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  1. A quantitative risk assessment approach for mosquito-borne diseases: malaria re-emergence in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luty Adrian JF

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Camargue region is a former malaria endemic area, where potential Anopheles vectors are still abundant. Considering the importation of Plasmodium due to the high number of imported malaria cases in France, the aim of this article was to make some predictions regarding the risk of malaria re-emergence in the Camargue. Methods Receptivity (vectorial capacity and infectivity (vector susceptibility were inferred using an innovative probabilistic approach and considering both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Each parameter of receptivity (human biting rate, anthropophily, length of trophogonic cycle, survival rate, length of sporogonic cycle and infectivity were estimated based on field survey, bibliographic data and expert knowledge and fitted with probability distributions taking into account the variability and the uncertainty of the estimation. Spatial and temporal variations of the parameters were determined using environmental factors derived from satellite imagery, meteorological data and entomological field data. The entomological risk (receptivity/infectivity was calculated using 10,000 different randomly selected sets of values extracted from the probability distributions. The result was mapped in the Camargue area. Finally, vulnerability (number of malaria imported cases was inferred using data collected in regional hospitals. Results The entomological risk presented large spatial, temporal and Plasmodium species-dependent variations. The sensitivity analysis showed that susceptibility, survival rate and human biting rate were the three most influential parameters for entomological risk. Assessment of vulnerability showed that among the imported cases in the region, only very few were imported in at-risk areas. Conclusion The current risk of malaria re-emergence seems negligible due to the very low number of imported Plasmodium. This model demonstrated its efficiency for mosquito-borne diseases risk

  2. Emerging mosquito-borne viruses: transmission and modulation of host defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Two highly pathogenic arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses, West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), recently (re-)emerged in both Europe and the Americas. This resulted in large-scale epidemics of severe encephalitic and arthritogenic human disease,

  3. Newer Vaccines against Mosquito-borne Diseases.

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    Aggarwal, Anju; Garg, Neha

    2018-02-01

    Mosquitos are responsible for a number of protozoal and viral diseases. Malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya epidemics occur commonly all over the world, leading to marked mortality and morbidity in children. Zika, Yellow fever and West Nile fever are others requiring prevention. Environmental control and mosquito bite prevention are useful in decreasing the burden of disease but vaccination has been found to be most cost-effective and is the need of the hour. RTS,S/AS01 vaccine is the first malaria vaccine being licensed for use against P. falciparum malaria. Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) against dengue was licensed first in Mexico in 2015. A Vero-cell derived, inactivated and alum-adjuvanted JE vaccine based on the SA14-14-2 strain was approved in 2009 in North America, Australia and various European countries. It can be used from 2 mo of age. In India, immunization is carried out in endemic regions at 1 y of age. Another inactivated Vero-cell culture derived Kolar strain, 821564XY, JE vaccine is being used in India. Candidate vaccines against dengue, chikungunya and West Nile fever are been discussed. A continued research and development of new vaccines are required for controlling these mosquito-borne diseases.

  4. Towards a Hybrid Agent-based Model for Mosquito Borne Disease.

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    Mniszewski, S M; Manore, C A; Bryan, C; Del Valle, S Y; Roberts, D

    2014-07-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) are used to simulate the spread of infectious disease through a population. Detailed human movement, demography, realistic business location networks, and in-host disease progression are available in existing ABMs, such as the Epidemic Simulation System (EpiSimS). These capabilities make possible the exploration of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical mitigation strategies used to inform the public health community. There is a similar need for the spread of mosquito borne pathogens due to the re-emergence of diseases such as chikungunya and dengue fever. A network-patch model for mosquito dynamics has been coupled with EpiSimS. Mosquitoes are represented as a "patch" or "cloud" associated with a location. Each patch has an ordinary differential equation (ODE) mosquito dynamics model and mosquito related parameters relevant to the location characteristics. Activities at each location can have different levels of potential exposure to mosquitoes based on whether they are inside, outside, or somewhere in-between. As a proof of concept, the hybrid network-patch model is used to simulate the spread of chikungunya through Washington, DC. Results are shown for a base case, followed by varying the probability of transmission, mosquito count, and activity exposure. We use visualization to understand the pattern of disease spread.

  5. Viral Interference and Persistence in Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses

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    Juan Santiago Salas-Benito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans, and the detection of two or more flaviviruses cocirculating in the same geographic area has often been reported. However, the epidemiological impact remains to be determined. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are primarily transmitted through Aedes and Culex mosquitoes; these viruses establish a life-long or persistent infection without apparent pathological effects. This establishment requires a balance between virus replication and the antiviral host response. Viral interference is a phenomenon whereby one virus inhibits the replication of other viruses, and this condition is frequently associated with persistent infections. Viral interference and persistent infection are determined by several factors, such as defective interfering particles, competition for cellular factors required for translation/replication, and the host antiviral response. The interaction between two flaviviruses typically results in viral interference, indicating that these viruses share common features during the replicative cycle in the vector. The potential mechanisms involved in these processes are reviewed here.

  6. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida's Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases.

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    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2016-09-28

    Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state's mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida's mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida's east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM), has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being.

  7. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida’s Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state’s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida’s mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida’s east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM), has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being. PMID:27690112

  8. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida’s Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state’s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida’s mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida’s east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM, has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being.

  9. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Barker, Christopher M.; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M.; George, Dylan B.; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Garcia, Andres J.; Gatton, Michelle L.; Gething, Peter W.; Hartley, David M.; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y.; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L.; Pigott, David M.; Reisen, William K.; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K.; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J.; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Cohen, Justin M.; Hay, Simon I.; Scott, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross–Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control. PMID:24591453

  10. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Barker, Christopher M; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M; George, Dylan B; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A T; Garcia, Andres J; Gatton, Michelle L; Gething, Peter W; Hartley, David M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L; Pigott, David M; Reisen, William K; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H Charles J; Cohen, Justin M; Hay, Simon I; Scott, Thomas W

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross-Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control.

  11. The importance of being urgent: The impact of surveillance target and scale on mosquito-borne disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R. Schwab

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence or re-emergence of numerous mosquito-borne diseases in recent years, effective methods for emergency vector control responses are necessary to reduce human infections. Current vector control practices often vary significantly between different jurisdictions, and are executed independently and at different spatial scales. Various types of surveillance information (e.g. number of human infections or adult mosquitoes trigger the implementation of control measures, though the target and scale of surveillance vary locally. This patchy implementation of control measures likely alters the efficacy of control.We modeled six different scenarios, with larval mosquito control occurring in response to surveillance data of different types and at different scales (e.g. across the landscape or in each patch. Our results indicate that: earlier application of larvicide after an escalation of disease risk achieves much greater reductions in human infections than later control implementation; uniform control across the landscape provides better outbreak mitigation than patchy control application; and different types of surveillance data require different levels of sensitivity in their collection to effectively inform control measures. Our simulations also demonstrate a potential logical fallacy of reactive, surveillance-driven vector control: measures stop being implemented as soon as they are deemed effective. This false sense of security leads to patchier control efforts that will do little to curb the size of future vector-borne disease outbreaks. More investment should be placed in collecting high quality information that can trigger early and uniform implementation, while researchers work to discover more informative metrics of human risk to trigger more effective control. Keywords: Zika control, Epidemiological surveillance, Disease surveillance, Mosquito control, Vector-borne disease control, Epidemiological modeling

  12. Cacipacore virus as an emergent mosquito-borne Flavivirus

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    Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cacipacore virus (CPCV, a possible bird-associated flavivirus, has yet to be detected in mosquitoes. Our purpose is examining CPCV in mosquitoes from the Amazon region of Brazil. METHODS: Approximately 3,253 Culicidae (grouped into 264 pools were collected from the Amazon region during 2002-2006 and analyzed using a Flavivirus genus-specific reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction followed by nested polymerase chain reaction assay and by nucleotide sequencing of amplicons. RESULTS: Nucleotide sequences from five mosquito samples showed high similarity to the those of CPCV originally isolated in the Amazon region. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of CPCV-infected mosquitoes which has implications on the arbovirus maintenance in nature and transmission to man.

  13. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

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    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes.

  14. Assessing Seasonal Risks for the Introduction and Mosquito-borne Spread of Zika Virus in Europe

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    Joacim Rocklöv

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The explosive Zika virus epidemic in the Americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including Europe (Gulland, 2016, where local populations are immunologically naïve. As summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, Aedes mosquitoes in Europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit Zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. While Aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Europe (Delisle et al., 2015; ECDC, n.d. there is growing experimental and ecological evidence to suggest that it may also be competent for Zika virus(Chouin-Carneiro et al., 2016; Grard et al., 2014; Li et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2013. Here we analyze and overlay the monthly flows of airline travellers arriving into European cities from Zika affected areas across the Americas, the predicted monthly estimates of the basic reproduction number of Zika virus in areas where Aedes mosquito populations reside in Europe (Aedes aegypti in Madeira, Portugal and Ae. albopictus in continental Europe, and human populations living within areas where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus may be possible. We highlight specific geographic areas and timing of risk for Zika virus introduction and possible spread within Europe to inform the efficient use of human disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control, and public education resources.

  15. Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus

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    Kindhauser, Mary Kay; Allen, Tomas; Frank, Veronika; Santhana, Ravi Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Methods We did a literature search using the terms “Zika” and “ZIKV” in PubMed, cross-checked the findings for completeness against other published reviews and added formal notifications to WHO submitted under the International Health Regulations. Findings From the discovery of Zika virus in Uganda in 1947 to the declaration of a PHEIC by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 1 February 2016, a total of 74 countries and territories had reported human Zika virus infections. The timeline in this paper charts the discovery of the virus (1947), its isolation from mosquitos (1948), the first human infection (1952), the initial spread of infection from Asia to a Pacific island (2007), the first known instance of sexual transmission (2008), reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (2014) and microcephaly (2015) linked to Zika infections and the first appearance of Zika in the Americas (from 2015). Conclusion Zika virus infection in humans appears to have changed in character as its geographical range has expanded from equatorial Africa and Asia. The change is from an endemic, mosquito-borne infection causing mild illness to one that can cause large outbreaks linked with neurological sequelae and congenital abnormalities. PMID:27708473

  16. Assessing Seasonal Risks for the Introduction and Mosquito-borne Spread of Zika Virus in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Quam, Mikkel Brandon; Sudre, Bertrand; German, Matthew; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Brady, Oliver; Bogoch, Isaac I; Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Semenza, Jan C; Ong, Mark; Aaslav, Kaja Kaasik; Khan, Kamran

    2016-07-01

    The explosive Zika virus epidemic in the Americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including Europe (Gulland, 2016), where local populations are immunologically naïve. As summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, Aedes mosquitoes in Europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit Zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. While Aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Europe (Delisle et al., 2015; ECDC, n.d.) there is growing experimental and ecological evidence to suggest that it may also be competent for Zika virus(Chouin-Carneiro et al., 2016; Grard et al., 2014; Li et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2013). Here we analyze and overlay the monthly flows of airline travellers arriving into European cities from Zika affected areas across the Americas, the predicted monthly estimates of the basic reproduction number of Zika virus in areas where Aedes mosquito populations reside in Europe (Aedes aegypti in Madeira, Portugal and Ae. albopictus in continental Europe), and human populations living within areas where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus may be possible. We highlight specific geographic areas and timing of risk for Zika virus introduction and possible spread within Europe to inform the efficient use of human disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control, and public education resources. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An analysis of community perceptions of mosquito-borne disease control and prevention in Sint Eustatius, Caribbean Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, Teresa E; Carson, Marianne; Coeverden, Els van; De Klein, Kirsten; Braks, Marieta; Krumeich, Anja

    2017-01-01

    In the Caribbean, mosquito-borne diseases are a public health threat. In Sint Eustatius, dengue, Chikungunya and Zika are now endemic. To control and prevent mosquito-borne diseases, the Sint Eustatius Public Health Department relies on the community to assist with the control of Aedes aegypti

  18. Leidos Biomed Supports Clinical Trials for Vaccine Against Mosquito-borne Chikungunya | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental vaccine for mosquito-borne chikungunya is being tested at sites in the Caribbean as part of a phase II clinical trial being managed by the Frederick National Lab. No vaccine or treatment currently exists for the viral disease, which c

  19. Block the Buzzing, Bites, and Bumps: Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States.” West Nile tends to be a seasonal epidemic in the U.S. It flares up in late ... Brazil. Zika is another mosquito-borne virus that’s spreading throughout Central and South America. Because the dengue ...

  20. Simulating the spread of malaria using a generic transmission model for mosquito-borne infectious diseases

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    Kon, Cynthia Mui Lian; Labadin, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is a critical infection caused by parasites which are spread to humans through mosquito bites. Approximately half of the world's population is in peril of getting infected by malaria. Mosquito-borne diseases have a standard behavior where they are transmitted in the same manner, only through vector mosquito. Taking this into account, a generic spatial-temporal model for transmission of multiple mosquito-borne diseases had been formulated. Our interest is to reproduce the actual cases of different mosquito-borne diseases using the generic model and then predict future cases so as to improve control and target measures competently. In this paper, we utilize notified weekly malaria cases in four districts in Sarawak, Malaysia, namely Kapit, Song, Belaga and Marudi. The actual cases for 36 weeks, which is from week 39 in 2012 to week 22 in 2013, are compared with simulations of the generic spatial-temporal transmission mosquito-borne diseases model. We observe that the simulation results display corresponding result to the actual malaria cases in the four districts.

  1. Detection and molecular characterization of the mosquito-borne filarial nematode Setaria tundra in Danish roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Oksanen, Antti; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    Setaria tundra is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode of cervids in Europe. It has recently been associated with an emerging epidemic disease causing severe morbidity and mortality in reindeer and moose in Finland. Here, we present the first report of S. tundra in six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus...... Europe. Roe deer are generally considered as asymptomatic carriers and their numbers in Denmark have increased significantly in recent decades. In light of climatic changes which result in warmer, more humid weather in Scandinavia greater numbers of mosquitoes and, especially, improved conditions...... for development of parasite larvae in the mosquito vectors are expected, which may lead to increasing prevalence of S. tundra. Monitoring of this vector-borne parasite may thus be needed in order to enhance the knowledge of factors promoting its expansion and prevalence as well as predicting disease outbreaks. (C...

  2. Multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses using an oligonucleotide microarray.

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    Nathan D Grubaugh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses are important emerging pathogens world-wide. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, such as dengue, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, infect hundreds of millions of people and animals each year. Global surveillance of these viruses in mosquito vectors using molecular based assays is critical for prevention and control of the associated diseases. Here, we report an oligonucleotide DNA microarray design, termed ArboChip5.1, for multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, Alphavirus (Togaviridae, Orthobunyavirus (Bunyaviridae, and Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assay utilizes targeted PCR amplification of three genes from each virus genus for electrochemical detection on a portable, field-tested microarray platform. Fifty-two viruses propagated in cell-culture were used to evaluate the specificity of the PCR primer sets and the ArboChip5.1 microarray capture probes. The microarray detected all of the tested viruses and differentiated between many closely related viruses such as members of the dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and Semliki Forest virus clades. Laboratory infected mosquitoes were used to simulate field samples and to determine the limits of detection. Additionally, we identified dengue virus type 3, Japanese encephalitis virus, Tembusu virus, Culex flavivirus, and a Quang Binh-like virus from mosquitoes collected in Thailand in 2011 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that the described assay can be utilized in a comprehensive field surveillance program by the broad-range amplification and specific identification of arboviruses from infected mosquitoes. Furthermore, the microarray platform can be deployed in the field and viral RNA extraction to data analysis can occur in as little as 12 h. The information derived from the ArboChip5.1 microarray can help to establish

  3. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida’s Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2016-01-01

    Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state?s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida?s mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida?s east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM...

  4. Identification of diagnostic peptide regions that distinguish Zika virus from related mosquito-borne Flaviviruses.

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    Alexandra J Lee

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a member of the Flavivirus genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and other mosquito-borne arboviruses. Infection by ZIKV can be difficult to distinguish from infection by other mosquito-borne Flaviviruses due to high sequence similarity, serum antibody cross-reactivity, and virus co-circulation in endemic areas. Indeed, existing serological methods are not able to consistently differentiate ZIKV from other Flaviviruses, which makes it extremely difficult to accurately calculate the incidence rate of Zika-associated Guillain-Barre in adults, microcephaly in newborns, or asymptomatic infections within a geographical area. In order to identify Zika-specific peptide regions that could be used as serology reagents, we have applied comparative genomics and protein structure analyses to identify amino acid residues that distinguish each of 10 Flavivirus species and subtypes from each other by calculating the specificity, sensitivity, and surface exposure of each residue in relevant target proteins. For ZIKV we identified 104 and 116 15-mer peptides in the E glycoprotein and NS1 non-structural protein, respectively, that contain multiple diagnostic sites and are located in surface-exposed regions in the tertiary protein structure. These sensitive, specific, and surface-exposed peptide regions should serve as useful reagents for seroprevalence studies to better distinguish between prior infections with any of these mosquito-borne Flaviviruses. The development of better detection methods and diagnostic tools will enable clinicians and public health workers to more accurately estimate the true incidence rate of asymptomatic infections, neurological syndromes, and birth defects associated with ZIKV infection.

  5. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles: A newer and safer tool against mosquito-borne diseases?

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    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases is a key challenge of huge public health importance. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has recently gained attention as a cheap, rapid and eco-friendly method to control mosquito vector populations, with special reference to young instars. Furthermore, plant-fabricated nanoparticles have been successfully employed as dengue virus growth inhibitors. In this Editorial, parasitologists, entomologists and researchers in drug nanosynthesis are encouraged to deal with a number of crucial challenges of public health importance.

  6. Climate change and mosquito-borne diseases in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Morton, Lindsay Carol; Liu, Qiyong

    2013-03-09

    China has experienced noticeable changes in climate over the past 100 years and the potential impact climate change has on transmission of mosquito-borne infectious diseases poses a risk to Chinese populations. The aims of this paper are to summarize what is known about the impact of climate change on the incidence and prevalence of malaria, dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis in China and to provide important information and direction for adaptation policy making. Fifty-five papers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Examination of these studies indicates that variability in temperature, precipitation, wind, and extreme weather events is linked to transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in some regions of China. However, study findings are inconsistent across geographical locations and this requires strengthening current evidence for timely development of adaptive options. After synthesis of available information we make several key adaptation recommendations including: improving current surveillance and monitoring systems; concentrating adaptation strategies and policies on vulnerable communities; strengthening adaptive capacity of public health systems; developing multidisciplinary approaches sustained by an new mechanism of inter-sectional coordination; and increasing awareness and mobilization of the general public.

  7. Climate change and mosquito-borne diseases in China: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    China has experienced noticeable changes in climate over the past 100 years and the potential impact climate change has on transmission of mosquito-borne infectious diseases poses a risk to Chinese populations. The aims of this paper are to summarize what is known about the impact of climate change on the incidence and prevalence of malaria, dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis in China and to provide important information and direction for adaptation policy making. Fifty-five papers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Examination of these studies indicates that variability in temperature, precipitation, wind, and extreme weather events is linked to transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in some regions of China. However, study findings are inconsistent across geographical locations and this requires strengthening current evidence for timely development of adaptive options. After synthesis of available information we make several key adaptation recommendations including: improving current surveillance and monitoring systems; concentrating adaptation strategies and policies on vulnerable communities; strengthening adaptive capacity of public health systems; developing multidisciplinary approaches sustained by an new mechanism of inter-sectional coordination; and increasing awareness and mobilization of the general public. PMID:23497420

  8. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Durrheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

  9. Burden of emerging/re emerging diseases in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Burden of emerging/re emerging diseases in India. 1-2 million deaths for 1994 epidemic of plague. 20,565 deaths in 2004 due to rabies. 400 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus. More than 18 million carriers of hepatitis C virus. 'Mutant' measles virus infection in ...

  10. Can Horton hear the whos? The importance of scale in mosquito-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, C C; Alto, B W; Anderson, S L; Connelly, C R; Day, J F; Richards, S L; Smartt, C T; Tabachnick, W J

    2014-03-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens is determined by mechanisms and interactions at different scales of biological organization, from individual-level cellular processes to community interactions between species and with the environment. Most research, however, focuses on one scale or level with little integration between scales or levels within scales. Understanding the interactions between levels and how they influence our perception of vector-borne pathogens is critical. Here two examples of biological scales (pathogen transmission and mosquito mortality) are presented to illustrate some of the issues of scale and to explore how processes on different levels may interact to influence mosquito-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Individual variation in survival, vector competence, and other traits affect population abundance, transmission potential, and community structure. Community structure affects interactions between individuals such as competition and predation, and thus influences the individual-level dynamics and transmission potential. Modeling is a valuable tool to assess interactions between scales and how processes at different levels can affect transmission dynamics. We expand an existing model to illustrate the types of studies needed, showing that individual-level variation in viral dose acquired or needed for infection can influence the number of infectious vectors. It is critical that interactions within and among biological scales and levels of biological organization are understood for greater understanding of pathogen transmission with the ultimate goal of improving control of vector-borne pathogens.

  11. Insect repellents and sunscreen: implications for personal protection strategies against mosquito-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2009-10-01

    To determine the protection times provided by insect repellent and sunscreen in combined formulations against biting mosquitoes. To determine if concurrent use of repellent and sunscreen influenced protection times. Insect repellent containing comparable concentrations of N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) with and without sunscreen were tested on human skin to determine the mean protection time (MPT) against Aedes aegypti (L.) in the laboratory. Further trials were undertaken to determine the effect on MPT of sunscreen reapplication over repellent every two hours. There was no significant difference in the MPT provided by 80% DEET with (MPT+/-SE=770+/-54.8 minutes) and without (MPT+/-SE=830+/-20.2 minutes) sunscreen or 7.14% DEET with (MPT+/-SE =240+/-15.5 minutes) and 6.98% DEET without (MPT+/-SE =230+/-18.4 minutes) sunscreen. Reapplication of sunscreen resulted in a significantly lower MPT of a 17.0% DEET formulation when sunscreen was reapplied concurrently (MPT+/-SE=330+/-25.2 minutes), compared with DEET alone (MPT+/-SE =400+/-12.7 minutes). When combined in a single formulation with sunscreen, the MPT provided by both high and low concentrations of DEET is not reduced. However, if sunscreen is reapplied over insect repellent, protection times can be reduced significantly. In areas of endemic mosquito-borne disease, the reapplication of a low concentration repellent and sunscreen formulation may provide the most effective protection from biting mosquitoes while minimising the risk of overexposure to DEET.

  12. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jun; Lv, Quan; Li, Hongbin; McNeil, Edward B; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-10-15

    Background : In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods : A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old) and eight schools were used for children (related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results : Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion : Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.

  13. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old. A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion: Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.

  14. Ultra-sensitive chemiluminescence imaging DNA hybridization method in the detection of mosquito-borne viruses and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Qiqi; Zhou, Biao; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Suhong; Wang, Shengqi

    2017-01-25

    Mosquito-borne viruses (MBVs) and parasites (MBPs) are transmitted through hematophagous arthropods-mosquitoes to homoiothermous vertebrates. This study aims at developing a detection method to monitor the spread of mosquito-borne diseases to new areas and diagnose the infections caused by MBVs and MBPs. In this assay, an ultra-sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) detection method was developed and used to simultaneously detect 19 common MBVs and MBPs. In vitro transcript RNA, virus-like particles (VLPs), and plasmids were established as positive or limit of detection (LOD) reference materials. MBVs and MBPs could be genotyped with high sensitivity and specificity. The cut-off values of probes were calculated. The absolute LODs of this strategy to detect serially diluted in vitro transcribed RNAs of MBVs and serially diluted plasmids of MBPs were 10 2 -10 3 copies/μl and 10 1 -10 2 copies/μl, respectively. Further, the LOD of detecting a strain of pre-quantified JEV was 10 1.8 -10 0.8 PFU/ml, fitted well in a linear regression model (coefficient of determination = 0.9678). Ultra-sensitive CL imaging DNA hybridization was developed and could simultaneously detect various MBVs and MBPs. The method described here has the potential to provide considerable labor savings due to its ability to screen for 19 mosquito-borne pathogens simultaneously.

  15. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  16. Rapid BAL Variability: Re-Emerging Absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erakuman, Damla [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Faculty of Science, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey); Filiz Ak, Nurten, E-mail: damla.erakuman@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Faculty of Science, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey); Astronomy and Space Sciences Observatory and Research Center, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2017-11-08

    We study BAL variations of SDSS J141955.28+522741.4 utilizing 32 epochs of spectroscopic observations from SDSS. We identify three individual BAL troughs for C iv and one BAL trough for Si iv. The deepest C iv BAL trough shows significant EW variations in timescales of a few 10 h. The fast component of the deepest C iv BAL presents disappearance and re-emergence preserving its initial velocity range and profile. All identified BAL troughs show coordinated variations supporting that the possible mechanism behind variations are the ionization level changes of the absorbing gas.

  17. Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dikid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.

  18. Green synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer-a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Nanobiomedicine and parasitology are facing a number of key challenges, which mostly deal with the paucity of effective preventive and curative tools against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer. In this scenario, the employ of botanical and invertebrate extracts as reducing, stabilizing and capping agents for the synthesis of nanoparticles is advantageous over chemical and physical methods, since it is one-pot, cheap, and does not require high pressure, energy, temperature, or the use of highly toxic chemicals. Considering the overlooked connection between mosquito vector activity and the spread of cancer in USA, this review focused on the current knowledge available about green synthesized nanoparticles with efficacy against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer. Green fabricated metal nanoparticles showed antiplasmodial activity that often encompasses the efficacy of currently marked drugs for malaria treatment. They have been also reported as growth inhibitors against dengue virus (serotype DEN-2), with moderate cytotoxicity on mammalian cells. However, this feature is strongly dependent to the botanical agents employed during nanosynthesis. In addition, green nanoparticles have been successfully used to reduce mosquito young instar populations in the field. The final section focuses on some issues for future research, with special reference to the chemical standardization of the botanical extracts used for nanosynthesis and the potential effects on green fabricated nanoparticles on non-target organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Infestation status Aedes albopictus and related mosquito-borne infectious disease risk in central urban area in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Xiong, C L; Zhou, Y B; Cao, H; Jiang, Q W

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate Aedes albopictus infestation status in the central urban area of Shanghai, and analyze the related epidemic risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Consecutive mosquito surveillance was conducted in the green lands and residential areas in the central urban area of Shanghai during 2012-2014, the Aedes albopictus density and its seasonal fluctuation were observed; the sequence of Aedes albopictus in Shanghai was aligned with that in other epidemic area abroad, and the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to mosquito-borne virus and endemic risk were analyzed. No Aedes aegypti was found in the central urban area of Shanghai. As predominant species in both the residential area and the green lands, the proportion of Aedes albopictus in the residential area was significantly higher than that in the green lands(78.53% vs. 19.99%, χ(2) =15 525.168, PAedes albopictus in Shanghai and Aedes albopictus in Africa was quite far. No Aedes aegypti was found in Shanghai and its surrounding areas, while Aedes albopictus infestation in the central urban area of Shanghai was serious. Strict measures should be taken to reduce the Aedes albopictus density for the effective control Zika virus spread.

  20. Distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in Yunnan Province near the China-Myanmar-Laos border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Hailin; Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanqin; Feng, Yun; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2011-05-01

    Economic development and increased tourism in the southern region of Yunnan Province in China, adjacent to several countries in Southeast Asia, has increased the likelihood of import and export of vectors and vector-borne diseases. We report the results of surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses along the border of China-Myanmar-Laos in 2005 and 2006, and information associating several arboviruses with infections and possibly disease in local human populations. Seventeen mosquito species representing four genera were obtained, and 14 strains of mosquito-borne viruses representing six viruses in five genera were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus. In addition, IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, Yunnan orbivirus and novel Banna virus was detected in acute-phase serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients with fever and encephalitis near the areas where the viruses were isolated. This investigation suggests that Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and lesser-known arboviruses circulate and may be infecting humans in the China-Myanmar-Laos border region.

  1. Does mosquito control have an effect on mosquito-borne disease? The case of Ross River virus disease and mosquito management in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomerini, Deanna M; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil

    2011-03-01

    We examined the relationship between types of mosquito control programs and the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease in Queensland, Australia. Mosquito control information was collected through a survey of the responsible agencies (local governments), and RRV disease notification data were provided by the Queensland state health authority. The study developed a typology of mosquito control programs, based on the approaches used. Based on the analysis of data on RRV disease rates between mosquito control types within 4 climatic regions, each region had different combinations of mosquito control strategies in their programs; there were also general similarities in the relationship between program types and RRV rates between the regions. The long-term RRV disease rates were lower in areas where the mosquito control program included pre-emptive (rather than reactive) surveillance based on an extensive (rather than incomplete) knowledge of mosquito habitats, and where treatment of both saltwater and freshwater habitats (compared to only saltwater habitats, in coastal areas) occurred. The data indicate that mosquito control is an effective public health intervention to reduce mosquito-borne disease; hence, climate change adaptation strategies should ensure that adequate resources are available for effective vector control so as to manage the risk of mosquito-borne diseases.

  2. The Rift Valley fever: could re-emerge in Egypt again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-04-01

    The Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health and economy. RVF is caused by RVF virus of the family of Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus. RVF is an acute, febrile disease affecting humans and a wide range of animals. The virus is trans-mitted through the bites from mosquitoes and exposure to viremic blood, body fluids, or contact with tissues of infected animals or by inhaling natural virus aerosols, also possibly by consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. The RVF-virus replicate at the site introduction and in local lymphatic followed by viremia and spread to other organs as the liver and central nervous system, causing the hepatic necrosis and eosinophilia cytoplasmic degeneration. The main signs and symptoms are fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, photophobia, bradycardia, conjunctivitis and flushing face. Main complications include jaundice, hemorrhagic, meningoencephalitis and retinal lesions. Generally speaking, in the 21st Century, the vector-borne infectious diseases, was accepted as the disaster issues with the considerable significant morbidity and mortality. These facts should be considered by the public health, veterinary and agricultural authorities

  3. Mosquito-borne illnesses in travelers: a review of risk and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaian, Edith; Durham, Melissa J; Hess, Karl; Goad, Jeffery A

    2010-10-01

    In 2008, residents of the United States made 12 million visits to developing countries in Asia, South America, Central America, Oceania, the Middle East, and Africa. Due to the presence of Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex mosquitoes, travel to these destinations poses a risk for diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis that cause significant morbidity and mortality. To gain a better understanding of the major emerging and established travel-related infectious diseases transmitted principally by mosquitoes and the measures for their prevention in U.S. residents who travel to these developing countries, we performed a literature search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (January 1950-February 2010). Information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization and relevant references from the publications identified were also reviewed. Vaccines for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever are commercially available to U.S. travelers and should be administered when indicated. However, the prevention of malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya, and West Nile virus relies on personal insect protection measures and chemoprophylaxis for malaria. As the rate of international travel continues to rise, individuals traveling overseas should be made aware of the risk of various infectious diseases and the importance of prevention. Physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and other practitioners can play a vital role in disease education and prevention, including the administration of vaccines and provision of chemoprophylactic drugs.

  4. Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    et al (2003) have discussed the epidemiology of V. cholerae and Aeromonas in a five year prospective study in Mumbai. 3.3 Listeria monocytogenes. Listerosis is an emerging zoonotic disease. It is estimated that L. monocytogenes is responsible for 28% deaths due to foodborne illnesses in the United States. The organism.

  5. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  6. Indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Dekkers, S.; Kandhai, M.C.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Booij, C.J.H.; Heer, de C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select the most important indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins in wheat, maize, peanuts and tree nuts. The study was based on a holistic approach and, consequently, potential indicators were evaluated not only from the food production chain but

  7. Toxoplasmosis a re-emerging ancient disease | Neils | Zoologist (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis a re-emerging ancient disease. JS Neils, IA Lawal. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tzool.v4i1.45219 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  8. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.

  9. Re-emergence of Chikungunya in India: Molecular studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Re-emergence of Chikungunya in India: Molecular studies · PowerPoint Presentation · CHIKUNGUNYA virus · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · CHIKV Genotypes · Slide 7 · In view of long absence of CHIK epidemics, it was postulated that CHIK virus has disappeared from India and South-East Asia. Serological surveys supported this view.

  10. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgari, Najmeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Despite development of preventive and controlling strategies regarding infectious diseases, they are still considered as one of the most significant leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Changes in humans’ demographics and behaviors, microbial and ecological alterations, agricultural development, international travels and susceptibility to infectious diseases have resulted in increased reports of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and reemerging infectious diseases (RIDs) in various geographical areas. Because of the various types of geographic properties in Iran, substantial climatic variability, as well as unstable political situations and poor public health conditions in some of neighboring countries, EIDs and RIDs are serious public health problems; among them, zoonotic and drug resistant diseases are the most significant. Hence, this review provides an overview of the significant bacterial, viral and fungal EIDs and RIDs in Iran regarding their epidemiological aspects. PMID:29225752

  11. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures against mosquito borne diseases in a resettlement colony of delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, T; Kumar, R; Saini, V; Meena, Gs; Ingle, Gk

    2014-03-01

    Mosquito borne diseases (MBDs) are major public health problem in India. State of Delhi is endemic for dengue and other MBDs. The increasing incidence of MBDs in Delhi in recent years warrants a pro-active approach for their prevention. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures (PPMs) presents an effective strategy for prevention and control of MBDs. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and use of PPMs against MBDs in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. It was a cross-sectional study carried out in a resettlement colony of Delhi. A total of 100 families were selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire and supplemented by spot survey by the investigator in the community. The results were analyzed in SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago Illinios, USA). Out of the 100 respondents, 65% (65/100), 58%(58/100) and 13% (13/100) had heard about dengue, malaria and chikungunya, respectively. Nearly, one-fifth (20/100; 20%) of the participants reported incorrect breeding sites for mosquitoes. The knowledge regarding PPMs was very high (93/100; 93%) and about (90/100; 90%) families were actually using at least one of the PPMs. However, very few families were using them correctly (1/90; 1.1%) and adequately (5/90; 5.6%). The most common PPM being used by the study population was liquid vaporizers (54/90; 60%). Nearly one-third (29/90; 32.2%) of the participants reported side-effects due to PPMs with irritation to smell being the most common reported side-effect. On house visit, adult mosquitoes were seen in 67% (67/100) of the houses, while potential mosquito breeding sites were found in and around 56% (56/100) houses. There were crucial gaps in knowledge and practices of participants with regard to prevention and control of MBDs. Thus, there is a need to intensify efforts toward creating public knowledge and mobilizing community about correct use of preventive measures against MBDs.

  12. Zoonotic mosquito-borne flaviviruses: worldwide presence of agents with proven pathogenicity and potential candidates of future emerging diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weissenböck, H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Bakonyi, T.; Nowotny, N.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 140, 3-4 (2010), s. 271-280 ISSN 0378-1135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Flaviviridae * mosquitoes * Culicidae * zoonoses * arboviruses Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.256, year: 2010

  13. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases. Grades 9-12. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This curriculum supplement guide brings the latest medical discoveries to classrooms. This module focuses on the objectives of introducing students to major concepts related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and developing an understanding of the relationship between biomedical research and personal and public health. This module…

  14. Chikungunya fever: A re-emerging viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya (CHIK fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak.

  15. Bactericidal assessment of nano-silver on emerging and re-emerging human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuj, Samir A; Gajera, Harsukh P; Hirpara, Darshna G; Golakiya, Baljibhai A

    2018-04-24

    With the threat of the growing number of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, the re-emergence of previously deadly infections and the emergence of new infections, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic agent. Silver in the nano form, which is being used increasingly as antibacterial agents, may extend its antibacterial application to emerging and re-emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens, the main cause of nosocomial diseases worldwide. In the present study, a completely bottom up method to prepare green nano-silver was used. To explore the action of nano-silver on emerging Bacillus megaterium MTCC 7192 and re-emerging Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 pathogenic bacteria, the study includes an analysis of the bacterial membrane damage through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as well as alternation of zeta potential and intracellular leakages. In this work, we observed genuine bactericidal property of nano-silver as compare to broad spectrum antibiotics against emerging and re-emerging mode. After being exposed to nano-silver, the membrane becomes scattered from their original ordered arrangement based on SEM observation. Moreover, our results also suggested that alternation of zeta potential enhanced membrane permeability, and beyond a critical point, it leads to cell death. The leakages of intracellular constituents were confirmed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). In conclusion, the combine results suggested that at a specific dose, nano-silver may destroy the structure of bacterial membrane and depress its activity, which causes bacteria to die eventually. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Measles, One of the Re-emerging Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Türe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to stand out the measles which is a highly contagious re-emerging viral illness and may cause severe complications in susceptible population. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on patients who were diagnosed with measles in the department of Infectious Diseases, Erciyes University Hospital, between January 2013 and February 2014. The diagnosis of measles was confirmed by measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody positivity in serum samples. Results: Nine patients were included the study. Three patients had a co-morbid condition including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pregnancy and diabetes mellitus. Four of the patients had hepatitis and one of them had pneumonia as a complication. Conclusion: Susceptible population, especially immunocompromised people are still at risk about measles. Adherence to universal vaccination programs is determinative in terms of breaking out of an outbreak. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 19-22

  17. The Re-Emergence and Emergence of Vector-Borne Rickettsioses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T. Minahan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsial diseases, particularly vector-borne rickettsioses (VBR, have a long history in Taiwan, with studies on scrub typhus and murine typhus dating back over a century. The climatic and geographic diversity of Taiwan’s main island and its offshore islands provide many ecological niches for the diversification and maintenance of rickettsiae alike. In recent decades, scrub typhus has re-emerged as the most prevalent type of rickettsiosis in Taiwan, particularly in eastern Taiwan and its offshore islands. While murine typhus has also re-emerged on Taiwan’s western coast, it remains neglected. Perhaps more alarming than the re-emergence of these rickettsioses is the emergence of newly described VBR. The first case of human infection with Rickettsia felis was confirmed in 2005, and undetermined spotted fever group rickettsioses have recently been detected. Taiwan is at a unique advantage in terms of detecting and characterizing VBR, as it has universal health coverage and a national communicable disease surveillance system; however, these systems have not been fully utilized for this purpose. Here, we review the existing knowledge on the eco-epidemiology of VBR in Taiwan and recommend future courses of action.

  18. Re-Emergent Tremor of Parkinson's Disease Masquerading as Essential Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Morgan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The re-emergent tremor of Parkinson’s disease (PD is generally recognized as a postural tremor. Phenomenology Shown: A PD patient with a re-emergent tremor occurring during a task (spiral drawing, which on the surface produced a tremor that resembled that of essential tremor (ET. Educational Value: Researchers and clinicians should be aware of features of this re-emergent tremor to help distinguish it from that of ET.

  19. Threats from emerging and re-emerging neglected tropical diseases (NTDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases impact over 1 billion of the world's poorest populations and require special attention. However, within the NTDs recognized by the World Health Organization, some are also dually categorized as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases requiring more detailed examination on potential global health risks. We reviewed the 17 NTDs classified by the WHO to determine if those NTDs were also categorized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (''EReNTDs''). We then identified common characteristics and risks associated with EReNTDs. Identified EReNTDs of dengue, rabies, Chagas Disease, and cysticercosis disproportionately impact resource-poor settings with poor social determinants of health, spread through globalization, are impacted by vector control, lack available treatments, and threaten global health security. This traditionally neglected subset of diseases requires urgent attention and unique incentive structures to encourage investment in innovation and coordination. Multi-sectorial efforts and targeted public-private partnerships would spur needed R&D for effective and accessible EReNTD treatments, improvement of social determinants of health, crucial low-income country development, and health system strengthening efforts. Utilization of One Health principles is essential for enhancing knowledge to efficaciously address public health aspects of these EReNTDs globally.

  20. Threats from emerging and re-emerging neglected tropical diseases (NTDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K. Mackey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neglected tropical diseases impact over 1 billion of the world's poorest populations and require special attention. However, within the NTDs recognized by the World Health Organization, some are also dually categorized as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases requiring more detailed examination on potential global health risks. Methods: We reviewed the 17 NTDs classified by the WHO to determine if those NTDs were also categorized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (‘‘EReNTDs’’. We then identified common characteristics and risks associated with EReNTDs. Results: Identified EReNTDs of dengue, rabies, Chagas Disease, and cysticercosis disproportionately impact resource-poor settings with poor social determinants of health, spread through globalization, are impacted by vector control, lack available treatments, and threaten global health security. This traditionally neglected subset of diseases requires urgent attention and unique incentive structures to encourage investment in innovation and coordination. Discussion: Multi-sectorial efforts and targeted public–private partnerships would spur needed R&D for effective and accessible EReNTD treatments, improvement of social determinants of health, crucial low-income country development, and health system strengthening efforts. Utilization of One Health principles is essential for enhancing knowledge to efficaciously address public health aspects of these EReNTDs globally.

  1. Tularemia in Germany—A Re-emerging Zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Faber

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia, also known as “rabbit fever,” is a zoonosis caused by the facultative intracellular, gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Infection occurs through contact with infected animals (often hares, arthropod vectors (such as ticks or deer flies, inhalation of contaminated dust or through contaminated food and water. In this review, we would like to provide an overview of the current epidemiological situation in Germany using published studies and case reports, an analysis of recent surveillance data and our own experience from the laboratory diagnostics, and investigation of cases. While in Germany tularemia is a rarely reported disease, there is evidence of recent re-emergence. We also describe some peculiarities that were observed in Germany, such as a broad genetic diversity, and a recently discovered new genus of Francisella and protracted or severe clinical courses of infections with the subspecies holarctica. Because tularemia is a zoonosis, we also touch upon the situation in the animal reservoir and one-health aspects of this disease. Apparently, many pieces of the puzzle need to be found and put into place before the complex interaction between wildlife, the environment and humans are fully understood. Funding for investigations into rare diseases is scarce. Therefore, combining efforts in several countries in the framework of international projects may be necessary to advance further our understanding of this serious but also scientifically interesting disease.

  2. Tularemia in Germany—A Re-emerging Zoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mirko; Heuner, Klaus; Jacob, Daniela; Grunow, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Tularemia, also known as “rabbit fever,” is a zoonosis caused by the facultative intracellular, gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Infection occurs through contact with infected animals (often hares), arthropod vectors (such as ticks or deer flies), inhalation of contaminated dust or through contaminated food and water. In this review, we would like to provide an overview of the current epidemiological situation in Germany using published studies and case reports, an analysis of recent surveillance data and our own experience from the laboratory diagnostics, and investigation of cases. While in Germany tularemia is a rarely reported disease, there is evidence of recent re-emergence. We also describe some peculiarities that were observed in Germany, such as a broad genetic diversity, and a recently discovered new genus of Francisella and protracted or severe clinical courses of infections with the subspecies holarctica. Because tularemia is a zoonosis, we also touch upon the situation in the animal reservoir and one-health aspects of this disease. Apparently, many pieces of the puzzle need to be found and put into place before the complex interaction between wildlife, the environment and humans are fully understood. Funding for investigations into rare diseases is scarce. Therefore, combining efforts in several countries in the framework of international projects may be necessary to advance further our understanding of this serious but also scientifically interesting disease. PMID:29503812

  3. Human anthrax as a re-emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores and the etiological agent is B. anthracis which is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod shaped bacterium. Bacillus anthracis spores are highly resistant to heat, pressure, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, chemical agents and disinfectants. For these reasons, B. anthracis spores are an attractive choice as biological agents for the use of bioweapon and/or bioterrorism. Soil is the main reservoir for the infectious agent. The disease most commonly affects wild and domestic mammals. Human are secondarily infected by contact with infected animals and contaminated animal products or directly expose to B. anthracis spores. Anthrax occurs worldwide. This infection is still endemic or hyperendemic in both animals and humans in some part of areas of the world; particularly in Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, some part of India, South America. However, some countries are claiming free of anthrax, and anthrax has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with the intentional outbreak. Currently, anthrax is classified according to its setting as (1) naturally occurring anthrax, (2) bioterrorism-related anthrax. Vast majority of human anthrax are occurring as naturally occurring anthrax in the world. It is also a threaten disease for western countries. The aim of this paper is to review the relevant patents, short historical perspective, microbiological and epidemiological features, clinical presentations and treatment.

  4. Lymphogranuloma venereum: an old, forgotten re-emerging systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Conte, I; Mistrangelo, M; Cariti, C; Chiriotto, M; Lucchini, A; Vigna, M; Morino, M; Di Perri, G

    2014-03-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection endemic in parts of Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean, but once was rarely observed in Western countries, where most cases were considered to be imported. However, recent outbreaks have been reported in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Canada, mainly among HIV positive men who have sex with men, signaling LGV re-emergence. The etiological agent of LGV is Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2 and L3, and current outbreaks are mostly sustained by L2b type. The clinical course can be classically divided into three stages: an initial papule, which may ulcerate at the site of inoculation, followed by regional lymphoadenopathy (second stage, generally unilateral). In the tertiary stage, lymphatic obstruction, with elephantiasis of genitalia, and rectal involvement can lead to the formation of strictures and fistulae that may require surgical treatment. Recent cases are observed mainly among HIV positive people, often co-infected with HCV and others STIs, engaging in high-risk sexual practices. The main clinical picture is a relative new entity characterized by progressive ulcerative proctitis, the so called anorectal syndrome. Diagnosis is often delayed, requires a high index of clinical suspicion and must rely on the use of nucleic acid amplification tests. The differential diagnosis of proctitis should include LGV infection. Gastroenterologists, coloproctologists, dermatologists and other specialists need to be aware of LGV proctitis to avoid diagnostic delay and progression of disease to the tertiary stage.

  5. Comparison of immune responses of brown-headed cowbird and related blackbirds to West Nile and other mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid geographic spread of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies to delineate competent avian hosts critical for viral amplification. We compared the host competence of four taxonomically related blackbird species (Icteridae) after experimental infection with WNV and with two endemic, mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, WEEV), and St, Louis encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, SLEV). We predicted differences in disease resistance among the blackbird species based on differences in life history, because they differ in geographic range and life history traits that include mating and breeding systems. Differences were observed among the response of these hosts to all three viruses, Red-winged Blackbirds were more susceptible to SLEV than Brewer's Blackbirds, whereas Brewer's Blackbirds were more susceptible to WEEV than Red-winged Blackbirds. In response to WNV infection, cowbirds showed the lowest mean viremias, cleared their infections faster, and showed lower antibody levels than concurrently infected species. Brown-headed Cowbirds also exhibited significantly lower viremia responses after infection with SLEV and WEEV as well as coinfection with WEEV and WNV than concurrently infected icterids. We concluded that cowbirds may be more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses because they experience heightened exposure to a variety of pathogens of parenting birds during the course of their parasitic life style.

  6. Surge of Dengue Virus Infection and Chikungunya Fever in Bali in 2010: The Burden of Mosquito-Borne Infectious Diseases in a Tourist Destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Minako Jen; Kusriastuti, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Labor flow and travelers are important factors contributing to the spread of Dengue virus infection and chikungunya fever. Bali Province of Indonesia, a popular resort and tourist destination, has these factors and suffers from mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Using area study approach, a series of fieldwork was conducted in Bali to obtain up-to-date primary disease data, to learn more about public health measures, and to interview health officers, hotel personnel, and other resource persons. The national data including information on two other provinces were obtained for comparison. The health ministry reported 5,810 and 11,697 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bali in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Moreover, two densely populated tourist areas and one district have shown a particularly high incidence and sharp increases in 2010. Cases of chikungunya fever reported in Bali more than doubled in 2010 from the previous year. Our findings suggest that Bali can benefit from a significant reduction in vector populations and dissemination of disease preventive knowledge among both local residents and foreign visitors. This will require a concerted and trans-border approach, which may prove difficult in the province. PMID:23874141

  7. 加强我国寨卡病毒病等蚊媒传染病的预防控制%Strengthen the prevention and control of Zika virus disease and other mosquito-borne infectious diseases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翠云; 卢洪洲

    2016-01-01

    寨卡病毒病是一种主要通过伊蚊叮咬传播的蚊媒传染病。伊蚊除了可以传播寨卡病毒外,还可以传播黄热病、登革热等多种疾病。近年来,随着旅行和贸易全球化、气候变暖等,蚊媒传染病相关疫情在全球多地暴发。该文主要介绍寨卡病毒病、黄热病等在我国首次输入的蚊媒传染病的流行情况,并对预防控制实施的重点措施进行了总结。%Zika virus disease is a mosquito-borne disease with aedes as a potential viral vector. Besides Zika virus, aedes can also serve as a vector for other viruses such as yellow fever virus and dengue virus.With the impact of globalization and climate changes, many regions in the world are experiencing outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases in recently years.This paper focuses on the epidemic, prevention and control measures of mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as Zika virus disease and yellow fever which are firstly imported to China.

  8. Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, S; Baneth, G

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of vector-borne parasites include habitat changes, alterations in water storage and irrigation habits, atmospheric and climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV, pollution, development of insecticide and drug resistance, globalization and the significant increase in international trade, tourism and travel. War and civil unrest, and governmental or global management failure are also major contributors to the spread of infectious diseases. The improvement of epidemic understanding and planning together with the development of new diagnostic molecular techniques in the last few decades have allowed researchers to better diagnose and trace pathogens, their origin and routes of infection, and to develop preventive public health and intervention programs. Health care workers, physicians, veterinarians and biosecurity officers should play a key role in future prevention of vector-borne diseases. A coordinated global approach for the prevention of vector-borne diseases should be implemented by international organizations and governmental agencies in collaboration with research institutions.

  9. Disease elimination and re-emergence in differential-equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Scott; Galvani, Alison P; Medlock, Jan

    2015-12-21

    Traditional differential equation models of disease transmission are often used to predict disease trajectories and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies. However, such models cannot account explicitly for probabilistic events, such as those that dominate dynamics when disease prevalence is low during the elimination and re-emergence phases of an outbreak. To account for the dynamics at low prevalence, i.e. the elimination and risk of disease re-emergence, without the added analytical and computational complexity of a stochastic model, we develop a novel application of control theory. We apply our approach to analyze historical data of measles elimination and re-emergence in Iceland from 1923 to 1938, predicting the temporal trajectory of local measles elimination and re-emerge as a result of disease migration from Copenhagen, Denmark. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Emerging and Re-Emerging Pathogens in Surface Waters Close to an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Marcheggiani

    2015-05-01

    upstream of Rome and the downstream location was contaminated by emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

  11. The re-theorisation of collective pedagogy and emergent curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2010-09-01

    This essay review of Goulart and Roth's work explores the cultural-historical concepts that they have drawn upon to create a new conception of emergent curriculum in early childhood science education. The pedagogical contexts of Brazilian preschools is discussed in relation to other practices found across cultural communities, with a view to locating the specific research need that has arisen for preschools within Brazil. In the latter part of this article, Davydov's (International perspectives in non-classical psychology, 2008) work on theoretical knowledge and dialectical thinking is discussed in order to further develop Goulart and Roth's conception of early childhood science curriculum.

  12. A world wide public health problem: the principal re-emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease

  13. Intelligent Pilot Aids for Flight Re-Planning in Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Ockerman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    an immediately understandable manner, and in a manner that would allow the pilot to modify an automatically-generated route and/or detect any inappropriate elements in an automatically-generated route. Likewise, a flight simulator study examined different cockpit systems for the relative merits of providing pilots with any of a variety of automated functions for emergency flight planning. The results provide specific guidance for the design of such systems.

  14. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  15. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-06-10

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.

  16. Threats and Re-emergence of Chickungunya Fever in Indian Sub-continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are among the most frequent and dreaded risk to which mankind is exposed today, human health is inextricably linked to animal health and production. Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vector borne viral diseases were recorded in South-east Asia and the Western Pacific and there was sudden upsurge in the number of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases in Indian Sub-continent and Chikungunya fever is one of them. The precise reasons for the re-emergence of Chikungunya in the Indian subcontinent as well as the other small countries in the southern Indian Ocean are an enigma. Although, it is well recognized that re-emergence of viral infections are due to a variety of social, environmental, behavioural and biological changes, which of these contributed to the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus would be interesting to unravel. Chikungunya is generally spread through bites of infected mosquitoes; mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a animal infected with CHIK virus. Monkey and possibly other wild animals may serve as reservoirs of infection. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 40-42

  17. Mechanisms of innate immune evasion in re-emerging RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Daphne Y; Suthar, Mehul S

    2015-06-01

    Recent outbreaks of Ebola, West Nile, Chikungunya, Middle Eastern Respiratory and other emerging/re-emerging RNA viruses continue to highlight the need to further understand the virus-host interactions that govern disease severity and infection outcome. As part of the early host antiviral defense, the innate immune system mediates pathogen recognition and initiation of potent antiviral programs that serve to limit virus replication, limit virus spread and activate adaptive immune responses. Concordantly, viral pathogens have evolved several strategies to counteract pathogen recognition and cell-intrinsic antiviral responses. In this review, we highlight the major mechanisms of innate immune evasion by emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses, focusing on pathogens that pose significant risk to public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Re-spending rebound: A macro-level assessment for OECD countries and emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, Miklós; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that energy conservation can lead to rebound effects that partly offset the original energy savings. One particular rebound mechanism is re-spending of money savings associated with energy savings on energy intensive goods or services. We calculate the average magnitude of this “re-spending rebound” for different fuels and countries, and for both energy and carbon (CO 2 ) emissions. We find that emerging economies, neglected in past studies, typically have larger rebounds than OECD countries. Since such economies play an increasingly important role in the global economy the re-spending rebound is a growing concern. The re-spending effect is generally larger for gasoline than for natural gas and electricity. Paradoxically, stronger financial incentives to conserve energy tend to increase the rebound. This suggests that with climate regulation and peak oil the re-spending rebound may become more important. We discuss the policy implications of our findings. - highlights: • Energy and carbon rebound due to re-spending of money savings is analyzed. • The average magnitude of this rebound is calculated for several countries. • Emerging economies typically have substantially larger rebounds than OECD countries. • The effect is generally stronger for gasoline than for natural gas and electricity. • Policy conclusions are drawn

  19. Diagnosis and management of new and re-emerging diseases of highbush blueberries in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries are an important commodity in Michigan and disease management is crucial for production of high-quality fruit. Over the past 6 years, a number of new and re-emerging diseases have been diagnosed in the state. In 2009, Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) and Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) were ...

  20. The re-emergence of tuberculosis: what have we learnt from molecular epidemiology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, M.W.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has re-emerged over the past two decades: in industrialized countries in association with immigration, and in Africa owing to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic. Drug-resistant TB is a major threat worldwide. The variable and uncertain impact of TB control necessitates not

  1. Emergency planning and preparedness for re-entry of a nuclear powered satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This safety practice report provides a general overview of the management of incidents or emergencies that may be created when nuclear power sources employed in space systems accidentally re-enter the earth's atmosphere and impact on its surface. 8 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  2. Factors contributing to and strategies to combat emerging arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, David Michael

    2018-04-17

    Less than half a century ago infectious diseases appeared to be destined to be extinguished via as a culmination of medical triumphs. As focus turned towards combating non-communicable diseases, emerging and re-emerging diseases (EIDs) have bloomed from those ashes. Five epidemic mosquito-borne arboviruses (Yellow Fever virus (YFV), Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus) have emerged in the recent past. Arboviruses are of the utmost importance with respect to EIDs due to intensive growth of globalisation, arthropod urban fitness/adaption, and environmental changes. We focus on recent outbreaks of the arthropod borne viruses (arboviruses) Zika virus and YFV. Factors contributing to the blossoming of EIDs (environmental, globalisation, and urbanisation) and combating strategies (surveillance, containment, and prevention) will be discussed. Specifically, Zika virus and YFV will be used in the context of these factors and strategies. YFV is discussed in detail as it pertains to these factors and strategies in the United States (US), 2017 Brazil Outbreak, 2016 Africa Outbreak, and global risk. Vigilance is needed to focus on, prevent, and control the current and next arbovirus EIDs.

  3. age-related macular degeneration -an emerging and re-emerging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The result of the study is presenting ARMD as an emerging public health concern hence this review. ... lines appears wavy, e.g. graph paper or the lines ... vessels and burning them off. ... curcumin, all have the characteristics to inhibit.

  4. Role of India's wildlife in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, risk factors and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Gajadhar, A A

    2014-10-01

    Evolving land use practices have led to an increase in interactions at the human/wildlife interface. The presence and poor knowledge of zoonotic pathogens in India's wildlife and the occurrence of enormous human populations interfacing with, and critically linked to, forest ecosystems warrant attention. Factors such as diverse migratory bird populations, climate change, expanding human population and shrinking wildlife habitats play a significant role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens from India's wildlife. The introduction of a novel Kyasanur forest disease virus (family flaviviridae) into human populations in 1957 and subsequent occurrence of seasonal outbreaks illustrate the key role that India's wild animals play in the emergence and reemergence of zoonotic pathogens. Other high priority zoonotic diseases of wildlife origin which could affect both livestock and humans include influenza, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, plague, leptospirosis, anthrax and leishmaniasis. Continuous monitoring of India's extensively diverse and dispersed wildlife is challenging, but their use as indicators should facilitate efficient and rapid disease-outbreak response across the region and occasionally the globe. Defining and prioritizing research on zoonotic pathogens in wildlife are essential, particularly in a multidisciplinary one-world one-health approach which includes human and veterinary medical studies at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. This review indicates that wild animals play an important role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens and provides brief summaries of the zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in India. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Experts' Perceptions on China's Capacity to Manage Emerging and Re-emerging Zoonotic Diseases in an Era of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A; Xiang, J; Liu, Q; Tong, M X; Sun, Y; Liu, X; Chen, K; Cameron, S; Hanson-Easey, S; Han, G-S; Weinstein, P; Williams, C; Bi, P

    2017-11-01

    Zoonotic diseases transmitted by arthropods and rodents are a major public health concern in China. However, interventions in recent decades have helped lower the incidence of several diseases despite the country's large, frequently mobile population and socio-economic challenges. Increasing globalization, rapid urbanization and a warming climate now add to the complexity of disease control and prevention and could challenge China's capacity to respond to threats of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. To investigate this notion, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 30 infectious disease experts in four cities in China. The case study diseases under discussion were malaria, dengue fever and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, all of which may be influenced by changing meteorological conditions. Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. The study participants viewed the current disease prevention and control system favourably and were optimistic about China's capacity to manage climate-sensitive diseases in the future. Several recommendations emerged from the data including the need to improve health literacy in the population regarding the transmission of infectious diseases and raising awareness of the health impacts of climate change amongst policymakers and health professionals. Participants thought that research capacity could be strengthened and human resources issues for front-line staff should be addressed. It was considered important that authorities are well prepared in advance for outbreaks such as dengue fever in populous subtropical areas, and a prompt and coordinated response is required when outbreaks occur. Furthermore, health professionals need to remain skilled in the identification of diseases for which incidence is declining, so that re-emerging or emerging trends can be rapidly identified. Recommendations such as these may be useful in formulating adaptation plans and capacity building for the future control and

  6. Human tularemia in Italy. Is it a re-emerging disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, D; Napoli, C; Nusca, A; Bella, A; Funari, E

    2015-07-01

    Tularemia is a contagious infectious disease due to Francisiella tularensis that can cause serious clinical manifestations and significant mortality if untreated. Although the frequency and significance of the disease has diminished over the last decades in Central Europe, over the past few years, there is new evidence suggesting that tularemia has re-emerged worldwide. To know the real epidemiology of the disease is at the root of correct control measures. In order to evaluate whether tularemia is re-emerging in Italy, data on mortality and morbidity (obtained by the National Institute of Statistics; ISTAT), Italian cases described in the scientific literature and data concerning hospitalizations for tularemia (obtained by the National Hospital Discharge Database) were analysed. From 1979 to 2010, ISTAT reported 474 cases and no deaths. The overall number of cases obtained from the literature review was at least 31% higher than that reported by ISTAT. Moreover, the number of cases reported by ISTAT was 3·5 times smaller than hospitalized cases. In Italy tularemia is sporadic, rarely endemic and self-limiting; but, although the trend of reported tularemia does not support the hypothesis of a re-emerging disease, the study demonstrates a wide underreporting of the disease. The real frequency of the disease should be carefully investigated and taken into account in order to implement specific prevention measures.

  7. Mycoplasmas and their host: emerging and re-emerging minimal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, Christine; Blanchard, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Commonly known as mycoplasmas, bacteria of the class Mollicutes include the smallest and simplest life forms capable of self replication outside of a host. Yet, this minimalism hides major human and animal pathogens whose prevalence and occurrence have long been underestimated. Owing to advances in sequencing methods, large data sets have become available for a number of mycoplasma species and strains, providing new diagnostic approaches, typing strategies, and means for comprehensive studies. A broader picture is thus emerging in which mycoplasmas are successful pathogens having evolved a number of mechanisms and strategies for surviving hostile environments and adapting to new niches or hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Homelessness: patterns of emergency department use and risk factors for re-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G; Gerdtz, M F; Hepworth, G; Manias, E

    2011-05-01

    To describe patterns of service use and to predict risk factors for re-presentation to a metropolitan emergency department (ED) among people who are homeless. A retrospective cohort analysis was undertaken over a 24-month period from a principal referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. All ED visits relating to people classified as homeless were included. A predictive model for risk of re-presentation was developed using logistic regression with random effects. Rates of re-presentation, defined as the total number of visits to the same ED within 28 days of discharge, were measured. The study period was 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2004. The re-presentation rate for homeless people was 47.8% (3199/6689) of ED visits and 45.5% (725/1595) of the patients. The final predictive model included risk factors, which incorporated both hospital and community service use. Those characteristics that resulted in significantly increased odds of re-presentation were leaving hospital at own risk (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.56), treatment in another hospital (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.72) and being in receipt of community-based case management (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.54) or pension (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.62). The predictive model identified nine risk factors of re-presentation to the ED for people who are homeless. Early identification of these factors among homeless people may alert clinicians to the complexity of issues influencing an individual ED visit. This information can be used at admission and discharge by ensuring that homeless people have access to services commensurate with their health needs. Improved linkage between community and hospital services must be underscored by the capacity to provide safe and secure housing.

  9. Mathematical and statistical modeling for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Hyman, James

    2016-01-01

    The contributions by epidemic modeling experts describe how mathematical models and statistical forecasting are created to capture the most important aspects of an emerging epidemic.Readers will discover a broad range of approaches to address questions, such as Can we control Ebola via ring vaccination strategies? How quickly should we detect Ebola cases to ensure epidemic control? What is the likelihood that an Ebola epidemic in West Africa leads to secondary outbreaks in other parts of the world? When does it matter to incorporate the role of disease-induced mortality on epidemic models? What is the role of behavior changes on Ebola dynamics? How can we better understand the control of cholera or Ebola using optimal control theory? How should a population be structured in order to mimic the transmission dynamics of diseases such as chlamydia, Ebola, or cholera? How can we objectively determine the end of an epidemic? How can we use metapopulation models to understand the role of movement restrictions and mi...

  10. Nanomedicine-emerging or re-emerging ethical issues? A discussion of four ethical themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Christian; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2007-06-01

    Nanomedicine plays a prominent role among emerging technologies. The spectrum of potential applications is as broad as it is promising. It includes the use of nanoparticles and nanodevices for diagnostics, targeted drug delivery in the human body, the production of new therapeutic materials as well as nanorobots or nanoprotheses. Funding agencies are investing large sums in the development of this area, among them the European Commission, which has launched a large network for life-sciences related nanotechnology. At the same time government agencies as well as the private sector are putting forward reports of working groups that have looked into the promises and risks of these developments. This paper will begin with an introduction to the central ethical themes as identified by selected reports from Europe and beyond. In a next step, it will analyse the most frequently invoked ethical concerns-risk assessment and management, the issues of human identity and enhancement, possible implications for civil liberties (e.g. nanodevices that might be used for covert surveillance), and concerns about equity and fair access. Although it seems that the main ethical issues are not unique to nanotechnologies, the conclusion will argue against shrugging them off as non-specific items that have been considered before in the context of other biomedical technologies, such as gene therapy or xenotransplantation. Rather, the paper will call on ethicists to help foster a rational, fair and participatory discourse on the different potential applications of nanotechnologies in medicine, which can form the basis for informed and responsible societal and political decisions.

  11. Re-evaluation of emergency planning zone for 3 NPPS in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, S.-T.; Yin, H.-L.; Chen, C.-S.; Shih, C.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The emergency planning zone for the 3 nuclear power plants in Taiwan are re-evaluated. The analysis is performed by the CRAC2 code and the basic approach follows the NUREG-0396 evaluation procedure. Meteorological data are provided by Taiwan Power Company and reviewed by Taiwan University and Central Weather Bureau. Accident source terms are also provided by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) by probabilistic risk assessment method with consideration of actual plant system improvement and/or modification. The dose rate distribution, acute and latent cancer fatality are evaluated and compared with proposed EPZ decision criteria including protective action guide dose levels, individual and societal risk safety goal. (author)

  12. Zika, chikungunya and dengue: the causes and threats of new and re-emerging arboviral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Enny S; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2018-01-01

    The recent emergence and re-emergence of viral infections transmitted by vectors-Zika, chikungunya, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever and others-is a cause for international concern. Using as examples Zika, chikungunya and dengue, we summarise current knowledge on characteristics of the viruses and their transmission, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, burden, history, possible causes of the spread and the expectation for future epidemics. Arboviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, are of difficult diagnosis, can have surprising clinical complications and cause severe burden. The current situation is complex, because there is no vaccine for Zika and chikungunya and no specific treatment for the three arboviruses. Vector control is the only comprehensive solution available now and this remains a challenge because up to now this has not been very effective. Until we develop new technologies of control mosquito populations, the globalised and urbanised world we live in will remain vulnerable to the threat of successive arbovirus epidemics.

  13. How is Europe positioned for a re-emergence of Schmallenberg virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Anastasios; Daly, Janet M; Maddison, Ben; Gough, Kevin; Tarlinton, Rachael

    2017-12-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) caused a large scale epidemic in Europe from 2011 to 2013, infecting ruminants and causing foetal deformities after infection of pregnant animals. The main impact of the virus was financial loss due to restrictions on trade of animals, meat and semen. Although effective vaccines were produced, their uptake was never high. Along with the subsequent decline in new SBV infections and natural replacement of previously exposed livestock, this has resulted in a decrease in the number of protected animals. Recent surveillance has shown that a large population of naïve animals is currently present in Europe and that the virus is circulating at a low level. These changes in animal status, in combination with favourable conditions for insect vectors, may open the door to the re-emergence of SBV and another large scale outbreak in Europe. This review details the potential and preparedness for SBV re-emergence in Europe, discusses possible co-ordinated sentinel monitoring programmes for ruminant seroconversion and the presence of SBV in the insect vectors, and provides an overview of the economic impact associated with diagnosis, control and the effects of non-vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Landscape of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in China: impact of ecology, climate, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiyong; Xu, Wenbo; Lu, Shan; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhou, Jieping; Shao, Zhujun; Liu, Xiaobo; Xu, Lei; Xiong, Yanwen; Zheng, Han; Jin, Sun; Jiang, Hai; Cao, Wuchun; Xu, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    For the past several decades, the infectious disease profile in China has been shifting with rapid developments in social and economic aspects, environment, quality of food, water, housing, and public health infrastructure. Notably, 5 notifiable infectious diseases have been almost eradicated, and the incidence of 18 additional notifiable infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. Unexpectedly, the incidence of over 10 notifiable infectious diseases, including HIV, brucellosis, syphilis, and dengue fever, has been increasing. Nevertheless, frequent infectious disease outbreaks/events have been reported almost every year, and imported infectious diseases have increased since 2015. New pathogens and over 100 new genotypes or serotypes of known pathogens have been identified. Some infectious diseases seem to be exacerbated by various factors, including rapid urbanization, large numbers of migrant workers, changes in climate, ecology, and policies, such as returning farmland to forests. This review summarizes the current experiences and lessons from China in managing emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, especially the effects of ecology, climate, and behavior, which should have merits in helping other countries to control and prevent infectious diseases.

  15. Physiological responses of astronaut candidates to simulated +Gx orbital emergency re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Xue, Yueying; Wu, Ping; Gu, Zhiming; Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu

    2012-08-01

    We investigated astronaut candidates' physiological and pathological responses to +Gx exposure during simulated emergency return from a running orbit to advance astronaut +Gx tolerance training and medical support in manned spaceflight. There were 13 male astronaut candidates who were exposed to a simulated high +Gx acceleration profile in a spacecraft during an emergency return lasting for 230 s. The peak value was 8.5 G. Subjective feelings and symptoms, cardiovascular and respiratory responses, and changes in urine component before, during, and after +Gx exposure were investigated. Under high +Gx exposure, 15.4% of subjects exhibited arrhythmia. Heart rate (HR) increased significantly and four different types of HR response curves were distinguished. The ratio of QT to RR interval on the electrocardiograms was significantly increased. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) declined with increasing G value and then returned gradually. SaO2 reached a minimum (87.7%) at 3 G during the decline phase of the +Gx curve. Respiratory rate increased significantly with increasing G value, while the amplitude and area of the respiratory waves were significantly reduced. The overshoot appeared immediately after +Gx exposure. A few subjects suffered from slight injuries, including positive urine protein (1/13), positive urinary occult blood (1/13), and a large area of petechiae on the back (1/13). Astronaut candidates have relatively good tolerance to the +Gx profile during a simulation of spacecraft emergent ballistic re-entry. However, a few subjects exhibited adverse physiological responses and slight reversible pathological injuries.

  16. Zika Virus: Critical Information for Emergency Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Siri; Koenig, Kristi L; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. It is primarily a minimally symptomatic mosquito-borne infection. However, with Zika's 2015 to 2016 introduction into the Western Hemisphere and its dramatic and rapid spread, it has become a public health concern, in large part due to congenital abnormalities associated with infection in pregnant women. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared the microcephaly and other neurologic conditions associated with Zika virus infection a public health emergency of international concern. This article discusses the current epidemiologic and clinical understanding of Zika virus, focusing on critical information needed by emergency providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular characterization of novel mosquito-borne Rickettsia spp. from mosquitoes collected at the Demilitarized Zone of the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Alice N; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Yang, Yu; Mullins, Kristin; Jiang, Ju; St John, Heidi; Jarman, Richard G; Hang, Jun; Richards, Allen L

    2017-01-01

    Rickettsiae are associated with a diverse range of invertebrate hosts. Of these, mosquitoes could emerge as one of the most important vectors because of their ability to transmit significant numbers of pathogens and parasites throughout the world. Recent studies have implicated Anopheles gambiae as a potential vector of Rickettsia felis. Herein we report that a metagenome sequencing study identified rickettsial sequence reads in culicine mosquitoes from the Republic of Korea. The detected rickettsiae were characterized by a genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR assay and sequencing of rrs, gltA, 17kDa, ompB, and sca4 genes. Three novel rickettsial genotypes were detected (Rickettsia sp. A12.2646, Rickettsia sp. A12.2638 and Rickettsia sp. A12.3271), from Mansonia uniformis, Culex pipiens, and Aedes esoensis, respectively. The results underscore the need to determine the Rickettsia species diversity associated with mosquitoes, their evolution, distribution and pathogenic potential.

  18. The re-emergence of sodium ion batteries: testing, processing, and manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Samuel; Kendrick, Emma

    2018-01-01

    With the re-emergence of sodium ion batteries (NIBs), we discuss the reasons for the recent interests in this technology and discuss the synergies between lithium ion battery (LIB) and NIB technologies and the potential for NIB as a “drop-in” technology for LIB manufacturing. The electrochemical testing of sodium materials in sodium metal anode arrangements is reviewed. The performance, stability, and polarization of the sodium in these test cells lead to alternative testing in three-electrode and alternative anode cell configurations. NIB manufacturability is also discussed, together with the impact that the material stability has upon the electrodes and coating. Finally, full-cell NIB technologies are reviewed, and literature proof-of-concept cells give an idea of some of the key differences in the testing protocols of these batteries. For more commercially relevant formats, safety, passive voltage control through cell balancing and cell formation aspects are discussed. PMID:29910609

  19. Re-Emergent Inhibition of Cochlear Inner Hair Cells in a Mouse Model of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Stephen Paul; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss among the elderly correlates with diminished social, mental, and physical health. Age-related cochlear cell death does occur, but growing anatomical evidence suggests that synaptic rearrangements on sensory hair cells also contribute to auditory functional decline. Here we present voltage-clamp recordings from inner hair cells of the C57BL/6J mouse model of age-related hearing loss, which reveal that cholinergic synaptic inputs re-emerge during aging. These efferents are functionally inhibitory, using the same ionic mechanisms as do efferent contacts present transiently before the developmental onset of hearing. The strength of efferent inhibition of inner hair cells increases with hearing threshold elevation. These data indicate that the aged cochlea regains features of the developing cochlea and that efferent inhibition of the primary receptors of the auditory system re-emerges with hearing impairment. Synaptic changes in the auditory periphery are increasingly recognized as important factors in hearing loss. To date, anatomical work has described the loss of afferent contacts from cochlear hair cells. However, relatively little is known about the efferent innervation of the cochlea during hearing loss. We performed intracellular recordings from mouse inner hair cells across the lifespan and show that efferent innervation of inner hair cells arises in parallel with the loss of afferent contacts and elevated hearing threshold during aging. These efferent neurons inhibit inner hair cells, raising the possibility that they play a role in the progression of age-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359701-06$15.00/0.

  20. Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya of Northeastern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A Morales

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV, St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV, West Nile (WNV and Yellow Fever (YFV viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV and Ilheus virus (ILHV activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility. From July-August 2010, we conducted serological and molecular surveys in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya captured in northeastern Argentina. We used 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90 to analyze 108 serum samples for antibodies to WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV (serotypes 1and 3, ILHV, and BSQV. Virus genome detection was performed using generic reverse transcription (RT-nested PCR to identify flaviviruses in 51 antibody-negative animals. Seventy animals had antibodies for one or more flaviviruses for a total antibody prevalence of 64.8% (70/108. Monotypic (13/70, 19% and heterotypic (27/70, 39% patterns were differentiated. Specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV, SLEV, DENV-1, DENV-3, ILHV, and BSQV were found. Unexpectedly, the highest flavivirus antibody prevalence detected was to WNV with 9 (8.33% monotypic responses. All samples tested by (RT-nested PCR were negative for viral genome. This is the first detection of WNV-specific antibodies in black howlers from Argentina and the first report in free-ranging non-human primates from Latin-American countries. Given that no animals had specific neutralizing antibodies to YFV, our results suggest that the study population remains susceptible to YFV. Monitoring of these agents should be strengthened to detect the establishment of sylvatic cycles of flaviviruses in America and evaluate risks to wildlife and human health.

  1. Establishment of Aedes aegypti (L.) in mountainous regions in Mexico: Increasing number of population at risk of mosquito-borne disease and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equihua, Miguel; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Benítez, Griselda; Estrada-Contreras, Israel; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Mendoza-Palmero, Fredy S

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted in the central region of Veracruz Mexico, in the metropolitan area of Xalapa. It is a mountainous area where Aedes aegypti (L.) is not currently endemic. An entomological survey was done along an elevation gradient using the Ae. aegypti occurrences at different life cycle stages. Seven sites were sampled and a total of 24 mosquito species were recorded: 9 species were found in urban areas, 18 in non-urban areas with remnant vegetation, and 3 occurred in both environments. Ae. aegypti was found only in the urban areas, usually below 1200m a.s.l., but in this study was recorded for the first time at 1420m a.s.l. These occurrences, together with additional distribution data in the state of Veracruz were used to developed species distribution models using Maxlike software in R to identify the current projected suitable areas for the establishment of this vector and the human populations that might be affected by dengue transmission at higher elevations. Its emergence in previously unsuitable places appears to be driven by both habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization. A border study using data from the edges of the vector's distribution might allow sensitive monitoring to detect any changes in this mosquito's distribution pattern, and any changes in the anthropic drivers or climate that could increase transmission risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Quebec: Re-emergence among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, C A; Venne, S; Fiset, M; Fortin, C; Murphy, D; Severini, A; Martineau, C; Longtin, J; Labbé, A C

    2018-02-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes L 1 , L 2 and L 3 . This LGV is associated with significant morbidity and increased risk of HIV transmission. While fewer than two cases per year were reported in Quebec before 2005, LGV emerged in 2005-2006 with 69 cases, followed by a period of low incidence (2007-2012), and subsequent re-emergence since 2013. To describe the incidence of LGV in Quebec and the characteristics of the affected population, including demographics and risk factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments and reinfection rates. Descriptive data were collected from the notifiable diseases records through the Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ) infocentre portal. Questionnaires were obtained through the enhanced surveillance system and transmitted anonymously to the Quebec Ministry of Health. In-depth analysis was performed on cases from 2013 to 2016. There were 338 cases of LGV over the four-year period in Quebec. All cases were male, excluding one transsexual. Mean age was 41 years. Most lived in Montréal (81%) and were men who have sex with men (MSM; 99%). The majority (83%) reported four sexual partners or more in the last year, met mostly through the Internet (77%) and in saunas (73%). Frequency of sexual intercourse with out-of-province residents decreased in 2013-2016 (27%) compared with 2005-2012 (38%). History of STIs was frequent: 83% were HIV-infected, 81% reported previous syphilis and 78% previous gonorrhea. Recreational drug use was frequent (57%), reaching 71% in 2016. Most cases were symptomatic, a proportion which decreased in 2016 (68%) compared with 2013-2015 (82%; p =0.006). Clinical presentations included proctitis (86%), lymphadenopathy (13%) and ulcer/papule (12%). Reinfections, mostly within two years of first infection, occurred in 35 individuals (10%). Conclusion: The re-emergence of LGV in Quebec involves an urban

  3. Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Haitian immigrants and the risk of re-emergence of lymphatic filariasis in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Fidelis da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a public health problem in Haiti. Thus, the emigration of Haitians to Brazil is worrisome because of the risk for LF re-emergence. METHODS: Blood samples of Haitian immigrants, aged ≥18 years, who emigrated to Manaus (Brazilian Amazon, were examined using thick blood smears, membrane blood filtration, and immunochromatography. RESULTS: Of the 244 immigrants evaluated, 1 (0.4% tested positive for W. bancrofti; 11.5% reported as having received LF treatment in Haiti. CONCLUSIONS: The re-emergence of LF in Manaus is unlikely, due to its low prevalence and low density of microfilaremia among the assessed Haitian immigrants.

  4. Are we prepared for emerging and re-emerging diseases? Experience and lessons from epidemics that occurred in Tanzania during the last five decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Mboera, Leonard E G; Mbugi, Erasto; Simba, Azma; Kivaria, Fredrick M; Mmbuji, Peter; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2011-12-01

    This paper reviews preparedness for containing and controlling emerging and re-emerging diseases drawing lessons from disease events that occurred in animal and human populations in the last five decades (1961-2011). A comprehensive analysis based on retrieval and analysis of grey and published literature as well as reported cases was carried out to document type and trend of occurrence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in different parts of Tanzania. Overall, the majority of diseases reported in the country were viral in nature followed by bacterial diseases. The trend for the occurrence shows a number of new emerging diseases as well as re-occurrence of old diseases in both animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. In humans, the major disease epidemics reported in the last five decades include cholera, influenza A H1N1, plague and rubella. In animals, the major epidemic diseases reported were Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia, Peste des petits ruminants and Giraffe Ear and Skin Diseases. Some epidemics have been reported in both human and animal populations including Rift Valley fever and anthrax. The emergence of the 'fit-for purpose' approaches and technologies such as the discipline of One Health, use of participatory epidemiology and disease surveillance and mobile technologies offers opportunity for optimal use of limited resources to improve early detection, diagnosis and response to disease events and consequently reduced impact of such diseases in animal and human populations.

  5. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Re-attenders to the emergency department of a major urban hospital serving a population of 290,000.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasubbu, B

    2015-01-01

    The national Emergency Medicine Programme (EMP) in Ireland, defines a re-attender as any patient re-presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) within 28 days with the same chief complaint. A retrospective, electronic patient record audit was carried out on all re-attenders to Connolly ED during November 2012. There were 2919 attendances made up from 2530 patients; 230 patients re-attended a total of 389 times. The re-attendance rate was 13% (389\\/2919). 63 (27%) were frequent presenters. There was a significantly higher admission rate at second attendance than first (89 (39%) vs 39 (17%), p < 0.001). 25% (57\\/230) of patients \\'left before completion of treatment\\' (LBCT) at first attendance (significantly higher than the number at second attendance (p < 0.01)). 14\\/57 (25%) of those who LBCT at first attendance required admission at second attendance. 28\\/89 (31%) of second attendance admissions were failed discharges from first attendance. Reasons for re-attendance are multi-factorial and include both patient and departmental factors.

  7. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, Suppl. 1 (2008), S29-S43 ISSN 0932-0113. [Vector-borne diseases: impact of climate change on vectors and rodent reservoirs. Berlin, 27.09.2007-28.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : moboviruses * epidemiology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  8. Scrub typhus re-emergence in India: Contributing factors and way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Jai; Prakash, John Antony Jude

    2018-06-01

    Scrub typhus is a mite borne infectious disease which has re-emerged in India in the 3rd millennium after years of quiescence. In this review, the authors hypothesize the various factors responsible for resurgence of this disease. The main drivers that could have contributed to the upsurge in scrub typhus cases in past two decades are changes in land use land cover (LULC) and urbanisation which are; as a result of the population explosion, causing a strain on sanitation and also increased diversion of forest land for agricultural use. In addition, the availability of better tests, changes in antimicrobial use, climate change also could have impacted the epidemiology, which is showing an upward trend as is evidenced by increasing reports and concomitant publications from India on scrub typhus. Scrub typhus cases are supposed to increase in the coming years as factors like global warming, urbanisation, changes in LULC and rise in AMR (anti-microbial resistance) will be difficult or impossible to control. Therefore, increasing awareness of public and health care professionals regarding scrub typhus coupled with availability of rapid diagnostic assays and implementation of appropriate treatment protocols for control of AFI (acute febrile illness) especially at the community level will help mitigate the scenario in the long run. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Policies and Livestock Systems Driving Brucellosis Re-emergence in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Wendy; Coker, Richard; Nurtazina, Gulzhan; Guitian, Javier

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a considerable public health and economic burden in many areas of the world including sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and former USSR countries. The collapse of the USSR has been cited as a driver for re-emergence of diseases including brucellosis, and human incidence rates in the former Soviet republics have been estimated as high as 88 per 100,000 per year. The aim of this paper is to examine the historical trends in brucellosis in Kazakhstan and to explore how livestock systems, veterinary services and control policies may have influenced them. In conclusion, a brucellosis epidemic most likely began before the collapse of the USSR and high livestock densities may have played an important role. Changes to the livestock systems in Kazakhstan, as well as other factors, are likely to have an impact on the success of brucellosis policies in the future. Incentives and practicalities of different policies in smallholder settings should be considered. However, the lack of reliable estimates of brucellosis prevalence and difficulties in understanding exactly how policy is being applied in Kazakhstan, which is a vast country with low population density, prevent firm conclusions from being drawn.

  10. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López-Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM. The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM, with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  11. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alcalde, Daniel; Hernández-Villalba, Luis; Moreno-Sánchez, Diego; Lumbreras-Cabrera, Mercedes; Barros-Aguado, Carlos; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM).The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM), with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  12. Re-emergence of cholera in the Americas: Risks, susceptibility, and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu JP Poirier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The re-emergence of cholera in Haiti has established a new reservoir for the seventh cholera pandemic which threatens to spread to other countries in the Americas. Materials and Methods: Statistics from this new epidemic are compared to the 1991 Peru epidemic, which demonstrated the speed and complexity with which this disease can spread from country to country. Environmental factors implicated in the spread of Vibrio cholerae such as ocean currents and temperatures, as well as biotic factors from zooplankton to waterfowl pose a risk for many countries in the Americas. Results: The movement of people and goods from Hispaniola are mostly destined for North America, but occur to some degree throughout the Americas. These modes of transmission, and the probability of uncontrolled community spread beyond Hispaniola, however, are completely dependent upon risk factors within these countries such as water quality and availability of sanitation. Although North America has excellent coverage of these deterrents to the spread of infectious gastrointestinal diseases, many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean lack these basic services and infrastructures. Conclusions : In order to curb the immediate spread of cholera in Hispaniola, treatment availability should be expanded to all parts of the island and phase II epidemic management initiatives must be developed.

  13. A emergência do autor Pierre Rivière/The emergence of the Pierre Rivière author

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Duarte Bonini Mariguela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo apresento uma análise do caso de parricídio / fraticídio cometido por um jovem camponês francês, nascido na comuna de Courvaudon, Pierre Rivière que em 3 de junho de 1835, aos vinte anos, assassinou a golpes de foice sua mãe grávida de sete meses, sua irmã de 18 anos, e seu irmão de sete anos. O livro intitulado Eu, Pierre Rivière, que degolei minha mãe, minha irmã e meu irmão produzido pelo trabalho de uma equipe de pesquisadores, no Collège de France, sob a coordenação de Michel Foucault em 1973, apresenta em seu conjunto notícias de jornais, testemunhos, interrogatórios, laudos médicos e uma gama de diferentes discursos. Para empreender a análise do nó entre a escrita e o assassinato, utilizo a relação entre a escrita e o autor demarcando o personagem Rivière no desdobramento, na ordem do corpo e da linguagem. This paper has as aim to present an analysis of the case of patricide / fratricide cometed by a French Countryman, Pierre Rivière, who was born in the commune of Courvaudon, who, on July 3rd, 1835, at age of 20, killed his mother, his brother and sister with a sickle. His mother was in the seventh month of pregnancy, his sister was 18 and his brother was 7 years old. The book, whose name was “I, Pierre Riviere, Having Slaughtered My Mother, My Sister, and My Brother ...: A Case of Parricide in the Nineteenth Century” was produced by a group of researchers at the Collège de France, under the coordination of Michel Foucault in 1973, has a set of newspaper news, witnesses, inquiring, forensic medical reports and a variety of different texts. To understand and analyze the writings and the homicide, the relationship between writing and the author is used, marking the character Rivière unfolding body and language.

  14. Analysis of population structure and insecticide resistance in mosquitoes of the genus Culex, Anopheles and Aedes from different environments of Greece with a history of mosquito borne disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakis, Emmanouil A; Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Grigoraki, Linda; Tsiamantas, Alexandros; Kounadi, Stella; Georgiou, Loukas; Vontas, John

    2017-10-01

    Greece has been recently affected by several mosquito borne diseases with the West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in 2010 being one of the largest reported in Europe. Currently at the epicenter of an economic and refugee crisis and visited by over 16 million tourists a year the integrated management of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes is a public health and economic priority. Vector control programs rely mainly on insecticides, however data on insecticide resistance and the mosquito fauna is essential for successful applications. We determined the mosquito species composition and population dynamics in areas of increased vulnerability to vector borne disease transmission, as well as investigated the resistance status of major nuisance and disease vectors to insecticides. High mosquito densities were recorded in Thessaloniki and Evros, with Aedes caspius, a nuisance species, Culex pipiens, a known vector of WNV and Anopheles hyrcanus a potential vector of malaria being among the most prevalent species. Both vector species populations reached their peak in late summer. Aedes albopictus was recorded at high densities in Thessaloniki, but not in Evros. Notably, Cx. pipiens hybrids, which show an opportunistic biting behavior and are suspected to be involved in the transmission of the WNV, were recorded in considerable numbers in Thessaloniki and Attica. Culex pipiens and An. hyrcanus, but not Ae. caspius mosquitoes, showed moderate levels of resistance to deltamethrin. The presence of resistance in areas not exposed to vector control indicates that other factors could be selecting for resistance, i.e. pesticide applications for agriculture. Both L1014F and L101C kdr mutations were detected in Cx. pipiens populations. Anopheles hyrcanus resistance was not associated with mutations at the L1014 site. The Ace-1 mutations conferring insensitivity to organophosphates and carbamates were detected at low frequencies in all Cx. pipiens populations. Increased activity of P450s and

  15. Chikungunya fever: CNS infection and pathologies of a re-emerging arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Trina; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie Christine; Hoarau, Jean Jacques; Krejbich Trotot, Pascale; Denizot, Melanie; Lee-Pat-Yuen, Ghislaine; Sahoo, Renubala; Guiraud, Pascale; Ramful, Duksha; Robin, Stephanie; Alessandri, Jean Luc; Gauzere, Bernard Alex; Gasque, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and causes an acute symptomatic illness with fever, skin rash, and incapacitating arthralgia, which can evolve into chronic rheumatoid arthritis in elderly patients. This is a tropical disease originally described in central/east Africa in the 1960s, but its 2004 re-emergence in Africa and rapid spread in lands in and around the Indian Ocean (Reunion island, India, Malaysia) as well as Europe (Italy) led to almost 6 million cases worldwide. The risk of importation and spreading diseases with long-term sequelae is even greater today given the global distribution of the vectors (including in the Americas), increased tourism and the apparent capacity of CHIKV to produce high levels of viremia (10(9)-10(12) virus/ml of blood) and new mutants. CHIKV-associated neuropathology was described early in the 1960s, but it is the unprecedented incidence rate in Indian Ocean areas with efficient clinical facilities that allowed a better description of cases with severe encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, peripheral neuropathies and deaths among newborns (mother-to-child infection), infants and elderly patients. Death rates following CHIKV infection were estimated at 1:1000 cases in la Reunion's outbreak. These clinical observations have been corroborated by experimental infection in several mouse models, leading to CNS pathologies. We further describe in this review the capacity of CHIKV to infect neurons and glial cells, delineate the fundamental innate (intrinsic) immune defence mechanisms to protect from infection and argue about the possible mechanisms involved in the encephalopathy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tularemia, a re-emerging infectious disease in Iran and neighboring countrie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Afsaneh; Maurin, Max; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tularemia is a zoonotic disease transmitted by direct contact with infected animals and through arthropod bites, inhalation of contaminated aerosols, ingestion of contaminated meat or water, and skin contact with any infected material. It is widespread throughout the northern hemisphere, including Iran and its neighbors to the north, northeast, and northwest. METHODS: In this paper, the epidemiology of tularemia as a re-emerging infectious disease in the world with a focus on Iran and the neighboring countries is reviewed. RESULTS: In Iran, positive serological tests were first reported in 1973, in wildlife and domestic livestock in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the country. The first human case was reported in 1980 in the southwest of Iran, and recent studies conducted among at-risk populations in the western, southeastern, and southwestern parts of Iran revealed seroprevalences of 14.4, 6.52, and 6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors may explain the absence of reported tularemia cases in Iran since 1980. Tularemia may be underdiagnosed in Iran because Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica is likely to be the major etiological agent and usually causes mild to moderately severe disease. Furthermore, tularemia is not a disease extensively studied in the medical educational system in Iran, and empirical therapy may be effective in many cases. Finally, it should be noted that laboratories capable of diagnosing tularemia have only been established in the last few years. Since both recent and older studies have consistently found tularemia antibodies in humans and animals, the surveillance of this disease should receive more attention. In particular, it would be worthwhile for clinical researchers to confirm tularemia cases more often by isolating F. tularensis from infected humans and animals. PMID:25773439

  17. Prospective validation of a predictive model that identifies homeless people at risk of re-presentation to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gaye; Hepworth, Graham; Weiland, Tracey; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie Frances; Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David

    2012-02-01

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model to identify homeless people at risk of representation to an emergency department. A prospective cohort analysis utilised one month of data from a Principal Referral Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. All visits involving people classified as homeless were included, excluding those who died. Homelessness was defined as living on the streets, in crisis accommodation, in boarding houses or residing in unstable housing. Rates of re-presentation, defined as the total number of visits to the same emergency department within 28 days of discharge from hospital, were measured. Performance of the risk screening tool was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. Over the study period (April 1, 2009 to April 30, 2009), 3298 presentations from 2888 individuals were recorded. The homeless population accounted for 10% (n=327) of all visits and 7% (n=211) of all patients. A total of 90 (43%) homeless people re-presented to the emergency department. The predictive model included nine variables and achieved 98% (CI, 0.92-0.99) sensitivity and 66% (CI, 0.57-0.74) specificity. The positive predictive value was 68% and the negative predictive value was 98%. The positive likelihood ratio 2.9 (CI, 2.2-3.7) and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.03 (CI, 0.01-0.13). The high emergency department re-presentation rate for people who were homeless identifies unresolved psychosocial health needs. The emergency department remains a vital access point for homeless people, particularly after hours. The risk screening tool is key to identify medical and social aspects of a homeless patient's presentation to assist early identification and referral. Copyright © 2012 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A review on Zika virus, a re-emerging arbovirus: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Khodakhah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Before the recent outbreaks of Zika virus, few people have ever heard of its name. Even virologists had paid little attention to this member of the Flaviviridae family. Hence, up to January 2016, only 269 articles about Zika virus had been indexed in PubMed compared to the 9187 articles related to dengue virus. However, declaration of the World health organization (WHO about the global Zika virus spreading, which has been associated with birth defects and some neurological problems, diverted more attention to this forgotten virus. Afterwards, the virus hit the headlines and became a research interest. Since then, up to 9 August 2017, the number of Zika related articles indexed in PubMed reached to 3214. Zika virus is a re-emerging arbovirus. The First detection of Zika virus was in Uganda in 1947. It belongs to the Flavivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. Zika can typically cause a mild and self-limiting disease in a healthy person. However, in pregnant women, it might cause birth defects and occasionally it can be associated with peripheral neuropathy such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Although many research have been conducted to find out the casual link between this virus and these disorders but this relationship is still dim and controversial. Considering its recent epidemics in 2015 and 2016 the geographical distribution of Zika virus seems to expand all over the world progressively. Interaction between virus and vector is dynamic. Variety of competent vectors and adaptability of virus to new arthropod vectors are the two major factors for this process. According to the last report published by WHO, 84 countries/territories in five continents have reported the circulation of Zika virus in their area. In the recent outbreak, WHO regional office in our region (EMRO have reported no case of Zika virus transmission from this region. Nonetheless, because specific and competent vectors exist in some countries, this region has a potential of

  19. Particulate matter from re-suspended mineral dust and emergency cause-specific respiratory hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Vivian C.; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai

    2017-09-01

    While contribution from non-exhaust particulate matter (PM) emissions towards traffic-related emissions is increasing, few epidemiologic evidence of their health impact is available. We examined the association of short-term exposure to PM10 apportioned to re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for three major respiratory causes in Hong Kong between 2001 and 2008. Time-series regression model was constructed to examine association of PM10 from re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for upper respiratory infection (URI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma at exposure lag 0-5 days, adjusting for time trends, seasonality, temperature and relative humidity. An interquartile range (6.8 μg/m3) increment in re-suspended mineral dust on previous day was associated with 0.66% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.98) increase in total respiratory hospitalizations, and 1.01% (95% CI: 0.14, 1.88) increase in URI hospitalizations. A significant 0.66%-0.80% increases in risk of COPD hospitalizations were found after exposure to re-suspended mineral dust at lag 3 or later. Exposure to mineral dust at lag 4 was linked to 1.71% increase (95% CI: 0.14, 2.22) in asthma hospitalizations. Associations from single-pollutant models remained significant in multi-pollutant models, which additionally adjusted for PM10 contributing from vehicle exhaust, regional combustion, residual oil, fresh sea salt, aged sea salt, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, or gaseous pollutants (i.e., nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or ozone), respectively. Our findings provide insight into the biological mechanism by which non-exhaust pollution may be associated with risk of adverse respiratory outcomes, and also stress the needs for strategies to reduce emission and re-suspension of mineral dust. More research is warranted to assess the health effects of different non-exhaust PM emissions under various roadway conditions and vehicle fleets.

  20. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae: a re-emerging, multi-faceted, pandemic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scortichini, Marco; Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Petriccione, Milena; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of green-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (A. chinensis). A recent, sudden, re-emerging wave of this disease has occurred, almost contemporaneously, in all of the main areas of kiwifruit production in the world, suggesting that it can be considered as a pandemic disease. Recent in-depth genetic studies performed on P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains have revealed that this pathovar is composed of four genetically different populations which, to different extents, can infect crops of the genus Actinidia worldwide. Genome comparisons of these strains have revealed that this pathovar can gain and lose the phaseolotoxin gene cluster, as well as mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids and putative prophages, and that it can modify the repertoire of the effector gene arrays. In addition, the strains currently causing worldwide severe economic losses display an extensive set of genes related to the ecological fitness of the bacterium in planta, such as copper and antibiotic resistance genes, multiple siderophore genes and genes involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives and other phenolics. This pathogen can therefore easily colonize hosts throughout the year. Bacteria; Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision; Order Pseudomonadales; Family Pseudomonadaceae; Genus Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas syringae species complex, genomospecies 8; Pathovar actinidiae. Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, polar flagella, oxidase-negative, arginine dihydrolase-negative, DNA 58.5-58.8 mol.% GC, elicits the hypersensitive response on tobacco leaves. Primarily studied as the causal agent of bacterial canker of green-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), it has also been isolated from yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (A. chinensis). In both species, it causes severe economic losses worldwide. It has also been isolated from wild A. arguta and A. kolomikta. In green-fleshed and

  1. Hydro-Priming and Re-Drying Effects on Germination, Emergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrated seeds can be re-dried for four hours without loss of physiological ..... nature of the variety as it displays heterosis, the ... characters and hence dry matter production and yield. .... effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in melon.

  2. Re-Emerging Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in War-Affected Peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean Region—An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Raslan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past few decades, the Eastern Mediterranean Region has been one area of the world profoundly shaped by war and political instability. On-going conflict and destruction have left the region struggling with innumerable health concerns that have claimed the lives of many. Wars, and the chaos they leave behind, often provide the optimal conditions for the growth and re-emergence of communicable diseases. In this article, we highlight a few of the major re-emerging vaccine preventable diseases in four countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region that are currently affected by war leading to a migration crisis: Iraq, South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. We will also describe the impact these infections have had on patients, societies, and national health care services. This article also describes the efforts, both local and international, which have been made to address these crises, as well as future endeavors that can be done to contain and control further devastation left by these diseases.

  3. Food safety ontology and text mining strategies as a tool in (re)emerging risk identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, F. van de

    2009-01-01

    Industry and government are held responsible for the safety of food and feed products. Therefore actual and relevant information concerning emerging safety risks is crucial. But how is it possible to filter relevant information from the fast growing volumes of information produced by science and the

  4. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays.

  5. Re-Examination of the BEST Trial Using Composite Outcomes, Including Emergency Department Visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Mogensen, Ulrik M.

    2017-01-01

    that included emergency department (ED) visits. We also undertook an analysis of recurrent events primarily using the Lin, Wei, Ying, and Yang model. Results Overall, 448 (33%) patients on placebo and 411 (30%) patients on bucindolol died (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78 to 1.02; p...... = 0.11). A total of 730 (54%) patients experienced CVD/HFH on placebo and 624 (46%) on bucindolol (HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.89; p 0.90; p

  6. 'Hello, you're not supposed to be here': homeless emerging adults' experiences negotiating food access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Irish, Andrew

    2018-07-01

    We aimed to examine the food-seeking experiences of homeless emerging adults (age 18-24 years) in a US urban context. The study used a qualitative descriptive design, combining semi-structured interviews with a standardized quantitative measure of food insecurity. Interview data were coded using constant comparative methods to identify patterns across and within interviews. Emerging themes were confirmed and refined through member checking. Buffalo, a mid-sized city in the Northeastern USA. A sample of thirty participants was recruited through community-based methods. Eligibility criteria specified that participants were aged 18-24 years and did not have a stable place to live. The sample was demographically diverse and included participants who were couch-surfing, staying on the streets and/or using shelters. Participants' food access strategies varied across their living circumstances. Common strategies included purchasing food with cash or benefits (reported by 77 %), using free meal programmes (70 %) and eating at friends' or relatives' homes (47 %). Although 70 % of participants received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, several reported access barriers, including initial denials of eligibility due to being listed on a parent's application even when the participant no longer resided in the household. Participants described a stigma associated with using food pantries and free meal programmes and expressed preference for less institutionalized programmes such as Food Not Bombs. Given endemic levels of food insecurity among homeless youth and young adults, policy modifications and service interventions are needed to improve food access for this population.

  7. About three cases of ulceroglandular tularemia, is this the re-emergence of Francisella tularensis in Belgium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, E; Van Eeckhoudt, S; Thissen, X; Ausselet, N; Fretin, D; Stefanescu, I; Glupczynski, Y; Delaere, B

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by Francisella tularensis that can be transmitted by several ways to human being and cause different clinical manifestations. We report three clinical cases of tularemia with ulceroglandular presentation in young males acquired during outdoor activities in Southern Belgium. Confirmation of the diagnosis was established by serology. Only three cases of tularemia have been reported in Belgium between 1950 and 2012 by the National Reference Laboratory CODA-CERVA (Ref Lab CODA-CERVA) but re-emergence of tularemia is established in several European countries and F. tularensis is also well known to be present in animal reservoirs and vectors in Belgium. The diagnosis of tularemia has to be considered in case of suggestive clinical presentation associated with epidemiological risk factors.

  8. Shame veiled and unveiled: the shame affect and its re-emergence in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Mali

    2010-09-01

    The paper examines the psychoanalytic theory of shame and the importance of developmental aspects of the shame affect. In a clinical setting, the discovery of the shame affect, stemming from unconscious and early traumatic situations, is an important and useful approach in helping the patient access painful memories and defenses against them. The defenses disguise the underlying shame affect; furthermore, vision is being bound up with the searing painful affect of shame. The anticipatory dread of scornful gaze of another person, similar to objective self-awareness can cause mortification. Fear of mortification and being exposed emerges in the clinical setting. Through the recognition of enactments in the transference and countertransference interchange, the analyst helps the patient working through them. Several case vignettes demonstrate these important concepts. Finally, the author discusses how shame in certain situations can be a powerful, positive motivator for human interactions.

  9. Human Brucellosis Trends: Re-emergence and Prospects for Control Using a One Health Approach in Azerbaijan (1983-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, I T; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Ismayilova, R; Baghirova, M; Ustun, N; Shikhiyev, M; Talibzade, A; Blackburn, J K

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common and widely spread zoonotic diseases in the world. Control of the disease in humans is dependent upon limiting the infection in animals through surveillance and vaccination. Given the dramatic economic and political changes that have taken place in the former Soviet Union, which have limited control, evaluating the status of human brucellosis in former Soviet states is crucial. We assessed annual spatial and temporal trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Azerbaijan, 1983-2009, in conjunction with data from a livestock surveillance and control programme (2002-2009). To analyse trends, we used a combination of segmented regression and spatial analysis. From 1983 to 2009, a total of 11 233 cases of human brucellosis were reported. Up to the mid-1990s, the incidence of human brucellosis showed a pattern of re-emergence, increasing by 25% annually, on average. Following Soviet governance, the incidence rates peaked, increasing by 1.8% annually, on average, and subsequently decreasing by 5% annually, on average, during the period 2002-2009. Despite recent national declines in human incidence, we identified geographic changes in the case distribution characterized by a geographic expansion and an increasing incidence among districts clustered in the south-east, compared to a decrease of elsewhere in the country. Males were consistently, disproportionately afflicted (71%) and incidence was highest in the 15 to 19 age group (18.1 cases/100 000). During the period 2002-2009, >10 million small ruminants were vaccinated with Rev1. Our findings highlight the improving prospects for human brucellosis control following livestock vaccination; however, the disease appears to be re-emerging in south-eastern Azerbaijan. Sustained one health measures are needed to address changing patterns of brucellosis in Azerbaijan and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. © 2015 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell

  10. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good.

  11. Estimating the risk of re-emergence after stopping polio vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eSasaki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Live vaccination against polio has effectively prevented outbreaks in most developed countries for more than 40 years, and there remain only a few countries where outbreaks of poliomyelitis by the wild strain still threaten the community. It is expected that worldwide eradication will be eventually achieved through careful surveillance and a well-managed immunization program. The present paper argues, however, that based on a simple stochastic model the risk of outbreak by a vaccine-derived strain after the cessation of vaccination is quite high, even if many years have passed since the last confirmed case. As vaccinated hosts are natural reservoirs for virulent poliovirus, the source of the risk is the vaccination itself, employed to prevent the outbreaks. The crisis after stopping vaccination will emerge when the following two conditions are met: the susceptible host density exceeds the threshold for epidemics and the vaccinated host density remains large enough to ensure the occurrence of virulent mutants in the population. Our estimates for transmission, recovery, and mutation rates, show that the probability of an outbreak of vaccine-derived virulent viruses easily exceeds 90%. Moreover, if a small fraction of hosts have a longer infectious period, as observed in individuals with innate immunodeficiency, the risk of an outbreak rises significantly. Under such conditions, successful global eradication of polio is restricted to a certain range of parameters even if inactive polio vaccine (IPV is extensively used after the termination of live vaccination.

  12. The Russian oil industry re-structuration: towards the emergence of western type enterprises?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-01-01

    The Russian oil industry has undergone fundamental changes since the collapse of the Soviet Empire and its bureaucratic administrative structure, dominated by its various Branch Ministries. The monopoly in the Soviet oil industry has now been replaced by a number of ''oil companies'', some of which are very powerful, the best known of them being Lukoil. These ''joint stock companies'' are the product of a reform aimed essentially at implanting, out of all the numerous organisational arrangements developed in the West, the model of the vertically integrated private firm. Beyond the legal reforms in the Russian oil industry sector, however, the nature of the organisational model that has actually emerged in Russia begs several questions. Many entities, which are complex and highly diversified, are involved in this industry. There are, of course, the many private structures in which the banks sometimes carry a considerable amount of weight. There are also some vertically integrated organisations, but the degree of integration is variable and their method of centralization is based on a specific form of economic logic. It should not be considered, however, that these actors are similar to capitalist-type private enterprises, whose behaviour is regulated by the demands of international competition. Reform of property rights has not been sufficient to create true private enterprise in Russia. (author)

  13. The Russian oil industry re-structuration: towards the emergence of western type enterprises?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Russian oil industry has undergone fundamental changes since the collapse of the Soviet Empire and its bureaucratic administrative structure, dominated by its various Branch Ministries. The monopoly in the Soviet oil industry has now been replaced by a number of ''oil companies'', some of which are very powerful, the best known of them being Lukoil. These ''joint stock companies'' are the product of a reform aimed essentially at implanting, out of all the numerous organisational arrangements developed in the West, the model of the vertically integrated private firm. Beyond the legal reforms in the Russian oil industry sector, however, the nature of the organisational model that has actually emerged in Russia begs several questions. Many entities, which are complex and highly diversified, are involved in this industry. There are, of course, the many private structures in which the banks sometimes carry a considerable amount of weight. There are also some vertically integrated organisations, but the degree of integration is variable and their method of centralization is based on a specific form of economic logic. It should not be considered, however, that these actors are similar to capitalist-type private enterprises, whose behaviour is regulated by the demands of international competition. Reform of property rights has not been sufficient to create true private enterprise in Russia. (author)

  14. Multi-criteria decision analysis tools for prioritising emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases associated with climate change in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ruth; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is known to result in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. Reliable methods to identify the infectious diseases of humans and animals and that are most likely to be influenced by climate are therefore required. Since different priorities will affect the decision to address a particular pathogen threat, decision makers need a standardised method of prioritisation. Ranking methods and Multi-Criteria Decision approaches provide such a standardised method and were employed here to design two different pathogen prioritisation tools. The opinion of 64 experts was elicited to assess the importance of 40 criteria that could be used to prioritise emerging infectious diseases of humans and animals in Canada. A weight was calculated for each criterion according to the expert opinion. Attributes were defined for each criterion as a transparent and repeatable method of measurement. Two different Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis tools were tested, both of which used an additive aggregation approach. These were an Excel spreadsheet tool and a tool developed in software 'M-MACBETH'. The tools were trialed on nine 'test' pathogens. Two different methods of criteria weighting were compared, one using fixed weighting values, the other using probability distributions to account for uncertainty and variation in expert opinion. The ranking of the nine pathogens varied according to the weighting method that was used. In both tools, using both weighting methods, the diseases that tended to rank the highest were West Nile virus, Giardiasis and Chagas, while Coccidioidomycosis tended to rank the lowest. Both tools are a simple and user friendly approach to prioritising pathogens according to climate change by including explicit scoring of 40 criteria and incorporating weighting methods based on expert opinion. They provide a dynamic interactive method that can help to identify pathogens for which a full risk assessment should be pursued.

  15. Multi-criteria decision analysis tools for prioritising emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases associated with climate change in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cox

    Full Text Available Global climate change is known to result in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. Reliable methods to identify the infectious diseases of humans and animals and that are most likely to be influenced by climate are therefore required. Since different priorities will affect the decision to address a particular pathogen threat, decision makers need a standardised method of prioritisation. Ranking methods and Multi-Criteria Decision approaches provide such a standardised method and were employed here to design two different pathogen prioritisation tools. The opinion of 64 experts was elicited to assess the importance of 40 criteria that could be used to prioritise emerging infectious diseases of humans and animals in Canada. A weight was calculated for each criterion according to the expert opinion. Attributes were defined for each criterion as a transparent and repeatable method of measurement. Two different Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis tools were tested, both of which used an additive aggregation approach. These were an Excel spreadsheet tool and a tool developed in software 'M-MACBETH'. The tools were trialed on nine 'test' pathogens. Two different methods of criteria weighting were compared, one using fixed weighting values, the other using probability distributions to account for uncertainty and variation in expert opinion. The ranking of the nine pathogens varied according to the weighting method that was used. In both tools, using both weighting methods, the diseases that tended to rank the highest were West Nile virus, Giardiasis and Chagas, while Coccidioidomycosis tended to rank the lowest. Both tools are a simple and user friendly approach to prioritising pathogens according to climate change by including explicit scoring of 40 criteria and incorporating weighting methods based on expert opinion. They provide a dynamic interactive method that can help to identify pathogens for which a full risk assessment should

  16. On the re-emergence of motion and innovations in the Gábor Bódy's intermedia experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Lipiński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the main cases of Hungarian neo-avant-garde cinema in terms of re-emergence of visual material and the introduction of electronic innovations resulting in the transformation of reality. Among the research conducted in Béla Balázs Studio based on reframing the perception limits in the 1960s and the 1970s, the most innovative were Gábor Bódy's intermedia experiments. Along with launching K/3 subgroup within BBS, Bódy directed its objectives to reduce the material derived from reality and to visually intervene into media image electronically transforming the landscape of his films. Innovatively adapting the Sándor Weöres's verse, the film Narcissus and Psyche (1983 aimed at using hyper-real aesthetics to reframe the film reality. Starting from 1980, Bódy founded an international magazine Infermental to disseminate the advent of the video and electronics by creating a community drew on sharing news about emerging media image.

  17. Xylella fastidiosa: an examination of a re-emerging plant pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapicavoli, Jeannette; Ingel, Brian; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Cantu, Dario; Roper, Caroline

    2018-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen with an extremely wide host range. This species has recently been resolved into subspecies that correlate with host specificity. This review focuses on the status of X. fastidiosa pathogenic associations in plant hosts in which the bacterium is either endemic or has been recently introduced. Plant diseases associated with X. fastidiosa have been documented for over a century, and much about what is known in the context of host-pathogen interactions is based on these hosts, such as grape and citrus, in which this pathogen has been well described. Recent attention has focused on newly emerging X. fastidiosa diseases, such as in olives. Bacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; family Xanthomonadaceae; genus Xylella; species fastidiosa. Gram-negative rod (0.25-0.35 × 0.9-3.5 μm), non-flagellate, motile via Type IV pili-mediated twitching, fastidious. Xylella fastidiosa has a broad host range that includes ornamental, ecological and agricultural plants belonging to over 300 different species in 63 different families. To date, X. fastidiosa has been found to be pathogenic in over 100 plant species. In addition, it can establish non-symptomatic associations with many plants as a commensal endophyte. Here, we list the four distinct subspecies of X. fastidiosa and some of the agriculturally relevant diseases caused by them: X. fastidiosa ssp. fastidiosa causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine (Vitis vinifera); X. fastidiosa ssp. multiplex causes almond leaf scorch (ALS) and diseases on other nut and shade tree crops; X. fastidiosa ssp. pauca causes citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) (Citrus spp.), coffee leaf scorch and olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) (Olea europaea); X. fastidiosa ssp. sandyi causes oleander leaf scorch (OLS) (Nerium oleander). Significant host specificity seemingly exists for some of the subspecies, although this could be a result of technical biases based on the limited number of

  18. Measles re-emergence in Northern Italy: Pathways of measles virus genotype D8, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Lai, Alessia; Canuti, Marta; Piralla, Antonio; Baggieri, Melissa; Ranghiero, Alberto; Piatti, Alessandra; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Magurano, Fabio; Baldanti, Fausto

    2017-03-01

    Molecular surveillance and advanced phylogenetic methods are important tools to track the pathways of Measles virus (MV) genotypes, provide evidence for the interruption of endemic transmission and verify the elimination of the disease. The aims of this study were to describe the genetic profile of MV genotype D8 (D8-MV) strains circulating in Northern Italy (Lombardy Region) during the 2013-2014 period and to analyze the transmission chains and estimate the introduction time points using a phylogenetic approach. Forty-four strains of D8-MV identified from 12 outbreaks and 28 cases reported as sporadic were analyzed. Molecular analysis was performed by sequencing the highly variable 450nt region of the N gene of MV genome (N-450), as recommended by the WHO. Phylogenetic analyses and tree time-scaled reconstruction were performed with BEAST software. We could trace back the transmission pathways that resulted in three chains of transmission, two introductions with limited spread (two familiar outbreaks), and two single introductions (true sporadic cases). The D8-Taunton transmission chain, which was involved in 7 outbreaks and 13 sporadic cases, was endemic during the studied period. Furthermore, two novel local variants emerged independently in March 2014 and caused two transmission chains linked to at least 3 outbreaks. Overall, viral diversity was high and strains belonging to 5 different variants were identified. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that multiple lineages of D8-MV co-circulated in Northern Italy. Measles can be considered a re-emerging disease in Italy and additional efforts are necessary to achieve measles elimination goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeffer Martin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007 after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F. tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far. Methods We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the presence of F. tularensis among small mammals, ticks/fleas and water. The investigations consisted of animal live-trapping, serologic testing, screening by real-time-PCR and cultivation. Results A total of 386 small mammals were trapped. F. tularensis was detected in five different rodent species with carrier rates of 2.04, 6.94 and 10.87% per trapping area. None of the ticks or fleas (n = 432 tested positive for F. tularensis. We were able to demonstrate F. tularensis-specific DNA in one of 28 water samples taken in one of the outbreak areas. Conclusion The findings of our study stress the need for long-term surveillance of natural foci in order to get a better understanding of the reasons for the temporal and spatial patterns of tularemia in Germany.

  20. Climate change and the emergence of vector-borne diseases in Europe: case study of dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Colón-González, Felipe J; Lung, Tobias; Lake, Iain R; Hunter, Paul R

    2014-08-22

    Dengue fever is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue transmission is critically dependent on climatic factors and there is much concern as to whether climate change would spread the disease to areas currently unaffected. The occurrence of autochthonous infections in Croatia and France in 2010 has raised concerns about a potential re-emergence of dengue in Europe. The objective of this study is to estimate dengue risk in Europe under climate change scenarios. We used a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) to estimate dengue fever risk as a function of climatic variables (maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation, humidity) and socioeconomic factors (population density, urbanisation, GDP per capita and population size), under contemporary conditions (1985-2007) in Mexico. We then used our model estimates to project dengue incidence under baseline conditions (1961-1990) and three climate change scenarios: short-term 2011-2040, medium-term 2041-2070 and long-term 2071-2100 across Europe. The model was used to calculate average number of yearly dengue cases at a spatial resolution of 10 × 10 km grid covering all land surface of the currently 27 EU member states. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to model dengue fever risk in Europe in terms of disease occurrence rather than mosquito presence. The results were presented using Geographical Information System (GIS) and allowed identification of areas at high risk. Dengue fever hot spots were clustered around the coastal areas of the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas and the Po Valley in northern Italy. This risk assessment study is likely to be a valuable tool assisting effective and targeted adaptation responses to reduce the likely increased burden of dengue fever in a warmer world.

  1. Dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) re-emerges after 30 years in Brazil: cocirculation of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 in Bahia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Pinho, Aryane Cruz Oliveira; Brandão, Claudio Jose de Freitas; Bandeira, Antonio Carlos; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease of great concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One important cause of the increase in DF is rapid development and urbanization has led to proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector responsible for transmission of the illness. Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Brazil shows the predominance of DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 until 2010. This study reports the reappearance of DENV-4 in Brazil for the first time in 30 years. Serum samples were collected from individuals (n = 214) exhibiting fever and muscular pain in Bahia, Brazil, during 2011-2012. These samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/nested PCR, which revealed that 82% of samples were positive for DENV-4; most were older age groups and exhibited a serological pattern consistent with a primary infection. The cocirculation of multiple DENV serotypes within the same city places the population at risk for a fatal form of the disease. Therefore, with the increasing incidence of severe DF cases, early diagnosis will be a priority for public health efforts in Brazil.

  2. Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOtuka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in East Asia. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSV’s migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in East Asia from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in

  3. Professional- Amateur Astronomer Partnerships in Scientific Research: The Re-emergence of Jupiter's 5-Micron Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-μm hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions. With the active inclusion and use of emerging social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.), the near daily communication and updates (via email, Skype, Facebook) between the professional and amateur astronomers is becoming a powerful tool for ground-based remote sensing. The archival of amateur data via global repositories such as Planetary Virtual Observatory and Laboratory (PVOL), The Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers (ALPO) and British Astronomical Association (BAA); and development of data reduction software, independent of professional astronomer community, provides an additional resource and dimension to scientific research. We shall present preliminary results that are the outcomes of the "Pro-Am" collaboration in the case of the re-emergence of Jupiter's 5-micron hot spots and highlight several members of our global amateur astronomer network.

  4. Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuka, Akira

    2013-10-28

    This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in East Asia. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV) viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSV's migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in East Asia from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in Guangdong and Guangxi

  5. Systematic review of surveillance systems and methods for early detection of exotic, new and re-emerging diseases in animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Rubio-Guerri, C; Melero, M; Martínez-López, B; Martínez-Avilés, M; Hoinville, L; Vergne, T; Comin, A; Schauer, B; Dórea, F; Pfeiffer, D U; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-07-01

    In this globalized world, the spread of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases has become one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. This systematic review analyses conventional and novel early detection methods applied to surveillance. In all, 125 scientific documents were considered for this study. Exotic (n = 49) and re-emerging (n = 27) diseases constituted the most frequently represented health threats. In addition, the majority of studies were related to zoonoses (n = 66). The approaches found in the review could be divided in surveillance modalities, both active (n = 23) and passive (n = 5); and tools and methodologies that support surveillance activities (n = 57). Combinations of surveillance modalities and tools (n = 40) were also found. Risk-based approaches were very common (n = 60), especially in the papers describing tools and methodologies (n = 50). The main applications, benefits and limitations of each approach were extracted from the papers. This information will be very useful for informing the development of tools to facilitate the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies. Thus, the current literature review provides key information about the advantages, disadvantages, limitations and potential application of methodologies for the early detection of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases.

  6. Common host-derived chemicals increase catches of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and can improve early warning systems for rift valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The emergence and re-emergence of the disease in the last 20 years especially in East Africa, poses a looming health threat which is likely to spread to beyond Africa. This threat is exacerbat...

  7. Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part II – Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen that may cause severe disease, mostly meningitis, in pigs and in humans having occupational contact with pigs and pork, such as farmers, slaughterhose workers and butchers. The first stage of the pathogenic process, similar in pigs and humans, is adherence to and colonisation of mucosal and/or epithelial surface(s of the host. The second stage is invasion into deeper tissue and extracellular translocation of bacterium in the bloodstream, either free in circulation or attached to the surface of monocytes. If S. suis present in blood fails to cause fatal septicaemia, it is able to progress into the third stage comprising penetration into host’s organs, mostly by crossing the blood-brain barrier and/or blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier to gain access to the central nervous system (CNS and cause meningitis. The fourth stage is inflammation that plays a key role in the pathogen esis of both systemic and CNS infections caused by S. suis . The pathogen may induce the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines that cause septic shock and/or the recruitment and activation of different leukocyte populations, causing acute inflammation of the CNS. Streptococcus suis can also evoke – through activation of microglial cells, astrocytes and possibly other cell types – a fulminant inflammatory reaction of the brain which leads to intracranial complications, including brain oedema, increased intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular insults, and deafness, as a result of cochlear sepsis. In all stages of the pathogenic process, S. suis interacts with many types of immunocompetent host’s cells, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mononuclear macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells and microglia, using a range of versatile virulence factors for evasion of the innate and adaptive immune defence of the host, and for overcoming environmental stress. It is estimated that S. suis produces more than

  8. "You're Always First a Girl": Emerging Adult Women, Gender, and Sexuality in the Israeli Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli army drafts both men and women, and most Israelis complete their military service during their emerging adulthood years. This study examined Israeli women's experiences as soldiers in the army. Twenty-three women (18 emerging adults, 5 young adults) were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed about how they experienced…

  9. Dairy farm demographics and management factors that played a role in the re-emergence of brucellosis on dairy cattle farms in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Gummow, B

    2017-08-01

    Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the demographic data while univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between the selected risk factors and the presence of brucellosis on the farms at the time of the outbreak. The demographics of Fijian dairy farms are presented in the article and the biosecurity implications of those farming systems are discussed. Two risk factors were strongly associated with farms having brucellosis, and these were history of reactor cattle to brucellosis and or bovine tuberculosis on the farm (OR = 29, P ≤ 0.01) and farms that practised sharing of water sources for cattle within and with outside farms (OR = 39, P ≤ 0.01). Possible reasons why these were risk factors are also discussed. The potential risks for human health was also high as the use of personal protective equipment was low (15%). A high proportion of farmers (62%) could not recognise brucellosis thus contributing to the low frequency of disease reports (44%) made. The article also highlights other important risk factors which could be attributed to farming practices in the region and which could contribute to public health risks and the re-emergence of diseases.

  10. Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

  11. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  12. Disease: H00382 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lundstrom JO ... TITLE ... Mosquito-borne viruses in western Europe: a review. ... JOURNAL ... J Vector Ecol 24:1-... fever: an epidemiological review of a re-emerging infectious disease. ... JOURNAL ... Clin Infect Dis 49:942-8

  13. Re-visiting the notion of Deep Incarnation in light of 1 Corinthians 15:28 and emergence theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Bentley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Niels Hendrik Gregersen’s ‘Deep Incarnation’ is opening up possibilities for engagementbetween science and theology. Recent discoveries, like that of Homo naledi, raise questions abouthow inclusive a Christian doctrine of Incarnation is. Is Jesus only God incarnate for Homo sapiensapiens, or is the incarnation inclusive of preceding hominid species as well? Does the incarnationstretch beyond the hominid line? This chapter engages Gregersen’s understanding of DeepIncarnation in light of 1 Corinthians 15:28 and emergence theory. It proposes that there is a directcorrelation between worldview and how we believe in the inclusive nature of divine incarnation.

  14. Investigations of the Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae fauna from three areas belonging to the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in order to evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALCUTA Elena

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The survey focused on the comparative analyses of the anopheline fauna belonging to the maculipennis group between three areas of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, two of them situated near theRazim-Sinoe lagoonal complex and one belonging to the fluvial delta. The study that was carried out during 2006 and 2007 intended to establish the composition of the anopheline fauna as well as the longevity of the various species in order to evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence. A number of 2437 mosquitoes, belonging to Anopheles maculipennis group were collected. The presence of the former vector species was pointed up: Anopheles atroparvus, Anophelesmesseae and Anopheles maculipennis sensu stricto. The investigations of the number of egg batches laid by a female have shown the physiological age of the respective female and namely if the female could infect or not the humans.

  15. Capsid coding region diversity of re-emerging lineage C foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia1 from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Saravanan; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Das, Biswajit; Sharma, Gaurav K; Biswal, Jitendra K; Mahajan, Sonalika; Misri, Jyoti; Dash, Bana B; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 was first reported in India in 1951, where three major genetic lineages (B, C and D) of this serotype have been described until now. In this study, the capsid protein coding region of serotype Asia1 viruses (n = 99) from India were analyzed, giving importance to the viruses circulating since 2007. All of the isolates (n = 50) recovered during 2007-2013 were found to group within the re-emerging cluster of lineage C (designated as sublineage C(R)). The evolutionary rate of sublineage C(R) was estimated to be slightly higher than that of the serotype as a whole, and the time of the most recent common ancestor for this cluster was estimated to be approximately 2001. In comparison to the older isolates of lineage C (1993-2001), the re-emerging viruses showed variation at eight amino acid positions, including substitutions at the antigenically critical residues VP279 and VP2131. However, no direct correlation was found between sequence variations and antigenic relationships. The number of codons under positive selection and the nature of the selection pressure varied widely among the structural proteins, implying a heterogeneous pattern of evolution in serotype Asia1. While episodic diversifying selection appears to play a major role in shaping the evolution of VP1 and VP3, selection pressure acting on codons of VP2 is largely pervasive. Further, episodic positive selection appears to be responsible for the early diversification of lineage C. Recombination events identified in the structural protein coding region indicates its probable role in adaptive evolution of serotype Asia1 viruses.

  16. Challenges Presented by Re-Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV Positive Men who have Sex with Men: An Observational Study of Lymphogranuloma Venereum in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Minttu; Hughes, Gwenda; Simms, Ian; Ison, Cathy; Alexander, Sarah; White, Peter J; Ward, Helen

    2014-08-01

    United Kingdom has reported the largest documented outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), a re-emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) which is primarily seen in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). A diagnostic service was established in response to the outbreak linked to a voluntary LGV Enhanced Surveillance system. We examined the performance of this novel surveillance system to identify utility in tracking a re-emerging infection. We described laboratory data on samples and surveillance data from case reports for LGV from 2004-2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis comparing clinical and behavioural characteristics of HIV-positive and HIV-negative/unknown LGV cases diagnosed in MSM using multivariable logistic regression models with generalised estimating equations to control for repeat infections. LGV Surveillance data were available for 87% (1,370/1,581) of LGV cases (after de-duplication). There were 1,342 episodes in 1,281 MSM, most of whom were known to be HIV-positive (1,028/1,281, 80.2%,). HIV-positive men reported a shorter duration of symptoms (aOR 0.5; 95%CI 0.3, 0.8 for reporting more than a week compared to a week or less) in comparison to HIV-negative/unknown MSM, and were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (aOR 2.7; 95% CI 1.3, 5.8). The surveillance identified the population at greater risk of infection based on higher levels of risk behaviour in HIV-positive LGV cases. However, there was diagnostic bias towards HIV-positive LGV cases who presented with a shorter duration of symptoms when compared to HIV-negative/unknown LGV cases.

  17. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 4. Mosquitoborne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Hurk, A F; Craig, S B; Tulsiani, Suhella

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases continue to be a serious public-health concern in Australia. Endemic alphaviruses (including Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses) account for the majority of the arboviral notifications, while some flaviviruses (Murray Valley encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis and Kunjin...... the trends, threats and challenges that face the management of mosquito-borne disease in Australia. Topical mosquito-borne pathogens of biosecurity and public-health concern, and the potential impacts of environmental and global trends, are discussed. Finally, a short overview of the public-health response...

  18. More than 20 years after re-emerging in the 1990s, diphtheria remains a public health problem in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsone, Ieva; Lucenko, Irina; Perevoscikovs, Jurijs

    2016-12-01

    In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the goal of eliminating diphtheria within the WHO European Region by the year 2000. However, in 1990 an epidemic emerged within the Russian Federation and spread to other countries, including Latvia, by 1994. We describe national surveillance and immunisation coverage data in Latvia from 1994 to 2014 and present historical data from 1946. We defined a laboratory-confirmed case as a clinical case in which toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, C. ulcerans or C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. From 1994 to 2014, 1,515 cases were reported, giving an average annual incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range 0.1-14.8), with the highest incidence in age groups 5-19 and 40-49 years (4.4 and 4.3/100,000, respectively); 111 deaths were reported, 83.8% cases were laboratory-confirmed. Most cases occurred in unvaccinated adults. To improve disease control a supplementary immunisation campaign for adults was initiated in 1995, and by the end of 1998 national coverage among adults reached 70%, and reached 77% in 2003, but declined to 59% by 2014. Diphtheria remains a problem in Latvia with continued circulation of toxin-producing strains of C. diphtheriae. We recommend to strengthen immunisation to cover adults, as well as the education of health professionals and a serological survey. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  19. Evolutionary reconstructions of the transferrin receptor of Caniforms supports canine parvovirus being a re-emerged and not a novel pathogen in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Kaelber

    Full Text Available Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.

  20. Evolutionary reconstructions of the transferrin receptor of Caniforms supports canine parvovirus being a re-emerged and not a novel pathogen in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelber, Jason T; Demogines, Ann; Harbison, Carole E; Allison, Andrew B; Goodman, Laura B; Ortega, Alicia N; Sawyer, Sara L; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR) for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species) modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.

  1. Use of human immunoglobulins as an anti-infective treatment: the experience so far and their possible re-emerging role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, Jordi; Jorquera, Juan I

    2017-06-01

    Pooled human immunoglobulins (IGs) are prepared from plasma obtained from healthy donors as a concentrated antibody-containing solution. In addition, high-titer IGs (hyperimmune) against a specific pathogen can be obtained from vaccinated or convalescing donors. Currently, IGs can be used for the treatment of a variety of infections for which no specific therapy exists or that remain difficult to treat. Moreover, the recent pathogen outbreaks for which there is no approved treatment have renewed attention to the role of convalescent plasma and IGs. Areas covered: In this review, a historical perspective of the use of sera and IGs in humans as anti-infective agents (any viral, bacterial, parasitic infection), excluding immunodeficient patients, is presented from early development to the latest clinical studies. A Medline search was conducted to examine the peer-reviewed literature, with no date limits. Expert commentary: Human pooled plasma-derived IG products benefit from the polyclonal response of every individual donor and from the interindividual variability in such response. The trend to increased availability of vaccines for infectious diseases also opens new potential applications of hyperimmune IGs for emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases (e.g.: Ebola, Zika, Dengue), for the prevention and treatment in the general population, healthcare personnel and caregivers.

  2. Paradigm lost, paradigm found: The re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, Edward J. [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu

    2005-12-15

    This paper provides an assessment of the toxicological basis of the hormetic dose-response relationship including issues relating to its reproducibility, frequency, and generalizability across biological models, endpoints measured and chemical class/physical stressors and implications for risk assessment. The quantitative features of the hormetic dose response are described and placed within toxicological context that considers study design, temporal assessment, mechanism, and experimental model/population heterogeneity. Particular emphasis is placed on an historical evaluation of why the field of toxicology rejected hormesis in favor of dose response models such as the threshold model for assessing non-carcinogens and linear no threshold (LNT) models for assessing carcinogens. The paper argues that such decisions were principally based on complex historical factors that emerged from the intense and protracted conflict between what is now called traditional medicine and homeopathy and the overly dominating influence of regulatory agencies on the toxicological intellectual agenda. Such regulatory agency influence emphasized hazard/risk assessment goals such as the derivation of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) and the lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) which were derived principally from high dose studies using few doses, a feature which restricted perceptions and distorted judgments of several generations of toxicologists concerning the nature of the dose-response continuum. Such historical and technical blind spots lead the field of toxicology to not only reject an established dose-response model (hormesis), but also the model that was more common and fundamental than those that the field accepted. - The quantitative features of the hormetic dose/response are described and placed within the context of toxicology.

  3. Paradigm lost, paradigm found: The re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the toxicological basis of the hormetic dose-response relationship including issues relating to its reproducibility, frequency, and generalizability across biological models, endpoints measured and chemical class/physical stressors and implications for risk assessment. The quantitative features of the hormetic dose response are described and placed within toxicological context that considers study design, temporal assessment, mechanism, and experimental model/population heterogeneity. Particular emphasis is placed on an historical evaluation of why the field of toxicology rejected hormesis in favor of dose response models such as the threshold model for assessing non-carcinogens and linear no threshold (LNT) models for assessing carcinogens. The paper argues that such decisions were principally based on complex historical factors that emerged from the intense and protracted conflict between what is now called traditional medicine and homeopathy and the overly dominating influence of regulatory agencies on the toxicological intellectual agenda. Such regulatory agency influence emphasized hazard/risk assessment goals such as the derivation of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) and the lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) which were derived principally from high dose studies using few doses, a feature which restricted perceptions and distorted judgments of several generations of toxicologists concerning the nature of the dose-response continuum. Such historical and technical blind spots lead the field of toxicology to not only reject an established dose-response model (hormesis), but also the model that was more common and fundamental than those that the field accepted. - The quantitative features of the hormetic dose/response are described and placed within the context of toxicology

  4. On-farm Campylobacter and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler chickens: Re-used bedding does not influence Campylobacter emergence and levels across sequential farming cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinivasagam, H. N.; Estella, W.; Rodrigues, H.; Mayer, D. G.; Weyand, C.; Tran, T.; Onysk, A.; Diallo, I.

    2016-01-01

    Limitations in quality bedding material have resulted in the growing need to re-use litter during broiler farming in some countries, which can be of concern from a food-safety perspective. The aim of this study was to compare the Campylobacter levels in ceca and litter across three litter treatments under commercial farming conditions. The litter treatments were (a) the use of new litter after each farming cycle; (b) an Australian partial litter re-use practice; and (c) a full litter re-use practice. The study was carried out on two farms over two years (Farm 1, from 2009–2010 and Farm 2, from 2010–2011), across three sheds (35,000 to 40,000 chickens/shed) on each farm, adopting three different litter treatments across six commercial cycles. A random sampling design was adopted to test litter and ceca for Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, prior to commercial first thin-out and final pick-up. Campylobacter levels varied little across litter practices and farming cycles on each farm and were in the range of log 8.0–9.0 CFU/g in ceca and log 4.0–6.0 MPN/g for litter. Similarly the E. coli in ceca were ∼log 7.0 CFU/g. At first thin-out and final pick-up, the statistical analysis for both litter and ceca showed that the three-way interaction (treatments by farms by times) was highly significant (P litter treatments across the six farming cycles on both farms. Either C. jejuni or C. coli could be the dominant species across litter and ceca, and this phenomenon could not be attributed to specific litter treatments. Irrespective of the litter treatments in place, cycle 2 on Farm 2 remained Campylobacter-free. These outcomes suggest that litter treatments did not directly influence the time of emergence and levels of Campylobacter and E. coli during commercial farming. PMID:26908887

  5. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melanie; Heath, Sonya L; Sweeton, Bentley; Williams, Kathy; Cunningham, Pamela; Keele, Brandon F; Sen, Sharon; Palmer, Brent E; Chomont, Nicolas; Xu, Yongxian; Basu, Rahul; Hellerstein, Michael S; Kwa, Suefen; Robinson, Harriet L

    2016-01-01

    GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost vaccine (GOVX-B11), was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI). Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156.

  6. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different

  7. Re-emergence of Rift Valley fever virus in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002-2003: identification of new vectors and epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Y; Sall, A A; Diallo, D; Mondo, M; Girault, L; Dia, I; Diallo, M

    2012-09-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a threat that must not be neglected, as the consequences of RVFV are dramatic, both for human and animal health. This virus is a zoonotic virus that already has demonstrated a real capacity for re-emerging after long periods of silence, as observed in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002. In this article we present the 2nd emergence in Barkedji after the 1st manifestation in 1993, and for the 1st time the circulation of RVFV during 2 consecutive years among mosquito populations in Senegal. As part of the entomological surveillance program undertaken since 1990 to detect circulation of the RVFV in Barkedji, 108,336 mosquitoes belonging to 34 species and 5 genera were collected in 2002-2003. Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes, previously known to be vectors of RVFV in Senegal, comprised 88.7% of the total collection. In 2002, Ae. vexans was the most abundant mosquito, followed by Cx. poicilipes; the opposite situation was observed in 2003. In 2002, 29 and 10 RVFV isolates were obtained from Cx. poicilipes (minimum infection rate [MIR] = 0.13%) and Ae. vexans (MIR = 0.02%) pools, respectively and the MIR for the 2 species were significantly different (chi2 = 34.65; df = 1, P < 0.001). In 2003, 7 RVFV strains were isolated from Cx. poicilipes (3, MIR = 0.03), Mansonia africana (2, MIR = 0.08), Ae. fowleri (1), and Ma. uniformis (1, MIR = 0.05). The 3 latter species were found to be associated with RVFV for the 1st time in Senegal. A significant decrease in MIR was observed from 2002 to 2003 (chi2 6.28; df = 1, P = 0.01) for Cx. poicilipes, the only species involved in the transmission during the 2 sampling years.

  8. Development of the re-engineered European decision support system for off-site nuclear and radiological emergencies - JRODOS. Application to air pollution transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ievdin, I.; Treebushny, D.; Raskob, W.; Zheleznyak, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The European decision support system for nuclear and radiological emergencies RODOS includes a set of numerical models simulating the transport of radionuclides in the environment, estimating potential doses to the public and simulating and evaluating the efficiency of countermeasures. The re-engineering of the RODOS system using the Java technology has started recently which will allow to apply the new system called JRODOS on nearly any computational platform running Java virtual machine. Modern software development approaches were used for the JRODOS system architecture and implementation: distributed system design (client, management server, computational server), geo-database utilization, plug-in model structure and OpenMI-like compatibility to support seamless model inter-connection. Stable open source components such as an ORM solution (Hibernate), an OpenGIS component (Geotools) and a charting/reporting component (JFree, Pentaho) were utilized to optimize the development effort and allow a fast completion of the project. The architecture of the system is presented and illustrated for the atmospheric dispersion module ALSMC (Atmospheric Local Scale Model Chain) performing calculations of atmospheric pollution transport and the corresponding acute doses and dose rates. The example application is based on a synthetic scenario of a release from a nuclear power plant located in Europe. (author)

  9. Petussis has re-emerged

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2012-07-01

    The Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths (CEMD) is being disbanded and will be incorporated into a new structure called MBRRACE-UK, throughout the UK1. The CEMD, which has been in existence since 1952, was highly valued by clinicians. It had an unbroken 60 year history in existence. It set the bar for higher obstetric standards. It monitored the causes of maternal death and improved safety. It operated through a system of anonymised case records of obstetric deaths. A group of regional and national assessors examined the circumstances around each case. The assessors then made recommendations on the lessons to be learned. The Enquiry had widespread support among obstetricians and was an important voice in advocating better maternal care. It constantly stressed the important of clinical vigilance. It emphasised that old messages need to be frequently repeated and that there is no room for inertia. Its strength was its ability to identify avoidable causes of maternal death in a no-blame culture. This resulted in an almost total buy-in. After preparation of the Report and before its publication all maternal death forms, relevant documents and files related to the period of the report are destroyed and all electronic data is irreversibly destroyed.

  10. Variations in the use of emergency PCI for the treatment of re-infarction following intravenous fibrinolytic therapy: impact on outcomes in HERO-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, J J; French, J K; Aylward, P E G; Wong, C K; Stewart, R A H; Williams, B F; De Pasquale, C G; O'connell, R L; Van den Berg, K; Van de Werf, F J; Simes, R J; White, H D

    2007-06-01

    Patients who suffer re-infarction during initial hospitalization for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have decreased survival compared to patients without re-infarction, so treatment of re-infarction may influence survival. To determine whether the utilization of reperfusion therapies varied within 12 h of re-infarction and was associated with 30-day mortality, we studied 552 patients with re-infarction of 17,073 patients with STEMI enrolled in HERO-2 in five regions (Russia, Eastern Europe, Western Countries, Asia, and Latin America). Patients presenting within 6 h of symptom-onset were randomized to receive either bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin intravenously just prior to streptokinase. Re-infarction occurred in 2.8 and 3.6% of bivalirudin and heparin treated patients, respectively (P = 0.004), but treatment assignment did not influence mortality after re-infarction. Patients with re-infarction had a higher 30-day mortality than those without re-infarction (24 vs. 10%; P model). Within 12 h of re-infarction, fibrinolytic therapy was administered to 12.0 and 8.2% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); these two treatments were more frequently utilized in patients from Western countries (n = 112), compared to patients from other countries (n = 440) (34.8 and 16.1% compared to 6.1 and 6.1%, respectively, P < 0.001). Mortality was 15% in patients receiving reperfusion therapy for re-infarction and 27% for those with conservative management, hazard ratio (HR) 0.53 (95% CI 0.32-0.88), P = 0.01. In multiple Cox regression analysis which included adjustment for clinical variables and randomized treatment assignment, 30-day mortality after re-infarction varied by region (highest Latin America 29%, lowest Western countries 15%; P = 0.01). Other independent prognostic factors included age, time from randomization to re-infarction, and Killip class at randomization. The HR for PCI treatment of re-infarction was 0.18 [(95% CI 0.04-0.76), P = 0

  11. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Thompson

    Full Text Available GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA boost vaccine (GOVX-B11, was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI. Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for at least 6 months were enrolled. Median age was 38 years, median pre-ART HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156.

  12. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay; Nair, Dilip

    2016-10-01

    Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vectorborne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections.

  13. Rhenium Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for determining rhenium in various objects are presented. The gravimetric determination of rhenium is based on a quantitative precipitation of ReO 4 - ions with tetraphenylarsonium chloride. The determination is not hindered by tungstates and molybdates. The potentiometric determination of rhenium in alloys (>=0.5% Re) is based on perrhenate ion reduction to Re(4) with the titrated solution of the Cr(2) salt. Re(7) is titrated in a hot sulfuric acid solution in the presence of KJ. The relative error of the method is 1 to 3%. The photometric determination of rhenium is performed by the rhodamide method in molybdenum-and tungsten-containing alloys and catalytically, in rocks, after it has been separated in the form of sulfide. The extraction-photometric determination of rhenium is carried out with the aid of methyl violet (analysis of a stock with a high content of Mo, W, Ta, Nb, Ti ahd Zr) and thio-oxine (the determination of Re is hindered by Au, Pt, Pd, Ru, Os, Rh, Ir). Also described are methods for differential-spectrophotometric determination of Re with the aid of thiocarbamide, as well as with the aid of dimethylglyoxime in the presence of SnCl 2 in an acid medium when Re is determined in its alloys with niobium and hafnium. It takes 2 hours to analyze the Hf-Re alloy and 3 hours to analyze the Nb-Re alloy, the standard deviation being 0.005 at 30-50% Re and 0.027 to 0.019 at 10-50% Re

  14. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR∆: HPR3 and HPR14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstact Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein (designated virulent ISAV-HPR∆). This study shows the historic dynamics of ISAV-HPR∆ and ISAV-HPR0 in Chile, the genetic relationship among ISAV-HPR0 reported worldwide and between ISAV-HPR0 and ISAV-HPR∆ in Chile, and reports the 2013 ISA outbreak in Chile. The first ISA outbreak in Chile occurred from mid-June 2007 to 2010 and involved the virulent ISAV-HPR7b, which was then replaced by a low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 variant. We analyzed this variant in 66 laboratory-confirmed ISAV-HPR0 cases in Chile in comparison to virulent ISAV-HPR∆ that caused two new ISA outbreaks in April 2013. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of HE sequences from all ISAV-HPR0 viruses allowed us to identify three genomic clusters, which correlated with three residue patterns of ISAV-HPR0 (360PST362, 360PAN362 and 360PAT362) in HPR. The virus responsible for the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ cases in Chile belonged to ISAV-HPR3 and ISAV-HPR14, and in phylogenetic analyses, both clustered with the ISAV-HPR0 found in Chile. The ISAV-HPR14 had the ISAV-HPR0 residue pattern 360PAT362, which is the only type of ISAV-HPR0 variant found in Chile. This suggested to us that the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ re-emerged from ISAV-HPR0 that is enzootic in Chilean salmon aquaculture and were not new introductions of virulent ISAV-HPR∆ to Chile. The clinical presentations and diagnostic evidence of the 2013 ISA cases indicated a mixed infection of ISAV with the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi and the bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, which underscores the need for active ISAV surveillance in areas where ISAV-HPR0 is enzootic, to ensure early detection and control of new ISA

  15. Zika virus infection and its emerging trends in Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin; Haszianaliza Haslan; Norshalizah Mamikutty; Nurul Hannim Zaidun; Mohamad Fairuz Azmi; Mohamad Mu'izuddin Senin; Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad; Zar Chi Thent

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that represents a public health emergency at the ongoing epidemic. Previously, this rare virus was limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia until its emergence in Brazil, South America in 2015, where it rapidly spread throughout the world. Recently, a high number of cases were reported in Singapore and other Southeast Asia countries. A combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak although it is highly likely that the changes in the climate and high frequency of travelling contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus mainly to the tropical climate countries such as the Southeast Asia. The Zika virus is known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya and transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. However, neurological complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and congenital anomalies, including microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers, raised a serious concern. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine available for Zika virus infection. Therefore, international public health response is primarily focused on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women, and on providing up-to-date recommendations to reduce the risk of non-vector transmission of Zika virus.

  16. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Phitchayapak Wintachai; Parveen Kaur; Regina Ching Hua Lee; Suwipa Ramphan; Atichat Kuadkitkan; Nitwara Wikan; Sukathida Ubol; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Justin Jang Hann Chu; Duncan R. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This stud...

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Vector-Borne Disease Prevention during the Emergence of a New Arbovirus: Implications for the Control of Chikungunya Virus in French Guiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Fritzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, French Guiana has been affected by major dengue fever outbreaks. Although this arbovirus has been a focus of many awareness campaigns, very little information is available about beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding vector-borne diseases among the population of French Guiana. During the first outbreak of the chikungunya virus, a quantitative survey was conducted among high school students to study experiences, practices and perceptions related to mosquito-borne diseases and to identify socio-demographic, cognitive and environmental factors that could be associated with the engagement in protective behaviors.A cross-sectional survey was administered in May 2014, with a total of 1462 students interviewed. Classrooms were randomly selected using a two-stage selection procedure with cluster samples. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA associated with a hierarchical cluster analysis and with an ordinal logistic regression was performed. Chikungunya was less understood and perceived as a more dreadful disease than dengue fever. The analysis identified three groups of individual protection levels against mosquito-borne diseases: "low" (30%, "moderate" (42% and "high" (28%". Protective health behaviors were found to be performed more frequently among students who were female, had a parent with a higher educational status, lived in an individual house, and had a better understanding of the disease.This study allowed us to estimate the level of protective practices against vector-borne diseases among students after the emergence of a new arbovirus. These results revealed that the adoption of protective behaviors is a multi-factorial process that depends on both sociocultural and cognitive factors. These findings may help public health authorities to strengthen communication and outreach strategies, thereby increasing the adoption of protective health behaviors, particularly in high-risk populations.

  18. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  19. Emerging trends of Zika apprehension in an epidemic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raude, Jocelyn; Kazanji, Mirdad; Flamand, Claude

    2018-01-01

    Background French Guiana is a territory that has a decades-long history of dengue outbreaks and more recently, in 2014, a chikungunya outbreak. Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in late 2015 and subsequently led to an important outbreak. Methodology/Principal findings A cross-sectional phone survey was conducted among the general population during the outbreak in June 2016 with a total of 1,129 individuals interviewed to assess perceptions, knowledge and behaviors regarding zika infection. The population seemed aware of zika, and perceived the infection as a more serious health threat than other common mosquito-borne diseases. Furthermore, both the perceptions and behaviors related to zika and its prevention were found to vary considerably among different social groups, geographic areas and gender; less educated female participants were found to perceive the disease as more worrisome and were less likely to adopt protective behaviors. Moreover, female population has been particularly responsive to awareness campaigns and rapidly understood the extent of risks associated with ZIKV infection. Conclusions/Significance These results revealed that ZIKV appeared at the time of the survey as a new health threat that concerns the public more than chikungunya and dengue fever with differences observed among subgroups of population. These results have implications for the development of multifaceted infection control programs, including strategies for prevention and awareness, helping the population to develop an accurate perception of the threat they are facing and encouraging behavior changes. PMID:29370170

  20. Re-Shaping the Faculty: Emergence and Development of "Permanent-Contingent" Roles through the Lens of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Oleksandr; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2017-01-01

    This study retrospectively examines the emergence and development of a new class of full-time non-tenure track employees in a large land grant research university in the U.S., which created the employment category in 1980. We employ cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) to explore how this class of employees became institutionalized within…

  1. Invention/Re-invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between texts that are re-invented for different media and/or contexts including: film remakes, prequels and sequels, video games that become films and vice versa, internet mashups, and television series that move across geographical borders. The article points to significant sources in this emerging field and presents some of the challenges that arise in relation to its study. In particular questions of originality, fidelity, repetition and difference a...

  2. You're it! How to psychologically survive an internal investigation, disciplinary proceeding, or legal action in the police, fire, medical, mental health, legal, or emergency services professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Rightly or wrongly, law enforcement, public safety, medical, mental health, legal, and emergency services professionals may have to face internal investigation, disciplinary measures, license suspension, criminal prosecution, civil lawsuits, and/or personal life disruption related to actions taken in the course of their work. This article describes the main categories of misconduct--or simply mistakes--that can cause different types of professionals to be investigated, charged, prosecuted, and/or sued. It next discusses the kinds of psychological reactions commonly seen in workers who face these kinds of proceedings. Finally, the article offers a set of practical psychological coping strategies and procedural recommendations for dealing with the stresses of an investigation, administrative action, or litigation, and for mitigating their effects on one's life and career.

  3. Personalisation - An Emergent Institutional Logic in Healthcare?; Comment on “(Re Making the Procrustean Bed? Standardization and Customization as Competing Logics in Healthcare”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan Ferlie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary on the recent think piece by Mannion and Exworthy reviews their core arguments, highlighting their suggestion that recent forces for personalization have emerged which may counterbalance the strong standardization wave which has been evident in many healthcare settings and systems over the last two decades. These forces for personalization can take very different forms. The commentary explores the authors’ suggestion that these themes can be fruitfully examined theoretically through an institutional logics (ILs literature, which has recently been applied by some scholars to healthcare settings. This commentary outlines key premises of that theoretical tradition. Finally, the commentary makes suggestions for taking this IL influenced research agenda further, along with some issues to be addressed.

  4. Re-emergence of H3N2 strains carrying potential neutralizing mutations at the N-linked glycosylation site at the hemagglutinin head, post the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushirogawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Tadasuke; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nakano, Takashi; Terada, Kihei; Ohuchi, Masanobu; Saito, Mineki

    2016-08-08

    Seasonally prevalent H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses have evolved by antigenic drift; this evolution has resulted in the acquisition of asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites (NGSs) in the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA), thereby affecting the antigenic and receptor-binding properties, as well as virulence. An epidemiological survey indicated that although the traditional seasonal H1N1 strain had disappeared, H3N2 became predominant again in the seasons (2010-11 and 2011-12) immediately following the H1N1 pandemic of 2009. Interestingly, although the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) lacks additional NGSs, clinically isolated H3N2 strains obtained during these seasons gained N (Asn) residues at positions 45 and 144 of HA that forms additional NGSs. To investigate whether these NGSs are associated with re-emergence of H3N2 within the subtype, we tested the effect of amino acid substitutions on neutralizing activity by using the antisera raised against H3N2 strains with or without additional NGSs. Furthermore, because the N residue at position 144 of HA was identified as the site of mismatch between the vaccine and epidemic strains of 2011-2012, we generated mutant viruses by reverse genetics and tested the functional importance of this particular NGS for antibody-mediated neutralization by intranasal inoculation of mice. The results indicated that amino acid substitution at residue 144 significantly affected neutralization activity, acting as an escape mutation. Our data suggest that the newly acquired NGSs in the HA globular head may play an important role in the re-emergence of endemic seasonal H3N2 strain by aiding the escape from humoral immunity.

  5. Emerging putative associations between non-coding RNAs and protein-coding genes in Neuropathic Pain. Added value from re-using microarray data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Capobianco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of injured nerves is likely occurring in the peripheral nervous system, but not in the central nervous system. Although protein-coding gene expression has been assessed during nerve regeneration, little is currently known about the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. This leaves open questions about the potential effects of ncRNAs at transcriptome level. Due to the limited availability of human neuropathic pain data, we have identified the most comprehensive time-course gene expression profile referred to sciatic nerve injury, and studied in a rat model, using two neuronal tissues, namely dorsal root ganglion (DRG and sciatic nerve (SN. We have developed a methodology to identify differentially expressed bioentities starting from microarray probes, and re-purposing them to annotate ncRNAs, while analyzing the expression profiles of protein-coding genes. The approach is designed to reuse microarray data and perform first profiling and then meta-analysis through three main steps. First, we used contextual analysis to identify what we considered putative or potential protein coding targets for selected ncRNAs. Relevance was therefore assigned to differential expression of neighbor protein-coding genes, with neighborhood defined by a fixed genomic distance from long or antisense ncRNA loci, and of parent genes associated with pseudogenes. Second, connectivity among putative targets was used to build networks, in turn useful to conduct inference at interactomic scale. Last, network paths were annotated to assess relevance to neuropathic pain. We found significant differential expression in long-intergenic ncRNAs (32 lincRNAs in SN, and 8 in DRG, antisense RNA (31 asRNA in SN, and 12 in DRG and pseudogenes (456 in SN, 56 in DRG. In particular, contextual analysis centered on pseudogenes revealed some targets with known association to neurodegeneration and/or neurogenesis processes. While modules of the olfactory receptors were clearly

  6. Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doezema, J

    2000-01-01

    This article compares current concerns about "trafficking in women" with turn of the century discourses about "white slavery". It traces the emergence of narratives on "white slavery" and their reemergence in the moral panics and boundary crises of contemporary discourses on "trafficking in women". Drawing on historical analysis and contemporary representations of sex worker migration, the paper argues that the narratives of innocent, virginal victims purveyed in the "trafficking in women" discourse are a modern version of the myth of "white slavery". These narratives, the article argues, reflect persisting anxieties about female sexuality and women's autonomy. Racialized representations of the migrant "Other" as helpless, child-like, victims strips sex workers of their agency. This article argues that while the myth of "trafficking in women"/"white slavery" is ostensibly about protecting women, the underlying moral concern is with the control of "loose women". Through the denial of migrant sex workers' agency, these discourses serve to reinforce notions of female dependence and purity that serve to further marginalize sex workers and undermine their human rights.

  7. Personalisation - An Emergent Institutional Logic in Healthcare? Comment on "(Re) Making the Procrustean Bed? Standardization and Customization as Competing Logics in Healthcare".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlie, Ewan

    2017-06-20

    This commentary on the recent think piece by Mannion and Exworthy reviews their core arguments, highlighting their suggestion that recent forces for personalization have emerged which may counterbalance the strong standardization wave which has been evident in many healthcare settings and systems over the last two decades. These forces for personalization can take very different forms. The commentary explores the authors' suggestion that these themes can be fruitfully examined theoretically through an institutional logics (ILs) literature, which has recently been applied by some scholars to healthcare settings. This commentary outlines key premises of that theoretical tradition. Finally, the commentary makes suggestions for taking this IL influenced research agenda further, along with some issues to be addressed. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  8. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  9. Re-emergence of dengue virus type 3 in Canton, China, 2009-2010, associated with multiple introductions through different geographical routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Liang

    Full Text Available Endemic dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 infections have not been reported in Canton, China, since 1980. In March 2009, DENV-3 was isolated for the second time, occurring about 30 years after the previous circulation. In August, 3 other cases emerged. One much larger outbreak occurred again in 2010. To address the origin and particularly to determine whether the outbreaks were caused by the same viral genotype, we investigated the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the introduction, spread and genetic microevolution of DENV-3 involved.Three imported cases (index-1,2,3 separately traveled back from Vietnam, India and Tanzania, resulted in 1, 3 and 60 secondary autochthonous cases, respectively. In autochthonous cases, 64.6% positive in IgM anti-DENV and 18.6% in IgG from a total of 48 submitted serum samples, accompanied by 7 DENV-3 isolates. With 99.8%, 99.7%, and 100% envelope gene nucleotidic identity, 09/GZ/1081 from index-1 and endemic strain (09/GZ/1483 belonged to genotype V; 09/GZ/10616 from index-2 and endemic strains (09/GZ/11144 and 09/GZ/11194 belonged to genotype III Clade-A; and 10/GZ/4898 from index-3 and all four 2010 endemic DENV-3 strains belonged to genotype III Clade-B, respectively.Both epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses showed that the 2010 outbreak of dengue was not a reemergence of the 2009 strain. Introductions of different genotypes following more than one route were important contributory factors for the 2009-2010 dengue epidemics/outbreaks in Canton. These findings underscore the importance of early detection and case management of imported case in preventing large-scale dengue epidemics among indigenous peoples of Canton.

  10. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.; Baker, R.E.; Gaffney, E.A.; White, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Mosquito-borne viral infections in southern Africa: a public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agent in communicable disease is the organism, e.g. the yellow fever virus. Arbovirus ... the intervention strategies available for dealing with an outbreak of the disease. ... Control of a communicable disease can be directed at the agent,.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Menghai rhabdovirus, a novel mosquito-borne rhabdovirus from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Zhao, Qiumin; An, Xiaoping; Guo, Xiaofang; Zuo, Shuqing; Zhang, Xianglilan; Pei, Guangqian; Liu, Wenli; Cheng, Shi; Wang, Yunfei; Shu, Peng; Mi, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhiyi; Tong, Yigang; Zhou, Hongning; Zhang, Jiusong

    2017-04-01

    Menghai rhabdovirus (MRV) was isolated from Aedes albopictus in Menghai county of Yunnan Province, China, in August 2010. Whole-genome sequencing of MRV was performed using an Ion PGM™ Sequencer. We found that MRV is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. The complete genome of MRV has 10,744 nt, with short inverted repeat termini, encoding five typical rhabdovirus proteins (N, P, M, G, and L) and an additional small hypothetical protein. Nucleotide BLAST analysis using the BLASTn method showed that the genome sequence most similar to that of MRV is that of Arboretum virus (NC_025393.1), with a Max score of 322, query coverage of 14%, and 66% identity. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses both demonstrated that MRV should be considered a member of a novel species of the family Rhabdoviridae.

  14. An Annotated Bibliography of the Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases of Guam (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    of elephantiasis , with 83 Americans and 28 natives admitted during the year with dengue fever, No cases of malaria were known to have originated on...group, p. 109. Mosquito Systematics Vol. 8(4) 1976 -3e *South Pacific Conmission. 1951. Conference of experts on filariasis and elephantiasis . So

  15. West Nile Fever - a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (1999), s. 643-650 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA MŽP MR/610/2/96 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.326, year: 1999 http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/hubalek.htm

  16. Surveillance of Travel-Related Mosquito-borne Illness in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Neha; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Mermel, Leonard A; Mileno, Maria D

    2016-07-01

    Malaria and Dengue are some of the common infections occurring in persons traveling to countries endemic for these infections. Chinkungunya virus infection is another illness that can occur in people who have travelled to areas endemic for chikungunya virus infection. Herein we report cases of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya in Newport Hospital, The Miriam Hospital and Rhode Island Hospital between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-07.asp, free with no login].

  17. Mosquito-specific and mosquito-borne viruses: evolution, infection, and host defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbach, R.; Junglen, S.; Rij, R.P. van

    2017-01-01

    Recent virus discovery programs have identified an extensive reservoir of viruses in arthropods. It is thought that arthropod viruses, including mosquito-specific viruses, are ancestral to vertebrate-pathogenic arboviruses. Mosquito-specific viruses are restricted in vertebrate cells at multiple

  18. Natural exposure of horses to mosquito-borne flaviviruses in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Natalie A; Tan, Cindy S E; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-09-17

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2-4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNV(KUN)) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNV(KUN) and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic.

  19. Mosquito-borne Arbovirus Surveillance at Selected Sites in Diverse Ecological Zones of Kenya 2007 -- 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    and pooled (1 to 25 mosquitoes per pool) by species, sex and collection sites using mosquito identification keys by [23-26] and preserved in 1.5 ml...reference and research on arboviruses and haemorrhagic fever viruses. Dakar, Senegal: Institut Pasteur de Dakar; 2000. 8. Kalunda M, Lwanga-Ssozi C

  20. Serologic survey of wild boars for mosquito-borne viruses in South Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina; Janková, J.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2008), s. 266-271 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : antibodies * West Nile virus * Tahyna virus * Batai virus * Sindbis virus * swine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008 http://old.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/53-5-266.pdf

  1. EPA RE-Powering Screening Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Center for Program Analysis (CPA) initiated the RE-Powering America’s...

  2. Aeromonas Hydrophila: A Re-Emerging Pathogen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Thayumanavan, T.; Subashkumar, R.

    origin. Journal of Hygiene 81,161 ? 169. Trust, T.J., Sparrow, R.A.H., 1974. The bacterial flora in the alimentary tract of freshwater salmonid fishes. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 20, 1219 ? 1228. Tsai, G.J., Chen, T.H., 1995. Growth characteristics...

  3. Iran: a (re)emerging energy power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchard, D.; Therme, C.

    2007-01-01

    This document first describes the energy situation in Iran: the energy sector is insufficiently developed due to a lack of investments and the prudence of foreign groups, while ambitious gas pipeline projects take place; however, the important domestic consumption reduces the country's exportation capacity. The second part discusses about the domestic and international political context that is not propitious for energy development (internal tensions that paralyse decision making, international sanctions, etc.) while Iran try to by-pass these difficulties through its relations with Russia and Asia. Several scenarios are then proposed, linked to the possible evolutions of the nuclear litigation

  4. The re-emergence of hallucinogenic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begola, Matthew J; Dowben, Jonathan S

    2018-02-20

    Due to the intractability, at times, in the treatment of PTSD, clinicians and researchers continue to explore different options for treatment. This article discusses the renewed interest in hallucinogens for such treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Tuberculosis, a re-emergent disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadas, Emilia; Antunes, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Western Europe, regions with a high incidence of TB usually also have a high incidence of HIV infection; TB and HIV co-infection have increased over the past decade and among HIV infected patients, nearly half also develop TB. In settings where HIV is prevalent, TB drug resistance has also increased and several reports of TB and multi-drug resistant TB outbreaks, especially in health care settings, raise serious concerns about nosocomial transmission. Further research and new developments into more rapid diagnostic methods and sensitivity testing as well as the development of new anti-TB drugs are important to fight the disease. In addition, public health infrastructures have to be strengthened in order to increase adherence to TB treatment, where directly observed treatment strategy is the cornerstone for a successful outcome

  6. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  7. Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    improved hygiene and development of antimicrobials and vaccines.However, infectious diseases still ... pneumonic plague,appropriate antibiotic therapy and case ... 102 cases in Mumbai following prolonged water logging due to heavy ...

  8. Train operation in emergencies

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Limin; Qin, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on train operation theories and methods in the context of emergencies. It examines and assesses a range of aspects—including the definition of a railway emergency, transport organization modes in emergencies, calculating railway transport capacity in emergencies, line planning in emergencies, train re-pathing in emergencies and train re-scheduling in emergencies—that are urgently needed in the railway transportation field, which faces the serious challenge of dealing with emergencies worldwide. The book highlights the latest research results in an integrated and systematic way, and the methodology presented is oriented on real-world problems, allowing it to be used not only directly in railway operational management, but also as the point of departure for further applications or theoretical research. As such, the book will be of considerable interest to graduate students and researchers in the field of traffic and transportation engineering.>.

  9. Re-telling, Re-evaluating and Re-constructing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Tolja

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Graphic History: Essays on Graphic Novels and/as History '(2012 is a collection of 14 unique essays, edited by scholar Richard Iadonisi, that explores a variety of complex issues within the graphic novel medium as a means of historical narration. The essays address the issues of accuracy of re-counting history, history as re-constructed, and the ethics surrounding historical narration.

  10. Emerging Viral Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Developing Nervous System: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Mohammed, Abdul H; Kristensson, Krister; Juliano, Sharon L; Lutwama, Julius J

    2018-01-01

    The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system. Here, we briefly summarize studies on the developing brain by West Nile, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses, which are mosquito-borne and have spread worldwide out of SSA. They can all be neuroinvasive, but their effects vary from malformations caused by prenatal infections to cognitive disturbances following perinatal or later infections. We also highlight Ebola virus, which can leave surviving children with psychiatric disturbances and cause persistent infections in the non-human primate brain. Greater awareness within the neuroscience community is needed to emphasize the menace evoked by these emerging viruses to the developing brain. In particular, frontline neuroscience research should include neuropediatric follow-up studies in the field on long-term or late-onset cognitive and behavior disturbances or neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies on pathogenetic mechanisms for viral-induced perturbations of brain maturation should be extended to the vulnerable periods when neurocircuit formations are at peaks during infancy and early childhood.

  11. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  12. Emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, major efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) were focused on tasks associated with completion and incorporation of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of NRA SR in emergency planning and crisis management. Construction of the ERC had begun based on NRA SR's knowledge, as well as recommendations of Regulatory Assistance Management Group (RAMG) International Mission in 1993 and follow-up missions in 1994. Early in 1994, re-construction of selected rooms had been done and early in 1995, supported by the UK and U.S.A. Government's funding, technical equipment was purchased. The equipment was necessary for ERC operation as tools to improve NRA SR readiness for the management of emergency situations at nuclear installations. NRA SR commenced operation of the Centre in April 1995. The Centre has been on-line connected to a teledosimetric system of Radiation Monitoring Laboratory in Trnava. The basic software for assessment of radiation consequences of a NPP accident was supplied were also focused on cooperation with state administration authorities and organizations which were involved in an emergency planning structure. In September 1995, staffing of the ERC was completed and parallel, the first document concerning the ERC prime task, i.e. activities and procedures of of NRA SR Crisis crew in case of an accident at a nuclear installation on the territory of the Slovak Republic, was approved by the NRA SR's Management. In the period that is being assessed, NRA SR made significant progress in events classification and emergency planning terminology in order to unify the above between both the Slovak NPPs

  13. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  14. (ReTranslating as Re-membering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Tarif

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how (retranslation – interlingual and intersemiotic – can be perceived as a way of both remembering the literary legacy of other cultures but also as a way of re-membering/re-generating the body of literature(s of the importing culture. It focuses on what is called “a classic” and anchors its reflexion in polysystem theory and in the metaphorical vision of literary works as an organic living body. To do so, it concentrates on the British literary classic Oliver Twist and its translations and adaptations into French. The article addresses the following questions: What is to be remembered of certain works? Why, how and by whom are those works remembered?

  15. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Diabetic Emergencies Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  16. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  17. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainity Batista Linhares

    Full Text Available Enzootic pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1 to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2 to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3 to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3% but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  18. Educational program emergency planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Tragic university shootings have prompted administrators of higher education institutions to re-evaluate their emergency preparedness plans and take appropriate measures for preventing and responding to emergencies. To review the literature and identify key components needed to prevent shootings at higher education institutions in the United States, and in particular, institutions housing radiologic science programs. Twenty-eight emergency preparedness plans were retrieved electronically and reviewed from a convenience sample of accredited radiologic science programs provided by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology Web site. The review of the 28 emergency preparedness plans confirmed that most colleges are prepared for basic emergencies, but lack the key components needed to successfully address mass-casualty events. Only 5 (18%) of the 28 institutions addressed policies concerning school shootings.

  19. Late flooding combined with warm autumn – potential possibility for prolongation of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, O.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 11 (2016), s. 1292-1297 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Aedes sticticus * autumn floods Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  20. Mosquito-borne arbovirus surveillance at selected sites in diverse ecological zones of Kenya; 2007 – 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased frequency of arbovirus outbreaks in East Africa necessitated the determination of distribution of risk by entomologic arbovirus surveillance. A systematic vector surveillance programme spanning 5 years and covering 11 sites representing seven of the eight provinces in Kenya and located in diverse ecological zones was carried out. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled bi-annually during the wet seasons and screened for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were identified to species, pooled by species, collection date and site and screened for arboviruses by isolation in cell culture and/or RT-PCR screening and sequencing. Results Over 450,000 mosquitoes in 15,890 pools were screened with 83 viruses being detected/isolated that include members of the alphavirus, flavivirus and orthobunyavirus genera many of which are known to be of significant public health importance in the East African region. These include West Nile, Ndumu, Sindbis, Bunyamwera, Pongola and Usutu viruses detected from diverse sites. Ngari virus, which was associated with hemorrhagic fever in northern Kenya in 1997/98 was isolated from a pool of Anopheles funestus sampled from Tana-delta and from Aedes mcintoshi from Garissa. Insect only flaviviruses previously undescribed in Kenya were also isolated in the coastal site of Rabai. A flavivirus most closely related to the Chaoyang virus, a new virus recently identified in China and two isolates closely related to Quang Binh virus previously unreported in Kenya were also detected. Conclusion Active transmission of arboviruses of public health significance continues in various parts of the country with possible undetermined human impact. Arbovirus activity was highest in the pastoralist dominated semi-arid to arid zones sites of the country where 49% of the viruses were isolated suggesting a role of animals as amplifiers and indicating the need for improved arbovirus disease diagnosis among pastoral communities. PMID:23663381

  1. Capitalizing on Citizen Science Data for Validating Models and Generating Hypotheses Describing Meteorological Drivers of Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, R. A.; Low, R.; Paull, S.; Anyamba, A.; Soebiyanto, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature and precipitation are important drivers of mosquito population dynamics, and a growing set of models have been proposed to characterize these relationships. Validation of these models, and development of broader theories across mosquito species and regions could nonetheless be improved by comparing observations from a global dataset of mosquito larvae with satellite-based measurements of meteorological variables. Citizen science data can be particularly useful for two such aspects of research into the meteorological drivers of mosquito populations: i) Broad-scale validation of mosquito distribution models and ii) Generation of quantitative hypotheses regarding changes to mosquito abundance and phenology across scales. The recently released GLOBE Observer Mosquito Habitat Mapper (GO-MHM) app engages citizen scientists in identifying vector taxa, mapping breeding sites and decommissioning non-natural habitats, and provides a potentially useful new tool for validating mosquito ubiquity projections based on the analysis of remotely sensed environmental data. Our early work with GO-MHM data focuses on two objectives: validating citizen science reports of Aedes aegypti distribution through comparison with accepted scientific data sources, and exploring the relationship between extreme temperature and precipitation events and subsequent observations of mosquito larvae. Ultimately the goal is to develop testable hypotheses regarding the shape and character of this relationship between mosquito species and regions.

  2. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  3. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  4. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  5. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. ...

  6. Plant growth and respiration re-visited: maintenance respiration defined – it is an emergent property of, not a separate process within, the system – and why the respiration : photosynthesis ratio is conservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, John H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth and respiration still has unresolved issues, examined here using a model. The aims of this work are to compare the model's predictions with McCree's observation-based respiration equation which led to the ‘growth respiration/maintenance respiration paradigm’ (GMRP) – this is required to give the model credibility; to clarify the nature of maintenance respiration (MR) using a model which does not represent MR explicitly; and to examine algebraic and numerical predictions for the respiration:photosynthesis ratio. Methods A two-state variable growth model is constructed, with structure and substrate, applicable on plant to ecosystem scales. Four processes are represented: photosynthesis, growth with growth respiration (GR), senescence giving a flux towards litter, and a recycling of some of this flux. There are four significant parameters: growth efficiency, rate constants for substrate utilization and structure senescence, and fraction of structure returned to the substrate pool. Key Results The model can simulate McCree's data on respiration, providing an alternative interpretation to the GMRP. The model's parameters are related to parameters used in this paradigm. MR is defined and calculated in terms of the model's parameters in two ways: first during exponential growth at zero growth rate; and secondly at equilibrium. The approaches concur. The equilibrium respiration:photosynthesis ratio has the value of 0·4, depending only on growth efficiency and recycling fraction. Conclusions McCree's equation is an approximation that the model can describe; it is mistaken to interpret his second coefficient as a maintenance requirement. An MR rate is defined and extracted algebraically from the model. MR as a specific process is not required and may be replaced with an approach from which an MR rate emerges. The model suggests that the respiration:photosynthesis ratio is conservative because it depends on two parameters only whose

  7. ASR and RE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim

    2016-01-01

    As a university discipline, the academic study of religions (ASR) has produced a critical approach to the study of religion which is (or ought be), I think, of fundamental importance for a modern secular and enlightened democratic state. However, the ”study-of-religions” approach has percolated...... with limited success into society at large as well as into the primary and secondary educational systems of Western democracies. Too often so-called religious education (RE) really is religious or confessional, and even so-called non-confessional RE is, mostly if not always, mixed with crypto......-confessional approaches, inculcation of moral values (not least those claimed to be Christian) and the promoting of religion as a resource for a more ”spiritual” approach to life. While these goals may be in line with the traditional use of the public school as the key instrument of the (nation-) state to try to confer...

  8. You're Hired!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    "You're hired!" Those two words are easy to say, but it's not always easy to find the right employee. Success hinges on hiring interviews--and they require quite a bit of training to get right. Much of the work in identifying the best people for open positions falls to line-of-business managers. In this article, Verizon Wireless, Umpqua Bank,…

  9. RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    limit of 'large numbers' that the structure emerges. This ... the more familiar limit theorems of probability from a different ... exposure to modern, measure theoretic probability. ..... (iv) 'small noise asymptotics' leading to convergence of random ...

  10. Radioanalysis of RE enrichment of ion adsorption type RE ores

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Shu Quan; Hu He Ping; Li Fu Sheng; Chen Ying Min; LiuShiMing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the radioactivity in Rare Earth (RE) enrichment of ion adsorption type RE ores. Methods: Using HPGe-gamma spectrometer to analyze the activity ratio of gamma radionuclides in kind of samples, using FJ-2603 low background alpha, beta measurement apparatus to measure their total alpha and total beta activities, and using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to analyze contents of La sub 2 O sub 3 and Y sub 2 O sub 3 , respectively. Results: HPGe gamma spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy are simple, convenient and non-destructive methods of analyzing radionuclides and La sub 2 O sub 3 , Y sub 2 O sub 3 in RE enrichment of ion adsorption type RE ores, respectively. Conclusion: The basic data were provided for radiation protection and treatment of gas, liquid and solid waste in RE production of ion adsorption type RE ores; method and experience were provided for studying ion adsorption type RE ores

  11. Viking re-enactment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In Chapter 4 we meet many different participants such as archaeology students, tradespeople, re-enactors, horseback riders, archers and many more who are all partaking in the same Viking market at Moesgaard Museum, Denmark. The purpose of this chapter is to present Moesgaard Viking Moot...... as a participatory local heritage event with a diverse range of spectators and participants. Lars Konzack shows how the different participants have developed their interaction with and interpretation of the Viking age through the market’s 40-year history....

  12. Gettysburg re-imagined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chronis, Athinodoros; Arnould, Eric J.; Hampton, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    and expands narrative-based theories of consumption experiences. We argue that the workings of imagination in tourism sites are inextricably linked to the production of cultural imaginaries, that is, socially important narratives invested with collective values; we illustrate the process through which...... narrative of the American Civil War and we explore ethnographically the ways in which this historical episode is (re)imagined and articulated in tourism at Gettysburg. Our research provides an alternative account to mental imagery theory that is based on restrictive cognitive conceptions of imagination...

  13. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  14. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Groen, Arend J.; van der Sijde, Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies

  15. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  16. RE-SONANCE--IM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However the known sources for £ and 8 are electric charges and electric currents only. ... possible candidate theory of all forces, it is interesting that they may emerge as ... since at that time the universe must have been hot enough to create the ...

  17. Re-Envisioning Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snaith, Holly; Rosamond, Ben

    2015-01-01

    of EU integration – namely the 1970s oil shocks and the more recent global financial crisis – in order to determine the extent to which these events have been contemporarily defined as providing opportunities to act, or simply challenges to the existing order. The paper provides an analysis of the way...... in which EU actors have mobilised the idea of ‘crisis’ in order to (a) exert control over endogenous and exogenous destabilising forces, (b) (re)define the EU as an object of both political engagement and academic study, and finally (c) make the case for further expansion and integration (particularly....... The comparative nature of the findings helps to contextualise current discourses around the global financial crisis, in order to evaluate the EU’s previous efforts at global repositioning, and the significance of crisis discourse to these efforts....

  18. Decoupling, re-engaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2013-01-01

    the life of a major project and the complex demands of managing those fluctuations. We investigate evolving trust relationships in a longitudinal case analysis of a large integrated hospital system implementation for the Faroe Islands. Trust relationships suffered various breakdowns, but the project...... was able to recover and eventually meet its goals. Based on concepts from Giddens’ later work on modernity, we develop two approaches for managing dynamic trust relationships in implementation projects: decoupling and re-engaging....... in the project is contingent upon many factors, is likely to vary over time and should not be taken for granted. Previous studies have identified the relationship between trust and project outcomes and suggested trust-building strategies but have largely ignored the dynamic quality of trust relations through...

  19. Citizenship and RE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karna

    2016-01-01

    The fact that the public school is seen and/or used as an important tool for the nation state in its efforts to form good citizens, strengthen a national identity and promote particular values is not new. Religion education (RE) is in many countries linked closely to such efforts and is thus...... frequently subject to political, public and professional discussions. Supra-national processes such as globalization, pluralization and migration are now challenging individual European nation-states and Europe as a whole, not least when it comes to ideas about social cohesion and co-existence, cultural...... identity and the function of the public school. Projects and discourses about 'citizenship education', 'intercultural education' and RE’s potential contribution to this area can be seen as political educational responses to these challenges. However, there is far from any consensus as to what citizenship...

  20. EDITORIAL Universal health coverage: A re-emerging paradigm?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    of earlier initiatives in global health that include the basic health ... the availability, accessibility (geographic, economic, cultural) and appropriateness ... public good nature of health leading to new .... fragmentation and towards universal.

  1. Facing up to re-emergence of urban yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    1999-05-08

    Transmitted from person to person by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever was eliminated in the first half of this century, with the eradication of its mosquito vector from most of South America. However, reinfestation began in the 1970s is now almost complete, and vector control is considerably more difficult now than before. The threat of urban yellow fever is greatest in towns such as Santa Cruz, Bolivia, near the forest, but improved transport links increase the likelihood of spread by viremic people to nonendemic areas. Van der Stuyft et al. have reported the first instance of urban transmission of yellow fever in the Americas in 44 years. Since residents of the densely populated cities and much visited areas in coastal South America have never been vaccinated, an outbreak there would facilitate widespread dissemination of the disease, even to other continents. While urban yellow fever is a significant threat, carrying a case-fatality rate of about 20%, the constrained dynamics of transmission, early recognition of the striking clinical presentation, and efforts to control the infection should limit the impact of the disease. Laboratory-based surveillance, together with the prevention and control strategies outlined by van der Stuyft et al. are the key defensive measures against the future threat of urban epidemics.

  2. Re-emerging tiger economies boost gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the economic crises of Southeast Asia focussing on Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, Papua New Guinea. the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar, and discusses the recoveries, the countries' economies and the growth in the Asian gas market. Details are given of natural gas reserves, the production and export of liquefied natural gas, exploration and development, the use of gas for power generation, and the Pan Asian gas grid

  3. Environmental management: a re-emerging vector control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, S K

    1994-01-01

    Vector control may be accomplished by environmental management (EM), which consists of permanent or long-term modification of the environment, temporary or seasonal manipulation of the environment, and modifying or changing our life styles and practices to reduce human contact with infective vectors. The primary focus of this paper is EM in the control of human malaria, filariasis, arboviruses, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis. Modern EM developed as a discipline based primarily in ecologic principles and lessons learned from the adverse environmental impacts of rural development projects. Strategies such as the suppression of vector populations through the provision of safe water supplies, proper sanitation, solid waste management facilities, sewerage and excreta disposal systems, water manipulation in dams and irrigation systems, vector diversion by zooprophylaxis, and vector exclusion by improved housing, are discussed with appropriate examples. Vectors of malaria, filariasis, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis have been controlled by drainage or filling aquatic breeding sites, improved housing and sanitation, the use of expanded polystyrene beads, zooprophylaxis, or the provision of household water supplies. Community participation has been effective in the suppression of dengue vectors in Mexico and the Dominican Republic. Alone or combined with other vector control methods, EM has been proven to be a successful approach to vector control in a number of places. The future of EM in vector control looks promising.

  4. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a re-emerging but neglected parasitic zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    Although Ancylostoma ceylanicum is known to be an endemic and widely distributed hookworm of dogs and cats in Asia, its contribution to human morbidity as a potentially zoonotic hookworm remains largely unexplored. Since its discovery by Lane (1913) as a 'new parasite' of humans a century ago, the hookworm has been regarded as a 'rare' and 'abnormal' parasite and largely overlooked in surveys of human parasites. Recent molecular-based surveys in Asia, however, have demonstrated that A. ceylanicum is the second most common hookworm species infecting humans, comprising between 6% and 23% of total patent hookworm infections. In experimentally induced infections, A. ceylanicum mimics the clinical picture produced by the anthroponotic hookworms of 'ground itch' and moderate to severe abdominal pain in the acute phase. Natural infections with A. ceylanicum in humans have been reported in almost all geographical areas in which the hookworm is known to be endemic in dogs and cats, however for the majority of reports, no clinical data are available. Much like the anthroponotic hookworm species, patent A. ceylanicum adults can isolate within the jejunum to produce chronic infections that on occasion, may occur in high enough burdens to produce anaemia. In addition, the hookworm can act much like Ancylostoma caninum and be found lower in the gastrointestinal tract leading to abdominal distension and pain, diarrhoea and occult blood in the faeces accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Whether A. ceylanicum is capable of producing both classical hookworm disease and evoking morbidity through an uncontrolled allergic response in some individuals remains unascertained. Future investigations combining the use of molecular diagnostic tools with clinical and pathological data will shed further light on its role as a human pathogen. The control of this zoonosis necessitates an integrated and inter-sectorial "One Health" approach be adopted in communities where large numbers of dogs share a close relationship with humans. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Re-emergence of diphtheria and pertussis: implications for Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoh, A E; Oladokun, R E

    2012-11-26

    In the prevaccine era pertussis and diphtheria were responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in children. In the United States of America more than 125,000 cases of diphtheria with 10,000 deaths were reported annually in the 1920s. In the same period about 1.7 million cases of pertussis with 73,000 deaths were also reported. Vaccination against these two diseases has caused remarkable reduction in the morbidity and mortality from these diseases both in developed and developing countries. The initial vaccines were the combined diphtheria toxoid and whole cell pertussis vaccine. The recent reported increases in the incidence of these two diseases in countries, which maintain high childhood vaccination coverage is a source of concern not only to these countries but also for developing countries with weak immunization programmes. Nigeria for example reported 11,281 cases of pertussis, the second highest number of cases worldwide in 2009. Waning immunity in adult and adolescent populations has been reported and epidemiologically, more cases are being reported in adults and adolescents. Also a high proportion of pertussis cases are being reported in infants and most of these infant cases are linked to adult/adolescent sources. Recent approaches to control of these diseases include booster doses of combined diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine while the cocooning strategy (which is immunizing every person who is likely to have contact with a given infant such as mother, father, grandparents and health care workers) is being used in a number of countries. For developing countries including Nigeria where the capacity for making the diagnosis of both diseases is limited, strengthening of routine immunization as well as diagnostic capacity is imperative. Research to determine current levels of immunity in children, adolescents and adults is required. This will enable the determination of the need for booster doses and the age at which such boosters should be administered. Improved surveillance will be needed to delineate current epidemiological profiles of both diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Fascioliasis: A Re-emerging Disease in Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Mohamed A.; Tolba, Mohammed; Abdel-Malek, Mohamed O.; Abbas, Wael A.; Zidan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the number of humans infected with Fasciola has risen rapidly. Diagnosis is based mainly on detection of eggs in stool analysis. The rate of infection in Egypt is unknown. In this retrospective study, we describe 23 cases of hepatic fascioliasis, and only 2 of these cases showed eggs in stools. The symptoms of infection, such as pyrexia of unknown origin, epigastric pain, and abdominal distension, were suggestive. Imaging techniques, including abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, were very helpful in detecting hepatic changes. An indirect hemagglutination assay proved to be of value for diagnosis. Treatment using a 2-day triclabendazole regimen cured the infection and signs of hepatic involvement disappeared. Combining both imaging techniques and laboratory tests is essential for diagnosis of fascioliasis in the early stage. PMID:25870421

  7. Human fascioliasis: a re-emerging disease in upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Mohamed A; Tolba, Mohammed; Abdel-Malek, Mohamed O; Abbas, Wael A; Zidan, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the number of humans infected with Fasciola has risen rapidly. Diagnosis is based mainly on detection of eggs in stool analysis. The rate of infection in Egypt is unknown. In this retrospective study, we describe 23 cases of hepatic fascioliasis, and only 2 of these cases showed eggs in stools. The symptoms of infection, such as pyrexia of unknown origin, epigastric pain, and abdominal distension, were suggestive. Imaging techniques, including abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, were very helpful in detecting hepatic changes. An indirect hemagglutination assay proved to be of value for diagnosis. Treatment using a 2-day triclabendazole regimen cured the infection and signs of hepatic involvement disappeared. Combining both imaging techniques and laboratory tests is essential for diagnosis of fascioliasis in the early stage. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. The re-emergence of the minimal running shoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Irene S

    2014-10-01

    The running shoe has gone through significant changes since its inception. The purpose of this paper is to review these changes, the majority of which have occurred over the past 50 years. Running footwear began as very minimal, then evolved to become highly cushioned and supportive. However, over the past 5 years, there has been a reversal of this trend, with runners seeking more minimal shoes that allow their feet more natural motion. This abrupt shift toward footwear without cushioning and support has led to reports of injuries associated with minimal footwear. In response to this, the running footwear industry shifted again toward the development of lightweight, partial minimal shoes that offer some support and cushioning. In this paper, studies comparing the mechanics between running in minimal, partial minimal, and traditional shoes are reviewed. The implications for injuries in all 3 conditions are examined. The use of minimal footwear in other populations besides runners is discussed. Finally, areas for future research into minimal footwear are suggested.

  9. Re-emerging tiger economies boost gas demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Victoria

    2000-11-01

    This paper considers the economic crises of Southeast Asia focussing on Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, Papua New Guinea. the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar, and discusses the recoveries, the countries' economies and the growth in the Asian gas market. Details are given of natural gas reserves, the production and export of liquefied natural gas, exploration and development, the use of gas for power generation, and the Pan Asian gas grid.

  10. The re-emergency and persistence of vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO C.N. BORBA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination worldwide dramatically reduced the incidence of pathogenic bacterial and viral diseases. Despite the highly successful vaccination strategies, the number of cases among vaccine preventable diseases has increased in the last decade and several of those diseases are still endemic in different countries. Here we discuss some epidemiological aspects and possible arguments that may explain why ancient diseases such as, measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria and tuberculosis are still with us.

  11. Re-OPCAB vs. Re-CABG for myocardial revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, A; Mair, H; Wildhirt, S M; Gillrath, G; Lamm, P; Kilger, E; Reichart, B

    2001-06-01

    The present study compared redo coronary artery bypass grafting (Re-OPCAB) techniques with conventional redo coronary artery bypass grafting (Re-CABG) with particular focus on myocardial damage and clinical outcome parameters. Redo OPCAB (Re-OPCAB) was performed on 20 consecutive patients (15 males, mean age 63.2 +/- 9.3 years) using either the anterolateral approach for minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (n = 4) or the Octopus technique with regular sternotomy (n = 16). The Re-CABG group consisted of 20 consecutive patients (18 males, mean age 67.1 +/- 6.6 years). Groups did not differ in the number of atherosclerotic risk factors, or left ventricular, renal or liver function. Duration of surgery, number of bypass grafts and amount of transfused red blood cells did not differ significantly between both groups. Requirement of epinephrine (mg/h) within the first 24 h was lower in the Re-OPCAB group (Re-OPCAB: 0.14 +/- 0.22 vs. CABG: 0.88 +/- 0.97; p<0.01). In addition, CKMB levels at 24 h after operation were lower in the Re-OPCAB group (Re-OPCAB: 10.0 +/- 10.1 vs. Re-CABG: 38.7 +/- 28.1 U/l, p<0.001). There were no acute myocardial infarctions or deaths in the perioperative period. In the CABG group, there was a longer time period to extubation (hours) (Re-OPCAB: 9.8 +/- 3.9 vs. Re-CABG: 28.7 +/- 25.5; p<0.001), and the length of ICU stay was significantly prolonged (OPCAB: 1.3 +/- 0.5 versus Re-CABG: 4.4 +/- 8.7; p<0.001). The graft patency rate at follow-up was 95% in the Re-OPCAB group. Re-OPCAB results in decreased cardiac specific enzyme release, reduced requirement of inotropes and comparable clinical outcome in the early postoperative period. It is an appropriate alternative to conventional Re-CABG in selected patients awaiting reoperation for myocardial revascularization. Larger prospective and randomized trials are required to select the appropriate patient who benefits most from one or the other treatment regime.

  12. Pre-hospital Emergency Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    20 Apr 1974 ... lance services, training programmes that are not geared to the needs of these personnel and, not least, a lack of interest on the part of the medical profession, with a few notable exceptions, in the whole question of emergency care. There is a re- luctance on the part of many doctors to assist in the training of ...

  13. Reconstruction of the Evolutionary History and Dispersal of Usutu Virus, a Neglected Emerging Arbovirus in Europe and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Dimitri; Jöst, Hanna; Wink, Michael; Börstler, Jessica; Bosch, Stefan; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Jöst, Artur; Czajka, Christina; Lühken, Renke; Ziegler, Ute; Groschup, Martin H; Pfeffer, Martin; Becker, Norbert; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2016-02-02

    Usutu virus (USUV), one of the most neglected Old World encephalitic flaviviruses, causes epizootics among wild and captive birds and sporadic infection in humans. The dynamics of USUV spread and evolution in its natural hosts are unknown. Here, we present the phylogeny and evolutionary history of all available USUV strains, including 77 newly sequenced complete genomes from a variety of host species at a temporal and spatial scaled resolution. The results showed that USUV can be classified into six distinct lineages and that the most recent common ancestor of the recent European epizootics emerged in Africa at least 500 years ago. We demonstrated that USUV was introduced regularly from Africa into Europe in the last 50 years, and the genetic diversity of European lineages is shaped primarily by in situ evolution, while the African lineages have been driven by extensive gene flow. Most of the amino acid changes are deleterious polymorphisms removed by purifying selection, with adaptive evolution restricted to the NS5 gene and several others evolving under episodic directional selection, indicating that the ecological or immunological factors were mostly the key determinants of USUV dispersal and outbreaks. Host-specific mutations have been detected, while the host transition analysis identified mosquitoes as the most likely origin of the common ancestor and birds as the source of the recent European USUV lineages. Our results suggest that the major migratory bird flyways could predict the continental and intercontinental dispersal patterns of USUV and that migratory birds might act as potential long-distance dispersal vehicles. Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused massive bird die-offs, mostly in Europe. There is increasing evidence that USUV appears to be pathogenic for humans, becoming a potential public health problem. The emergence of USUV in Europe allows us to understand how an arbovirus

  14. Bad (Re)Presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    This time, we would like to address copyright violations (again) - but with a twist. While previous articles focussed on “Music, videos and the risk for CERN” or on software licences, the focus is now on using photos, music and images “found” on the Web for presentations, publications and web pages…   Just recently, a video produced for CERN and published on YouTube and Facebook used background music from a contemporary popular artist. However, the people responsible failed to obtain the appropriate permission to actually use that music. They thought that having bought it on iTunes was sufficient. But it was not: “buying” means you have the right to listen, but not the right for further distribution or re-publication. As a result, the videos were pulled from YouTube and Facebook. Similarly, how many of us integrate graphics and images “found” on the Web into our presentations?  How many of us...

  15. Emerging Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China looks to strategically important emerging industries for innovation-driven economic growthc hina will soon announce a decision to rev up seven strategically impor- tant emerging industries,said the National

  16. Emergent Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  17. The Re-Think Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  18. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  19. Production of {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, and synthesis of {sup 188}Re-DTPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Motoishi, Shoji; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Izumo, Mishiroku [Department of Radioisotopes, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Musdja, Muhammad Yanis

    1999-08-01

    Production of radioactive rhenium isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, and synthesis of {sup 188}Re-DTPA have been studied. For {sup 186}Re, a production method by the {sup 185}Re(n, {gamma}) {sup 186}Re reaction in a reactor has been established. For {sup 188}Re, a production method by the double neuron capture reaction of {sup 186}W, which produces a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator, has been established. For synthesis of {sup 188}Re-DTPA, the optimum conditions, including pH, the amounts of regents and so on, have been determined. (author)

  20. The Student Volunteer Army: a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E

    2017-10-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  1. India RE Grid Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-08

    The use of renewable energy (RE) sources, primarily wind and solar generation, is poised to grow significantly within the Indian power system. The Government of India has established a target of 175 gigawatts (GW) of installed RE capacity by 2022, including 60 GW of wind and 100 GW of solar, up from 29 GW wind and 9 GW solar at the beginning of 2017. Thanks to advanced weather and power system modeling made for this project, the study team is able to explore operational impacts of meeting India's RE targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integration.

  2. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  3. Emerging animal viruses: real threats or simple bystanders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The list of animal viruses has been frequently added of new members raising permanent concerns to virologists and veterinarians. The pathogenic potential and association with disease have been clearly demonstrated for some, but not for all of these emerging viruses. This review describes recent discoveries of animal viruses and their potential relevance for veterinary practice. Dogs were considered refractory to influenza viruses until 2004, when an influenza A virus subtype H3N8 was transmitted from horses and produced severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds in Florida/USA. The novel virus, named canine influenza virus (CIV, is considered now a separate virus lineage and has spread among urban canine population in the USA. A new pestivirus (Flaviviridae, tentatively called HoBi-like pestivirus, was identified in 2004 in commercial fetal bovine serum from Brazil. Hobi-like viruses are genetically and antigenically related to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and induce similar clinical manifestations. These novel viruses seem to be widespread in Brazilian herds and have also been detected in Southeast Asia and Europe. In 2011, a novel mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV, was associated with fever, drop in milk production, abortion and newborn malformation in cattle and sheep in Germany. Subsequently, the virus disseminated over several European countries and currently represents a real treat for animal health. The origin of SBV is still a matter of debate but it may be a reassortant from previous known bunyaviruses Shamonda and Satuperi. Hepatitis E virus (HEV, family Hepeviridae is a long known agent of human acute hepatitis and in 1997 was first identified in pigs. Current data indicates that swine HEV is spread worldwide, mainly associated with subclinical infection. Two of the four HEV genotypes are zoonotic and may be transmitted between swine and human by contaminated water and undercooked pork meat. The

  4. Entrepreneurship as re-sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Anderson, Alistair; Gaddefors, Johan

    Objectives The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the concept of entrepreneurship in light of the current financial and environmental crisis and its socio-spatial impact. Building on Hudson’s analysis of production in late-capitalist societies, we identify problems inherent in the dominant...... of grounding in material reality, lacking emphasis on environmental externalities and an impoverished conceptualization of spatial relations. Comparing this analysis with the dominant opportunistic image of the entrepreneur, leads us to formulate a critique of this image. In formulating an alternative we build...... The paper presents a “new image” of entrepreneurship as re-sourcing. The concept of re-sourcing emphasizes the dual meaning of the word resource as both a stock of supply and strategy or action adopted in adverse circumstances. Re-sourcing thus signifies a shift in focus from opportunities to resources...

  5. Allele Re-sequencing Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Farrell, Jacqueline Danielle; Asp, Torben

    2013-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has made sequencing an affordable approach for detection of genetic variations associated with various traits. However, the cost of whole genome re-sequencing still remains too high to be feasible for many plant species with large...... alternative to whole genome re-sequencing to identify causative genetic variations in plants. One challenge, however, will be efficient bioinformatics strategies for data handling and analysis from the increasing amount of sequence information....

  6. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) continued in systematic development of its activities in the field of emergency planning according to the concept adopted by the Authority and according to the concept for building Emergency headquarters (EH) adopted after establishing of Emergency Response Centre (ERC). Major efforts were focused not only on building up a quality EH, but also tasks associated with completion and incorporation of ERC into emergency planning and emergency managing. An important role in building ERC was played by international missions. Significant position among these missions was taken by missions from Great Britain, which in the past years made a significant contribution to building up ERC. These missions focused on review of newly created standard procedures, preparation and implementation of first emergency exercises of the EH. The emergency exercises in which NRA SR took place in 1996 are reviewed. In order to make the co-operation of the Authority with the selected Army units of SR more effective in solving extraordinary situations in nuclear energy, an agreement was signed between NRA SR and the Headquarters of the Army of SR, which will help significantly to the objective

  7. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...... use of a different format; Emerge as a whole, then, offered an opportunity to study a diverse set of future-oriented engagement practices. We conducted an event ethnography, in which a team of 11 researchers collaboratively developed accounts of the practices at play within Emerge and its workshops...

  8. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  9. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, Valeria Viorica; Mihailescu, Gabriela; Dumitrescu, Gabriela

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O 4 - stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)

  10. Vaccination of Non-Domestic Animals against Emerging Virus Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.W. Philippa (Joost)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Since the 1980's, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have made an enormous impact on public and animal health, food supply, economies, and the environment. An estimated 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic (pathogens of non-human

  11. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Chu, Hungkuo; Lee, Tongyee; Wolf, Lior; Yeshurun, Hezy; Cohen-Or, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart

  12. Emergent emotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr

    2016-01-01

    I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...

  13. Dermatologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Simón Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic emergencies represent about 8–20% of the diseases seen in the Emergency Department of hospitals. It is often a challenge for primary care physicians to differentiate mundane skin ailments from more serious, life threatening conditions that require immediate intervention. In this review we included the following conditions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrosis, pemphigus vulgaris, toxic shock syndrome, fasciitis necrotising, angioedema/urticaria, meningococcemia, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  14. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  15. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  16. Anorectal emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  17. (Re)politicising and (re)positioning prevention: community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They also signal a need to critically re-evaluate “community mobilisation” as an AIDS prevention tradition. Intersecting social and political power dynamics play a significant role in both opening up and constraining community mobilisation efforts. This paper proposes the need for a pedagogical turn to “deep organising” and ...

  18. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. Emerging and re-emerging viruses of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genersch, Elke; Aubert, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, specific viral infections of the honey bee were generally considered harmless in all countries. Then, with the worldwide introduction of the ectoparasite mite Varroa destructor, beekeepers encountered increasing difficulties in maintaining their colonies. Epidemiological surveys and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the newly acquired virulence of several viruses belonging to the family Dicistroviridae (acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus) in Europe and the USA had been observed in relation with V. destructor acting as a disseminator of these viruses between and within bee colonies and as an activator of virus multiplication in the infected individuals: bee larvae and adults. Equal emphasis is given to deformed wing virus (DWV) belonging to the Iflaviridae. Overt outbreaks of DWV infections have been shown to be linked to the ability of V. destructor to act not only as a mechanical vector of DWV but also as a biological vector. Its replication in mites prior to its vectoring into pupae seemed to be necessary and sufficient for the induction of a overt infection in pupae developing in non-viable bees with deformed wings. DWV in V. destructor infested colonies is now considered as one of the key players of the final collapse. Various approaches for combating bee viral diseases are described: they include selection of tolerant bees, RNA interference and prevention of new pathogen introduction. None of these approaches are expected to lead to enhanced bee-health in the short term. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  20. PENCEGAHAN DAN PEMBERANTASAN PENYAKIT-PENYAKIT ZOONOSA NEW, EMERGING DAN RE-EMERGING DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Simanjuntak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important zoonotic diseases in Indonesia are Rabies, Plague, Anthrax, Taeniasis/Cysticercosis and Japanese encephalitis. These diseases are geographycally distributed in some provinces in Indonesia and each disease have its control program. Other zoonoses which are under intensive surveillance are Toxoplasmosis, Leptospirosis, Brucellosis, bovine Tuberculosis and Haemorrhagic Hanta virosis. These diseases have epidemic potential. Plague known foci are in Boyolali Central Java dan Sleman Yogyakarta. In 1987 after 30 years of dormant period an outbreack of plague occured in Pasuruan, East Java with 48 number of cases and 21 deaths. Intensive surveillance on human, rodent and fleas were conducted in three plague foci. Since 1988 no human case of plague is found in Indonesia eventhough antibody against Y. pestis were found positive in human as well as in rodents. Anthrax is distributed geographycally in Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, West and East Nusa Tenggara and Timor Timur. Skin and intestinal Anthrax types are to be found in Indonesia. In 1990 on outbreak of anthrax occured in Central Java and 7 out of 98 cases were fatal. Of 154 (27.9% out 553 human sera collected from the provinces of West Sumatera, West Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, North Sumatera and North Sulawesi were found positive against toxoplasmosis during the survey conducted in 1995. From the same provinces 152 (19.2% out of 792 animal sera also were found antibody positive against Toxoplasma gondii. There are about 170 Leptospirosis serotypes known in Indonesia. Leptospirosis is geographycally distributed in Central Java, Yogyakarta, West Java, North Sumatera, Riau, Jambi, South Sumatera, Bengkulu, East Kalimantan. Sporadic outbreaks occured in some provinces related to the lack of washing and drinking water in the dry season. Of 10 (1.8% out 154 serum specimens taken from humans in West Sumatera, West Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, North Sumatera and North Sulawesi in 1995 were found positive against Leptospirosis sp. while 29 (3.7% out 792 animal sera from the some provinces also were found positive against Leptospirosis sp.

  1. 44 CFR 208.38 - Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this subpart, DHS will not reimburse costs incurred for re-supply and logistical support during... and logistics costs incurred during Activation. 208.38 Section 208.38 Emergency Management and...-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. With the exception of emergency procurement...

  2. Hematologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  3. RE-SONANCE--IJu-ne

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this title. The chapter on physics and experi- mental methods is perhaps the weakest and might have been better left out or re-written from a perspective that better serves the title and the aims of the rest of the book. There are problems with the proof reading e.g., titanium nitride described as TiC, phrases in sentences.

  4. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter-re...

  5. On Fourier re-expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Liflyand, E.

    2012-01-01

    We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.

  6. Emergency preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P

    2009-01-01

    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  7. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  8. Emergency neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabino, T.; Hospital of Andria; Salvolini, U.; Jinkins, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed at emergency radiologists and neuroradiologists. It aims at providing exhaustive information that will help the reader understand the clinical problems in the full range of neurological emergencies and to select the methodological and technical options that will ensure prompt and effective response and correct interpretation of the clinical findings. The various chapters address the most common neuroradiological emergencies, summarize their fundamental physiopathological features, describe the main semiological and differential diagnostic features, and provide operative suggestions for the selection of the appropriate techniques to be applied in a sequential order. The book addresses the application of state-of-the-art techniques and their implications for clinical practice (particularly the contributions of standard and functional MRI and of spiral and multislice CT). The illustrations provide not only training but also reference material for routine clinical work. (orig.)

  9. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-09-18

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent.

  10. EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pantić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception refers to any device or drug that is used as an emergency procedure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse.The first method of emergency contraception was high dose of estrogen. Concern about side effects led to subsequent development of the so-called Yuzpe regimen which combined ethinil estradiol with levonorgestrel and levonorgestrel alone. Less convenient to use is the copper intauterine contraceptive device.It is known that in some women sexual steroids may inhibit or delay ovulation and may interfere with ovum and sperm transport and implantation. Copper intrauterine device causes a foreign-body effect on the endometrium and a direct toxic effect to sperm and blastocyst.The Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy after a single act of sexual intercourse by about 75% and the levonorgestrel alone by about 85%. The copper intrauterine device is an extremely effective method for selected patients.Nausea and vomiting are common among women using the Yuzpe regimen and considerably less common among women using levonorgestrel alone regimen.Emergency contraception is relatively safe with no contraindications except pregnancy. It is ineffective if a woman is pregnant. There is no need for a medical hystory or a phisical examination before providing emergency contraceptive pills. They are taken long before organogenesis starts, so they should not have a teratogenic effect.Counseling should include information about correct use of the method, possible side effects and her preferences for regular contraception.Unintended pregnancy is a great problem. Several safe, effective and inexpensive methods of emergency contraception are available including Yuzpe regimen, levonorges-trel-only regimen and copper intrauterine device.

  11. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  12. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  13. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  14. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  15. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  16. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be und...

  17. Emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  18. OPERATION EMERGENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELBO, IRVING R.

    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EMERGING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA IS CONSIDERED. CERTAIN WORLD REVOLUTIONS HAVE AFFECTED CONTEMPORARY LIFE. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BROUGHT WITH IT INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY, RESEARCH, HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING, LONGER LIFE SPANS, AND CATEGORIZATION OF NATIONS INTO HAVES AND HAVE NOTS.…

  19. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  20. Emergence delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes...

  1. Thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Koyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency post-coital contraception (EC is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method, and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference.

  3. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  4. Testing for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: key concepts to deal with an emerging epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, Catherine; Rac, Martha; Dunn, James; Versalovic, James; Murray, Kristy O; Suter, Melissa A; Sanz Cortes, Magda; Espinoza, Jimmy; Seferovic, Maxim D; Lee, Wesley; Hotez, Peter; Mastrobattista, Joan; Clark, Steven L; Belfort, Michael A; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Following epidemics in Micronesia and French Polynesia during the past decade, more recent Zika virus infection outbreaks were first reported in South America as early as May 2013 and spread to now 50 countries throughout the Americas. Although no other flavivirus has previously been known to cause major fetal malformations following perinatal infection, reports of a causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly, brain and ocular malformations, and fetal loss emerged from hard-hit regions of Brazil by October 2015. Among the minority of infected women with symptoms, clinical manifestations of Zika virus infection may include fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and maculopapular rash; however, only 1 of every 4-5 people who are infected have any symptoms. Thus, clinical symptom reporting is an ineffective screening tool for the relative risk assessment of Zika virus infection in the majority of patients. As previously occurred with other largely asymptomatic viral infections posing perinatal transmission risk (such as HIV or cytomegalovirus), we must develop and implement rapid, sensitive, and specific screening and diagnostic testing for both viral detection and estimation of timing of exposure. Unfortunately, despite an unprecedented surge in attempts to rapidly advance perinatal clinical testing for a previously obscure arbovirus, there are several ongoing hindrances to molecular- and sonographic-based screening and diagnosis of congenital Zika virus infection. These include the following: (1) difficulty in estimating the timing of exposure for women living in endemic areas and thus limited interpretability of immunoglobulin M serologies; (2) cross-reaction of immunoglobulin serologies with other endemic flaviruses, such as dengue; (3) persistent viremia and viruria in pregnancy weeks to months after primary exposure; and (4) fetal brain malformations and anomalies

  5. Emerging Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    South Korean and Taiwanese brands have long been household names. Today, however, the names of transnational companies (TNCs) from an increasingly diverse set of emerging and developing economies are regularly making if not the dinner table conversation then at least the headlines...... of the international business press. This reflects that companies such as Mittal and Tata (India), China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), Haier and Lenovo (PRC), Embraer (Brazil), SAPMiller (South Africa), and Cemex (Mexico) are foraying ever deeper into the international economy and increasingly investing...... countries. Apart from a few early pioneering studies (Lecraw 1977; Lall 1983; Wells 1983; Agarwal 1985) only few studies have been made so far of outward investment from emerging and developing economies. This is in spite of the fact that the value of outward FDI stock from developing countries reached USD...

  6. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  7. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  8. Emerging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  9. ReMashed - An Usability Study of a Recommender System for Mash-Ups for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Koper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents an usability study of a Mash-up Personal Learning Environment called ReMashed that recommends items from the emerging information of a Learning Network. In ReMashed users can specify certain Web 2.0 services and combine them in a Mash-Up Personal Learning Environment. The users can rate information from an emerging amount of Web 2.0 information of a Learning Network and train a recommender system for their particular needs. In total 49 participants from 8 different countries registered to evaluate the ReMashed system. The participants contributed Web 2.0 contents and used the recommender system for one month. The evaluation was concluded with an online questionnaire where most of the participants were positive about the ReMashed system and offered helpful ideas for future developments.

  10. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    According the conception of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA), and the obtained experience from exercises, and as well as on the basis of recommendations of international missions, the NRA SR started, in 1997 the ERC extension. The new room enable the work for radiation protection group, reactor safety and logistic group separately. At the same time special room was build for work of the NECRA Technical Support Group of the Emergency Commission for Radiation Accidents of the SR.This group co-operates closely with ERC while evaluation the situation, and by using the information system of the NRA and database of ERC to generate the conditions of nuclear facilities in once of emergency. Extension of the mentioned rooms was carried out. The financing by the European Union helped to build the project RAMG. In this way the NRA gained a working site which, with its equipment and parameters belongs to the top working sites of regulatory bodies of developed European countries. The NRA preparation of exercise and special staff education was carried out in 1997, for employees of the NRA and members of Emergency Headquarters (EH) for work in ERC in case of nuclear installation accident. The task of education of member of EH was their preparation for carrying out three exercises. These exercises are described. In the area of emergency preparedness, in accordance with inspection plan of the Office, 7 team inspections were carried out in individual localities; in NPP Bohunice, two in NPP Mochovce and one in Bohunice Conditioning Centre for radioactive wastes. Solution of the task of development of science and technology in the area of 'Development of technical and programme means for analyses of accidents and solutions of crisis situations'continued in 1997. Another regulations were elaborated for activity of members of EH of the NRA. The following was was carried out: selection of data for transfer and the

  11. What Happens in the Emergency Room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was 4 years old, he loved to play Batman. He'd put on his Batman pajamas and pretend to fly all over the ... swollen) and he had trouble moving his arm. "Batman," she said, "We're going to the emergency ...

  12. RE-Powering’s Electronic Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developed by US EPA's RE-Powering America's Land Initiative, the RE-Powering Decision Trees tool guides interested parties through a process to screen sites for their suitability for solar photovoltaics or wind installations

  13. Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Overview: ReADS can analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and problem or maintenance records. ReADS uses text clustering algorithms to group loosely related...

  14. Onboard autonomous mission re-planning for multi-satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zixuan; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an onboard autonomous mission re-planning system for Multi-Satellites System (MSS) to perform onboard re-planing in disruptive situations. The proposed re-planning system can deal with different potential emergency situations. This paper uses Multi-Objective Hybrid Dynamic Mutation Genetic Algorithm (MO-HDM GA) combined with re-planning techniques as the core algorithm. The Cyclically Re-planning Method (CRM) and the Near Real-time Re-planning Method (NRRM) are developed to meet different mission requirements. Simulations results show that both methods can provide feasible re-planning sequences under unforeseen situations. The comparisons illustrate that using the CRM is average 20% faster than the NRRM on computation time. However, by using the NRRM more raw data can be observed and transmitted than using the CRM within the same period. The usability of this onboard re-planning system is not limited to multi-satellite system. Other mission planning and re-planning problems related to autonomous multiple vehicles with similar demands are also applicable.

  15. Re-torsion of the ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel, Trine E W; Bak, Geske S; Larsen, Solveig B

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of de-torsion of the ovaries may result in re-torsion. This review addresses risk of re-torsion and describes preventive strategies to avoid re-torsion in pre-menarcheal girls, and fertile and pregnant women. We clinically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Trip and Cochrane databases. T...

  16. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There are numerous conditions that affect mainly or exclusively the pediatric population. These constitute true emergencies, related to patient's health. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal non-traumatic emergencies may result in rapid deterioration, peritonitis, sepsis, even death or in severe complications with subsequent morbidity. Abdominal emergencies in children mostly present with pain, tenderness, occasionally coupled by vomiting, fever, abdominal distension, and failure to pass meconium or stools. Diarrhea, blood per rectum, abnormal laboratory tests and lethargy may also be manifestations of acute abdominal conditions. Abdominal emergencies have a different aetiology, depending on age and whether the pain is acute or chronic. Symptoms have to be matched with age and gender. Newborns up to 1 months of age may have congenital diseases: atresia, low obstruction including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileus. Meconium plug is one of the commonest cause of low obstruction in newborns that may also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and mid-gut volvulus. Past the immediate postnatal period, any duodenal obstruction should be considered midgut volvulus until proven otherwise and patients should undergo ultrasonography and/or properly performed upper GI contrast study that records the exact position of the deduno-jejunal junction. Infants 6 months-2 years carry the risk of intussusception, mid-gut volvulus, perforation, acute pyelonephritis. Preschool and school-aged children 2-12 years carry the risk of appendicitis, genito-urinary abnormalities including torsion, urachal abnormalities, haemolytic uremic syndrome and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Children above 12 years suffer from the same conditions as in adults. Most conditions may affect any age despite age predilection. Abdominal solid organ ultrasonography (US) coupled with gastrointestinal ultrasonography is the principle imaging modality in radiosensitive

  18. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunoki M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mikihiro Yunoki,1-3 Takeshi Kurosu,2 Ritsuko Kubota Koketsu,2,4 Kazuo Takahashi,5 Yoshinobu Okuno,4 Kazuyoshi Ikuta2,4 1Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, 2Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, 3Pathogenic Risk Evaluation, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, 4Research and Development Division, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kagawa, 5Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, West Nile virus (WNV, and dengue virus (DenV are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. Keywords: Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, intravenous immunoglobulin, neutralization

  19. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  20. Serological examination of songbirds (Passeriformes) for mosquito-borne viruses Sindbis, Ťahyňa, and Batai in a South Moravian Wetland (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřicová, Zina; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Šikutová, Silvie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2009), s. 295-299 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Alphavirus * Bunyavirus * Orthobunyavirus * mosquitoes * Moravia * Wetland birds Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.607, year: 2009

  1. Role of cytochrome P450s in insecticide resistance: impact on the control of mosquito-borne diseases and use of insecticides on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jean-Philippe; Ismail, Hanafy Mahmoud; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Paine, Mark John Ingraham

    2013-02-19

    The fight against diseases spread by mosquitoes and other insects has enormous environmental, economic and social consequences. Chemical insecticides remain the first line of defence but the control of diseases, especially malaria and dengue fever, is being increasingly undermined by insecticide resistance. Mosquitoes have a large repertoire of P450s (over 100 genes). By pinpointing the key enzymes associated with insecticide resistance we can begin to develop new tools to aid the implementation of control interventions and reduce their environmental impact on Earth. Recent technological advances are helping us to build a functional profile of the P450 determinants of insecticide metabolic resistance in mosquitoes. Alongside, the cross-responses of mosquito P450s to insecticides and pollutants are also being investigated. Such research will provide the means to produce diagnostic tools for early detection of P450s linked to resistance. It will also enable the design of new insecticides with optimized efficacy in different environments.

  2. Role of cytochrome P450s in insecticide resistance: impact on the control of mosquito-borne diseases and use of insecticides on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    David, Jean-Philippe; Ismail, Hanafy Mahmoud; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Paine, Mark John Ingraham

    2013-01-01

    The fight against diseases spread by mosquitoes and other insects has enormous environmental, economic and social consequences. Chemical insecticides remain the first line of defence but the control of diseases, especially malaria and dengue fever, is being increasingly undermined by insecticide resistance. Mosquitoes have a large repertoire of P450s (over 100 genes). By pinpointing the key enzymes associated with insecticide resistance we can begin to develop new tools to aid the implementat...

  3. A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra, C.A.; Reiner Jr, R.C.; Perkins, T.A.; Lindsay, S.W.; Midega, J.T.; Brady, O.J.; Barker, C.M.; Reisen, W.K.; Harrington, L.C.; Takken, W.; Kitron, U.; Lloyd, A.L.; Hay, S.I.; Scott, T.W.; Smith, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency

  4. The importance of age dependent mortality and the extrinsic incubation period in models of mosquito-borne disease transmission and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all mathematical models of vector-borne diseases have assumed that vectors die at constant rates. However, recent empirical research suggests that mosquito mortality rates are frequently age dependent. This work develops a simple mathematical model to assess how relaxing the classical assumption of constant mortality affects the predicted effectiveness of anti-vectorial interventions. The effectiveness of mosquito control when mosquitoes die at age dependent rates was also compared across different extrinsic incubation periods. Compared to a more realistic age dependent model, constant mortality models overestimated the sensitivity of disease transmission to interventions that reduce mosquito survival. Interventions that reduce mosquito survival were also found to be slightly less effective when implemented in systems with shorter EIPs. Future transmission models that examine anti-vectorial interventions should incorporate realistic age dependent mortality rates.

  5. Is it an Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Medical emergencies can be frightening and ... situation. Here you can find information about emergencies. It is essential to know how to recognize the ...

  6. Re-Engineering Marketing (RM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhidar Iv. Hadzhiev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La globalización, el auge de la economía, el progreso de la e-net economía, y el gran dinamismo de las relaciones comerciales se están constituyendo como una función progresiva en constante crecimiento, predeterminando la utilización de unas pocas nuevas oportunidades para aumentar la eficacia de las empresas. Llegados a este punto, a través del prisma de los métodos de reingeniería en el presente artículo se muestran algunos problemas básicos y las oportunidades existentes para la Reingeniería del Marketing (RM.Globalization, the rise of the economy, the progress of the e-net economy, and the high dynamics of business relationships are developing as one of the permanently rising progressive functions, predetermining the use of a few new opportunities for increasing effectiveness of the industry companies. At this point, through the prism of Re-engineering methods, a few basic problems and opportunities for Re-engineering Marketing (RM are presented in this paper.

  7. India emerging: New financial architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Basu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis of 2007–2008 highlighted the need to re-evaluate several well established tenets in the world of finance. Questions have been raised the world over about the existing paradigm, leading to an acceptance that new financial architecture needed to be evolved and that new models need to emerge, keeping in mind the multiplicity of socio-economic realities that exist round the globe. In this context, the imperative for a new financial architecture in India is quite evident, and the ensuing panel discussion throws up some India-specific issues that need to be explored by the various stakeholders involved in this attempt.

  8. Emergency Managers Confront Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Labadie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergency managers will have to deal with the impending, uncertain, and possibly extreme effects of climate change. Yet, many emergency managers are not aware of the full range of possible effects, and they are unsure of their place in the effort to plan for, adapt to, and cope with those effects. This may partly reflect emergency mangers’ reluctance to get caught up in the rancorous—and politically-charged—debate about climate change, but it mostly is due to the worldview shared by most emergency managers. We focus on: extreme events; acute vs. chronic hazards (floods vs. droughts; a shorter event horizon (5 years vs. 75–100 years; and a shorter planning and operational cycle. This paper explores the important intersection of emergency management, environmental management, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. It examines the different definitions of terms common to all three fields, the overlapping strategies used in all three fields, and the best means of collaboration and mutual re-enforcement among the three to confront and solve the many possible futures that we may face in the climate change world.

  9. Ouvrages reçus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available – E. Danblon, Rhétorique et rationalité. Essai sur l’émergence de la critique et de la persuasion, Bruxelles, Éditions de l’Université de Bruxelles (coll. Philosophie et société, 2002.– J.-L. Solère-Z. Kaluza (éds., La Servante et la consolatrice. La philosophie dans ses rapports avec la théologie au Moyen Âge, Paris, Librairie philosophique J. Vrin (Coll. Textes et traditions, 2002.– Mitteilungen des Marbacher Arbeitskreises für Geschichte der Germanistik (éd. par Chr. König, en collabora...

  10. Re-imagining Active Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Alba, Gloria; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2018-01-01

    is largely lacking in the literature on active learning. In this article, we explore the possibility of re-imagining, or at least extending, the meaning of active learning by drawing out dimensions that are neither readily visible nor instrumental, as much of this literature implies. Drawing from educational......Ample attention is being paid in the higher education literature to promoting active learning among students. Where studies on active learning report student outcomes, they indicate improved or equivalent outcomes when compared with traditional lectures, which are considered more passive...... philosophy and, in particular, existential philosophies, we argue that active learning may also be partly invisible, unfocused, unsettling, and not at all instrumentalsometimes even leaving the learner more confused and (temporarily) incompetent. However, such forms of undisclosed or ‘dark’ learning, we...

  11. Sobre el Re-sentimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rodríguez Gonzalo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available "siento que para avanzar hacia el cosmopolitismo sorofraterno y continuar esa ‘tarea infinita’ que nos planteó Hans Kelsen, con respecto a trabajar en favor del pacifismo jurídico; e incluso, para intentar el ars combinatoria del que hablaba Gottfried Leibniz, es fundamental empezar con las relaciones hombre-mujer y luchar por superar los re-sentimientos individuales y colectivos;  de manera que aprendamos a perdonar sin pedir nada a cambio y olvidando cualquier secreto deseo de venganza. Con esa actitud, tal vez hasta podríamos entusiasmar a otras personas para que se sumen en este largo camino hacia la libertad de la Humanidad".

  12. Examination of rotator cuff re-tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Yoshihiro; Norimatsu, Takahiro; Adachi, Shinji; Sera, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    The six-month post-operative re-tear rate in 72 arthroscopic rotator cuff repair cases was 16.3% by MRI. The re-tear rate of massive tears was 50%. We investigated the details of the re-tears by MRI and arthroscopic findings. High re-tear rates were connected with cuff tear size and fatty degeneration of muscle belly. Cases with poor cuff quality in arthroscopically showed high re-tear rate. These results suggest that surgery operation should be performed as soon as possible after diagnosis of cuff tear to obtain good results. Cases with damage of long head of the biceps (LHB) are likely to develop impingement causes of re-tears. Some type of rehabilitation is required to avoid impingement in such cases. (author)

  13. Re-use of disposable coil dialysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbud Filho, M.

    1980-01-01

    Re-use of disposable dialysers has been in practice for over 16 years throughout the world but it still is a polemical subject. The main justification for it is the reduction of costs in the hemodialytic treatment. We evaluated the technique of re-use that we adopt by studying 33 patients who should re-utilize coil dialysers for 8 consecutive hemodialysis sessions. We investigated: 1) small and middle molecules clearances trough a radioisotopic method; 2) the integrity of the system regarding bacterial invasion; 3) the frequency of anti-N antibodies; 4) aspects of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of dialysis membrane after re-use. We observed no changes in the dialysers performance during re-use. We conclude that the re-use of dialyzers is feasible, without risks for the patients, allowing marked reduction of costs, thus making possible to offer treatment to a larger number of uremic patients. (author)

  14. Adaptive prostate IGRT combining online re-optimization and re-positioning: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Taoran; Zhu Xiaofeng; Lee, W Robert; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Yin Fangfang; Wu, Q Jackie; Thongphiew, Danthai

    2011-01-01

    In prostate radiation therapy, inter-fractional organ motion/deformation has posed significant challenges on reliable daily dose delivery. To correct for this issue, off-line re-optimization and online re-positioning have been used clinically. In this paper, we propose an adaptive images guided radiation therapy (AIGRT) scheme that combines these two correction methods in an anatomy-driven fashion. The AIGRT process first tries to find a best plan for the daily target from a plan pool, which consists of the original CT plan and all previous re-optimized plans. If successful, the selected plan is used for daily treatment with translational shifts. Otherwise, the AIGRT invokes the re-optimization process of the CT plan for the anatomy of the day, which is afterward added to the plan pool as a candidate for future fractions. The AIGRT scheme is evaluated by comparisons with daily re-optimization and online re-positioning techniques based on daily target coverage, organs at risk (OAR) sparing and implementation efficiency. Simulated treatment courses for 18 patients with re-optimization alone, re-positioning alone and AIGRT shows that AIGRT offers reliable daily target coverage that is highly comparable to daily re-optimization and significantly improves from re-positioning. AIGRT is also seen to provide improved OAR sparing compared to re-positioning. Apart from dosimetric benefits, AIGRT in addition offers an efficient scheme to integrate re-optimization to current re-positioning-based IGRT workflow.

  15. They're not employees, they're people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Peter F

    2002-02-01

    In this essay, business thinker Peter Drucker examines the changing dynamics of the workforce--in particular, the need for organizations to take just as much care and responsibility when managing temporary and contract workers as they do with their traditional employees. Two fast-growing trends are demanding that business leaders pay more attention to employee relations, Drucker says. First is the rise of the temporary, or contract, workers; 8 million to 10 million temp workers are placed each day worldwide. And they're not just filling in at reception desks. Today, there are temp suppliers for every kind of job, all the way up to CEO. Second, a growing number of businesses are outsourcing their employee relations to professional employee organizations (PEOs)--third-party groups that handle the ever mounting administrative tasks associated with managing a company's employees. (Managers can easily spend up to one-quarter of their time on employee-related rules, regulations, and paperwork.) Driving these trends, Drucker observes, is the shift from a dependency on manual labor to create wealth and jobs to a dependency on specialization and knowledge. Leaders are increasingly trying to keep up with the needs of many small groups of product or service experts within their companies. Temps and PEOs free up leaders to focus on the business rather than on HR files and paperwork. But if organizations outsource those functions, they need to be careful not to damage relationship with their people in the process, Drucker concludes. After all, developing talent is business's most important task--the sine qua non of competition in a knowledge economy.

  16. Microencephaly in fetal piglets following in utero inoculation of Zika virus article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichgers Schreur, P.J.; Keulen, van L.; Anjema, D.; Kant, J.; Kortekaas, J.

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that became associated with microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults after its emergence in the Pacific and the Americas in 2015. Newly developed rodent and nonhuman primate models have already revealed important insights into

  17. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; N'Guessan, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Asidi, A.; Farenhorst, M.; Akogbéto, M.; Thomas, M.B.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that

  18. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; N'Guessan, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Asidi, A.; Farenhorst, M.; Akogbeto, M.; Thomas, M.B.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show

  19. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Annabel Fv; N'Guessan, Raphael; Koenraadt, Constantianus Jm; Asidi, Alex; Farenhorst, Marit; Akogbéto, Martin; Thomas, Matthew B.; Knols, Bart Gj; Takken, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that

  20. Mosquito ovicidal properties of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternativ...

  1. African and Asian Zika virus isolates display phenotypic differences both in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has emerged since 2007 to cause outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and most recently in the Americas. Here we utilized isolate history, as well as genetic and phylogenetic analyses to characterize three low-passage isolates representing African ...

  2. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, H.; Medlock, J.M.; Vaux, A.G.C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bartumeus, F.; Oltra, A.; Sousa, C.A.; Chouin, S.; Werner, D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order

  3. Active school of Adolphe Ferrière

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Ljubomir P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents views of Adolphe Ferrière, a Swiss educator and psychologist and a Professor at the "Jean-Jacques Rousseau" Institute, about active school - one of the "new school" movements that emerged in the first half of 20th century as a countermove to traditional school founded on Herbartian conception of education. Condemning old school’s intellectualism and verbalism, active school turns towards a child, his nature, needs and interests, and declares activity, "child’s self-work", the basic principle of education. The paper points out Ferrière’s contributions to the transformation of "learning school" into "working and activity school". After presenting Ferrière’s criticism of traditional school as well as a number of "new school" movements, the author provides in more detail essential features of active school. Ferrière’s argumentation against attempts to identify active school with "handwork school" and against tendencies to make it equal with "active methods" is herein presented. Also, the author elaborates why Ferrière turns down the objection that active school neglects intellectual education and why he does not accept pragmatic qualifications of active school. Consideration is given to the demands of active school for teacher education i.e. characteristics that a "new school" teacher should possess as required by Ferrière.

  4. Re-powering and site recycling in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Kahn, E.P.

    1991-03-01

    Re-powering and site recycling are strategies designed to expand electric generating capacity by using depreciated assets. The resource base for the these strategies is large. By 1995, over 170,000 MW of fossil-fired capacity will be in excess of thirty years old, and approaching the end of its conventional economic lifetime. This paper explores how these assets might be developed using competitive market forces. While some re-powering is being pursued under traditional ratebase regulation, there are four other generic alternatives. These are: (1) utility investment at fixed prices with regulatory pre-approval, (2) utility investment under competitive bidding, (3) utility leasing for private producer development, and (4) utility sale of sites for private producer development. Issues associated with each alternative are explored and illustrated with examples. State regulatory policy will be the critical determinant of whether a market develops for depreciated power plants. Financial incentives will stimulate utilities to re-deploy depreciated assets. This means some form of profit-sharing between customers and shareholders of the grains from asset sales. Different approaches to profit sharing are reviewed. These developments are still in an experimental state, however, and no single approach appears to have emerged as a dominant trend. 36 refs., 1 tab

  5. Valuing the waste: Re-innovation through the lens of upcycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Wegener, Charlotte

    add value to something that is perceived of as disposable or of no value. This ‘valuing the waste’-mindset is highly relevant in public domains, we will argue. The paper investigates what perspectives emerge when approaching re-innovation through the lens of upcycling and claims that upcycling...

  6. Re-Appraising the Role of Sonography in Pediatric Acute Abdominal Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng

    2013-01-01

    Objective Most pediatric emergency department (ED) visits are due to acute abdominal pain. Sonography is a reliable technique for differential diagnosis. The objective of this study was to re-appraise the role of sonography in evaluating acute abdominal pain in children. Methods Retrospective chart review of children aged

  7. Jacques Rancière and indisciplinarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronian, M.A.; Rosello, M.

    2008-01-01

    This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Jacques Rancière by Marie-Aude Baronian and Mireille Rosello from the University of Amsterdam and ASCA. A version of this interview was published in Dutch by Valiz (NL), in a volume of studies on Jacques Rancière that appeared in the Netherlands

  8. Charge Carrier Trapping Processes in RE2O2S (RE = La, Gd, Y, and Lu)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, H.; Bos, A.J.J.; Dorenbos, P.

    2017-01-01

    Two different charge carrier trapping processes have been investigated in RE2O2S:Ln3+ (RE = La, Gd, Y, and Lu; Ln = Ce, Pr, and Tb) and RE2O2S:M (M = Ti4+ and Eu3+). Cerium, praseodymium and terbium act as recombination centers and hole trapping centers while host intrinsic defects provide the

  9. Epitaxial growth of ReS2(001) thin film via deposited-Re sulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Noriyuki; Okuda, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Yoshio

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present the formation of large-size rhenium disulfide (ReS2) films via the sulfurization of Re films deposited on sapphire substrates. The effects of sulfurization temperature and pressure on the crystal quality were investigated. A [001]-oriented single crystal of ReS2 films with 6 × 10 mm2 area was realized. By sulfurizing Re films at 1100 °C, ReS2 films with well-defined sharp interfaces to c-plane sapphire substrates could be formed. Below and above the sulfurization temperature of 1100 °C, incomplete sulfurization and film degradation were observed. The twofold symmetry of the monocrystalline in-plane structure composed of Re-Re bonds along with Re-S bonds pointed to a distorted 1T structure, indicating that this structure is the most stable atomic arrangement for ReS2. For a S/Re compositional ratio equal to or slightly lower than 2.0, characteristic Raman vibrational modes with the narrowest line widths were observed. The typical absorption peak of ReS2 can be detected at 1.5 eV.

  10. Development of Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, N. [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen powered ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles can play an important role as an automotive power source in the future, because of its higher reliability and cost performance than those of fuel cell vehicles. Combined with hydrogen, Mazda's unique rotary engine (RE) has merits such as a prevention of hydrogen pre-ignition. Mazda has been developing hydrogen vehicles with the hydrogen RE from the early 1990s. Premacy (Mazda5) Hydrogen RE Hybrid was developed and launched in 2009, following RX-8 Hydrogen RE delivered in 2006. A series hybrid system was adopted in Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid. A traction motor switches its windings while the vehicle is moving. This switching technology allows the motor to be small and high-efficient. The lithium-ion high voltage battery, which has excellent input-output characteristics, was installed. These features extend the hydrogen fuel driving range to 200 km and obtain excellent acceleration performance. The hydrogen RE can be also operated by gasoline (Dual Fuel System). The additional gasoline operation makes hydrogen vehicles possible to drive in non-hydrogen station area. With approval from the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport, Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid was delivered successfully to the Japanese market in the form of leasing. (orig.)

  11. Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  12. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Chemical Emergencies Overview Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... themselves during and after such an event. What chemical emergencies are A chemical emergency occurs when a ...

  13. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  14. Emergency Contraception Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website ...

  15. NPP accident scenario. Which emergency measures are planned in Switzerland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident in Fukushima the Swiss government has ordered an extensive analysis of emergency planning in case of a NPP accident Switzerland. A special working group has analyzed the possible improvements of Swiss emergency planning based on the experiences in Japan. Under the special direction of the Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (BABS) the agreed improvements were integrated into the emergency concept. The reference scenarios have been re-assessed and the zone concept adapted. The emergency measures include shelter-type rooms (basement or window-less rooms), the preventive distribution of iodine pills, measures concerning agriculture, aquatic systems, preventive evacuation, traffic regulations, and delayed evacuation.

  16. InSpiRe - Intelligent Spine Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Kasper Hafstrøm; Helms, Niels Henrik; Kjær, Per

    Rapport on InSpiRe-projektet: InSpiRe er et nationalt netværk, der skal fremme mulighederne for intelligent genoptræning i forhold til ryglidelser. I netværket mødes forskere, virksomheder, kiropraktorer og fysioterapeuter for at udvikle nye genoptrænings og/eller behandlingsteknologier.......Rapport on InSpiRe-projektet: InSpiRe er et nationalt netværk, der skal fremme mulighederne for intelligent genoptræning i forhold til ryglidelser. I netværket mødes forskere, virksomheder, kiropraktorer og fysioterapeuter for at udvikle nye genoptrænings og/eller behandlingsteknologier....

  17. Taevalik trio / Laurence Lumiére

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumiére, Laurence

    2000-01-01

    Actionfilm "Charlie inglid" : režissöör Joseph McGinty Nichol : peategelased : Drew Barrymore (. Ka produtsent), Cameron Diaz ja Lucy Liu : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2000. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 90-91

  18. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  19. 76 FR 40403 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, R.E. Ginna Independent Spent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-244; Docket No. 72-67] R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, R.E. Ginna Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of... Facility Operating License No. DPR-18, for the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), currently held by R...

  20. Crystal structure of R.E. NiSn and R.E. PdSn equiatomic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, A.E.

    1983-03-01

    Call constants and volume per formula weight are tabulated for RE NiSn (RE = La to Lu, Y) and RE PdSn (RE = Nd to Ho). The unit cell constants are also plotted versus ionic radius of the RE; trends are noted

  1. Status report on seismic re-evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In May 1997, a meeting of the PWG 3 Sub Group on the Seismic Behaviour of Structures agreed several priority objectives, of which one was the production of a status report on seismic re-evaluation. Seismic re-evaluation is identified as the process of carrying out a re-assessment of the safety of existing nuclear power plants for a specified seismic hazard. This may be necessary when no seismic hazard was considered in the original design of the plant, the relevant codes and regulations have been revised, the seismic hazard for the site has been re-assessed or there is a need to assess the capacity of the plant for severe accident conditions and behaviour beyond the design basis. Re-evaluation may also be necessary to resolve an issue, or to assess the impact of new findings or knowledge. A questionnaire on the subject was issued to all members of the Seismic Sub Group in the summer of 1997, and responses to the questionnaire had been received from most members by the end of 1997. This report is based on the responses to the questionnaire, together with comment and discussion within the group. The questionnaire covered the following main topics of interest in relation to seismic re-evaluation: General and Legislative Framework, Overall Approach, Input Definition and Analysis Methods, Scope of Plant and Assessment of As-built Situation, Assessment criteria, Outcome of Re-evaluations, Research. The responses to the questionnaire have been collated and reviewed with the objective of comparing current practice in the field of seismic re-evaluation in member countries, and a number of important points have been identified in relation to the position of seismic re-evaluation in the nuclear power industry throughout the world. It is evident that seismic re-evaluation is a relatively mature process that has been developing for some time, with most countries adopting similar practices, often based on principles which have been developed in the US nuclear industry. Seismic

  2. Re-hardening of hadron transverse mass spectra in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, A.; Otuka, N.; Sahu, P.K.; Isse, M.; Nara, Y.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the spectra of pions and protons in heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies from 2 A GeV to 65 + 65 A GeV by using a jet-implemented hadron-string cascade model. In this energy region, hadron transverse mass spectra first show softening until SPS energies, and re-hardening may emerge at RHIC energies. Since hadronic matter is expected to show only softening at higher energy densities, this re-hardening of spectra can be interpreted as a good signature of the quark-gluon plasma formation. (author)

  3. Re-Harnessing the Genie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-06-01

    Fifty years ago Vannevar Bush, with the aid of the Federal Government, released the academic research genie. It was argued at the time, and it still may be true, that only academic laboratories could provide the research and trained personnel needed to sustain American's scientific and technological needs. As history has shown, Bush's instinctive distrust of industrial laboratories as a potential training ground was basically correct. In those days, the country's needs were associated with warfare-the end of WWII and the collective hostile activities historically described as the "cold war." Today the country's needs derive from attempts to stay globally competitive. The government's decision to have universities turning out the bulk of the nation's basic research and to use those universities as a venue for developing research talent has created a network of more than 100 research-intensive universities, the output of which is the envy of the world. But, now there is another growing national need-improving the quality of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) education throughout the educational system. The genie released 50 years ago, either has to go back into the bottle, or it needs to be re-purposed. The former is highly unlikely, which leaves only the latter as a viable strategy. Indeed, the National Science Foundation, which could be described as the master of the genie, is attempting to do just that. In the past several years, the budget for NSF's suite of "undergraduate" programs has grown to the point where the Foundation currently spends about $180 million on such projects. These programs represent initiatives at the pre-college and undergraduate college levels that are focused on instructional activities (teacher preparation, curriculum development, faculty enhancement, etc.) and research-oriented activities to compliment undergraduate education in a variety of traditional nonresearch environments. These programs are an attempt by NSF

  4. Periodic safety re-evaluations in NPPs in EC member states, Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The work on periodic safety re-evaluations summarized in this report was performed by a Task Force of the CEC Working Group on the Safety of Thermal Reactors. The periodic safety re-evaluations under review in this study were those that are carried out in addition to other reviews which represent the primary means of safety assurance. The periodic safety re-evaluation is broader and more comprehensive in nature. The cumulative effects of experience (national and international), advances in knowledge and analysis techniques, improvements in safety standards and operating practices, overall effects of plant ageing, and the totality of all modifications over the period in question need to be taken into account. All countries have recognized the value of such periodic reviews, and licensees, either as a regulatory requirement or as a voluntary action, are carrying them out. The scope and contents of each country's review showed many similarities of approach, any differences being explained by the age and type of reactor in operation. Many similarities emerged in the topics selected for re-evaluation and in the approach to re-evaluation itself. The overall conclusion was that while approaches may differ in some respects, for practical purposes comparable levels of safety are achieved in the periodic safety re-evaluation of nuclear power plants

  5. Studies of HEDP labelled with 188Re from different generators of 188W /188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, Barbara Szot

    2006-01-01

    The widespread interest in 188 Re for therapeutic applications, is due to its attractive 16,9 hours half-life, emission of a β - particle with maximum energy of 2.12 MeV and gamma-ray of 155 keV suitable for imaging. This work presents the radiolabelling of HEDP (etidronate) with 188 Re eluted from alumina-based 188 W/ 188 Re generators and tungstate-based 188 W/ 188 Re gel generators. Dependence of the yield of the 18 '8Re-HEDP on the concentration of the reduction agent, p H, reaction time, temperature and addition of carrier Re 2 O 7 were evaluated. The radiolabelling of 188 Re-HEDP procedure using the optimum conditions resulted a yield >= 98% for liquid and lyophilized kits. This basic formulation contains: 30 mg de HEDP, 7 mg de SnCl 2 , 3 mg de ascorbic acid and addition of 20 mug of Re 2 O 7 . The reactions were carried out with heating in boiling water for 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of incubation. Another important aspect of this work was the radiochemical quality control comparing the results of PC, TLC and ion chromatography, along with the experiments with HPLC. The biological distribution proved the adequate bone uptake and in vivo stability of 188 Re-HEDP complexes. (author)

  6. Emergency care of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer E; Heatley, J Jill

    2007-05-01

    Raptors may present with a variety of conditions, such as trauma, debilitation, and disease, that necessitate emergency care. Emergency treatment should prioritize stabilization of the patient. Diagnostic testing should be delayed until feasible based on patient status. This article reviews emergency medicine in raptors, including appropriate handling and restraint, hospitalization, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, supportive care, and common emergency presentations.

  7. Stanniocalcin-1 regulates re-epithelialization in human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie H Y Yeung

    Full Text Available Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1, a glycoprotein hormone, is believed to be involved in various biological processes such as inflammation, oxidative responses and cell migration. Riding on these emerging evidences, we hypothesized that STC1 may participate in the re-epithelialization during wound healing. Re-epithelialization is a critical step that involves keratinocyte lamellipodia (e-lam formation, followed by cell migration. In this study, staurosporine (STS treatment induced human keratinocyte (HaCaT e-lam formation on fibronectin matrix and migration via the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, the surge of intracellular calcium level [Ca²⁺]i and the inactivation of Akt. In accompanied with these migratory features, a time- and dose-dependent increase in STC1 expression was detected. STC1 gene expression was found not the downstream target of FAK-signaling as illustrated by FAK inhibition using PF573228. The reduction of [Ca²⁺]i by BAPTA/AM blocked the STS-mediated keratinocyte migration and STC1 gene expression. Alternatively the increase of [Ca²⁺]i by ionomycin exerted promotional effect on STS-induced STC1 gene expression. The inhibition of Akt by SH6 and GSK3β by lithium chloride (LiCl could respectively induce and inhibit the STS-mediated e-lam formation, cell migration and STC1 gene expression. The STS-mediated e-lam formation and cell migration were notably hindered or induced respectively by STC1 knockdown or overexpression. This notion was further supported by the scratched wound assay. Collectively the findings provide the first evidence that STC1 promotes re-epithelialization in wound healing.

  8. Stanniocalcin-1 regulates re-epithelialization in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Bonnie H Y; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1), a glycoprotein hormone, is believed to be involved in various biological processes such as inflammation, oxidative responses and cell migration. Riding on these emerging evidences, we hypothesized that STC1 may participate in the re-epithelialization during wound healing. Re-epithelialization is a critical step that involves keratinocyte lamellipodia (e-lam) formation, followed by cell migration. In this study, staurosporine (STS) treatment induced human keratinocyte (HaCaT) e-lam formation on fibronectin matrix and migration via the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), the surge of intracellular calcium level [Ca²⁺]i and the inactivation of Akt. In accompanied with these migratory features, a time- and dose-dependent increase in STC1 expression was detected. STC1 gene expression was found not the downstream target of FAK-signaling as illustrated by FAK inhibition using PF573228. The reduction of [Ca²⁺]i by BAPTA/AM blocked the STS-mediated keratinocyte migration and STC1 gene expression. Alternatively the increase of [Ca²⁺]i by ionomycin exerted promotional effect on STS-induced STC1 gene expression. The inhibition of Akt by SH6 and GSK3β by lithium chloride (LiCl) could respectively induce and inhibit the STS-mediated e-lam formation, cell migration and STC1 gene expression. The STS-mediated e-lam formation and cell migration were notably hindered or induced respectively by STC1 knockdown or overexpression. This notion was further supported by the scratched wound assay. Collectively the findings provide the first evidence that STC1 promotes re-epithelialization in wound healing.

  9. Transmedia marketing and re-invention of public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakus Dalibor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many concepts have been developed to describe the convergence of media, public relations and storytelling formats in contemporary media systems. This article presents a theoretical reflection on “transmedia storytelling” from a perspective of integration narrative in the context of the re-invention of public relations. The rapid evolution of digital media technology and the emergence of transmedia storytelling present foresight professionals with a powerful new approach for communicating about the future. A transmedia story unfolds across multiple media platforms with each new text making a distinctive and valuable contribution to the whole. Between other, this article also outlines some of the key principles and elements of transmedia storytelling in combination with modern public relations, in order to provide a basic framework that public relations practitioner can use when designing transmedia projects.

  10. Post-anaesthetic emergence delirium in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, L; Andersen, G; Møller, A M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium (ED) after general anaesthesia (GA) is a well-known phenomenon, yet the risk factors are still unclear. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and independent predictors of ED and secondly to determine to which degree ED has any relevant, clinical...... consequences to medical staff as well as to patients. METHOD: This prospective, observational cohort study assessed adult patients emerging from GA in the operating room, using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). Signs of ED, defined as RASS≥1 along with possible clinical consequences were noted....... Patients with ED were re-evaluated in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) and concomitant patient and anaesthesia related factors were noted. RESULTS: Among the 1970 patients enrolled, 73 (3.7%) showed signs of ED when emerging from anaesthesia. When reassessed in PACU, the number had declined to 25...

  11. Transsexual emergence: gender variant identities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocha, Witchayanee

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to understanding of emergent gender/sexual identities in Thailand. Thailand has become a popular destination for sex change operations by providing the medical technology for a complete transformation, with relatively few procedures and satisfactory results at a reasonable price. Data were gathered from 24 transsexual male-to-female sex workers working in Pattaya and Patpong, well-known sex-tourism hot spots in Thailand. Findings suggest the emergence of new understandings of gender/sexual identity. Sex-tourism/sex work significantly illuminates the process through which gender is contested and re-imagined. The coming together of cultures in Thailand's sex industry, coupled with advances in medical technology, has resulted in the emergence of new concepts of gender.

  12. Efficient alignment of pyrosequencing reads for re-sequencing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Luis MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past few years, new massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies have emerged. These platforms generate massive amounts of data per run, greatly reducing the cost of DNA sequencing. However, these techniques also raise important computational difficulties mostly due to the huge volume of data produced, but also because of some of their specific characteristics such as read length and sequencing errors. Among the most critical problems is that of efficiently and accurately mapping reads to a reference genome in the context of re-sequencing projects. Results We present an efficient method for the local alignment of pyrosequencing reads produced by the GS FLX (454 system against a reference sequence. Our approach explores the characteristics of the data in these re-sequencing applications and uses state of the art indexing techniques combined with a flexible seed-based approach, leading to a fast and accurate algorithm which needs very little user parameterization. An evaluation performed using real and simulated data shows that our proposed method outperforms a number of mainstream tools on the quantity and quality of successful alignments, as well as on the execution time. Conclusions The proposed methodology was implemented in a software tool called TAPyR--Tool for the Alignment of Pyrosequencing Reads--which is publicly available from http://www.tapyr.net.

  13. Specific Cell (Re-)Programming: Approaches and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausburg, Frauke; Jung, Julia Jeannine; David, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Many disorders are manifested by dysfunction of key cell types or their disturbed integration in complex organs. Thereby, adult organ systems often bear restricted self-renewal potential and are incapable of achieving functional regeneration. This underlies the need for novel strategies in the field of cell (re-)programming-based regenerative medicine as well as for drug development in vitro. The regenerative field has been hampered by restricted availability of adult stem cells and the potentially hazardous features of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Moreover, ethical concerns and legal restrictions regarding the generation and use of ESCs still exist. The establishment of direct reprogramming protocols for various therapeutically valuable somatic cell types has overcome some of these limitations. Meanwhile, new perspectives for safe and efficient generation of different specified somatic cell types have emerged from numerous approaches relying on exogenous expression of lineage-specific transcription factors, coding and noncoding RNAs, and chemical compounds.It should be of highest priority to develop protocols for the production of mature and physiologically functional cells with properties ideally matching those of their endogenous counterparts. Their availability can bring together basic research, drug screening, safety testing, and ultimately clinical trials. Here, we highlight the remarkable successes in cellular (re-)programming, which have greatly advanced the field of regenerative medicine in recent years. In particular, we review recent progress on the generation of cardiomyocyte subtypes, with a focus on cardiac pacemaker cells. Graphical Abstract.

  14. Medical Emergencies in Goa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa's roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types of emergencies presenting to emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random sampling design, all emergencies presenting to the three government hospitals in Goa, which handle 90% of all emergencies currently, were studied on specially designed data sheets in order to collect data. Emergency medical technicians (ETs) were placed in the Casualty Ward of the medical colleges and they recorded all emergencies on the data sheet. The collected data were then analyzed for stratification and mapping of emergencies. Results: GMC Hospital attended to majority of emergencies (62%), which were mainly of the nature of accidents or assaults (17%) and fever related (17%). Most emergencies were noncritical and about 1% expired. Maximum emergencies also presented from Salcette and Bardez, and occurred among young males in the age group of 19-45 years. Males were also more prone to accidents while females had pregnancies as emergencies. Conclusion: Potential emergency services need to target young males with higher concentrations required in Salcette in South Goa and Bardez in North Goa. PMID:20606921

  15. STS-134 Re-Rendezvous Design History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    In preparation to provide the capability for the Orion spacecraft to rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS), a new suite of relative navigation sensors are in development and will be tested on one of the final Space Shuttle missions to ISS. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) commissioned a flight test of prototypes of the instruments on STS-134, in order to test their performance in the space environment during the nominal rendezvous and docking, as well as a re-rendezvous dedicated to testing the prototype sensors following the undocking of the Space Shuttle Orbiter at the end of the mission. Unlike the initial rendezvous and docking, the re-rendezvous profile would replicate the newly designed Orion coelliptic approach trajectory, something never before attempted with the Shuttle Orbiter. Therefore, there were a number of new parameters that needed to be conceived of, designed, and tested for this re-rendezvous to make the flight test successful. And all of this work had to be integrated with the normal operations of the ISS and Shuttle and had to conform to the constraints of the mission and vehicles. The result of this work is a separation and re-rendezvous trajectory design that will prove not only the design of the relative navigation sensors for the Orion vehicle, but also will serve as a proof of concept for the Orion rendezvous trajectory itself. This document presents the analysis and decision making process involved in attaining the final STS-134 re-rendezvous design.

  16. Existing reflection seismic data re-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinaka, Motonori; Sano, Yukiko; Kozawa, Takeshi

    2005-08-01

    This document is to report the results of existing seismic data re-processing around Horonobe town, Hokkaido, Japan, which is a part of the Horonobe Underground Research Project. The main purpose of this re-processing is to recognize the subsurface structure of Omagari Fault and fold system around Omagari Fault. The seismic lines for re-processing are TYHR-A3 line and SHRB-2 line, which JAPEX surveyed in 1975. Applying weathering static correction using refraction analysis and noise suppression procedure, we have much enhanced seismic profile. Following information was obtained from seismic re-processing results. TYHR-A3 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west. These reflections are corresponding western limb of anticline to the west side of Omagari Fault. SHRB-2 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west, at CDP 60-140, while there are reflections, dipping to the east, to the east side of CDP 140. These reflections correspond to the western limb and the eastern limb of the anticline, which is parallel to Omagari FAULT. This seismic re-processing provides some useful information to know the geological structure around Omagari Fault. (author)

  17. Dissecting the Re-Os molybdenite geochronometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fernando; Deditius, Artur; Reich, Martin; Kilburn, Matt R; Guagliardo, Paul; Roberts, Malcolm P

    2017-11-22

    Rhenium and osmium isotopes have been used for decades to date the formation of molybdenite (MoS 2 ), a common mineral in ore deposits and the world's main source of molybdenum and rhenium. Understanding the distribution of parent 187 Re and radiogenic daughter 187 Os isotopes in molybdenite is critical in interpreting isotopic measurements because it can compromise the accurate determination and interpretation of mineralization ages. In order to resolve the controls on the distribution of these elements, chemical and isotope mapping of MoS 2 grains from representative porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits were performed using electron microprobe and nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Our results show a heterogeneous distribution of 185,187 Re and 192 Os isotopes in MoS 2 , and that both 187 Re and 187 Os isotopes are not decoupled as previously thought. We conclude that Re and Os are structurally bound or present as nanoparticles in or next to molybdenite grains, recording a complex formation history and hindering the use of microbeam techniques for Re-Os molybdenite dating. Our study opens new avenues to explore the effects of isotope nuggeting in geochronometers.

  18. Re-Vitalizing Worthiness: A theory of overcoming suicidality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gordon, RPN, Reg. Fam. Ther. & Sup. (FTAI, MSc, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of suicide and suicidality have risen in many countries in recent years and in Ireland this trend has been particularly evident among young men (NOSP, 2005, focusing attention on how best to respond to this group. Although mental health professionals have been identified as a key group to respond to the suicidal person, it has been suggested that they are ill-prepared for working in this area (Maltsberger & Goldblatt, 1996; Ting et al., 2006; Cutcliffe & Stevenson, 2007. This study aimed to address these issues by developing a theoretical understanding of suicidality among young men to inform professional practice. Using Classic Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with 17 young men who had been suicidal and had been in contact with the mental health services. The substantive theory that emerged, re-vitalizing worthiness in overcoming suicidality, describes the psychosocial process that young men go through to resolve their main concern, which centres on their painful pull between life and death. Overcoming suicidality involves moving from a death orientation to a life orientation while incorporating the inevitability of death into their new sense of being. This transition entails identity re-configuration whereby young men emerge as individuals of value who are deserving of life. The process is influenced significantly by personal insights and interpersonal interactions that influence their suicide trajectories and life pathways. The theory contributes to the fields of suicidology and mental health by providing a theoretical understanding of overcoming suicidality and identifying professional and social practices that facilitate and impede this process.

  19. Osteopathic Emergency Medicine Programs Infrequently Publish in High-Impact Emergency Medicine Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin, Sean M; Lin, Christina; Carlson, Jestin N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Both the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) require core faculty to engage in scholarly work, including publication in peer-reviewed journals. With the ACGME/AOA merger, we sought to evaluate the frequency of publication in high-impact peer-reviewed EM journals from authors affiliated with osteopathic emergency medicine (EM) programs. Methods: We performed a retrospective literature re...

  20. Dependences on RE of superconducting properties of transition metal co-doped (Ca, RE)FeAs_2 with RE = La–Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakita, H.; Ogino, H.; Sala, A.; Okada, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Shimoyama, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized Co or Ni co-doped (Ca, RE)FeAs_2 with RE = La–Gd. • Co or Ni co-doping improved superconducting properties of all (Ca, RE)FeAs_2 samples. • T_c of (Ca, RE)FeAs_2 decreased with decreasing ionic radii of RE"3"+. • Eu doped samples showed exceptionally low T_c and long interlayer distance. • Long interlayer distance of Eu doped samples suggested co-existence of Eu"2"+ and Eu"3"+. - Abstract: Dependence of superconducting properties of (Ca, RE)(Fe, TM)As_2 [(Ca, RE)112, TM: Co, Ni)] on RE elements (RE = La–Gd) was systematically investigated. Improvement of superconducting properties by Co or Ni co-doping was observed for all (Ca, RE)112, which is similar to Co-co-doped (Ca, La)112 or (Ca, Pr)112. T_c of Co-co-doped samples decreased from 38 K for RE = La to 29 K for RE = Gd with decreasing ionic radii of RE"3"+. However, Co-co-doped (Ca, Eu)112 showed exceptionally low T_c = 21 K probably due to the co-existence of Eu"3"+ and Eu"2"+ suggested by longer interlayer distance d_F_e_–_F_e of (Ca, Eu)112 than other (Ca, RE)112.

  1. Evaluating the utility of hydrocarbons for Re-Os geochronology : establishing the timing of processes in petroleum ore systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, D.; Creaser, R.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Oil from 6 Alberta oil sands deposits were analyzed with a rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotope chronometer, an emerging tool for determining valuable age information on the timing of petroleum generation and migration. The tool uses molybdenite and other sulphide minerals to establish the timing and duration of mineralization. However, establishing the timing events of petroleum systems can be problematic because viable sulphides for the Re-Os chronometer are often not available. Therefore, the known presence of Re and Os associated with organic matter in black shale, a common source of hydrocarbons, may suggest that bitumen and petroleum common to petroleum systems may be utilised for Re-Os geochronology. This study evaluated the potential of the Re-Os isotopic system for geochronology and as an isotopic tracer for hydrocarbon systems. The evaluation was based on Re-Os isotopic analyses of bitumen and oil sands. Hydrocarbons formed from migrated oil in both Alberta oil sand deposits and a Paleozoic Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposit contain significant Re and Os contents with high {sup 187}Re/{sup 188}Os and radiogenic {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios suitable for geochronology. The oil from the 6 Alberta oil sand deposits yields Re-Os analyses with very high Re/{sup 188}Os ratios, and radiogenic Os isotopic compositions. Regression of the Re-Os data yields a date of 116 {+-} 27 Ma. This date plausibly represents the period of in situ radiogenic growth of {sup 187}Os following hydrocarbon migration and reservoir filling. Therefore, directly dating these processes, and this formation age corresponds with recent burial history models for parts of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The very high initial {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os for this regression requires rocks much older than Cretaceous for the hydrocarbon source.

  2. Observation of anisotropic interlayer Raman modes in few-layer ReS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, Philipp; Plechinger, Gerd; Schueller, Christian; Korn, Tobias [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    ReS{sub 2} has recently emerged as a new member in the rapidly growing family of two-dimensional materials. Unlike MoS{sub 2} or WSe{sub 2}, the optical and electrical properties of ReS{sub 2} are not isotropic due to the reduced symmetry of the crystal. Here, we present layer-dependent Raman measurements of ReS{sub 2} samples ranging from monolayers to ten layers in the ultralow frequency regime. We observe layer breathing and shear modes which allow for easy assignment of the number of layers. Polarization-dependent measurements give further insight into the crystal structure and reveal an energetic shift of the shear mode which stems from the in-plane anisotropy of the shear modulus in this material. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Re-Spatializing development: Reflections from South Africa’s recent re-engagement with planning for Special Economic Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne L. Nel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 the South African government formally sanctioned the establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZs in that country. The importance attached to SEZs reflects a clear return to spatially-based economic interventions following the recognition of the persistence of deep-rooted structural and spatial inequalities in the country. This paper discusses South Africa’s past and present involvement in processes of spatial economic development and how the SEZ concept has emerged. The potential of SEZs is assessed relative to local experience with the lack-lustre performance of what were termed Industrial Development Zones (IDZs since 2001. While re-engagement with issues of how to address ‘uneven geographical development’ is clearly significant, it would be difficult to argue that SEZs will achieve guaranteed success.

  4. Re-Entry Trauma: Asian Re-Integration after Study in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rosalind

    2011-01-01

    Many students who re-locate from host to home country are said to undergo a process of reverse culture shock akin to bereavement, involving stages of a grieving process. This has been likened to a "W-curve" in which feelings fluctuate before reaching a more balanced state. The present study examined the re-acculturation of Taiwanese and…

  5. Space-Efficient Re-Pair Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Prezza, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Re-Pair [5] is an effective grammar-based compression scheme achieving strong compression rates in practice. Let n, σ, and d be the text length, alphabet size, and dictionary size of the final grammar, respectively. In their original paper, the authors show how to compute the Re-Pair grammar...... in expected linear time and 5n + 4σ2 + 4d + √n words of working space on top of the text. In this work, we propose two algorithms improving on the space of their original solution. Our model assumes a memory word of [log2 n] bits and a re-writable input text composed by n such words. Our first algorithm runs...

  6. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  7. Exploring fish microbial communities to mitigate emerging diseases in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de Irene; Liu, Yiying; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2018-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and

  8. Theoretical analysis of hydrogen chemisorption on Pd(111), Re(0001) and PdML/Re(0001), ReML/Pd(111) pseudomorphic overlayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallassana, Venkataraman; Neurock, Matthew; Hansen, Lars Bruno

    1999-01-01

    not appear to provide an independent parameter for assessing surface reactivity. The weak chemisorption of hydrogen on the Pd-ML/Re(0001) surface relates to substantial lowering of the d-band center of Pd, when it is pseudomorphically deposited as a monolayer on a Re substrate. [S0163-1829(99)00331-2].......Gradient-corrected density-functional theory (DFT-GGA) periodic slab calculations have been used to analyze the binding of atomic hydrogen on monometallic Pd(111), Re(0001), and bimetallic Pd-mL/Re(0001) [pseudomorphic monolayer of Pd(111) on Re(0001)] and Re-ML/Pd(111) surfaces. The computed...

  9. Die Altäre von Selinunt

    OpenAIRE

    Voigts, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    In der Dissertation wurden die Altäre von Selinunt, einer griechischen Kolonie auf Sizilien, mit den Methoden der Bauforschung untersucht. Die neun behandelten Brandopferaltäre sind monumentale Quaderbauten, die bis zu 20 m Länge erreichen. Sie stammen aus der Blütezeit Selinunts, dem 6. und 5. Jh. v. Chr. Die Bauten waren bereits im 19. und 20. Jh. freigelegt worden und wurden nun in Bauaufnahmen dokumentiert, zeichnerisch rekonstruiert und zeitlich eingeordnet. Dabei ließ sich an ihnen eine...

  10. Stability Analysis for HIFiRE Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; White, Jeffery A.; Kimmel, Roger; Adamczak, David; Borg, Matthew; Stanfield, Scott; Smith, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    The HIFiRE-1 flight experiment provided a valuable database pertaining to boundary layer transition over a 7-degree half-angle, circular cone model from supersonic to hypersonic Mach numbers, and a range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. This paper reports selected findings from the ongoing computational analysis of the measured in-flight transition behavior. Transition during the ascent phase at nearly zero degree angle of attack is dominated by second mode instabilities except in the vicinity of the cone meridian where a roughness element was placed midway along the length of the cone. The growth of first mode instabilities is found to be weak at all trajectory points analyzed from the ascent phase. For times less than approximately 18.5 seconds into the flight, the peak amplification ratio for second mode disturbances is sufficiently small because of the lower Mach numbers at earlier times, so that the transition behavior inferred from the measurements is attributed to an unknown physical mechanism, potentially related to step discontinuities in surface height near the locations of a change in the surface material. Based on the time histories of temperature and/or heat flux at transducer locations within the aft portion of the cone, the onset of transition correlated with a linear N-factor, based on parabolized stability equations, of approximately 13.5. Due to the large angles of attack during the re-entry phase, crossflow instability may play a significant role in transition. Computations also indicate the presence of pronounced crossflow separation over a significant portion of the trajectory segment that is relevant to transition analysis. The transition behavior during this re-entry segment of HIFiRE-1 flight shares some common features with the predicted transition front along the elliptic cone shaped HIFiRE-5 flight article, which was designed to provide hypersonic transition data for a fully 3D geometric configuration. To compare and contrast the

  11. RDM lifetimes measurements in 179Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoli, S.; Joshi, P.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I.M.; Singh, R.P.; Chatturvedi, L.

    2001-01-01

    The study of Re nuclei in the mass region from 170-190 is of particular interest as they lie in a region where the Nilsson orbitals exhibit large driving effects on the nuclear shape, presenting the strong possibility of shape coexistence. To see the variation of the deformation driving property of different bands and the other related phenomena like delay in band crossing frequency for intruder configuration h 92 in these nuclei with increasing in neutron number the lifetime measurement in 179 Re nucleus is done

  12. At være optimal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Karina Ellegaard; Frederiksen, Kirsten Søndergaard; Kolind, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Kapitlet undersøger forholdet til fest og rus blandt unge med anden etnisk baggrund end dansk. Det er tydeligt, at alkohol, fester, rus og kropslighed opleves forskelligt blandt de interviewede; for nogle handler fest om mad, dans, musik og at gøre sig lækker, mens det for andre også handler om r...... sammen med fulde klassekammerater. Selv de få, som beretter om rusmiddelbrug, fortæller, at det foregår med målet om at være optimal....

  13. Re-evaluation of atomic bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo

    1984-01-01

    The background and current status of the re-evaluation of atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation doses are presented. Problems in re-evaluating radiation doses are discussed: spectra of gamma-rays and neutrons emitted in the air, A-bomb structures, and meterological elements should be taken into account. In Japan, in an attempt to estimate A-bomb radiation doses, radioactive residues contained in roof tiles, bricks, rocks, and teeth and shell button of clothes are being actually measured. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Final Technical Report, reEnergize Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamstad-Evans, Kristi [City of Omaha; Williams, Eric [City of Omaha; Kubicek, Jason [City of Omaha

    2013-12-27

    The reEnergize Program helped to build a market for residential and commercial energy evaluations and upgrades. The program provided incentives to encourage participants to save energy, save money, and make their homes and businesses more safe, healthy, and comfortable. As part of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP), the successful investment of this $10 million grant toward market development was the first grant funding collaboration between the cities of Omaha and Lincoln. Through more than three years of work, thousands of participants, contractors, and community members worked together to make the reEnergize Program a demonstration of how to “Build Energy Smart Communities.”

  15. Re-interventions on the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhoff, Florian S; Carrel, Thierry P

    2017-11-01

    The advent of multi-gene panel genetic testing and the discovery of new syndromic and non-syndromic forms of connective tissue disorders have established thoracic aortic aneurysms as a genetically mediated disease. Surgical results in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) provide an important benchmark for this patient population. Prophylactic aortic root surgery prevents acute dissection and has contributed to the improved survival of MFS patients. In the majority of patients, re-interventions are driven by a history of dissection. Patients undergoing elective root repair have a low risk for re-interventions on the root itself. Experienced centers have results after valve-sparing procedures at 10 years comparable with those seen after a modified Bentall procedure. In patients where only the ascending aorta was replaced during the initial surgery, re-intervention rates are high as the root continues to dilate. The fate of the aortic arch in MFS patients presenting with dissection is strongly correlated with the extent of the initial surgery. Not replacing the entire ascending aorta and proximal aortic arch results in a high rate of re-interventions. Nevertheless, the additional burden of replacing the entire aortic arch during emergent proximal repair is not very well defined and makes comparisons with patients undergoing elective arch replacement difficult. Interestingly, replacing the entire aortic arch during initial surgery for acute dissection does not protect from re-interventions on downstream aortic segments. MFS patients suffering from type B dissection have a high risk for re-interventions ultimately leading up to replacement of the entire thoracoabdominal aorta even if the dissection was deemed uncomplicated by conventional criteria. While current guidelines do not recommend the implantation of stent grafts in MFS patients, implantation of a frozen-elephant-trunk to create a stable proximal landing zone for future endovascular or open procedures has

  16. Re-annotation and re-analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 genome sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorrell Nick

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the developed world. To improve our understanding of this important human pathogen, the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome was sequenced and published in 2000. The original annotation was a milestone in Campylobacter research, but is outdated. We now describe the complete re-annotation and re-analysis of the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome using current database information, novel tools and annotation techniques not used during the original annotation. Results Re-annotation was carried out using sequence database searches such as FASTA, along with programs such as TMHMM for additional support. The re-annotation also utilises sequence data from additional Campylobacter strains and species not available during the original annotation. Re-annotation was accompanied by a full literature search that was incorporated into the updated EMBL file [EMBL: AL111168]. The C. jejuni NCTC11168 re-annotation reduced the total number of coding sequences from 1654 to 1643, of which 90.0% have additional information regarding the identification of new motifs and/or relevant literature. Re-annotation has led to 18.2% of coding sequence product functions being revised. Conclusions Major updates were made to genes involved in the biosynthesis of important surface structures such as lipooligosaccharide, capsule and both O- and N-linked glycosylation. This re-annotation will be a key resource for Campylobacter research and will also provide a prototype for the re-annotation and re-interpretation of other bacterial genomes.

  17. A Modular Re-configurable Rover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloubasis, A.; McKee, G.; Active Robotics Lab

    In this paper we present the novel concepts incorporated in a planetary surface exploration rover design that is currently under development. The Multitasking Rover (MTR) aims to demonstrate functionality that will cover many of the current and future needs such as rough-terrain mobility, modularity and upgradeability [1]. The rover system has enhanced mobility characteristics. It operates in conjunction with Science Packs (SPs) and Tool Packs (TPs) - modules attached to the main frame of the rover, which are either special tools or science instruments and alter the operation capabilities of the system. To date, each rover system design is very much task driven for example, the scenario of cooperative transportation of extended payloads [2], comprises two rovers each equipped with a manipulator dedicated to the task [3]. The MTR approach focuses mostly on modularity and upgradeability presenting at the same time a fair amount of internal re-configurability for the sake of rough terrain stability. The rover itself does not carry any scientific instruments or tools. To carry out the scenario mentioned above, the MTR would have to locate and pick-up a TP with the associated manipulator. After the completion of the task the TP could be put away to a storage location enabling the rover to utilize a different Pack. The rover will not only offer mobility to these modules, but also use them as tools, transforming its role and functionality. The advantage of this approach is that instead of sending a large number of rovers to perform a variety of tasks, a smaller number of MTRs could be deployed with a large number of SPs/TPs, offering multiples of the functionality at a reduced payload. Two SPs or TPs (or a combination of) can be carried and deployed. One of the key elements in the design of the four wheeled rover, lies within its suspension system. It comprises a linear actuator located within each leg and also an active differential linking the two shoulders. This novel

  18. RE-PLAN: An Extensible Software Architecture to Facilitate Disaster Response Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Martin; Mikler, Armin R.; Indrakanti, Saratchandra; Tiwari, Chetan; Jimenez, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Computational tools are needed to make data-driven disaster mitigation planning accessible to planners and policymakers without the need for programming or GIS expertise. To address this problem, we have created modules to facilitate quantitative analyses pertinent to a variety of different disaster scenarios. These modules, which comprise the REsponse PLan ANalyzer (RE-PLAN) framework, may be used to create tools for specific disaster scenarios that allow planners to harness large amounts of disparate data and execute computational models through a point-and-click interface. Bio-E, a user-friendly tool built using this framework, was designed to develop and analyze the feasibility of ad hoc clinics for treating populations following a biological emergency event. In this article, the design and implementation of the RE-PLAN framework are described, and the functionality of the modules used in the Bio-E biological emergency mitigation tool are demonstrated. PMID:25419503

  19. Emergencies and emergency planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1986-01-01

    The organization for dealing with radiation emergencies in France is complex and centralized. It consists of the Radiation Security Council with participants from the Premier Ministre and the Ministers of Interior, Industry, Health, and Defense. A permanent general secretary for radiation security coordinates the work of the various departments. Planning for nuclear power emergencies is divided between on-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibilities of the manager of the plant, and off-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibility of the regional governor. Both on-site and off-site planning have models integrated into a special code of practice called the radiation emergency organization

  20. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  1. A mini-review of Bunyaviruses recorded in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pragya D; Chaubal, Gouri Y; Shete, Anita M; Mourya, Devendra T

    2017-05-01

    Newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections are of major public health concern. Bunyaviridae family of viruses comprises a large group of animal viruses. Clinical symptoms exhibited by persons infected by viruses belonging to this family vary from mild-to-severe diseases i.e., febrile illness, encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever and acute respiratory illness. Several arthropods-borne viruses have been discovered and classified at serological level in India in the past. Some of these are highly pathogenic as the recent emergence and spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and presence of antibodies against Hantavirus in humans in India have provided evidences that it may become one of the emerging diseases in this country. For many of the discovered viruses, we still need to study their relevance to human and animal health. Chittoor virus, a variant of Batai virus; Ganjam virus, an Asian variant of Nairobi sheep disease virus; tick-borne viruses such as Bhanja, Palma and mosquito-borne viruses such as Sathuperi, Thimiri, Umbre and Ingwavuma viruses have been identified as the members of this family. As Bunyaviruses are three segmented RNA viruses, they can reassort the segments into genetically distinct viruses in target cells. This ability is believed to play a major role in evolution, pathogenesis and epidemiology of the viruses. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of discovery, emergence and distribution of Bunyaviruses in India.

  2. A mini-review of Bunyaviruses recorded in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya D Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections are of major public health concern. Bunyaviridae family of viruses comprises a large group of animal viruses. Clinical symptoms exhibited by persons infected by viruses belonging to this family vary from mild-to-severe diseases i.e., febrile illness, encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever and acute respiratory illness. Several arthropods-borne viruses have been discovered and classified at serological level in India in the past. Some of these are highly pathogenic as the recent emergence and spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and presence of antibodies against Hantavirus in humans in India have provided evidences that it may become one of the emerging diseases in this country. For many of the discovered viruses, we still need to study their relevance to human and animal health. Chittoor virus, a variant of Batai virus; Ganjam virus, an Asian variant of Nairobi sheep disease virus; tick-borne viruses such as Bhanja, Palma and mosquito-borne viruses such as Sathuperi, Thimiri, Umbre and Ingwavuma viruses have been identified as the members of this family. As Bunyaviruses are three segmented RNA viruses, they can reassort the segments into genetically distinct viruses in target cells. This ability is believed to play a major role in evolution, pathogenesis and epidemiology of the viruses. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of discovery, emergence and distribution of Bunyaviruses in India.

  3. Meeting United States re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection using innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    Procedure for meeting re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection and an overview of several new and emerging technologies regarding the development of ways to prevent fish passage through hydraulic turbines at hydroelectric power dams is described. Fish mortality and injury has long been a concern in the hydroelectric industry and research and development efforts have been ongoing since the 1970s to prevent fish passage through turbines. Several new and emerging technologies are examined that have the potential for wide-spread cost-effective applications

  4. Emergency control; Kawalan kecemasan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: plans and actions taken in emergency condition. It covers four main elements in planning, command, control center, emergency plans, continuous training and practices.

  5. Emergency care of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T H

    1998-09-01

    Common reptile emergencies are reviewed in this article and the fundamentals of emergency care are provided. Important points include obtaining a complete history and husbandry review, physical examination, diagnostic tests, fluid support, anesthetics, and antibiotics.

  6. [Emerging noninfectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Ezequiel

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.

  7. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk...

  8. Emergency Nurses Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menu Join ENA Today! Membership in the Emergency Nurses Association offers a variety of benefits and allows ... a part of more than 42,000 emergency nurses working together to promote safe practice and safe ...

  9. Re-Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper two aspects of re-assessment of the reliability of concrete bridges are discussed namely modelling of the corrosion of reinforcement and updating of uncertain variables. The main reason for deterioration of concrete bridges is corrosion of the reinforcement. Therefore, modelling...

  10. Spontaneous growth of whiskers on RE-bearing intermetallic compounds of Sn-RE, In-RE, and Pb-RE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Meng [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xian Aiping, E-mail: ap.xian@imr.ac.c [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-11-03

    A phenomenon of the whiskers growth on the bulk rare earth (RE)-intermetallic compounds of NdSn{sub 3}, NdIn{sub 3}, and LaPb{sub 3} is reported. The whiskers formed spontaneously on all of the RE-intermetallic compounds after exposed to room ambience (21-28 deg. C/20-56% RH, relative humidity) for several days. Among the samples, the propensity of whisker growth for NdSn{sub 3} is the strongest, on which the tin whiskers were flourishing and covered all of the surfaces after exposed to room ambience for 22 days; while LaPb{sub 3} is the secondary and NdIn{sub 3} is the last one. Observed by SEM, the whiskers were exhibited as different morphology, size, and number density. The XRD analysis confirms the existence of RE(OH){sub 3} after whiskers formed, also, the weight gain curve of the samples exposed to room ambience supports that a spontaneous chemical reaction of the RE-intermetallic compounds with water in room ambience takes place. In discussion, it is proposed that the fresh metal atoms released by the chemical reaction could be causative to result in nucleation and spontaneous growth of the whiskers, while the anisotropy of crystal structure could be a reason to understand the difference of the whisker growth behaviors between Sn and Pb.

  11. Spontaneous growth of whiskers on RE-bearing intermetallic compounds of Sn-RE, In-RE, and Pb-RE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meng; Xian Aiping

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenon of the whiskers growth on the bulk rare earth (RE)-intermetallic compounds of NdSn 3 , NdIn 3 , and LaPb 3 is reported. The whiskers formed spontaneously on all of the RE-intermetallic compounds after exposed to room ambience (21-28 deg. C/20-56% RH, relative humidity) for several days. Among the samples, the propensity of whisker growth for NdSn 3 is the strongest, on which the tin whiskers were flourishing and covered all of the surfaces after exposed to room ambience for 22 days; while LaPb 3 is the secondary and NdIn 3 is the last one. Observed by SEM, the whiskers were exhibited as different morphology, size, and number density. The XRD analysis confirms the existence of RE(OH) 3 after whiskers formed, also, the weight gain curve of the samples exposed to room ambience supports that a spontaneous chemical reaction of the RE-intermetallic compounds with water in room ambience takes place. In discussion, it is proposed that the fresh metal atoms released by the chemical reaction could be causative to result in nucleation and spontaneous growth of the whiskers, while the anisotropy of crystal structure could be a reason to understand the difference of the whisker growth behaviors between Sn and Pb.

  12. Re-Reading and Rehabilitating Basil Bernstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, Brook; Watts, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This article constitutes a re-reading of and an attempt to rehabilitate Basil Bernstein, both of which are important in light of the interpretation of Bernstein as a proponent of the verbal deficit view, and the general discrediting of his work on social class differences in the British educational system, as related to what he later called…

  13. Telling Parents You're Pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Putting your feelings into words takes plenty of maturity and it's not easy to do. Don't worry if the words don't come out perfectly or if you cry or get emotional as you're saying them. It can help ...

  14. Pancreaticoduodenal injuries: Re-evaluating current management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Pancreaticoduodenal injuries are uncommon owing to the protected position of the pancreas and duodenum in the retroperitoneum. Management depends on the extent of injury. This study was undertaken to document outcome of pancreaticoduodenal injuries and to re-evaluate our approach. Patients and ...

  15. Visual Analysis in Traffic & Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas

    and analysis, and person re-identification. In traffic sign detection, the work comprises a thorough survey of the state of the art, assembly of the worlds largest public dataset with U.S. traffic signs, and work in machine learning based detection algorithms. It was shown that detection of U.S. traffic signs...

  16. Icarus Falling: Re-Imagining Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrie, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the notion of "capacity building" in educational theory. Are the intentions behind the latter enterprise as benign and altruistic as they first appear? How is the term "capacity building" to be understood? The article presents a radical and daring alternative for re-invigorating educational…

  17. Black power! / Laurence Lumiére

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumiére, Laurence

    2000-01-01

    Mängufilm "Shaft" : režissöör John Singelton : nimiosas Samuel L. Jackson : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2000. Sama pealkirjaga film, praeguse eelkäija ja eeskuju, jõulisest mustast politseinikust linastus 1971. aastal ning on üks olulisemaid filme eneseteadvuse kasvatamisel USAs. Ka : Teleleht nr. 42, lk. 36-37

  18. Absolute counting of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D.B.; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Rhenium-188 is radiopharmaceutical that belongs to the group of strong beta-weak gamma emitters. It emits high energy beta particles, (E β m ax = 2.12MeV) and weak gamma rays (E γ = 155 keV) hence makes it suitable for wide variety of therapeutic as well as diagnostic applications. Therapeutic applications include therapy of tumors, radionuclide synovectomy, bone pain palliation, intra vascular radiation therapy etc. 188 Re-labeled medicines have been employed increasingly in the therapy of tumors and vascular restenosis. To ensure that patient receives the appropriate radiation dose during the treatment, both the activity standardization and the determination of sensitivity coefficient of the secondary standard for 188 Re have become important tasks. This paper presents the methods and results obtained for the following measurements a) Standardisation of the 188 Re by using the 4π proportional counter (4πPC)-gamma extrapolation method b) Determination of sensitivity coefficient (pA/MBq) of the secondary standard ionization chamber type Centronic IG12, 20A for 188 Re

  19. Familiære abdominale aortaaneurismer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Lindholt, Jes S.; Høgh, Annette Langager

    Formål og baggrund: Det er velkendt, at risikoen for at udvikle et abdominalt aortaaneurisme (AAA) er væsentligt forøget blandt førstegradsslægtninge til AAA-patienter, men tidligere studier er få og svært sammenlignelige, ligesom man ikke har kunnet belyse, om familiære tilfælde af AAA fremtræder...... mere aggressivt end ikke-familiære. Man ved således meget lidt om væksthastighed, prognose for ruptur, alder ved diagnose og operation og risiko for AAA-relaterede dødsfald for denne gruppe. Projektet vil forsøge at besvare følgende: Hvor stor er forekomsten af AAA blandt førstegradsslægtninge til AAA......-patienter på landsplan og er familiære tilfælde af AAA mere aggressive i form af lavere gennemsnitsalder ved diagnose og operation, hurtigere vækstrate, større rupturrisiko og højere forekomst af AAA-relaterede dødsfald end ikke-familiære AAA? Design: Projektet er et retrospektivt case-kontrolstudie, hvor man...

  20. Re-Architecture: Reality or Utopia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Roders, A.R.; Post, J.M.; Erkelens, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    RE-ARCHITECTURE: lifespan rehabilitation of built heritage (2004-2007) is a doctoral research funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology, Portugal; and hosted by the Unit Architectural Design and Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands. This doctoral research is now

  1. Harwell emergency handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Harwell Laboratory Emergency Handbook 1987 contains emergency procedures to deal with any incident which might occur at AERE Harwell involving radioactive or toxic material releases. The Handbook gives details of the duties of members of the Site Emergency Organization and other key members of staff, the methods by which incidents are controlled, the communication links and liaison arrangements with other organizations and the possible consequences and actions that may be needed following an emergency. (UK)

  2. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  3. Synthesis of {sup 188}Re-DMSA complex using carrier-free {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Izumo, Mishiroku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Islam, M S

    1997-03-01

    The synthesis of rhenium-DMSA labelled compound using carrier-free {sup 188}Re from the {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator has been carried out. Stannous chloride was used as the reducing agent for reduction of rhenium and ascorbic acid was used as an antioxidant in the reaction media. The dependence of the yield of Re-DMSA complex upon the concentration of reducing agent, pH, reaction time, anti-oxidant, carrier and temperature was investigated. Under optimum conditions, the yield of Re-DMSA complexes were more than 98% for the carrier-free as well as carrier-added {sup 188}Re. The stability of the Re-DMSA complexes at different pH and time were also investigated. It was found that the Re-DMSA complex was very stable and did not undergo any changes or decomposition with the changes of pH from its initial values even after 48 hours of pH change for carrier-free as well as carrier-added complexes. (author)

  4. Re-irradiation tests of spent fuel at JMTR by means of re-instrumentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Jinichi; Shimizu, Michio; Endo, Yasuichi; Nabeya, Hideaki; Ichise, Kenichi; Saito, Junichi; Oshima, Kunio; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has developed re-irradiation test procedures of spent fuel irradiated at commercial reactor by means of re-instrumentation technique. Full length rods irradiated at commercial LWRs were re-fabricated to short length rods, and rod inner pressure gauges and fuel center thermocouples were re-instrumented to the rods. Re-irradiation tests to study the fuel behavior during power change were carried out by means of BOCA/OSF-1 facility at the JMTR. In the tests to study the fission gas release during power change, the rod inner pressure increase was observed during power change, especially during power reduction. The fission gas release during power reduction is estimated to be the release from fission gas bubbles on the grain boundary caused by the thermal stress in the pellet during power reduction. Re-irradiation test of gadolinia added fuel was performed by means of dual re-instrumentation technique (fuel center thermocouples and rod inner pressure gauge). A stepwise fission gas release during power change, and the following fuel center temperature change due to gap conductance change were observed. (author)

  5. General re-evaluation of the safety on the nuclear ship 'Mutsu' and its repair work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    According to the proposition by the Committee for Investigation Radiation Leak on Mutsu, the works of the general re-evaluation of safety were started after the approval by the Committee for Investigating General Re-evaluation and Repair Techniques for Mutsu. The contents of the general re-evaluation of safety are the inspection of the machines and equipments in the nuclear reactor plant, the review of the design of the nuclear reactor plant, the analysis of the nuclear reactor plant behavior in accidents, and the related experimental researches. These works have been carried out for five years, and problem did not arise at all regarding the nuclear reactor so far, but from the viewpoint of improving the safety and reliability further, it was decided to carry out the repair work based on the general re-evaluation of safety. The contents of the repair work are the improvement of the emergency core-cooling system, the improvement of the safety protection system, the improvement of the radiation monitoring equipments, the improvement of the containment vessel boundary, the improvement of the actuators for technological safety facilities, the improvement of the method controlling secondary water quality, and other repair works. The progress of the general re-evaluation of safety is reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Emerging Zika Virus Infection: A Rapidly Evolving Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordi, Licia; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Lalle, Eleonora; Vairo, Francesco; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults. The primary mode of transmission of Zika virus between humans is through the bite of an infected female mosquito of the Aedes genus, but also sexual and blood transfusion transmission may occur. Moreover, a case of non-sexual spread from one person to another has been described, indicating that we still have more to learn about Zika transmission.Biological basis for pathogenetic effects are under investigation. Laboratory diagnosis is challenging since, so far, there are no "gold standard" diagnostic tools, and the low and short viremia in the acute phase, and together with the high cross-reactivity among the members of flavivirus genus are the most challenging aspects to be overcome.

  7. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivukoski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  8. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  9. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  10. Emergence of Arthropod Transmitted infections in Kennel Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Jameel

    Full Text Available Changing scenario of climate resulting from global warming and adversity of nature has also resulted in emergence and re-emergence of diseases transmitted by arthropods. Increasing trends of population growth of dogs has increased the chance of disease transmission due to readily available susceptible host. Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis and Ehrlichiosis are the main arthropod borne diseases of dogs prevalent in India. The present article explains the importance of these arthropod transmitted infections in kennel dogs, research progress and reason for their emergence in the present scenario. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 522-528

  11. Re-Imagining School Health in Education and Health Programmes: A Study across Selected Municipal Schools in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Mita; Baru, Rama V.; Nundy, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    The idea of school health is re-imagined with an emphasis on the need for children's health programmes to be rooted in an understanding of the social context. Such programmes must address health, nutrition and education in a comprehensive manner. The article details findings and insights emerging from a qualitative study conducted in municipal…

  12. The nuclear emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Menendez, M. J.; Gasco Leonarte, L.; Granada Ferrero, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning of the response to emergencies in nuclear plants is regulated by the Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN). This basic Plan is the guidelines for drawing up, implementing and maintaining the effectiveness of the nuclear power plant exterior nuclear emergency plans. The five exterior emergency plans approved as per PLABEN (PENGUA, PENCA, PENBU, PENTA and PENVA) place special emphasis on the preventive issues of emergency planning, such as implementation of advance information programs to the population, as well as on training exercises and drills. (Author)

  13. Rapid and real-time detection technologies for emerging viruses of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-17

    Oct 17, 2008 ... The development of technologies with rapid and sensitive detection capabilities and increased throughput have become crucial for responding to greater number threats posed by emerging and re-emerging viruses in the recent past. The conventional identification methods require time-consuming culturing ...

  14. Quality of care using a multidisciplinary team in the emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthea; Maaløe, Rikke; Jensen, Nanna Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bispebjerg Hospital has implemented a multidisciplinary team reception of critically ill and severely injured patients at the Emergency Department (ED), termed emergency call (EC) and trauma call (TC). The aim of this study was to describe the course, medical treatment and outcome for patients re...... received by this multidisciplinary team and to evaluate the quality of acute medical treatment of these patients....

  15. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  16. Update on emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Wing Kay; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years. Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG. Repeated use of both LNG and ulipristal acetate (UPA) is well tolerated. Hormonal contraception can be immediately started following LNG use, but should be delayed for 5 days after UPA use to avoid dampening the efficacy of UPA. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the only IUD approved for emergency contraception (and the most effective method of emergency contraception), but use of LNG IUD as emergency contraception is currently being investigated. Accurate knowledge about emergency contraception remains low both for patients and healthcare providers. Emergency contraception is an important yet underutilized tool available to women to prevent pregnancy. Current options including copper IUD and emergency contraceptive pills are safe and well tolerated. Significant gaps in knowledge of emergency contraception on both the provider and user level exist, as do barriers to expedient access of emergency contraception.

  17. [Oncological emergencies in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoeşu, Diana; Dumea, Mihaela; Durchi, Simona; Apostoae, F; Olaru, G; Ciolan, Mioara; Popa, O; Corlade-Andrei, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    to assess the profile and the characteristic of oncological patients, establishing management in patients with neoplasia presented in the emergency department (ED), the analysis of short-term movements in patients with neoplasia whilst in the ED. we performed a retrospective study on nonrandomized consecutive cases. The lot analysis included 1315 oncological patients admitted in the Emergency Department of the Clinical Emergency Hospital "St. Spiridon" Iaşi, in the period June 1st, 2009 - May 31st, 2010. 23.12% of the patients had high suspicion of neoplasia at the first visit to the ED. 67.07% of patients were in metastatic stage disease located as follows: liver metastasis 37.59%, lung metastasis 18.36%, lymph node metastasis 13, 29%. After processing the data there were found statistically significant correlations between the age of patients and the documented/suspected diagnosis of neoplasia (p = 0.01) in the sense that a neoplasia diagnosis in emergency was more frequent in people of young age. It should be mentioned that other studies rarely mention first diagnosis of neoplasia in emergency department with presence of complications. 1315 oncological patients presented in ED, almost a quarter of which presented high suspicion of neoplasia (still without histopathological confirmation) when in ED (23.12%). Most of them were aged male patients (over 65 years old), with tumors of the digestive system. A significant proportion (almost 60%) of these patients ended up in emergency due to complications and the therapy intended life support and pain management. Some of these patients were directed to further exploring and emergency outpatient therapy while 75% of patients were hospitalized after stabilization. Although we expected that the frequency of complications to be higher in patients previously diagnosed with cancer, data analysis showed no statistically significant differences (p = NS) between the rate of complications in patients previously diagnosed with

  18. Labelling of Re-ABP with 188Re for bone pain palliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Pedraza-Lopez, Martha; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Croft, B.Y.Barbara Y.; Ramirez, Flor de Maria; Padilla, Juan

    2001-01-01

    Etidronate and medronate have been labelled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc-HEDP, 99m Tc-MDP) for bone scanning and, with rhenium-188 ( 188 Re-HEDP) to palliate the pain resulting from bone metastases. The objective of this study was to label alendronate, ABP, a new bisphosphonate, with SnF 2 -reduced- 188 Re. The reagents for the 5 mg ABP kit were SnF 2 , KReO 4 and gentisic acid at acid pH. The chemical, spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics, quality control, rat bone uptake of [ 188 Re]Re-ABP and similarities with 99m Tc-ABP are presented. We conclude that this is a promising new radiopharmaceutical for bone metastases pain palliation

  19. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  20. Multiple Re-entry Closures After TEVAR for Ruptured Chronic Post-dissection Thoraco-abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR has become a promising treatment for complicated acute type B dissection, its role in treating chronic post-dissection thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA is still limited owing to persistent retrograde flow into the false lumen (FL through abdominal or iliac re-entry tears. Report: A case of chronic post-dissection TAA treatment, in which a dilated descending FL ruptured into the left thorax, is described. The primary entry tear was closed by emergency TEVAR and multiple abdominal re-entries were closed by EVAR. In addition, major re-entries at the detached right renal artery and iliac bifurcation were closed using covered stents. To close re-entries as far as possible, EVAR was carried out using the chimney technique, and additional aortic extenders were placed above the coeliac artery. A few re-entries remained, but complete FL thrombosis of the rupture site was achieved. Follow-up computed tomography showed significant shrinkage of the FL. Discussion: In treating post-dissection TAA, entry closure by TEVAR is sometimes insufficient, owing to persistent retrograde flow into the FL from abdominal or iliac re-entries. Adjunctive techniques are needed to close these distal re-entries to obtain complete FL exclusion, especially in rupture cases. Recently, encouraging results of complete coverage of the thoraco-abdominal aorta with fenestrated or branched endografts have been reported; however, the widespread employment of such techniques appears to be limited owing to technical difficulties. The present method with multiple re-entry closures using off the shelf and immediately available devices is an alternative for the endovascular treatment of post-dissection TAA, especially in the emergency setting. Keywords: Aortic dissection, Ruptured aortic aneurysm, Post-dissection thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, Endovascular aortic repair, Reentry closure, Endovascular procedures

  1. Re-humanising Public Urban Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M

    , this thesis suggests that re-humanising public urban space should not only be considered as a matter of design, but also as an on-going process which includes an inclusive spatial planning agenda and the management of space supplemented by background knowledge regarding the culture of use of space.......This PhD thesis aims to contribute to a better understanding of the spatial, social, and cultural dimensions of the formation of human-centred public urban space. ‘Re-humanising’ the city is a traveling concept which implies that public urban spaces are liveable, walkable, safe, enjoyable......, and inclusive thereby allowing vibrant social interaction. While the inclusiveness of space is considered as a core value in human-centred public urban space, social and spatial exclusion is a key challenge to the success of public urban space, especially in the Global South. The mainstream research in urban...

  2. Re-vitalizing an indigenous language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...... languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......–2004. This article focuses on dictionaries of the languages of the Ainu populations in the borderlands between the nation-states Japan and Russia. The main argument is that the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act promulgated in 1997 had a significant impact on the production and purpose of Ainu dictionaries...

  3. Successful Enterprise System Re-Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2017-01-01

    Achieving success in enterprise systems (ES) implementations is challenging. The success rate is not high in view of the sums invested by many organizations in these companywide systems. The literature is charged with reasons for unsuccessful implementations, such as a lack of top management...... support and insufficient change management. Contrary to this research, empirical data from an ES re-implementation in a Scandinavian high-tech company shows successful implementation despite many problematic shifts in outsourcing partners. Therefore, it is natural to ask: why was the re......-implementation of the ES at SCANDI successful despite the major troubles encountered during the project? Building an analysis based on ten Critical Success Factors (CSFs) combined with an investigation into the institutional structures at play, we present several reasons for the successful implementation. The CSF analysis...

  4. The Re-injection Loop concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Fischer, Christian; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    per ton. Based on previous studies on using pretreatment for enhancing the biogas yield of these feedstocks, a new concept called Re-Injection Loop was developed by combining separation and recirculation of the digested fiber fraction with pretreatment of the recalcitrant lignocellulosic fiber...... fraction. The EU project BIOMAN is currently investigating different technologies for separation, mechanical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to establish an economically viable concept for manure-based biogas plants....

  5. Re-contextualising academic writing in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne

    six focal students’ challenges in re-contextualising themselves as writers in English in a new university environment, data were generated from regular interviews with the participants over one semester, supplemented by questionnaires, documentary evidence, and observational data. Analyses building......’ experiences as writers of English, manifested in three main areas of concern: ideational, linguistic, and interpersonal. These writing concerns were embedded in more global processes of establishing academic continuity and in managing English-mediated instruction and learning in the English...

  6. Re-emergence of rabies virus maintained by canid populations in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilla, A C F; Pompei, J C A; Araujo, D B; Vázquez, F A; Galeano, R R; Delgado, L M; Bogado, G; Colman, M; Sanabria, L; Iamamoto, K; Garcia, R; Assis, D; Recalde, R; Martorelli, L F; Quiñones, E; Cabello, A; Martini, M; Cosivi, O; Durigon, E L; Favoretto, S R

    2018-02-01

    Paraguay has registered no human cases of rabies since 2004, and the last case in dogs, reported in 2009, was due to a variant maintained in the common vampire bat "Desmodus rotundus". In 2014, a dog was diagnosed as positive for rabies with aggression towards a boy and all required measures of control were successfully adopted. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the dog was not vaccinated and had been attacked by a crab-eating fox, "zorro" (Cerdocyon thous). The sample was diagnosed by the Official Veterinary Service of the Country and sent to the Center on Rabies Research from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, for antigenic and genetic characterization. A second sample from a dog positive for rabies in the same region in 2015 and 11 samples from a rabies outbreak from Asuncion in 1996 were also characterized. The antigenic profile of the samples, AgV2, was compatible with one of the variants maintained by dogs in Latin America. In genetic characterization, the samples segregated in the canine (domestic and wild species)-related group in an independent subgroup that also included samples from Argentina. These results and the epidemiology of the case indicate that even with the control of rabies in domestic animals, the virus can still circulate in wildlife and may be transmitted to domestic animals and humans, demonstrating the importance of continuous and improved surveillance and control of rabies, including in wild species, to prevent outbreaks in controlled areas. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Re-emergence of Indigeneity in transformed Layouts in Urban Public Housing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Danladi Isah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the one whole homogenous configuration provided by developers that has often proved ineffective overtime, transformed public housing units are widespread in developing cities. Though transformation is a natural phenomenon of inhabitation, its various levels and degree can have implicit values. In recent times in Nigeria, heterogeneous spatial patterns of transformed houses in public housing estates has given empirical evidence of essentially inevitable reflection of culture sensitivity as hypothesized by previous studies. That hints that the mainstream sustainable values were probably ignored during design process. This study attempted to connect that possible missing link. To achieve that aim, it developed two objectives. First, is to identify core values behind space layouts in the mainstream. Then, to examine how they exist in the transformed layout as reflected at communal origins. It investigated on 42 transformed units in selected urban Public housings neighborhoods via a stratified conditional sampling conducted in five states of Nigeria. Qualitative methods were adopted for data analysis. After identifying the core ethnic groups in the region, their social indicators with regards to space use were determined through ethnographic principles. These indicators were then operationally defined, and used as a tool to examine users’ motivations in the transformation process in urban context. Spatial pattern analysis, by using gamma delineation, revealed the social content in the transformations after comparing initial design and the transformed spatial configurations. The outcome signified the mainstream cultural values in the transformation process hence in Public housing design. The convergence of mainstream values into urban transformed layouts suggested that they cannot be ignored during design process. The outcome of this research might be useful in designing sustainable public housings in culture sensitive environments, better still a guide to Architects and developers in this regard.

  8. Re-Evaluating the Treatment of Nongonococcal Urethritis: Emphasizing Emerging Pathogens–A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompalo, A.; Taylor, S.; Seña, A. C.; Martin, D. H.; Lopez, L. M.; Lensing, S.; Lee, J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is a common chlamydia-associated syndrome in men; however, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium are associated with its etiology and should be considered in approaches to therapy. We sought to determine whether the addition of tinidazole, an anti-trichomonal agent, to the treatment regimen would result in higher cure rates than those achieved with treatment with doxycycline or azithromycin alone. A secondary aim was to compare the efficacy of doxycycline therapy and with that of azithromycin therapy. Methods. Randomized, controlled, double-blinded phase IIB trial of men with NGU. Participants were randomized to receive doxycycline plus or minus tinidazole or azithromycin plus or minus tinidazole and were observed for up to 45 days. Results. The prevalences of Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium, and T. vaginalis were 43%, 31%, and 13%, respectively. No pathogens were identified in 29% of participants. Clinical cure rates at the first follow-up visit were 74.5% (111 of 149 patients) for doxycycline-containing regimens and 68.6% (107 of 156 patients) for azithromycin-containing regimens. By the final visit, cure rates were 49% (73 of 149 patients) for doxycycline-containing regimens and 43.6% (68 of 156 patients) for azithromycin-containing regimens. There were no significant differences in clinical response rates among the treatment arms. However, the chlamydia clearance rate was 94.8% (55 of 58 patients) for the doxycycline arm and 77.4% (41 of 53 patients) for the azithromycin arm (P = .011), and the M. genitalium clearance rate was 30.8% (12 of 39 patients) for the doxycycline arm and 66.7% (30 of 45 patients) for the azithromycin arm (P = .002). Conclusions. Addition of tinidazole to the treatment regimen did not result in higher cure rates but effectively eradicated trichomonas. Clinical cure rates were not significantly different between patients treated with doxycycline and those treated with azithromycin; however, doxycycline had significantly better efficacy against Chlamydia, whereas azithromycin was superior to doxycycline for the treatment of M. genitalium. PMID:21288838

  9. Animal-friendly production systems may cause re-emergence of Toxoplasma gondii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Meerburg, B.G.; Mul, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is still one of the most common parasitic infections in the world, although in Europe improvements in hygiene and the introduction of `total` indoor farming in livestock production have rapidly diminished the problem during the past decades. As a result of public dislike, however,

  10. Re-emergence of dengue virus serotype 2 strains in the 2013 outbreak in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Birendra Prasad; Singh, Sneha; Kurmi, Roshan; Malla, Rajani; Sreekumar, Easwaran; Manandhar, Krishna Das

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Epidemiological interventions and mosquito control are the available measures for dengue control. The former approach uses serotype and genetic information on the circulating virus strains. Dengue has been frequently reported from Nepal, but this information is mostly lacking. The present study was done to generate a comprehensive clinical and virological picture of a dengue outbreak in Nepal during 2013. Methods: A hospital-based study involving patients from five districts of Nepal was carried out. Demographic information, clinical details and dengue serological status were obtained. Viral RNA was characterized at the molecular level by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results: From among the 2340 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases during the study period, 198 patients consented for the study. Clinically they had fever (100%), headache (59.1%), rashes (18.2%), retro-orbital pain (30.3%), vomiting (15.1%), joint pain (28.8%) and thrombocytopenia (74.3%). Fifteen (7.5%) of them had mucosal bleeding manifestations, and the rest were uncomplicated dengue fever. The patients were mostly adults with a mean age of 45.75 ± 38.61 yr. Of the 52 acute serum samples tested, 15 were positive in RT-PCR. The causative virus was identified as DENV serotype 2 belonging to the Cosmopolitan genotype. Interpretations & conclusions: We report here the involvement of DENV serotype 2 in an outbreak in Nepal in 2013. Earlier outbreaks in the region in 2010 were attributed to serotype 1 virus. As serotype shifts are frequently associated with secondary infections and severe disease, there is a need for enhancing surveillance especially in the monsoon and post-monsoon periods to prevent large-scale, severe dengue outbreaks in the region. PMID:26905233

  11. An analysis on the re-emergence of SQL Slammer worm using network telescope data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chindipha, SD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The SQL Slammer worm is a self propagated computer virus that caused a denial of service on some Internet hosts and dramatically slowed down general Internet traffic. An observation of network traffic captured in the Rhodes University’s network...

  12. Invasive Trichosporon Infection: A systematic review on a re-emerging fungal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nobrega De Almeida Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aimed to better depict the clinical features and address the issue of therapeutic management of Trichosporon deep-seated infections.Methods: We comprehensively reviewed the cases of invasive Trichosporon infection reported in the literature from 1994 (date of taxonomic modification to 2015. Data from antifungal susceptibility testing (AST studies were also analyzed. Results: Two hundred and three cases were retained and split into four groups: hemopathy (n=79, other immunodeficiency conditions (n =41, miscellaneous (n=58 and newborns (n=25. Trichosporon asahii was the main causative species (46.7% and may exhibit cross-resistance to different antifungal classes. The unfavorable outcome rate was at 44.3%. By multivariate analysis, breakthrough infection (OR 2.45 was associated with unfavorable outcome, whilst the use of an azole-based therapy improved the prognosis (OR 0.16. Voriconazole-based treatment was associated with favorable outcome in hematological patients (73.6% vs. 41.8%; p=0.016. Compiled data from AST demonstrated that (i T. asahii exhibits the highest MICs to amphotericin B and (ii voriconazole has the best in vitro efficacy against clinical isolates of Trichosporon spp. Conclusions: Trichosporon infection is not only restricted to hematological patients. Analysis of compiled data from AST and clinical outcome support the use of voriconazole as first line therapy.

  13. Re-emerging of rabies in Shaanxi province, China, from 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaofeng; Hao, Xiaoyun; Deng, Huiling; Wu, Rui; Liu, Jifeng; Yang, Yang; Li, Shen; Han, Yifei; Wei, Mingmin; Zhang, Junjun; Wang, Jingjun; Li, Hengxin; Tian, Huaiyu; Xu, Bing; Yu, Pengbo; Wu, Xiaokang

    2017-09-01

    To explore the epidemiological, phylogeographic, and migration characteristics of human rabies in Shaanxi province, China from 2009 to 2015. The collected data were described and the sequenced glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes were implemented to estimate the evolutionary rates and phylogeographic patterns using BEAST v.1.8.2. A total of 269 rabies cases were reported and 70.26% of the cases were male and 61.71% were between the ages of 19-59. The majority of the cases were farmers (83.27%). The estimated evolutionary rate of the N genes was 2.4 × 10 -4 substitutions/site/year and the G genes was 3.4 × 10 -4 . The time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) was estimated around 1990. We detected viral migration paths from Sichuan, Guizhou, and Hunan to Hanzhong prefecture of Shaanxi and then spreaded to Xi'an and other prefectures. The main population affected by rabies virus was male adult farmers. The evolution rate of rabies viruses in Shaanxi was similar with the prior results reported by others and the ancestor virus should be circulating in neighboring province Sichuan around 1990 and then transmitted to Shaanxi. Promptly standard wound treatment and timely post-exposure prophylaxis should be compulsory for the dog-bitten victims. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spatial Temporal Dynamics and Molecular Evolution of Re-Emerging Rabies Virus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan has been recognized by the World Organization for Animal Health as rabies-free since 1961. Surprisingly, rabies virus (RABV was identified in a dead Formosan ferret badger in July 2013. Later, more infected ferret badgers were reported from different geographic regions of Taiwan. In order to know its evolutionary history and spatial temporal dynamics of this virus, phylogeny was reconstructed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods based on the full-length of glycoprotein (G, matrix protein (M, and nucleoprotein (N genes. The evolutionary rates and phylogeographic were determined using Beast and SPREAD software. Phylogenetic trees showed a monophyletic group containing all of RABV isolates from Taiwan and it further separated into three sub-groups. The estimated nucleotide substitution rates of G, M, and N genes were between 2.49 × 10−4–4.75 × 10−4 substitutions/site/year, and the mean ratio of dN/dS was significantly low. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated around 75, 89, and 170 years, respectively. Phylogeographic analysis suggested the origin of the epidemic could be in Eastern Taiwan, then the Formosan ferret badger moved across the Central Range of Taiwan to western regions and separated into two branches. In this study, we illustrated the evolution history and phylogeographic of RABV in Formosan ferret badgers.

  15. EMERGE: Engineered Materials that Create Environments for ReGeneration via Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...donor amniotic membrane, which is expensive, scarce in field hospitals , difficult to work with surgically, and can lead to host rejection. The...close to time of injury as possible. Sterile, dehydrated collagen implant packs with long shelf life could be available in field hospitals for almost

  16. Re-Emerging Frontiers: Postcolonial Theory and Historical Archaeology of the Borderlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    processes in borderlands that were created by colonial empires. They are also an apt way to conceptualize relationships in frontiers that lacked colonial stigma. To illustrate this point, two different historical examples of borderlands are scrutinized in this paper: the medieval frontier region...

  17. The Re- Emergence of Tuberculosis-A Warning To The Practicing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , malnutrition and AIDS pandemic further complicates the picture. This resurgence has increased the likelihood of a dentist coming in contact with infectious TB thereby posing a risk of contacting the disease or passing it to other health care ...

  18. Iliopsoas abscess: a re-emerging clinical entity not to be forgotten.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Hilli, Z

    2009-02-01

    Iliopsoas abscesses are relatively rare clinical entities. They present with subtle and non-specific symptoms and as a result the diagnosis is often delayed, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. With an increasing number of immunocompromised patients in the population the prevalence of this condition is set to rise. Therefore, early diagnosis and appropriate management remain a challenge for clinicians. We present three patients with iliopsoas abscesses, two of which were primary and one of which was secondary to Crohn\\'s disease. The average age of patients was 59 years and both patients with primary psoas abscesses were male. All presented with non-specific symptoms. Psoas sign was present in only one patient. CT confirmed the diagnosis in all cases. Treatment consisted of appropriate antibiotic cover and associated percutaneous drainage. The psoas abscess that was secondary to underlying Crohn\\'s disease was subsequently treated with surgical excision of the affected segment of bowel and lavage of the abscess cavity. A high index of suspicion is required to ensure the accurate and early diagnosis of this rare clinical entity. Abdominal CT scanning remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Management is with appropriate antibiotics and adequate drainage. This can be achieved by either percutaneous or surgical drainage. Such treatment can reduce the overall morbidity and mortality of this condition.

  19. Re-emergence of interferon-α in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpaz, M; Hehlmann, R; Quintás-Cardama, A; Mercer, J; Cortes, J

    2013-01-01

    Treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has evolved from chemotherapy (busulfan, hydroxyurea) to interferon-α (IFNα), and finally to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib. Although imatinib has profoundly improved outcomes for patients with CML, it has limitations. Most significantly, imatinib cannot eradicate CML primitive progenitors, which likely accounts for the high relapse rate when imatinib is discontinued. IFNα, unlike imatinib, preferentially targets CML stem cells. Early studies with IFNα in CML demonstrated its ability to induce cytogenetic remission. Moreover, a small percentage of patients treated with IFNα were able to sustain durable remissions after discontinuing therapy and were probably cured. The mechanisms by which IFNα exerts its antitumor activity in CML are not well understood; however, activation of leukemia-specific immunity may have a role. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of imatinib and IFNα is superior to either therapy alone, perhaps because of their different mechanisms of action. Nonetheless, the side effects of IFNα often impede its administration, especially in combination therapy. Here, we review the role of IFNα in CML treatment and the recent developments that have renewed interest in this once standard therapy for patients with CML. PMID:23238589

  20. Food safety ontology and text mining strategies as a tool in (re)emerging risk identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Vitamins and many minerals are essential micronutrients, and adequate intake is a major public health concern. This led to the establishment of recommended daily intakes, including subgroup differentiation based on variability and vulnerability. “Western” dietary habits promoted a shift from a

  1. Business ethics and health care: the re-emerging institution-patient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppin, J F

    1999-10-01

    Managed care poses a challenge to the traditional conceptualization of medicine and of the physician-patient relationship. People have evaluated the merits of managed care by focusing upon the way its incentives alter the relationship between physician and patient. However, this misses the key to rightly evaluating MCOs. To address the ethics of MCOs one should focus on the institution-patient relationship, and this has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. I will address this relationship here and show how the institution-patient relationship has evolved, why it has become increasingly prominent, and why we must move beyond business ethics for rightly understanding it.

  2. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  3. The Monge-Ampère equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez, Cristian E

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this monograph explores the Monge-Ampère equation and the latest advances in its study and applications. It provides an essentially self-contained systematic exposition of the theory of weak solutions, including regularity results by L. A. Caffarelli. The geometric aspects of this theory are stressed using techniques from harmonic analysis, such as covering lemmas and set decompositions. An effort is made to present complete proofs of all theorems, and examples and exercises are offered to further illustrate important concepts. Some of the topics considered include generalized solutions, non-divergence equations, cross sections, and convex solutions. New to this edition is a chapter on the linearized Monge-Ampère equation and a chapter on interior Hölder estimates for second derivatives. Bibliographic notes, updated and expanded from the first edition, are included at the end of every chapter for further reading on Monge-Ampère-type equations and their diverse applications in th...

  4. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  5. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L. [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC Canada), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  6. Exploring mHealth Participation for Emergency Response Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Schwartz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the challenges of participation by members of emergency response communities who share a similar condition and treatment, and are called upon to participate in emergency events experienced by fellow members. Smartphones and location-based social networking technologies present an opportunity to re-engineer certain aspects of emergency medical response. Life-saving prescription medication extended in an emergency by one individual to another occurs on a micro level, anecdotally documented. We illustrate the issues and our approach through the example of an app to support patients prone to anaphylaxis and prescribed to carry epinephrine auto-injectors. We address unique participation challenges in an mHealth environment in which interventions are primarily short-term interactions which require clear and precise decision-making and constant tracking of potential participants in responding to an emergency medical event. The conflicting effects of diffused responsibility and shared identity are identified as key factors in modeling participation.

  7. Primary stenting as emergency therapy in acute basilar artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreer, Joachim; Arnold, Sebastian; Klisch, Joachim; Schumacher, Martin; Els, Thomas; Hetzel, Andreas; Huppertz, Hans-Juergen; Oehm, Eckhardt

    2002-01-01

    In three patients with acute occlusion of the basilar artery intra-arterial fibrinolysis resulted in only partial recanalization and revealed severe stenosis as the underlying cause. Application of micro-stents without previous dilatation resulted in vessel re-opening. Two patients had an excellent clinical outcome. One patient died 10 days after the stroke due to brainstem infarction. Emergency primary stent application may improve the outcome in acute basilar artery occlusion, if intra-arterial thrombolysis fails to re-establish a sufficient flow. (orig.)

  8. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Feasibility Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  9. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  10. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Large Scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  11. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  12. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  13. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  14. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  15. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Completed Installations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  16. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  17. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  18. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  19. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Utility Scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  20. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  1. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  2. Energy emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook identifies selected state and federal measures available to mitigate the impact of an energy emergency, and provides a comprehensive energy emergency communications directory. In the case of state remedial actions, particular emphasis has been placed on typical implementation procedures and likely impacts. The discussions of federal actions focus on initation and implementation procedures. The directory is designed to facilitate communications of all types (telephone, Telex, TWX, or facsimile) among key energy emergency officials in the federal and state governments.

  3. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  4. Nontarget Effects of Aerial Mosquito Adulticiding With Water-Based Unsynergized Pyrethroids on Honey Bees and Other Beneficial Insects in an Agricultural Ecosystem of North Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    efÞcacy, the applications occur during crepuscular or nocturnal hours when some major nuisance and pathogen -transmitting mosqui- toes are active...Ephestia kuh- niellaZeller (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)eggs andaphids. The use of aphids as a food source signiÞcantly re- duced the degree of cannibalism in...increasing prevalence of mosquito-borne pathogenic diseases in theEuropean community, such as the recent West Nile Virus epidemic in North Greecewith 261

  5. Pichia pastoris-Expressed Bivalent Virus-Like Particulate Vaccine Induces Domain III-Focused Bivalent Neutralizing Antibodies without Antibody-Dependent Enhancement in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Shukla; Ravi K. Rajpoot; Upasana Arora; Ankur Poddar; Sathyamangalam Swaminathan; Navin Khanna; Navin Khanna; Navin Khanna

    2018-01-01

    Dengue, a significant public health problem in several countries around the world, is caused by four different serotypes of mosquito-borne dengue viruses (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). Antibodies to any one DENV serotype which can protect against homotypic re-infection, do not offer heterotypic cross-protection. In fact, cross-reactive antibodies may augment heterotypic DENV infection through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). A recently launched live attenuated vaccine (LAV) for dengue, which ...

  6. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  7. Historicism and Industry Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, David; Moeen, Mahka; Wadhwani, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Management and organization scholars have increasingly turned to historical sources to examine the emergence and evolution of industries over time. This scholarship has typically used historical evidence as observations for testing theoretically relevant processes of industry emergence....... In this chapter, an alternative approach is explored that focuses on reconstructing causes and processes that time and theory have erased. The emergence of three industries—plant biotechnology, savings banking, and the automobile—shows how time, along with prevailing functional models of industry evolution, leads...... excluded phenomena and explanations, reconstructing uncertainty and alternative paths of industry emergence, and studying the processes of information elision and exclusion in the formation of industry knowledge....

  8. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  9. Efficient market hypothesis in emerging markets: Panel data evidence with multiple breaks and cross sectional dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Halim Ahmad; Siti Nurazira Mohd Daud; W.N.W. Azman-Saini

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to re-examine whether mean reversion property hold for 15 emerging stock markets for the period 1985 to 2006. Utilizing a panel stationarity test that is able to account for multiple structural breaks and cross sectional dependence, we find that the emerging stock markets follow a random walk process. However, further analysis on individual series show that the majority of stock prices in emerging markets are governed by a mean reverting process. This result, whic...

  10. Public health implications of emerging zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D

    2000-04-01

    Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new

  11. Seismic re-evaluation process in Medzamor-2 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadoyan, P.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic re-evaluation process for Medzamor-2 NPP describes the following topics: program implementation status; re-evaluation program structure; regulatory procedure and review plan; current tasks and practice; and regulatory assessment and research programs

  12. Emergências hipertensivas Hypertensive emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares Feitosa-Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As urgências e as emergências hipertensivas são ocorrências clínicas que podem representar mais de 25% dos atendimentos a urgências médicas. O médico deverá estar habilitado a diferenciá-las, pois o prognóstico e o tratamento são distintos. Estima-se que 3% de todas as visitas às salas de emergência decorrem de elevações significativas da pressão arterial. Nos quadros relacionados a estes atendimentos, a emergência hipertensiva é a entidade clínica mais grave que merece cuidados intensivos. É caracterizada por pressão arterial marcadamente elevada e sinais de lesões de órgãos-alvo (encefalopatia, infarto agudo do miocárdio, angina instável, edema agudo de pulmão, eclâmpsia, acidente vascular encefálico. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar os principais pontos sobre o seu apropriado diagnóstico e tratamento. Foi realizada busca por artigos originais com os unitermos "crise hipertensiva" e "emergência hipertensiva" nas bases de dados Pubmed e MedLine nos últimos dez anos. As referências disponíveis destes artigos foram verificadas. Os artigos foram identificados e revisados e o presente estudo condensa os principais resultados descritos. Para esta revisão foram considerados ensaios clínicos em língua inglesa, estudos retrospectivos e artigos de revisão. A crise hipertensiva é a entidade clínica com aumento súbito da PA (> 180 x 120 mmHg, acompanhada por sintomas, que podem ser leves (cefaléia, tontura, zumbido ou graves (dispnéia, dor precordial, coma e até morte, com ou sem lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo. Se os sintomas forem leves e sem lesão aguda de órgãos alvos, define-se a urgência hipertensiva. Se o quadro clínico apresentar risco de vida e refletir lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo têm-se, então, a emergência hipertensiva. Muitos pacientes também apresentam uma PA elevada demais, por não usarem suas medicações, tratando-se apenas de hipertensão arterial sistêmica crônica n

  13. Scrub Typhus: An Emerging Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sayantani; Sarma, Nilendu

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia) and is transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family (Leptotrombidium deliense and L. akamushi). It is the most common re-emerging Rickettsial infection in India and many other South East Asian countries. In fact, scrub typhus is confined geographically to the Asia Pacific region, a billion people are at risk and nearly a million cases are reported every year. Scrub typhus appears particularly to be distributed in the tsutsugamushi triangle which is distributed over a very wide area of 13 million km2 bound by Japan in the east, through China, the Philippines, tropical Australia in the south, and west through India, Pakistan, possibly to Tibet to Afghanistan, and southern parts of the USSR in the north. Eschar is the characteristic lesion that starts as a vesicular lesion at the site of mite feeding. Later, an ulcer forms with black necrotic center and an erythematous border along with regional lymphadenopathy. Other features are fever, maculopapular rash starting from the trunk, and spreading to the limbs. It may affect the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, renal, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. Serious complication in the form of myocarditis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and even acute respiratory distress syndrome may develop. Tetracycline or chloramphenicol remains the main stay of therapy. PMID:28979009

  14. Re-assessment of dose from the Vinten extremity dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, J.B.; Pearson, A.J.; Dutt, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A procedure is described for re-assessing the dose from the Vinten extremity dosemeter using phototransferred thermoluminescence. The technique produces a linear response up to 50 Sv. The re-assessment efficiency is approximately 10% for the first re-assessment and 3-5% for the second re-assessment. The detection threshold values (at the 95% confidence level) are 3 mSv and 9 mSv respectively. (author)

  15. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  16. Nye militære trends i den syriske borgerkrig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engen, Torben Toftgaard; Kjellund, Jon

    2018-01-01

    I den flerårige syriske borgerkrig har der fundet tre nye militære trends sted, der peger imod, at fremtidens landmilitære kampplads vil være væsensforskellig fra indsatserne i Irak og Afghanistan. Denne rapport analyserer de tre trends inden for digitaliseringen af den hybride krigsførelse og ka...

  17. The Emergence of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Dalsgård, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The development of new ideas is an essential concern for many design projects. There are, however, few in-depth studies of how such ideas emerge within these contexts. In this article we offer an analysis of the emergence of ideas from specific sources of inspiration, as they arise through...

  18. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  19. Theme: Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpiedi, Barbara J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of six articles discussing the effect of emerging technologies on agriculture. Specific topics include (1) agriscience programs, (2) the National Conference on Agriscience and Emerging Occupations and Technologies, (3) biotechnology, (4) program improvement through technology, (5) the Agriscience Teacher of the Year program, and (6)…

  20. Emergency presurgical visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castro Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been to create a Protocol of Structured Presurgical Visit applicable to the patients who are undergoing an emergency surgery, to provide the user and his family all the necessary cares on the basis of those nursing diagnosis that prevail in all the cases of surgical emergency interventions. The used method has been an analysis of the emergency surgical interventions more prevalent from February 2007 until October 2008 in our area (a regional hospital, and statistic of those nursing diagnosis that more frequently appeared in these interventions, the previous moment to the intervention and in addition common to all of them. The results were the following ones: the more frequent emergency operations were: Caesarean, ginecological curettage, laparotomy, help in risk childbirth, orthopaedic surgery and appendectomy. The more frequent nursing diagnosis in all the emergency operations at the previous moment of the intervention were: risk of falls, pain, anxiety, deficit of knowledge, risk of infection, movement stress syndrome, risk of hemorrhage, cutaneous integrity deterioration. The conclusion is that users present at the previous moment to an emergency operation several problems, which force to the emergency surgical ward nurse to the introduction of the nursing methodology, in order to identify the problems, to mark results and to indicate the interventions to achieve those results, besides in a humanitarian way and with quality. This can be obtained by performing a Structured Emergency Presurgical Visit.