task in which they could gain a hypothetical amount of money...

  12. "Give, but Give until It Hurts": The Modulatory Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence on the Motivation to Help: e0130704

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergio Agnoli; Andrea Pittarello; Dorina Hysenbelli; Enrico Rubaltelli

    2015-01-01

    .... In Study 1, we developed a new computer-based paradigm that tested participants' motivation to help by measuring their performance on a task in which they could gain a hypothetical amount of money...

  13. Justice of give-and-take in the intimate relationship : When one partner of a couple is diagnosed with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, RG; Buunk, BP; Ybema, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined to what extent couples facing cancer (N = 55) and healthy couples (N = 74) perceived various distributions of give-and-take to be just or fair when occurring within a relationship of a cancer patient and his or her partner. Participants read one of three versions of a bogus inter

  14. Bidding to give in the field: door-to-door fundraisers had it right from the start

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in either an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contras

  15. Do women give the same information on binge drinking during pregnancy when asked repeatedly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, K; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study if pregnant women give the same answers to questions on frequency and timing of binge drinking when asked more than once during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Cohort study.Setting:The Danish National Birth Cohort. SUBJECTS: The study is based on 76 307 pregnant women with repeated...... information on binge drinking during the early part of pregnancy and 8933 pregnant women with information on binge drinking during pregnancy weeks 30-36, obtained while pregnant and 6 months after delivery. RESULTS: More women reported binge drinking, if the interview took place close to the period...... in question. As the report of binge drinking was highest in the first of two interviews referring to the same period, as well as women who participated in the first interview in pregnancy week 12 or earlier reported more binge drinking compared to women who participated in the interview later in pregnancy...

  16. Medical faculty and curriculum design - 'No, no, it's like this: You give your lectures...'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; Eika, Berit

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims: The purpose of this study was to understand more completely the (tacit) curriculum design models of medical faculty. We report on two research questions: (1) Can medical faculty give an account of their curriculum design assumptions? and (2) What are their assumptions concern......, to a belief that learning outcomes are incompatible with higher education. Finally, we found that teachers do not necessarily play a clear, central role in curriculum design....... concerning curriculum design? Method: We conducted an explorative, qualitative case study. We interviewed educational decision makers at the three Danish medical schools and associate professors from different courses concerning curriculum design. We carried out four individual, in-depth interviews and four...... focus groups with 20 participants in all. Results and conclusions: Only one decision maker had an explicit curriculum design model. However, all participants had assumptions concerning curriculum design. We displayed their assumptions as five essentially different and increasingly complex models...

  17. Sense of participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohorques Montemayor, L.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sense of participation of a spatially distributed individual—in the intersections of physical and mediated networks. This sense is fundamental to an individuals’ experience as a participant in systems designed to this purpose including today’s social media and new media gener

  18. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  19. Sense of participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohorques Montemayor, L.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sense of participation of a spatially distributed individual—in the intersections of physical and mediated networks. This sense is fundamental to an individuals’ experience as a participant in systems designed to this purpose including today’s social media and new media

  20. Participation beyond observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    , however, the researchers typically uphold the notion that all they methodically engage in is participant observation. The paper argues that important aspects of children’s living and understanding may be lost when considering them mere objects of one’s visual and verbal research practices. First I delve...... on investigating children’s perspectives through participant observation, but also ontological and political ones....

  1. "Give, but Give until It Hurts": The Modulatory Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence on the Motivation to Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Sergio; Pittarello, Andrea; Hysenbelli, Dorina; Rubaltelli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effect of trait Emotional Intelligence (trait EI) on people's motivation to help. In Study 1, we developed a new computer-based paradigm that tested participants' motivation to help by measuring their performance on a task in which they could gain a hypothetical amount of money to help children in need. Crucially, we manipulated participants' perceived efficacy by informing them that they had been either able to save the children (positive feedback) or unable to save the children (negative feedback). We measured trait EI using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) and assessed participants' affective reactions during the experiment using the PANAS-X. Results showed that high and low trait EI participants performed differently after the presentation of feedback on their ineffectiveness in helping others in need. Both groups showed increasing negative affective states during the experiment when the feedback was negative; however, high trait EI participants better managed their affective reactions, modulating the impact of their emotions on performance and maintaining a high level of motivation to help. In Study 2, we used a similar computerized task and tested a control situation to explore the effect of trait EI on participants' behavior when facing failure or success in a scenario unrelated to helping others in need. No effect of feedback emerged on participants' emotional states in the second study. Taken together our results show that trait EI influences the impact of success and failure on behavior only in affect-rich situation like those in which people are asked to help others in need.

  2. "Give, but Give until It Hurts": The Modulatory Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence on the Motivation to Help.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Agnoli

    Full Text Available Two studies investigated the effect of trait Emotional Intelligence (trait EI on people's motivation to help. In Study 1, we developed a new computer-based paradigm that tested participants' motivation to help by measuring their performance on a task in which they could gain a hypothetical amount of money to help children in need. Crucially, we manipulated participants' perceived efficacy by informing them that they had been either able to save the children (positive feedback or unable to save the children (negative feedback. We measured trait EI using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF and assessed participants' affective reactions during the experiment using the PANAS-X. Results showed that high and low trait EI participants performed differently after the presentation of feedback on their ineffectiveness in helping others in need. Both groups showed increasing negative affective states during the experiment when the feedback was negative; however, high trait EI participants better managed their affective reactions, modulating the impact of their emotions on performance and maintaining a high level of motivation to help. In Study 2, we used a similar computerized task and tested a control situation to explore the effect of trait EI on participants' behavior when facing failure or success in a scenario unrelated to helping others in need. No effect of feedback emerged on participants' emotional states in the second study. Taken together our results show that trait EI influences the impact of success and failure on behavior only in affect-rich situation like those in which people are asked to help others in need.

  3. Private Giving Crowding Government Funding in Public Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thomas Sav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Private giving and government funding are critical revenue sources for public colleges and universities. If increased private giving reduces government funding, then that type and extent of crowding out carries important managerial and public policy implications. Approach: The study used a government funding reaction function and an instrumental variable approach to empirically estimate the potential for crowding out. Results: The study examined the extent to which private giving reduces or crowds out state government funding of public colleges and universities. Government free riding was at question and investigated to determine how active it is in terms of private donations partially or wholly displacing state government funding. The findings suggested that the rate of crowding out was 43% on the dollar. That compares to the 45% political substitution of the 1960’s but is much diminished from the 1980’s dollar for dollar crowding out. Those are aggregate comparisons for all public institutions. A disaggregated approach in this study additionally revealed that doctoral universities were victims of the same 43% crowd out but that at two other levels, master degree granting and associate degree granting colleges, there was the opposite effect of crowding in. Those colleges received state funding augmentations of 32-92% on their dollar of privately provided donations. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study’s finding of the existence of both crowding out and crowding in can carry important policy implications for college and university funding. Future managerial and public policy decision making should take that into account. However, political sustainability and economy wide and localized effects over time of crowding out and in could prove fruitful avenues of inquiry for future research.

  4. Depression and Political Participation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  5. Depression and Political Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument-whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group.

  6. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are reconstructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  7. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are re-constructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  8. A Childhood Rich in Culture Gives a Socioeconomic Bonus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austring, Bennye Düranc

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen ridser den nyeste forskning op inden for feltet 'art rich learning', altså æstetiske læreprocesser af god kvalitet. In the book ”Art and Culture Give Children a Life that Works” 60 (Danish and non-Danish) experts, practitioners, artists and several Ministers from the Danish Government...... focus on the significance of Art and Culture for children. The book provides lots of inspiration for teachers, pedagogues and cultural mediators and contains many examples of specific cultural activities, links and bibliographic references....

  9. Does friendship give us non-derivative partial reasons ?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Reisner

    2008-01-01

    One way to approach the question of whether there are non-derivative partial reasons of any kind is to give an account of what partial reasons are, and then to consider whether there are such reasons. If there are, then it is at least possible that there are partial reasons of friendship. It is this approach that will be taken here, and it produces several interesting results. The first is a point about the structure of partial reasons. It is at least a necessary condition of a reason’s being...

  10. Confounding Issues in the Deadweight Loss of Gift-Giving

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kristl Davison; Bing, Mark N.; E. Bruce Hutchinson; Leila J. Pratt

    2008-01-01

    When a gift is given, someone other than the final consumer makes the consumption choice. Thus there is a possibility that the gift will not match the preferences of the receiver, i.e., the gift will represent a wise use of the money given the gift-giver's tastes but not necessarily a wise use of money given the recipient's tastes. In other words, gift giving can result in a deadweight loss. This paper addresses and clarifies the discrepancy between Waldfogel's (1993) finding of a deadweight ...

  11. Reluctant altruism and peer pressure in charitable giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Reyniers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects donate individually (control group or in pairs (treatment group. Those in pairs reveal their donation decision to each other. Average donations in the treatment group are significantly higher than in the control group. Paired subjects have the opportunity to revise their donation decision after discussion. Pair members shift toward each others' initial decisions. Subjects are happier with their decision when their donations are larger, but those in pairs are less happy, controlling for amount donated. These findings suggest reluctant altruism due to peer pressure in charitable giving.

  12. What are the impacts of giving up the driving licence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    in their activities after giving up their licence. In travel frequency, neither the differences between renewers and non-renewers nor the changes over time within the groups were pronounced. The groups differed in their use of transport modes already at the baseline: the renewers drove, while nonrenewers travelled...... as passengers, used public transport, walked or cycled. Not renewing the licence was a strong predictor of unmet mobility needs, especially in relation to leisure activities. The present study indicates that younger seniors’ mobility is not likely to be affected by the strict renewal policies. However, given...

  13. Giving Voice to Values: an undergraduate nursing curriculum project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sandra; Hart, Bethne; Costa, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Among the competency standards stipulated by the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council for graduating students are competencies in moral and ethical decision making and ethics education within professions such as nursing has traditionally focussed on these competencies, on raising ethical awareness and developing skills of analysis and reasoning. However, ethics education in tertiary settings places less emphasis on developing students' capacities to act on their values. This paper explains and explores the adoption of Dr. Mary Gentile's curriculum (the Giving Voice to Values curriculum).which specifically focuses on developing students' capacities to act on their values. The curriculum (Gentile, 2010) assists students and professionals to explore, script and rehearse responses which build upon their capacity to respond in accordance with their own values in complex workplace settings in which they face conflicts of value and belief. The paper firstly examines the theoretical underpinnings of the Giving Voice to Values (GVV) curriculum. It then presents the integration and evaluation phase of a Project inspired by the GVV methodology, using a case study approach within two areas of an undergraduate nursing curriculum. As a pilot project, this initiative has provided signposts to further curriculum development and to research pathways within the UNDA School of Nursing, by highlighting students' uncertainties regarding their own professional values, and their intense struggles to voice their values within health care contexts.

  14. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings.

  15. Security giving in surrogacy motherhood process as a caring model for commissioning mothers: A theory synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Bagheri-Lankarani, Narges

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing use of surrogacy, there are no caring theories/models that serve as the basis for nursing care to surrogacy commissioning mothers. This study has designed a model for caring of surrogacy commissioning mothers in 2013. The theory synthesis of Walker and Avant's strategies of theory construction (2011) was used to design a caring model/theory. The theory synthesis includes three stages: (i) selection of focal concept (the concept of "security giving in motherhood" was selected); (ii) review of studies in order to identify factors related to focal concept relevant studies (42 articles and 13 books) were reviewed, statements and concepts related to focal concept were then extracted and classified, and their relations were specified; and (iii) organization of concepts and statements within a relevant general and effective manifestation of the phenomenon under study which led to developing of a model. In this caring model/theory, entitled "security giving in surrogacy motherhood", nurses roles were conceptualized within the conceptual framework that includes three main roles: (i) coordination; (ii) participation; and (iii) security giving (physical, emotional, and legal support; empowerment; presence; relationship management between both parties and advocacy). Training surrogacy specialist nurses and establishment of surrogacy care centers are important factors for implementation of the model. This model could help to provided better caring for surrogacy clients, especially for commissioning mothers. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  16. The information-giving skills of resident physicians: relationships with confidence and simulated patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hirono; Son, Daisuke; Eto, Masato; Kitamura, Kiyoshi; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2017-02-08

    Sharing information is crucial for discussion of problems and treatment decision making by patients and physicians. However, the focus of communication skills training in undergraduate medical education has been on building the relationship and gathering information; thus, resident physicians tend to be less confident about sharing information and planning treatment. This study evaluated the medical interviews conducted by resident physicians with a focus on information giving, and investigated its relationships with their confidence in communication and simulated patient (SP) satisfaction. Among 137 junior resident physicians at a university hospital in Japan who participated in a survey of communication skills, 25 volunteered to conduct simulated medical interviews. The medical interviews were video-recorded and analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System, together with additional coding to explore specific features of information giving. The SPs evaluated their satisfaction with the medical interview. Resident physicians who were more confident in their communication skills provided more information to the patients, while SP satisfaction was associated only with patient-prompted information giving. SPs were more satisfied when the physicians explained the rationales for their opinions and recommendations. Our findings underscore the importance of providing relevant information in response to the patient requests, and explaining the rationales for the opinions and recommendations. Further investigation is needed to clinically confirm our findings and develop an appropriate communication skills training program.

  17. Participatory photography gives voice to young non-drivers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Aimee L; Baggett, Trina; Orsini, Arthur; Angelo, Jennifer; Weiss, Hank

    2016-06-01

    Youth have the highest crash injury risk in New Zealand. Māori and Pacific youth have an even higher risk. Highlighting and promoting benefits of modal shift from cars to active and public transport may increase health and safety. We aimed to create a discussion surrounding transport issues to gain a better understanding of attitudes and behaviours of non-driving youth, to empower our participants and to promote health and social change by making participants' opinions and experiences known to the broader community through a public exhibition. We engaged nine non-drivers aged 16-24 years in photovoice. Through sharing their photos and stories, participants used the power of the visual image to communicate their experiences. This method is an internationally recognized tool that reduces inequalities by giving those who have minimal decision-making power an opportunity to share their voice. By the end of the project, it was clear that the participants were comfortable with their non-driving status, noting that public and active transport was more cost-effective, easy and convenient. This attitude reflects recent studies showing a marked decrease in licensure among young people in developed countries. This project uniquely prioritized young Māori, Pacific and Asian non-drivers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. From spectator to participant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Kofoed, Jens

    The book collects experiences and methods for citizens’ participation in order to strengthen the local Agenda 21 process. 5 different types of methods is presented: Methods of analyses and evaluation, methods of dialogue, methods for action, methods for networking, and finely methods for involvin...... local institutions. In the opening part the book deals with fundamental themes in participation processes such as planning of changes and changes and conflicts.......The book collects experiences and methods for citizens’ participation in order to strengthen the local Agenda 21 process. 5 different types of methods is presented: Methods of analyses and evaluation, methods of dialogue, methods for action, methods for networking, and finely methods for involving...

  19. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a way...... to contribute to “an era of participation.” We describe a contact perspective in PD developed through a collaboration with body-oriented psychotherapeutic research that have specialized experiences in investigating open-minded contact and authentic meetings as body-related experiences....

  20. Climate change discourses and citizen participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger; Horsbøl, Anders; Bonnen, Kersten

    2011-01-01

    of Denmark. We analyze how central actors are called upon to act, and how citizens are addressed in the call for action in the two sets of data. Paving the way for the empirical analysis, the first part of the article gives a review of contemporary literature on climate change typologies and discourses......Citizen participation is a recurrent and democratically important issue in the ongoing debate about climate change. However, different meanings are ascribed to citizen participation in different contexts and discourses, ranging from top-down involvement to bottom-up engagement. This article...... within different research fields, assessing how citizen participation is articulated within these discourses. Finally, we address some needs for increased citizen participation in the climate change debate....

  1. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical ... to treat or cure a disease. Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical trials of drugs are usually described based ...

  2. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usually, trial participants must show signs of the disease or condition before they can join this type of trial. Prevention Trials Click for more information In prevention trials, ...

  3. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  4. Putting Participation into Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: participatory action research, primary care, mutual participation ... a mutual participatory doctor-patient relationship model, and to apply this ..... Leuner JD, Webster A. Social support, ... Personality and exercise as buffers in the.

  5. Trends in educational participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Trends in onderwijsdeelname. This study looks at the design, outcomes and administrative manageability of educational forecasts. Historical trends in educational participation and the phenomenon of 'educational expansion' (in which more and more young people follow secondary

  6. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... new tests that could identify a disease in its early stages. Usually, trial participants must show signs ... often healthy people (20 to 80), to judge its safety and side effects, and to find the ...

  7. To Give or Not to Give: Children's and Adolescents' Sharing and Moral Negotiations in Economic Decision Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika; Takezawa, Masanori; Mata, Jutta

    2008-01-01

    This study interconnects developmental psychology of fair and moral behavior with economic game theory. One hundred eighty-nine 9- to 17-year-old students shared a sum of money as individuals and groups with another anonymous group (dictator game). Individual allocations did not differ by age but did by gender and were predicted by participants'…

  8. From spectator to participant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Kofoed, Jens

    The book collects experiences and methods for citizens’ participation in order to strengthen the local Agenda 21 process. 5 different types of methods is presented: Methods of analyses and evaluation, methods of dialogue, methods for action, methods for networking, and finely methods for involving...... local institutions. In the opening part the book deals with fundamental themes in participation processes such as planning of changes and changes and conflicts....

  9. Size and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....

  10. Size and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....

  11. Local radio, public opinion and citizen participation

    OpenAIRE

    BUENDÍA ASTUDILLO, ALEXANDER; Doctor Educación Univ. Del Cauca; Pino Correa, Juan Carlos; Universidad del Cauca, Popayán - Cauca

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows how local radio stations that foster citizen participation and public opinion can develop into agents of social mobilization, as long they hold a broad notion of democracy. The article gives an account of the involvement that the ECCO research group (Universidad del Cauca, Colombia) has had in the project “Citizen radio: Room for democracy”, where researchers have given support to local radio stations and have sought to understand how these media conceive, assume and work tow...

  12. Giving Students the Power to Engage with Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Kathryn F.; Reinsvold, Lori A.; Hess, Chelsie A.

    2016-11-01

    This critical discourse analysis study identifies and describes power relationships in elementary classrooms that support science engagement by providing students time to think, ask questions, and find their voices to talk about subject matter. The first analyses involved identification and description of classroom episodes showing high levels of student power and engagement associated with learning science. Classroom episodes were grouped into seven power patterns: use of questions, teacher sharing authority, giving students credit for knowledge, legitimate digressions, enhanced feedback, and writing opportunities. The second analyses documented the manner in which these patterns formed more complex classroom engagement processes called power clusters. These examples further our understanding of the dynamics of classroom discourse and the relationships between student power and engagement in subject matter.

  13. Testing the Correlations between Corporate Giving, Performance and Company Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia-Daniela Hategan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to identify the relationship between the charitable contributions, performance, and market value of Romanian listed companies. To achieve the objective, a panel data analysis was conducted on a group of companies listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange in the period 2011 to 2016, which registered profit for the entire period. The empirical analysis points out, using a logistic regression, which financial and non-financial indicators contribute to the decisions of the companies to make the charitable contributions. It also tests the impact of those indicators and corporate giving activities like Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR activities on company value, represented by Tobin’s Q Ratio and on company performance, expressed by Return on Equity (ROE. The results show that there is a positive correlation between the charitable contributions, performance, and market value of the Romanian listed companies.

  14. The Effect of Giving Feedback to Students' Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Zainuddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although writing is as important as other skills such as listening, speaking, and reading, it needs more special attention. In order to write well, students need a long process to learn to write and they need continous feedback. The aim of this article is to know whether giving feedback to students' writing has a significant effect or not. Two groups of students, experimental and control, were involved. The compositions of the first group were given feedback, while those of the second group were not given feedback. The study shows that provision of feedback improves student's writing. In light of the result of the study, it is recommended that teachers provide feedback on students' writing.

  15. Nutrition and the brain: what advice should we give?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James K

    2014-09-01

    The knowledge base of nutrition and the brain is steadily expanding. Much of the research is aimed at ways to protect the brain from damage. In adults, the major causes of brain damage are aging and dementia. The most prominent dementia, and the condition that grabs the most public attention, is Alzheimer's disease. The assumption in the field is that possibly some change in nutrition could protect the brain and prevent, delay, or minimize Alzheimer's disease damage. Presented here is a framework for understanding the implications of this research. There is a gap between publishing research results and change in public nutrition behavior. Several influencing elements intervene. These include regulatory agencies and all the organizations and people who advise the public, all with their own perspectives. In considering what advice to give, advisors may consider effectiveness, research model, persuasiveness, and risks, among other factors. Advice about nutrition and Alzheimer's disease today requires several caveats.

  16. Association Analysis of Alumni Giving: A Formal Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ray R.; Le Blanc, Louis A.; Bahar, Mahmood; Traywick, Bryan

    A large sample (initially 33,000 cases representing a ten percent trial) of university alumni giving records for a large public university in the southwestern United States are analyzed by Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). This likely represents the initially attempt to perform analysis of such data by means of a machine learing technique. The variables employed include the gift amount to the university foundation (UF) as well as traditional demographic variables such as year of graduation, gender, ethnicity, marital status, etc. The UF serves as one of the institution's non-profit, fund-raising organizations. It pursues substantial gifts that are designated for the educational or leadership programs of the giver's choice. Although they process gifts of all sizes, the UF focus is on major gifts and endowments.

  17. Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process.

  18. GIVE VOICES TO SILENT LEARNERS IN SPEAKING CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    It is commonly experienced by teachers that they meet silent learners in speaking class,especiallyin an EFL setting at the tertiary level in China.This paper attempts to diagnose the problems inthe current curriculum,curriculum materials and teaching methods used to teach the productiveskill of speaking,which are supposed to be the direct cause of students in"losing their voices",Itbegins with a brief description of the teaching and learning situation in a teachers’ college which isalso typical at other tertiary levels as well.Concrete examples of modification to the teaching ofthe skill are provided with the hope to give back"voices"to the silent students in speaking class.

  19. Quality and Quantity of Oral Participation and English Proficiency Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There are many reasons to believe that oral participation in the target language (TL) is beneficial for classroom language learners. In addition to the prominence current second language acquisition (SLA) theory gives to processes that assume learner production of the TL (e.g. negotiation of meaning), teachers often view oral participation as a…

  20. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...

  1. The participating researcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    2014-01-01

    and abilities. The cases will be analyzed with focus on the strategy of participation and the value implications of this for each of them. The second part of the paper will address the role of the researcher as a part of each of these participatory cultural projects as designer, applied researcher, consultant......My paper will focus on the self-reflection of my role as participating researcher in three different art projects all of which have participation as a key element. The paper will begin with a presentation of the three cases: Theatre Talks (Teatersamtaler), Stepping Stones (Trædesten) and Art...... or evaluator. The role of me as a researcher with regard to the development and evaluation of the projects will be analyzed, trying to answer the question: What are the methodological differences between the approaches and how does that affect the research process and results. These differences...

  2. eParticipation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony

    2012-01-01

    Research on the use of information technology to support democratic decision-making (eParticipation) is experiencing ongoing growth, stimulated by an increasing attention from both practitioner and research communities. This study provides the first longitudinal analysis of the development of the e......Participation field based on a shared framework, capturing the directions that the research field of eParticipation is taking in recent developments. Drawing on a literature search covering the period from April 2006 to March 2011, this study identifies, analyzes, and classifies 122 research articles within...... also suggests new analytical categories of research. Drawing on the analysis, inputs for a research agenda are suggested. These include the need to move beyond a technological perspective, encouraging the ongoing shift of research focus from government to citizens and other stakeholders, and the need...

  3. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation...... by Tim Brown can be compared to considerations by László Moholy-Nagy and Walter Gropuis on the training and education of active and capable citizens. This opens, though, some dilemmas to discuss: To what extend is the capability of creativity then a (pre)condition to be a citizen of the society wished...... for? To which degree should everyone be educated in ’design literacy’ to participate? Total design of participation is an artistic intervention in society and must be discussed in this utopian tradition....

  4. Participation and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers to partic......We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers...... to participation conceptualised as various degrees of codetermination in organisations and in research processes?’ The anthology is part of a follow-up on an initiative taken in 2010 by Professor Werner Fricke, editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Action Research for many years. His vision was to create...

  5. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  6. Family Care giving in Bipolar disorder: Experiences of Stigma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Shamsaei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stigma is a serious impediment to the well-being of those who experience it. Many family- caregivers are challenged by the stereotypes and prejudice that result from misconceptions about bipolar disorder.The purpose of this study was to explore the stigma experienced by family caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder.This was a qualitative and phenomenological study. In this study, we selected the family caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder in a psychiatric hospital (Iran using purposive sampling in 2011. By reaching data saturation, the number of participant was 12. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews and analyzed by the "Collaizi" method.Stigma was a pervasive concern to almost all participants. Family caregivers of patients with Bipolar disorders reported feelings and experiences of stigma and were most affected by them. Analysis of the interviews revealed 3 themes: Negative judgment, Shame, Stigmatization and Social Isolation.For a person with bipolar disorder, this illness is associated with the following problems: worse recovery, difficulty accessing health services, receiving poor treatment and support, and difficulty gaining community acceptance. Rejection of people with mental illness might also affect their family caregivers at various levels.

  7. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical...

  8. Participation in physical planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Ploštajner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical planning is also a political activity. Therefore participation is a necessary form of democratic actions undertaken by individuals and groups that strive for democratisation of civil society and strengthening of democratic social values. Public participation of citizens, legal subjects, interest groups and others in physical planning is essential even from the aspect of ensuring success and efficiency of planning documents, if the idea is to devise a plan, which the people would be ready and capable of implementing. Thus the role of the physical planner is changing from technical expert to mediator or anchor-person, who nevertheless has to operate within a normative framework.

  9. eParticipation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an update of the existing eParticipation research state of the art, and a longitudinal analysis of the development of the eParticipation field based on a shared framework of analysis. Drawing on a literature search covering the period from April 2006 to March 2011 included, 123......, sometimes in counterintuitive directions. Drawing on the analysis, the conclusion section provides inputs for a research agenda. These include the need to move beyond a technological perspective, and encouraging the ongoing shift of research focus from government to citizens and other stakeholders....

  10. The good engineer: giving virtue its due in engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E

    2008-06-01

    During the past few decades, engineering ethics has been oriented towards protecting the public from professional misconduct by engineers and from the harmful effects of technology. This "preventive ethics" project has been accomplished primarily by means of the promulgation of negative rules. However, some aspects of engineering professionalism, such as (1) sensitivity to risk (2) awareness of the social context of technology, (3) respect for nature, and (4) commitment to the public good, cannot be adequately accounted for in terms of rules, certainly not negative rules. Virtue ethics is a more appropriate vehicle for expressing these aspects of engineering professionalism. Some of the unique features of virtue ethics are the greater place it gives for discretion and judgment and also for inner motivation and commitment. Four of the many professional virtues that are important for engineers correspond to the four aspects of engineering professionalism listed above. Finally, the importance of the humanities and social sciences in promoting these virtues suggests that these disciplines are crucial in the professional education of engineers.

  11. Traveller's thrombosis: airlines still not giving passengers the WRIGHT advice!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurr, J R H; Ahmad, N; Thavarajan, D; Fisher, R K

    2010-10-01

    This study has examined the impact of the World Health Organization's Research into Global Hazards of Travel (WRIGHT) Project's phase 1 report on the information given by airlines to their passengers regarding traveller's thrombosis. Official websites of all airlines flying from Heathrow (UK) and John F Kennedy (USA) were located through links on the websites of these two busy international airports. In June 2007, each site was scrutinized by three independent researchers to identify if traveller's thrombosis and its risk factors were discussed and what methods of prevention were advised. This exercise was repeated a year after the publication of the WRIGHT report. One hundred and nineteen international airlines were listed in 2007 (12 were excluded from analysis). A quarter (27/107) of airlines warned of the risk of traveller's thrombosis. A year later, five airlines were no longer operational and there had been no increase in the discussion of traveller's thrombosis (23/102). Additional risk factors discussed in June 2007 versus September 2008: previous venous thromboembolism (16%, 15%); thrombophilia (14%, 15%); family history (11%, 9%); malignancy (12%, 14%); recent surgery (19%, 16%); pregnancy (17%, 16%) and obesity (11%, 12%). Prophylaxis advice given in June 2007 versus September 2008: in-flight exercise (34%, 42%); Hydration (30%, 34%); medical consultation prior to flying (20%, 18%); graduated compression stockings (13%, 12%); aspirin (airlines continue to fail to warn of the risk of traveller's thrombosis or offer appropriate advice. Alerting passengers at risk gives them an opportunity to seek medical advice before flying.

  12. Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a good image of a sharp object may be achieved in some cases, however, its spot-size is larger than the spot size of the initial object field. The image resolution is determined by the field spot size of the image corresponding to the zeroth order component of the object field. Our explicit analysis consists very well with the FEM results for a fish eye lens. Time-domain simulation is also given to verify our conclusion. Multi-point images for a single object point are also demonstrated.

  13. Does friendship give us non-derivative partial reasons ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reisner

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One way to approach the question of whether there are non-derivative partial reasons of any kind is to give an account of what partial reasons are, and then to consider whether there are such reasons. If there are, then it is at least possible that there are partial reasons of friendship. It is this approach that will be taken here, and it produces several interesting results. The first is a point about the structure of partial reasons. It is at least a necessary condition of a reason’s being partial that it has an explicit relational component. This component, technically, is a relatum in the reason relation that itself is a relation between the person to whom the reason applies and the person whom the action for which there is a reason concerns. The second conclusion of the paper is that this relational component is also required for a number of types of putatively impartial reasons. In order to avoid trivialising the distinction between partial and impartial reasons, some further sufficient condition must be applied. Finally, there is some prospect for a way of distinguishing between impartial reasons that contain a relational component and partial reasons, but that this approach suggests that the question of whether ethics is partial or impartial will be settled at the level of normative ethical discourse, or at least not at the level of discourse about the nature of reasons for action.

  14. Walking. Sensing. Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses three meditations to contemplate walking, sensing and participation as three ways with which we can extend the notion of ‘experiential computing’ proposed by Yoo (2010). By using the form of meditations, loosely associated concepts that are part introspective and part ‘causative’, i...

  15. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  16. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    , multimodal process in which language together with bodily senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste) and a sense of place contribute to a phenomenon being recognized (as shared). Participation can result in inclusion or exclusion, a claim which is discussed with the help of a pilot study from...

  17. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available skip navigation Help Search home health topics A-Z Videos A-Z about us Customer Support NIH SeniorHealth Built with You in Mind Resize Text: A A A Change Contrast print sign up Share Home > Health topics A-Z > Participating in Clinical Trials: About ...

  18. Lifelong learning and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Jan Jaap; Molpeceres, Mariangeles; Hansen, Helle Krogh

    2014-01-01

    and an assumed desire of generativity. Action learning seems to be an appropriate learning concept in relation to keeping older people engaged in the community. The authors thus point at participating and lifelong learning as part of the answers to the demographic challenges, and they suggest what you might call...

  19. Personas, people and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen Tove; Nyvang, Tom

    2012-01-01

    use, and personas have been introduced for this purpose. The paper uses research on user participation and research-based personas from the eGov+ project to discuss whether personas help designers engage with users. In this project, design was carried out in the domain of municipal services through...

  20. Communication Games: Participant's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Karen R.

    Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…

  1. Sport participation styles revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steven Vos; Erik Thibaut; Bart Vanreusel; Julie Borgers; Hanne Vandermeerschen; Jeroen Scheerder

    2013-01-01

    Social changes have been influencing determinants for sports participation since the introduction of the Sport for All ideology in the early 1970s. Consistent with Crum’s sportisation theory, today’s modes of sports practices, as well as the network of sport services, have diversified and

  2. Participation under Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudourides, Moses A. [Univ. of Patras, Rio-Patras (Greece). Dept. of Mathematics

    2003-10-01

    This essay reviews a number of theoretical perspectives about uncertainty and participation in the present-day knowledge-based society. After discussing the on-going reconfigurations of science, technology and society, we examine how appropriate for policy studies are various theories of social complexity. Post-normal science is such an example of a complexity-motivated approach, which justifies civic participation as a policy response to an increasing uncertainty. But there are different categories and models of uncertainties implying a variety of configurations of policy processes. A particular role in all of them is played by expertise whose democratization is an often-claimed imperative nowadays. Moreover, we discuss how different participatory arrangements are shaped into instruments of policy-making and framing regulatory processes. As participation necessitates and triggers deliberation, we proceed to examine the role and the barriers of deliberativeness. Finally, we conclude by referring to some critical views about the ultimate assumptions of recent European policy frameworks and the conceptions of civic participation and politicization that they invoke.

  3. Giving critical form to organizational vision as tool for introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Participatory processes of innovation occur in moments of conflict and reconciliation across stakeholders’ voices. As such, participating in these processes presumes that stakeholders have an awareness of the products and identity of the ‘stakes’ they represent – and that they are able to articul...... delivered indoor climate related products or services, I propose that critical artefacts benefit articulated introspections on organizational products and identity when these artefacts are technically feasible yet not in accordance to core company principles or norms....... to articulate these. In this paper I present how critical artefacts can be directed at stakeholders from industry, as a tool to support and provoke articulated reflections on organizational identity and products. Based on experiences from a project that brought together five industrial organizations that all...

  4. God give me strength: exploring prayer as self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Patrick R; Elliott, Marta

    2013-03-01

    The current project was designed to examine the contention that written prayers about difficult life events function as self-disclosure to God and are structurally and effectively the same as other forms of written self-disclosure, at least in the short term. Over four writing sessions, 155 participants either wrote about mundane experiences (the control group) or wrote narratives about traumatic or stressful life events that were targeted at no one, targeted at a person of their choice, or construed as prayers to God. The results indicate that written prayers are lexically similar to the other two types of written narratives and distinct from the control group. Furthermore, the immediate effects of trauma writing on mood and physical well-being were similar as well. These findings have potentially important implications for understanding the relationship between personal prayer and a variety of health outcomes.

  5. Giving critical form to organizational vision as tool for introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Participatory processes of innovation occur in moments of conflict and reconciliation across stakeholders’ voices. As such, participating in these processes presumes that stakeholders have an awareness of the products and identity of the ‘stakes’ they represent – and that they are able to articul...... delivered indoor climate related products or services, I propose that critical artefacts benefit articulated introspections on organizational products and identity when these artefacts are technically feasible yet not in accordance to core company principles or norms....... to articulate these. In this paper I present how critical artefacts can be directed at stakeholders from industry, as a tool to support and provoke articulated reflections on organizational identity and products. Based on experiences from a project that brought together five industrial organizations that all...

  6. Participation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  7. Charitable giving for HIV and AIDS: results from a Canadian national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the first time, a national survey of adults in Canada posed questions on charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. The objective of this analysis was to explore the behaviour and attitudes of this population in terms of charitable giving. METHODS: In 2011, individuals in Canada 16 years of age or older were recruited for a survey from an online panel supplemented by random digit dial telephone interviewing. The margin of error was +/-2.1 percentage points (95%. Chi-square tests were used to detect bivariate associations. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to compare those who had donated to HIV and AIDS in the past 12 months with those who had donated to other disease or illness charities. RESULTS: 2,139 participated. 82.5% had donated to a charitable cause in the past 12 months. 22.2% had ever donated to HIV and AIDS, with 7.8% doing so in the past 12 months. Individuals who had donated to HIV and AIDS versus other disease or illness charities tended to be younger (p<0.05, single (p<0.005, more highly educated (p<0.001 and to self-identify as a member of a sexual minority group (p<0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed individuals who self-identified as a member of a sexual minority group were significantly much more likely to have donated to HIV and AIDS than to other disease or illness charities in the past 12 months (OR, 7.73; p<0.001; CI 4.32-13.88. DISCUSSION: Despite a generally philanthropic orientation, relatively few respondents had ever been involved in charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. Those who had could be understood relationally as individuals at closer social proximity to HIV and AIDS such as members of sexual minority groups.

  8. 'Acupuncture for antenatal depression: It's worth giving it a go' - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Simone M; Dahlen, Hannah G; Ee, Carolyn C; Keedle, Hazel; Smith, Caroline A

    2017-09-28

    Treatment strategies for the management of antenatal depression are limited by varied and often modest response rates, unpleasant medication side effects and uncertainty regarding foetal safety. Consequently, many pregnant women experiencing depression seek alternative non-pharmaceutical options. Acupuncture may provide a safe and potentially effective additional treatment, however further investigation is required. In this qualitative study, we explored the views of health professionals regarding the possible incorporation of acupuncture into mainstream care. Two separate focus groups were run with 16 midwives. In-depth interviews were conducted with two maternity service managers and nine doctors (3 obstetricians, 2 psychiatrists and 4 general practitioners). Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Participants were generally positive about acupuncture and open to its possible inclusion in conventional care, on the proviso that it was safe and could be shown to be effective. The overarching theme to emerge was 'acupuncture for antenatal depression: it's worth giving it a go', which participants concluded after considering 'the dilemma of mental health' treatment during the antenatal period and the additional limitations this presented, along with the belief that 'if it doesn't do any harm, I'm not against it'. Practical considerations regarding potential 'barriers' and facilitators' to implementation were additionally explored in 'making it mainstream', whereby the different 'philosophical beliefs' held by participants were seen to influence perspectives. Participants expressed an overall positive attitude towards the possible inclusion of acupuncture into mainstream care for antenatal depression, suggesting various hospital barriers could be overcome with further safety and effectiveness evidence. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Meaning of Giving Birth: Voices of Hmong Women Living in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Cheryl A; Callister, Lynn Clark; Gettys, Jamie Peterson; Hickman, Jacob R

    2017-02-27

    Increasing knowledge about the sociocultural context of birth is essential to promote culturally sensitive nursing care. This qualitative study provides an ethnographic view of the perspectives on birthing of Hmong mothers living in the highlands of Vietnam. Unique cultural beliefs exist in Hmong culture about the spiritual and physical world as well as ritual practices associated with childbearing. This includes variations of ancestor worship, reincarnation, and healing practices by shamans. Traditionally, Hmong families take an active role in childbirth with birth frequently occurring in the home. Situated within a large collaborative anthropology project, a convenience sample of 8 Hmong women, who had recently given birth, were interviewed regarding the perinatal experience. In addition, ethnic traditional birth attendants (midwives) and other village women contributed perspectives providing richly descriptive data. This ethnographic study was conducted during 6 weeks of immersed participant observation with primary data collection carried out through fieldwork. Data were analyzed to derive cultural themes from interviews and observations. Significant themes included (1) valuing motherhood, (2) laboring and giving birth silently, (3) giving birth within the comfort of home and family, (4) feeling capable of birthing well, (5) feeling anxiety to provide for another child, and (6) embracing cultural traditions. Listening to the voices of Hmong women enhances understanding of the meaning of childbirth. Gaining greater understanding of Hmong cultural beliefs and practices can ensure childbearing women receive respectful, safe, and quality care.

  10. The teacher benefits from giving autonomy support during physical education instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Yu, Tae Ho; Jang, Hue Ryen

    2014-08-01

    Recognizing that students benefit when they receive autonomy-supportive teaching, the current study tested the parallel hypothesis that teachers themselves would benefit from giving autonomy support. Twenty-seven elementary, middle, and high school physical education teachers (20 males, 7 females) were randomly assigned either to participate in an autonomy-supportive intervention program (experimental group) or to teach their physical education course with their existing style (control group) within a three-wave longitudinal research design. Manipulation checks showed that the intervention was successful, as students perceived and raters scored teachers in the experimental group as displaying a more autonomy-supportive and less controlling motivating style. In the main analyses, ANCOVA-based repeated-measures analyses showed large and consistent benefits for teachers in the experimental group, including greater teaching motivation (psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and intrinsic goals), teaching skill (teaching efficacy), and teaching well-being (vitality, job satisfaction, and lesser emotional and physical exhaustion). These findings show that giving autonomy support benefits teachers in much the same way that receiving it benefits their students.

  11. Participating in patient education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Antoft, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The paper builds on previous ethnographic research in Denmark focusing on the significance of participating in a locally developed patient education programme for everyday life (Kristiansen et.al. 2015). It presents a secondary analysis. Group based patient education can be understood as a health...... point is applied in order to illustrate two central status passages taking place at the locally developed patient education programme: 1) The status passage from novice to an experienced person with chronic illness, and 2) The transformation from adolescence to adulthood living with a chronic illness....... Related to both status passages we analyse how the central properties of status passage are at play and how they are shaped by the social interactions among the different agents: participants, lay experts and health professionals. We discuss how the theory of status passage might further enrich empirical...

  12. Poverty, health and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, S

    2007-09-01

    Poverty is an important influence on health and despite continuing economic growth, poverty and health inequalities persist. Current public policy aims to reduce the inequalities in the health, by focussing on the social factors influencing health, improving access to health and personal social services for those who are poor or socially excluded and by improving the information and research base in respect of the health status and service access for the poor and socially excluded groups. It is important that processes for target setting and evaluation involve people experiencing poverty, at all levels through consultative and participative structures and processes and in the roll-out of primary care teams. A number of projects throughout the country aim to address health inequalities using community development. These are essentially about widening participation in the development, planning and delivery of health services and ensuring that the community is actively involved in the decision making process about health services in their area.

  13. Invited to Participate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Dam

    This thesis presents an ethnography of e-health and patient participation in heart care. Drawing on Science & Technology Studies (STS) and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), the thesis goes beyond the common narrative of e-health as a solution and vehicle for transforming healthcare......-involving e-health: ‘participatory scopic devices‘, ‘dialogic filtration work‘, and ‘participatory tactics‘. In particular, these concepts add to the analytics of STS and CSCW for studying sociotechnical reconfigurations of healthcare. However, the concepts may also inform the wider field of research into e......-health and patient participation. The fourth paper moves beyond the explorative research aim and translates the ethnographic insights from the user test into a design rationale for patient-involving e-health. The proposed design rationale stresses analytical attention to the situated and diverging concerns among...

  14. GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, Hans D.K.

    2003-02-27

    In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are

  15. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... and participation. In order to develop a more sustainable and viable psychosocial working environment, a broader and more democratic notion of organisational learning and managing is proposed....

  16. Giving good directions: order of mention reflects visual salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Daniel Francis Clarke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In complex stimuli, there are many different possible ways to refer to a specified target. Previousstudies have shown that when people are faced with such a task, the content of their referringexpression reflects visual properties such as size, salience and clutter. Here, we extend thesefindings and present evidence that (i the influence of visual perception on sentence constructiongoes beyond content selection and in part determines the order in which different objects arementioned and (ii order of mention influences comprehension. Study 1 (a corpus study ofreference productions shows that when a speaker uses a relational description to mention asalient object, that object is treated as being in the common ground and is more likely to bementioned first. Study 2 (a visual search study asks participants to listen to referring expressionsand find the specified target; in keeping with the above result, we find that search for easy-to-findtargets is faster when the target is mentioned first, while search for harder-to-find targets isfacilitated by mentioning the target later, after a landmark in a relational description. Our findingsshow that seemingly low-level and disparate mental modules like perception and sentenceplanning interact at a high level and in task-dependent ways.

  17. The Anthology Project: giving voice to the silent scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson, Glenys

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an Anthology Project for newly-qualified teachers in the post-compulsory sector, designed to celebrate their achievements and to encourage the dissemination of their work via a printed and bound set of papers. The teachers worked in Further Education Colleges (FECs, Sixth Form Colleges, private training providers and Adult and Community Education (ACE and had recently completed an in-service Initial Teacher Training (ITT qualification. Some held secure, full-time positions, while others had part-time or insecure work. The project supported their transition from trainee to fully qualified, recognised professional teacher by promoting the value of their scholarship and its impact on practice. A rationale is provided, exploring themes of good practice in Higher Education (HE using concepts of student as producer and as change agent. The paper draws on Eraut’s (2004 writing on the formation of professional identity and Wenger’s (1998 work on communities of practice. Vignettes are provided, using Bourdieu’s (1986 work on social and cultural capital to analyse the contrasting situations of two participants. The use of the Anthology to support other trainees is described. A recommendation is made for similar projects to be developed.

  18. Give, but Give until It Hurts”: The Modulatory Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence on the Motivation to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effect of trait Emotional Intelligence (trait EI) on people’s motivation to help. In Study 1, we developed a new computer-based paradigm that tested participants’ motivation to help by measuring their performance on a task in which they could gain a hypothetical amount of money to help children in need. Crucially, we manipulated participants’ perceived efficacy by informing them that they had been either able to save the children (positive feedback) or unable to save the children (negative feedback). We measured trait EI using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire–Short Form (TEIQue-SF) and assessed participants’ affective reactions during the experiment using the PANAS-X. Results showed that high and low trait EI participants performed differently after the presentation of feedback on their ineffectiveness in helping others in need. Both groups showed increasing negative affective states during the experiment when the feedback was negative; however, high trait EI participants better managed their affective reactions, modulating the impact of their emotions on performance and maintaining a high level of motivation to help. In Study 2, we used a similar computerized task and tested a control situation to explore the effect of trait EI on participants’ behavior when facing failure or success in a scenario unrelated to helping others in need. No effect of feedback emerged on participants’ emotional states in the second study. Taken together our results show that trait EI influences the impact of success and failure on behavior only in affect-rich situation like those in which people are asked to help others in need. PMID:26121350

  19. Governability and Citizen Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarla de Quiroga

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available bjective conditions that allow for a harmonic relationship between the governors and the governed. We are speaking about a set of conditions for governing by consensus and in harmony. By “citizen participation” we refer to the fact that citizens share in the powerof decision over something that concerns them. In Bolivia, as well in other Latin American countries, citizenship participation in municipal management is a recent phenomena. This article describes the experience of citizenry participation in the municipality ofCochabamba (Bolivia in relation to quality of life and living conditions in a neighborhood. The municipality of Cochabamba has embarked upon a mission of rescue and evaluation of the neighborhood organizations, not only incorporating the population into the processes of participation, but also acting in favor of social integration because this stresses the commitment of the neighborhood citizens in the design of the plans. In conclusion, the unfolding experience in the municipality of Cochabamba makes the fact clear that beyond the concept of governability, the search for a co-government-type relation prevails, one that is more horizontal and equitable and where the population takes on a leading role for bringing about the social cohesion and the sense of belonging needed to face the serious problems that afflict Latin American cities.

  20. Walking - Sensing - Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam; Browning, David

    Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider ...... set of experiential or ‘felt’ qualities of living with mobile technologies. Moving from reflections on the value of walking with people, the paper outlines some affordances of a smartphone application built to capture place experiences through walking....

  1. Participation for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De La Harpe, Retha; Korpela, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is more and more promoted as a driver and facilitator of economic growth and development in low and middle income countries. ICT for Development (ICT4D) though has mixed successes. Sustainability of solutions and usability respectively usefulness...... is rare. The workshop aims at bringing together the PD researchers working with under-privileged communities and attracting researchers from the ICT4D communities to the PD conference. The goal is to share experiences and start a discussion on how participation, ICT and development might relate....

  2. Cultural participation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, David; Kann-Rasmussen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a ‘problem’; it is becoming a ‘less cultural continent’ as fewer Europeans are ‘engaging in cultural activities’. This conclusion has been reached due to the findings of the latest cross national cultural participation survey. This paper questions the existence of this ‘problem......’ and instead suggests that there is a shared problematisation across Europe sustained by common discursive archaeology that employs various discursive strands in relation to a dominant institutional discourse. The argument is that the ‘problem’ of ‘non-participation’ legitimates a ‘solution’ that predates its...

  3. Effects of watching eyes and norm cues on charitable giving in a surreptitious behavioral experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Moe; Bateson, Melissa; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-10-20

    A series of experimental studies by multiple groups of researchers have found that displaying images of watching eyes causes people to behave more prosocially. It is not yet clear whether watching eyes increase prosocial motivation per se, or whether they simply make people's behavior more normative. Here, we report results from a surreptitious behavioral experiment examining the impacts of watching eye images and cues to local norms on charitable donations in a controlled setting. Eye images significantly increased average donations. Eye images did not make people conform more closely to the apparent norm overall. Instead, there were different patterns according to the apparent norm. For an apparent norm of small donations, eye images made many participants more generous than the norm. For an apparent norm of large donations, there was an excess of participants giving zero in the no-eyes treatment, which was abolished in the eyes treatment. Our results can be explained by a combination of watching eyes increasing prosocial motivation and reluctance to leave a donation visibly less generous than the norm.

  4. Purposeful Goal-Directed Movements Give Rise to Higher Tactile Discrimination Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Juravle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tactile perception is inhibited during goal-directed reaching movements (sensory suppression. Here, participants performed simple reaching or exploratory movements (where contact with the table surface was maintained. We measured tactile discrimination thresholds for vibratory stimuli delivered to participants' wrists while executing the movement, and while at rest. Moreover, we measured discrimination performance (in a same vs. different task for the materials covering the table surface, during the execution of the different movements. The threshold and discrimination tasks could be performed either singly or together, both under active movement and passive conditions (ie, no movement required, but with tactile stimulation. Thresholds measured at rest were significantly lower than thresholds measured during both active movements and passive touches. This provides a clear indication of sensory suppression during movement execution. Moreover, the discrimination data revealed main effects of task (single vs. dual, movement execution type (passive vs. active, and movement type (reach vs. exploration: Discrimination performance was significantly higher under conditions of single-tasking, active movements, as well as exploratory movements. Therefore, active movement of the hand with the purpose of gaining tactual information about the surface of the table gives rise to enhanced performance, thus suggesting that we feel more when we need to; It would appear that tactual information is prioritized when relevant for the movement being executed.

  5. How feedback biases give ineffective medical treatments a good reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barra, Mícheál; Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2014-08-21

    Medical treatments with no direct effect (like homeopathy) or that cause harm (like bloodletting) are common across cultures and throughout history. How do such treatments spread and persist? Most medical treatments result in a range of outcomes: some people improve while others deteriorate. If the people who improve are more inclined to tell others about their experiences than the people who deteriorate, ineffective or even harmful treatments can maintain a good reputation. The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that positive outcomes are overrepresented in online medical product reviews, to examine if this reputational distortion is large enough to bias people's decisions, and to explore the implications of this bias for the cultural evolution of medical treatments. We compared outcomes of weight loss treatments and fertility treatments in clinical trials to outcomes reported in 1901 reviews on Amazon. Then, in a series of experiments, we evaluated people's choice of weight loss diet after reading different reviews. Finally, a mathematical model was used to examine if this bias could result in less effective treatments having a better reputation than more effective treatments. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that people with better outcomes are more inclined to write reviews. After 6 months on the diet, 93% (64/69) of online reviewers reported a weight loss of 10 kg or more while just 27% (19/71) of clinical trial participants experienced this level of weight change. A similar positive distortion was found in fertility treatment reviews. In a series of experiments, we show that people are more inclined to begin a diet with many positive reviews, than a diet with reviews that are representative of the diet's true effect. A mathematical model of medical cultural evolution shows that the size of the positive distortion critically depends on the shape of the outcome distribution. Online reviews overestimate the benefits of medical treatments

  6. SSDLP: Sharing Secret Data between Leader and Participant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Al-Najjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of sharing the secret document containing a secret data between leader and participant(s depending on specific conditions and rules. The participant(s can retrieve part of the secret document but will not be able to retrieve any secret data without the leader. At the same time, the leader may have a little information about the secret document but cannot retrieve the secret data and the secret document without cooperating with participant(s. To evaluate the proposed model and the system efficiency, four tests are suggested, which are concatenation and sharing data test, leader visual test, information entropy analysis, and correlation analysis. Results show that the proposed model is efficient in sharing the data between the leader and participant(s and the model can achieve our concept of the data sharing between leader and participant(s. However, by analyzing the proposed model using numerical tests and visual tests, the results show that the visual tests will not give attackers useful information about the original data, while the numerical tests show that the entropy attacks are not possible and the correlation between the adjacent pixels will not give useful information. Finally, the results show that the proposed model is strong against different types of attacks.

  7. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  8. [Women's participation in science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Corona-Vázquez, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The participation of women in higher education in Mexico took place in the late 19th and early 20th century. The rise of women's enrollment in universities known as the "feminization of enrollment" occurred in the last thirty years. In this review we analyze how the new conditions that facilitated better access to higher education are reflected in the inclusion of women in science. We include an overview of the issues associated with a change in the demographics of enrollment, segregation of academic areas between men and women and participation in post graduate degrees. We also review the proportion of women in science. While in higher education the ratio between male and women is almost 50-50 and in some areas the presence of women is even higher, in the field of scientific research women account for barely 30% of professionals. This is largely due to structural conditions that limit the access of women to higher positions of power that have been predominantly taken by men.

  9. Spaceflight participant visits CERN!

    CERN Document Server

    Kathryn Coldham

    2016-01-01

    On 15 July, CERN welcomed spaceflight participant Anousheh Ansari.   Anousheh Ansari’s grin stretches from ear to ear, during an intriguing conversation with Nobel laureate Samuel C.C. Ting at AMS POCC. (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN) Iranian-American Anousheh Ansari was the first-ever female spaceflight participant, spending eight days on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006. She now has a new addition to her list of extraordinary sights ­– the home of the world’s largest particle accelerator: CERN.   On 15 July, Anousheh Ansari came to CERN and, unsurprisingly, visited the control room of the experiment attached to the ISS: the AMS. At the AMS Payload Operations Control Centre (AMS POCC) on CERN’s Prévessin site, she met the Nobel laureate Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the AMS experiment. Ansari and her accompanying guests were thrilled to expand their knowledge about CERN, its research and its...

  10. The Participation Decision Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Y. Ficaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 participation decision study involved exploration into the impact of the external education environment on the decision for private school participation in Federal funding, one deliberately declining player in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB choice and competition equation. In the qualitative collective case, three religiously triangulated Michigan private school decision-makers submitted to semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the external environmental factors was through the lens of Gould and Eldredge’s (1977 environmentally oriented theory, punctuated equilibria philosophy of change. Analysis involved layering, direct interpretation, categorical aggregation, and cross-comparison of two external environmental categories identified at literature review (NCLB-content and privatization-dynamic with numerous major and sub-groupings and space for newly emergent material. The category privatization-dynamics emerged as significant influence, as did the major theme trust and the sub-themes motivational intent, competency, consistency, grapevine, creativity or inspiration, restrictions on curriculum, lack of awareness of opportunities available, and fear of failure. The study included five specific recommendations for leaders of change to explain, predict, and improve organizational performance toward greater synchronization in operation of the NCLB choice and competition mechanisms.

  11. PARTICIPANTS IN INSOLVENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RARES-SEBASTIAN PUIU-NAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the officials and other participants in insolvency. The main purpose of the insolvency procedure is to cover all the debts of the debtor side, in favor of his creditor side. The most important regulations regarding this issue consist in Law no. 85/2006, according to it in the insolvency procedure are to be appointed the following officials: insolvency courts of justice, insolvency judge, receiver, liquidator. All these officials have to act in celerity, in order to promptly perform acts and operations provided by law and to respect and provide other participants’ rights and obligations. My article present in the beginning the insolvency courts of justice, their material and territorial competence and the procedure rules. Next chapters are dedicated to the insolvency judge, receiver and liquidator and analyze the following issues: their appointment, their powers, their auxiliary officials and their ceasing of the powers. Some regards on the British law and French law are also included. The next chapter is dedicated to the participants to the insolvency procedure: the creditors general assembly, creditors committee and special administrator, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Substitution or Symbiosis? Assessing the Relationship between Religious and Secular Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan P.; Vaidyanathan, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Research on philanthropy has not sufficiently examined whether charitable giving to religious causes impinges on giving to secular causes. Examining three waves of national panel data, we find that the relationship between religious and secular giving is generally not of a zero-sum nature; families that increase their religious giving also…

  13. Giving USA 1997: The Annual Report on Philanthropy for the Year 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ann E., Ed.

    This report presents a comprehensive review of private philanthropy in the United States during 1996. After a preliminary section, the first section presents data on giving, using text, graphs, and charts. Sections cover: overall 1996 contributions; changes in giving by source and use; total giving (1966-1996); inflation-adjusted giving in 5-year…

  14. Altered cortical-amygdala coupling in social anxiety disorder during the anticipation of giving a public speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, H R; Veer, I M; Spinhoven, P; Rombouts, S A R B; Yarkoni, T; Wager, T D; Roelofs, K

    2015-05-01

    Severe stress in social situations is a core symptom of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Connectivity between the amygdala and cortical regions is thought to be important for emotion regulation, a function that is compromised in SAD. However, it has never been tested if and how this connectivity pattern changes under conditions of stress-inducing social evaluative threat. Here we investigate changes in cortical-amygdala coupling in SAD during the anticipation of giving a public speech. Twenty individuals with SAD and age-, gender- and education-matched controls (n = 20) participated in this study. During the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session, participants underwent three 'resting-state' fMRI scans: one before, one during, and one after the anticipation of giving a public speech. Functional connectivity between cortical emotion regulation regions and the amygdala was investigated. Compared to controls, SAD participants showed reduced functional integration between cortical emotion regulation regions and the amygdala during the public speech anticipation. Moreover, in SAD participants cortical-amygdala connectivity changes correlated with social anxiety symptom severity. The distinctive pattern of cortical-amygdala connectivity suggests less effective cortical-subcortical communication during social stress-provoking situations in SAD.

  15. Participation for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De La Harpe, Retha; Korpela, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is more and more promoted as a driver and facilitator of economic growth and development in low and middle income countries. ICT for Development (ICT4D) though has mixed successes. Sustainability of solutions and usability respectively usefulness...... for the intended beneficiaries have been reported as causes. Participatory approaches to development have been proposed to address these causes. Participatory Design (PD) seems like a perfect fit. However, at the Participatory Design Conferences, research that addresses PD in low and middle income countries...... is rare. The workshop aims at bringing together the PD researchers working with under-privileged communities and attracting researchers from the ICT4D communities to the PD conference. The goal is to share experiences and start a discussion on how participation, ICT and development might relate....

  16. (Radio)active participation

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    This year, for the first time, CERN hosted the Rencontres internationales lycéennes de la radioprotection: a three-day event in which some 200 students from 16 schools in France and elsewhere came together to discuss the topic of radiation protection and to deepen their understanding of the field.   Participants of the Rencontres internationales lycéennes de la radioprotection 2014. Each year since 2008, the Centre d’étude sur l’évaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucléaire français (CEPN, the French centre for studies of the evaluation of nuclear protection) and the Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire français (IRSN, the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety), in partnership with various other bodies*, have been organising radiation protection workshops. Aimed at students between the ages of 15 and 18 from France and beyo...

  17. Participating in patient education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Antoft, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The paper builds on previous ethnographic research in Denmark focusing on the significance of participating in a locally developed patient education programme for everyday life (Kristiansen et.al. 2015). It presents a secondary analysis. Group based patient education can be understood as a health...... promoting initiative. It is set up to regularize and help people manage the status passage from being a normal person to becoming a person living with chronic illness and to support them in accepting and learning to live with this identity transition. The theory of status passage and the concept of turning...... point is applied in order to illustrate two central status passages taking place at the locally developed patient education programme: 1) The status passage from novice to an experienced person with chronic illness, and 2) The transformation from adolescence to adulthood living with a chronic illness...

  18. What Happened to the Promise? A Critical (Re)Orientation of Two Sociocultural Learning Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewolny, Kim L.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    Cleary it is no longer possible to think about learning without context. Although context cannot be ignored anymore, educators often struggle to explain how people learn in "and" with various contexts. Situated cognition and cultural--historical activity theory (CHAT) hold promise for understanding how adult learners are cultural and historical…

  19. The Question of Gender in (Re)orienting to the Civil Military Relationship within Humanitarian Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-07

    role congruity theory as an explanation for the gender stereotyping of leadership positions and its effects (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995...differences, the goal of effective civil-military “collaboration” has proven to be a challenge. Contributing to this is the question of gender , as...socialization and gender norms by taking on non-traditional (and powerful) roles as leaders (see, e.g., Febbraro, 2004, on negative reactions to

  20. Effects of constraints on lattice re-orientation and strain in polycrystal plasticity simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer; McGinty, R.D.; McDowell, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Employing a rate-dependent crystal plasticity model implemented in a novel and fast algorithm, two instantiations of an OFHC copper microstructure have been simulated by FE modelling to 11% tensile engineering strain with two different sets of boundary conditions. Analysis of lattice rotations......, strain distributions and global stress–strain response show the effect of changing from free to periodic boundary conditions to be a perturbation of a response dictated by the microstructure. Average lattice rotation for each crystallographic grain has been found to be in fair agreement with Taylor......-constraint simulations while fine scale element-resolved analysis shows large deviations from this prediction. Locally resolved analysis shows the existence of large domains dominated by slip on only a few slip systems. The modelling results are discussed in the light of recent experimental advances with respect to 2...

  1. Altruism and Re-Orientation as Core for the Development of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Omale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jan Knippers Black in his book, Development in Theory and Practice: Paradigm and Paradoxes had identified theories ranging from Liberal international School; modernization school; cultural weakness; Interdependence School as reasons for the unparalleled development of the world. While often these are used along the like of cultural imperialism and the un-even trade opportunities as reasons for Africa’s developmental quagmire, it is the opinion of this paper that Africa’s underdevelopment are largely products of our actions and non-actions. It is in this light that we seek to argue for the development of the spirit of Altruism and a reorientation of the national consciousness via investment in the Early Child Education adopting participatory learning and communication approach as necessary panacea for Africa’s development. By instilling in the young minds the expediency of a more altruistic modus vivendi, the culture of egoistic corruption could be overturned.

  2. Community-Academic Partnership Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rosemary; Drahota, Amy; Spurgeon, Emily

    2016-10-01

    Community-academic partnerships (CAPs) improve the research process, outcomes, and yield benefits for the community and researchers. This exploratory study examined factors important in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) community stakeholders, previously contacted to participate in a CAP (n = 18), completed the 15-item Decision to Participate Questionnaire (DPQ). The DPQ assessed reasons for participating or declining participation in the ASD CAP. CAP participants rated networking with other providers, fit of collaboration with agency philosophy, and opportunity for future training/consultations as factors more important in their decision to participate in the ASD CAP than nonparticipants. Nonparticipants reported the number of requests to participate in research as more important in their decision to decline participation than participants. Findings reveal important factors in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs that may provide guidance on increasing community engagement in CAPs and help close the science-to-service gap.

  3. VIEWS OF THE ACADEMIC PERSONNEL WORKING IN INSTITUTIONS GIVING SPORTS TRAINING IN HIGHER EDUCATION ABOUT ELECTRONIC TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Serdar YÜCEL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the views of the academic personnel working in institutions giving sports training at higher education level in Turkey about electronic trade has been researched. Sample of the study is constituted by 214 academic personnel working in institutions giving sports training at higher education level in Turkey. Validity and reliability study improved by Sevindik (16 was made to determine the views of the participants and “e-Trade User View Form” was used. SPSS 11.5 package program was used in assessment of the questionnaires and t-test, Variance Analysis (ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis Test and LSD test analyses were made. As a result it was observed that, 86% of the academic personnel working in institutions giving sports training at higher education level in Turkey expressed the importance of electronic trade, 81,3% of them expressed that they used electronic banking system and 59,9% of them emphasized that electronic trade eliminates the traditional trade. Furthermore it was determined that there was a significant difference between the views of the participants towards electronic trade according to the variants of sex and education.

  4. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households with Heterogeneous Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers’ decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 5% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers’ life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed participation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers’ life cycle....

  5. Learning About Ethical Leadership Through the Giving Voice to Values Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the Giving Voice to Values curriculum, one innovative approach to integrating ethics into leadership development. The chapter describes how Giving Voice to Values is being used in educational settings across the globe.

  6. Ethical Challenges: To Participate or Not to Participate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksy, Leslie J.

    2006-01-01

    This issue's scenario, To Participate or Not to Participate, describes an evaluator's shift in method from nonparticipant to participant observation. Although evaluation theorists differ on the extent to which methods decisions are ethical decisions (Morris, 1998), neither of the two commentators considers the methodological decision problematic;…

  7. Give & Take

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Employees in a negotiation training workshop are chatting happily in a company cafeteria near San Francisco. They're not on break. They're on assignment. Their objective: to discover three things they didn't know--and wouldn't have guessed--about each other. The exercise isn't about the information, though. It's about the methods they used to get…

  8. Sharing and giving across adolescence: an experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güroğlu, Berna; van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N = 119) played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior toward friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior toward friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.

  9. When is giving an impulse? An ERP investigation of intuitive prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ryan W; Aknin, Lara B; Liotti, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Human prosociality is often assumed to emerge from exerting reflective control over initial, selfish impulses. However, recent findings suggest that prosocial actions can also stem from processes that are fast, automatic and intuitive. Here, we attempt to clarify when prosocial behavior may be intuitive by examining prosociality as a form of reward seeking. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we explored whether a neural signature that rapidly encodes the motivational salience of an event-the P300-can predict intuitive prosocial motivation. Participants allocated varying amounts of money between themselves and charities they initially labelled as high- or low-empathy targets under conditions that promoted intuitive or reflective decision making. Consistent with our predictions, P300 amplitude over centroparietal regions was greater when giving involved high-empathy targets than low-empathy targets, but only when deciding under intuitive conditions. Reflective conditions, alternatively, elicited an earlier frontocentral positivity related to response inhibition, regardless of target. Our findings suggest that during prosocial decision making, larger P300 amplitude could (i) signal intuitive prosocial motivation and (ii) predict subsequent engagement in prosocial behavior. This work offers novel insight into when prosociality may be driven by intuitive processes and the roots of such behaviors. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Decoding the Charitable Brain: Empathy, Perspective Taking, and Attention Shifts Differentially Predict Altruistic Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusche, Anita; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Singer, Tania

    2016-04-27

    Altruistic behavior varies considerably across people and decision contexts. The relevant computational and motivational mechanisms that underlie its heterogeneity, however, are poorly understood. Using a charitable giving task together with multivariate decoding techniques, we identified three distinct psychological mechanisms underlying altruistic decision-making (empathy, perspective taking, and attentional reorienting) and linked them to dissociable neural computations. Neural responses in the anterior insula (AI) (but not temporoparietal junction [TPJ]) encoded trial-wise empathy for beneficiaries, whereas the TPJ (but not AI) predicted the degree of perspective taking. Importantly, the relative influence of both socio-cognitive processes differed across individuals: participants whose donation behavior was heavily influenced by affective empathy exhibited higher predictive accuracies for generosity in AI, whereas those who strongly relied on cognitive perspective taking showed improved predictions of generous donations in TPJ. Furthermore, subject-specific contributions of both processes for donations were reflected in participants' empathy and perspective taking responses in a separate fMRI task (EmpaToM), suggesting that process-specific inputs into altruistic choices may reflect participants' general propensity to either empathize or mentalize. Finally, using independent attention task data, we identified shared neural codes for attentional reorienting and generous donations in the posterior superior temporal sulcus, suggesting that domain-general attention shifts also contribute to generous behavior (but not in TPJ or AI). Overall, our findings demonstrate highly specific roles of AI for affective empathy and TPJ for cognitive perspective taking as precursors of prosocial behavior and suggest that these discrete routes of social cognition differentially drive intraindividual and interindividual differences in altruistic behavior. Human societies depend on

  11. Parental Participation and School Based Management in Nicaragua: An SES Analysis of Differentiated Parent Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, school-based management and decentralization have emerged as an important tool of education policy. The presumed benefits of school-based management designs depend, in large part, on broad parental participation in the programs that governments create to devolve decision making related to schooling. However, few studies examine the circumstances under which parents actually participate in newly established decentralized education programs. This article sheds partial light on these conditions by employing a socioeconomic status (SES perspective to examine school-based management reform in Nicaragua. Using data derived from five newly autonomous schools, the study compares parents’ self-reported levels of income, education, and community crime rates with their propensity to participate in newly formed school councils. Results give partial support to an SES hypothesis by revealing that parents who live in communities where violence is endemic participate less in the school councils. Findings support the argument that for decentralized education programs to be successful on equity issues, policy planners must attend to these socio-structural circumstances by providing commensurate support mechanisms that encourage marginal households and communities to participate in the new program.

  12. [Discussion paper on participation and participative methods in gerontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aner, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.

  13. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian judo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young judo athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 392 subjects aged 12 to 18 years old participated in the study. Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sports participation. Boys reported giving significantly more importance to sports participation in terms of Competition and Skill Development, whereas girls presented significantly higher ratings for Teamwork and Friendship. Motivational factors related to Achievement/Status and Fun presented significantly higher average ratings in younger judo athletes, whereas average ratings of Competition significantly increased with increasing age. Average ratings related to Fitness, Competition and Skill Development were proportionally and significantly higher according to training experience and training volume. These results will contribute to establishing intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young judo athletes.

  14. Using the give-get grid to understand potential expectations of engagement in a community-academic partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Jodi; Behringer, Bruce; Slawson, Deborah L

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that stakeholder investment is maximized when partnerships understand the assumptions held by partners of the benefits to be derived and contributions to be made to the partnership. In 2011, representatives from seven rural county high schools and five university departments participated in a planning workshop designed to identify elements of an effective community-academic partnership to address adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia. The purpose of this investigation was to examine key elements of partnership building by way of the Give-Get Grid partnership tool. Content analysis was conducted to identify emerging themes. University representatives consistently identified more proposed program contributions as well as benefits than their high school partners. University personnel responses generally pertained to their level of participation and investment in the partnership, whereas high school personnel tended to identify contributions fundamental to both partnership and program success. Additionally, content analysis uncovered programmatic facilitators and potential barriers that can be instrumental in program planning and forming program messages. Findings suggest that although partners often share common goals, perceptions of the value of investment and benefits may vary. The Give-Get Grid can be used during the program-planning phase to help identify these differences. Implications for practice are discussed.

  15. Researching participation in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    labour. This has fostered an interest in examining why and how people engage in adult education, how participation and especially non-participation in adult education can be explained and how participation rates can be increased. In this paper I outline different traditions within research on recruitment......It is a widespread perception that the challenge of increasing participation in adult education and training has intensified due to the transformation from industrial to knowledge based societies and the transformation implies that it becomes pivotal to increase the supply of highly qualified...... to and participation in adult education and training focusing primarily on unskilled and low skilled workers. I present how the traditions contribute to the perception of what effects participation and argue that the existing traditions must be extended and a new framework must be applied in order to understand how...

  16. Researching participation in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    It is a widespread perception that the challenge of increasing participation in adult education and training has intensified due to the transformation from industrial to knowledge based societies and the transformation implies that it becomes pivotal to increase the supply of highly qualified...... labour. This has fostered an interest in examining why and how people engage in adult education, how participation and especially non-participation in adult education can be explained and how participation rates can be increased. In this paper I outline different traditions within research on recruitment...... to and participation in adult education and training focusing primarily on unskilled and low skilled workers. I present how the traditions contribute to the perception of what effects participation and argue that the existing traditions must be extended and a new framework must be applied in order to understand how...

  17. Time, Attitude, and User Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene

    2008-01-01

    , equivocation, resistance and rejection depending on three things: (1) the dynamic between user and consultants, (2) the dynamic between different user groups, and (3) the understanding of technical, organizational and socio-technical options. When relating the empirical findings to existing theory on user...... be that the perception of usefulness of the system in any given phase of the implementation is heavily dependent on preceding events—the process. A process model analysis identifies eight episodes and nine encounters in the case showing that the user’s attitude towards the ERP system changes between acceptance...... participation, it is argued that the changes could be explained as a slide from influential user participation toward pseudo participation and back to influential participation, and that user participation in the context of ERP implementations raises new issues regarding user participation. Thus further...

  18. Towards tailor-made participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Public participation has become an important element of governance in many Western European countries. However, among scholars and practitioners there is a recognition that participatory governance processes tend to produce systematic exclusions. Knowledge about 'who' participates and 'how......' they participate can enhance our understanding of participatory processes. This paper presents some characterisations of citizens based on a review of the literature on participation. In addition, examples of how to tailor participation for different type of citizens are provided based on studies of urban...... regeneration programmes and local environmental initiatives in Denmark. The paper concludes that in order to broaden the inclusion of affected citizens, public authorities need to be tailor participation processes by applying distinct approaches to different types of citizens...

  19. Employee Participation in Europe: In search of the participative workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, E.; Hendrickx, J.; Huygen, F.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an overview of participation schemes in European companies, It is based on a secondary analysis of data from the 1996 EPOC mail survey among managers of profit sector establishments in 10 EU countries. The article describes the diverse extent and nature of participative workpla

  20. Citizen participation in public accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil; Lewis, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we offer an analytical framework sensitive to the quality of citizen participation, which is measured in terms of transferred power from the governors to the citizens, and in terms of the degree to which citizens have access to accountability measures. We do this by combining...... Arnstein’s (1969) classic ladder of participation with a focus on citizen participation in regard to bureaucratic accountability, centered on efficiency and learning (cf. Bovens et al. 2008)....

  1. Political participation of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  2. Four motivations for charitable giving: implications for marketing strategy to attract monetary donations for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S

    1988-06-01

    Medical research foundations can compete more effectively for charitable dollars by being aware of motivations for giving when designing marketing strategy. The study tests the extent to which the motives of reciprocity, income, career, and self-esteem predict monetary giving to medical research. The results indicate that reciprocity and income motives are significant predictors of giving, as are household assets and age. Interpretation of these results leads to several suggestions for marketing strategy.

  3. Different roles of electromagnetic field experts when giving policy advice: an expert consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B; Petersen, Arthur C; Lebret, Erik

    2015-01-21

    The overall evidence for adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels of exposure normally experienced by the public is generally considered weak. However, whether long-term health effects arise remains uncertain and scientific policy advice is therefore given against a background of uncertainty. Several theories exist about different roles that experts may take when they provide advice on complex issues such as EMF. To provide empirical evidence for these theories, we conducted an expert consultation with as main research question: What are the different roles of EMF experts when they provide policy advice? Q methodology was used to empirically test theoretical notions on the existence and determinants of different expert roles and to analyze which roles actually play out in the domain of EMF. Experts were selected based on a structured nominee process. In total 32 international EMF experts participated. Responses were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and for the open questions we used Atlas.ti. Four expert roles were found. Most striking differences between the four roles are whether experts consider current EMF policies adequate or not, whether additional -precautionary- measures are needed, and how experts view their position vis-à-vis policymakers and/or other stakeholders. This empirical study provides support for the so far mainly theoretical debate about the existence of different roles of experts when they give policy advice. The experts' assessment of the degree of uncertainty of the issue turned out to be highly associated with their role. We argue that part of the controversy that exists in the debate regarding scientific policy advice on EMF is about different values and roles.

  4. The Delivery Methods and the Factors Affecting Among Giving Birth in Hospitals in Yozgat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kiliç

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most of pregnant women can have normal vaginal birth. Recently, caesarean section rates are graduallyincreasing both worldwide, and in my country.Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the delivery preferences among women giving birth in hospitals, and thefactors affecting this preference.Methodology: This cross-sectional study was performed in state (n=674 and private (n=148 hospitals. Data were gatheredby a questionnaire applied by an interviewer. 822 women who had given live birth and gave verbal consent to participate,were included into the study. The data were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis.Results: Two-thirds of the live births were by caesarean section. According to the binary logistic regression analysis, thepossibility of undergoing caesarean section increased when; mothers’ age increased, they were short, they gave birth in aprivate hospital, they had social security, they were primigravida, they had a previous miscarriage/ curettage/ stillbirth, andthe major factor was found to be, having had a previous delivery by caesarean section. Variables such as; pregnancy week,babies’ weight, mothers’ educational and occupational status, fathers’ educational status, family type, residential area,economical status were found to be insignificant.Conclusion: The facts that 2/3 rds. of the deliveries were by caesarean section, and that all of those who had undergone aprevious caesarean delivery had a consequent caesarean delivery, and that most of the primigravida (60.5% that gave birthby caesarean section were due to doctor’s medical indication, make us think that doctors prefer caesarean delivery.

  5. Original article Psychological and socio-demographic correlates of women’s decisions to give birth at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Domańska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Some women decide to give birth at home. They treat their home as a safe place to do so, are against medicalization of natural labour or value activity and autonomy during labour. They are also characterized by good knowledge of their own bodies and about labour in general (including labour at home. Psychological studies have revealed a correlation between labour (including the derived satisfaction and the levels of dispositional optimism, perception of efficacy, and coping with pain. Analysis of the available demographic data shows that the decision to give birth at home is correlated with a certain socio-demographic profile of women. Participants and procedures One hundred thirty five mothers took part in the study. Among them 72 had given birth at home and 63 in a hospital. The following were assumed as important psychological determinants: dispositional optimism, sense of self-efficacy, strategies for coping with pain and their effectiveness. The LOT-R Test, GSES Scale, CSQ Questionnaire as well as a demographic questionnaire were used in the study. Results Women who gave birth at home were characterised by significantly higher levels of optimism and sense of self-efficacy in comparison with the other women. Women giving birth at home reinterpreted the sensations of pain more frequently than the others, who were more likely to catastrophise and pray/hope. The level of conviction about having control over pain was much higher in the experimental group. The relationship between choice of place to give birth and the level of education, marital status, area of residence as well as age is weak. Correlations between the place of birth and income, number of children as well as membership of religious communities are moderate and statistically significant. Conclusions It is important to see and meet the different expectations of the two distinct groups of women. Today’s phenomenon of homebirth requires systematic interdisciplinary

  6. Educational Participation and Inmate Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, Karen F.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of extant literature on correctional education focuses on the relationship between program participation and recidivism while ignoring the possible relationship between educational program participation and inmate misconduct. The present study sought to fill in this gap in the literature by investigating the effect of several types of…

  7. Participant observation in risk problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, H.; Kluin, M.H.A.; Van Gulijk, C.; Ale, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Participant observation is a method to collect information through active participation in the social world that is under study, in this case two different risk-related working areas where confidentiality and secrecy are paramount. In reality there is a difference between what people do and say they

  8. Efficiency of participation in planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Hassan

    2011-06-01

    A comparison between the two processes will take place in order to indentify the participation activities and their real efficiency. The comparison will be focused on the parameter of participation realized in each case in order to find gaps that have negative effects and needs to be filled.

  9. Who Benefits from Participative Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to explore the moderating role of teachers' personality traits from the Big Five typology on the relationship between participative management and teacher outcomes with respect to performance, satisfaction and strain. The study suggests that participative management may produce different results depending on teachers'…

  10. Student Participation - Simulation or Reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the concept of student participation in learning processes within the health promoting schools approach. A model that distinguishes between token and genuine participation, which has been conceptualised on the basis of experience gained from the Macedonian Network of Health...

  11. Foraging in groups affects giving-up densities: solo foragers quit sooner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    The giving-up density framework is an elegant and widely adopted mathematical approach to measuring animals' foraging decisions at non-replenishing artificial resource patches. Under this framework, an animal should "give up" when the benefits of foraging are outweighed by the costs (e.g., predation risk, energetic, and/or missed opportunity costs). However, animals of many species may forage in groups, and group size is expected to alter perceived predation risk and hence influence quitting decisions. Yet, most giving-up density studies assume either that individuals forage alone or that giving-up densities are not affected by group foraging. For animals that forage both alone and in groups, differences in giving-up densities due to group foraging rather than experimental variables may substantially alter interpretation. However, no research to date has directly investigated how group foraging affects the giving-up density. We used remote-sensing cameras to identify instances of group foraging in two species of Rattus across three giving-up density experiments to determine whether group foraging influences giving-up densities. Both Rattus species have been observed to vary between foraging alone and in groups. In all three experiments, solo foragers left higher giving-up densities on average than did group foragers. This result has important implications for studies using giving-up densities to investigate perceived risk, the energetic costs of searching, handling time, digestion, and missed opportunity costs, particularly if groups of animals are more likely to experience certain experimental treatments. It is critically important that future giving-up density studies consider the effects of group foraging.

  12. Nurses' Journey Toward Genuine Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kija Lin; Simonsen, Jesper; Karasti, Teija Helena

    2016-01-01

    management has instructed them to do so, to taking an interest and finding their voices in the design process. In this way, they are ultimately able to engage in genuine and willing participation. The main discussion points in the paper are the transitions in the nurses' journey toward embracing qualities...... of genuine participation, the nurse-researcher's reflections on her facilitation of the process, and collective learning as an integral part of the process.......This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on participation in Participatory Design (PD) by drawing on the notion of genuine participation [8]. It clarifies nurses' empirical journey as one of becoming and learning [1, 6], where they move from being reluctant participants, attending only because...

  13. Youth Motivations for Program Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer K. McGuire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through their participation in youth programs, young people have access to opportunities to learn and build important skills. A total of 214 youth between the ages of 10-19 (mean 15.5 years completed an online survey about characteristics of youth programs they participated in, didn’t participate in, and had participated in but quit. We found that youth participated in activities that provided a benefit to meet personal goals or develop skills. However, our findings suggest that youth may leave activities, or never join them, based on different sets of motivations than the reasons they stay in activities. There was variability across demographic groups: Males reported more problems with past activities, sexual minority youth were more likely to endorse social problems with past and never joined activities, and ethnic minorities reported less support for personal goals and connection to adults in current activities and more logistic barriers for activities never joined.

  14. The International Masterclasses : to give an overview of who the masterclasses are for and what participants take away from the experience

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS Outreach

    2011-01-01

    Explain the history, the purpose and the day of the masterclasses. Interviews with: - the current and past moderators from CERN - the students from France, Austria and the USA - interviews with a french teacher - interview with the creator of the CMS exercise - interviews of the co-contributor to the event display tool (served students to do the CMS exercise) Host of the video - Kate Shaw (ATLAS) by Matt Ryan (CMS)

  15. Leisure Sport Participation in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicos Kartakoullis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the limited existing research on the participation patterns of Cypriots in leisure and sports. Leisure and sport are viewed collectively while adapting the notion put forth by The Council of Europe (2007 defining leisure sports as sports activities aimed at the preservation and improvement of physical condition, health and fun. The purpose of this paper is to examine the leisure sport participation patterns of Cypriots, specifically: (1 participation patterns in leisure sports, (2 reasons for participating in leisure sports, (3 cost and participation in leisure sport, (4 leisure sport spectatorship, and (5 vacationing and leisure sport experiences. Data was commissioned and collected by the Centre for Leisure, Tourism and Sports (University of Nicosia for the Cyprus Sport Organisation. A telephone-survey of 1000 Cypriots, men and women, aged 15+, from coast-to-coast in Cyprus using stratified random sampling was employed. The sample was weighted by gender, age, district and region of residence. The results indicate that: (1 almost half of the Cypriot population participates in leisure sports, (2 participation in leisure sports decreases with age, (3 participation in leisure sports tends to be driven by health benefits, (4 most Cypriots participate in leisure sport at no cost, (5 television is the most common means reported for spectatorship, and (6 some Cypriots plan their vacations around leisure sport experiences. The results indicate the relevant importance of the leisure sport culture in Cyprus while also reflecting on age and cost related factors that may influence participation in leisure sports.

  16. Children's Participation: An Arendtian Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Hannah Arendt's critique of education in 1950s USA provides an important way of understanding the development of citizenship education. Her theory on the nature of childhood and her concepts of natality and authority give insight into both the directions of current policies and practices, and the possible future states into which these elements…

  17. Giving and Receiving Social Support at Work: The Roles of Personality and Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Nathan A.; Beehr, Terry A.; Swader, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Social support is an important variable in occupational stress research and theory, yet little is know about the factors that influence the amount of social support one gives, and receives at work. We examined personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness) and reciprocity as potential antecedents to giving and receiving support from…

  18. 33 CFR 83.16 - Action by give-way vessel (Rule 16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action by give-way vessel (Rule....16 Action by give-way vessel (Rule 16). Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear....

  19. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contact financial institutions. 416.1321 Section 416.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you...

  20. 20 CFR 416.207 - You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial institutions. 416.207 Section 416.207 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... institutions. (a) To be eligible for SSI payments you must give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records that financial institution may have about you. You must give...

  1. Grids for Kids gives next-generation IT an early start

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    "Grids for Kids gives children a crash course in grid computing," explains co-organiser Anna Cook of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project. "We introduce them to concepts such as middleware, parallel processing and supercomputing, and give them opportunities for hands-on learning.

  2. Charity begins at home : How socialization experiences influence giving and volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that charity begins at home. Using retrospective reports on youth experiences from the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey (n=1,964, 2001) I find that (1) parents who volunteer when their children are young promote giving and volunteering of their children once they have become a

  3. The meaning of "not giving in". Lived experiences among women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Pryds; Bäck-Pettersson, Siv; Segesten, K

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the meaning to women with breast cancer of "not giving in". Giorgi's phenomenological method was applied, and data were collected through open interviews.......This article explores the meaning to women with breast cancer of "not giving in". Giorgi's phenomenological method was applied, and data were collected through open interviews....

  4. Students Can Give Psychology Away: Oral Presentations on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a novel assignment involving students giving a presentation on YouTube about how to apply behavior-modification principles to change a specific type of behavior, chosen by each student. The presentations covered topics such as how to end nail biting and how to reduce anxiety about public speaking. Giving an oral presentation…

  5. The Straightforwardness of Advice: Advice-Giving in Interactions Between Swedish District Nurses and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Vesa

    1998-01-01

    A study examined advice-giving interactions between Swedish district nurses and patients, comparing these sequences with parallel interactions between British health visitors and first-time mothers in previous research. Analysis focused on how advice-giving is organized in the settings, including how advice is initiated and designed, its…

  6. The Sources and Uses of Annual Giving at Selective Private Research Universities and Liberal Arts Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg. R. G.; Smith, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    Econometric analysis uses data from a panel of selected private research universities and liberal-arts colleges that span a 31-year period to provide explanations for differences across institutions in the sources and uses of giving. Finds, for example, that richer institutions devote a larger share of their annual giving to further building their…

  7. Giving form to computational things: developing a practice of interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2014-01-01

    between states. Thus, an interaction design practice needs to encompass this temporal form giving in combination with physical form giving and performances of the interaction gestalt. In this paper, I propose this trinity of forms as a framework to unfold the practice of interaction design. I further...

  8. Reciprocity is not give and take: asymmetric reciprocity to positive and negative acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysar, Boaz; Converse, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiunwen; Epley, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Unlike economic exchange, social exchange has no well-defined "value." It is based on the norm of reciprocity, in which giving and taking are to be repaid in equivalent measure. Although giving and taking are colloquially assumed to be equivalent actions, we demonstrate that they produce different patterns of reciprocity. In five experiments utilizing a dictator game, people reciprocated in like measure to apparently prosocial acts of giving, but reciprocated more selfishly to apparently antisocial acts of taking, even when the objective outcomes of the acts of giving and taking were identical. Additional results demonstrate that acts of giving in social exchanges are perceived as more generous than objectively identical acts of taking, that taking tends to escalate, and that the asymmetry in reciprocity is not due to gaining versus losing resources. Reciprocity appears to operate on an exchange rate that assigns value to the meaning of events, in a fashion that encourages prosocial exchanges.

  9. Why Feminism? How Feminist Methodologies Can Aid Our Efforts to ‘Give Back’ Through Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekia Ellen Golden Bodwitch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, the authors take a critical stance to the notion of giving back. They emphasize that giving back should be a model of solidarity and movement building, not charity. They push us to consider the ways in which the framework of giving back may actually reinforce hierarchical relationships between the researcher and the researched. In doing so, they offer new ways of thinking about the relationship between researchers and their communities of subjects. The strategies employed by these authors resonate with work from feminist activists and scholars whose approaches bring us alternative theories and methods through which to address the potentially dangerous effects of speaking for others through research. Examined alongside the giving back pieces in this section, these feminist contributions illuminate ways that we can give back by advancing the anti-oppression agendas of marginalized subjects through our research.

  10. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.

  11. Developing Strategies to Improve Advance Care Planning in Long Term Care Homes: Giving Voice to Residents and Their Family Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Ramsbottom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term care (LTC homes, also known as residential care homes, commonly care for residents until death, making palliative care and advance care planning (ACP important elements of care. However, limited research exists on ACP in LTC. In particular, research giving voice to family members and substitute decision makers is lacking. The objective of this research was to understand experiences, perspectives, and preferences to guide quality improvement of ACP in LTC. This qualitative descriptive study conducted 34 individual semistructured interviews in two LTC homes, located in Canada. The participants were 31 family members and three staff, consisting of a front line care worker, a registered nurse, and a nurse practitioner. All participants perceived ACP conversations as valuable to provide “resident-centred care”; however, none of the participants had a good understanding of ACP, limiting its effectiveness. Strategies generated through the research to improve ACP were as follows: educating families and staff on ACP and end-of-life care options; better preparing staff for ACP conversations; providing staff skills training and guidelines; and LTC staff initiating systematic, proactive conversations using careful timing. These strategies can guide quality improvement of palliative care and development of ACP tools and resources specific to the LTC home sector.

  12. Participation & the power from within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Danholt, Peter; Lauritsen, Peter

    for surveilling, controlling and caring for the wellbeing of placed children. Similarly, social workers are also obliged to include children as participants in their own case. To this end, social workers are dependent on intimate and trustworthy knowledge of children's everyday life. However, as Latour argued...... their removed from home. The observed situation thus complicates both the ambition of participation and the need for a surveillant welfare practice. Consequently, this paper explores three questions: a) how do social workers manage to surveil the wellbeing of children, b) how do children relate to social...... workers' surveillance, and c) how could we conceptualise the relation between welfare and surveillance in an age of participation....

  13. Citizen voices performing public participation in science and environment communication

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Anabela; Doyle, Julie

    2012-01-01

    How is "participation" ascribed meaning and practised in science and environment communication? And how are citizen voices articulated, invoked, heard, marginalised or silenced in those processes? Citizen Voices takes its starting point in the so-called dialogic or participatory turn in scientific and environmental governance in which practices claiming to be based on principles of participation, dialogue and citizen involvement have proliferated. The book goes beyond the buzzword of "participation" in order to give empirically rich, theoretically informed and critical accounts of how citizen participation is understood and enacted in mass mediation and public engagement practices. A diverse series of studies across Europe and the US are presented, providing readers with empirical insights into the articulation of citizen voices in different national, cultural and institutional contexts. Building bridges across media and communication studies, science and technology studies, environmental studies and urban pl...

  14. The Transformation of Employee Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni; Knudsen, Herman; Lind, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on the relationship between employee participation, influence and the work environment. The main part of the literature points to a positive connection in line with how it has been almost institutionalised in Karasek and Theorell´s demand control......-model. However, more recent research into psychosocial work environment problems questions the model’s assumption of high job control compensating for high job demands. Taking its point of departure in a `deconstruction´ of the concept of participation based on research on employee participation from the past...... few decades, the article discuss what factors and changes have resulted in that increased employee participation does not seem to result in a healthy work environment. The article concludes on the limitations of the demand control-model in modern working life given contextual changes in the employer-employee...

  15. Advancing the measurement of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Bogner, Jennifer A; Heinemann, Allen W

    2011-04-01

    The authors of 3 articles in this issue have collaborated in an effort to advance the conceptualization and measurement of participation. These articles offer (1) a new tool for measuring participation, the Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (PART-O), which combines items from widely used instruments in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation research; (2) 2 methods of scoring 17 items of PART-O, assessing relatively objective social role performance and yielding 3 subscale scores, as well as 2 alternative total scores (including 1 incorporating the concept of balance among types of participation), and (3) 19 enfranchisement items assessing the degree to which people with disability perceive they have the freedom to engage in social roles of their choosing while being accepted and valued by others.

  16. From Lurker to Active Participant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth

    2009-01-01

    The original publication is available from www.springerlink.com. Sloep, P. B., & Kester, L. (2009). From Lurker to Active Participant. In R. Koper (Ed)., Learning Network Services for Professional Development (pp. 17-26). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

  17. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  18. Workplace mediation: the participant experience

    OpenAIRE

    Saundry, Richard; Bennett, Anthony Joseph William; Wibberley, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study of the perceptions and experiences of participants in workplace mediation. In total, 25 individuals, from a variety of occupations and organisations, were interviewed by researchers. The project sought to: explore the trajectory of individual disputes and assess participants’ views of the effectiveness of mediation provision and sustainability of outcomes. Furthermore, the research attempted to examine the broader impact of participation in mediation ...

  19. CYBER HOSTILITIES: CIVILIAN DIRECT PARTICIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which hostilities are being conducted has changed in recent years. The battle field has transpired beyond the physical realm and now has a virtual component. Because of this, it is now easier than ever for civilians to get involved in hostilities. International Humanitarian Law applies to all situations of armed conflict and according to the principle of distinction, the parties to the conflict must, at all times, distinguish between civilians and combatants. The problem arises when the line between combatants and civilians starts to get blurry. Direct civilian participation in hostilities has been addressed in both Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and in 2009 the International Committee of the Red Cross published the Interpretive guidance on the notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under international humanitarian law. Another document that addresses the problem of civilian direct participation is the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare prepared by an international group of experts at the invitation of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in 2013. The guide prepared by the ICRC addresses the problem of civilian direct participation during conventional situations of armed conflict, while the Tallinn Manual addresses direct participation in situations of cyber warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study the application of civilian direct participation to situations of cyber warfare.

  20. Feelings toward the poor and beliefs about the causes of poverty: the role of affective-cognitive consistency in help-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J; Cozzarelli, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how affective-cognitive consistency moderates the strength of the relationship between attitudes toward the poor and help-giving intentions. Participant's (N = 198) overall attitudes toward the poor and the consistency of their affect (feelings toward the poor) and cognition (beliefs about the causes of poverty) were measured. Affective-cognitive consistency moderated the degree to which attitudes predicted welfare allocations and volunteering to help the poor, such that attitudes significantly predicted these decisions among participants whose feelings toward the poor were consistent with their beliefs about the causes of poverty.

  1. Giving birth to life--again!: bereaved parents' experiences with children born following the death of an adult son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Rosenfeld, Sarah; Buchbinder, Eli

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study examining the experiences of parents that lost a son during military service in Israel and consequently choose to give birth to another child. Seven couples and 3 mothers were interviewed for the study, and their interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Three main themes were extracted from parents' descriptions of their experiences: (a) "From the place where pain and sadness was sown, a new smile was grown," relating to transforming the experience of loss into a new meaning for life; (b) "No to a child memorial," focusing on parents' awareness of the burden placed on the child who was born; and (c) "Different parenting," dealing with participant's parenting following their loss. The study's findings are discussed in the context of literature dealing with reconstructing meaning through coping and bereavement.

  2. What Patients Value When Oncologists Give News of Cancer Recurrence: Commentary on Specific Moments in Audio-Recorded Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Susan B.; Hopley, Elizabeth K.; Arnold, Robert M.; Baile, Walter F.; Edwards, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Recommendations for communicating bad or serious news are based on limited evidence. This study was designed to understand patient perspectives on what patients value when oncologists communicate news of cancer recurrence. Study Design and Methods. Participants were 23 patients treated for a gastrointestinal cancer at a tertiary U.S. cancer center within the past 2 years, who had semistructured qualitative interviews in which they listened to audio recordings of an oncology fellow discussing news of cancer recurrence with a standardized patient. Participants paused the audio recording to comment on what they liked or disliked about the oncologist's communication. Results. Three themes were identified that refine existing approaches to discussing serious news. The first theme, recognition, described how the oncologist responded to the gravity of the news of cancer recurrence for the patient. Participants saw the need for recognition throughout the encounter and not just after the news was given. The second theme, guiding, describes what participants wanted after hearing the news, which was for the oncologist to draw on her biomedical expertise to frame the news and plan next steps. The third theme, responsiveness, referred to the oncologist's ability to sense the need for recognition or guidance and to move fluidly between them. Conclusion. This study suggests that oncologists giving news of cancer recurrence could think of the communication as going back and forth between recognition and guidance and could ask themselves: “Have I demonstrated that I recognize the patient's experience hearing the news?” and “Have I provided guidance to the next steps?” PMID:21349951

  3. Giving and Receiving Emotional Support Online: Communication Competence as a Moderator of Psychosocial Benefits for Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woohyun; Namkoong, Kang; Choi, Mina; Shah, Dhavan V; Tsang, Stephanie; Hong, Yangsun; Aguilar, Michael; Gustafson, David H

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the moderating role of emotional communication competence in the relationship between computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group participation, specifically giving and receiving emotional support, and psychological health outcomes. Data were collected as part of randomized clinical trials for women diagnosed with breast cancer within the last 2 months. Expression and reception of emotional support was assessed by tracking and coding the 18,064 messages that 236 patients posted and read in CMSS groups. The final data used in the analysis was created by merging (a) computer-aided content analysis of discussion posts, (b) action log data analysis of system usage, and (c) baseline and six-month surveys collected to assess change. Results of this study demonstrate that emotional communication competence moderates the effects of expression and reception of emotional support on psychological quality of life and breast cancer-related concerns in both desired and undesired ways. Giving and receiving emotional support in CMSS groups has positive effects on emotional well-being for breast cancer patients with higher emotional communication, while the same exchanges have detrimental impacts on emotional well-being for those with lower emotional communication competence. The theoretical and practical implications for future research are discussed.

  4. Giving and Receiving Emotional Support Online: Communication Competence as a Moderator of Psychosocial Benefits for Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woohyun; Namkoong, Kang; Choi, Mina; Shah, Dhavan V.; Tsang, Stephanie; Hong, Yangsun; Aguilar, Michael; Gustafson, David H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the moderating role of emotional communication competence in the relationship between computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group participation, specifically giving and receiving emotional support, and psychological health outcomes. Data were collected as part of randomized clinical trials for women diagnosed with breast cancer within the last 2 months. Expression and reception of emotional support was assessed by tracking and coding the 18,064 messages that 236 patients posted and read in CMSS groups. The final data used in the analysis was created by merging (a) computer-aided content analysis of discussion posts, (b) action log data analysis of system usage, and (c) baseline and six-month surveys collected to assess change. Results of this study demonstrate that emotional communication competence moderates the effects of expression and reception of emotional support on psychological quality of life and breast cancer-related concerns in both desired and undesired ways. Giving and receiving emotional support in CMSS groups has positive effects on emotional well-being for breast cancer patients with higher emotional communication, while the same exchanges have detrimental impacts on emotional well-being for those with lower emotional communication competence. The theoretical and practical implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24058261

  5. Occupational care giving conditions and human rights: A study of elderly caregivers in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to explore and discuss the occupational care giving conditions pitting them against human rights. The article′s objective is to initiate discussions and generate literature pertaining to occupational care giving load and assessing the human rights challenge it poses. The article uses analysis of the literature review from an array of eclectic data sources. The following factors were found besetting the caregivers′ human rights: (1 Aging; (2 Cultural and community attitudes towards care giving; (3 Risk of contagion; (4 Health hazards and lack of compensation. Recommendations: (1 Adoption of grandparents/grandchildren care symbiosis system; (2 Government remuneration policy for caregivers; (3 Mainstreaming of gender education to encourage men and youth develop an interest in care giving; (4 Institution of laws and policies by countries to provide for the compensation of caregivers′ occupational hazards and risks.

  6. An Excel sheet for inferring children's number-knower levels from give-N data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W; Lee, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Number-knower levels are a series of stages of number concept development in early childhood. A child's number-knower level is typically assessed using the give-N task. Although the task procedure has been highly refined, the standard ways of analyzing give-N data remain somewhat crude. Lee and Sarnecka (Cogn Sci 34:51-67, 2010, in press) have developed a Bayesian model of children's performance on the give-N task that allows knower level to be inferred in a more principled way. However, this model requires considerable expertise and computational effort to implement and apply to data. Here, we present an approximation to the model's inference that can be computed with Microsoft Excel. We demonstrate the accuracy of the approximation and provide instructions for its use. This makes the powerful inferential capabilities of the Bayesian model accessible to developmental researchers interested in estimating knower levels from give-N data.

  7. Factors influencing trainers' feedback-giving behavior: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrim, E.A.M.; Kramer, A.W.M.; Mokkink, H.G.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The literature provides some insight into the role of feedback givers, but little information about within-trainer factors influencing 'feedback-giving behaviours'. We looked for relationships between characteristics of feedback givers (self-efficacy, task perception, neuroticism,

  8. Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Special Features Use Caution When Giving Cough and Cold Products to Kids Share Tweet Linkedin ... age should not be given any kind of cough and cold product that contains a decongestant or ...

  9. Patterns of Giving to One's Alma Mater among Young Graduates from Selective Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, James

    2003-01-01

    Examines individual characteristics correlated with alumni giving by graduates from 28 highly selective institutions of higher education. Finds satisfaction with undergraduate experience the single biggest determinant of the generosity of alumni donations. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  10. When breastfeeding is unsuccessful--mothers' experiences after giving up breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jette Schilling; Kronborg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up...... breastfeeding even though they intended to breastfeed. A qualitative social constructive approach was used to describe mothers’ experiences after giving up breastfeeding. Danish first-time mothers who had expected and wanted to breastfeed were interviewed four months after birth. The interviews were analysed...... by meaning condensation. The mothers experienced that giving up breastfeeding was a crucial but necessary decision for the child’s health and well-being. They tried to “be on the side of the angels” by caring for and bonding with the child. The mothers were divided between expressing milk or formula feeding...

  11. Talking to Honourable Members: advice for academics on giving evidence to Parliamentary committees

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Iain

    2011-01-01

    How do Parliamentary committees treat academics? What is like to feel ambushed when you hoped your opinion might make an impact in policy making? Iain McLean, Professor of Politics at Oxford University, offers some insight into the experience of giving evidence as an expert witness to Parliamentary committees, and gives some essential advice for academics who might consider offering their opinions in the future.

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    JAN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision...by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due « Image designed by Diane Fleischer... Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule Its Due Chad Dacus and Col Stephen Hagel, USAF (Ret.) Conceptual

  13. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses' ethical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients' conditions and prognoses, their families' emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families' peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU.

  14. Våde enge kan give iltmangel i vandløb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Jens-Ole; Iversen, Niels; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Våde enge oprettes i disse år mange steder i det danske landskab. I nogle tilfælde vil områderne give den positive tiltænkte ændring til glæde for naturen, andre steder kan det give problemer og føre til betydelig iltmangel i vandløbene. denne artikel beskriver et sådant tilfælde, og vi forsøger...

  15. REASON-GIVING IN COURT PRACTICE: THE EXAMPLE OF FRENCH IMMIGRATION LITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Cohen, Columbia Law School-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This Article examines the thesis according to which the practice of giving reasons for decisions is a central element of liberal democracies. In this view, public institutions’ practice—and sometimes duty—to give reasons is required so that each individual may view the state as reasonable and therefore, according to deliberative democratic theory, legitimate. Does the giving of reasons in actual court practice achieve these goals?  Drawing on empirical research carried out in a French administrative court, this Article argues that, in practice, reason-giving often falls either short of democracy or beyond democracy. Reasons fall short of democracy in the first case because they are transformed from a device designed to “protect” citizens from arbitrariness into a professional norm intended to “protect” the judges themselves and perhaps further their career goals. In the second case, reasons go beyond democracy because judges’ ambitions are much greater than to merely provide petitioners with a ground for understanding and criticizing the decision: they aim at positively—and paternalistically in some instances—guiding people’s conduct.  The discussion proceeds by drawing attention to social aspects that are often neglected in theoretical discussions on reason-giving. A skeptical conclusion is suggested: one can rarely guarantee that any predetermined value will be achieved by the giving of reasons. The degree to which individuals are empowered by the reasons given to them is dependent on the way in which decision-givers envision their reason-giving activity, and this representation is itself conditioned by the social setting of the court. Keywords: Arbitrariness. Reason-giving. Judges.

  16. Reciprocity-based reasons for benefiting research participants: most fail, the most plausible is problematic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Neema

    2014-11-01

    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access (PTA) to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: (1) most are false. (2) The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. (3) Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. (4) Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it.

  17. Computer support system for residential environment evaluation for citizen participation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; TEKNOMO Kardi; LU Jiang; HOKAO Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    Though the method of citizen participation in urban planning is quite well established, for a specific segment of residential environment, however, existing participation system has not coped adequately with the issue. The specific residential environment has detailed aspects that need positive and high level involvement of the citizens in participating in all stages and every field of the plan. One of the best and systematic methods to obtain a more involved citizen is through a citizen workshop. To get a more "educated" citizen who participates in the workshop, a special session to inform the citizen on what was previously gathered through a survey was revealed to be prerequisite before the workshop. The computer support system is one of the best tools for this purpose. This paper describes the development of the computer support system for residential environment evaluation system, which is an essential tool to give more information to the citizens before their participation in public workshop. The significant contribution of this paper is the educational system framework involved in the workshop on the public participation system through computer support, especially for residential environment. The framework, development and application of the computer support system are described. The application of a workshop on the computer support system was commented on as very valuable and helpful by the audience as it resulted in greater benefit to have wider range of participation, and deeper level of citizen understanding.

  18. Strategies parents use to give children oral medicine: a qualitative study of online discussion forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe strategies parents use to give oral medicine to children. Methods We conducted an Internet-based qualitative study of posts from online forums where parents discussed how to give children oral medicine. The posts were analyzed using systematic text condensation. The investigators coded and developed groups iteratively, ending up with a consensus on final themes. Results We included 4581 posts. Parents utilized three main strategies to give oral medicine to children: (1) Open administration give medicine to the child knowingly by changing the palatability, actively involve the child in play or use persuasion; (2) Hidden administration give medicine to the child unknowingly by camouflaging it in food, while sleeping or distracted by another activity; (3) Forced administration force children to take medicine with the use of restraint. Parents expressed three perspectives towards using force: Finding it unproblematic, using force despite not liking it or refusing to use force. No single strategy was described as the obvious first choice, and the strategies were not used in any particular order. Parents who gave up getting their child to ingest the medicine reported to contact the prescriber for a different medication, or stopped the treatment completely. Conclusions The three strategies are a robust and precise way to categorize techniques used by parents to give children oral medicine. We suggest that health professionals use the strategies to talk to parents and children about administration of oral medicines. PMID:28581890

  19. A comparison between willingness to pay and willingness to give up time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helvoort-Postulart, Debby; Dirksen, Carmen D; Kessels, Alfons G H; van Engelshoven, Jos M A; Myriam Hunink, M G

    2009-02-01

    We compared the willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time methods to assess preferences for digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Respondents were hypertensive patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis. Data were gathered using telephone interviews. Both the willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time methods revealed that patients preferred CTA to MRA in order to avoid DSA. The agreement between willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time responses was high (kappa 0.65-0.85). The willingness-to-pay method yielded relatively more protest answers (12%) as compared to willingness to give up time (2%). So, our results provided evidence for the comparability of willingness to pay and willingness to give up time. The high percentage of protest answers on the willingness-to-pay questions raises questions with respect to the application of the willingness-to-pay method in a broad decision-making context. On the other hand, the strength of willingness-to-pay is that the method directly arrives at a monetary measure well founded in economic theory, whereas the willingness to give up time method requires conversion to monetary units.

  20. Strategies parents use to give children oral medicine: a qualitative study of online discussion forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergene, Elin Høien; Rø, Torstein Baade; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe strategies parents use to give oral medicine to children. We conducted an Internet-based qualitative study of posts from online forums where parents discussed how to give children oral medicine. The posts were analyzed using systematic text condensation. The investigators coded and developed groups iteratively, ending up with a consensus on final themes. We included 4581 posts. Parents utilized three main strategies to give oral medicine to children: (1) Open administration give medicine to the child knowingly by changing the palatability, actively involve the child in play or use persuasion; (2) Hidden administration give medicine to the child unknowingly by camouflaging it in food, while sleeping or distracted by another activity; (3) Forced administration force children to take medicine with the use of restraint. Parents expressed three perspectives towards using force: Finding it unproblematic, using force despite not liking it or refusing to use force. No single strategy was described as the obvious first choice, and the strategies were not used in any particular order. Parents who gave up getting their child to ingest the medicine reported to contact the prescriber for a different medication, or stopped the treatment completely. The three strategies are a robust and precise way to categorize techniques used by parents to give children oral medicine. We suggest that health professionals use the strategies to talk to parents and children about administration of oral medicines.

  1. The term nevestnina – A contribution to the terminology of matrimonial gift giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Stanimirović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to bring more order to terminology of matrimonial gift giving – the ever more complicated area in the past couple of decades. Furthermore, it reaffirms the idea of the evolution of matrimonial gift giving, and after many decades in which historians of law and ethnologists focused their research on particularities of matrimonial gift giving in certain cultures and epochs, points out the need of their systematization. Connecting history of law with ethnology, the author offers more precise references of the term brideprice, giving it back its usability, linking it with all the matrimonial gift givings the groom’s side presents to the bride’s father who possesses the exclusive authority to handle it as he pleases. On the other hand, the paper emphasizes the unjust disregard and neglect of another type of matrimonial gift giving in science, or perhaps its erroneous definitions by some authors. Namely, all those matrimonial gift giving from the groom’s side directly or indirectly intended for the girl herself. Girl’s father no longer controls the matrimonial gift giving and he bestows most or all of it to the girl on the wedding. It is what girl brings into marriage under the veil of trousseau, and later partially of dowry. Later on, these symbolic matrimonial gift givings were no longer given to girl’s father not even symbolically, but rather went straight into her hands. These new matrimonial gift givings can no longer be assigned to a category of buying the bride, while the term indirect dowry proposed by Goody is inappropriate for it creates a false picture of these matrimonial gift givings. That is why, in the absence of an appropriate name, the author took the liberty of coining the term nevestnina to cover both aspects of these matrimonial gift-giving. The term bridewealth used in the English speaking areas to replace the politically incorrect term brideprice is proper for the term nevestnina. For the later

  2. For-Giving Death: Cixous's Osnabrück and Le Jour où je n'étais pas là

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilene Hoft-March

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In her early writings, Hélène Cixous earned recognition as the feminist proponent of a theory of gift economy that challenges the patriarchal practice of giving. Patriarchal giving, she contended, enacts the master-slave dialectic, maintaining power differentials by indemnifying and reducing the other to the one who gives. Cixous imagined an alternate practice whereby the gift incurs no debts and no death for the other, a giving without expectation of return, a generosity that enriches all who participate. More than two decades after those theoretical essays, Cixous continues to explore in her fiction the relationship to the other as mediated by gifts; however, her earlier concept of giving has been considerably modified, as a reading of two very recent novels will show. In Osnabrück , an otherwise admirable model of generosity is put in question for ignoring the debts and death that dog even the most generous relationships with the other. Extending this understanding, Le Jour où je n'étais pas là presents death and debt as non-negotiable givens and obliges us to conceive of a kind of generosity predicated simultaneously on death and on the forgetting of death.

  3. Enablers and constrainers to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Milana, Marcella

    2007-01-01

    with constraining and enabling elements so as to raise participation among otherwise disadvantaged groups. To begin addressing this question, consideration is given to different types of constraints and different types of policies. These are brought together within a broad demand and supply framework, so...... as to construct a tool for analyzing the targeting of adult learning policy, with regard to both its coverage and expected consequences. Our aim is to develop a means for a more in-depth analysis of the match-mismatch of public policy and persisting constraints to participation....

  4. Entrepreneuriat Social et Participation Citoyenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Larivet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L'entrepreneuriat social est un concept émergeant, notamment dans les sciences de l'administration. Pourtant, en dehors d'une pratique directoriale spécifique, il est aussi une forme de participation citoyenne trop méconnue. L'objectif de cet article, basé sur une revue de la littérature et une approche théorique, est de présenter le concept d'entrepreneuriat social afin de mieux saisir son positionnement par rapport à la participation citoyenne. L'entrepreneuriat social constitue une forme particulière de participation à l'espace public par l'action, les entreprises sociales agissant au quotidien pour transformer le paysage social. En particulier, cet article souligne le contexte de développement de l'entrepreneuriat social, définit le concept et les notions connexes d'entreprise sociale et d'entrepreneur social, et, enfin, présente une réflexion sur la contribution de l'entrepreneuriat social à la participation citoyenne. L'article montre que l'entrepreneuriat social est une façon pour les citoyens d'agir directement et avec maîtrise sur la société. / Social entrepreneurship is an emerging concept, notably in administrative sciences. However, not only is it a specific managerial practice but it is also a type of citizen participation that is not well-known. The objective of this article, based on a literature review and a theoretical approach, is to present the concept of social entrepreneurship in order to better understand its relation to citizen participation. Social entrepreneurship represents a specific type of citizen participation involving actions. Social enterprises act daily to transform the social landscape. More specifically, this article presents the context of development of social entrepreneurship, proposes a definition of the concept and of other connected notions like "social enterprise" and "social entrepreneur", and, finally, analyzes the contribution of social entrepreneurship to citizen participation. It

  5. Scheduling participants of Assessment Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens; Løber, Janni

      Assessment Centres are used as a tool for psychologists and coaches to observe a number of dimensions in a person's behaviour and test his/her potential within a number of chosen focus areas. This is done in an intense course, with a number of different exercises which expose each participant...... Centres usually last two days and involve 3-6 psychologists or trained coaches as assessors. An entire course is composed of a number of rounds, with each round having its individual duration. In each round, the participants are divided into a number of groups with prespecifed pairing of group sizes...

  6. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    implementation as a method for participatory design. We find that to foster participation and learning about user needs a pilot implementation must create a space for reflecting on use, in addition to the space for using the pilot system. The space for reflection must also exist during the activities preparing...... the use of the pilot system because the porters and nurses learned about their needs throughout the pilot implementation, not just during use. Finally, we discuss how the scope and duration of a pilot implementation influence the conditions for participation....

  7. Others' opinions count, but not all of them: anchoring to ingroup versus outgroup members' behavior in charitable giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Hysenbelli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the large amount of information and the difficulty in selecting an appropriate recipient in the context of charitable giving, people tend to make extensive use of heuristics, which sometimes leads them to wrong decisions. In the present work, we focused on exploring how individuals are influenced by anchoring heuristics and how group membership interacts with this heuristic. In Experiment 1, two different groups of participants were informed about low versus high average donations of other people, and a third control group did not receive any information about the others' donations. The results showed that participants were willing to donate significantly more in the high-anchor condition compared to the low-anchor condition, as well as about the same amount of money in the low-anchor condition and no-anchor condition. Experiment 2 and 3 showed that high anchors are more effective when the information about others' donations reflects members of the ingroup rather than the outgroup. Other variables related to these results are further discussed.

  8. Cultural participation and tourism flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Castiglione, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cultural events for attracting tourism has often been posited in research, but rarely rested in relation to non-cultural activities. This paper investigates the association between participation in entertainment activities and tourism flows in Italian provinces, and finds...

  9. Health and Labor Force Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Monroe; Johnson, William G.

    1974-01-01

    Analytic labor force participation models which exclude information on worker health care lack explanatory power. If costs of disability can be separated through better information into costs reducible through delivery of health care, and costs more appropriately dealt with through labor market policies, the models will be improved. (KP)

  10. Community consensus: Design beyond participation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available as "the designer from within" and "the technologist/researcher/designer" as the "designer from outside" not originating from the community in which the design takes place. In this article, we propose that grappling with meanings about participation...

  11. From Silent to Talkative Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Olsén, Peter; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    1996-01-01

    are sceptical as to the ability of this tradition to explain the fact that workers are silent participants in negotiations. In an account of a project called 'Industry and Happiness' the authors argue that attention must be paid to workers' life situation and not only to their work experience. They further...

  12. Fostering Participation and Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Preeti

    2006-01-01

    Schools play a very significant role in fostering participation and leadership skills and in promoting the way forward to a better future. This article offers a number of strategies which can pave developmental pathways to student leadership. In addition, it analyses the beneficial aspects of such activities in enhancing the competency of students…

  13. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  14. Editorial: Enterprise Participation (January 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Smith

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In The Role of Participation Architecture in Growing Sponsored Open Source Communities, Joel West and Siobhan O'Mahony argue that "to some extent, firms and technical communities have always collaborated to create standards, shared infrastructure, and innovation outcomes that are bigger than any one firm can achieve." and that "there is increasing evidence that path breaking innovations cannot occur without a community to interpret, support, extend and diffuse them". When considered in this light, it should not be surprising that more enterprises, both large and small, are increasing their participation in open source communities to drive innovation. The theme for this month's issue of the OSBR is enterprise participation and the authors provide practical advice for effective enterprise/community collaboration. Their experiences provide perspectives on: i the Eclipse Foundation, which maintains an ecosystem of over 150 enterprises that participate in Eclipse open source projects; ii an independent software vendor that sells closed source solutions constructed on top of an open source platform to large enterprise customers; iii the impact of major players collaborating on a common open source platform for the mobile industry; iv the role users can play in the very large (over 14 million GNOME community; and v the lessons a scientist from the National Research Council of Canada learned when he released software and started a small open source community.

  15. Citizen Participation: Antagonists or Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.

    1976-01-01

    If participation does not include an openness to the issues that are of real concern to the community and an opportunity to influence policy relating to those issues, it becomes an empty public relations gesture fostering apathy, disinterest, resistance, or counter-organization. (MB)

  16. Design Participation As Postdramatic Theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Lima, Patricia; Buur, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In our struggle to better understand and fa cilitate design participation we have turned our attention to the novel genre of Postdramatic Theatre (Lehmann 2006). In particular, this paper explores the intersections between Postdramatic Theatre and Participatory Innovation (Buur & Mathews 2008). Two...

  17. Complement's participation in acquired immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2002-01-01

    in which antigen is seen, be it alone or in association with natural or induced antibodies and/or C3-complement fragments. The aim of this review is to describe the present status of our understanding of complement's participation in acquired immunity and the regulation of autoimmune responses....

  18. eParticipation for Political Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Rabler, Ursula; Neumayer, Christina

    This paper argues, that the incorporation of eParticipation into political education at schools will broaden the chances of young people for political and societal engagement and strengthen civil society of a country or state. Frustration with traditional party politics especially of the younger generation is increasing in contemporary society. Since the voting age in Austria was lowered to 16, new ways of learning for political education by utilizing information and communication technologies (ICTs) that have the potential to increase participation of young people are considered. However, Austrian young people are not yet educated in developing and expressing political perspectives and therefore not prepared for actively taking part in politics. Exemplified on the project Polipedia.at, a collaborative online textbook on political education, this paper aims to give recommendations from a social science perspective for integration of ICTs into political education in order to enhance political participation of youth.

  19. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing.

  20. Relationships between nurse care-giving behaviours and preterm infant responses during bathing: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yang, Luke; Chou, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, Meei-Horng; Chao, Shih-Ching

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between specific nurse care-giving behaviours and preterm infant behavioural responses during bathing and to identify nurse behaviours associated with infant 'stress'. Although recent advances in medical technology have improved neonatal intensive care, the high mortality and morbidity rates in preterm infants have not decreased proportionally. As caregivers strive to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, a factor for consideration is which caregiver behaviours are associated with preterm infant well-being. A descriptive correlational design. Convenience samples of 24 preterm infants and 12 nurses were recruited. A total of 120 baths were videotaped. Infant and nurse behaviours were measured using the coding schemes developed by the researchers. Pearson coefficient correlation, non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and generalised linear models were methods for data analysis. As nurses provided more support, stress was reduced in the infants, and their self-regulation during the bath was enhanced especially by the use of 'containment' and 'positional support'. Conversely, non-therapeutic caregiver behaviours including 'rapid and rough handling' of the baby, 'chatting with other people' and 'inappropriate handling' increased infant 'stress' during the bath. The findings provide new information about the link between care-giving and infant responses and how caregivers can better interact with preterm infants during a very sensitive period of brain development. How nurses take care of the preterm infants influences their responses to care-giving stimuli. To interact better with the infant during care-giving procedures, nurses need to provide more supportive care-giving behaviours especially 'position support' and 'containment' based on the infant's needs, and avoid care-giving that may be too rough and occur too quickly without attending the baby's stressful signals, positioning the baby in

  1. Social Happiness and Social Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Social happiness is part of the social welfare component and depends more on social and economic determinants than on psychological and medical interventions. Meanwhile , it is one of the core concepts of sustainable development. Being happy is just one of the desirable wishes of life in every society . A nation is fresher and certainly wealthier when its citizens are happy. In this type of society , citizens have optimistic attitudes towards life and things around them. From 2000 onwards, variables such as happiness, hope in future , pleasure and satisfaction have been included as key variables in UN debates to determine level of development s in countries . This phenomenon is measured by the density of social networks and relationships , in many studies is associated with social health and happiness (Kawachi, 2008. Durkheim showed that suicide rates in populations with low levels of participation and social cohesion were more than cohesive communities (Halpern, 2005. Theorists argue that when people reach to a desired location or target , they become happy . According to Lerner, new communities are participatory societies in which modernization process is advanced , a move from traditional society to participatory society is inevitable. In t his view, economic participation means increased activity in the market and an increase in income, political participation means participation in elections , cultural participation means utilization of mass media and emotional involvement means empathy and psychological mobility (Lerner 1969: 86 .     Materials & Methods   This is quantitative study based on survey. We used Descriptive statistics and indicators such as dispersion and mean , standard deviation , minimum and maximum scores. For inferential statistics and to test the hypotheses, we used Pearson 's correlation coefficient and analysis of variance . A lso for explaining the social happiness variable , a stepwise multiple

  2. Personality, Negativity, and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Weinschenk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have recently started to integrate personality traits into models of political participation. In this paper, we present the results of a survey experiment (N = 724 designed to test whether negative political messages differentially impact people with different personality traits. We found evidence that individuals with high scores on agreeableness were less likely, and individuals with high scores on extraversion were more likely, to report intending to participate in politics than their counterparts after being exposed to negative political messages. Agreeableness and extraversion also interacted with negative messages to influence specific intentions to make a political donation, attend a meeting, rally, or event, and volunteer for a political campaign. We also found suggestive evidence that agreeableness interacted with negativity to influence turnout intentions. The results of this study have important implications for the study of political engagement, the ways in which people interact with political information, and the practice of democratic politics.

  3. Participation patterns in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    of investment in the development and maintenance of skills over the lifespan of individuals is to a large extent interconnected with a high-level of non-market coordination via institutional arrangements and/or specific public policy measures. Such arrangements and measures are seen to alleviate coordination......This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels...... problems that otherwise lead to underinvestment in skills and/or inequity in the distribution of access to education and training and hence skills. Hence, it is argued that institutional contexts and public policy measures condition participation patterns in adult education, and are thus worthwhile...

  4. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some...... background information but no follow up. METHODS: Nineteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in the placenta perfusion study after donation of placenta. Observation studies were made of recruitment sessions. RESULTS: The interviewed participants are generally in favour...... of medical research. They participated in the placenta perfusion study due to a belief that societal progress follows medical research. They also felt that participating was a way of giving something back to the Danish health care system. The participants have trust in medical science and scientists...

  5. Participation and Interaction in Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This ibook combines theory and practice to analyse the experiences and impacts of foresight activities in various European countries. It includes case studies with a focus on different societal issues including national development, science and technology, and sustainable development. The book...... describes and analyses foresight projects carried out in countries at various stages of economic development including mature market economies, transition economies and young democracies. The book includes theoretical chapters on stakeholder participation, negotiation and dialogue, learning, and visioning...

  6. Participative Design With Top Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    meetings aimed at aligning top management with the supplier’s analysis. The article describes the MUST method’s anchoring principle and the technique of problem mapping supporting this principle. This participatory approach resulted in mutual learning processes with top management which is rarely reported...... on in the PD community. Top management participated by reviewing, challenging, and reformulating the IT designers’ central suppositions, assumptions, and hypotheses related to the causal relation between identified problems and suggested solutions....

  7. Gift-Giving in the Podiatric Medical Student-Patient Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel López; Pazo, Paula Torreiro; Iglesias, Marta E Losa; de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo Becerro

    2016-09-02

    We sought to explore the relationship between the podiatric medical student and the patient as it relates to the act of gift-giving as a sign of gratefulness for the services provided. This article presents the clinical case of a man who visited a podiatric medical student because of pain in his feet and subsequently presented the student with several gifts. Philanthropy, empathy, a positive attitude, treatment instructions, and the time devoted to the patient are some of the reasons why patients offer gifts to podiatric medical students. The relationship between the podiatric medical student and the patient and the act of gift-giving by patients are of ethical concern.

  8. Impure and Multiple! Taking Full Advantage of Belk’s Extensions of Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    to be a person that extends and shares himself ‘out’ profusely. Following his generous example, I wish to share some thoughts on the ‘extensions’ that Belk’s work on gift giving and sharing achieves and/or helps us envision. I discuss five papers, beginning with the ‘Agapic love’ paper (Belk and Coon, 1993......) and the ‘Perfect gift’ paper (Belk, 1996), which I discuss primarily in relation to ‘pure giving’. Next, I move to the more recent triplet of papers on ‘Sharing’ (Belk, 2007, 2010; Belk and Llamas, 2012) which I discuss in light of the multiplicity of giving....

  9. A literature review of empirical studies of philanthropy : eight mechanisms that drive charitable giving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Wiepking, Pamala

    2010-01-01

    The authors present an overview of the academic literature on charitable giving based on a literature review of more than 500 articles. They structure their review around the central question of why people donate money to charitable organizations. We identify eight mechanisms as the most important f

  10. Iris Marion Young's Imaginations of Gift Giving: Some Implications for the Teacher and the Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Simone

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses Iris Marion Young's idea of asymmetric reciprocity that rethinks typical understandings of gift giving. Iris Marion Young's proposals for asymmetric ethical relationships have important implications for democratic contexts that seek to take differences seriously. Imagining oneself in the place of the other or expecting from the…

  11. Giving Time and/or Money : Trade-off or Spill-over?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2002-01-01

    The relation of giving money to charitable causes and volunteering for an association is examined in a sample of 612 respondents living in The Netherlands. In contrast to the expectation that check writing activism is used as a compensation for a lack of active involvement in civil society, voluntee

  12. Dead bodies matter: Gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body

  13. Does Generosity Beget Generosity? Alumni Giving and Undergraduate Financial Aid. NBER Working Paper No. 17861

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. The empirical work is based upon micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university. We focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. A novel aspect of our modeling strategy is that, consistent…

  14. I'm Giving You the Chocolate Factory! 2017 President's Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the newly elected 2017-2018 President of the International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA), Edward M. Reeve, presents his welcome message in the format of Willy Wonka giving Charlie the Chocolate Factory. Upon becoming a member of ITEEA, one automatically gets a "golden ticket" as a professional…

  15. Understanding Care Giving and Care Receiving Experiences throughout the Life Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Makiko

    and expectations for the future. Guided by life course approach, the analysis focuses on older couples in Denmark and Japan, and explores the following questions; how have older Danish and Japanese couples experienced care giving and care taking over the life course? How do they perceive these experiences? How...

  16. A Principal's View: Giving Up My Traditional Ship. Personal Reflections of Shared Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Cecil T.

    1990-01-01

    Describes one Florida principal's pursuit of school-based management and shared decision making for the wrong reason--to escape from central office domination. Although chosen as the lesser of two evils, the new committee structure has worked well for Myrtle Grove School. Since giving up veto power to gain staff trust and commitment, teacher…

  17. 76 FR 60455 - The White House Council for Community Solutions Gives Notice of Their Following Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE Sunshine Act Meeting Notice The White House Council for Community Solutions Gives Notice... to the Council's electronic mailbox at WhiteHouseCouncil@cns.gov . The public can also follow the...: Leslie Boissiere, Executive Director, White House Council for Community Solutions, Corporation...

  18. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2003-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When

  19. Identification of matrix conditions that give rise to the linear coupling resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner,C.J.

    2009-03-01

    General definitions of horizontal and vertical amplitudes for linear coupled motion are developed from the normal form of the one-turn matrix. This leads to the identification of conditions on the matrix that give rise to the linear coupling sum and difference resonances. The correspondence with the standard hamiltonian treatment of the resonances is discussed.

  20. Factors influencing trainers' feedback-giving behavior: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrim, E.A.M.; Kramer, A.W.M.; Mokkink, H.G.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The literature provides some insight into the role of feedback givers, but little information about within-trainer factors influencing 'feedback-giving behaviours'. We looked for relationships between characteristics of feedback givers (self-efficacy, task perception, neuroticism, extrav

  1. IV Iron: To Give or to Hold in the Presence of Infection in Adults Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Debra; Braun, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) iron is often given to treat iron deficiency anemia in adults undergoing hemodialysis. Evidence supports an association between IV iron and infection exits, which often create a clinical dilemma: whether to give or to hold in the presence of infection. This article presents the best available evidence regarding the risk of IV iron and infection along with nephrology nursing practice implications.

  2. Giving to Excellence: Generating Philanthropic Support for UK Higher Education. Ross-CASE Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Yashraj

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2016 Ross-CASE Survey of Philanthropic Giving to Universities in UK. The project was conducted by CASE Europe and funded by HEFCE and the Ross-Group. This year's survey comes at a time of great change for the UK charity sector. The historical trend data of previous surveys will be invaluable in helping…

  3. How do models give us knowledge? The case of Carnot’s ideal heat engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Boon, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    Our concern is to explain how and why models give us useful knowledge. We argue that if we are to understand how models function in the actual scientific practice the representational approach to models proves either misleading or too minimal—depending on how representation is defined. By ‘represent

  4. Teaching Techniques: Give or Take? Test Review in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2016-01-01

    This article describes "Give or Take?", a fun game that teachers can use to review vocabulary in the English as a second language or foreign language (ESL/EFL) classroom. This game is easy to prepare, and it is a fun and efficient way to review for quizzes or larger midterm or final exams. It can be adapted to almost any grade level or…

  5. What does phenomenology offer to the study of care-giving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Norman; Reed, Val

    2006-01-01

    Care giving to a dementia sufferer is complex (Parsons, 1997) and inherently stressful (Baldwin et al 1989). It is suggested that the predominance of the care-giver stressor-burden research paradigm during the last thirty years has frequently been uni-dimensional, objectively oriented, generally equivocal, and unconvincing in its findings. Dillehay and Sandys (1990), suggest that preoccupation w ith such typically narrow approaches has delayed the much-needed development of a more accurate understanding of the lived experience (the phenomenology of care-giving). Researching the experience of care giving to a dementing relative requires a research strategy, which acknowledges the intricacies, complexities, subjectivity and humanness of that experience. That is the premise behind this paper. A multi-dimensional phenomenological PhD study is presented. The focus is on understanding care giving from the individual and collective perspectives of forty-six spouse caregivers. The methodological implications (including influences of Husserl and Heidegger) are outlined before the phenomenological research findings are presented and discussed. Ethical approval was given by the Bassetlaw Hospital and Community NHS Trust Ethics Committee (now part of the Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust).

  6. Giving Peace a Chance: Gandhi and King in the English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, David

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher developed and taught a unit that would give students the opportunity to see how violence and nonviolence affects their lives. Notes the unit involves discussing the lives and careers of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., viewing film clips and film, reading, writing in journals, and writing a…

  7. The identifiable victim effect in charitable giving: evidence from a natural field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Tine; Rasmussen, O. D.

    2014-01-01

    We design a natural field experiment to enhance our understanding of the role of the identifiable victim effect in charitable giving. Using direct mail solicitations to 25797 prior donors of a nonprofit charity, we tested the responsiveness of donors to make a contribution to either an identifiab...

  8. On the Verbs of"Giving"Class of English Ditransitive Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂红梅

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most frequently used sentence patterns in various languages,ditransitive construction has been a hot issue argued by many linguists and scholars.This thesis discusses the verbs of"Giving" class of Ditransitive Construction in English and the relationship between verbs and constructions,in attempt to reveal the features of this structure.

  9. Playful vs. serious instruction giving in a 3D game environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer Rookhuiszen, Roan; Theune, Mariët

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce two NLG systems that we developed for the GIVE challenge, which was aimed at the evaluation of natural language generation (NLG) systems. The Challenge involved automatically generating instructions for users to carry out a task in a 3D game environment. One of our systems

  10. The partial catalytic oxidation of methane to give oxygen-containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Oleg V.

    1992-11-01

    The three principal paths of the partial oxidation of methane, to give methanol, formaldehyde, and synthesis gas, have been reviewed. The kinetics and mechanism of the processes have been described. The possible oxidation of methane using different oxidising agents — oxygen and carbon dioxide — has been examined. The bibliography includes 139 references.

  11. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Pilime, N.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We p

  12. A Survey on Acupuncture for Giving Up Heroin and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jie; Wang Lanqiong; Zeng Lin; Liao Qishun; Chen Ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ This paper summarizes the study of acupuncture for giving up heroin and treatment of withdrawal syndrome in China from 1995 to 2003, which includes the selection of acupoints, the evaluation of the therapeutic effects, studies of acupoints and application of relevant instruments, as well as treatment of the withdrawal syndromes of heroin with acupuncture.

  13. Self-sacrifice and self-affirmation within care-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nistelrooy, Inge

    2014-11-01

    According to the ethics of care, practices of care are sources of moral knowledge that take human relatedness into account. However, caregivers may also find themselves in situations that demand sacrifices, even to the point where their own self is at stake. This may not only be cause for concern about the risks of caregivers, the result of an unequal distribution of power, but it may as well be a chance for affirmation of one's identity, of self-attestation. As Ricoeur argues, giving of the self or even giving one's life may be the ultimate expression of one's belonging, in friendship, devotion or loyalty. Ricoeur also considers the meaning of giving a gift, which to him does not lie in any return gift, but rather in the gift as offering, as generosity. Giving is first of all a risk, a sacrifice, with only the hope that it will be received. In this article I aim to extend his argument to the realm of caregiving, thereby supporting my claim that some sort of self-sacrifice is implied in the very act of caring for others.

  14. An Investigation of the Influence Acknowledgement Programs Have on Alumni Giving Behavior: Implications for Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Frank G., Jr.; Quigley, Charles J., Jr.; Murray, Keith B.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence alumni giving is a critical task of institutional marketers and development officers. To better understand the factors that influence alumni support, this research reports the results of a field experiment in which the effect that acknowledgement of alumni contributions has on their subsequent donation…

  15. ''Show me, how does it look now'': Remote Help-giving in Collaborative Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Norros, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role of visual information in a remote help-giving situation involving the collaborative physical task of designing a prototype remote control. We analyze a set of video recordings captured within an experimental setting. Our analysis shows that using gestures and relevant

  16. Where Are the Facts? "Jason's Gold" Gives Meaning to the Yukon Gold Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Lott, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how fictional works can give a purposeful context and an appropriate venue for developing essential social studies concepts in middle-school students. The author uses the example of a National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) notable book, "Jason's Gold" that blends history with story to become historical…

  17. Dead bodies matter: Gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body

  18. Now or never! The effect of deadlines on charitable giving: Evidence from a natural field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mette Trier; Gravert, Christina Annette

    that a reminder increases both the likelihood of making a donation and the amount donated. We find no effect of the deadlines on the propensity to give. Instead we observe a “now-or-never” effect; either donations are made immediately or not at all. In line with the “avoiding-the-ask” theory, both shorter...

  19. Innovative curriculum for second-year Harvard-MIT medical students: practicing communication skills with volunteer patients giving immediate feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadaa B; Pelletier, Stephen R; Shields, Helen M

    2017-01-01

    Medical students are expected to develop excellent communication skills. The purpose of our study was to create an innovative communication skills exercise using real volunteer patients and physician co-teachers for students to practice communication skills while receiving immediate feedback. This is a mixed methods study where second-year medical students participated in the communication skills exercise with real patients and physician co-teachers giving immediate feedback. Clinical scenarios reflected the patients' actual experiences. Students acted out roles as physicians. Physicians co-taught with the patients and gave immediate feedback to students. Students completed an anonymous written survey at the end of the exercise. Qualitative and quantitative responses were recorded. Student feedback from the 2014 surveys was used to modify the teaching designs to increase active role play opportunities by having only two students in each group and doubling the number of stations with real patients. Students rated the overall exercise and the utility of patient volunteers in learning how to communicate on a Likert scale of 1-5, where in this medical school traditionally 1 is excellent and 5 is poor. In 2014, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.47 (SD 0.621). In 2015, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.03 (SD 0.62). In 2016, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.27 (SD 0.52). ANOVA analysis (p=0.002) and Bonferroni corrections indicate a statistically significant difference between combined mean scores of the exercise in 2014 and 2015 (p=0.001). No difference was shown between 2014 and 2016 or 2015 and 2016. Medical students rated practicing communication skills with real patient volunteers and physician co-teachers giving immediate feedback in their preclinical years very highly. Student feedback indicated that they preferred active roles and increased opportunities to practice their communication skills.

  20. Automating annotation of information-giving for analysis of clinical conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Elijah; Laws, M Barton; Wilson, Ira B; Penstein Rosé, Carolyn

    2014-02-01

    Coding of clinical communication for fine-grained features such as speech acts has produced a substantial literature. However, annotation by humans is laborious and expensive, limiting application of these methods. We aimed to show that through machine learning, computers could code certain categories of speech acts with sufficient reliability to make useful distinctions among clinical encounters. The data were transcripts of 415 routine outpatient visits of HIV patients which had previously been coded for speech acts using the Generalized Medical Interaction Analysis System (GMIAS); 50 had also been coded for larger scale features using the Comprehensive Analysis of the Structure of Encounters System (CASES). We aggregated selected speech acts into information-giving and requesting, then trained the machine to automatically annotate using logistic regression classification. We evaluated reliability by per-speech act accuracy. We used multiple regression to predict patient reports of communication quality from post-visit surveys using the patient and provider information-giving to information-requesting ratio (briefly, information-giving ratio) and patient gender. Automated coding produces moderate reliability with human coding (accuracy 71.2%, κ=0.57), with high correlation between machine and human prediction of the information-giving ratio (r=0.96). The regression significantly predicted four of five patient-reported measures of communication quality (r=0.263-0.344). The information-giving ratio is a useful and intuitive measure for predicting patient perception of provider-patient communication quality. These predictions can be made with automated annotation, which is a practical option for studying large collections of clinical encounters with objectivity, consistency, and low cost, providing greater opportunity for training and reflection for care providers.

  1. Citizen participation and discontent in three Southern European health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serapioni, Mauro; Matos, Ana Raquel

    2014-12-01

    Participation has featured in political agendas in recent decades and the domain of healthcare has not been indifferent to its appeal. Although emerging later than in other European regions, the involvement of civil society in healthcare decision-making procedures has proved one of the biggest challenges facing Southern European health systems. The health systems of the countries considered in this analysis - Italy, Portugal and Spain - underwent reforms that brought citizen participation to the forefront of the health system. Through national laws or health plans, each of these countries has recognised the need to promote participation in order to 'give a voice' to citizens in the health sector. Accordingly, a range of significant activities have been implemented in the region, although they have been developed unequally within national territories, at different paces and involving the mobilisation of different actors. This article focuses on the most relevant experiences of citizen participation designed and implemented in the three selected countries, describing their key features and potential, as well as the main critical issues and contradictions that have emerged over time. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of the current financial crisis on Southern European national health systems, especially in terms of participatory methods, the way in which citizen participation is progressing and civil society's reaction to these important changes.

  2. The Scope of Overweight/Obesity among Medical Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled K Aldossari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and overweight occurrence in individuals is regarded to be the major concern in numerous countries. The study aimed to understand the scope and identify the factors that could associate with overweight/ obesity among people from different countries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was adapted from the period of 1st October 2013 to 30th November 2013. All male and female participants were considered for the study from different countries of the world through an online questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire included questions about socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, life style items and academic performance. Both weight (in kg and height (cm were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results: 229 participants returned filled questionnaires giving a response rate of 85.5%. Most of the participants were overweight due to their lifestyle and the way of consuming junk food on daily basis. Conclusion: Almost half of the participants were overweight and obese. Higher academic level participants had a higher prevalence than others. Interventional educational programs are recommended with an involvement of psychologists.

  3. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  4. Do simple models give a correct description of the wind condition in a coastal area ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellstrand, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    When the surface conditions changes at a coastline, an internal boundary layer evolves, with a wind speed and turbulence intensity influenced by these new conditions. Aircraft measurements across the coastline, performed during near neutral conditions, are compared with a model and thirteen more simple expressions for the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL). The majority of the expressions overestimate the IBL height, while other underestimate it. Some of the expressions give reasonable result close to the coast. The model gives good agreement, even for larger distances. The vertical potential temperature gradient turned out to be an important parameter for the growth of the IBL, even with this near neutral conditions. 21 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  5. Dead bodies matter: gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body donation is a practice in which the medical and scientific value of the donor bodies has always been praised. Increasingly the fact that the bodies represent real human beings who have mourning relatives has also been acknowledged. This change in attitude has resulted in a desire on the part of anatomical professionals to give back a monument, not only for the donors themselves but also, in particular, for the donors' relatives. The great public interest in the monuments has revealed that many of the bereaved, in the absence of having the physical body of the donor, need a symbolic final resting place for their loved ones.

  6. For the sake of whom: conversation analysis of advice giving in offender counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-ying, Guo

    2013-08-01

    Regarded as beneficial and preferable to the clients, advice delivery has been an integral part of counseling; however, there are controversies over the suitability of giving advice in counseling services, including counseling conducted in the context of prisons. Based on conversation analysis, this article tries to explore when and how police counselors in two Chinese prisons give advice and how inmate clients respond to and seek advice in offender counseling. It is found that advice delivery, supposed to be for the inmate clients' sake, only serves a phatic function in the context of prisons in which security is a priority, and transforming inmates into law-abiding citizen is the overall goal of prison rehabilitation and correction. Hence, offender counselors, intending to alleviate depression and anxiety in inmate clients, are caught in a dilemma.

  7. Crowdsourcing. A Citizen Participation Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Borges

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a work in progress on Crowdsourcing. First, its concepts and importance are discussed and then its value for citizenship and urban planning. The motivation for participation and the display of geo-tagged information, as well as its possible applications in dynamic spatial temporal issues are presented, as well as its different approaches and applications. Furthermore, Crowdsourcing is discussed when the “ONVCêVIU”, a VGI case study, is presented, revealing its origin, objective, free platform comparison - to select the proper tool to implement, the project’s main challenges, results so far and further steps to be taken. To conclude a short review of the author’s vision about what is to come in the future research.

  8. Democratic Theory and Citizen Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegelbauer, Peter; Hansen, Janus

    2011-01-01

    Citizen participation in terms of participatory technology assessment (PTA) has caused a lot of debate in science and technology policy. However, there are still many open questions: What is the actual impact of PTA on policy-making? On which normative theory of democracy is the evaluation of PTA...... based and does it make a difference which theory is used? Which framework is appropriate to evaluate the often fuzzy impact of PTA on policy-making? Is PTA actually a central element for policy-making or are other factors much more relevant such as politicians' involvement or the presence of industry...... interests? What is the ‘nature’ of the public in different national and institutional contexts? How are expectations of policy-makers played out in the perceived need for regulation? These issues are addressed in a series of comparative papers in this issue which focus on the regulation...

  9. Caring for Participation in STS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Dam

    2015-01-01

    In this short report from the EASST Conference 2014, I sketch a handful of presentations that engaged with ‘participation’. Two tracks, in particular, offered interesting analyses and conceptual experiments. The first track contained primarily empirically driven studies of ‘technologies of partic......In this short report from the EASST Conference 2014, I sketch a handful of presentations that engaged with ‘participation’. Two tracks, in particular, offered interesting analyses and conceptual experiments. The first track contained primarily empirically driven studies of ‘technologies...... of participation’ in (health) care and provided illustrations of the conceptual ambiguities and empirical implications that continue to make participation a problematic, yet highly relevant and intriguing STS-topic. The second track featured presentations that more explicitly contributed new analytical tools...

  10. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    and leave both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In the article we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD-research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often ´messy´ realities surrounding the research process which is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...

  11. Complement's participation in acquired immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2002-01-01

    of the B cell receptor for antigen (BCR), a complex composed of the iC3b/C3d fragment-binding complement type 2 receptor (CR2, CD21) and its signaling element CD19 and the IgG-binding receptor FcgammaRIIb (CD32). The positive or negative outcome of signaling through this triad is determined by the context...... in which antigen is seen, be it alone or in association with natural or induced antibodies and/or C3-complement fragments. The aim of this review is to describe the present status of our understanding of complement's participation in acquired immunity and the regulation of autoimmune responses....

  12. Enhancing Political Participation in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd George Waller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation through political talk appears to be shifting to the online public sphere in many parts of the world. Many attribute this shift to online social networks such as Facebook. Emerging research seem to suggest that this may be a cure for the problem of political apathy among the youth. This study explores such a possibility in Jamaica. In all, 752 youth ages 15 to 24 were surveyed to ascertain whether Facebook encourages political talk among this age cohort, and what if any are the primary factors that discourage this practice. The findings suggest that (a Facebook is an extension of offline political talk among the civically engaged and politically charged youth of Jamaica; (b Facebook does not substantively encourage political talk among the politically apathetic Jamaican youth; and (c fear of political victimization is the primary factor that discourages many Jamaican youth to engage in political talk on Facebook.

  13. A survey on acupuncture for giving up heroin and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Lanqiong; Zeng, Lin; Liao, Qishun; Chen, Ping

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the study of acupuncture for giving up heroin and treatment of withdrawal syndrome in China from 1995 to 2003, which includes the selection of acupoints, the evaluation of the therapeutic effects, studies of acupoints and application of relevant instruments, as well as treatment of the withdrawal syndromes of heroin with acupuncture. The therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion is definite and indispensable, especially at the time when there is no specific remedy for heroin addition.

  14. Personal and household care giving for adult children to parents and social stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Sarasa Urdiola, Sebastià; Billingsley, Sunnee

    2008-01-01

    Using SHARE database the paper explores the factors conditioning personalcare giving from adult children to their parents. Frequency and intensity ofpersonal care is contrasted with the reciprocal expectations that children haveabout wealth inheritance from their parents and with the opportunity costs of helping, as well as with the capacity of parents of getting help from othersources of personal care. The results may help to understand how inequalitiesin accessing to formal services relate ...

  15. Cooler reflective pavements give benefits beyond energy savings: durability and illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Akbari, Hashem; Harvey, John T.

    2000-06-01

    City streets are usually paved with asphalt concrete because this material gives good service and is relatively inexpensive to construct and maintain. We show that making asphalt pavements cooler, by increasing their reflection of sunlight, may lead to longer lifetime of the pavement, lower initial costs of the asphalt binder, and savings on street lighting and signs. Excessive glare due to the whiter surface is not likely to be a problem.

  16. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the factors that predict caregivers' intention to give them to schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed biochemical analysis on 14 landraces of cowpeas and assessed the opinion of 120 caregiver-child pairs on constructs based on the combined model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model. We used correlations and multiple regressions to measure simple associations between constructs and identify predictive constructs. Cowpea landraces contained iron and zinc in the range of 4.9-8.2 mg/100 g d.w and 2.7-4.1 mg/100 g d.w respectively. The landraces also contained high amounts of phytate (477-1110 mg/100 g d.w and polyphenol (327-1055 mg/100 g d.w. Intention of mothers was strongly associated (rs = 0.72, P<0.001 with and predicted (β = 0.63, P<0.001 behaviour. The constructs, barriers (β = -0.42, P = 0.001 and attitudes towards behaviour (β = 0.25, P<0.028, significantly predicted intention albeit the predictive ability of the model was weak. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that some cowpea landraces from northern Ghana have appreciable amounts of iron and zinc but probably with poor bioavailability. Attitudes towards giving cowpeas and perception of barriers are important predictors of caregivers' intention to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Finally our results suggest that increasing knowledge on nutritional benefits of cowpeas may increase health values caregivers hold for their children in support of giving cowpeas to schoolchildren.

  17. Giving support to others reduces sympathetic nervous system-related responses to stress

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, TK; Eisenberger, NI

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research. Social support is a major contributor to the link between social ties and beneficial health outcomes. Research to date has focused on how receiving support from others might be good for us; however, we know less about the health effects of giving support to others. Based on prior work in animals showing that stimulating neural circuitry important for caregiving behavior can reduce sympathetic-related responses to stressors, it is possible that,...

  18. Gender Differences In Giving Directions: A Case Study Of English Literature Students At Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjoo Hong Sing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have said that there are differences in the ways people give direction between males and females, especially in spatial task (cardinal directions, topography, mileage, building, right/left markers (e.g., Lawton, 2001; Dabbs et al., 1998. Here, the thesis investigates what differences occur between both genders in giving direction. The respondents are 25 females and 25 males of fifth semester Binus University students majoring in English Literature. The respondents answered with a certain route from Binus’s Anggrek Campus to Senayan City. The study was conducted by qualitative and quantitative method. From the data analysis, the writer discovered that gender does affect in selecting the key words in explaining direction it is found that there were differences in choosing key words in giving direction between females and males. The difference is women use more than twice spatial references than men do. In terms of verbal abilities, it was confirmed that female use longer explanation. However, in other aspects such as serial orientation and maintenance words, the result is inconclusive. 

  19. Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albo Maria J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG, regular fly gift (FG, worthless gift (WG, or no gift (NG. Results Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition. Conclusion We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception.

  20. The Value of Participating Scientists on NASA Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Baines, Kevin; Bland, Michael T.; Blewett, David T.; Brandt, Pontus; Diniega, Serina; Feaga, Lori M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Y McSween, Harry; Neal, Clive; Paty, Carol S.; Rathbun, Julie A.; Schmidt, Britney E.

    2016-10-01

    NASA has a long history of supporting Participating Scientists on its planetary missions. On behalf of the NASA Planetary Assessment/Analysis Groups (OPAG, MEPAG, VEXAG, SBAG, LEAG and CAPTEM), we are conducting a study about the value of Participating Scientist programs on NASA planetary missions, and how the usefulness of such programs might be maximized.Inputs were gathered via a community survey, which asked for opinions about the value generated by the Participating Scientist programs (we included Guest Investigators and Interdisciplinary Scientists as part of this designation), and for the experiences of those who've held such positions. Perceptions about Participating Scientist programs were sought from the entire community, regardless of whether someone had served as a Participating Scientist or not. This survey was distributed via the Planetary Exploration Newsletter, the Planetary News Digest, the DPS weekly mailing, and the mailing lists for each of the Assessment/Analysis Groups. At the time of abstract submission, over 185 community members have responded, giving input on more than 20 missions flown over three decades. Early results indicate that the majority of respondents feel that Participating Scientist programs represent significant added value for NASA planetary missions, increasing the science return and enhancing mission team diversity in a number of ways. A second survey was prepared for input from mission leaders such as Principal Investigators and Project Scientists.Full results of this survey will be presented, along with recommendations for how NASA may wish to enhance Participating Scientist opportunities into its future missions. The output of the study will be a white paper, which will be delivered to NASA and made available to the science community and other interested groups.

  1. Who cares? Implications of care-giving and -receiving by HIV-infected or -affected older people on functional disability and emotional wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, M; Evandrou, M; Mutevedzi, P; Hosegood, V; Falkingham, J; Newell, M-L

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how care-giving to adults and/or children and care-receiving is associated with the health and wellbeing of older people aged 50+ in rural South Africa. Data used are from a cross-sectional survey adapted from World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in 2009/10 in rural South Africa. Bivariate statistics and multivariate logistical regression were used to assess the relationship between care-giving and/or care-receiving with functional disability, quality of life or emotional wellbeing, and self-rated health status, adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Sixty-three per cent of 422 older people were care-givers to at least one young adult or child; 27 per cent of older people were care-givers due to HIV-related reasons in young adults; 84 per cent of participants were care-recipients mainly from adult children, grandchildren and spouse. In logistic regressions adjusting for sex, age, marital status, education, receipt of grants, household headship, household wealth and HIV status, care-giving was statistically significantly associated with good functional ability as measured by ability to perform activities of daily living. This relationship was stronger for older people providing care-giving to adults than to children. In contrast, care-givers were less likely to report good emotional wellbeing; again the relationship was stronger for care-givers to adults than children. Simultaneous care-giving and -receiving was likewise associated with good functional ability, but about a 47 per cent lower chance of good emotional wellbeing. Participants who were HIV-infected were more likely to be in better health but less likely to be receiving care than those who were HIV-affected. Our findings suggest a strong relationship between care-giving and poor emotional wellbeing via an economic or psychological stressor pathway. Interventions that improve older people's socio-economic circumstances and reduce

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.60 - Are Federal agencies required to give blind vendors priority in operating cafeterias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to give blind vendors priority in operating cafeterias? 102-74.60 Section 102-74.60 Public....60 Are Federal agencies required to give blind vendors priority in operating cafeterias? Yes. Federal agencies are required to give Randolph-Sheppard vendors priority in the operation of cafeterias when the...

  3. Exploring states of panacea and perfidy of family and community volunteerism in palliative care giving in Kanye CHBC program, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations: The study recommends: (1 Socializing boys early enough in life into care giving; (2 Offering incentives to the caregivers; (3 Use of public forums to persuade men to accept helping women in carrying out care giving duties; (4 And enlisting support of all leaders to advocate for men′s involvement in care giving.

  4. The neural basis of non-verbal communication-enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marta; Kaduk, Katharina; Elsner, Claudia; Juvrud, Joshua; Gustaf Gredebäck

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give-me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90°, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERP component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants' sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys.

  5. O Ato de Presentear em Relacionamentos Comerciais [Gift-giving in Business Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Assis Teixeira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo compreender o ato de presentear que ocorre em relacionamentos comerciais entre provedores de serviços e consumidores. Dois métodos qualitativos foram utilizados na pesquisa: (i entrevistas ficcionais e (ii técnica do incidente crítico. A partir deste estudo, observou-se que a motivação para o ato de presentear em relacionamentos comercias decorreu, principalmente, da satisfação dos consumidores em relação aos serviços prestados pelos profissionais. Os tipos de presentes citados variaram bastante, sendo os itens de uso pessoal os mais citados em relacionamentos comerciais, o que permite maior intimidade entre a díade. Os clientes narraram como data escolhida para o ato de presentear, dias comuns que sucederam o recebimento de favores ou de atendimentos satisfatórios. Os provedores de serviços, por outro lado, narraram o recebimento de presentes em datas comemorativas. Em relação ao realinhamento do relacionamento após o ato de presentear, também foram identificadas divergências nas respostas da díade. Enquanto a maior parte dos clientes fez referência ao efeito de fortalecimento do relacionamento, os profissionais mostraram-se relutantes em admitir mudanças comportamentais após o recebimento de presentes. ---- Gift-giving in Business Relationships ---- Abstract ---- This study aimed at understanding the gift giving in business relations between service providers and consumers. Two qualitative methods were conducted: fiction interviews and critical incident technique. From this study, we observed that motivation for the act of giving in commercial relationships was mainly due to consumer satisfaction in relation to services provided. The kind of gifts mentioned varied widely and may be perceived, however, that personal items were most often cited in business relationships that allow greater dyad closeness. Ordinary days were pointed out by clients as being the chosen date for gift giving

  6. Science, names giving and names calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 and its related gene blaNDM-1 after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down′s syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase. It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written

  7. Science, names giving and names calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 and its related gene blaNDM-1 after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenemase-resistant metallo-β-lactamase. It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written

  8. Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2011-01-01

    A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene bla(NDM-1) after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all

  9. Gene Fusion Analysis of Positive Charge-Induced Segment Re-orientation in the Tetracycline Resistance Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    DNA ligase . Double-stranded heteroduplex forms are separated from unconverted single~strands by filtration through nitrocellulose and then nicked...2.5 units of T4 DNA ligase for 16 hours at 16°C. Upon completion, the ligated mixture is chilled on ice awaitiIJ,g transformation into host cells... DNA ligase , to the Klenow-filled Eagl site at a lOO-fold molar excess of linker. Excess Spellinkers are removed from the circularized CMTəE vector

  10. Under Moroccan Gaze: Dis/(Re)orienting Orientalism American Style in Abdellatif Akbib's Tangier's Eyes on America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lhoussain Simour

    2010-01-01

    .... It also inspects the discursive mechanisms Akbib employs to represent America and highlights how Western cultural prejudices and stereotypes are destabilised, and how the discursively-inflected...

  11. Financial Participation of Employees in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eamets, Raul; Mygind, Niels; Spitsa, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Presently, legal regulation of participation of employees - financial participation as well as participation in decision-making - is not well developed in Estonia. On the one hand, it is due to the fact that no tradition of employee participation could have been formed after Estonia became...

  12. The citizens in E-participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in GIS and the Internet have improved the technical possibilities for supporting the public participation through e-Participation systems - e.g. Public Participation GIS. On the other hand there has been too much focus on many technical aspects of public participation with reduced...

  13. Measuring participation outcomes in rehabilitation medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    We developed the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (USER-Participation) to fulfill the need for a generic measurement instrument to assess outcomes of outpatient rehabilitation programmes. The USER-Participation assesses three aspects of participation, thereby measuring bo

  14. Give your ideas some legs: the positive effect of walking on creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppezzo, Marily; Schwartz, Daniel L

    2014-07-01

    Four experiments demonstrate that walking boosts creative ideation in real time and shortly after. In Experiment 1, while seated and then when walking on a treadmill, adults completed Guilford's alternate uses (GAU) test of creative divergent thinking and the compound remote associates (CRA) test of convergent thinking. Walking increased 81% of participants' creativity on the GAU, but only increased 23% of participants' scores for the CRA. In Experiment 2, participants completed the GAU when seated and then walking, when walking and then seated, or when seated twice. Again, walking led to higher GAU scores. Moreover, when seated after walking, participants exhibited a residual creative boost. Experiment 3 generalized the prior effects to outdoor walking. Experiment 4 tested the effect of walking on creative analogy generation. Participants sat inside, walked on a treadmill inside, walked outside, or were rolled outside in a wheelchair. Walking outside produced the most novel and highest quality analogies. The effects of outdoor stimulation and walking were separable. Walking opens up the free flow of ideas, and it is a simple and robust solution to the goals of increasing creativity and increasing physical activity.

  15. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  16. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Marie Bustin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue… can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  17. Sequence Memory Constraints Give Rise to Language-Like Structure through Iterated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Hannah; Dale, Rick; Kirby, Simon; Christiansen, Morten H

    2017-01-01

    Human language is composed of sequences of reusable elements. The origins of the sequential structure of language is a hotly debated topic in evolutionary linguistics. In this paper, we show that sets of sequences with language-like statistical properties can emerge from a process of cultural evolution under pressure from chunk-based memory constraints. We employ a novel experimental task that is non-linguistic and non-communicative in nature, in which participants are trained on and later asked to recall a set of sequences one-by-one. Recalled sequences from one participant become training data for the next participant. In this way, we simulate cultural evolution in the laboratory. Our results show a cumulative increase in structure, and by comparing this structure to data from existing linguistic corpora, we demonstrate a close parallel between the sets of sequences that emerge in our experiment and those seen in natural language.

  18. Sequence Memory Constraints Give Rise to Language-Like Structure through Iterated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Hannah; Dale, Rick; Kirby, Simon; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2017-01-01

    Human language is composed of sequences of reusable elements. The origins of the sequential structure of language is a hotly debated topic in evolutionary linguistics. In this paper, we show that sets of sequences with language-like statistical properties can emerge from a process of cultural evolution under pressure from chunk-based memory constraints. We employ a novel experimental task that is non-linguistic and non-communicative in nature, in which participants are trained on and later asked to recall a set of sequences one-by-one. Recalled sequences from one participant become training data for the next participant. In this way, we simulate cultural evolution in the laboratory. Our results show a cumulative increase in structure, and by comparing this structure to data from existing linguistic corpora, we demonstrate a close parallel between the sets of sequences that emerge in our experiment and those seen in natural language. PMID:28118370

  19. Challenges of Deliberation and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Forester

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The future of sustainability is tied to the future of our ability to manage interconnectedness and interdependence, and thus to our abilities to engage in cooperative, value-creating public deliberations and negotiations. To understand these issues, we need a better understanding of the micro-politics of planning and public participation,the relationships between our received theories and our practices, and in particular, the work of public dispute resolution and its implications for democratic deliberation and governance. We need better to understand the differences between dialogue, debate, and negotiation, as well as the corresponding work of facilitating a dialogue, moderating a debate, and mediating an actual negotiation. Contrasting processes and practical attitudes of dialogue, debate, and negotiation can teach us, in the context of creating a sustainable future, that we must devise discursive and conversational political processes and institutions that explore possible commitments so that we not only know the right things to do but actually bring ourselves and one another to do those right things.

  20. Origins Space Telescope: Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. This poster will outline the ways in which the astronomical community can participate in the STDT activities and a summary of tools that are currently available or are planned for the community during the study. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  1. The influence on birthweight of maternal living conditions a decade prior to giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Singhammer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim was to correlate measures of mothers’ socio-economic status, a decade prior to giving birth, with their children’s birthweight. As part of a larger study, information on birth characteristics from 706 babies born 1970-73 were linked with census data obtained from their mothers near the time of birth as well as one decade earlier. The 706 individuals were selected at random from two national surveys in 1998 and 2000 and traced back to the time of birth in the period 1970-73. Information on birth characteristics was linked to census data obtained from the mothers in 1960 and 1970. Included was information on parent’s living conditions (e.g. income, type of dwelling, indoor plumbing, telephone, number of people in the household. Information on mother’s health during pregnancy, a decade before childbirth and near childbirth, and data on mothers’ and the infants’ health at birth was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. In analysis that included both early and current socio-economic conditions maternal education and rural residency at the time of giving birth were observed as statistical significant predictors of birthweight. Results were adjusted for maternal age, parity, plurality, gender and diagnoses before and during pregnancy, all factors observed to attenuate birthweight. Indicators of women’s socio-economic conditions a decade prior to giving birth were not significantly associated with birthweight. These findings do not clearly support suggestions in the literature that an infant’s vitality may be influenced by the family’s socio-economic conditions years before birth.

  2. Knowledge generation about care-giving in the UK: a critical review of research paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alisoun; Larkin, Mary

    2015-01-01

    While discourse about care and caring is well developed in the UK, the nature of knowledge generation about care and the research paradigms that underpin it have been subjected to limited critical reflection and analysis. An overarching synthesis of evidence - intended to promote debate and facilitate new understandings - identifies two largely separate bodies of carer-related research. The first body of work - referred to as Gathering and Evaluating - provides evidence of the extent of care-giving, who provides care to whom and with what impact; it also focuses on evaluating policy and service efficacy. This type of research tends to dominate public perception about caring, influences the type and extent of policy and support for carers and attracts funding from policy and health-related sources. However, it also tends to be conceptually and theoretically narrow, has limited engagement with carers' perspectives and adopts an atomistic purview on the care-giving landscape. The second body of work - Conceptualising and Theorising - explores the conceptual and experiential nature of care and aims to extend thinking and theory about caring. It is concerned with promoting understanding of care as an integral part of human relationships, embedded in the life course, and a product of interdependence and reciprocity. This work conceptualises care as both an activity and a disposition and foregrounds the development of an 'ethic of care', thereby providing a perspective within which to recognise both the challenges care-giving may present and the significance of care as a normative activity. It tends to be funded from social science sources and, while strong in capturing carers' experiences, has limited policy and service-related purchase. Much could be gained for citizens, carers and families, and the generation of knowledge advanced, if the two bodies of research were integrated to a greater degree. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Informed consent process: Foundation of the researcher–participant bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Sil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consenting to participate in a clinical research study after being properly and correctly informed upholds the basic ethical principle of “autonomy” in human research. The informed consent is a process by which the physician sensitizes the patient about the nature, procedures, risks benefits, treatment schedules, etc of the study in a language that is non-technical and understandable by the study participant. Informed consent document (ICD has got two parts: the 'Subject Information Sheet' and the 'Informed Consent Form' (ICF; and they have to be approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC before administration. Consent should be obtained without any coercion. In case of a situation where a participant is not able to give informed consent (e.g. unconscious, minor or those suffering from severe mental illness or disability or is illiterate, it has be obtained from a legally acceptable representative (LAR. If the participant or LAR is unable to read/write, then an impartial witness should be present during the entire informed consent process and must append his/her signatures to the consent form. For children < 7 years, verbal consent is essential and for mature minors (age group 7 to 18 years informed assent should be obtained.

  4. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  5. Modifiable Factors that Support Political Participation by Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Bobbi; Smart, Denise; Benavides-Vaello, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Political participation is an opportunity for individuals to give their time and energy in such a way that it benefits others and advances relevant agendas. Political participation is a key issue for nurses because they are familiar with clinical issues that directly impact health care policies instituted at the local, state, and federal levels. Collectively, nurses also represent the largest number of health care providers in the United States and are among the most trusted health professionals. However, there are many obstacles that prevent nurses from taking a more active role in politics, creating a gap in how nurses pursue and respond to political participation, or civic engagement. The purpose of this exploratory review is to identify modifiable factors that support political participation among nurses. A review of the extant literature revealed three primary factors that promote civic engagement among nurses: (a) integration of political education in the nursing curriculum; (b) value of active psychological engagement, including a personal interest in political knowledge and information; and (c) value of collective influence such as membership in professional organizations.

  6. Public management and pitizen participation in La Plata's city council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Nelly Plot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This proyect rises the dificlutties and challeges, that political power and society have faced because of the implimetation of the new technologies on territorial management, which started to be developed togerther with the State Reform of the nineties. This study is carried through the analysis of two basic tools by the State Modernization Plan and called upon to participate by the City Council: the Participative Budget and the Strategic Plan. The analysis of these experiences allows us to observe, on the one hand, to what extent political power yields power spaces to the citizenship with absolute conviction; and, on the other hand, the level of presence and commitment that the society undertakes when participating in these spaces open to all the actors who, with different interests, are involved in the construction of the city. Whit the outcome of both expiriences the opportunity to give rise to a deeper change in the city management and the prospects for dealing with the demands arisen from agreements reached by the community are missed. Finally, it is deemed necessary to build up a more persevering and firmer attitude on the part of the society which may allow it to reach participative levels in those sectors of management where public policies, which directly affect it, are both planned and executed.

  7. Online simulation of classical inorganic analysis - interactive, self instructive simulations give more lab-time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory exercises, investigations, and experiments are invariably included in university chemistry teaching. The learning of empirical facts, chemical procedures and methods in chemistry depends heavily on the experience, which may be obtained from such teaching activities [1]. Experimental work...... (and in university programmes it often isn’t), but rather to give them experience with chemicals and methods, a computer-based laboratory simulation may function as a cheap and fast extension of student lab time. Virtual investigations seem to be a promising kind of tool [6,7,8] for several reasons...

  8. Charitable giving and reflexive individuals: How personal reflexivity mediates between structure and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2017-03-01

    This article examines how individuals are reflexive beings who interpret the world in relation to things that matter to them, and how charitable acts are evaluated and embedded in their lives with different degrees of meaning and importance. Rather than framing the discussion of charitable practices in terms of an altruism/egoism binary or imputing motivations and values to social structures, the article explains how reflexivity is an important and neglected dimension of social practices, and how it interacts with sympathy, sentiments and discourses to shape giving. The study also shows that there are different modes of reflexivity, which have varied effects on charity and volunteering.

  9. Comments on reactions of oxide derivatives of uranium with hexachloropropene to give UCl4

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, D.; Wooles, A J; Hashem, E; Omorodion, H; Baker, R J; Liddle, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED DOI: 10.1039/c5nj00476d We report that U3O8, UO2(NO3)2·6H2O, and UO2Cl2 react with hexachloropropene (HCP) to give UCl4 in 60, 100, and 92% yields, respectively, and report a protocol to recycle the HCP. This renders the preparation of UCl4 more accessible and sustainable. 2,5-Dichlorohexachlorofulvene has been identified as a significant by-product from these reactions The authors are grateful to the Royal Society, EPSRC, ERC, University of Nottingham, UK National Nucle...

  10. The First Eight Years ~ Giving Kids a Foundation for a Lifetime Success Resource Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dawson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The First Eight Years: Giving Kids a Foundation for a Lifetime Success” is a recent KIDS COUNT policy report from the Annie E. Casey Foundation. The report discusses how a child’s early development from birth through age 8 is critical in one’s transition into elementary school as well as long-term academic success. The report also provides broad policy recommendations to help America’s children succeed and data on early childhood development for every state.

  11. Explaining the HERA Anomaly Without Giving Up R-parity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, B.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Nandi, S

    1997-01-01

    We point out that in extended supersymmetric models such as supersymmetric left-right models, it is possible to have leptoquarks that explain the HERA high $Q^2$ anomaly without giving up R-parity conservation. The leptoquarks belong to vectorlike $(2, 2, \\pm{4/3}, 3 or 3^*) $ representations of $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{B-L}\\times SU(3)_c$ (denoted $G_{2213}$). Unlike the R-parity violating scenario, the leptoquarks are accompanied by new superpartners,the leptoquarkino which leads ...

  12. Giving toys to children reduces their anxiety about receiving premedication for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Leonard; Pagala, Murali; Sukhavasi, Sujatha; Nagpal, Dheeraj; Ahmad, Ayeesha; Mahanta, Aruna

    2006-04-01

    Children have increased anxiety during the preoperative period. The administration of oral premedication to children is often met with apprehension, reluctance, or refusal. We sought to determine whether giving a small toy to the children would decrease the anxiety associated with taking oral premedication. This was a prospective study involving 100 children 3-6 yr of age randomized into two equal groups. The anxiety of each child was assessed using the Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. The results showed significantly less anxiety in children who received a toy before oral administration of midazolam.

  13. To give or not to give: Parental experience and adherence to the Food and Drug Administration warning about over-the-counter cough and cold medicine usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Miron-Shatz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Drug Administration (FDA warned against administering over-the-counter cough and cold medicines to children under 2. This study evaluated whether experienced parents show poorer adherence to the FDA warning, as safe experiences are predicted to reduce the impact of warnings, and how adherence can be improved. Participants included 218 American parents (mean age: 29.98 (SD = 6.16, 82.9% female with children age 2 or less who were aware of the FDA warning. We compared adherence among experienced (N=142; with other children > age 2 and inexperienced parents (N=76; only children 2 or yess. We also evaluated potential moderating variables (amount of warning-related information received, prevalence of side effects, trust in the FDA, frequency of coughs and colds, trust in drug packaging and quantified the impact of amount of information. Logistic regression assessed the ability of experience alone, and experience combined with amount of information, to predict adherence. 53.3% of inexperienced but 28.4\\% of experienced parents were adherent (p = 0.0003. The groups did not differ on potential moderating variables. Adherence was 39.5% among experienced parents receiving ``a lot of information'', but 15.4% for those receiving less (p = 0.002; amount of information did not affect adherence in inexperienced parents (p = 0.22 but uniquely predicted adherence compared to a model with experience alone (p = 0.0005. Experienced parents were also less likely to mistrust drug packaging (p = 0.03. Targeting FDA information to experienced parents, particularly via drug packaging, may improve their adherence.

  14. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  15. On the "Give" and "Take" between Event Apprehension and Utterance Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleitman, Lila R.; January, David; Nappa, Rebecca; Trueswell, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that examine how manipulations of visual attention affect speakers' linguistic choices regarding word order, verb use and syntactic structure when describing simple pictured scenes. Experiment 1 presented participants with scenes designed to elicit the use of a perspective predicate ("The man chases the dog/The dog…

  16. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  17. Assessor or Assessee: How Student Learning Improves by Giving and Receiving Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Liu, Xiongyi; Steckelberg, Allen L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the quality of peer assessment and the quality of student projects in a technology application course for teacher education students. Forty-three undergraduate student participants completed the assigned projects. During the peer assessment process, students first anonymously rated and commented on…

  18. Disparities in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among immigrant women giving birth in six industrialised countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urquia, Ml; Glazier, Rh; Gagnon, Aj

    2014-01-01

    Australia, Canada, Spain and the USA and national data from Denmark and Sweden. POPULATION: All immigrant and non-immigrant women delivering in the six industrialised countries within the most recent 10-year period available to each participating centre (1995-2010). METHODS: Data was collected using...

  19. "Give Courage to the Ladies:" Expansive Apprenticeship for Women in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Kimberly; Cooper, Deborah; Wolfenden, Freda; Chitsulo, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Apprenticeship in developed and industrialised nations is increasingly understood and practised as learning which connects workplace activity and formal study. The concept of "expansive apprenticeship" defines frameworks for workforce development where participants acquire knowledge and skills which will help them in the future as well…

  20. "Give 'Em the Old Razzle Dazzle"--Surviving the Lesson Observation Process in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carol A.; Wolstencroft, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the key role that graded lesson observations have within the measurement of quality in the post-compulsory education sector. Using semi-structured interviews, it looks at their impact on participants and also their execution in light of their stated purpose to "improve teaching and learning". The sample selected…

  1. Innovative curriculum for second-year Harvard-MIT medical students: practicing communication skills with volunteer patients giving immediate feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali NB

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nadaa B Ali,1 Stephen R Pelletier,2 Helen M Shields1 1Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 2Center for Evaluation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: Medical students are expected to develop excellent communication skills. The purpose of our study was to create an innovative communication skills exercise using real volunteer patients and physician co-teachers for students to practice communication skills while receiving immediate feedback.Method: This is a mixed methods study where second-year medical students participated in the communication skills exercise with real patients and physician co-teachers giving immediate feedback. Clinical scenarios reflected the patients’ actual experiences. Students acted out roles as physicians. Physicians co-taught with the patients and gave immediate feedback to students. Students completed an anonymous written survey at the end of the exercise. Qualitative and quantitative responses were recorded. Student feedback from the 2014 surveys was used to modify the teaching designs to increase active role play opportunities by having only two students in each group and doubling the number of stations with real patients.Results: Students rated the overall exercise and the utility of patient volunteers in learning how to communicate on a Likert scale of 1–5, where in this medical school traditionally 1 is excellent and 5 is poor. In 2014, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.47 (SD 0.621. In 2015, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.03 (SD 0.62. In 2016, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.27 (SD 0.52. ANOVA analysis (p=0.002 and Bonferroni corrections indicate a statistically significant difference between combined mean scores of the exercise in 2014 and 2015 (p=0.001. No difference was shown between 2014 and 2016 or 2015 and 2016.Conclusions: Medical students rated practicing communication skills with real patient volunteers and physician co

  2. A bit of give and take: the relationship between the extracellular matrix and the developing chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behonick, Danielle J; Werb, Zena

    2003-11-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), once thought to be a static structural component of tissues, is now known to play a complex and dynamic role in a variety of cellular functions in a number of diverse tissues. A significant body of literature attests to the ability of the ECM to communicate both spatial and temporal information to adherent cells, thereby directing cell behavior via interactions between the ECM and cell-surface receptors. Moreover, volumes of experimental data show that a great deal of communication travels in the opposite direction, from the cell to the ECM, allowing for regulation of the cues transmitted by the ECM. As such, the ECM, with respect to its components and their organization, is not a fixed reflection of the state the local microenvironment in which a cell finds itself at a particular time, but rather is able to respond to and effect changes in its local microenvironment. As an example of the developmental consequences of ECM interactions, this review gives an overview of the 'give and take' relationship between the ECM and the cells of the developing skeletal elements, in particular, the chondrocyte.

  3. The dilemma of giving mathematics homework from the perspective of pre-service elementary teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Anthony Gayas Torio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Homework is defined as an additional task that a student does outside of the school. This added activity is in recognition of the necessity to spend additional time for subjects such as Mathematics. The dilemma comes in the form of the advantages and disadvantages that can be derived from homework. Studies have revealed varying effects of homework to students on academic and non-academic areas. Teachers are at the forefront of the decision towards the giving or not of homework. Pre-service teachers at the elementary level represent the future leaders of the educational system and should be acquainted and involved at the onset of the dilemma. The main objective of this study is to determine the perspective of pre-service elementary teachers towards homework. The anatomy of their belief can be a key towards addressing the issue via teacher training. The descriptive method of research was used through case studies. Constant comparative method was used to analyze results. Salient results revealed that the subjects favor the giving homework on the following grounds: it helps add knowledge, confidence and satisfaction. Those who do not favor homework find it as an additional burden and a source of additional stress. Difficulties in complying with homework are usually associated with limited time, bad influence of peers and teacher factor. Students usually spend late nights to comply with homework and are unable to perform at the best of their potentials.

  4. Strengthen Quality Management of Case to Give Full Play to Its Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUQiuju

    2004-01-01

    This article elaborates the viewpoint that how to strengthen quality management of case to give full play to its value, the points that the author urged are in following aspects, including raising quality consciousness of case writing, upgrading the writing quality of case, paying attention to the value of case and ensuring the quality of case. 1. Training doctor's “basic skill”. 2. Training system of doctor, a.In the first month after check - in, arrange two lectures about writing of case to unify the requirement and inform them how to write it. b. Give them the writing standard of anamnesis, which they can refer to when writing. 3. The system that the directors spot - check the anamnesis. The American qaulity administrative power, world- famous Doctor Milan prophesied that “21 century is century of quality”, having entered 21 century, facts also further proved the facticity of this prophesy. The new era in which the quality is supreme, quality directly influences whether the case can fully play its value.

  5. Strengthen Quality Management of Case to Give Full Play to Its Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiuju

    2004-01-01

    This article elaborates the viewpoint that how to strengthen quality management of case to give full play to its value, the points that the author urged are in following aspects, including raising quality consciousness of case writing, upgrading the writing quality of case, paying attention to the value of case and ensuring the quality of case. 1. Training doctor' s "basic skill". 2. Training systen of doctor. a.In the first month after check-in, arrange two lectures about writing of case to unify the requirement and inform them how to write it. b. Give them the writing standard of anamnesis, which they can refer to when writing. 3. The system that the directors spot- check the anamnesis. The American qaulity administrative power,world-famous Doctor Milan prophesied that "21 century is century of quality" ,having entered 21century, facts also further proved the facticity of this prophesy. The new era in which the quality is supreme, quality directly influences whether the case can fully play its value.

  6. Consumer food system participation: a community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Mary K; Sobal, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and health associations of consumer participation in different stages of the food system using a survey of 663 adults in one U.S. county. Consumer food system participation by stage was 43% in food production, 47% in food processing, 65% in food distribution, 62% in food acquisition, 61% in food preparation, and 100% in food consumption. Consumers participated in an average of 3.7 of these 6 possible stages. Women and unmarried people participated in more stages. Food system participation was associated with few health problems, although people reporting some illnesses had higher food system participation.

  7. 'You give us rangoli, we give you talk': using an art-based activity to elicit data from a seldom heard group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redwood Sabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exclusion from health research of groups most affected by poor health is an issue not only of poor science, but also of ethics and social justice. Even if exclusion is inadvertent and unplanned, policy makers will be uninformed by the data and experiences of these groups. The effect on the allocation of resources is likely to be an exacerbation of health inequalities. Discussion We subject to critical analysis the notion that certain groups, by virtue of sharing a particular identity, are inaccessible to researchers - a phenomenon often problematically referred to as 'hard to reach'. We use the term 'seldom heard' to move the emphasis from a perceived innate characteristic of these groups to a consideration of the methods we choose as researchers. Drawing on a study exploring the intersections of faith, culture, health and food, we describe a process of recruitment, data collection and analysis in which we sought to overcome barriers to participation. As we were interested in the voices of South Asian women, many of whom are largely invisible in public life, we adopted an approach to data collection which was culturally in tune with the women's lives and values. A collaborative activity mirroring food preparation provided a focus for talk and created an environment conducive to data collection. We discuss the importance of what we term 'shoe leather research' which involves visiting the local area, meeting potential gatekeepers, and attending public events in order to develop our profile as researchers in the community. We examine issues of ethics, data quality, management and analysis which were raised by our choice of method. Summary In order to work towards a more theoretical understanding of how material, social and cultural factors are connected and influence each other in ways that have effects on health, researchers must attend to the quality of the data they collect to generate finely grained and contextually

  8. An Item Analysis of Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices among Participants with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure

    2010-01-01

    Standardized tests are widely used in intellectual disability research, either as dependent or control variables. Yet, it is not certain that their items give rise to the same performance in various groups under study. In the present work, 48 participants with Down syndrome were matched on their raw score on Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices…

  9. A Textual Feedback Tool for Empowering Participants in Usability and UX Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivaji, Ashok; Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Søren Feodor

    2017-01-01

    in Malaysia. The results indicate that the Textual Feedback tool may help participants to give their thoughts in UX evaluation in high power distance contexts. In particular, the Textual Feedback tool helps high status females and low status males express more UX problems than they can do with traditional CTA...

  10. Sustaining Advocacy and Action on Women's Participation and Gender Equality in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…

  11. The "Living with Dysarthria" Group for Post-Stroke Dysarthria: The Participant Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C.; Kelly, S.; Paton, G.; Brady, M.; Muir, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The "Living with Dysarthria" group programme, devised for people with post-stroke dysarthia and family members, was piloted twice. Feedback from those who experience an intervention contributes to the evaluation of speech and language therapy programmes, giving the participant view of the intervention's value and guiding…

  12. Structural Estimation of Stock Market Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers' decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers' investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 4–6% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers' life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed participation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers' life cycle....

  13. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... digital submission of all data and certifications is available via HUD's secure Internet systems. However...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  14. Caregiver criticism, help-giving, and the burden of schizophrenia among Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Bianca T; Ullman, Jodie; Krick, Tracy Wang; Alcántara, Darcy; Kopelowicz, Alex; López, Steven R

    2017-09-01

    This study tested an attribution model of help-giving in family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia as it relates to caregivers' reported burden. We hypothesized (a) that caregivers' attributions of their ill relatives' responsibility for their symptoms would be associated with more negative and less positive affective reactions, (b) that affective reactions would be related to perceptions of administered support, and (c) that support would in turn predict greater burden. We examined 60 family caregivers of Mexican origin living in Southern California. Mexican Americans were chosen because of their high degree of contact with their ill relative, thereby facilitating the examination of help-giving and burden. Contrary to past studies, caregivers' attributions and affective stance were assessed independently, the former based on self-report and the latter based on codes drawn from the Camberwell Family Interview. Caregiver burden was assessed at baseline and one year later. Path analyses showed partial support for the attribution model of help-giving. Specifically, attributions of responsibility negatively predicted caregiver's warmth, which in turn predicted more administered support. Contrary to hypotheses, attributions were not associated with caregiver criticism, and criticism was positively related to administered support. In addition, caregiver support was not related to burden at either baseline or a year later. Criticism was a significant predictor of burden at follow-up through burden at baseline. The emotional stance of caregivers predicts burden independent of the help they provide. Caregiver criticism not only predicts negative patient outcomes but can predict negative caregiver outcomes as well. Positive clinical implications In family treatment, it is important to address caregiver criticism not only because of its relationship to poor clinical outcomes of ill relatives but also because of its relationship to greater caregiver burden. Integrating a

  15. Shared social responsibility: a field experiment in pay-what-you-want pricing and charitable giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneezy, Ayelet; Gneezy, Uri; Nelson, Leif D; Brown, Amber

    2010-07-16

    A field experiment (N = 113,047 participants) manipulated two factors in the sale of souvenir photos. First, some customers saw a traditional fixed price, whereas others could pay what they wanted (including $0). Second, approximately half of the customers saw a variation in which half of the revenue went to charity. At a standard fixed price, the charitable component only slightly increased demand, as similar studies have also found. However, when participants could pay what they wanted, the same charitable component created a treatment that was substantially more profitable. Switching from corporate social responsibility to what we term shared social responsibility works in part because customized contributions allow customers to directly express social welfare concerns through the purchasing of material goods.

  16. You want to give a good impression? Be honest! Moral traits dominate group impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco; Sacchi, Simona; Rusconi, Patrice; Cherubini, Paolo; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2012-03-01

    Research has shown that warmth and competence are core dimensions on which perceivers judge others and that warmth has a primary role at various phases of impression formation. Three studies explored whether the two components of warmth (i.e., sociability and morality) have distinct roles in predicting the global impression of social groups. In Study 1 (N= 105) and Study 2 (N= 112), participants read an immigration scenario depicting an unfamiliar social group in terms of high (vs. low) morality, sociability, and competence. In both studies, participants were asked to report their global impression of the group. Results showed that global evaluations were better predicted by morality than by sociability or competence-trait ascriptions. Study 3 (N= 86) further showed that the effect of moral traits on group global evaluations was mediated by the perception of threat. The importance of these findings for the impression-formation process is discussed.

  17. Open source innovation phenomenon, participant behaviour, impact

    CERN Document Server

    Herstatt, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Open Source Innovation (OSI) has gained considerable momentum within the last years. Academic and management practice interest grows as more and more end-users consider and even participate in Open Source product development like Linux, Android, or Wikipedia. Open Source Innovation: Phenomenon, Participant Behaviour, Impact brings together rigorous academic research and business importance in scrutinizing OCI from three perspectives: The Phenomenon, Participants' Behavior, and Business Implications. The first section introduces OCI artefacts, including who is participating and why, and provide

  18. Mobility-related participation and user satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Aase; Kreiner, Svend; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    scale was good,while themobilityrelated participation scalewas not optimal in discriminating between personswith a high degree ofmobility-related participation. It was demonstrated that mobility-related participation and user satisfaction are separate, not related constructs. Conclusions. It can...... be concluded that the investigated mobility-related participation and user satisfaction constructs appear to be valid. Since the two constructs are not related and both yield important information, both dimensions should be evaluated in outcomes research and praxis targeting powered wheelchair interventions...

  19. Yearning to Give Back: Searching for Social Purpose in Computer Science and Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Coleen M

    2017-01-01

    Computing is highly segregated and stratified by gender. While there is abundant scholarship investigating this problem, emerging evidence suggests that a hierarchy of value exists between the social and technical dimensions of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) and this plays a role in the underrepresentation of women in the field. This ethnographic study of women's experiences in computing offers evidence of a systemic preference for the technical dimensions of computing over the social and a correlation between gender and social aspirations. Additionally, it suggests there is a gap between the exaltation of computing's social contributions and the realities of them. My participants expressed a yearning to contribute to the collective well-being of society using their computing skills. I trace moments of rupture in my participants' stories, moments when they felt these aspirations were in conflict with the cultural values in their organizations. I interpret these ruptures within a consideration of yearning, a need my participants had to contribute meaningfully to society that remained unfulfilled. The yearning to align one's altruistic values with one's careers aspirations in CSE illuminates an area for greater exploration on the path to realizing gender equity in computing. I argue that before a case can be made that careers in computing do indeed contribute to social and civil engagements, we must first address the meaning of the social within the values, ideologies and practices of CSE institutions and next, develop ways to measure and evaluate the field's contributions to society.

  20. 36 CFR 801.8 - Public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Particularly important, with respect to the UDAG program, is participation by the citizens of neighborhoods... preservation. (b) The applicant, in preparing and following its citizen participation plan called for by 24 CFR 570.456(c)(11)(i)(A), should ensure that adequate provision is made for participation by citizens...

  1. 24 CFR 570.431 - Citizen participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citizen participation. 570.431... CDBG Grants in Hawaii and Insular Areas Programs § 570.431 Citizen participation. (a) General. An... comply with the citizen participation requirements described in this section, including requirements...

  2. 24 CFR 1003.604 - Citizen participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citizen participation. 1003.604... Requirements § 1003.604 Citizen participation. (a) In order to permit residents of Indian tribes and Alaska.... Accordingly, the citizen participation requirements of this section do not include concurrence by any...

  3. 12 CFR 614.4330 - Loan participations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... borrower distress or default; (4) Provide for sharing of risk; (5) Set forth conditions for the offering and acceptance of the loan participation and termination of the agreement; (6) Provide for sharing of... Purchases and Sales § 614.4330 Loan participations. Agreements to purchase or sell a participation interest...

  4. 5 CFR 919.980 - Participant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participant. 919.980 Section 919.980 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.980 Participant. Participant means any...

  5. Evaluating Public Participation Exercises: A Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The concept of public participation is one of growing interest in the UK and elsewhere, with a commensurate growth in mechanisms to enable this. The merits of participation, however, are difficult to ascertain, as there are relatively few cases in which the effectiveness of participation ex

  6. Music Participation: Theory, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, J. Terry

    1991-01-01

    Bases a music participation theory on findings in music education, ethnomusicology, and sociology of leisure. Posits six types of music participants: professionals, apprentices, amateurs, hobbyists, recreationists, and dabblers. Distinguishes each type by theoretical variations in cost-benefit relationships as perceived by participants. Discusses…

  7. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  8. Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeren, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we control the intention theory of Fishbein and Ajzen (1980) for the participation in an adult education course. Based on the Flemish Eurostat Adult Education Survey, we reveal that participants in adult education have a more positive attitude towards learning and that within the group of non-participants, those who formulate an…

  9. Conflict management and participation in community forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper consideration is first given to how community forestry practitioners have commonly understood the term participation, and why the concept of conflict does not seem to have overlapped with notions of participation. Failure to perceive conflict as inherent in participation is shown to ha

  10. Sports participation of Dutch lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragaru, Mihail; Meulenbelt, Hendrik; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H.B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze sports participation of Dutch lower limb amputees and factors influencing sports participation. Study design: A cross-sectional survey was performed. Dutch lower limb amputees (N = 2039) were invited to participate in a postal survey addressing personal and amputation character

  11. Conflict management and participation in community forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    In this paper consideration is first given to how community forestry practitioners have commonly understood the term participation, and why the concept of conflict does not seem to have overlapped with notions of participation. Failure to perceive conflict as inherent in participation is shown to

  12. Identifying Barriers to Study Abroad Program Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    University administrators, industry professionals, and government leaders encourage college students to participate in study abroad programs. Despite an increase in the number of students going abroad, the percentage of students participating in global programs remain low. This study identified barriers to study abroad program participation at a…

  13. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  14. Designing the e-Participation Artefact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanford, Clive Carlton; Rose, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    When e-participation is considered in the context of applied research, researchers support government institutions by enabling technology for citizens who participate in policy-making. Governments' e-participation agendas involve a variety of different design activities; for example, designing new...

  15. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  16. Added Value of Employee Financial Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, E.; Kaarsemaker, E.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter broadens our understanding of the added value of employee financial participation. Financial participation is a generic term for the participation of employees in profit and enterprise results including equity of their employing firm. In general, there are two forms of employee

  17. Added Value of Employee Financial Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, F.; Kaarsemaker, E.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter broadens our understanding of the added value of employee financial participation. Financial participation is a generic term for the participation of employees in profit and enterprise results including equity of their employing firm. In general, there are two forms of employee financia

  18. Information about a layperson's knowledge supports experts in giving effective and efficient online advice to laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nückles, Matthias; Wittwer, Jörg; Renkl, Alexander

    2005-12-01

    To give effective and efficient advice to laypersons, experts should adapt their explanations to the layperson's knowledge. However, experts often fail to consider the limited domain knowledge of laypersons. To support adaptation in asynchronous helpdesk communication, researchers provided computer experts with information about a layperson's knowledge. A dialogue experiment (N = 80 dyads of experts and laypersons) was conducted that varied the displayed information. Rather than sensitizing the experts to generally improve the intelligibility of their explanations, the individuating information about the layperson enabled them to make specific partner adjustments that increased the effectiveness and efficiency of the communication. The results are suggestive of ways in which the provision of instructional explanations could be enhanced in Internet-based communication.

  19. Understanding Care Giving and Care Receiving Experiences throughout the Life Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Makiko

    the social network of their everyday lives. These interactions are long-term changing processes as both the systems and wide-ranging conditions in everyday life are neither static nor immutable. In particular, the present paper draws attention to how older people understand the ways that the welfare systems...... and expectations for the future. Guided by life course approach, the analysis focuses on older couples in Denmark and Japan, and explores the following questions; how have older Danish and Japanese couples experienced care giving and care taking over the life course? How do they perceive these experiences? How...... have older Danish and Japanese couples experienced mutual support and communication with children, grandchildren, parents, neighbours and friends? How do their understandings exert influence on the forming of expectations and views for the future? The empirical core of the analysis is the qualitative...

  20. Exposure to childhood traumas ups the odds of giving birth to daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of women's exposure to four categories of stressors: childhood trauma, adult trauma, chronic stressors, and recent (adverse) life events. Hypothesis 1 stated that exposure to recent life events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase women's chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relationship between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was prospective observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were 3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and infant gender. Findings suggest that women's exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause.