Sample records for rcs based hardware-in-the-loop

  1. Hardware-in the-loop Simulator for ABS based on MATLAB/Simulink

    Pan,Wei; Gao,jinghui; Zhou,Yafu; Song,Zhenhuan


    A method for building a Hardware-in the-loop Simulator of ABS base on MATLAB/Simulink is presented in this paper. In this method, the vehicle transmission model, the AT model and ABS algorithm is built in Simulink. This system can simulate a vehicle system in the Simulink environment. Further more, the Hardware-in the-loop Simulator system can be connected with the real ABS by I/O boards to observe the algorithm is reasonable or not. At the same time, user can simulate some different conditions by changing the parameter. The system help the user heightening the efficiency when developing the electronic device. Also, the system can be used as teaching demo software.

  2. Analysis of laser energy characteristics of laser guided weapons based on the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system

    Zhu, Yawen; Cui, Xiaohong; Wang, Qianqian; Tong, Qiujie; Cui, Xutai; Li, Chenyu; Zhang, Le; Peng, Zhong


    The hardware-in-the-loop simulation system, which provides a precise, controllable and repeatable test conditions, is an important part of the development of the semi-active laser (SAL) guided weapons. In this paper, laser energy chain characteristics were studied, which provides a theoretical foundation for the SAL guidance technology and the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. Firstly, a simplified equation was proposed to adjust the radar equation according to the principles of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. Secondly, a theoretical model and calculation method were given about the energy chain characteristics based on the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. We then studied the reflection characteristics of target and the distance between the missile and target with major factors such as the weather factors. Finally, the accuracy of modeling was verified by experiment as the values measured experimentally generally follow the theoretical results from the model. And experimental results revealed that ratio of attenuation of the laser energy exhibited a non-linear change vs. pulse number, which were in accord with the actual condition.

  3. Power-Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL) Test of VSC-based HVDC connection for Offshore Wind Power Plants (WPPs)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei;


    This paper presents a power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test for an offshore wind power plant (WPP) interconnected to the onshore grid by a VSC-based HVDC connection. The intention of the PHIL test is to verify the control coordination between the plant side converter of the HVDC connection...... the successful control coordination between the WPP and the plant side VSC converter of the HVDC connection of the WPP....

  4. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation technology of wide-band radar targets based on scattering center model

    Huang Hao; Pan Minghai; Lu Zhijun


    Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation technology can verify and evaluate the radar by simulating the radio frequency environment in an anechoic chamber. The HWIL simulation technology of wide-band radar targets can accurately generate wide-band radar target echo which stands for the radar target scattering characteristics and pulse modulation of radar transmitting sig-nal. This paper analyzes the wide-band radar target scattering properties first. Since the responses of target are composed of many separate scattering centers, the target scattering characteristic is restructured by scattering centers model. Based on the scattering centers model of wide-band radar target, the wide-band radar target echo modeling and the simulation method are discussed. The wide-band radar target echo is reconstructed in real-time by convoluting the transmitting signal to the target scattering parameters. Using the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) system, the HWIL simulation of wide-band radar target echo with high accuracy can be actualized. A typical wide-band radar target simulation is taken to demonstrate the preferable simulation effect of the reconstruction method of wide-band radar target echo. Finally, the radar target time-domain echo and high-resolution range profile (HRRP) are given. The results show that the HWIL simulation gives a high-resolution range distribution of wide-band radar target scattering centers.

  5. Testing of a controller for an ETO-based STATCOM through controller hardware-in-the-loop simulation

    Langston, J.; Qi, L.; Steurer, M.


    The testing of a controller for a proposed 10 MVA STATCOM through hardware-in-the-loop experimentation is described in this paper. The electrical environment into which the STATCOM is to be inserted, including a significant portion of the utility network and a nearby wind farm are simulated using...... a large-scale digital real time electromagnetic transients simulator. The STATCOM controller is interfaced to the simulation, providing firing pulses to the simulated STATCOM and receiving feedback of system voltages and currents. Notional wind speed data is used to simulate realistic behavior of the wind...

  6. Network defense simulation test model based on hardware-in-the-loop%基于半实物的网络防御仿真测试模型

    毕治国; 张明清; 唐俊; 孔红山


    Aiming at the deficiency of high cost and risk in testing network defense in real network, Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is introduced in network defense testing research, and a defense testing model is erected based on HITLS through analyzing of the elements of HITLS, and then two basic applications of model are given. The implementation technology of this model, and a method used to extend attacking simulation based on hardware-in-the-loop support are analyzed in detail by OPNET through creating custom packet-translation functions. At last, a HITLS experiment is given to prove the validity of this model. This model can make real attacking and defending behaviors run in simulation network, which maps the real node into the simulation network. The model can not only avoid building complex hardware experiment platform but also make the process of testing in security and control, even more it can improve the reliability of simulation.%针对在真实网络中对防御进行测试存在高成本高风险的不足,将半实物网络仿真方法引入防御测试研究中,分析了半实物网络仿真的原理,建立了一种基于半实物的网络防御仿真测试模型,给出了模型的两种基本应用.着重对网络防御半实物仿真测试的实现技术进行了分析,通过自定义包转换的方法来扩展OPNET所能支持的攻击的半实物仿真,最后通过仿真实验来验证了模型的有效性.该模型能够将实际节点映射到虚拟网络中,使防御测试中的实际攻防行为在虚拟网络中运行,从而既避免了建立复杂的真实测试平台,又使得测试过程安全可控,还提高了仿真测试结果的可信度.

  7. Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTC has a suite of Hardware-in-the Loop facilities that include three operational facilities that provide performance assessment and production acceptance testing of...

  8. Design and implementation of laser target simulator in hardware-in-the-loop simulation system based on LabWindows/CVI and RTX

    Tong, Qiujie; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Xiaoyang; Shan, Bin; Cui, Xuntai; Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhong


    In order to satisfy the requirements of the real-time and generality, a laser target simulator in semi-physical simulation system based on RTX+LabWindows/CVI platform is proposed in this paper. Compared with the upper-lower computers simulation platform architecture used in the most of the real-time system now, this system has better maintainability and portability. This system runs on the Windows platform, using Windows RTX real-time extension subsystem to ensure the real-time performance of the system combining with the reflective memory network to complete some real-time tasks such as calculating the simulation model, transmitting the simulation data, and keeping real-time communication. The real-time tasks of simulation system run under the RTSS process. At the same time, we use the LabWindows/CVI to compile a graphical interface, and complete some non-real-time tasks in the process of simulation such as man-machine interaction, display and storage of the simulation data, which run under the Win32 process. Through the design of RTX shared memory and task scheduling algorithm, the data interaction between the real-time tasks process of RTSS and non-real-time tasks process of Win32 is completed. The experimental results show that this system has the strongly real-time performance, highly stability, and highly simulation accuracy. At the same time, it also has the good performance of human-computer interaction.

  9. Hardware-in-the-loop testing of marine control system

    Roger Skjetne


    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL testing is proposed as a new methodology for verification and certification of marine control systems. Formalizing such testing necessitates the development of a vocabulary and set of definitions. This paper treats these issues by constructing a framework suitable for industrial HIL test applications and certification of marine systems.

  10. Smart Home Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing

    Pratt, Annabelle


    This presentation provides a high-level overview of NREL's smart home hardware-in-the-loop testing. It was presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Energy Systems and Wind Turbine Powertrains, held April 25-26, 2017, hosted by NREL and Clemson University at the Energy Systems Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado.

  11. Hardware-in-the-loop testing of marine control system


    Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) testing is proposed as a new methodology for verification and certification of marine control systems. Formalizing such testing necessitates the development of a vocabulary and set of definitions. This paper treats these issues by constructing a framework suitable for industrial HIL test applications and certification of marine systems.

  12. Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation for Spacecraft Attitude Control Based on Ad hoc Network%基于自组织网络的航天器姿态控制半实物仿真

    胡敏; 吴锦杰; 曾国强


    To increase the effective load ratio of spacecraft,and to solve the wire connected problem of current attitude control system,a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for rigid-body spacecraft attitude control based on the mono-axis air-bearing table and ad hoc wireless network was established,and the flexibility and reliability of the spacecraft design were greatly enhanced.Firstly,the constitution and scheme design were introduced in detail; the dual ARM redundant architecture was employed for the on-board computer,and the fiber gyro,on-board computer,reaction wheel and the dynamics simulation computer were connected via the ad hoc wireless network.Secondly,the attitude kinematic equation and dynamic equation were introduced and the control algorithms were proposed.Finally,the three-axis stable control for spacecraft was conducted in the simulation system.The simulation results show that the control precision is satisfied to meet the mission requirements and the correctness of the software and hardware interfaces are also verified.%为了提高航天器的有效载荷比,针对目前姿态控制系统中采用有线连接的问题,以单轴气浮台为仿真平台,基于无线自组织网络构建了一种刚体航天器姿态控制半实物仿真系统,提高航天器设计的灵活性和可靠性.首先详细介绍了该系统的总体构成和方案设计,星载计算机采用双ARM冗余的体系结构,光纤陀螺、星载计算机、反作用飞轮以及动力学仿真机之间可通过无线自组织网络节点互连.其次,介绍了姿态控制系统的数学模型及控制算法.最后,利用该系统对航天器三轴正常姿态稳定控制进行了半实物仿真.仿真结果表明,姿态控制精度能够满足任务需求,同时校验了仿真系统设计的合理性和正确性.

  13. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation and energy optimization of cardiac pacemakers.

    Barker, Chris; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Mereacre, Alexandru; Paoletti, Nicola; Patane, Andrea


    Implantable cardiac pacemakers are medical devices that can monitor and correct abnormal heart rhythms. To provide the necessary safety assurance for pacemaker software, both testing and verification of the code, as well as testing the entire pacemaker hardware in the loop, is necessary. In this paper, we present a hardware testbed that enables detailed hardware-in-the-loop simulation and energy optimisation of pacemaker algorithms with respect to a heart model. Both the heart and the pacemaker models are encoded in Simulink/Stateflow™ and translated into executable code, with the pacemaker executed directly on the microcontroller. We evaluate the usefulness of the testbed by developing a parameter synthesis algorithm which optimises the timing parameters based on power measurements acquired in real-time. The experiments performed on real measurements successfully demonstrate that the testbed is capable of energy minimisation in real-time and obtains safe pacemaker timing parameters.

  14. 15 MW HArdware-in-the-loop Grid Simulation Project

    Rigas, Nikolaos [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Fox, John Curtiss [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Collins, Randy [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Tuten, James [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Salem, Thomas [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); McKinney, Mark [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Hadidi, Ramtin [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Gislason, Benjamin [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Boessneck, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Leonard, Jesse [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    The 15MW Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) Grid Simulator project was to (1) design, (2) construct and (3) commission a state-of-the-art grid integration testing facility for testing of multi-megawatt devices through a ‘shared facility’ model open to all innovators to promote the rapid introduction of new technology in the energy market to lower the cost of energy delivered. The 15 MW HIL Grid Simulator project now serves as the cornerstone of the Duke Energy Electric Grid Research, Innovation and Development (eGRID) Center. This project leveraged the 24 kV utility interconnection and electrical infrastructure of the US DOE EERE funded WTDTF project at the Clemson University Restoration Institute in North Charleston, SC. Additionally, the project has spurred interest from other technology sectors, including large PV inverter and energy storage testing and several leading edge research proposals dealing with smart grid technologies, grid modernization and grid cyber security. The key components of the project are the power amplifier units capable of providing up to 20MW of defined power to the research grid. The project has also developed a one of a kind solution to performing fault ride-through testing by combining a reactive divider network and a large power converter into a hybrid method. This unique hybrid method of performing fault ride-through analysis will allow for the research team at the eGRID Center to investigate the complex differences between the alternative methods of performing fault ride-through evaluations and will ultimately further the science behind this testing. With the final goal of being able to perform HIL experiments and demonstration projects, the eGRID team undertook a significant challenge with respect to developing a control system that is capable of communicating with several different pieces of equipment with different communication protocols in real-time. The eGRID team developed a custom fiber optical network that is based upon FPGA

  15. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Jinjun Shan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HITL simulation approach for multiple spacecraft formation flying. Considering a leader-follower formation flying configuration, a Fuzzy Logic controller is developed first to maintain the desired formation shape under external perturbations and the initial position offsets. Cold-gas on/off thrusters are developed to be introduced to the simulation loop, and the HITL simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed simulation configuration and Fuzzy Logic control.

  16. Development of Hardware-in-the-loop Microgrid Testbed

    Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Prabakar, Kumaraguru [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ollis, T Ben [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D [ORNL


    A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) microgrid testbed for the evaluation and assessment of microgrid operation and control system has been presented in this paper. The HIL testbed is composed of a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) for modeling of the microgrid, multiple NI CompactRIOs for device level control, a prototype microgrid energy management system (MicroEMS), and a relay protection system. The applied communication-assisted hybrid control system has been also discussed. Results of function testing of HIL controller, communication, and the relay protection system are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed HIL microgrid testbed.

  17. Verification of Reconfigurable CNC System Based on Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation%一种基于硬件在环的可重构数控系统验证方法

    杜少华; 于东; 黄艳; 郑飂默; 彭健钧


    As an open architecture controller, reconfigurable computer numerical control (CNC) system can fully utilize advanced control technologies, hardware devices and other innovations to increase self-adaptability and rapid responsiveness. Considering the verification complexity and hardware dependency of reconfigurable CNC system, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, in which machining process is simulated by computer software, is utilized as a key method to solve this dilemma. In order to fulfill real-time and dynamic testing requirements, field-bus technology is adopted as the communication interface for simulation system and reconfigurable CNC system. The simulation system substitutes driving devices of machine tool with software equivalent parts to execute control instructions, and it provides a graphic user interface to display and simulate the cutting and shaping process. Taking S-spline interpolation and three-axis milling machine as examples, the machining process of reconfigurable CNC system are evaluated in the designed system environment. Compared with the manufactured workpiece, hardware-in-the-loop simulation is convinced as a feasible and effective way for verifications of reconfigurable CNC system.%作为一种开放式控制器,可重构数控(Computer numerical control,CNC)系统充分利用先进的控制技术、硬件产品等有利资源,提高系统功能的自适应性与快速响应能力.针对可重构CNC系统的验证过程复杂、硬件环境依赖性强等特点,采用硬件在环的设计方法,由仿真系统模拟数控机床的加工制造过程.给出面向可重构CNC系统的硬件在环仿真环境设计方法:采用现场总线连接数控系统与仿真环境,满足实时性、动态性等测试要求:建立机床驱动设备的仿真功能单元,完成数控加工指令的控制操作;实现数控机床的加工过程仿真,采用图形方式显示工件的切削成形过程.结合S曲线插补算法以及三轴数控铣床的

  18. Research on starlight hardware-in-the-loop simulator

    Zhang, Ying; Gao, Yang; Qu, Huiyang; Liu, Dongfang; Du, Huijie; Lei, Jie


    The starlight navigation is considered to be one of the most important methods for spacecraft navigation. Starlight simulation system is a high-precision system with large fields of view, designed to test the starlight navigation sensor performance on the ground. A complete hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the system has been built. The starlight simulator is made up of light source, light source controller, light filter, LCD, collimator and control computer. LCD is the key display component of the system, and is installed at the focal point of the collimator. For the LCD cannot emit light itself, so light source and light source power controller is specially designed for the brightness demanded by the LCD. Light filter is designed for the dark background which is also needed in the simulation.

  19. Hardware-in-the-loop grid simulator system and method

    Fox, John Curtiss; Collins, Edward Randolph; Rigas, Nikolaos


    A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) electrical grid simulation system and method that combines a reactive divider with a variable frequency converter to better mimic and control expected and unexpected parameters in an electrical grid. The invention provides grid simulation in a manner to allow improved testing of variable power generators, such as wind turbines, and their operation once interconnected with an electrical grid in multiple countries. The system further comprises an improved variable fault reactance (reactive divider) capable of providing a variable fault reactance power output to control a voltage profile, therein creating an arbitrary recovery voltage. The system further comprises an improved isolation transformer designed to isolate zero-sequence current from either a primary or secondary winding in a transformer or pass the zero-sequence current from a primary to a secondary winding.

  20. Hardware in the loop simulation test platform of fuel cell backup system

    Ma Tiancai


    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of voltage mechanistic model, a real-time simulation model of the proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell backup system is developed, and verified by the measurable experiment data. The method of online parameters identification for the model is also improved. Based on the software LabVIEW/VeriStand real-time environment and the PXI Express hardware system, the PEM fuel cell system controller hardware in the loop (HIL simulation plat-form is established. Controller simulation test results showed the accuracy of HIL simulation platform.


    Huang Qitao; Jiang Hongzhou; Zhang Shangying; Han Junwei


    A ground-based hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation system with hydraulically driven Stewart platform for spacecraft docking simulation is presented. The system is used for simulating docking process of the on-orbit spacecraft. Principle and structure of the six-degree-of-freedom simulation system are introduced. The docking process dynamic of the vehicles is modeled. Experiment results and mathematical simulation data are compared to validating the simulation system. The comparisons of the results prove that the simulation system proposed can effectively simulate the on-orbit docking process of the spacecraft.

  2. Hardware-in-the-Loop Co-simulation of Distribution Grid for Demand Response

    Rotger-Griful, Sergi; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Jacobsen, Rune H.; Stewart, Emma M.; Domingo, Javier M.; Wetter, Michael


    In modern power systems, co-simulation is proposed as an enabler for analyzing the interactions between disparate systems. This paper introduces the co-simulation platform Virtual Grid Integration Laboratory (VirGIL) including Hardware-in-the-Loop testing, and demonstrates its potential to assess demand response strategies. VirGIL is based on a modular architecture using the Functional Mock-up Interface industrial standard to integrate new simulators. VirGIL combines state-of-the-art simulators in power systems, communications, buildings, and control. In this work, VirGIL is extended with a Hardware-in-the-Loop component to control the ventilation system of a real 12-story building in Denmark. VirGIL capabilities are illustrated in three scenarios: load following, primary reserves and load following aggregation. Experimental results show that the system can track one minute changing signals and it can provide primary reserves for up-regulation. Furthermore, the potential of aggregating several ventilation systems is evaluated considering the impact at distribution grid level and the communications protocol effect.

  3. Benchmarking Model Variants in Development of a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Kratz, Jonathan L.; Culley, Dennis E.; Thomas, George L.


    Distributed engine control architecture presents a significant increase in complexity over traditional implementations when viewed from the perspective of system simulation and hardware design and test. Even if the overall function of the control scheme remains the same, the hardware implementation can have a significant effect on the overall system performance due to differences in the creation and flow of data between control elements. A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system is under development at NASA Glenn Research Center that enables the exploration of these hardware dependent issues. The system is based on, but not limited to, the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k). This paper describes the step-by-step conversion from the self-contained baseline model to the hardware in the loop model, and the validation of each step. As the control model hardware fidelity was improved during HIL system development, benchmarking simulations were performed to verify that engine system performance characteristics remained the same. The results demonstrate the goal of the effort; the new HIL configurations have similar functionality and performance compared to the baseline C-MAPSS40k system.

  4. Hardware in the loop simulation of arbitrary magnitude shaped correlated radar clutter

    Strydom, JJ


    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple process for the generation of arbitrary probability distributions of complex data with correlation from sample to sample, optimized for hardware in the loop radar environment simulation. Measured radar clutter is used...

  5. Megawatt Scale Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of a High Speed Generator


    designed for 1.2 MW continuous and 2.5 MW intermittent power. The generator is a two-stage machine composed of a brushless DC exciter and main...operators with the case interface. A simulation model of the entire PHIL test setup (dynamometer, gearbox, generator , rectifier, VVS, etc.), including...Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of a High Speed Generator ABSTRACT A megawatt scale test bed for power hardware- in-the-loop experimentation with high

  6. 基于CATIA的半实物仿真用液压釜的设计与研究%Design and research of autoclave based on CATIA for hardware-in-the-loop simulation

    陈江; 赵文纯; 鞠海洪


    For the design and research of an autoclave for hardware-in-loop simulation, a design method for autoclave based on the CATIA virtual prototype technology was proposed. The 3D modeling was carried out by using CATIA. Then, the weakness of the autoclave was checked and optimized by using CATIA-Analysis in order to improve the safety and reliability of autoclave. Finally, an autoclave which can meet the design requirements was designed.%针对半实物仿真用液压釜进行了设计与研究.提出了基于CATIA虚拟样机技术的的液压釜设计方法,通过CATIA进行三维实体建模,并通过CATIA-Analysis对液压釜薄弱处进行枝核优化,用以提高液压釜使用运行的安全性和可靠性,最终设计出满足要求的液压釜.

  7. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Laboratory Testing for Multisensor Sense and Avoid Systems

    Giancarmine Fasano


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a hardware-in-the-loop facility aimed at real-time testing of architectures and algorithms of multisensor sense and avoid systems. It was developed within a research project aimed at flight demonstration of autonomous non-cooperative collision avoidance for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. In this framework, an optionally piloted Very Light Aircraft was used as experimental platform. The flight system is based on multiple-sensor data integration and it includes a Ka-band radar, four electro-optical sensors, and two dedicated processing units. The laboratory test system was developed with the primary aim of prototype validation before multi-sensor tracking and collision avoidance flight tests. System concept, hardware/software components, and operating modes are described in the paper. The facility has been built with a modular approach including both flight hardware and simulated systems and can work on the basis of experimentally tested or synthetically generated scenarios. Indeed, hybrid operating modes are also foreseen which enable performance assessment also in the case of alternative sensing architectures and flight scenarios that are hardly reproducible during flight tests. Real-time multisensor tracking results based on flight data are reported, which demonstrate reliability of the laboratory simulation while also showing the effectiveness of radar/electro-optical fusion in a non-cooperative collision avoidance architecture.

  8. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of Distributed Intelligent Energy Management System for Microgrids

    Dong-Jun Won


    Full Text Available Microgrids are autonomous low-voltage power distribution systems that contain multiple distributed energy resources (DERs and smart loads that can provide power system operation flexibility. To effectively control and coordinate multiple DERs and loads of microgrids, this paper proposes a distributed intelligent management system that employs a multi-agent-based control system so that delicate decision-making functions can be distributed to local intelligent agents. This paper presents the development of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS system for distributed intelligent management system for microgrids and its promising application to an emergency demand response program. In the developed HILS system, intelligent agents are developed using microcontrollers and ZigBee wireless communication technology. Power system dynamic models are implemented in real-time simulation environments using the Opal-RT system. This paper presents key features of the data communication and management schemes based on multi-agent concepts. The performance of the developed system is tested for emergency demand response program applications.

  9. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for the virtual application of control functions for a coordination of the interaction between a gasoline engine and the 14V-power electrical system; Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation fuer die virtuelle Applikation von Steuerungsfunktionen zur Motor-Energiebordnetz-Koordination

    Schiele, Thomas


    The development of advanced engine management systems increasingly is supported by model-based development tools. Thereby the hardware-in-the-loop simulation is one of these tools. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on an extension of the capabilities of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation from the classic functional testing and safety tests up to the model-based application. Using the control functions for the coordination of the interaction between a gasoline engine and the 14V-power electrical system as an example, the practical application of hardware-in-the-loop systems is presented. Here, the author reviews on the state of technology for the real-time modeling of internal combustion engines and wiring systems.

  10. Hardware-in-the-Loop Rendezvous Tests of a Novel Actuators Command Concept

    Gomes dos Santos, Willer; Marconi Rocco, Evandro; Boge, Toralf; Benninghoff, Heike; Rems, Florian


    Integration, test and validation results, in a real-time environment, of a novel concept for spacecraft control are presented in this paper. The proposed method commands simultaneously a group of actuators optimizing a given set of objective functions based on a multiobjective optimization technique. Since close proximity maneuvers play an important role in orbital servicing missions, the entire GNC system has been integrated and tested at a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) rendezvous and docking simulator known as European Proximity Operations Simulator (EPOS). During the test campaign at EPOS facility, a visual camera has been used to provide the necessary measurements for calculating the relative position with respect to the target satellite during closed-loop simulations. In addition, two different configurations of spacecraft control have been considered in this paper: a thruster reaction control system and a mixed actuators mode which includes thrusters, reaction wheels, and magnetic torqrods. At EPOS, results of HIL closed-loop tests have demonstrated that a safe and stable rendezvous approach can be achieved with the proposed GNC loop.

  11. Control of industrial robots for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of satellite docking

    Ma, Ou; Zebenay, Melak; Boge, Toralf


    One of the most challenging and risky missions for spacecraft is to perform Rendezvous and Docking (RvD) autonomously in space. To ensure a safe and reliable operation, such a mission must be carefully designed and thoroughly verified before a real space mission can be launched. This paper describes the impact-contact dynamics simulation capability of a new, robotics-based, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) RvD simulation facility which uses two industrial robots to simulate 6-DOF dynamic maneuvering of two docking satellites. The facility is capable of physically simulating the final approaching within 25-meter range and the entire docking/capturing process in a satellite on-orbit servicing mission. The paper briefly discusses the difficulties of using industrial robots for HIL contact dynamics simulation and how these problems are solved. Admittance control strategy is proposed to control the robotic system to make the robot dynamically behave like the spacecraft during a physical interception. The control strategy works as an outer loop on the top of the existing control system of the industrial robot and hence, it does not require altering the joint control hardware and software which are inaccessible for an industrial robot. A simulation study has shown that the methodology can accurately simulate the impact-contact dynamics behavior of the spacecraft in a docking operation.

  12. Surgeon Training in Telerobotic Surgery via a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    Xiao Li


    Full Text Available This work presents a software and hardware framework for a telerobotic surgery safety and motor skill training simulator. The aims are at providing trainees a comprehensive simulator for acquiring essential skills to perform telerobotic surgery. Existing commercial robotic surgery simulators lack features for safety training and optimal motion planning, which are critical factors in ensuring patient safety and efficiency in operation. In this work, we propose a hardware-in-the-loop simulator directly introducing these two features. The proposed simulator is built upon the Raven-II™ open source surgical robot, integrated with a physics engine and a safety hazard injection engine. Also, a Fast Marching Tree-based motion planning algorithm is used to help trainee learn the optimal instrument motion patterns. The main contributions of this work are (1 reproducing safety hazards events, related to da Vinci™ system, reported to the FDA MAUDE database, with a novel haptic feedback strategy to provide feedback to the operator when the underlying dynamics differ from the real robot’s states so that the operator will be aware and can mitigate the negative impact of the safety-critical events, and (2 using motion planner to generate semioptimal path in an interactive robotic surgery training environment.

  13. Use of industrial robots for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of satellite rendezvous and docking

    Ma, Ou; Flores-Abad, Angel; Boge, Toralf


    One of the most challenging and risky operations for spacecraft is to perform rendezvous and docking autonomously in space. To ensure a safe and reliable operation, such a mission must be carefully designed and thoroughly verified before a real space mission can be launched. This paper describes the control strategy for achieving high fidelity contact dynamics simulation of a new, robotics-based, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) rendezvous and docking simulation facility that uses two industrial robots to physically simulate the 6-DOF dynamic maneuvering of two docking satellites. The facility is capable of physically simulating the final approaching within a 25-meter range and the entire docking/capturing process for a satellite on-orbit servicing mission. The key difficulties of using industrial robots for high-fidelity HIL contact dynamics simulation were found and different solution techniques were investigated in the presented project. An admittance control method was proposed to achieve the goal of making the robots in the HIL simulation process match the impedance of the two docking satellites. Simulation study showed the effectiveness and performance of the proposed solution method.

  14. Hardware-in-the-Loop Rendezvous Tests of a Novel Actuators Command Concept

    Gomes dos Santos, Willer; Marconi Rocco, Evandro; Boge, Toralf; Benninghoff, Heike; Rems, Florian


    Integration, test and validation results, in a real-time environment, of a novel concept for spacecraft control are presented in this paper. The proposed method commands simultaneously a group of actuators optimizing a given set of objective functions based on a multiobjective optimization technique. Since close proximity maneuvers play an important role in orbital servicing missions, the entire GNC system has been integrated and tested at a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) rendezvous and docking simulator known as European Proximity Operations Simulator (EPOS). During the test campaign at EPOS facility, a visual camera has been used to provide the necessary measurements for calculating the relative position with respect to the target satellite during closed-loop simulations. In addition, two different configurations of spacecraft control have been considered in this paper: a thruster reaction control system and a mixed actuators mode which includes thrusters, reaction wheels, and magnetic torqrods. At EPOS, results of HIL closed-loop tests have demonstrated that a safe and stable rendezvous approach can be achieved with the proposed GNC loop.

  15. Hardware in the loop radar environment simulation on wideband DRFM platforms

    Strydom, JJ


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and testing of a digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) kernel, as well as some of the functionality which has been added to the system to make it a fully-fledged hardware in the loop (HIL) radar environment...

  16. Development of a driver information and warning system with vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    Gietelink, O.J.; Ploeg, J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.


    This paper presents a new method for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). With vehicle hardware-in-the-loop (VeHIL) simulations the development process, and more specifically the validation phase, of intelligent vehicles is carried out safer, cheaper, and more man

  17. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) Test of Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Zimmermann, K.; Østergaard, Jacob;


    This paper presents the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test of the demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR). The HIL test refers to a test in which parts of a pure simulation have been replaced by actual physical components. It is used to understand the behavior of a new device or controller...

  18. Development of advanced driver assistance systems with vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    Gietelink, O.J.; Ploeg, J.; Schutter,; Verhaegen, M.


    This paper presents a new method for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). With vehicle hardware-in-the-loop (VEHIL) simulations, the development process, and more specifically the validation phase, of intelligent vehicles is carried out safer, cheaper, and is more

  19. Development of a driver information and warning system with vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    Gietelink, O.J.; Ploeg, J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.


    This paper presents a new method for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). With vehicle hardware-in-the-loop (VeHIL) simulations the development process, and more specifically the validation phase, of intelligent vehicles is carried out safer, cheaper, and more man

  20. Testing FlexRay ECUs with a hardware-in-the-loop simulator; Test von FlexRay-Steuergeraeten am Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    Stroop, J.; Koehl, S. [dSPACE GmbH, Paderborn (Germany); Peller, M.; Riedesser, P. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)


    To master the data communication of complex and safety relevant systems within future vehicles, the BMW Group prepares the application of FlexRay. The accompanying development process plays an important role for the quality, stability and reliability of those systems. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation and test stands are indispensable constituents and they are an integral part of the validation process. The following contribution describes the technology that is used within the BMW Group in more detail, especially in terms of communication networks with FlexRay. (orig.)

  1. Successful hardware-in-the-loop support of the Longbow/HELLFIRE modular missile system

    Ray, Jerry A.; Larson, Gerald A.; Terry, John E.


    The Air-to-Ground Missiles Systems (AGMS) Project Management Office (PMO) chose to invest in hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation as an integral part of their Longbow/HELLFIRE (Helicopter Launched, Fire-and-Forget) Modular Missile System program throughout the development and production phases. This investment has resulted in two HWIL simulations, developed by the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Missile Research Development and Engineering Center, that have had unprecedented success in program support from the early development through production phases. The Millimeter Simulation System 1 (MSS-1) facility is capable of edge-of- the-envelope performance analysis and verification using high- fidelity target, background, and countermeasures signature modeling. The System Test/Acceptance Facility (STAF), developed in partnership with Redstone Technical Test Center, tests full-up missiles for production lot acceptance. Between these two facilities, HWIL simulation is responsible for pre- flight confidence testing of missile hardware and software, software independent verification and validation (IV&V) testing, comprehensive performance evaluation, component verification, production lot acceptance, and data gathering for the shelf life extension program. One payoff of the MSS-1 HWIL investment has been an extremely effective flight test program with MSS-1 receiving credit for saving three flight tests and documenting over 40 failure modes. With the advent of the Performance Based Specification, the MSS-1 has become involved in continuous verification of high level specifications since contractor controlled, low-level specifications are subject to change. The STAF has saved 8 million annually through providing a non-destructive lot acceptance-testing paradigm, and further benefited the production phase by discovering three production problems. This paper will highlight the innovative uses of HWIL simulation as utilized in the Longbow/HELLFIRE program and

  2. Hardware-in-the-Loop Modeling and Simulation Methods for Daylight Systems in Buildings

    Mead, Alex Robert

    . Each class of techniques, broadly speaking however, has advantages and disadvantages with respect to the cost of execution (e.g. money, time, expertise) and the fidelity of the provided insight into the performance of the daylighting system. This varying tradeoff of cost and insight between the techniques determines which techniques are employed for which projects. Daylighting systems with CFS components, however, when considered for simulation with respect to these traditional technique classes, defy high fidelity analysis. Simplified techniques are clearly not applicable. Mathematical-models must have great complexity in order to capture the non-specular transmission accurately, which greatly limit their applicability. This leaves physical modeling, the most costly, as the preferred method for CFS. While mathematical-modeling and simulation methods do exist, they are in general costly and and still approximations of the underlying CFS behavior. Meaning in fact, measurements of CFSs are currently the only practical method to capture the behavior of CFSs. Traditional measurements of CFSs transmission and reflection properties are conducted using an instrument called a goniophotometer and produce a measurement in the form of a Bidirectional Scatter Distribution Function (BSDF) based on the Klems Basis. This measurement must be executed for each possible state of the CFS, hence only a subset of the possible behaviors can be captured for CFSs with continuously varying configurations. In the current era of rapid prototyping (e.g. 3D printing) and automated control of buildings including daylighting systems, a new analysis technique is needed which can faithfully represent these CFSs which are being designed and constructed at an increasing rate. Hardware-in-the-loop modeling and simulation is a perfect fit to the current need of analyzing daylighting systems with CFSs. In the proposed hardware-in-the-loop modeling and simulation approach of this dissertation, physical

  3. Research on Modelling of Aviation Piston Engine for the Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation

    Yu, Bing; Shu, Wenjun; Bian, Wenchao


    In order to build the aero piston engine model which is real-time and accurate enough to operating conditions of the real engine for hardware in the loop simulation, the mean value model is studied. Firstly, the air-inlet model, the fuel model and the power-output model are established separately. Then, these sub models are combined and verified in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results show that the model could reflect the steady-state and dynamic performance of aero engine, the errors between the simulation results and the bench test data are within the acceptable range. The model could be applied to verify the logic performance and control strategy of controller in the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation.

  4. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of Ares I Launch Vehicle

    Tobbe, Patrick; Matras, Alex; Walker, David; Wilson, Heath; Fulton, Chris; Alday, Nathan; Betts, Kevin; Hughes, Ryan; Turbe, Michael


    The Ares Real-Time Environment for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation (ARTEMIS) has been developed for use by the Ares I launch vehicle System Integration Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The primary purpose of the Ares System Integration Laboratory is to test the vehicle avionics hardware and software in a hardware - in-the-loop environment to certify that the integrated system is prepared for flight. ARTEMIS has been designed to be the real-time simulation backbone to stimulate all required Ares components for verification testing. ARTE_VIIS provides high -fidelity dynamics, actuator, and sensor models to simulate an accurate flight trajectory in order to ensure realistic test conditions. ARTEMIS has been designed to take advantage of the advances in underlying computational power now available to support hardware-in-the-loop testing to achieve real-time simulation with unprecedented model fidelity. A modular realtime design relying on a fully distributed computing architecture has been implemented.


    Kamal S. Ali


    Full Text Available This study describes a Multi-Agent Hardware In the Loop Simulator (HILS for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ (UAV autopilots. This HILS system allows multiple autopilots to fly multiple virtual airframes in the same virtual environment allowing these agents to interact as a swarm. This system makes the exploration and evaluation of Multi Agent Systems (MAS possible at minimal cost.

  6. Development and hardware-in-the-loop test of a guidance, navigation and control system for on-orbit servicing

    Benninghoff, Heike; Rems, Florian; Boge, Toralf


    The rendezvous phase is one of the most important phases in future orbital servicing missions. To ensure a safe approach to a non-cooperative target satellite, a guidance, navigation and control system which uses measurements from optical sensors like cameras was designed and developed. During ground-based rendezvous, stability problems induced by delayed position measurements can be compensated by using a specially adapted navigation filter. Within the VIBANASS (VIsion BAsed NAvigation Sensor System) test campaign, hardware-in-the-loop tests on the terrestrial, robotic based facility EPOS 2.0 were performed to test and verify the developed guidance, navigation and control algorithms using real sensor measurements. We could demonstrate several safe rendezvous test cases in a closed loop mode integrating the VIBANASS camera system and the developed guidance, navigation and control system to a dynamic rendezvous simulation.

  7. Divergence compensation for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of stiffness-varying discrete contact in space

    Qi, Chenkun; Zhao, Xianchao; Gao, Feng; Ren, Anye; Hu, Yan


    The hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) contact simulation for flying objects in space is challenging due to the divergence caused by the time delay. In this study, a divergence compensation approach is proposed for the stiffness-varying discrete contact. The dynamic response delay of the motion simulator and the force measurement delay are considered. For the force measurement delay, a phase lead based force compensation approach is used. For the dynamic response delay of the motion simulator, a response error based force compensation approach is used, where the compensation force is obtained from the real-time identified contact stiffness and real-time measured position response error. The dynamic response model of the motion simulator is not required. The simulations and experiments show that the simulation divergence can be compensated effectively and satisfactorily by using the proposed approach.

  8. Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (Poster)

    Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.


    This poster describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1TM. The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.

  9. Implementation of a hardware-in-the-loop facility for student test and evaluation

    Mobley, Scott B.; Ballard, Gary; Brindley, Ryan; Gareri, Jeff


    Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) test facilities offer the highest degree of system functional verification and performance evaluation outside of the actual operational environment. The design and analysis of HWIL simulators involves the coordinated efforts of numerous engineering fields, whose professionals possess the technical expertise, analytical skills, and insight regarding cross-discipline collaborative relationships which foster successful simulation development. As system complexity continues to increase, and as programmatic requirements allow for shorter simulation development schedules, the existing knowledge base associated with legacy HWIL simulation development will play a key role in the preparation, readiness, and efficiency of future HWIL engineering professionals. As a result, it is crucial that basic HWIL methods and concepts be specified in a formal, academic sense, and that realistic test facilities are made available to allow potential HWIL engineering students the opportunity to become acclimated to basic HWIL components and design considerations. To address this need, the United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC), in coordination with the Auburn University Department of Aerospace Engineering, has funded an initiative to perform initial development of a graduate-level HWIL simulation option, including the provision of a functioning HWIL simulation facility located at the university. This facility, modeled after a conceptual ballistic missile interceptor, will possess the major elements of a HWIL simulation including a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DOF) simulation of the missile dynamics, an electro-optical (EO) sensor implementation, a flight motion simulator (FMS), a scene generation system, and an in-band image projection system. Architectural implementations and distributed simulation elements will be modeled after existing U.S. Army missile simulation concepts. In concert with this activity, an academic emphasis on HWIL

  10. A mechanical brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a railway vehicle that accounts for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics

    Dong-Chan Lee


    Full Text Available A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for a railway vehicle provides an effective platform for testing the braking performance under various dangerous braking conditions. However, in general, four-brake calipers are required to implement a mechanical brake system for one car. In this article, we implement a brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system only with one brake caliper and three air tanks accounting for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics, ultimately saving installation space and reducing financial budget costs. Since the brake caliper has a high nonlinearity, such as hysteresis resulting from friction and from the precompressed spring of the brake cylinder, we measured the hysteresis of the brake caliper clamping force for a mechanical brake system using loadcells, based on which a mathematical model was constructed for the hysteresis of the clamping force between the brake pad and the disk. Moreover, the pneumatic cylinder dynamics are identified and are implemented in three air tanks, together with hysteresis nonlinearity. The proposed brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system is applied to the wheel-slide protection simulation of a railway vehicle with an initial speed of 80 km/h and demonstrated experimentally accounting for the hysteresis and brake cylinder dynamics.

  11. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) Test of Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Zimmermann, K.; Østergaard, Jacob


    This paper presents the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test of the demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR). The HIL test refers to a test in which parts of a pure simulation have been replaced by actual physical components. It is used to understand the behavior of a new device or controller....... The DFR has been tested by offline simulations to illustrate the efficacy of this technology. The DFR control logics have been implemented in the SmartBox. The HIL was conducted by having the SmartBox connected to the real time simulations and the performance of the SmartBox was tested with difference...

  12. A Cost-Effective Approach to Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Hansen, M. R.; Ballebye, M.


    This paper presents an approach for developing cost effective hardware-in-the- loop (HIL) simulation platforms for the use in controller software test and development. The approach is aimed at the many smaller manufacturers of e.g. mobile hydraulic machinery, which often do not have very advanced...... testing facilities at their disposal. A case study is presented where a HIL simulation platform is developed for the controller of a truck mounted loader crane. The total expenses in hardware and software is less than 10.000$....

  13. A Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator for Software Development for a Mars Airplane

    Slagowski, Stefan E.; Vican, Justin E.; Kenney, P. Sean


    Draper Laboratory recently developed a Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulator (HILSIM) to provide a simulation of the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) airplane executing a mission in the Martian environment. The HILSIM was used to support risk mitigation activities under the Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction (PARR) program. PARR supported NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) ARES proposal efforts for the Mars Scout 2011 opportunity. The HILSIM software was a successful integration of two simulation frameworks, Draper's CSIM and NASA LaRC's Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++).

  14. Hardware In The Loop Simulator in UAV Rapid Development Life Cycle

    Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka


    Field trial is very critical and high risk in autonomous UAV development life cycle. Hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation is a computer simulation that has the ability to simulate UAV flight characteristic, sensor modeling and actuator modeling while communicating in real time with the UAV autopilot hardware. HIL simulation can be used to test the UAV autopilot hardware reliability, test the closed loop performance of the overall system and tuning the control parameter. By rigorous testing in the HIL simulator, the risk in the field trial can be minimized.

  15. Strategy and Evaluation of Vehicle Collision Avoidance Control via Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    Sin-Li Chen


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel control approach for vehicle collision avoidance of urban vehicles. For safe driving in urban environments, this paper presents both one-dimensional and two-dimensional solutions, which can be applied to the collision avoidance via steering assistance, automatic braking, and warning of collision. Strategies are verified under the software CarSim, and the experimental evaluations are carried out under the combination of CarSim with a hardware-in-the-loop platform. The results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on vehicle collision avoidance.

  16. Hardware-in-the-loop support of the Longbow/HELLFIRE modular missile systems preplanned product improvement program

    Ray, Jerry A.; Larson, Gerald A.; Terry, John E.


    This paper will highlight the innovative facility upgrades and modeling techniques that will be utilized to produce hardware-in-the-loop simulations to support both the development and production phases of this Pre-Planned Product Improvement program.

  17. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for Digital Controllers

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Kwon, Park In; Wu, Qiuwei


    This paper discusses general approaches and results of real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing for power electronics controllers. Many different types of power electronic controllers can be tested by connecting them to a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) for closed-loop HIL testing....... In this paper, two HIL digital controller tests are presented as application examples of the low-level signal interface in the closed-loop tests of power electronic controllers. In the HIL tests, the power system and the power electronics hardware are modeled in the RTDS. The required control functions....... Results of the HIL tests and hardware validations are presented to illustrate the real-time HIL testing method for power electronics controllers....

  18. Accelerated Degradation for Hardware in the Loop Simulation of Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Harun, Nor Farida; Hackett, Gregory


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Morgantown, WV has developed the hybrid performance (HyPer) project in which a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) one-dimensional (1D), real-time operating model is coupled to a gas turbine hardware system by utilizing...... hardware-in-the-loop simulation. To assess the long-term stability of the SOFC part of the system, electrochemical degradation due to operating conditions such as current density and fuel utilization have been incorporated into the SOFC model and successfully recreated in real time. The mathematical...... expression for degradation rate was obtained through the analysis of empirical voltage versus time plots for different current densities and fuel utilizations....

  19. Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Generators

    Schkoda, Ryan [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Fox, Curtiss [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Hadidi, Ramtin [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallen, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lambert, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Historically, wind turbine prototypes were tested in the field, which was--and continues to be--a slow and expensive process. As a result, wind turbine dynamometer facilities were developed to provide a more cost-effective alternative to field testing. New turbine designs were tested and the design models were validated using dynamometers to drive the turbines in a controlled environment. Over the years, both wind turbine dynamometer testing and computer technology have matured and improved, and the two are now being joined to provide hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. This type of testing uses a computer to simulate the items that are missing from a dynamometer test, such as grid stiffness, voltage, frequency, rotor, and hub. Furthermore, wind input and changing electric grid conditions can now be simulated in real time. This recent advance has greatly increased the utility of dynamometer testing for the development of wind turbine systems.

  20. Tools for a simulation supported commissioning of the automation of HVAC plants. Hardware-in-the-loop in building automation; Werkzeuge fuer eine simulationsgestuetzte Inbetriebnahme der Automation von RLT- Anlagen. Hardware-in-the-Loop in der Gebaeudeautomation

    Richter, Andreas; Sokollik, Frank [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Informatik und Kommunikationssysteme


    Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) is a method for testing and validating technical automation solutions based on virtual processes in a simulation environment. Applied to the automation of the interior air supply systems, preceded commissioning tests of the controller at a simulated system can be performed. These tests can be used for example to find logic errors in the program development, or to adjust the parameters of a controller. The adjustment of the parameters can be performed independent of the seasons by modifying the ambient climatic conditions. The parameters of the plants can be tested under dynamic conditions. The control mode can be visualized by starting up of load conditions at dynamic HVAC components and optimized if necessary. Within BMBF funded projects, a HiL solution was developed in a.NET environment. The coupling of simulation and control takes place via the bus systems CAN and BACnet. The elements of the simulation of air conditioners are implemented object-oriented in the programming language C, and are based on the solution of dynamic mass and energy balances. The features of HIL are implemented in a multi-client architecture. This includes primarily the simulation and communication. Other feature are implemented: import of virtual systems from a CAE system, adjustment of parameters of the simulation using structured sets of parameters, features for a distributed simulation of complex systems in the network, a tool for the dimensioning of controllers, chart and visualization features.

  1. Analysis and optimization of the battery energy storage systems for frequency control in autonomous microgrids, by means of hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Marinescu, C.


    This paper presents an original hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) solution for real-time testing and optimization of the frequency control mechanism in autonomous microgrids (MG), when battery energy storage systems (BESS) are integrated along classical and RES-based generators to stabilize the frequency...... in terms of active power, and therefore the need of improving the MG power reserve by adding energy storage systems is often demanded. The proposed HIL solution aims to improve the design of the BESS frequency control systems according to the MG characteristics, being based on aggregated models...

  2. Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulations of spacecraft attitude synchronization using the State-Dependent Riccati Equation technique

    Jung, Junoh; Park, Sang-Young; Kim, Sung-Woo; Eun, Young Ho; Chang, Young-Keun


    A nonlinear control technique pertaining to attitude synchronization problems is presented for formation flying spacecraft by utilizing the State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) technique. An attitude controller consisting of relative control and absolute control is designed using a reaction wheel assembly for regulator and tracking problems. To achieve effective relative control, the selective state-dependent connectivity is also adopted. The global asymptotic stability of the controller is confirmed using the Lyapunov theorem and is verified by Monte-Carlo simulations. An air-bearing-based Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulator (HILS) is also developed to validate the proposed control laws in real-time environments. The SDRE controller is discretized for implementation of a real-time processor in the HILS. The pointing errors are about 0.2° in the numerical simulations and about 1° in the HILS simulations, and experimental simulations confirm the effectiveness of the control algorithm for attitude synchronization in a spacecraft formation flying mission. Consequently, experiments using the HILS in a real-time environment can appropriately perform spacecraft attitude synchronization algorithms for formation flying spacecraft.

  3. Development of a Hardware-in-the-loop Simulator for Spacecraft Attitude Control Using Thrusters

    Koh, Dong-Wook; Park, Sang-Young; Kim, Do-Hee; Choi, Kyu-Hong


    In this study, a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulator using thrusters is developed to validate the spacecraft attitude system. To control the attitude of the simulator, eight cold gas thrusters are aligned with roll, pitch and yaw axis. Also linear actuators are applied to the HIL simulator for automatic mass balancing to compensate the center of mass offset from the center of rotation. The HIL simulator consists of an embedded computer (Onboard PC) for simulator system control, a wireless adapter for wireless network, a rate gyro sensor to measure 3-axis attitude of the simulator, an inclinometer to measure horizontal attitude, and a battery set to supply power for the simulator independently. For the performance test of the HIL simulator, a bang-bang controller and Pulse-Width Pulse-Frequency (PWPF) modulator are evaluated successfully. The maneuver of 68 deg. in yaw axis is tested for the comparison of the both controllers. The settling time of the bang-bang controller is faster than that of the PWPF modulator by six seconds in the experiment. The required fuel of the PWPF modulator is used as much as 51% of bang-bang controller in the experiment. Overall, the HIL simulator is appropriately developed to validate the control algorithms using thrusters.

  4. Multi-dimensional and complicated electromagnetic interference hardware-in-the-loop simulation method

    Shuxia Guo; Yafeng Wang; Ruibing Liu; Ying Gao


    A typical electronic communication system, such as GPS receiver, unmanned aerial vehicle’s (UAV’s) data link, and radar, faces multi-dimensional and complicated electromagnetic interference in operating environment. To measure the anti-interference performance of the electronic communication system in the complicated electromagnetic interference environment, a method of multi-dimensional and complicated electromagnetic in-terference hardware-in-the-loop simulation in an anechoic room is proposed. It takes into account the characteristics of interference signals and the positional relationship among interference, the re-ceiver and the transmitter of the electronic communication system. It uses the grey relational method and the angular domain map-ping error correction method to control the relevant parameters, the microwave switch and so on, thus achieving the approximately actual mapping of the outdoor multi-dimensional and complicated electromagnetic interference in the anechoic room. To verify the ef-fectiveness of this method, the multi-dimensional and complicated electromagnetic interference of the UAV’s data link is simulated as an example. The results show that the degree of correlation between the calculated signal to interference ratio of the data link receiver in the actual scene and the measured signal to interfer-ence ratio of the data link receiver simulated with this method in the anechoic room is 0.968 1, proving that the method is effective for simulating the complicated electromagnetic interference.

  5. Benchmarking and Hardware-In-The-Loop Operation of a 2014 MAZDA SkyActiv (SAE 2016-01-1007)

    Engine Performance evaluation in support of LD MTE. EPA used elements of its ALPHA model to apply hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) controls to the SKYACTIV engine test setup to better understand how the engine would operate in a chassis test after combined with future leading edge tech...

  6. Benchmarking and Hardware-In-The-Loop Operation of a 2014 MAZDA SkyActiv (SAE 2016-01-1007)

    Engine Performance evaluation in support of LD MTE. EPA used elements of its ALPHA model to apply hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) controls to the SKYACTIV engine test setup to better understand how the engine would operate in a chassis test after combined with future leading edge tech...

  7. Hardware in the Loop Testing of an Iodine-Fed Hall Thruster

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven R.; Cecil, Jim; Lewis, Brandon L.; Molina Fraticelli, Jose C.; Clark, James P.


    chamber (it is under 10(exp -6) torr at -75 C), making it possible to 'cryopump' the propellant with lower-cost recirculating refrigerant-based systems as opposed to using liquid nitrogen or low temperature gaseous helium cryopanels. In the present paper, we describe testing performed using an iodine-fed 200 W Hall thruster mounted to a thrust stand and operated in conjunction with MSFCs Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) Portable Hardware In the Loop (PHIL) hardware. This work is performed in support of the iodine satellite (iSAT) project, which aims to fly a 200-W iodine-fed thruster on a 12-U CubeSat. The SPRITE PHIL hardware allows a given vehicle to do a checkout of its avionics algorithm by allowing it to monitor and feed data to simulated sensors and effectors in a digital environment. These data are then used to determine the attitude of the vehicle and a separate computer is used to interpret the data set and visualize it using a 3D graphical interface. The PHIL hardware allows the testing of the vehicles bus by providing 'real' hardware interfaces (in the case of this test a real RS422 bus) and specific components can be modeled to show their interactions with the avionics algorithm (e.g. a thruster model). For the iSAT project the PHIL is used to visualize the operating cycle of the thruster and the subsequent effect this thrusting has on the attitude of the satellite over a given period of time. The test is controlled using software running on an Andrews Space Cortex 160 flight computer. This computer is the current baseline for a full iSAT mission. While the test could be conducted with a lab computer and software, the team chose to exercise the propulsion system with a representative CubeSat-class computer. For purposes of this test, the "flight" software monitored the propulsion and PPU systems, controlled operation of the thruster, and provided thruster state data to the PHIL simulation. Commands to operate the thruster were

  8. Real-time infrared signature model validation for hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    Sanders, Jeffrey S.; Peters, Trina S.


    Techniques and tools for validation of real-time infrared target signature models are presented. The model validation techniques presented in this paper were developed for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations at the U.S. Army Missile Command's Research, Development, and Engineering Center. Real-time target model validation is a required deliverable to the customer of a HWIL simulation facility and is a critical part of ensuring the fidelity of a HWIL simulation. There are two levels of real-time target model validation. The first level is comparison of the target model to some baseline or measured data which answers the question `are the simulation inputs correct?'. The second level of validation is a simulation validation which answers the question `for a given target model input is the simulation hardware and software generating the correct output?'. This paper deals primarily with the first level of target model validation. IR target signature models have often been validated by subjective visual inspection or by objective, but limited, statistical comparisons. Subjective methods can be very satisfying to the simulation developer but offer little comfort to the simulation customer since subjective methods cannot be documented. Generic statistical methods offer a level of documentation, yet are often not robust enough to fully test the fidelity of an IR signature. Advances in infrared seeker and sensor technology have led to the necessity of system specific target model validation. For any HWIL simulation it must be demonstrated that the sensor responds to the real-time signature model in a manner which is functionally equivalent to the sensor's response to a baseline model. Depending on the application, a baseline method can be measured IR imagery or the output of a validated IR signature prediction code. Tools are described that generate validation data for HWIL simulations at MICOM and example real-time model validations are presented.

  9. A Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform with Remote Distribution Circuit Cosimulation

    Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Williams, Tess L.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.


    This paper demonstrates the use of a novel cosimulation architecture that integrates hardware testing using Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) with larger-scale electric grid models using off-the-shelf, non-PHIL software tools. This architecture enables utilities to study the impacts of emerging energy technologies on their system and manufacturers to explore the interactions of new devices with existing and emerging devices on the power system, both without the need to convert existing grid models to a new platform or to conduct in-field trials. The paper describes an implementation of this architecture for testing two residential-scale advanced solar inverters at separate points of common coupling. The same hardware setup is tested with two different distribution feeders (IEEE 123 and 8500 node test systems) modeled using GridLAB-D. In addition to simplifying testing with multiple feeders, the architecture demonstrates additional flexibility with hardware testing in one location linked via the Internet to software modeling in a remote location. In testing, inverter current, real and reactive power, and PCC voltage are well captured by the co-simulation platform. Testing of the inverter advanced control features is currently somewhat limited by the software model time step (1 sec) and tested communication latency (24 msec). Overshoot induced oscillations are observed with volt/VAR control delays of 0 and 1.5 sec, while 3.4 sec and 5.5 sec delays produced little or no oscillation. These limitations could be overcome using faster modeling and communication within the same co-simulation architecture.

  10. Practical Considerations regarding Implementation of Wind Power Applications into Real-Time Hardware-In-The-Loop Framework

    Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin


    This paper addresses the system implementation of voltage control architecture in wind power plants into a Real-Time Hardware-In-The-Loop framework. The increasing amount of wind power penetration into the power systems has en-gaged the wind power plants to take over the responsibility for adequate...... controls is reproduced in continuous-time domain using Laplace transform, while in practical im-plementation digital control systems are employed. The scope of this paper is to elaborate on the practical implementa-tion of the voltage control architecture into a Real-Time Hardware-In-The-Loop framework......, where the focus is laid on the model development in a real-time simulator. It enables to verify the functionality of developed controls, which is one of the research priorities due to the increased complexity of large wind power plants requiring high level of com-munication between plant control...

  11. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the dynamic characteristics of rain fading channel for satellite-to-Earth links at Ka-band

    Yao, Hongchao; Wang, Huali


    Modeling of rain fading channel dynamics is essential to the real-time prediction of link availability for Ka-band satellite communication system under rain attenuation impairment, and can validate fade mitigation techniques (FMT) such as adaptive transmission and diversity. The mechanism of dynamic rain attenuation model based on time-series generator is firstly concerned in this paper. We further provide a scheme and implementation of real-time simulator for dynamic rain fading channels based on Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation method and general Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA) device. Finally, the impact of adaptive modulation fade countermeasures (AMFC) in the different state of rain attenuation is evaluated with simulation results.

  12. Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection System Evaluator: Preprint

    Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.


    This paper, presented at the IEEE Green Technologies Conference 2013, describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1 (TM). The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.

  13. Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III - Grid Interconnection System Evaluator

    Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.


    This paper describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1. The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.

  14. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Multiple Photovoltaic Inverters' Volt-Var Control with Real-Time Grid Model

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Nelson, Austin; Hoke, Anderson


    Traditional testing methods fall short in evaluating interactions between multiple smart inverters providing advanced grid support functions due to the fact that such interactions largely depend on their placements on the electric distribution systems with impedances between them. Even though significant concerns have been raised by the utilities on the effects of such interactions, little effort has been made to evaluate them. In this paper, power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) based testing was utilized to evaluate autonomous volt-var operations of multiple smart photovoltaic (PV) inverters connected to a simple distribution feeder model. The results provided in this paper show that depending on volt-var control (VVC) parameters and grid parameters, interaction between inverters and between the inverter and the grid is possible in some extreme cases with very high VVC slopes, fast response times and large VVC response delays.

  15. Stability and Accuracy Considerations in the Design and Implementation of Wind Turbine Power Hardware in the Loop Platform

    Luo, Kui; Shi, Wenhui; Chi, Yongning


    There is increasing interest in the evaluation of wind turbine control capabilities for providing grid support. Power hardware in the loop (PHIL) simulation is an advanced method that can be used for studying the interaction of hardware with the power network, as the scaled-down actual wind turbine...... in a real-time application. The method factors in both the power and voltage scaling level, and a phase compensation scheme. It uses the reactive power control capability of the wind turbine inverter to eliminate the phase shift imposed by the feedback current filter. This is accomplished with no negative...

  16. Advanced Research and Education in Electrical Drives by Using Digital Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

    Bojoi, R.; Profumo, F.; Griva, G.


    The authors present in this paper a digital real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a three-phase induction motor drive. The main real-time simulation tool is the dSPACE DS1103 PPC Controller Board which simulates the power and signal conditioning parts. The control algorithm of the virtual...... drive has been implemented on the Evaluation Board of TMS320F240 DSP. The experimental results validate this solution as a powerful tool to be used in research and advanced education. Thus, the students can put in practic the theory without spending too much time with details concerning the hardware...

  17. A Comparison of Algorithms for Controlling DSRs in a Control by Price Context Using Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.


    , DSRs, are electric loads whose power consumption can be shifted without having a big impact on the primary services they are supplying and they are suitable for being controlled according the needs of regulating power in the electric power system. In this paper the performances and the aggregate...... responses provided by three algorithms for controlling electric space heating through a broadcasted price signal are compared. The algorithms have been tested in a software platform with a population of buildings using a hardware-in-the-loop approach that allows to feedback into the simulation the thermal...

  18. Utilization of a hardware-in-the-loop-system for controlling the speed of an eddy current brake

    Kramer, V.; Mishra, R.; Brauneis, P.; Schmidt, K.


    Rapid prototyping with a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) system significantly reduces the development time for controller-type testing and is widely used in various fields of engineering. In this discussion, a controller is developed for a speed control application utilizing a magnetic brake. A mathematical model is presented first that has been implemented in Matlab/ Simulink. The controller development steps are described that will form the basis of a control system for a wind turbine. A test is carried out that simulates the wind turbine inertial load.

  19. A mechanical brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a railway vehicle that accounts for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics

    Dong-Chan Lee; Chul-Goo Kang


    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for a railway vehicle provides an effective platform for testing the braking performance under various dangerous braking conditions. However, in general, four-brake calipers are required to implement a mechanical brake system for one car. In this article, we implement a brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system only with one brake caliper and three air tanks accounting for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics, ultimately saving installat...

  20. Propulsion Powertrain Real-Time Simulation Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) for Aircraft Electric Propulsion System

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Brown, Gerald V.


    It is essential to design a propulsion powertrain real-time simulator using the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system that emulates an electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP) systems power grid. This simulator would enable us to facilitate in-depth understanding of the system principles, to validate system model analysis and performance prediction, and to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of the EAP electrical system. This paper describes how subscale electrical machines with their controllers can mimic the power components in an EAP powertrain. In particular, three powertrain emulations are presented to mimic 1) a gas turbo-=shaft engine driving a generator, consisting of two permanent magnet (PM) motors with brushless motor drives, coupled by a shaft, 2) a motor driving a propulsive fan, and 3) a turbo-shaft engine driven fan (turbofan engine) operation. As a first step towards the demonstration, experimental dynamic characterization of the two motor drive systems, coupled by a mechanical shaft, were performed. The previously developed analytical motor models1 were then replaced with the experimental motor models to perform the real-time demonstration in the predefined flight path profiles. This technique can convert the plain motor system into a unique EAP power grid emulator that enables rapid analysis and real-time simulation performance using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL).

  1. The selection of artificial corner reflectors based on RCS analysis

    Li, Chengfan; Yin, Jingyuan; Zhao, Junjuan; Zhang, Guifang; Shan, Xinjian


    Artificial corner reflectors (ACRs) are widely applicable in monitoring terrain change via interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) remote sensing techniques. Many different types are available. The choice of the most appropriate ones has recently attracted scholarly attentions. Based on physical optics methods, via calculating the radar cross section (RCS) values (the higher the value, the better the detectability), the current study tested three ACRs, i.e., triangular pyramidal, rectangular pyramidal and square trihedral ACRs. Our calculation suggests that the square trihedral ACR produces the largest RCS but least tolerance towards incident radar ray's deviation from optimal angle. The triangular pyramidal trihedral ACR is the most geometrically stable ACR, and has the highest tolerance towards incident radar ray's deviation. Its RCS values, however, are the least of the three. Due to the high cost of deploying ACRs in the fields, the physical optics method seems to provide a viable way to choose appropriate ACRs.

  2. Hardware in the Loop Implementation of Adaptive Vision Based Guidance Law for Ground Target Tracking


    53 Figure 31. PTU -D300 from Directed Perceptions...54 Figure 32. xPC Driver Model for the PTU -D300 .................................................. 55 Figure 33. Ground... PTU -D300...................................................... 55 Table 2. Summary of S-Functions

  3. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop-Based Anti-Islanding Evaluation and Demonstration

    Schoder, Karl [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Ceter for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS); Langston, James [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Ceter for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS); Hauer, John [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Ceter for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS); Bogdan, Ferenc [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Ceter for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS); Steurer, Michael [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Ceter for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS); Mather, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) teamed with Southern California Edison (SCE), Clean Power Research (CPR), Quanta Technology (QT), and Electrical Distribution Design (EDD) to conduct a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) California Solar Initiative (CSI)-funded research project investigating the impacts of integrating high-penetration levels of photovoltaics (PV) onto the California distribution grid. One topic researched in the context of high-penetration PV integration onto the distribution system is the ability of PV inverters to (1) detect islanding conditions (i.e., when the distribution system to which the PV inverter is connected becomes disconnected from the utility power connection) and (2) disconnect from the islanded system within the time specified in the performance specifications outlined in IEEE Standard 1547. This condition may cause damage to other connected equipment due to insufficient power quality (e.g., over-and under-voltages) and may also be a safety hazard to personnel that may be working on feeder sections to restore service. NREL teamed with the Florida State University (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) to investigate a new way of testing PV inverters for IEEE Standard 1547 unintentional islanding performance specifications using power hardware-in-loop (PHIL) laboratory testing techniques.

  4. Evaluation of the performance of indirect control of many DSRs using hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.


    control approach is convenient from communication point of view since the real-time data flow is only in one direction because the decision is computed locally according to user preferences. On the other hand, this approach results in an open loop control scheme, since it is assumed that no real-time...... power readings from the units can be performed. The aim of the paper is to discuss the performance of an emulated closed loop control using an estimator for predicting the aggregate power response and a regulator. By using these components it is possible to produce a control signal to broadcast...... to distributed demand side resources. A population of DSRs, buildings with electric space heating, is indeed simulated in a software simulation platform using an hardware in the loop approach, that allows to feedback the real heat dynamics of SYSLAB FlexHouse into the simulations for pretending more realistic...

  5. Power Hardware In The Loop Validation of Fault Ride Through of VSC HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Sharma, Ranjan; Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae;


    This paper presents the power hardware in the loop (PHIL) validation of a feed forward DC voltage control scheme for the fault ride through (FTR) of voltage source converter (VSC) high voltage DC (HVDC) connected offshore wind power plants (WPPs). In the proposed FRT scheme, the WPP collector...... network AC voltage is actively controlled by considering both the DC voltage error and the AC current from the WPP AC collector system which ensures fast and robust FRT of the VSC HVDC connected offshore WPPs. The PHIL tests were carried out in order to verify the efficacy of the proposed feed forward DC...... voltage control scheme for enhancing the FRT capability of the VSC HVDC connected WPPs. The PHIL test results have demonstrated the proper control coordination between the offshore WPP and the WPP side VSC and the efficient FRT of the VSC HVDC connected WPPs....

  6. Modeling and Compensation Design for a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of an AC Distribution System

    Ainsworth, Nathan; Hariri, Ali; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Pratt, Annabelle; Baggu, Murali


    Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) simulation, where actual hardware under text is coupled with a real-time digital model in closed loop, is a powerful tool for analyzing new methods of control for emerging distributed power systems. However, without careful design and compensation of the interface between the simulated and actual systems, PHIL simulations may exhibit instability and modeling inaccuracies. This paper addresses issues that arise in the PHIL simulation of a hardware battery inverter interfaced with a simulated distribution feeder. Both the stability and accuracy issues are modeled and characterized, and a methodology for design of PHIL interface compensation to ensure stability and accuracy is presented. The stability and accuracy of the resulting compensated PHIL simulation is then shown by experiment.

  7. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders: Preprint

    Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Nepal, Shaili; Hoke, Anderson; Asano, Marc; Ueda, Reid; Ifuku, Earle


    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods. Two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models in the OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters that were modeled from characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders. The results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  8. Design, Development, and Testing of a UAV Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed for Aviation and Airspace Prognostics Research

    Kulkarni, Chetan; Teubert, Chris; Gorospe, George; Burgett, Drew; Quach, Cuong C.; Hogge, Edward


    The airspace is becoming more and more complicated, and will continue to do so in the future with the integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomy, spacecraft, other forms of aviation technology into the airspace. The new technology and complexity increases the importance and difficulty of safety assurance. Additionally, testing new technologies on complex aviation systems & systems of systems can be very difficult, expensive, and sometimes unsafe in real life scenarios. Prognostic methodology provides an estimate of the health and risks of a component, vehicle, or airspace and knowledge of how that will change over time. That measure is especially useful in safety determination, mission planning, and maintenance scheduling. The developed testbed will be used to validate prediction algorithms for the real-time safety monitoring of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the prediction of unsafe events. The framework injects flight related anomalies related to ground systems, routing, airport congestion, etc. to test and verify algorithms for NAS safety. In our research work, we develop a live, distributed, hardware-in-the-loop testbed for aviation and airspace prognostics along with exploring further research possibilities to verify and validate future algorithms for NAS safety. The testbed integrates virtual aircraft using the X-Plane simulator and X-PlaneConnect toolbox, UAVs using onboard sensors and cellular communications, and hardware in the loop components. In addition, the testbed includes an additional research framework to support and simplify future research activities. It enables safe, accurate, and inexpensive experimentation and research into airspace and vehicle prognosis that would not have been possible otherwise. This paper describes the design, development, and testing of this system. Software reliability, safety and latency are some of the critical design considerations in development of the testbed. Integration of HITL elements in

  9. Realtime generation of K-Distributed sea clutter for hardware in the loop radar evaluation

    Van der Merwe, Johannes R


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a practical implementation for the generation of real-time K-Distributed correlated sea-clutter in firmware. The method uses a dual cumulative distribution function (CDF) based look-up method to transpose a complex uniformly...

  10. Hardware in the loop testing and evaluation of seaborne search radars

    Strydom, JJ


    Full Text Available as the texture component of sea clutter. The shorter wavelengths are responsible for the speckle component of sea clutter. The comparative figures below show the “spikiness” of the sea clutter measured during low and high sea state conditions using an X... test environment is also more repeatable, thus allowing several radars to be evaluated under very similar conditions. DRFM based test environments enable the characterisation of a radar system’s target detection, target tracking...

  11. 无人机硬件回路仿真系统的设计%The Design of Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation for UAV

    冯庆端; 裴海龙


    研究无人机自主飞行需要空旷的场地并具有一定的危险性.硬件回路仿真则能够在室内较高地模拟出无人机的实际飞行环境.它可以用来测试硬件的可靠性,系统的整体性能以及调节参数.介绍了一套基于Linux的硬件仿真系统的设计.仿真结果表明该系统具有良好的仿真效果,从而降低了无人机实验的成本并提高了实验效率.%Field trial for autonomous UAV development requires open space and is high-risk.Hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation can be used to test the UAV autopilot hardware reliability, the closed loop performance of the overall system and tuning the control parameter. This paper introduces a design of simulation system based on Linux. The simulation results show that the system has good performance. It can reduce the cost of UAV experiment and improve the efficiency of the experiment.

  12. Evaluation of System-Integrated Smart Grid Devices using Software- and Hardware-in-the-Loop

    Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Lauss, Georg; Brundlinger, Roland; Conklin, Russell


    This paper presents a concise description of state-of-the-art real-time simulation-based testing methods and demonstrates how they can be used independently and/or in combination as an integrated development and validation approach for smart grid DERs and systems. A three-part case study demonstrating the application of this integrated approach at the different stages of development and validation of a system-integrated smart photovoltaic (PV) inverter is also presented. Laboratory testing results and perspectives from two international research laboratories are included in the case study.

  13. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Distribution System with Air Conditioners under Model Predictive Control: Preprint

    Sparn, Bethany F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lunacek, Monte S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Wesley B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Many have proposed that responsive load provided by distributed energy resources (DERs) and demand response (DR) are an option to provide flexibility to the grid and especially to distribution feeders. However, because responsive load involves a complex interplay between tariffs and DER and DR technologies, it is challenging to test and evaluate options without negatively impacting customers. This paper describes a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation system that has been developed to reduce the cost of evaluating the impact of advanced controllers (e.g., model predictive controllers) and technologies (e.g., responsive appliances). The HIL simulation system combines large-scale software simulation with a small set of representative building equipment hardware. It is used to perform HIL simulation of a distribution feeder and the loads on it under various tariff structures. In the reported HIL simulation, loads include many simulated air conditioners and one physical air conditioner. Independent model predictive controllers manage operations of all air conditioners under a time-of-use tariff. Results from this HIL simulation and a discussion of future development work of the system are presented.

  14. Phase Opposition Disposition PWM Strategy and Hardware in the Loop Validation for a 3-SM Modular Multilevel Converter

    Imen Ouerdani


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the carrier disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PWM strategies for Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC. The authors propose a new Phase Opposition Disposition PWM (PODPWM scheme applicable regardless of the converter’s sub-modules number. Moreover, a capacitor voltage sorting algorithm is synthesized aiming to ensure the converter’s balanced operation. Simulation results of a 3.6 MVA, 3-SM-MMC are presented and discussed. In addition, a Hardware In the Loop (HIL validation of the proposed PODPWM has been made using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA target. The actual power system (the 3-SM-MMC and the 3-phase RL load is then replaced by its real-time emulator. The latter is interfaced to the PODPWM control under test and both are implemented and run altogether in the same Xilinx XC7Z020 Zynq FPGA device. The obtained real-time HIL emulation results are presented and compared to the offline simulation results.

  15. Examining System-Wide Impacts of Solar PV Control Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta


    High penetration levels of distributed solar PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter control schemes have been proposed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, closed-loop control may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. In order to enable the study of the performance of advanced control schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) platform has been developed. In the HIL system, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling to hardware located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Hardware inverters interact with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system and power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of controls applied to inverters that are integrated into a simulation of the IEEE 8500-node test feeder, with inverters in either constant power factor control or active volt/VAR control. We demonstrate that this HIL platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter controls and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, the results from HIL are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter controls.

  16. Examining System-Wide Impacts of Solar PV Control Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta


    High penetration levels of distributed solar PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts, such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter control schemes have been developed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, local closed-loop control may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. To enable the study of the performance of advanced control schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a test platform has been developed that integrates Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) with concurrent time-series electric distribution system simulation. In the test platform, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs a detailed simulation of a distribution feeder in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a hardware inverter interacts with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system. Power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of inverter control modes—constant power factor and active Volt/VAr control—when integrated into a simulated IEEE 8500-node test feeder. We demonstrate that this platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter controls and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, results are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter controls.

  17. 光电跟踪伺服系统半实物仿真平台开发设计%Development of Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation Platform for Optical-electrical Tracking Servo System

    姜磊; 张宝利; 于华龙; 宋晓艳


    介绍了以DSP为控制器的光电跟踪伺服系统半实物仿真平台的开发过程.应用模块化程序开发思想,以Matlab/Simulink函数为底层模块,以VC++作为人机交互界面,通过VC++和Matlab混合编程技术以及成熟的计算方法,实现对Simulink模型的交互式读取和设置,建立良好人机界面,实现与伺服控制器的软硬件接口无缝连接.以半实物仿真环境为基础,构建光电跟踪伺服控制系统仿真平台,使得伺服控制分系统的模型设计、建立、参数设置和优化更为方便快捷.%The development process of DSP controller-based optical-electrical tracking aervo system hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform was introduced. Based on the idea of modular programming development, using Matlab/Simulink functions as the underlying modules, as well using the Visual C + + as human-machine interface, through combination of VC + + and Matlab and mature calculation method, the interactive read & write and set to the Simulmk models were realized. A good man-machine interface was formed. The seamless connection of the servo controller hardware and software interfaces was achieved. Based on the hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment, the simulation platform for optical-electrical tracking servo system was built. The modeling design, constructing , setting and optimizing parameter for the servo-control sub-system are more fast and convenient.

  18. A Novel Real-Time Path Servo Control of a Hardware-in-the-Loop for a Large-Stroke Asymmetric Rod-Less Pneumatic System under Variable Loads.

    Lin, Hao-Ting


    This project aims to develop a novel large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system of a hardware-in-the-loop for path tracking control under variable loads based on the MATLAB Simulink real-time system. High pressure compressed air provided by the air compressor is utilized for the pneumatic proportional servo valve to drive the large stroke asymmetric rod-less pneumatic actuator. Due to the pressure differences between two chambers, the pneumatic actuator will operate. The highly nonlinear mathematical models of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic system were analyzed and developed. The functional approximation technique based on the sliding mode controller (FASC) is developed as a controller to solve the uncertain time-varying nonlinear system. The MATLAB Simulink real-time system was a main control unit of a hardware-in-the-loop system proposed to establish driver blocks for analog and digital I/O, a linear encoder, a CPU and a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic rod-less system. By the position sensor, the position signals of the cylinder will be measured immediately. The measured signals will be viewed as the feedback signals of the pneumatic servo system for the study of real-time positioning control and path tracking control. Finally, real-time control of a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system with measuring system, a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system, data acquisition system and the control strategy software will be implemented. Thus, upgrading the high position precision and the trajectory tracking performance of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system will be realized to promote the high position precision and path tracking capability. Experimental results show that fifth order paths in various strokes and the sine wave path are successfully implemented in the test rig. Also, results of variable loads under the different angle were implemented experimentally.

  19. Aplicações de hardware-in-the-loop no desenvolvimento de uma mão robótica

    André Ribeiro Lins de Albuquerque


    o trabalho tem como objetivo o estudo e a aplicação da técnica de hardware-in-the-loop como uma ferramenta de suporte no processo de desenvolvimento de uma mão artificial robótica. Os esforços se concentram no desenvolvimento de um ambiente computacional e um ambiente experimental para trabalharem em conjunto e simultaneamente. No ambiente computacional foi desenvolvido o modelo do sistema simulado em tempo real. No ambiente experimental, partes do protótipo da mão robótica foram implementada...

  20. Testing flight software on the ground: Introducing the hardware-in-the-loop simulation method to the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Sun, Wenhao, E-mail: [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cai, Xudong [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Meng, Qiao [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    Complex automatic protection functions are being added to the onboard software of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation method has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of ground testing that are brought by hardware and environmental limitations. We invented a time-saving approach by reusing the flight data as the data source of the simulation system instead of mathematical models. This is easy to implement and it works efficiently. This paper presents the system framework, implementation details and some application examples.

  1. Real-Time Digital Simulation of Inertial Response with Hardware-in-the-Loop Implementation on the CART3 Wind Turbine at the National Wind Technology Center

    Gao, Wenzhong; Wang, Xiao; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Scholbrock, Andrew


    the performances of the two methods in terms of their frequency nadirs, rates of change of frequency, and recovery times. We conclude the results under various wind speeds and penetration cases, which provide insight into designing the inertial response of WTGs. Further, we discuss the impact of the parameters on the performance of the inertial control methods. We evaluate both the scaling factors for the FBIC method and the slope values for the TLIC methods. The simulation work shows the characteristics of different inertial responses compared to conventional synchronous generators. Based on the simulation results, we modify, improve, and test the inertial control methods under a more realistic wind turbine model based on FAST. We then validate the inertial responses under highly turbulent wind conditions generated by TurbSim, and we examine their influences on the turbine mechanical components. The extensive simulation proves the effectiveness of the proposed inertial control methods as well as the nine-bus test power system. We then reconsider the parameters. We rebuild the same test power system using Real time Simulator Computer Aided Design (RSCAD), and we implement the inertial control methods in the real Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART3), which is prepared for the hardware-in-the-loop field-test simulation. After the setups for the hardware and software hybrid simulation platform are complete, the inertial response is further tested on a real wind turbine for the first time, in which CART3 release the controlled inertial response against the emulated frequency excursion, provided by the real-time simulated power system test bed in RTDS.

  2. Development of a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator for Control Moment Gyroscope-Based Attitude Control Systems


    point of view of spacecraft attitude control, however body rates are typically measured using rate gyros so that Eqn. (13) can be integrated directly...rise time and overshoot) of the second-order attitude response. As is seen, these gains are scaled by the spacecraft inertia tensor so that the response...between the center of mass and gimbal axis, respectively. The center of mass of the momentum wheel enclosure was determined using the Measure Bodies tool

  3. Multi-Megawatt-Scale Power-Hardware-in-the-Loop Interface for Testing Ancillary Grid Services by Converter-Coupled Generation: Preprint

    Koralewicz, Przemyslaw J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallen, Robert B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) is a simulation tool that can support electrical systems engineers in the development and experimental validation of novel, advanced control schemes that ensure the robustness and resiliency of electrical grids that have high penetrations of low-inertia variable renewable resources. With PHIL, the impact of the device under test on a generation or distribution system can be analyzed using a real-time simulator (RTS). PHIL allows for the interconnection of the RTS with a 7 megavolt ampere (MVA) power amplifier to test multi-megawatt renewable assets available at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). This paper addresses issues related to the development of a PHIL interface that allows testing hardware devices at actual scale. In particular, the novel PHIL interface algorithm and high-speed digital interface, which minimize the critical loop delay, are discussed.

  4. 硬件在环仿真在轮机模拟器的应用探讨与其关键技术%Application of Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation in Engine room Simulator and Its Essential Technology



      介绍了一种硬件在环仿真在中央冷却系统的假想设计,阐述了硬件在环仿真的基本概念,并对其关键技术从软硬件两个方面进行了探讨,为硬件在回路仿真在轮机模拟器的运用提供参考。%  this passage introduces a design of application of hardware-in-the-loop simulation in center cooling system, and describes some concepts of hardware-in-the-loop simulation. It takes essential technology from hardware to software into discussion. this can be ref-erence to application of hardware-in-the-loop simulation in engine room simulator.

  5. Development of a Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Power Systems Simulation Platform to Evaluate Commercial Microgrid Controllers


    up. Each of the system loads is modeled as a time-varying dynamic load based on electrical demand profiles extracted from smart metering equipment...DATA R/W 2002 - - Bit 0 = TRIP RESET Table 12: Register list for relays 10 Cables Cables between electrical components on the distribution network ...integration, and implementation and evaluation of smart grid concepts. Microgrids and these additional applications promise to improve the reliability

  6. Development and Implementation of a Hardware In-the-Loop Test Bed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Algorithms

    Nyangweso, Emmanuel; Bole, Brian


    Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms will enable health management strategies. The platform used for algorithm demonstration is the EDGE 540T electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fully designed test beds developed and detailed in this paper can be used to conduct battery life tests by controlling current and recording voltage and temperature to develop a model that makes a prediction of end-of-charge and end-of-life of the system based on rapid state of health (SOH) assessment.

  7. Cyber-Physical Test Platform for Microgrids: Combining Hardware, Hardware-in-the-Loop, and Network-Simulator-in-the-Loop

    Nelson, Austin; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Wang, Dexin; Singh, Pawan; Cui, Qiang; Yang, Liuqing; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth


    This paper presents a cyber-physical testbed, developed to investigate the complex interactions between emerging microgrid technologies such as grid-interactive power sources, control systems, and a wide variety of communication platforms and bandwidths. The cyber-physical testbed consists of three major components for testing and validation: real time models of a distribution feeder model with microgrid assets that are integrated into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) platform; real-time capable network-simulator-in-the-loop (NSIL) models; and physical hardware including inverters and a simple system controller. Several load profiles and microgrid configurations were tested to examine the effect on system performance with increasing channel delays and router processing delays in the network simulator. Testing demonstrated that the controller's ability to maintain a target grid import power band was severely diminished with increasing network delays and laid the foundation for future testing of more complex cyber-physical systems.

  8. An object-oriented simulation architecture for utilizing hardware-in-the-loop simulation within a many-on-many engagement scenario

    Brindley, Ryan; Mobley, Scott; Gareri, Jeffrey


    In the area of Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD), target engagements can traverse numerous intercept envelopes with each incorporating interceptor systems that utilize different hardware, software, and algorithmic implementations. In the area of BMD Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation, historical implementations have focused on the development of simulators which recreate a single "one-on-one" missile engagement, tied to a specific BMD operational envelope, with other, "many-on-many" digital simulation assets developed independently to explore various battle management and engagement coordination concepts. In developing the student-utilized Auburn University BMD HWIL simulation, a key requirement is to construct a single six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulation software application which allows student investigation, development, and modeling of guidance, control, and mission planning concepts over the entire progression of BMD intercept envelopes. In addition, the application must also support real-time data path and control provisions required by the HWIL simulation. This paper first provides an approach for implementing a "many-on-many" BMD simulation, allowing concurrent, independent simulation of boost, midcourse, and terminal phase engagements which comprise an aggregate threat scenario. This approach incorporates an object oriented design philosophy, as well as specific features of the C++ programming language. Secondly the software architecture is expanded to achieve the time-critical performance necessary to operate the real-time HWIL simulator, as well to allow external communications with distributed HWIL simulation components.

  9. 基于dSPACE柴油机电子调速系统硬件在环仿真研究%Research of the Diesel Electronic Governor System Hardware In-the-Loop Simulating

    宋百玲; 常青; 宋恩哲


    跟据平均值原理建立了增压柴油机进气系统、增压器、扭矩计算、喷油泵、柴油机动力学和排气系统的数学模型,根据所建立的数学模型,应用Tesis DYNAware建立了增压柴油机参数化仿真模型.利用所建立的仿真模型、dSPACE仿真平台、接口设备、真实的柴油机电子调速系统和真实的执行器设计,实现了柴油机电子调速系统硬件在环仿真平台,并进行了起动、调速功能验证,仿真结果与配机实验值的比较,结果表明仿真测试平台精度高、实时性好、测试工况完整、功能完备、通用性强.%According to the principle of the mean-value model, the mathematical model of the intake system,turbocharger, torque calculation, injection pump, diesel dynamics and exhaust system of the diesel was established. Based on the mathematical model, the diesel simulation model of the complete parameters was established by Tesis DYNAware. The hardware in-the-loop platform of the diesel govemor system was designed and implemented according to the simulation model, the dSPACE platform , I/O board, ECS and the real actuator.The start and the speed regulation working conditions were tested on The Platform. The simulation results were compared with the test data. The simulation test platform is of high-precision, perfect real-time, complete test working conditions, full function and versatility.


    N.G.Vasantha Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper discusses in-house designed and developed scale-down DVB-RCS hub along with the performance of the realized hub. This development is intended to support the Satellite Based e-Learning initiative in India. The scale-down DVB-RCS HUB is implemented around a single PC with other subsystems making it very cost effective and unique of its kind. This realization will drastically reduce the total cost of Satellite based Education Networks as very low cost commercially available Satellite Interactive Terminals (SITs complying to open standard could be used at remote locations. The system is successfully tested to work with a commercial SIT using a GEO satellite EDUSAT which is especially dedicated for satellite based e-Learning. The internal detail of the DVB-RCS Forward and Return Link Organization and how it manages the Satellite Interactive Terminals access to the satellite channel using MF-TDMA approach has been described.

  11. An Efficient Algorithm for Calculating Aircraft RCS Based on the Geometrical Characteristics

    Gao Zhenghong; Wang Mingliang


    Taking into account the influences of scatterer geometrical shapes on induced currents, an algorithm, termed the sparse-matrix method (SMM), is proposed to calculate radar cross section (RCS) of aircraft configuration. Based on the geometrical characteristics and the method of moment (MOM), the SMM points out that the strong current coupling zone could be predefined according to the shape of scatterers. Two geometrical parameters, the surface curvature and the electrical space between the field position and source position, are deducted to distinguish the dominant current coupling. Then the strong current coupling is computed to construct an impedance matrix having sparse nature, which is solved to compute RCS. The efficiency and feasibility of the SMM are demonstrated by computing electromagnetic scattering of some kinds of shapes such as a cone-sphere with a gap, a bi-arc column and a stealth aircraft configuration.The numerical results show that: (1) the accuracy of SMM is satisfied, as compared with MOM, and the computational time it spends is only about 8% of the MOM; (2) with the electrical space considered, making another allowance for the surface curvature can reduce the computation time by 9.5%.

  12. RCS Simulation


    store config.) to be considered, Moving parts to be considered · Hybridisation of methods · Fast algorithms, new Aproaches · Geometry representations...Page 2 Military Aircraft Overview • Introduction • Methods ,Tools for mm-wave applications • Examples • Further requirements / developments Page 3...Flexible handling of Geometry · Parametrisation of Geometry Page 4 Military Aircraft Methods for RCS simulations •Fundamental subdivision between full

  13. Hardware-in-the-loop test bench research of hybrid energy storage systems in electric vehicles%纯电动汽车车载电源性能在环测试平台研究

    李勇; Mehrdad Kazerani; 马飞


    为研究纯电动汽车车载电源性能,提出并搭建了由异步电动机和直流电动机组成的在环测试平台。异步电动机用来模拟纯电动汽车的牵引电动机,直流电动机用来模拟汽车行驶时的阻力和惯量,对异步电动机和直流电动机分别实施转速控制和转矩控制。分析了电动汽车行驶工况,给出了简单循环工况下参考转速、转距和功率。设计了异步电动机调速系统转速控制器和电流控制器,建立了异步电动机调速系统的数学模型,提出了基于自适应模糊神经网络控制的异步电动机调速系统。仿真和实验结果表明,基于自适应模糊神经网络控制的调速系统明显优于PID控制的交流调速系统,在环测试平台能够较好跟踪参考转速和参考转距的变化。%Hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) play an important role in electric vehicles. This paper mainly focuses on a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for testing the performance of HESS. The scenario of an induction motor and a DC motor was proposed. The induction motor was used as a traction motor while the DC motor worked as the load and moment of inertia of the vehicle. Speed control was implemented on the induction motor while torque control was applied to the DC motor. The speed, torque and power of the traction motor were obtained from a simple drive cycle based on real parameters. The motor speed was given as a reference of the induction motor while the load torque was used as a reference of the DC motor. The speed control system of the induction motor and the torque control of the DC motor were analyzed and designed. Meanwhile, the speed control system of the induction motor was modeled. Adaptive fuzzy neural-network control was proposed to achieve high accuracy due to the low accuracy of PID control. Simulation and experimental results agreed with the proposal. The test bench follows the reference speed and reference torque

  14. 基于LabVIEW RT的硬件在环仿真%The Simulation of Hardware-in-the-Loop based on LabVIEW RT

    吴海东; 郭孔辉; 卢荡


    利用实时仿真环境LabVIEW RT,构建了包括整车转向盘转角、油门、制动物理信号的硬件在环仿真系统.采用实时车辆动力学软件CarSim RT建立了车辆模型,并利用所搭建的试验台架进行了HIL仿真.结果表明,利用LabVIEW RT和CarSim RT能快速搭建面向整车开发的HIL系统,所建系统性价比高,而且有很好的实时性和扩展性.

  15. A Novel Interface Algorithm of Power Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation for MMC-HVDC%柔性高压直流输电系统数字物理混合仿真功率接口及其算法

    李国庆; 江守其; 辛业春; 吴学光; 王朝斌; 王丽馨; 谷怀广


    A novel interface algorithm was presented for the real-time impedance matching, which was suitablefor power hardware-in-the-loop simulation of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC). To deal with the stability and accuracy problem caused by the power interface of overall simulation, a power hardware-in-the-loop simulation system of two-terminal MMC-HVDC was constructed based on damping impedance method, where MMC was modeled by the Thevenin equivalent circuit. The stability performance of the system was verified by digital simulation, and the influence of interface delay on the accuracy was also demonstrated. A delay compensation control method based ondqtransformation to reconstruct the voltage signal was proposed, which reduced the system error and improved the accuracy of power hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The simulation results show that the improved damping impedance interface algorithm can keep the hybrid simulation system stable under different kinds of disturbances, and the maximum relative error of the active power is less than 2%. Therefore, excellent performance of stability and accuracy is guaranteed.%提出一种适用于模块化多电平换流器高压直流输电系统数字物理混合仿真阻抗实时匹配的接口算法。针对功率接口引起的数字物理混合仿真系统稳定性和精确性问题,在采用戴维南等效方法建立MMC模型的基础之上,构建基于阻尼阻抗法的双端高压直流输电数字物理混合仿真系统;通过数字仿真验证该系统良好的稳定性性能,同时也揭示出接口延时对仿真精确性的影响。提出基于dq坐标变换重构电压信号的延时补偿控制方法,可减小接口延时产生的系统误差,提高数字物理混合仿真系统的精度。仿真结果表明,所提改进阻尼阻抗接口算法能够保证混合仿真系统在不同扰动下稳定运行,功率最大相对误差小于2%,具有优越的稳定性和精确性性能。

  16. Development of a Real-Time Hardware-in- the-Loop Power Systems Simulation Platform to Evaluate Commercial Microgrid Controllers


    a time-varying dynamic load based on electrical demand profiles extracted from smart metering equipment. These profiles are provided in Section A.2...Simulink is used to derive detailed prototype models for each group of electrical components (i.e., one base model for all network transformers, one...TRIP RESET Table 12: Register list for relays 10 Cables Cables between electrical components on the distribution network are modeld as RL

  17. VXIbus-based signal generator for resonant power supply system of the 3 GeV RCS

    Zhang, F; Koseki, S; Someya, H; Tani, N; Watanabe, Y


    The 3 GeV Proton RCS of the JAERI-KEK Joint Project is a 25 Hz separate-function rapid cycling synchrotron under design. Bending magnets (BM) and quadrupole magnets (QM) are excited separately. The 3 GeV RCS requests above 10 families of magnets excited independently, far beyond 3 families in practical RCS's. Difficulty of field tracking between BM and QM is significantly increased. Magnet strings are grouped into resonant networks and excited resonantly with power supplies driven by a waveform pattern, typically a DC-biased sinusoidal signal. To achieve a close tracking between many families, the driving signal of each power supply should be adjusted in phase and amplitude flexibly and dynamically. This report proposes a signal generator based on VXIbus. The VXIbus, an extension of VMEbus (VME eXtensions for Instrument), provides an open architecture with shared process bus and timing. The VXIbus-based signal generator facilitates the timing synchronization and is easy to extend to many channels needed by th...

  18. 教学用电机驱动器硬件在环仿真平台设计%The Teaching of Motor Driver for Hardware in The Loop Simulation Platform

    于雅莉; 吴迪; 王元昔; 张国胜


    The m otor drive system and the hardware in the loop simulation platform for the integrated design,and the establishment of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor model. V model development processovercomes the shortcoming of the traditional development process, can be developed in parallel with the virtual test, the time and cost can be reduced, with good flexibility, automatic code generation and download,graphical modeling of rapid control prototyping etc.. Through the application of hardware in loop simulationplatform, ready for the students to further study other related professional courses, and lay a solid foundation.%对电机驱动系统的硬件和在环仿真平台进行了综合设计,并建立了永磁直流无刷电机模型。V模式开发流程弥补了传统开发流程的不足,可以并行开发与虚拟测试,使时间与成本得到降低,具有灵活性好、代码自动生成与下载、图形化建模快速控制原型开发等特点。通过此硬件在环仿真平台上的应用,为学生今后深入学习其他相关专业课程做好了准备,打下坚实的基础。

  19. Ultra-broadband Reflective Metamaterial with RCS Reduction based on Polarization Convertor, Information Entropy Theory and Genetic Optimization Algorithm

    Li, Si Jia; Cao, Xiang Yu; Xu, Li Ming; Zhou, Long Jian; Yang, Huan Huan; Han, Jiang Feng; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Di; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Chen; Zheng, Yue Jun; Zhao, Yi


    We proposed an ultra-broadband reflective metamaterial with controlling the scattering electromagnetic fields based on a polarization convertor. The unit cell of the polarization convertor was composed of a three layers substrate with double metallic split-rings structure and a metal ground plane. The proposed polarization convertor and that with rotation angle of 90 deg had been employed as the “0” and “1” elements to design the digital reflective metamaterial. The numbers of the “0” and “1” elements were chosen based on the information entropy theory. Then, the optimized combinational format was selected by genetic optimization algorithm. The scattering electromagnetic fields had been manipulated due to destructive interference, which was attributed to the control of phase and amplitude by the proposed polarization convertor. Simulated and experimental results indicated that the reflective metamaterial exhibited significantly RCS reduction in an ultra-broad frequency band for both normal and oblique incidences.

  20. A DVB-RCS Multi-Channel, Multi-Frequency Demodulator Based on a Multi-Tasking Hardware-Software Architecture Using a System on Programmable Chip Technology

    van Doninck, A.; Dendoncker, M.; Adriaensen, F.; Delbeke, P.; Rolle, A.; Craey, T.; Krekels, S.

    : This paper highlights a multi-channel, multi-frequency DVB-RCS compatible burst demodulator implementation in a System On Programmable Chip (SOPC) technology. The core of the demodulator architecture is a SOPC device with an ARM processor located internally in FPGA. The ARM processor performs the hard real time signal processing functions and is supported by a COTS standard PC based processor module running Linux/RT-Linux for the non-hard real-time demodulator functions. The implemented architecture differs completely from classic multi-channel solutions, in which the multi- channel functionality is realised by means of a multiple instantiation of the entire demodulator. The paper also discusses the followed methodology for the SOPC design. Keywords: DVB-RCS, multi-channel, multi-frequency, SOPC, FPGA, ARM, RT-Linux

  1. A fast RCS accuracy assessment method for passive radar calibrators

    Zhou, Yongsheng; Li, Chuanrong; Tang, Lingli; Ma, Lingling; Liu, QI


    In microwave radar radiometric calibration, the corner reflector acts as the standard reference target but its structure is usually deformed during the transportation and installation, or deformed by wind and gravity while permanently installed outdoor, which will decrease the RCS accuracy and therefore the radiometric calibration accuracy. A fast RCS accuracy measurement method based on 3-D measuring instrument and RCS simulation was proposed in this paper for tracking the characteristic variation of the corner reflector. In the first step, RCS simulation algorithm was selected and its simulation accuracy was assessed. In the second step, the 3-D measuring instrument was selected and its measuring accuracy was evaluated. Once the accuracy of the selected RCS simulation algorithm and 3-D measuring instrument was satisfied for the RCS accuracy assessment, the 3-D structure of the corner reflector would be obtained by the 3-D measuring instrument, and then the RCSs of the obtained 3-D structure and corresponding ideal structure would be calculated respectively based on the selected RCS simulation algorithm. The final RCS accuracy was the absolute difference of the two RCS calculation results. The advantage of the proposed method was that it could be applied outdoor easily, avoiding the correlation among the plate edge length error, plate orthogonality error, plate curvature error. The accuracy of this method is higher than the method using distortion equation. In the end of the paper, a measurement example was presented in order to show the performance of the proposed method.

  2. Improved Damping Impedance Interface Algorithm of Power Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation for Flexible DC Transmission Systems%柔性直流输电系统数字物理混合仿真改进阻尼阻抗接口算法

    辛业春; 江守其; 李国庆; 王振浩; 王丽馨


    To deal with the stability and accuracy problem caused by the power interface,an improved damping impedance interface algorithm of power hardware-in-the-loop simulation for modular multilevel converter based high-voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC) transmission systems is proposed.According to the characteristic of the power device in MMC,where off-resistance is generally much larger than on-resistance, the process of the impedance calculation is simplified. And the trapezoidal integral method with absolute stability and high precision is used to disperse the sub-module capacitance to realize highly efficient impedance matching for DIM under normal operating conditions of MMC.According to the characteristic of MMC blocking operation,a real-time impedance matching method for MMC blocking mode is proposed.A delay compensation control method based on Fourier decomposition for reconstructing the voltage signal is proposed to improve the accuracy of the simulation system.A digital simulation system of the two-terminal MMC-HVDC transmission system is developed in PSCAD/EMTDC based on the proposed interface algorithm to simulate different operating conditions.The excellent performance of stability and accuracy is seen in simulation results that show the improved damping impedance interface algorithm is able to keep the hybrid simulation system stable under different kinds of disturbances and the maximum relative error of the active power less than 1 .5%.%针对功率接口引起的稳定性和精确性问题,提出了一种适用于基于模块化多电平换流器的高压直流输电(MMC-H VDC)系统数字物理混合仿真的改进阻尼阻抗接口算法。根据MMC中功率器件断态电阻通常远大于通态电阻的特性,简化了阻抗计算过程,并采用绝对稳定且精度较高的梯形积分法对子模块电容进行离散化,实现了MMC正常运行工况下阻尼阻抗接口算法阻抗的高效匹配;结合MMC闭锁运行时的特点,提

  3. Preliminary Research on RCS Using DGTD

    Yang Qian


    Full Text Available Discontinuous Galerkin Time Domain (DGTD method appears to be very promising which combines the advantages of unstructured mesh in Finite Element Time Domain (FETD and explicit scheme in Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD. This paper first describes principle of DGTD base on vector basis function. Secondly, Specific method for incident plane wave is given for scattering problem. At last, the monostatic Radar Cross Section (RCS of PEC sphere, medium sphere and the PEC bullet are computed by DGTD method. The numerical results illustrate the feasibility and correctness of the presented scheme. The study of this paper is a foundation for analyzing the RCS of complex target.

  4. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of brushless DC motor servo system based on RT-LAB%基于 RT-LAB 的无刷直流电动机伺服系统半实物仿真

    郭长欢; 黄建


    为了适应机载电气系统结构的日益复杂变化,保证电气系统性能的良好性,降低飞行试验的风险,提出了一种机载电气系统半实物仿真方法。以无刷直流电机(brushless DC motor ,BLCDM )伺服系统为研究对象,按照RT‐LAB建模规则,搭建了系统仿真模型;设计了以DSP(TMS320F28335)为核心的电动机控制电路和信号调理电路;在CCS3.3开发环境下,完成了电机控制软件的设计。在此平台上,对该伺服系统进行了突加负载和突加给定转速的动态性能仿真,并与全数字仿真的结果进行了对比分析,验证了半实物仿真方法的有效性和准确性。%In order to adapt to the increasingly complex changes of the airborne electrical system structure ,ensure that the electrical performance of the system is w ell ,reduce the risk of flight test ,this paper puts forw ard a kind of airborne electrical system hardware‐in‐the‐loop simulation method .This paper uses the semi‐physical simulation platform RT‐LAB to study brushless DC motor (BLDCM ) servo system .According to the RT‐LAB modeling rules ,the model of the motor was put up .The controller of the motor ,which takes DSP TMS320F28335 as the core ,and signal conditioning circuit were implemented .The control program was accomplished in CCS3 .3 Hardware‐in‐the‐loop simulation experi‐ments were carried out to simulate the serve system’s dynamic performances .The dynamic response of the motor could be simulated by changing the load torque and the speed settings .Compared with digital simulation and real‐time simula‐tion ,the validity and accuracy of hardware‐in‐the‐loop simulation were confirmed .

  5. 基于xPC的整车控制器硬件在环测试系统研究%Electic Vehicle Controller Testing System Based On xPC Hardware-In-the-Loop

    陈燕虹; 刘永恒; 刘宏伟; 沈帅



  6. An overview of design for CSNS/RCS and beam transport


    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is the first accelerator-based pulsed neutron source in China. Its accelerators are made up of an 80 MeV H- linac, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) and two beam transport lines. RCS accumulates and accelerates protons to the design energy of 1.6 GeV, and extracts high energy beam to strike the target. The overview of RCS is presented, and the key problems of the physics design are discussed. The two beam transport lines, from linac to RCS and from RCS to the target, are also introduced.

  7. Genome-wide identification of genes regulated by the Rcs phosphorelay system in Erwinia amylovora.

    Wang, Dongping; Qi, Mingsheng; Calla, Bernarda; Korban, Schuyler S; Clough, Steven J; Cock, Peter J A; Sundin, George W; Toth, Ian; Zhao, Youfu


    The exopolysaccharide amylovoran is one of the major pathogenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight of apples and pears. We have previously demonstrated that the RcsBCD phosphorelay system is essential for virulence by controlling amylovoran biosynthesis. We have also found that the hybrid sensor kinase RcsC differentially regulates amylovoran production in vitro and in vivo. To further understand how the Rcs system regulates E. amylovora virulence gene expression, we conducted genome-wide microarray analyses to determine the regulons of RcsB and RcsC in liquid medium and on immature pear fruit. Array analyses identified a total of 648 genes differentially regulated by RcsCB in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with our previous findings, RcsB acts as a positive regulator in both conditions, while RcsC positively controls expression of amylovoran biosynthetic genes in vivo but negatively controls expression in vitro. Besides amylovoran biosynthesis and regulatory genes, cell-wall and cell-envelope (membrane) as well as regulatory genes were identified as the major components of the RcsBC regulon, including many novel genes. We have also demonstrated that transcripts of rcsA, rcsC, and rcsD genes but not the rcsB gene were up-regulated when bacterial cells were grown in minimal medium or following infection of pear fruits compared with those grown in Luria Bertani medium. Furthermore, using the genome of E. amylovora ATCC 49946, a hidden Markov model predicted 60 genes with a candidate RcsB binding site in the intergenic region, 28 of which were identified in the microarray assay. Based on these findings as well as previous reported data, a working model has been proposed to illustrate how the Rcs phosphorelay system regulates virulence gene expression in E. amylovora.

  8. Research on General Testing Platform for Embedded Software Under the Hardware-in-the-Loop Environment%半实物环境下嵌入式软件通用测试平台研究

    郭旺; 丁晓明; 唐海鹏; 蔡东容; 顾卫华


    As the scale of embedded software becomes bigger day by day ,its structure gets more and more complex .Currently ,the testing system is generally developed for aspecific embedded software and its de‐velopment has tostart from scratch ,for no general platform is available w hich can support the test .In this paper ,a general testing platform frame under the hardware‐in‐the‐loop environmentis proposed .Cross‐lan‐guage source code analysis is made based on the application of Eclipse CDT/JDT .XML document is used as the exchange platform of the testing data .With the replace ability of the target machine ,a general plat‐form with high‐degree automation is realized .The functions of the testing platform include source code a‐nalysis ,probe insertion by test type ,automatic compilation and testing data analysis .%嵌入式软件规模日益增大,结构也越来越复杂。当前嵌入式软件测试系统通常针对特定被测软件,从底层做起,没有一个通用平台提供支持。本文提出了一个半实物环境下嵌入式软件通用测试平台框架,采用基于 Eclipse CDT/JDT的跨语言源代码分析,使用XML文档作为测试数据交换介质,结合半实物环境下目标机的可替换性,实现了测试平台的通用性,自动化程度较高。根据该框架建成的测试平台,支持对被测程序进行源代码分析、按类插桩、自动编译、测试数据分析等操作。

  9. 基于CSRR结构的低RCS微带天线设计%Design of Low RCS Microstrip Antenna Based on CSRR Structure

    赵一; 曹祥玉; 高军; 姚旭; 杨欢欢


    基于互补开口谐振环奇异的折射率特性,研制了一种可用于雷达低可见平台的新型微带天线.采用等效分析方法对CSRR结构的等效媒质参数加以研究,并将其应用于普通微带天线非辐射边一侧的接地板上,在保证天线辐射特性基本不变的同时使散射波远离镜像方向,从而实现在空域中的带外雷达散射截面积减缩.仿真和测试结果表明,加载CSRR结构的微带天线仍为线极化,前向增益仅损失0.32dB,对于不同角度入射波镜像方向RCS均有减缩,其中法线方向RCS最大减缩量达到7.8dB.该设计具有低成本、设计简单、便于加工、利于共形等优点,为天线RCS减缩提供了新思路.%Based on the peculiar refractive index feature of complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR),a novel lowvisible platform microstrip antenna is proposed.Equivalent analysis method has been adopted to study the refractive index of a CSRR structure.By loading the structure on the nonradiative side of the antenna ground plane and distract the scattered waves from mirror direction,a spatial reduction of out-bands radar cross section (RCS) is achieved,while the radiation performance is kept.Simulation and measured results demonstrate that the novel microstrip antenna maintains linear-polarization and get 7.8dB nose aspect RCS reduction with only 0.32dB positive gain loss.The design owns the merits of low cost,simple design,easy for fabrication and conformation,providing a new idea for antenna RCS reduction.

  10. GNSS Hardware-In-The-Loop Formation and Tracking Control


    Formation and tracking control are critical for of today's vehicle applications in and this will be true for future vehicle technologies as well. Although the general function of these controls is for data collection and military applications, formation and tracking control may be applied to automobiles, drones, submarines, and spacecraft. The primary application here is the investigation of formation keeping and tracking solutions for realistic, real-time, and multi-vehicle simulations. This...

  11. A Location Privacy Extension for DVB-RCS

    A. Aggelis


    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the DVB-RCS (Return Channel through Satellite standard from a privacy perspective and proposed an approach to incorporate a location privacy enhancing mechanism into the standard. Offering location based privacy in DVB-RCS communication is a challenge as the location of a satellite terminal must be revealed to the network operator of the DVB-RCS network for technical and administrative reasons. We proposed an approach of cloaking the location by intentionally compromising its accuracy whilst maintaining the operability and integrity of the communications system. In addition we implemented a proof of concept technique utilizing the theoretical findings of this work on a real DVB-RCS system, presenting the methodology along with the tools used and the experimental results.

  12. CSM RCS Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Interbartolo, Michael


    Objectives include: a) Define major Command and Service Module (CSM) design considerations; b) List Command Module (CM) RCS failures and lessons learned; and c) List Service Module (SM) RCS failures and lessons learned.

  13. Integration of image/video understanding engine into 4D/RCS architecture for intelligent perception-based behavior of robots in real-world environments

    Kuvich, Gary


    To be completely successful, robots need to have reliable perceptual systems that are similar to human vision. It is hard to use geometric operations for processing of natural images. Instead, the brain builds a relational network-symbolic structure of visual scene, using different clues to set up the relational order of surfaces and objects with respect to the observer and to each other. Feature, symbol, and predicate are equivalent in the biologically inspired Network-Symbolic systems. A linking mechanism binds these features/symbols into coherent structures, and image converts from a "raster" into a "vector" representation. View-based object recognition is a hard problem for traditional algorithms that directly match a primary view of an object to a model. In Network-Symbolic Models, the derived structure, not the primary view, is a subject for recognition. Such recognition is not affected by local changes and appearances of the object as seen from a set of similar views. Once built, the model of visual scene changes slower then local information in the visual buffer. It allows for disambiguating visual information and effective control of actions and navigation via incremental relational changes in visual buffer. Network-Symbolic models can be seamlessly integrated into the NIST 4D/RCS architecture and better interpret images/video for situation awareness, target recognition, navigation and actions.

  14. Orbiter OMS and RCS technology

    Boudreaux, R. A.


    Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

  15. Longitudinal RF capture and acceleration simulation in CSNS RCS

    LIU Lin; TANG Jing-Yu; QIU Jing; WEI Tao


    China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS)is a high power proton accelerator-based facility.Uncontrolled beam loss is a major concern in designing the CSNS to control the radioactivation level.For the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron(RCS)of the CSNS,the repetition frequency is too high for the longitudinal motion to be fully adiabatic.Significant beam loss happens during the RF capture and initial acceleration of the injection period.To reduce the longitudinal beam loss,beam chopping and momentum offset painting methods are used in the RCS injection.This paper presents detailed studies on the longitudinal motion in the RCS by using the ORBIT simulations,which include different beam chopping factors,momentum offsets and RF voltage optimization.With a trade-off between the longitudinal beam loss and transverse incoherent tune shift that will also result in beam losses,optimized longitudinal painting schemes are obtained.

  16. 基于隐马尔科夫模型的RCS识别方法研究%A Study on RCS Recognition Method of Radar Targets Based on Hidden Markov Model

    郭武; 朱明明; 杨红兵


    RCS time series is decided by target characteristic of electromagnetic scattering and attitude motion characteristics, it contains the abundant information including material, size and framework, of the radar target. RCS is an important measure source to recognize the radar target. Hidden Markov Model ( HMM) is a kind of probability model represented by parametric for describing statistical characteristics of random process, it is a non-stationary random process without memory. HMM has the very strong ability to describe the characterization of time-varying signals, and it can classify the time-varying signals with different characteristics as a dynamic pattern classifier. In this paper the variation patterns of RCS was characterized by HMM, and the radar targets were recognized based on the different types of their variation patterns of RCS. The efficiency of the presented algorithm was showed with experimental results.%雷达散射截面(RCS)时间序列由目标电磁散射特性和姿态运动特性共同决定,包含了雷达目标的材质、尺寸和结构等信息,是实现雷达目标识别的重要测量量.隐马尔科夫模型(HMM)是一种用参数表示的用于描述随机过程统计特性的概率模型,是一个无记忆的非平稳随机过程,具有很强的表征时变信号的能力,非常适合作为动态模式分类器,对具有不同变化特性的时变信号进行分类识别.文中利用HMM表征雷达目标RCS序列变化模式(规律),根据不同类别目标RCS序列变化模式的差异对雷达目标进行分类识别.实测数据验证结果表明,该算法具有较高的识别概率.

  17. Verification of the CADRCS RCS tool for NCTR work

    Botha, L


    Full Text Available to the propagation direction. This means that there are some phase errors in the calculated data from that contributor. This is worth some more investigation. The results obtained show that there is potential to using CADRCS for generating realistic data to be used... fidelity radar data of known and varied platforms. As such, it is very important that data be generated with electromagnetic simulations. One commercial RCS tool is CADRCS [1], a windows based program from CSS that provides high resolution RCS simulation...

  18. On-Orbit Propulsion OMS/RCS

    Hurlbert, Eric A.


    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle's On-Orbit Propulsion systems: the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and the Reaction Control System (RCS). The functions of each of the systems is described, and the diagrams of the systems are presented. The OMS/RCS thruster is detailed and a trade study comparison of non-toxic propellants is presented.

  19. Discussion on RCS Building Programs in Operators Based on Internet Thinking%基于互联网思维的运营商RCS建设方案探讨

    赵远; 沈蕾


    Firstly,based on the Internet thinking, such as user thinking, traffic thinking and big data platform thinking, the RCS building programs in operators were introduced, and five rules of Internet thinking were given. And then the construction method of the fusion of RCS and communications platform was discussed from two aspects which were user scale prediction and network deployment. Finally, the research conclusion was given.%首先,基于互联网思维,如用户思维、流量思维、平台大数据思维,介绍了电信运营商如何进行RCS的方案建设及运营,并给出了5条互联网思维法则。然后,从用户规模预测和组网部署两方面探讨了建设RCS业务融合通信平台的方法。最后给出了研究结论。

  20. Evaluation of Honeywell Recoverable Computer System (RCS) in Presence of Electromagnetic Effects

    Malekpour, Mahyar


    The design and development of a Closed-Loop System to study and evaluate the performance of the Honeywell Recoverable Computer System (RCS) in electromagnetic environments (EME) is presented. The development of a Windows-based software package to handle the time critical communication of data and commands between the RCS and flight simulation code in real-time, while meeting the stringent hard deadlines is also presented. The performance results of the RCS while exercising flight control laws under ideal conditions as well as in the presence of electromagnetic fields is also discussed.

  1. Design of a stripline kicker for tune measurement in CSNS RCS

    YANG Xiao-Yu; XU Tao-Guang; FU Shi-Nian; LIU Yu-Dong; LI Yong; ZHAO Ya-Liang


    For CSNS RCS tune measurement,tune value is measured by exciting the bunch with a strip-line kicker fed with white noise and using a FFT algorithm.This article simulates the strip-line kicker in RCS and the efficiency of the kicker is discussed in a Matlab environment.The parameters of the kicker with an arc electrode structure such as a VSWR,wake impedance,and thermal state are analyzed based on the advantages of this design.

  2. 基于DVB-RCS的VSAT宽带卫星通信技术与应用%VSAT Broadband Satellite Communications Technology Based on DVB-RCS and its Applications



    This paper describes the principles of VSAT data networks,satellite communication systems and the development trend of the broadband DVB-RCS open standard.Through the introduction of VSAT DVB-RCS based broadband satellite communication system in an engineering application examples,including system operations and characteristics,and the basic configuration of the subsystem,it can be concluded that along with broadband networks and services,VSAT satellite communication systems are transforming from the narrowband to broadband system.In the existing technology,based on DVB-RCS standard which has the advantages of openness and low cost,the VSAT broadband satellite communications system will have broad market prospects,especially in the vast remote rural areas.It will be one of the major solutions to the communication problem of the rural areas.%介绍了VSAT数据网原理、卫星通信系统宽带化的发展趋势及DVB-RCS开放标准。通过介绍基于DVB-RCS的VSAT宽带卫星通信系统在工程中的应用实例,其中包括系统业务与特点,以及各子系统的基本配置等,可以得出,随着网络和业务的宽带化,VSAT卫星通信系统正在从传统的窄带向宽带系统转变。在现有技术中,基于DVB-RCS标准因其开放性和较高性价比,在VSAT宽带卫星通信系统中的应用将具有广泛的市场前景,尤其在广大偏远农村地区,将成为解决我国农村通信问题的主要手段之一。

  3. 基于三维SAR成像的RCS近远场变换方法研究%Research on Methods of Targets’ RCS Near-field-to-far-field Transformation Based on 3-D SAR Imaging

    张晓玲; 陈明领; 廖可非; 师君; 韦顺军


    微波3维成像能够准确地从背景噪声中分离出目标的散射信息,适用于外场目标电磁(EM)散射特性的分析和研究,因而从3维合成孔径雷达(SAR)成像的角度研究目标电磁的散射特性是目前的一个新兴的热门课题。该文以此为背景,首先从Stratton-Chu积分方程出发详细推导3维SAR的近场波数域成像过程,解释3维SAR成像的物理意义;然后阐述基于3维SAR成像的雷达散射截面积(RCS)近远场变换原理,介绍3维SAR图像的散射中心提取方法,给出基于3维SAR成像的RCS近远场变换算法;最后通过FEKO软件进行了仿真实验,得到了5个点目标的RCS近远场变换的方位特性曲线和频率特性曲线,并通过与理论情况的对比,验证该算法在RCS近远场变换技术中的有效性。%Microwave 3-D imaging technique can accurately separate and extract the attractive targets from the background noise. So it can be utilized to analyze and study the ElectroMagnetic (EM) scattering characteristics of the outfield targets. Thus researching the EM scattering characteristics of targets from the perspective of 3-D SAR imaging is becoming an emerging hot field. Based on the background above, firstly, the near field 3-D imaging process in wave-number domain is deduced from the Stratton-Chu integral equation and the physical meaning of 3-D SAR imaging is explained. Then, the principle of targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS) Near-Field-to-Far-Field Transformation (NFFFT) based on 3-D SAR imaging is elaborated and the method of scattering center extraction from 3-D SAR image is introduced and the algorithm of targets’ RCS NFFFT based on 3-D SAR imaging technique is presented. Finally, though some experiments using the FEKO software, five scattering points’ observing angle characteristic curve and frequency characteristic curve are gotten. Through the comparative experiments with the ideal situation, the effectiveness of the RCS

  4. Conceptual design and RCS performance research of shipborne early warning aircraft

    Kuizhi Yue; Yong Gao; Guanxiong Li; Dazhao Yu


    In order to improve the survivability of the aircraft, conceptual design and radar cross section (RCS) performance research are done. The CATIA software is used to design the 3D digital model of the shipborne early warning aircraft, and some measures are taken to reduce the RCS characteristics of the early warning aircraft at the same time. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, the aircraft’s RCS characteristics and strength distribution charac-teristics are simulated numerical y, and compared with the foreign advanced shipborne early warning aircraft. The simulation results show that under the X radar band, when the incident wave pitching angle is 0◦, compared with the foreign advanced shipborne early warning aircraft, the forward RCS average value of the concep-tual shipborne early warning aircraft is reduced to 24.49%, the lateral RCS average value is reduced to 5.04%, and the backward RCS average value is reduced to 39.26%. The research results of this paper are expected to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the conceptual design and the stealth design of the shipborne early warning aircraft.

  5. Simulation of the RCS Range Resolution of Extremely Large Target

    WANG Sheng; XIONG Qian; JIANG Ai-ping; XIA Ying-qing; XU Peng-gen


    The high frequency hybrid technique based on an iterative Physical Optics (PO) and the method of equivalent current (MEC) approach is developed for predicting range resolution of the Radar Cross Section (RCS) in the spatial domain. We introduce the hybrid high frequency method to simulate range resolution of the extremely large target in the near zone. This paper applies this method to simulate the range resolution of the two 1 m× 1 m plates and the ship.The study improves the speed of simulating the range resolution of the extremely large target and is prepared for the application of the extrapolation and interpolation in the spatial domain.

  6. Ship Appearance Optimal Design on RCS Reduction Using Response Surface Method and Genetic Algorithms

    YANG De-qing; GUO Feng-jun


    Radar cross section (RCS) reduction technologies are very important in survivability of the militarynaval vessels. Ship appearance shaping as an effective countermeasure of RCS reduction redirects the scatteredenergy from one angular region of interest in space to another region of little interest. To decrease the scatteringelectromagnetic signals from ship scientifically, optimization methods should be introduced in shaping design.Based on the assumption of the characteristic section design method, mathematical formulations for optimalshaping design were established. Because of the computation-intensive analysis and singularity in shapingoptimization, the response surface method (RSM) combined genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. The poly-nomial response surface method was adopted in model approximation. Then genetic algorithms were employedto solve the surrogate optimization problem. By comparison RCS of the conventional and the optimal design,the superiority and effectiveness of proposed design methodology were verified.Ky words: radar cross section (RCS); characteristic section design method; response surface method; genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. The polynomial response surface method was adopted in model approximation. Then genetic algorithms were employed to solve the surrogate optimization problem. By comparison RCS of the conventional and the optimal design, the superiority and effectiveness of proposed design methodology were verified.

  7. Fault-tolerant control with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and RCS jets for hypersonic reentry vehicles

    Jingjing He


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault-tolerant strategy for hypersonic reentry vehicles with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control systems (RCS under external disturbances and subject to actuator faults. Aerodynamic surfaces are treated as the primary actuator in normal situations, and they are driven by a continuous quadratic programming (QP allocator to generate torque commanded by a nonlinear adaptive feedback control law. When aerodynamic surfaces encounter faults, they may not be able to provide sufficient torque as commanded, and RCS jets are activated to augment the aerodynamic surfaces to compensate for insufficient torque. Partial loss of effectiveness and stuck faults are considered in this paper, and observers are designed to detect and identify the faults. Based on the fault identification results, an RCS control allocator using integer linear programming (ILP techniques is designed to determine the optimal combination of activated RCS jets. By treating the RCS control allocator as a quantization element, closed-loop stability with both continuous and quantized inputs is analyzed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. DVB—RCS协议研究%Study on DVB RCS Protocols

    陈相登; 雷菁; 刘伟


    The DVB RCS communication systems, which are based on interaction applications, have attracted much attention recently. This paper first introduces the reference model and the protocol stack of DVB RCS systems. Then, the forward link protocol and the return link protocol are analyzed, respectively. Finally, sev- eral technical difficulties of the DVB RCS systems are described.%DVB—RCS通信系统是基于交互式应用的卫星通信系统,目前已受到业界的广泛关注。首先介绍了DVB—RCS系统的模型和协议结构,然后分别对前向信道和反向信道协议进行了分析,最后对所存在的问题进行了说明。

  9. Study the vibration and dynamic response of the dipole girder system for CSNS/RCS

    Renhong, Liu; Min, Wang; Junsong, Zhang; GuangYuan, Wang


    China Spallation Neutron Source is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron. The RCS accumulates the 80MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6GeV, with a repetition rate of 25Hz. The dipole of the CSNS RCS is operated at a 25 Hz sinusoidal alternating current which causes severe vibrate. The vibration will influence the long term safety and reliable operation of the magnet. The dipole...

  10. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Yue Kuizhi


    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  11. Distributed Hardware-in-the-loop simulator for autonomous continuous dynamical systems with spatially constrained interactions

    Verburg, D.J.; Papp, Z.; Dorrepaal, M.


    The state-of-the-art intelligent vehicle, autonomous guided vehicle and mobile robotics application domains can be described as collection of interacting highly autonomous complex dynamical systems. Extensive formal analysis of these systems – except special cases – is not feasible, consequently the

  12. Hardware-in-the-Loop Control of a Cascaded Multi-Level Converter


    Figure 5. ALSTOM 20MW Azimuth Pod (Mermaid™) [From Ref. 5.]...........................6 Figure 6. 3/3 CMLC Voltage Vector Plot [From Ref. 9...5. ALSTOM 20MW Azimuth Pod (Mermaid™) [From Ref. 5.] Podded propulsion, like the one shown in Figure 5, dramatically improves the ef- ficiency of...4] M. Collins, “DD(X) IPS revolution in shipboard power,” NAVSEA PEO- 510 Internal Presentation, February 2003. [5] Alstom , “Mermaid Pods

  13. A Method to Achieve High Fidelity in Internet-Distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation


    IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 108-114...exploration and telemanipulation of soft environments," IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 641-647, 2002. [38] G. De...kinesthetic coupling - formulation and experiment," IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 605-619, 1994. [40] Y. Yokokohji,

  14. Target relative navigation results from hardware-in-the-loop tests using the sinplex navigation system

    Steffes, S.; Dumke, M.; Heise, D.; Sagliano, M.; Samaan, M.; Theil, S.; Boslooper, E.C.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Schulte, J.; Skaborn, D.; Söderholm, S.; Conticello, S.; Esposito, M.; Yanson, Y.; Monna, B.; Stelwagen, F.; Visee, R.


    The goal of the SINPLEX project is to develop an innovative solution to significantly reduce the mass of the navigation subsystem for exploration missions which include landing and/or rendezvous and capture phases. The system mass is reduced while still maintaining good navigation performance as com

  15. Target relative navigation results from hardware-in-the-loop tests using the sinplex navigation system

    Steffes, S.; Dumke, M.; Heise, D.; Sagliano, M.; Samaan, M.; Theil, S.; Boslooper, E.C.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Schulte, J.; Skaborn, D.; Söderholm, S.; Conticello, S.; Esposito, M.; Yanson, Y.; Monna, B.; Stelwagen, F.; Visee, R.


    The goal of the SINPLEX project is to develop an innovative solution to significantly reduce the mass of the navigation subsystem for exploration missions which include landing and/or rendezvous and capture phases. The system mass is reduced while still maintaining good navigation performance as com




    .... Por otro lado, se diseñó un controlador tipo PID en el software LabView®, que reguló la dinámica de la planta embebida usando comunicación serial. Se hizo una comparación entre el experimento y una simulación en Matlab® Simulink para validar el desempeño del sistema con los parámetros de diseño.

  17. Design Considerations for Proposed Fermilab Integrable RCS

    Eldred, Jeffrey [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander


    Integrable optics is an innovation in particle accelerator design that provides strong nonlinear focusing while avoiding parametric resonances. One promising application of integrable optics is to overcome the traditional limits on accelerator intensity imposed by betatron tune-spread and collective instabilities. The efficacy of high-intensity integrable accelerators will be undergo comprehensive testing over the next several years at the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) and the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER). We propose an integrable Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (iRCS) as a replacement for the Fermilab Booster to achieve multi-MW beam power for the Fermilab high-energy neutrino program. We provide a overview of the machine parameters and discuss an approach to lattice optimization. Integrable optics requires arcs with integer-pi phase advance followed by drifts with matched beta functions. We provide an example integrable lattice with features of a modern RCS - long dispersion-free drifts, low momentum compaction, superperiodicity, chromaticity correction, separate-function magnets, and bounded beta functions.

  18. Study on space charge effects of the CSNS/RCS

    XU Shou-Yan; WANG Sheng


    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) is a key component of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS).The space charge effect is one of the most important issues in the CSNS/RCS,which limits the maximum beam intensity,as well as the maximum beam power.Space charge effects are the main source of emittance growth and beam loss in the RCS.Space charge effects have been studied by simulation for the CSNS/RCS.By optimizing the painting orbit,the optimized painting distribution was obtained.The space charge effects during the acceleration are studied and dangerous resonances,which may induce emittance growth and beam loss,are investigated.The results are an important reference for the design and commissioning of the CSNS/RCS.

  19. The vibration research of the AC dipole-girder system for CSNS/RCS

    Renhong, Liu; Huamin, Qu; Ling, Kang; Motuo, Wang; Guangyuan, Wang; Haijing, Wang


    China spallation neutron source(CSNS) is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts: an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron(RCS). The rcs accumulates the 80MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6GeV, with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The AC dipole of the RCS is operated at a 25Hz sinusoidal alternating current which causes severe vibration. The vibration will influence the long-term safety and reliable operation of the magnet. The dipole magnet of RCS is active vibration equipment which is different with ground vibration accelerator. It is very important to design and research the dynamic characteristic of the dipole-girder system. This paper takes the dipole and girder as a specific model system, a method for researching the dynamic characteristic of the system is put forward by combining theoretical calculation with experimental testing. The ansys simulation method plays a very important role in the girder structure design stage. With the m...

  20. A Multi-Agent System Based Protection and Control Scheme for Distribution System with Distributed Generation Integration

    Liu, Z.; Su, Chi; Hoidalen, Hans


    In this paper, a multi agent system (MAS) based protection and control scheme is proposed to deal with diverse operation conditions in distribution system due to distributed generation (DG) integration. Based on cooperation between DG controller and relays, an adaptive protection and control...... of system topology and DG status. The proposed scheme is tested and validated on a test distribution system in a hardware-in-the-loop real time testing platform....

  1. A Cross-Layer PEP for DVB-RCS Networks

    Giambene, Giovanni; Hadzic, Snezana

    The aim of this paper is to consider the problems of TCP performance in broadband GEO satellite networks and to propose a cross-layer approach for a transport-layer PEP that makes spoofing actions on ACKs to modify them in case the satellite network is congested. This approach is investigated here from the signaling standpoint with a special attention to the BSM reference model and considering a specific GEO satellite network architecture based on the DVB-S2/-RCS standards. The proposed PEP can prevent congestion in the satellite network, thus allowing a better TCP performance. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EU SatNEx II FP6 Network of Excellence.

  2. Analytical Redundancy Design for Aeroengine Sensor Fault Diagnostics Based on SROS-ELM

    Jun Zhou; Yuan Liu; Tianhong Zhang


    Analytical redundancy technique is of great importance to guarantee the reliability and safety of aircraft engine system. In this paper, a machine learning based aeroengine sensor analytical redundancy technique is developed and verified through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. The modified online sequential extreme learning machine, selective updating regularized online sequential extreme learning machine (SROS-ELM), is employed to train the model online and estimate sensor measurement...

  3. Better RCS data with anechoic absober characterization

    Brumley, Steve


    An adequate understanding of the performance of the absorber material is critical in achieving optimum performance levels of compact ranges or conventional anechoic chambers. The conventional testing technique, the NLR arch method, used for the free-space testing of absorbers is first reviewed, and its flaws are examined. Consideration is then given to new measurement techniques that eliminate the problems of the NLR arch method. These are: (1) Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging of a large test sample wall (122x122 wavelengths at 15 GHz) of material (16 pieces of absorber material on the wall); (2) measurements with a wideband coherent radar capable of generating range-resolved diagnostic data; and (3) conventional time-gathered RCS measurements made as a function of aspect angle of the sample wall target. Results obtained for different materials are discussed.

  4. TRPs as chemosensors (ROS, RNS, RCS, gasotransmitters).

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Mori, Yasuo


    The transient receptor potential (trp) gene superfamily encodes TRP proteins that act as multimodal sensor cation channels for a wide variety of stimuli from outside and inside the cell. Upon chemical or physical stimulation of cells, TRP channels transduce electrical and/or Ca(2+) signals via their cation channel activities. These functional features of TRP channels allow the body to react and adapt to different forms of environmental changes. Indeed, members of one class of TRP channels have emerged as sensors of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), reactive carbonyl species (RCS), and gaseous messenger molecules including molecular oxygen (O2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an ROS, triggers the production of ADP-ribose, which binds and activates TRPM2. In addition to TRPM2, TRPC5, TRPV1, and TRPA1 are also activated by H2O2 via modification of cysteine (Cys) free sulfhydryl groups. Nitric oxide (NO), a vasoactive gaseous molecule, regulates TRP channels directly via Cys S-nitrosylation or indirectly via cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent phosphorylation. Anoxia induced by O2-glucose deprivation and severe hypoxia activates TRPM7 and TRPC6, respectively, whereas TRPA1 serves as a sensor of mild hypoxia and hyperoxia in vagal and sensory neurons. TRPA1 also detects other gaseous molecules, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In this review, we highlight our current knowledge of TRP channels as chemosensors for ROS, RNS, RCS, and gaseous molecules and discuss their functional impacts on physiological and pathological events.

  5. RCS Analysis of Plate Geometries, parts 1 and 2

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polka, Lesley A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis C.


    High-frequency techniques for Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction of plate geometries and a physical optics/equivalent currents model for the RCS of trihedral corner reflectors are addressed. In part 1, a Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) model for the principal-plane radar cross section (RCS) of a perfectly conducting, rectangular plate coated on one side with an electrically thin, lossy dielectric is presented. In part 2, the scattering in the interior regions of both square and triangular trihedral corner reflectors are examined.

  6. High-frequency techniques for RCS prediction of plate geometries and a physical optics/equivalent currents model for the RCS of trihedral corner reflectors

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polka, Lesley A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis C.


    Part 1 of this report continues the investigation, initiated in previous reports, of scattering from rectangular plates coated with lossy dielectrics. The hard polarization coefficients given in the last report are incorporated into a model, which includes second- and third-order diffractions, for the coated plate. Computed results from this model are examined and compared to measured data. A breakdown of the contribution of each of the higher-order terms to the total radar cross section (RCS) is given. The effectiveness of the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) model in accounting for the coating effect is investigated by examining a Physical Optics (PO) model which incorporates the equivalent surface impedance approximation used in the UTD model. The PO, UTD, and experimental results are compared. Part 2 of this report presents a RCS model, based on PO and the Method of Equivalent Currents (MEC), for a trihedral corner reflector. PO is used to account for the reflected fields, while MEC is used for the diffracted fields. Single, double, and triple reflections and first-order diffractions are included in the model. A detailed derivation of the E(sub theta)-polarization, monostatic RCS is included. Computed results are compared with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) results for validation. The PO/MEC model of this report compares very well with the FDTD model, and it is a much faster model in terms of computational speed.

  7. 3 GeV RCS at the JKJ

    Noda, Fumiaki


    3GeV RCS at the JAERI-KEK joint project (JKJ) is a rapid cycling synchrotron designed for high intensity proton beam. The designed output power is 1MW with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. In this paper, the outline of 3GeV RCS, key issues to achieve the goal, R&D status and time schedule of construction are reported.

  8. A novel insight on signal transduction mechanism of RcsCDB system in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.

    María de Las Mercedes Pescaretti

    Full Text Available The RcsCDB system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is implicated in the control of capsule and flagella synthesis. The hybrid sensor RcsC, the phosphotransferase RcsD and the RcsB regulator, constitute the main components of the RcsCDB system. The proposed Rcs signaling cascade involves the autophosphorylation of RcsC and the transfer of the phosphate group to RcsB, mediated by RcsD. We previously reported that the overexpression of rcsB repress the transcription of rcsD by an autoregulation mechanism. Moreover, we demonstrated that during the rcsD repression, the RcsB-dependent flagellar modulation remained active. These results suggest that the Rcs phosphorelay mechanism occurs even in the absence of RcsD. In this work, we established the existence of two alternative phosphorelay pathways driving activation of this system. We demonstrated that RcsC and RcsD can act as histidine kinase proteins which, after autophosphorylated, are able to independently transfer the phosphate to RcsB. Our results suggest that these pathways could be activated by different environmental signals, leading different levels of RcsB-phosphorylated to produce a differential gene modulation. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the complexity and importance of the Rcs system activation, where more than one phosphate flow pathway increases the possibilities to exert gene regulation for a quick environmental changes response.

  9. Extracting RCS of conformal antenna based on 2-D microwave imaging%基于二维微波成像的共形天线RCS提取方法

    李南京; 冯引良; 胡楚锋; 周杨; 张麟兮


    二维微波成像技术是一种有效诊断雷达目标散射点强度和空间分布的手段。机载共形天线因与机体表面成为一体,常规测试手段难以确定其RCS贡献。基于二维微波成像技术,分离和提取出了装机状态下共形天线的反射率分布,通过二维空间像与二维空间谱之间的波谱变换获得了共形天线的二维空间谱信息,经过直角坐标域至极坐标域的插值获得了对应频率和角度的散射信息,再对定标球进行同样的处理,最终标定出共形天线的RCS贡献。实验结果表明了该技术的有效性。%2-D microwave imaging is an effect method to diagnose the amplitude and spatial distribution of radar scatters. Conformal antenna as a part of plane-skin, its radar cross section (RCS) can not be measured by general RCS measurement method. A new method was presented to extract the scattering characteristic of conformal antenna from 2-D microwave image of target, by spectrum transforming from 2-D image domain to 2-D spatial spectrum domain, spatial spectrum information of conformal antenna can be extracted, and scattering characteristic of target at certain frequency and angle can be gained by interpolating data form descartes coordinate system to polar coordinate system. The same processing to a reference sphere, by scale calibrating, then the RCS of conformal antenna can be achieved accurately. Experiment results show that the method is effective.

  10. Pervasive E-health services using the DVB-RCS communication technology.

    Vouyioukas, Demosthenes; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Pasias, Vasilios


    Two-way satellite broadband communication technologies, such as the Digital Video Broadcasting with Return Channel via Satellite (DVB-RCS) technology, endeavour to offer attractive wide-area broadband connectivity for telemedicine applications, taking into consideration the available data rates, Quality of Service (QoS) provision, survivability, flexibility and operational costs, even in remote areas and isolated regions where the terrestrial technologies suffer. This paper describes a wide-area tele-medicine platform, specially suited for homecare services, based on the DVB-RCS and Wi-Fi communication technologies. The presented platform combines medical data acquisition and transfer, patient remote monitoring and teleconference services. Possible operational scenarios concerning this platform and experimental results regarding tele-monitoring, videoconference and medical data transfer are also provided and discussed in the paper.

  11. Thermographic Inspections And The Residential Conservation Service Program (RCS)

    Ward, Ronald J.


    Rhode Islanders Saving Energy (RISE) is a non-profit corporation founded in 1977 to provide Rhode Island residents with a variety of energy conservation services. Since January of 1981, it has been performing energy audits in compliance with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Residential Conservation Service Program (RCS). One aspect of the RCS program is the performance of inspections on energy conservation activities completed according to RCS installation guidelines. This paper will describe both the use and results of thermographic inspections within the RISE program. The primary objective of these inspections has been to assure the quality of the building envelope after completion of retrofit measures. Thermal anamolies have been detected that vary in size, location and probable cause. Approximately 37% of all jobs performed through RISE in conjunction with the RCS program have required remedial work as a result of problems that were identi-fied during the thermographic inspection. This percentage was much higher when infra-red inspections were conducted on "Non-RCS" retrofits. Statistics will be presented that provide an interesting insight on the quality of retrofit work when performed in associa-tion with a constant inspection process.

  12. Study the vibration and dynamic response of the dipole girder system for CSNS/RCS

    Renhong, Liu; JunSong, Zhang; GuangYuan, Wang


    China Spallation Neutron Source is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron. The RCS accumulates the 80MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6GeV, with a repetition rate of 25Hz. The dipole of the CSNS RCS is operated at a 25 Hz sinusoidal alternating current which causes severe vibrate. The vibration will influence the long term safety and reliable operation of the magnet. The dipole of the CSNS RCS is an active vibration equipment which is different from the ground vibration accelerator. It is very important to design and study the dynamic characteristics of the dipole girder system. This paper takes the dipole and girder as a specific model system, a method for studying the dynamic characteristics of the system is put forward by combining theoretical calculation with experimental testing. The modal parameters with and without vibration isolator of the dipole girder system are obtain through ANSYS s...

  13. A Study of Invasive RCS Depressurization under SBO/SBLOCA in OPR1000-IPSS

    Kim, Jihee; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    After the Fukushima accident, nuclear power plants (NPPs) need to retain abilities to deal with multiple beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs). For that, several supplementary safety systems for current NPPs in operation have been suggested. The Integrated Passive Safety System (IPSS) is one of the supplements operated by natural phenomena. This paper suggests invasive RCS depressurization methods on a primary circuit to overcome the capacity limitation. So that water through PSIS inject to the depressurized primary circuit for core cooling, finally to attain the ultimate goal, preventing the core damage. ADS4 was suggested to increase depressurization capacity of a primary loop to operate IPSS-PSIS under SBO/SBLOCA. From simulations, ADS4 showed successful depressurization for SBLOCA with fast RCS depressurization in early phase of LOCA. However, all suggested cases were proved a capability of PSIS-IPSS to deal with SB/MBLOCA under SBO with certain operational timing of SDS and ADS4. The code results proved importance of coolant injection during early phase of LOCA. For ADS4 opening cases, the most successful cool-down was conducted when ADS4 opened at 80 bar and 120 bar for 1 and 2 inches of LOCA, respectively. 3. However, the sequential operation of SDS and ADS4 has higher probability to offer sufficient RCS depressurization after the early phase of LOCA. Based on ADS4 actuation time, depressurization strategies for IPSS-PSIS should be defined as a further study.

  14. Location Privacy on DVB-RCS using a “Spatial-Timing” Approach

    A. Aggelis


    Full Text Available DVB-RCS synchronization scheme on the Return Channel requires the RCSTs to be programmed with their location coordinates with an accuracy of no more than a few kilometers. RCSTs use this location information in their ranging calculation to the servicing satellite. For certain users this location information disclosure to the network operator can be seen as a serious security event. Recent work of the authors overcame this requirement by cloaking the location of an RCST in such a way (based on "spatial/geometric" symmetries of the network that the respective ranging calculations are not affected. In this work we argue that timing tolerances in the Return Channel synchronization scheme, accepted by the DVB-RCS standard, can be used in combination to the "spatial" method, further enhancing the location privacy of an RCST. Theoretical findings of the proposed "spatial-timing" approach were used to develop a practical method that can be used by workers in the field. Finally this practical method was successfully tested on a real DVB-RCS system.

  15. A prototype RF power source for CSNS/RCS


    A prototype RF power source has been built to supply high RF power to a ferrite-loaded cavity, which is a part of R&D of the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS/RCS). A direct fast RF feedback amplifier, a 4:1 impedance transformer and auto tuning grid were locally located to compensate the heavy beam loading of CSNS/RCS. Design and commissioning of the RF power source is discussed here, also with some advice on system improvement.

  16. Integrable RCS as a Proposed Replacement for Fermilab Booster

    Eldred, Jeffrey [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab


    Integrable optics is an innovation in particle accelerator design that potentially enables a greater betatron tune spread and damps collective instabilities. An integrable rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS) would be an effective replacement for the Fermilab Booster, as part of a plan to reach multi-MW beam power at 120 GeV for the Fermilab high-energy neutrino program. We provide an example integrable lattice with features of a modern RCS - dispersion-free drifts, low momentum compaction factor, superperiodicity, chromaticity correction, bounded beta functions, and separate-function magnets.

  17. Characterization of the RcsC sensor kinase from Erwinia amylovora and other Enterobacteria.

    Wang, Dongping; Korban, Schuyler S; Pusey, P Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu


    RcsC is a hybrid sensor kinase which contains a sensor domain, a histidine kinase domain, and a receiver domain. We have previously demonstrated that, although the Erwinia amylovora rcsC mutant produces more amylovoran than the wild-type (WT) strain in vitro, the mutant remains nonpathogenic on both immature pear fruit and apple plants. In this study, we have comparatively characterized the Erwinia RcsC and its homologs from various enterobacteria. Results demonstrate that expression of the Erwinia rcsC gene suppresses amylovoran production in various amylovoran overproducing WT and mutant strains, thus suggesting the presence of a net phosphatase activity of Erwinia RcsC. Findings have also demonstrated that rcsC homologs from other enterobacteria could not rescue amylovoran production of the Erwinia rcsC mutant in vitro. However, virulence of the Erwinia rcsC mutant is partially restored by rcsC homologs from Pantoea stewartii, Yersinia pestis, and Salmonella enterica but not from Escherichia coli on apple shoots. Domain-swapping experiments have indicated that replacement of the E. coli RcsC sensor domain by those of Erwinia and Yersinia spp. partially restores virulence of the Erwinia rcsC mutant, whereas chimeric constructs containing the sensor domain of E. coli RcsC could not rescue virulence of the Erwinia rcsC mutant on apple. Interestingly, only chimeric constructs containing the histidine kinase and receiver domains of Erwinia RcsC are fully capable of rescuing amylovoran production. These results suggest that the sensor domain of RcsC may be important in regulating bacterial virulence, whereas the activity of the histidine kinase and receiver domains of Erwinia RcsC may be essential for amylovoran production in vitro.

  18. Low-RCS waveguide slot array antenna based on a metamaterial absorb er%基于超材料吸波体的低雷达散射截面波导缝隙阵列天线∗

    李文强; 曹祥玉; 高军; 赵一; 杨欢欢; 刘涛


    提出利用超材料吸波体减缩波导缝隙阵列天线带内雷达散射截面的设计方法.设计具有超薄(厚度仅为0.01λ,λ为吸波体中心频率对应波长)、无表面损耗层和高吸波率的超材料吸波体,将其加载到波导缝隙天线E面方向辐射缝隙间的金属表面上,并与辐射缝隙保持一定的间距.该加载方式没有破坏天线的口径馈电振幅分布,并利用超材料吸波体对电磁波的强吸收特性降低了天线阵的结构模式项散射.仿真和实验结果表明,加载超材料吸波体后天线阵的反射系数、增益、波瓣宽度保持不变,在x极化和y极化条件下,波导缝隙阵列天线的带内雷达散射截面减缩量均在6 dB 以上,且在−25◦—+25◦范围内天线雷达散射截面均有明显的减缩,鼻锥方向减缩超过10 dB.该研究成果对阵列天线雷达散射截面减缩具有重要的借鉴意义和工程应用价值.%A method of reducing the in-band radar cross section (RCS) of waveguide slot array antenna by utilizing a metama-terial absorber (MA) is presented. A novel ultra-thin (the thickness is only 0.01λ,λis the wavelength corresponding to the MA resonant frequency) MA with high absorptivity and no surface lossy layer is designed;the absorber is composed of two metallic layers separated by a lossy dielectric spacer. The top layer consists of an etched oblique cross-gap patch set in a periodic pattern and the bottom one is a solid metal. Effective impedance of MMA will match the free space impedance by adjusting the dimensions of electric resonant component and magnetic resonant component in the unit cell, and so the reflection will be minimized. Meanwhile, the MMA can obtain a resonant loss to fulfill the high absorption. By finely adjusting the geometric parameters of the structure, we obtain the MA with absorption 99.9%, and its absorbing mechanism being interpreted by analyzing surface current, surface electric field

  19. Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies

    Liang, Lanju; Wei, Minggui; Yan, Xin; Wei, Dequan; Liang, Dachuan; Han, Jiaguang; Ding, Xin; Zhang, Gaoya; Yao, Jianquan


    A novel broadband and wide-angle 2-bit coding metasurface for radar cross section (RCS) reduction is proposed and characterized at terahertz (THz) frequencies. The ultrathin metasurface is composed of four digital elements based on a metallic double cross line structure. The reflection phase difference of neighboring elements is approximately 90° over a broadband THz frequency. The mechanism of RCS reduction is achieved by optimizing the coding element sequences, which redirects the electromagnetic energies to all directions in broad frequencies. An RCS reduction of less than ‑10 dB bandwidth from 0.7 THz to 1.3 THz is achieved in the experimental and numerical simulations. The simulation results also show that broadband RCS reduction can be achieved at an incident angle below 60° for TE and TM polarizations under flat and curve coding metasurfaces. These results open a new approach to flexibly control THz waves and may offer widespread applications for novel THz devices.

  20. Integration of IMS and DVB-RCS for interactive content delivery

    Ooms, W.S.; Walraven, F.A.; Werff, M.R. van der


    This paper describes issues related to the integration of IMS and DVB-RCS satellite networks. DVB-RCS is studied as an access network variant for IMS in addition to the already known cellular, wireless and cable access networks. Although combining IMS and DVB-RCS seems a practical solution for commu

  1. Radar Cross Section (RCS) reduction techniques for square trihedral corner reflectors at 35 GHz: Measurements and theoretical simulations

    Janssen, G. J. M.; Hulst, R. V. D.; Nennie, E.


    Radar cross section (RCS) measurements were performed at a square trihedral corner reflector to investigate RCS reduction techniques which use camouflage materials and changes in the construction. The results are compared with an RCS modeling technique. The measurement results show that a significant RCS reduction can be achieved.

  2. Theoretical study of the dual harmonic system and its application on the CSNS/RCS

    Yuan, Yao-Shuo; Xu, Shou-Yan; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Sheng


    The dual harmonic system has been widely used in high intensity proton synchrotrons to suppress the space charge effect, as well as reduce the beam loss. To investigate the longitudinal beam dynamics in the dual rf system, the potential well, the sub-buckets in the bunch and the multi-solutions of the phase equation have been studied theoretically. Based on these theoretical studis, the optimization of bunching factor and rf voltage waveform are made for the dual harmonic rf system in the upgrade phase of the CSNS/RCS. In the optimization process, the simulation with space charge effect is done by using a newly developed code C-SCSIM.

  3. Using a Kernel Adatron for Object Classification with RCS Data

    Byl, Marten F; Rietman, Edward A


    Rapid identification of object from radar cross section (RCS) signals is important for many space and military applications. This identification is a problem in pattern recognition which either neural networks or support vector machines should prove to be high-speed. Bayesian networks would also provide value but require significant preprocessing of the signals. In this paper, we describe the use of a support vector machine for object identification from synthesized RCS data. Our best results are from data fusion of X-band and S-band signals, where we obtained 99.4%, 95.3%, 100% and 95.6% correct identification for cylinders, frusta, spheres, and polygons, respectively. We also compare our results with a Bayesian approach and show that the SVM is three orders of magnitude faster, as measured by the number of floating point operations.

  4. Overall view of PLB and OMS / RCS engine thrusting


    Overall payload bay (PLB) view shows Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Airborne Support Equipment (ASE) forward frame and aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) table after IUS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) deploy. Vertical tail and Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods with rear reaction control system (RCS) thruster firing (sidefiring) appears in background against blackness of space. Right right jet firing was photographed from more than 18 meters (60 feet) away in the cabin of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099.

  5. Photometric Classification of quasars from RCS-2 using Random Forest

    Carrasco, D; Pichara, K; Anguita, T; Murphy, D N A; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Yee, H K C; Hsieh, B C; López, S


    We describe the construction of a quasar catalog containing 91,842 candidates derived from analysis of imaging data with a Random Forest algorithm. Using spectroscopically-confirmed stars and quasars from the SDSS as a training set, we blindly search the RCS-2 (~750 deg^2) imaging survey. From a source catalogue of 1,863,970 RCS-2 point sources, our algorithm identifies putative quasars from broadband magnitudes (g, r, i, z) and colours. Exploiting NUV GALEX measurements available for a subset 16,898 of these objects, we refine the classifier by adding NUV-optical colours to the algorithm's search. An additional subset (comprising 13% of the source catalog) features WISE coverage; we explore the effect of including W1 and W2 bands on the performance of the algorithm. Upon analysing all RCS-2 point sources, the algorithm identified 85,085 quasar candidates, with a training-set-derived precision (the fraction of true positives within the group assigned quasar status) of 90.4% and a recall (the fraction of true ...

  6. Cdc45 limits replicon usage from a low density of preRCs in mammalian cells.

    Wong, Philip G; Winter, Sherry L; Zaika, Elena; Cao, Thinh V; Oguz, Umut; Koomen, John M; Hamlin, Joyce L; Alexandrow, Mark G


    Little is known about mammalian preRC stoichiometry, the number of preRCs on chromosomes, and how this relates to replicon size and usage. We show here that, on average, each 100-kb of the mammalian genome contains a preRC composed of approximately one ORC hexamer, 4-5 MCM hexamers, and 2 Cdc6. Relative to these subunits, ∼0.35 total molecules of the pre-Initiation Complex factor Cdc45 are present. Thus, based on ORC availability, somatic cells contain ∼70,000 preRCs of this average total stoichiometry, although subunits may not be juxtaposed with each other. Except for ORC, the chromatin-bound complement of preRC subunits is even lower. Cdc45 is present at very low levels relative to the preRC subunits, but is highly stable, and the same limited number of stable Cdc45 molecules are present from the beginning of S-phase to its completion. Efforts to artificially increase Cdc45 levels through ectopic expression block cell growth. However, microinjection of excess purified Cdc45 into S-phase nuclei activates additional replication foci by three-fold, indicating that Cdc45 functions to activate dormant preRCs and is rate-limiting for somatic replicon usage. Paradoxically, although Cdc45 colocalizes in vivo with some MCM sites and is rate-limiting for DNA replication to occur, neither Cdc45 nor MCMs colocalize with active replication sites. Embryonic metazoan chromatin consists of small replicons that are used efficiently via an excess of preRC subunits. In contrast, somatic mammalian cells contain a low density of preRCs, each containing only a few MCMs that compete for limiting amounts of Cdc45. This provides a molecular explanation why, relative to embryonic replicon dynamics, somatic replicons are, on average, larger and origin efficiency tends to be lower. The stable, continuous, and rate-limiting nature of Cdc45 suggests that Cdc45 contributes to the staggering of replicon usage throughout S-phase, and that replicon activation requires reutilization of

  7. Dam methylation participates in the regulation of PmrA/PmrB and RcsC/RcsD/RcsB two component regulatory systems in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Sebastián Hernán Sarnacki

    Full Text Available The absence of Dam in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes a defect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS pattern associated to a reduced expression of wzz gene. Wzz is the chain length regulator of the LPS O-antigen. Here we investigated whether Dam regulates wzz gene expression through its two known regulators, PmrA and RcsB. Thus, the expression of rcsB and pmrA was monitored by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting using fusions with 3×FLAG tag in wild type (wt and dam strains of S. Enteritidis. Dam regulated the expression of both rcsB and pmrA genes; nevertheless, the defect in LPS pattern was only related to a diminished expression of RcsB. Interestingly, regulation of wzz in serovar Enteritidis differed from that reported earlier for serovar Typhimurium; RcsB induces wzz expression in both serovars, whereas PmrA induces wzz in S. Typhimurium but represses it in serovar Enteritidis. Moreover, we found that in S. Enteritidis there is an interaction between both wzz regulators: RcsB stimulates the expression of pmrA and PmrA represses the expression of rcsB. Our results would be an example of differential regulation of orthologous genes expression, providing differences in phenotypic traits between closely related bacterial serovars.

  8. Adaptación, programación y puesta a punto de un simulador motor (Hardware in the Loop)

    Rigo Morey , Marc


    El incesante crecimiento de prestaciones, sistemas de seguridad y confort, y restricciones legales de funcionamiento en los automóviles hace que se desarrollen constantemente nuevos sistemas. Estos sistemas, gestionados electrónicamente, hacen funciones de regulación y control de sistemas concretos dentro del automóvil, ya sea el motor, los frenos o el climatizador. El proyecto del simulador motor nace como respuesta a la necesidad de poseer una herramienta de ayuda al desar...

  9. Radar System Characterization Extended to Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for the Lab-Volt (Trademark) Training System


    Signal in Time Domain. (c) Typical FM-CW Signal in Frequency Domain as Presented by Stremler [23]. Figure 2.3: CW Signal with the Application of LFM. 6... Stremler , Ferrel G. Introduction to Communication Systems. Addison Wesley Longman, third edition, 1992. 24. Tektronix, Tektronix, Inc, 14200 SW Karl

  10. An Iterative Learning Control Approach to Improving Fidelity in Internet-Distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation


    m u 1 1 m u + 1 1,1 m c + 1 1,2 m c + components are the Driver, Vehicle, Internet, Drivetrain , Flywheel, Idle Controller, and Engine. The Driver...and Vehicle subsystems constitute System 1, whereas System 2 comprises the Drivetrain , Flywheel, Engine, and Idle Controller. The two Systems are...the drivetrain model as the pump speed, as well as to the engine and idle controller as the engine speed. The drivetrain model includes the torque

  11. Design and Hardware-in-the-Loop Implementation of Optimal Canonical Maneuvers for an Autonomous Planetary Aerial Vehicle


    today that they have even been categorized by some as a “Revolution in Military Affairs” [5], a distinction reserved for the advent of innovative ...determining location and controlling flight. The sensor suite components (see Table 25) include angular rate sensors, accelerometers, a barometer , a...Part of IMU Rate Gyro Attitude Part of IMU; Fused with GPS/accelerometer via complementary filter Static pressure sensor ( barometer ) Altitude

  12. Effect of Coupling Point Selection on Distortion in Internet-distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (PREPRINT)


    as CP1 and CP2 . The coupling variables at these coupling points and their causality are explicitly shown in Fig. 2. A constant time delay of τ is...Ersal et al. 2009). 3b 1m 2m 3m 1k 2k 3k 1b 2b 0v CP1 CP2 Fig. 1.Example system with two locations as potential coupling points TABLE I...and coupling causality shown explicitly for (a) CP1 and (b) CP2 Fig. 3 compares the unit step responses of the ideal system and the two systems in

  13. Hardware-in-the-loop environment facility to address pilot-vehicle-interface issues of a fighter aircraft

    Pandurangareddy, Meenige


    The evolution of Pilot-Vehicle-Interface (PVI) of a fighter aircraft is a complex task. The PVI design involves both static and dynamic issues. Static issues involve the study of reach of controls and switches, ejection path clearance, readability of indicators and display symbols, etc. Dynamic issues involve the study of the effect of aircraft motion on display symbols, pilot emergency handling, situation awareness, weapon aiming, etc. This paper describes a method of addressing the above issues by building a facility with cockpit, which is ergonomically similar to the fighter cockpit. The cockpit is also fitted with actual displays, controls and switches. The cockpit is interfaced with various simulation models of aircraft and outside-window-image generators. The architecture of the facility is designed to represent the latencies of the aircraft and facilitates replacement of simulation models with actual units. A parameter injection facility could be used to induce faults in a comprehensive manner. Pilots could use the facility right from familiarising themselves with procedures to start the engine, take-off, navigate, aim the weapons, handling of emergencies and landing. This approach is being followed and further being enhanced on Cockpit-Environment-Facility (CEF) at Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Bangalore, India.

  14. A Novel Low RCS Design Method for X-Band Vivaldi Antenna

    XiaoXiang He


    Full Text Available A novel low radar cross-section (RCS design method is proposed, and its application on Vivaldi antenna that covers the entire X band is investigated. According to the difference of the current distribution on the radiator when the antenna radiates or scatters, the shape of the metal radiator is modified, so that maximally 19.2 dBsm RCS reduction is achieved which satisfied radiation performance. Simulated and measured results about gain, S11, and RCS are presented. As a result, the effectiveness of the presented low RCS design method is validated.

  15. Reduction of the In-Band RCS of Microstrip Patch Antenna by Using Offset Feeding Technique

    Weiwei Xu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for implementing a low in-band scattering design for microstrip patch antennas based on the analysis of structural mode scattering and radiation characteristics. The antenna structure is first designed to have the lowest structural mode scattering in a desired frequency band. The operating frequency band of the antenna is then changed to coincide with that of the lowest structural mode scattering by adjusting the feed position on the antenna (offset feeding to achieve an antenna with low in-band radar cross section (RCS. In order to reduce the level of cross polarization of the antenna caused by offset feeding, symmetry feeding structures for both single patch antennas and two-patch arrays are proposed. Examples that show the efficiency of the method are given, and the results illustrate that the in-band RCS of the proposed antennas can be reduced by as much as 17 dBsm for plane waves impinging from the normal direction compared to patch antennas fed by conventional methods.

  16. A Perspective on Reagent Diversity and Non-covalent Binding of Reactive Carbonyl Species (RCS and Effector Reagents in Non-enzymatic Glycation (NEG: Mechanistic Considerations and Implications for Future Research

    Kenneth J. Rodnick


    Full Text Available This perspective focuses on illustrating the underappreciated connections between reactive carbonyl species (RCS, initial binding in the nonenzymatic glycation (NEG process, and nonenzymatic covalent protein modification (here termed NECPM. While glucose is the central species involved in NEG, recent studies indicate that the initially-bound glucose species in the NEG of human hemoglobin (HbA and human serum albumin (HSA are non-RCS ring-closed isomers. The ring-opened glucose, an RCS structure that reacts in the NEG process, is most likely generated from previously-bound ring-closed isomers undergoing concerted acid/base reactions while bound to protein. The generation of the glucose RCS can involve concomitantly-bound physiological species (e.g., inorganic phosphate, water, etc.; here termed effector reagents. Extant NEG schemes do not account for these recent findings. In addition, effector reagent reactions with glucose in the serum and erythrocyte cytosol can generate RCS (e.g., glyoxal, glyceraldehyde, etc.. Recent research has shown that these RCS covalently modify proteins in vivo via NECPM mechanisms. A general scheme that reflects both the reagent and mechanistic diversity that can lead to NEG and NECPM is presented here. A perspective that accounts for the relationships between RCS, NEG, and NECPM can facilitate the understanding of site selectivity, may help explain overall glycation rates, and may have implications for the clinical assessment/control of diabetes mellitus. In view of this perspective, concentrations of ribose, fructose, Pi, bicarbonate, counter ions, and the resulting RCS generated within intracellular and extracellular compartments may be of importance and of clinical relevance. Future research is also proposed.

  17. Simulation study on concentrated wind energy based on dSPACE

    Song, Haihui; De, Tian


    The concentrated wind energy turbine is a new type of wind energy electric generator set which utilizes the rare wind energy after having concentrated it. In order to handle the problem in control system of the concentrated wind energy turbine, this article introduces a set of wind power testing platform based on dSPACE hardware-in-the-loop-simulation, and the control principle about wind power is researched and analyzed based on this testing plat form. This experiment result shows that our testing platform can test not only the whole running process, but also the fault protection function.

  18. World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS: a new Thematic Species Database for marine and anchialine cave biodiversity

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou


    Full Text Available Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant information remains fragmented in isolated publications and databases. This fragmentation makes assessing the conservation status of marine cave species especially problematic, and this issue should be addressed urgently given the stresses resulting from planned and rampant development in the coastal zone worldwide. The goal of the World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS initiative is to create a comprehensive taxonomic and ecological database of known species from marine caves and anchialine systems worldwide and to present this as a Thematic Species Database (TSD of the World Register of marine Species (WoRMS. WoRCS will incorporate ecological data (e.g., type of environment, salinity regimes, and cave zone as well as geographical information on the distribution of species in cave and anchialine environments. Biodiversity data will be progressively assembled from individual database sources at regional, national or local levels, as well as from literature sources (estimate: >20,000 existing records of cave-dwelling species scattered in several databases. Information will be organized in the WoRCS database following a standard glossary based on existing terminology. Cave-related information will be managed by the WoRCS thematic editors with all data dynamically linked to WoRMS and its team of taxonomic editors. In order to mobilize data into global biogeographic databases, a Gazetteer of the Marine and Anchialine Caves of the World will be established. The presence records of species could be eventually georeferenced for submission to the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS and constitute an important dataset for biogeographical and

  19. Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) remote clouds sensing (RCS) intensive observation period (IOP)

    Melfi, S.H.; Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others


    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program.

  20. Systemic administration of erythropoietin inhibits retinopathy in RCS rats.

    Weiyong Shen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Royal College of Surgeons (RCS rats develop vasculopathy as photoreceptors degenerate. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of erythropoietin (EPO on retinopathy in RCS rats. METHODS: Fluorescein angiography was used to monitor retinal vascular changes over time. Changes in retinal glia and vasculature were studied by immunostaining. To study the effects of EPO on retinal pathology, EPO (5000 IU/kg was injected intraperitoneally in 14 week old normal and RCS rats twice a week for 4 weeks. Changes in the retinal vasculature, glia and microglia, photoreceptor apoptosis, differential expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR, pro-neurotrophin 3 (pro-NT3, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα, pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A, the production of CD34(+ cells and mobilization of CD34(+/VEGF-R2(+ cells as well as recruitment of CD34(+ cells into the retina were examined after EPO treatment. RESULTS: RCS rats developed progressive capillary dropout and subretinal neovascularization which were accompanied by retinal gliosis. Systemic administration of EPO stabilized the retinal vasculature and inhibited the development of focal vascular lesions. Further studies showed that EPO modulated retinal gliosis, attenuated photoreceptor apoptosis and p75NTR and pro-NT3 upregulation, promoted the infiltration of ramified microglia and stimulated VEGF-A expression but had little effect on TNFα and PEDF expression. EPO stimulated the production of red and white blood cells and CD34(+ cells along with effective mobilization of CD34(+/VEGF-R2(+ cells. Immunofluorescence study demonstrated that EPO enhanced the recruitment of CD34+ cells into the retina. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EPO has therapeutic potentials in treatment of neuronal and vascular pathology in retinal disease. The protective effects of EPO on photoreceptors and the retinal vasculature may involve multiple

  1. Escherichia coli tol and rcs genes participate in the complex network affecting curli synthesis.

    Vianney, Anne; Jubelin, Grégory; Renault, Sophie; Dorel, Corine; Lejeune, Philippe; Lazzaroni, Jean Claude


    Curli are necessary for the adherence of Escherichia coli to surfaces, and to each other, during biofilm formation, and the csgBA and csgDEFG operons are both required for their synthesis. A recent survey of gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms has identified tolA as a gene activated in biofilms. The tol genes play a fundamental role in maintaining the outer-membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria. RcsC, the sensor of the RcsBCD phosphorelay, is involved, together with RcsA, in colanic acid capsule synthesis, and also modulates the expression of tolQRA and csgDEFG. In addition, the RcsBCD phosphorelay is activated in tol mutants or when Tol proteins are overexpressed. These results led the authors to investigate the role of the tol genes in biofilm formation in laboratory and clinical isolates of E. coli. It was shown that the adherence of cells was lowered in the tol mutants. This could be the result of a drastic decrease in the expression of the csgBA operon, even though the expression of csgDEFG was slightly increased under such conditions. It was also shown that the Rcs system negatively controls the expression of the two csg operons in an RcsA-dependent manner. In the tol mutants, activation of csgDEFG occurred via OmpR and was dominant upon repression by RcsB and RcsA, while these two regulatory proteins repressed csgBA through a dominant effect on the activator protein CsgD, thus affecting curli synthesis. The results demonstrate that the Rcs system, previously known to control the synthesis of the capsule and the flagella, is an additional component involved in the regulation of curli. Furthermore, it is shown that the defect in cell motility observed in the tol mutants depends on RcsB and RcsA.

  2. Matlab Based Human & Hardware-in-Loop Simulation for the Study on Vehicle Stability Control


    This paper described an effective method to implement human & hardware in the loop simulation (HHILS), which is based on MATLAB system and can be used to study human driving actions in the abrupt situation and vehicle stability control(VSC). A hybrid control algorithm, which makes full use of the advantages of robust control and fuzzy logic, was adopted in VSC system. The results of HHILS show that HHILS' application on the vehicle handling and VSC resarch is feasible. These results also confirm that the handling performance of the vehicle with VSC is improved obviously compared to the vehicle without VSC.

  3. Impedance considerations for the Intense Pulse Neutron Source (IPNS) Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS).

    Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; McMichael, G. E.


    The use of Second Harmonic (SH) rf is being investigated to increase the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) current limit. Hofmann-Pedersen distributions are employed to provide analytical guidance. The SH phase {theta}, is optimized using a numerical analysis to maximize transmission and minimize instabilities. The effect of the RCS stainless steel liner on the impedance of the machine is also discussed.

  4. Spectroscopy of moderately high-redshift RCS-1 clusters

    Gilbank, David G; Blindert, K; Ellingson, E; Gladders, M D; Yee, H K C


    We present spectroscopic observations of 11 moderately high-redshift (z~0.7- 1.0) clusters from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-1). We find excellent agreement between the red-sequence estimated redshift and the spectroscopic redshift, with a scatter of 10% at z>0.7. At the high-redshift end (z>~0.9) of the sample, we find two of the systems selected are projections of pairs of comparably rich systems, with red-sequences too close to discriminate in (R-z') colour. In one of these systems, the two components are close enough to be physically associated. For a subsample of clusters with sufficient spectroscopic members, we examine the correlation between B_gcR (optical richness) and the dynamical mass inferred from the velocity dispersion. We find these measurements to be compatible, within the relatively large uncertainties, with the correlation established at lower redshift for the X-ray selected CNOC1 clusters and also for a lower redshift sample of RCS-1 clusters. Confirmation of this and calibra...

  5. Conserved aspartate and lysine residues of RcsB are required for amylovoran biosynthesis, virulence, and DNA binding in Erwinia amylovora.

    Ancona, Veronica; Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Zhao, Youfu


    In Erwinia amylovora, the Rcs phosphorelay system is essential for amylovoran production and virulence. To further understand the role of conserved aspartate residue (D56) in the phosphor receiver (PR) domain and lysine (K180) residue in the function domain of RcsB, amino acid substitutions of RcsB mutant alleles were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and complementation of various rcs mutants were performed. A D56E substitution of RcsB, which mimics the phosphorylation state of RcsB, complemented the rcsB mutant, resulting in increased amylovoran production and gene expression, reduced swarming motility, and restored pathogenicity. In contrast, D56N and K180A or K180Q substitutions of RcsB did not complement the rcsB mutant. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays showed that D56E, but not D56N, K180Q and K180A substitutions of RcsB bound to promoters of amsG and flhD, indicating that both D56 and K180 are required for DNA binding. Interestingly, the RcsBD56E allele could also complement rcsAB, rcsBC and rcsABCD mutants with restored virulence and increased amylovoran production, indicating that RcsB phosphorylation is essential for virulence of E. amylovora. In addition, mutations of T904 and A905, but not phosphorylation mimic mutation of D876 in the PR domain of RcsC, constitutively activate the Rcs system, suggesting that phosphor transfer is required for activating the Rcs system and indicating both A905 and T904 are required for the phosphatase activity of RcsC. Our results demonstrated that RcsB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, phosphor transfer from RcsC are essential for the function of the Rcs system, and also suggested that constitutive activation of the Rcs system could reduce the fitness of E. amylovora.

  6. Theoretical study of a dual harmonic system and its application to the CSNS/RCS

    Yuan, Yao-Shuo; Wang, Na; Xu, Shou-Yan; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Sheng


    Dual harmonic systems have been widely used in high intensity proton synchrotrons to suppress the space charge effect, as well as reduce the beam loss. To investigate the longitudinal beam dynamics in a dual rf system, the potential well, the sub-buckets in the bunch and the multi-solutions of the phase equation are studied theoretically in this paper. Based on these theoretical studies, optimization of bunching factor and rf voltage waveform are made for the dual harmonic rf system in the upgrade phase of the China Spallation Neutron Source Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (CSNS/RCS). In the optimization process, the simulation with space charge effect is done using a newly developed code, C-SCSIM. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175193)

  7. A simple and practical reference target for RCS measurements

    Corona, P.; Ferrara, G.; Gennarelli, C.


    The radiation characteristics of a 90 deg dihedral corner reflector are examined in detail, showing that, with the proper choice of the measurement scnning plane, it can be conveniently used as reference target in experimental determinations of RCS. For a careful evaluation of its radar cross section, the numerical model, developed by using the P.O. and the image method, has been improved taking into account also the rays diffracted by the corner edges and lighting the faces. The agreement of such a model with the experimental results is very good and the errors related to an incorrect scanning plane are small even for appreciable angular deviations. An evaluation of the errors resulting in the use of the simpler G.O. model is also given.

  8. RCS analysis and reduction for lossy dihedral corner reflectors

    Griesser, Timothy; Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng


    The radar-cross-section (RCS) patterns of lossy dihedral corner reflectors are calculated, using a uniform geometrical theory of diffraction for impedance surfaces. All terms of up to third-order reflections and diffractions are considered for patterns in the principal plane. The surface waves are included whenever they exist for reactive surface impedances. The dihedral corner reflectors examined have right, obtuse, and acute interior angles, and patterns over the entire 360 deg azimuthal plane are calculated. The surface impedances can be different on the four faces of the dihedral corner reflector; however, the surface impedance must be uniform over each face. Computed cross sections are compared with the results of a moment-method technique for a dielectric/ferrite absorber coating on a metallic corner reflector.

  9. Causes and ecological effects of resuspended contaminated sediments (RCS) in marine environments.

    Roberts, David A


    Sediments act as a net sink for anthropogenic contaminants in marine ecosystems and contaminated sediments may have a range of toxicological effects on benthic fauna and associated species. When resuspended, however, particulate-bound contaminants may be remobilised into the water column and become bioavailable to an additional assemblage of species. Such resuspension occurs through a range of natural and anthropogenic processes each of which may be thought of as pulsed disturbances resulting in pulsed exposures to contaminants. Thus, it is important to understand not only the toxicological responses of organisms to resuspended contaminated sediments (RCS), but also the frequency, magnitude and duration of sediment disturbance events. Such information is rarely collected together with toxicological data. Rather, the majority of published studies (>50% of the articles captured in this review) have taken the form of fixed-duration laboratory-based exposures with individual species. While this research has clearly demonstrated that resuspension of contaminated sediments can liberate sediment-bound contaminants leading to toxicity and bioaccumulation under controlled conditions, the potential for ecological effects in the field is often unclear. Monitoring studies suggest that recurrent natural disturbances such as tides and waves may cause the majority of contaminant release in many environments. However, various processes also act to limit the spatial and temporal scales across which contaminants are remobilised to the most toxic dissolved state. Various natural and anthropogenic disturbances of contaminated sediments have been linked to both community-level and sub-lethal responses in exposed populations of invertebrates and fish in the field. Together these findings suggest that resuspension of contaminated sediments is a frequently recurring ecological threat in contaminated marine habitats. Further consideration of how marine communities respond to temporally

  10. On the radar cross section (RCS) prediction of vehicles moving on the ground

    Sabihi, Ahmad [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    As readers should be aware, Radar Cross Section depends on the factors such as: Wave frequency and polarization, Target dimension, angle of ray incidence, Target’s material and covering, Type of radar system as monostatic or bistatic, space in which contains target and propagating waves, and etc. Having moved or stationed in vehicles can be effective in RCS values. Here, we investigate effective factors in RCS of moving targets on the ground or sea. Image theory in electromagnetic applies to be taken into account RCS of a target over the ground or sea.

  11. Study of eddy current power loss in an RCS vacuum chamber

    XU Shou-Yan; WANG Sheng


    In a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS),power loss due to an eddy current on the metal vacuum chamber would cause heating of the vacuum chamber.It is important to study the effect for estimating eddy current induced power loss and temperature growth.Analytical formulas for eddy current power loss for various types of vacuum chambers are derived for dipole and quadrupole repectively.By using the prototype of dipole of CSNS/RCS,an experiment was done to test the analytical formula.The derived formulas were applied to calculating the eddy current power loss on some special structures of an RCS vacuum chamber.

  12. Dam Methylation Participates in the Regulation of PmrA/ PmrB and RcsC/RcsD/RcsB Two Component Regulatory Systems in Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    Sebastián Hernán Sarnacki; María del Rosario Aya Castañeda; Mariángeles Noto Llana; Mónica Nancy Giacomodonato; Miguel Ángel Valvano; María Cristina Cerquetti


    The absence of Dam in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes a defect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pattern associated to a reduced expression of wzz gene. Wzz is the chain length regulator of the LPS O-antigen. Here we investigated whether Dam regulates wzz gene expression through its two known regulators, PmrA and RcsB. Thus, the expression of rcsB and pmrA was monitored by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting using fusions with 36FLAG tag in wild type (wt) and dam s...

  13. 基于LabVIEW的标签差分雷达截面分析与测量%Analysis and Measurements of Tag's Delta RCS Based on LabVIEW

    郭稳涛; 何怡刚


    差分雷达截面(ARCS)是描述无源超高频射频识别(UHF RFID)标签性能的重要参数,它决定标签到阅读器的反向链路误码率.但是,没有直接测量ARCS的方法,需要采取间接方式进行测量.基于NI的射频板卡,开发了标签反射矢量信号分析软件,给出△RCS的测量方法,并对贴附物材料及发送功率对ARCS的影响进行了分析和测量.%Delta radar cross section (ARCS) is an important parameter to describe performance of passive UHF RFID tag. Which determines the bit error rate (BER) of backscattered link. However, ARCS can't be measured directly, and so, indirect method must be considered. Tag's reflective vector signal analysis program was developed based on RF module of National Instruments, and method for measurement of tag's ARCS was presented. Effects of different attachment materials and transmission powers on ARCS were analyzed and measured.



    An external carriage and a wing have a high radar cross section (RCS) level in a wide range of angles of pitch because they form an efficient corner reflector. Coupling scattering between the external carriage and the wing is controlled by designing a saw-tooth structure of the external carriage on condition that the wing structure is not changed. A low RCS saw-tooth scheme of the external carriage is given in the paper. The ray tracing method and the physical theory of diffraction are used to calculate the radar scattering characteristics of low RCS structures of the external carriage and wing. The results show that the saw-tooth scheme of the external carriage is feasible and effective for low RCS design.

  15. RCS estimation of linear and planar dipole phased arrays approximate model

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan


    In this book, the RCS of a parallel-fed linear and planar dipole array is derived using an approximate method. The signal propagation within the phased array system determines the radar cross section (RCS) of phased array. The reflection and transmission coefficients for a signal at different levels of the phased-in scattering array system depend on the impedance mismatch and the design parameters. Moreover the mutual coupling effect in between the antenna elements is an important factor. A phased array system comprises of radiating elements followed by phase shifters, couplers, and terminating load impedance. These components lead to respective impedances towards the incoming signal that travels through them before reaching receive port of the array system. In this book, the RCS is approximated in terms of array factor, neglecting the phase terms. The mutual coupling effect is taken into account. The dependence of the RCS pattern on the design parameters is analyzed. The approximate model is established as a...

  16. Ethical criteria of the Revista Colombiana de Sociología (RCS

    Andrea Lampis


    Full Text Available As far as it concerns the editors of scientific journals, the RCS refers to the Code of Conduct and Good Practices defined by the Ethical Committee for publications (COPE. For example, the RCS shall not publish research carried out for lucrative purposes or affecting the dignity or human right of researched individuals and groups.

  17. Online optimized hysteresis-based steering feel model for steer-by-wire systems

    Ahmet Kirli


    Full Text Available In rubber-wheeled road vehicles, the mechanical connection between steering wheel and front wheels provides steering-related feedback to the driver. The torque fed back to the driver through the steering linkages and steering wheel, which is called steering feel, helps the driver in controlling the vehicle. The torque feedback is reproduced via artificial methods in steer-by-wire systems due to the lack of mechanical connection. In this work, in order to minimize the physical workload and the lateral acceleration under the consideration of handling performance, optimization of a hysteresis-based steering feel has been studied. A 2-degree-of-freedom bicycle model based on the magic formula tire model has been used for simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experiments. A mathematical model is proposed in order to create an adaptive model-based optimization of the hysteresis parameters simultaneously while driving. A hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup has been used for the driving tests. The weave and the double-lane change tests have been performed with different drivers in order to demonstrate and quantify the optimization methods that are presented in this work.

  18. High-precision RCS measurement of aircraft’s weak scattering source

    Hu Chufeng


    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of weak scattering source on the surface of an aircraft is usually less than −40 dBsm. How to accurately measure the RCS characteristics of weak scattering source is a technical challenge for the aircraft’s RCS measurement. This paper proposes separating and extracting the two-dimensional (2D reflectivity distribution of the weak scattering source with the microwave imaging algorithm and spectral transform so as to enhance its measurement precision. Firstly, we performed the 2D microwave imaging of the target and then used the 2D gating function to separate and extract the reflectivity distribution of the weak scattering source. Secondly, we carried out the spectral transform of the reflectivity distribution and eventually obtained the RCS of the weak scattering source through calibration. The prototype experimental results and their analysis show that the measurement method is effective. The experiments on an aircraft’s low-scattering conformal antenna verify that the measurement method can eliminate the clutter on the surface of aircraft. The precision of measuring a −40 dBsm target is 3–5 dB better than the existing RCS measurement methods. The measurement method can more accurately obtain the weak scattering source’s RCS characteristics.

  19. High-precision RCS measurement of aircraft’s weak scattering source

    Hu Chufeng; Li Nanjing; Chen Weijun; Zhang Linxi


    The radar cross section (RCS) of weak scattering source on the surface of an aircraft is usually less than ?40 dBsm. How to accurately measure the RCS characteristics of weak scattering source is a technical challenge for the aircraft’s RCS measurement. This paper proposes separating and extracting the two-dimensional (2D) reflectivity distribution of the weak scattering source with the microwave imaging algorithm and spectral transform so as to enhance its measurement preci-sion. Firstly, we performed the 2D microwave imaging of the target and then used the 2D gating function to separate and extract the reflectivity distribution of the weak scattering source. Secondly, we carried out the spectral transform of the reflectivity distribution and eventually obtained the RCS of the weak scattering source through calibration. The prototype experimental results and their analysis show that the measurement method is effective. The experiments on an aircraft’s low-scattering conformal antenna verify that the measurement method can eliminate the clutter on the surface of aircraft. The precision of measuring a ?40 dBsm target is 3–5 dB better than the existing RCS measurement methods. The measurement method can more accurately obtain the weak scattering source’s RCS characteristics.

  20. A vectorial bootstrapping approach for integrated GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination of spacecraft

    Buist, Peter J.; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Verhagen, Sandra; Giorgi, Gabriele


    Traditionally in multi-spacecraft missions (e.g. formation flying, rendezvous) the GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination problem are treated as independent. In this contribution we will investigate the possibility to use multi-antenna data from each spacecraft, not only for attitude determination, but also to improve the relative positioning between spacecraft. Both for ambiguity resolution and accuracy of the baseline solution, we will show the theoretical improvement achievable as a function of the number of antennas on each platform. We concentrate on ambiguity resolution as the key to precise relative positioning and attitude determination and will show the theoretical limit of this kind of approach. We will use mission parameters of the European Proba-3 satellites in a software-based algorithm verification and a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The software simulations indicated that this approach can improve single epoch ambiguity resolution up to 50% for relative positioning applying the typical antenna configurations for attitude determination. The hardware-in-the-loop simulations show that for the same antenna configurations, the accuracy of the relative positioning solution can improve up to 40%.

  1. Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS) emissions from industrial plants - Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Wusterhausen, E.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Remus, R.; Lehmann, C.


    Numerous research articles dealing with Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS) in occupational health because epidemiological studies reveal an association between RCS-dust and the development of silicosis as well as an increased probability of developing lung cancer. Research activities about RCS in ambient air are known from US-measurements. However there is a lack of knowledge regarding RCS-emissions in several industrial sectors. Industrial sources of crystalline silica include construction, foundries, glass manufacturing, abrasive blasting or any industrial or commercial use of silica sand, and mining and rock crushing operations. This paper describes a RCS-emission measurement method for stack gases and report results from the German RCS-emission measurement programmes which were used to identify installations and types of industries with the highest concentration levels of RCS in stack gases. A two-stage cascade impactor was used for the measurements which separate particles into the following size fractions: >10 μm, 10-4 μm und plants are located in different German states such as Bavaria, North Rhine Westphalia, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saxony-Anhalt. The results of the measurements show that most of the investigated plants can achieve compliance with the newly developed German emission limit value (ELV) of 1 mg m-3. The ELV is expressed as the concentration of RCS in stack emissions. According to the German emission minimising principle and the precautionary principle it is assumed that by complying with the RCS-ELV there is no ambient air health risk for people living these plants. In the case of increased total dust concentration in the stack gas (more than 20 mg m-3) combined with increased percentage of crystalline silica in PM4 dust, a violation of the above mentioned ELV is more likely. This applies mostly to installations in the silica sand processing industry. To comply with the ELV of 1 mg m-3, efficient emission control

  2. Study on application of independent component analysis in the CSNS/RCS

    An, Yu-Wen; Wang, Sheng


    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) accelerators consist of a low energy H- linac and a high energy proton Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). The proton beam is accumulated in the RCS and accelerated from 80 MeV to 1.6 GeV with a repetition of 25 Hz. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a robust method for processing the collected data (samples) recorded by the turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM), which was recently applied to the accelerator. The samples are decomposed to source signals, or the so-called independent components, which correspond to the inherent motion of samples, such as betatron motion and synchrotron motion. A study on the application of the ICA method to CSNS/RCS has been made. It shows that the beta function, phase advance, and dispersion can be well reconstructed by using ICA in CSNS/RCS. The effects of BPM errors on the ICA results are also studied. By comparing the different solving methods in ICA, the so-called SOBI has more advantages for isolating the independent components on the application of ICA to CSNS/RCS. Beam emittance dilution in the process of exciting the turn-by-turn samples is considered, and thus an RF kicker is adopted to avoid such emittance growth.

  3. The Quantitative Reasoning for College Science (QuaRCS) Assessment in non-Astro 101 Courses

    Kirkman, Thomas W.; Jensen, Ellen


    The innumeracy of American students and adults is a much lamented educational problem. The quantitative reasoning skills of college students may be particularly addressed and improved in "general education" science courses like Astro 101. Demonstrating improvement requires a standardized instrument. Among the non-proprietary instruments the Quantitative Literacy and Reasoning Assessment[1] (QRLA) and the Quantitative Reasoning for College Science (QuaRCS) Assessment[2] stand out.Follette et al. developed the QuaRCS in the context of Astro 101 at University of Arizona. We report on QuaRCS results in different contexts: pre-med physics and pre-nursing microbiology at a liberal arts college. We report on the mismatch between students' contemporaneous report of a question's difficulty and the actual probability of success. We report correlations between QuaRCS and other assessments of overall student performance in the class. We report differences in attitude towards mathematics in these two different but health-related student populations .[1] QLRA, Gaze et al., 2014, DOI:[2] QuaRCS, Follette, et al., 2015, DOI:

  4. The Fast Electromagnetic Analysis and RCS Reducing of Two Dimensional Complex Targets

    LIU Hong-xing


    @@ Radar scattering characteristic of the aircraft is an important factor for its survivability. Wings are one of the important scattering sources on the aircraft. In order to reduce their RCS, the intense and powerful electromagnetic analysis is needed. For reducing the complexity, the wings can be viewed as a two dimensional large electric objects consisting of both conductors and inhomogeneous dielectrics. In this dissertation, we aim at a precision and efficiency method for numerical computing of two dimension objects. Moded wings and the RCS of the wings can be calculated in turn. The RCS results of different wing are compared and examined, and the stealth technology of wing is found out. Scattering mechanism are explained, which can give strong predictive power for stealth technology of aircraft.

  5. The Quantitative Reasoning for College Science (QuaRCS) Assessment, 1: Development and Validation

    Follette, Katherine B; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Prather, Edward


    Science is an inherently quantitative endeavor, and general education science courses are taken by a majority of college students. As such, they are a powerful venue for advancing students' skills and attitudes toward mathematics. This article reports on the development and validation of the Quantitative Reasoning for College Science (QuaRCS) Assessment, a numeracy assessment instrument designed for college-level general education science students. It has been administered to more than four thousand students over eight semesters of refinement. We show that the QuaRCS is able to distinguish varying levels of quantitative literacy and present performance statistics for both individual items and the instrument as a whole. Responses from a survey of forty-eight Astronomy and Mathematics educators show that these two groups share views regarding which quantitative skills are most important in the contexts of science literacy and educated citizenship, and the skills assessed with the QuaRCS are drawn from these ran...

  6. Application of DFT in bi-static RCS calculation of complex electrically large targets

    Kuisong Zheng; Tengjiang Ding; Hui Yu; Zhaoguo Hou


    To handle the electromagnetic problems of the bi-static radar cross section (RCS) calculation of scatterer in a wide fre-quency band, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) extrapolation method combining with discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is pro-posed. By comparing the formulas between the steady state field extrapolation method and the transient field extrapolation method, a novel extrapolation method combining with DFT used in FDTD is proposed when a transient field incident wave is introduced. With the proposed method, the ful-angle RCS distribution in a wide fre-quency band can be achieved through one-time FDTD calculation. Afterwards, the back-scattering RCS distributions of a double olive body and a sphere-cone body are calculated. Numerical results verify the validity of the proposed method.

  7. RCS Computation by Parallel MoM Using Higher-Order Basis Functions

    Ying Yan


    Full Text Available A Message-Passing Interface (MPI parallel implementation of an integral equation solver that uses the Method of Moments (MoM with higher-order basis functions has been proposed to compute the Radar Cross-Section (RCS of various targets. The block-partitioned scheme for the large dense MoM matrix is designed to achieve excellent load balance and high parallel efficiency. Some numerical results demonstrate that higher-order basis in this parallelized scheme is more efficient than the conventional RWG method and able to efficiently analyze RCS of various electrically large platforms.

  8. Beam losses due to the foil scattering for CSNS/RCS

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Wang, Sheng; Xu, Shou-Yan


    For the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS/RCS), the stripping foil scattering generates the beam halo and gives rise to additional beam losses during the injection process. The interaction between the proton beam and the stripping foil was discussed and the foil scattering was studied. A simple model and the realistic situation of the foil scattering were considered. By using the codes ORBIT and FLUKA, the multi-turn phase space painting injection process with the stripping foil scattering for CSNS/RCS was simulated and the beam losses due to the foil scattering were obtained.

  9. Changes of the vasculature and innervation in the anterior segment of the RCS rat eye.

    May, Christian Albrecht


    Investigating the anterior eye segment vasculature and innervation of dystrophic RCS rats, two major unique findings were observed: in the iris, young adult animals with retinal dystrophy showed an increase in substance P nerve fibres and a dilation of arterioles and capillaries. This finding continued during ageing. In the pars plana region, the surface covered by venules decreased continuously with age. In older animals, this decrease was parallelled by a local decrease of sympathetic TH-positive nerve fibres supplying these venules. For both conditions, no comparable data exists so far in the literature. They might point to a unique situation in the anterior eye segment of the dystrophic RCS rat.

  10. Study on the magnetic measurement results of the injection system for CSNS/RCS

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Huang, Nan; Huo, Li-Hua; Ji, Hong-Fei; Kang, Wen; Liu, Yi-Qin; Peng, Jun; Qiu, Jing; Shen, Li; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xi; Xu, Shou-Yan; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Guo-Zhong


    A combination of the H- stripping and phase space painting method is used to accumulate a high intensity beam in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The injection system for CSNS/RCS consists of three kinds of magnets: four direct current magnets (BC1-BC4), eight alternating current magnets (BH1-BH4 and BV1-BV4), two septum magnets (ISEP1 and ISEP2). In this paper, the magnetic measurements of the injection system were introduced and the data analysis was processed. The field uniformity and magnetizing curves of these magnets were given, and then the magnetizing fitting equations were obtained.

  11. Optimization of the collimation system for CSNS/RCS with the robust conjugate direction search algorithm

    Ji, H F; Huang, M Y; Xu, S Y; Wang, N; Wang, S


    The Robust Conjugate Direction Search (RCDS) method is used to optimize the collimation system for Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The parameters of secondary collimators are optimized for a better performance of the collimation system. To improve the efficiency of the optimization, the Objective Ring Beam Injection and Tracking (ORBIT) parallel module combined with MATLAB parallel computing is used, which can run multiple ORBIT instances simultaneously. This study presents a way to figure out an optimal parameter combination of the secondary collimators for a machine model in preparation for CSNS/RCS commissioning.

  12. Design and Measurement of Dipole Magnets for CSNS 1.6GeV RCS

    Li, Qing; Kang, Wen; Deng, Chang-dong; Chen, Wan


    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) in Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) accelerates proton beam from 80Mev to 1.6GeV at a repetition rate of 25Hz. All dipole magnets of RCS are operated at AC with biased DC. Aiming at the properties of these dipole magnets, we take some methods to improve magnetic field quality in the good region and reduce eddy currents in the iron core . In this paper, we would present the process of the magnet design and temperature rise calculation. At the same time, the field measurement results and temperature test of the prototype magnet are also described and discussed.

  13. Simulation on the Energy Management System for Fuelcell Vehicle Based on dSPACE%基于dSPACE的燃料电池汽车能量管理系统的半实物仿真

    方源; 宋珂; 章桐


    Hardware- in -the- loop simulation provides an efficient and low cost way to the control field. Thepaper explained the developing steps of the vehicle management system based on dSPACE and the model made by bond graph, which is applied to hardware - in - the - loop of the VMS. The experimental results showed that the model is easy to be made and dSPACE based on real time simulation system was an exceUent platform for control system research which enhanced the research efficiency.%半实物仿真为控制领域提供了一种高效、廉价的方法.本文阐述了基于dSPACE控制系统的开发步骤,结合键合图与MATLAB/Simulink建立仿真模型,并以此进行燃料电池汽车能量管理系统的半实物仿真,实验结果表明键合图与MATLAB/Simulink的结合简便了模型的建立,而dSPACE实时仿真系统也为控制系统的研究与开发提供了一个良好的试验平台,大大提高了研究的效率.

  14. High-frequency techniques for RCS prediction of plate geometries and a physical optics/equivalent currents model for the RCS of trihedral corner reflectors, parts 1 and 2

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polka, Lesley A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis C.

    Formulations for scattering from the coated plate and the coated dihedral corner reflector are included. A coated plate model based upon the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for impedance wedges was presented in the last report. In order to resolve inaccuracies and discontinuities in the predicted patterns using the UTD-based model, an improved model that uses more accurate diffraction coefficients is presented. A Physical Optics (PO) model for the coated dihedral corner reflector is presented as an intermediary step in developing a high-frequency model for this structure. The PO model is based upon the reflection coefficients for a metal-backed lossy material. Preliminary PO results for the dihedral corner reflector suggest that, in addition to being much faster computationally, this model may be more accurate than existing moment method (MM) models. An improved Physical Optics (PO)/Equivalent Currents model for modeling the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of both square and triangular, perfectly conducting, trihedral corner reflectors is presented. The new model uses the PO approximation at each reflection for the first- and second-order reflection terms. For the third-order reflection terms, a Geometrical Optics (GO) approximation is used for the first reflection; and PO approximations are used for the remaining reflections. The previously reported model used GO for all reflections except the terminating reflection. Using PO for most of the reflections results in a computationally slower model because many integrations must be performed numerically, but the advantage is that the predicted RCS using the new model is much more accurate. Comparisons between the two PO models, Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and experimental data are presented for validation of the new model.

  15. Transparent Gap Filler Solution over a DVB-RCS2 Satellite Platform in a Railway Scenario: Performance Evaluation Study

    Peppino Fazio


    Full Text Available In this work, a performance study of a system equipped with a transparent Gap Filler solution in a DVB-RCS2 satellite platform has been provided. In particular, a simulation model based on a 3-state Markov chain, overcoming the blockage status through the introduction of a transparent Gap Filler (using devices on both tunnel sides has been implemented. The handover time, due to switching mechanism between satellite and Gap Filler, has been taken into account. As reference scenario, the railway market has been considered, which is characterized by a N-LOS condition, due to service disruptions caused by tunnels, vegetation and buildings. The system performance, in terms of end-to-end delay, queue size and packet loss percentage, have been evaluated, in order to prove the goodness of communications in a real railroad path.

  16. Investigation of 3-D RCS Image formation of ships using ISAR

    Lord, RT


    Full Text Available Conventional Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) utilises the rotational motion of a target such as a ship or an aircraft to obtain a 2-D image of the target’s radar cross section (RCS) profile from a coherent radar system. This concept can...

  17. Observations of a cold front with strong vertical undulations during the ARM RCS-IOP

    Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D.N. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Melfi, S.H. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others


    Passage of a cold front was observed on the night of April 14-15, 1994, during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Intensive Observatios Period (IOP) at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The observations are described.

  18. A comparison on radar range profiles between in-flight measurements and RCS-predictions

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.


    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are nut available. In this paper we present the results of a comparison on one-dimensional signatures, i.e. radar range profiles. The profiles

  19. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer


    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  20. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer


    Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

  1. The structure of the merging RCS 231953+00 Supercluster at z ~ 0.9

    Faloon, A J; Ellingson, E; Yan, R; Gilbank, David G; Geach, J E; Noble, A G; Barrientos, L F; Yee, H K C; Gladders, M; Richard, J


    The RCS 2319+00 supercluster is a massive supercluster at z=0.9 comprising three optically selected, spectroscopically confirmed clusters separated by ~10^{13} Msun groups/clusters destined to merge onto the most massive cluster, in agreement with the massive halo galaxy fractions important in cluster galaxy pre-processing in N-body simulation merger tree studies.

  2. Genome-wide identification of genes regulated by the Rcs Phosphorelay system in Erwinia amylovora

    The exopolysaccharide amylovoran is one of the major pathgenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight of apples and pears. We have previously demonstrated that the RcsBCD phosphorelay system is essential for virulence by controlling amylovoran biosynthesis. We have also fou...

  3. Comparison of monostatic and bistatic bearing estimation performance for low RCS targets

    Boyle, Robert J.; Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl


    Bistatic radars, specifically forward-scatter radars, are proposed as an alternative to standard monostatic radars against targets whose radar cross sections (RCS) have been reduced by passive means. Forward-scatter radars operate by detecting echoes from a targets forward-scatter RCS, which is insensitive to effects of passive RCS reduction techniques. However, the performance of the forward-scatter radar is compromised when the angular separation between the interference, which propagates directly from the transmitter to the receiver, and the target return is less than the Rayleigh resolution limit of the receiving antenna. This research presents the results of a parametric study of the ability of a forward-scatter radar to detect and measure the bearing of a large target, whose RCS is reduced via passive means. Super-resolution array processing techniques, particularly root-MUSIC (multiple signal classification), are used to overcome the traditional limitations resulting from the Rayleigh resolution limit of the antenna. The study compares the received power and the bearing measurement accuracy of the forward-scatter radar to that of an 'equivalent' monostatic radar system. The results indicate that forward-scatter radars enjoy advantages in detection and bearing measurement when the backscatter RCS of the target has been reduced and when the target is close to the baseline. The results also indicate that, through the use of super-resolution array processing, the capability of the forward-scatter radar to accurately measure the bearing of the target is dependent upon the amount of interference from the direct wave (i.e., the wave which propagates from the transmitter directly to the receiver) and the correlation between the direct wave and the target echo. Good bearing estimates can be achieved if the correlation coefficient is less than 0.95. Bearing measurements may be improved by suppressing the direct wave by either sidelobe control or null steering

  4. The analysis of SCS return momentum effects on the RCS water level during mid-loop operations

    swang Seo, J.; Young Yang, J.; Tack Hwang, S. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)


    An accurate prediction of Reactor Coolant System (RCS) water levels is of importance in the determination of allowable operating range to ensure the safety during the mid-loop operations. However, complex hydraulic phenomena induced by Shutdown Cooling System (SCS) return momentum cause different water levels from those in the loop where the water level indicators are located. This was apparantly observed at the pre-core cold hydro test of the Younggwang Nuclear Unit 3 (YGN 3) in Korea. In this study, in order to analytically understand the effect of the SCS return momentum on the RCS water level and its general trend, a model using one-dimensional momentum equation, hydraulic jump, Bernoulli equation, flow resistance coefficient, and total water volume conservation has been developed to predict the RCS water levels at various RCS locations during the mid-loop conditions and the simulation results were compared with the test data. The analysis shows that the hydraulic jump in the operating cold legs in conjunction with the momentum loss throughout the RCS is the main cause creating the water level differences at various RCS locations. The prediction results provide good explanations for the test data and show the significant effect of the SCS return momentum on the RCS water levels.

  5. Metabolism of RCS-8, a synthetic cannabinoid with cyclohexyl structure, in human hepatocytes by high-resolution MS

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Pang, Shaokun; Zhu, Mingshe; Gandhi, Adarsh S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A


    Background Since 2008, synthetic cannabinoids are major new designer drugs of abuse. They are extensively metabolized and excreted in urine, but limited human metabolism data are available. As there are no reports on the metabolism of RCS-8, a scheduled phenylacetylindole synthetic cannabinoid with an N-cyclohexylethyl moiety, we investigated metabolism of this new designer drug by human hepatocytes and high resolution MS. Methods After human hepatocyte incubation with RCS-8, samples were analyzed on a TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer with time-of-flight survey scan and information-dependent acquisition triggered product ion scans. Data mining of the accurate mass full scan and product ion spectra employed different data processing algorithms. Results and Conclusion More than 20 RCS-8 metabolites were identified, products of oxidation, demethylation, and glucuronidation. Major metabolites and targets for analytical methods were hydroxyphenyl RCS - 8 glucuronide, a variety of hydroxycyclohexyl-hydroxyphenyl RCS-8 glucuronides, hydroxyphenyl RCS-8, as well as the demethyl-hydroxycyclohexyl RCS-8 glucuronide. PMID:24946920

  6. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China.

    Dong, Derong; Liu, Wei; Li, Huan; Wang, Yufei; Li, Xinran; Zou, Dayang; Yang, Zhan; Huang, Simo; Zhou, Dongsheng; Huang, Liuyu; Yuan, Jing


    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniaein clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to assess the reaction. Then dissemination of K. pneumoniae strains was investigated from ICU patients in three top hospitals in Beijing, China. The results showed that the detection limit of the LAMP method was 0.115 pg/μl DNA within 60 min under isothermal conditions (61°C), a 100-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 30 non- K. pneumoniae strains tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the LAMP reaction. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 110 clinical sputum samples collected from ICU patients with clinically suspected multi-resistant infections in China, a total of 32 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified for LAMP-based surveillance of rcsA. All isolates belonged to nine different K. pneumoniae multilocus sequence typing (MLST) groups. Strikingly, of the 32 K. pneumoniae strains, 18 contained the Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-encoding gene bla KPC-2 and had high resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Moreover, K. pneumoniae WJ-64 was discovered to contain bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1genes simultaneously in the isolate. Our data showed the high prevalence of bla KPC-2 among K. pneumoniae and co-occurrence of many resistant genes in the clinical strains signal a rapid and continuing evolution of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid and sensitive visual K. pneumoniae detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for clinical screening, on



    Multi-channel Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite signal simulator is used to provide realistic test signals for GPS receivers and navigation systems. In this paper, signals arriving the antenna of GPS receiver are analyzed from the viewpoint of simulator design. The estimation methods are focused of which several signal parameters are difficult to determine directly according to existing experiential models due to various error factors. Based on the theory of Artificial Neural Network (ANN), an approach is proposed to simulate signal propagation delay,carrier phase, power, and other parameters using ANN. The architecture of the hardware-in-the-loop test system is given. The ANN training and validation process is described. Experimental results demonstrate that the ANN designed can statistically simulate sample data in high fidelity.Therefore the computation of signal state based on this ANN can meet the design requirement,and can be directly applied to the development of multi-channel GPS satellite signal simulator.

  8. High accuracy GNSS based navigation in GEO

    Capuano, Vincenzo; Shehaj, Endrit; Blunt, Paul; Botteron, Cyril; Farine, Pierre-André


    Although significant improvements in efficiency and performance of communication satellites have been achieved in the past decades, it is expected that the demand for new platforms in Geostationary Orbit (GEO) and for the On-Orbit Servicing (OOS) on the existing ones will continue to rise. Indeed, the GEO orbit is used for many applications including direct broadcast as well as communications. At the same time, Global Navigation Satellites System (GNSS), originally designed for land, maritime and air applications, has been successfully used as navigation system in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and its further utilization for navigation of geosynchronous satellites becomes a viable alternative offering many advantages over present ground based methods. Following our previous studies of GNSS signal characteristics in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), GEO and beyond, in this research we specifically investigate the processing of different GNSS signals, with the goal to determine the best navigation performance they can provide in a GEO mission. Firstly, a detailed selection among different GNSS signals and different combinations of them is discussed, taking into consideration the L1 and L5 frequency bands, and the GPS and Galileo constellations. Then, the implementation of an Orbital Filter is summarized, which adaptively fuses the GN1SS observations with an accurate orbital forces model. Finally, simulation tests of the navigation performance achievable by processing the selected combination of GNSS signals are carried out. The results obtained show an achievable positioning accuracy of less than one meter. In addition, hardware-in-the-loop tests are presented using a COTS receiver connected to our GNSS Spirent simulator, in order to collect real-time hardware-in-the-loop observations and process them by the proposed navigation module.

  9. Characterization of the rcsB gene from Erwinia amylovora and its influence on exoploysaccharide synthesis and virulence of the fire blight pathogen.

    Bereswill, S; Geider, K


    RcsB belongs to a family of positive regulators of exopolysaccharide synthesis in various enterobacteria. The rcsB gene of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was cloned by PCR amplification with consensus primers, and its role in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was investigated. Its overexpression from high-copy-number plasmids stimulated the synthesis of the acidic EPS amylovoran and suppressed expression of the levan-forming enzyme levansucrase. Inactivation of rcsB by site-directed mutagenesis created mutants that were deficient in amylovoran synthesis and avirulent on host plants. In addition, a cosmid which complemented rcsB mutants was selected from a genomic library. The spontaneous E. amylovora mutant E8 has a similar phenotype and was complemented by the cloned rcsB gene. The rcsB region of strain E8 was also amplified by PCR, and the mutation was characterized as a nine-nucleotide deletion at the start of the rcsB gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the E. amylovora rcsB region and the predicted amino acid sequence of RcsB revealed extensive homology to rcsB and the encoded protein of other bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Erwinia stewartii. In all three organisms, rcsB is localized adjacent to the rcsC gene, which is transcribed in the opposite direction of rcsB. The E. amylovora rcsB gene has now been shown to strongly affect the formation of disease symptoms of a plant pathogen.

  10. Exopolysaccharide production is influenced by sugars, N-acylhomoserine lactone, and transcriptional regulators RcsA and RcsB, but does not affect pathogenicity in the plant pathogen Pantoea ananatis.

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Oseki, Kiemi; Ikeda, Tsukasa


    Pantoea ananatis SK-1 produced EPS by AHL-mediated quorum sensing on an LB agar plate containing glucose, fructose, and sucrose. rcsA and rcsB mutants did not produce EPS with or without AHLs and with or without sugars, but they induced necrotic symptoms in onion leaves. These results indicate that EPS production does not relate to the pathogenicity of SK-1.

  11. Real-time Simulations using QuaRC and RT-LAB and Development of a Hardware-in-the-Loop Indoor Facility for Robot Formations


    Voltage, Battery Current, Battery Temperature, Battery Charge and Battery Capacity sensor • Velocity and Radius sensor • Roomba drive (2 motors for...Battery Current, Battery Temperature, Battery Charge and Battery Capacity sensor • Velocity and Radius sensor • Roomba drive (2 motors for wheels

  12. Modeling Attitude Variance in Small UAS’s for Acoustic Signature Simplification Using Experimental Design in a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation



  13. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0008: Open Control Platform (OCP) Software Enabled Control (SEC) Hardware in the Loop Simulation Program


    AFRL-VA-WP-TR-2006-3074 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0008: Open Control Platform (OCP) Software Enabled...especially the case since the NGC technology software for SEC was completely developed in the Simulink environment. The OCP middleware was put through...STANLEY H. PRUETT GARY K. HELLMANN, Chief Aerospace Vehicles Technology Aerospace Vehicles Technology Assessment & Simulation Branch Assessment

  14. Thermo-optical characterization of a low-background infrared chamber and wideband infrared scene projector (WISP) array for hardware-in-the-loop testing

    Lippert, Jack R.; Flynn, David S.; Jones, Lawrence E.; Kircher, James R.


    The KHILS Vacuum Cold Chamber (KVACC) provides the capability of testing IR seekers with scenes involving a `cold' background, more closely simulating a high altitude/exoatmospheric engagement. During the past year, a gaseous helium refrigeration system has been installed to simplify the logistics of cooling the chamber. An antechamber has also been installed to serve as a chamber for the sensor under test. A WISP array was installed in the Source Chamber. A thermal control system was developed by connecting the array to a cold surface by way of a thermal choke, then actively controlling the temperature with heating elements. This made it possible to operate the array at user selected, stable substrate temperatures ranging from ambient temperature to below 150 K. This capability makes it possible to select the infrared background level that the array operates at, and to operate with background levels that are adequate for testing the high altitude/exoatmospheric engagements. WISP arrays were designed for room temperature operation, but predicted performance at reduced temperatures appears acceptable. Tests were performed with a Phase I prototype WISP array inside the KVACC Source Chamber. Data on this array's radiometric response at various substrate temperatures are presented. It is demonstrated that the arrays can be operated at substrate temperatures as low as 145 K. Currently two Phase 3 WISP arrays and a dichroic beam combiner are being installed in the Source Chamber for 2- color testing.

  15. ePHM System Development, Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing, Fault Tree, and FMECA Applied to and Integrated on NASA Hybrid Electric Testbeds Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations...

  16. Design and Benchmarking of a Network-In-the-Loop Simulation for Use in a Hardware-In-the-Loop System

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Thomas, George Lindsey; Culley, Dennis E.; Kratz, Jonathan L.


    Distributed engine control (DEC) systems alter aircraft engine design constraints be- cause of fundamental differences in the input and output communication between DEC and centralized control architectures. The change in the way communication is implemented may create new optimum engine-aircraft configurations. This paper continues the exploration of digital network communication by demonstrating a Network-In-the-Loop simulation at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This simulation incorporates a real-time network protocol, the Engine Area Distributed Interconnect Network Lite (EADIN Lite), with the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) software. The objective of this study is to assess digital control network impact to the control system. Performance is evaluated relative to a truth model for large transient maneuvers and a typical flight profile for commercial aircraft. Results show that a decrease in network bandwidth from 250 Kbps (sampling all sensors every time step) to 40 Kbps, resulted in very small differences in control system performance.

  17. Functional ectopic neuritogenesis by retinal rod bipolar cells is regulated by miR-125b-5p during retinal remodeling in RCS rats.

    Fu, Yan; Hou, Baoke; Weng, Chuanhuang; Liu, Weiping; Dai, Jiaman; Zhao, Congjian; Yin, Zheng Qin


    Following retinal degeneration, retinal remodeling can cause neuronal microcircuits to undergo structural alterations, which particularly affect the dendrites of bipolar cells. However, the mechanisms and functional consequences of such changes remain unclear. Here, we used Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rats as a model of retinal degeneration, to study structural changes in rod bipolar cells (RBCs) and the underlying mechanisms of these changes. We found that, with retinal degeneration, RBC dendrites extended into the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the retina, and the ectopic dendrites formed synapses with the remaining photoreceptors. This ectopic neuritogenesis was associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) - expression of which was negatively regulated by miR-125b-5p. Overexpression of miR-125b-5p in the retinae of RCS rats diminished RBC ectopic dendrites, and compromised the b-wave of the flash electroretinogram (ERG). In contrast, down-regulation of miR-125b-5p (or exogenous BDNF treatment) increased RBC ectopic dendrites, and improved b-wave. Furthermore, we showed that the regulation of ectopic neuritogenesis by BDNF occurred via the downstream modulation of the TrkB-CREB signaling pathway. Based on these findings, we conclude that ectopic dendrites are likely to be providing functional benefits and that, in RCS rats, miR-125b-5p regulates ectopic neuritogenesis by RBCs through modulation of the BDNF-TrkB-CREB pathway. This suggests that therapies that reduce miR-125b-5p expression could be beneficial in human retinal degenerative disease.

  18. Numerical RCS and micro-Doppler investigations of a consumer UAV

    Schröder, Arne; Aulenbacher, Uwe; Renker, Matthias; Böniger, Urs; Oechslin, Roland; Murk, Axel; Wellig, Peter


    This contribution gives an overview of recent investigations regarding the detection of a consumer market unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The steadily increasing number of such drones gives rise to the threat of UAVs interfering civil air traffic. Technologies for monitoring UAVs which are flying in restricted air space, i. e. close to airports or even over airports, are desperately needed. One promising way for tracking drones is to employ radar systems. For the detection and classification of UAVs, the knowledge about their radar cross section (RCS) and micro-Doppler signature is of particular importance. We have carried out numerical and experimental studies of the RCS and the micro-Doppler of an example commercial drone in order to study its detectability with radar systems.

  19. A memory cost improved bandwidth request algorithm in DVB-RCS

    He, Jian; Wang, Zulin


    The Bandwidth request algorithm which intervenes in the bandwidth-on-demand (BoD) access mechanism plays an important role in DVB-RCS satellite systems to optimize bandwidth utilization. In this paper, a memory cost improved bandwidth request algorithm (MCI-BRA) is proposed. The MCI-BRA deals mainly with the memory cost which is measured as the queue size at the terminal while offers a controllable trade-off between delay and efficiency. A traffic plane model for a satellite system using DVB-RCS is also described. Several assumptions are discussed, followed by detailed description of the MCI-BRA. Comparisons between the proposed algorithm and existing ones are also presented and analyzed. The simulating results show that MCI-BRA proposed in this work performs better than existing algorithms on controlling memory cost while handles the delay and efficiency issues as well as the existing ones.

  20. Optimization of the collimation system for CSNS/RCS with the robust conjugate direction search algorithm

    Ji, Hong-Fei; Jiao, Yi; Huang, Ming-Yang; Xu, Shou-Yan; Wang, Na; Wang, Sheng


    The Robust Conjugate Direction Search (RCDS) method is used to optimize the collimation system for the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The parameters of secondary collimators are optimized for a better performance of the collimation system. To improve the efficiency of the optimization, the Objective Ring Beam Injection and Tracking (ORBIT) parallel module combined with MATLAB parallel computing is used, which can run multiple ORBIT instances simultaneously. This study presents a way to find an optimal parameter combination of the secondary collimators for a machine model in preparation for CSNS/RCS commissioning. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475202, 11405187, 11205185) and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015009)

  1. Limitation of Over-Pressurization due to Unexpected Decrease in RCS Heat Removal

    Kim, Hwan; Kim, Yong Soo [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    According to the U. S. NRC requirement, the peak pressure of primary and secondary system should be controlled within 110% of design pressure during anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs). The purpose of this paper is to modify the pressure control system for AOOs to comply with the European acceptance criteria and to demonstrate its performance in terms of the overpressure protection. We have developed the limitation system with the modification of the RPCS for the overpressure protection during AOOs. The limitation system is automatically operated to cutback the reactor power in the early stage of transients and to mitigate the primary system overpressure. The maximum RCS pressure and the maximum steam generator pressure are below acceptance criteria, respectively. It is demonstrated that the primary and secondary circuit pressures can be reduced by means of limitation systems during the over-pressurization due to unexpected decrease in RCS heat removal.

  2. The NIST Real-Time Control System (RCS): A Reference Model Architecture for Computational Intelligence

    Albus, James S.


    The Real-time Control System (RCS) developed at NIST and elsewhere over the past two decades defines a reference model architecture for design and analysis of complex intelligent control systems. The RCS architecture consists of a hierarchically layered set of functional processing modules connected by a network of communication pathways. The primary distinguishing feature of the layers is the bandwidth of the control loops. The characteristic bandwidth of each level is determined by the spatial and temporal integration window of filters, the temporal frequency of signals and events, the spatial frequency of patterns, and the planning horizon and granularity of the planners that operate at each level. At each level, tasks are decomposed into sequential subtasks, to be performed by cooperating sets of subordinate agents. At each level, signals from sensors are filtered and correlated with spatial and temporal features that are relevant to the control function being implemented at that level.

  3. Submillimeter Imaging of RCS022434-0002.5: Intense Activity in a High-Redshift Cluster?

    Webb, T M A; Ivison, R J; Hoekstra, H; Gladders, M D; Barrientos, L F; Hsieh, B C


    We present deep 850micron imaging of the z=0.773 strong lensing galaxy cluster RCSJ022434-0002.5 from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS). These data are part of a larger submillimeter survey of RCS clusters, with SCUBA on the JCMT. We find five objects at 850micron, all of which are also detected at either 1.4-GHz, 450micron or both. The number density of objects in this field is in general agreement with the blank-field source counts; however, when combined with other cluster surveys a general tendency of cluster fields towards higher submm number densities is seen, which may be the result of unrecognized submillimeter luminous cluster galaxies. Primarily employing optical photometric redshifts we show that two of the five submillimeter galaxies in this field are consistent with being cluster members, while two are more likely background systems.

  4. Criterios de ética de la Revista Colombiana de Sociología (RCS

    Andrea Lampis


    Full Text Available La RCS tiene como referencia el código de conducta y buenas prácticas que define el Comité de Ética para Publicaciones (COPE1, para editores de revistas científicas. Por ejemplo, no publicar investigaciones cuya realización está basada en el lucro, en la afectación de la dignidad o los derechos humanos de los sujetos investigados.

  5. Criterios de ética da Revista Colombiana de Sociología (RCS

    Andrea Lampis


    Full Text Available A rcs tem como referência o Código de Conduta e boas práticasque define o Comitê de ética para publicações (Cope1, para editores de revistas científicas. Por exemplo, não publicar pesquisas cuja realização esteja baseada no lucro, no comprometimento da dignidade ou dos direitos humanos dos sujeitos pesquisados

  6. Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) Template for California Hydrogen Dispensing Stations

    Rivkin, C.; Blake, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.; Post, M.


    This report explains the Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) requirements for hydrogen dispensing stations in the State of California. The reports shows the basic components of a hydrogen dispensing station in a simple schematic drawing; the permits and approvals that would typically be required for the construction and operation of a hydrogen dispensing station; and a basic permit that might be employed by an Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).

  7. An advanced regulator for the helium pressurization systems of the Space Shuttle OMS and RCS

    Wichmann, H.


    The Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System and Reaction Control System are pressure-fed rocket propulsion systems utilizing earth storable hypergolic propellants and featuring engines of 6000 lbs and 900 lbs thrust, respectively. The helium pressurization system requirements for these propulsion systems are defined and the current baseline pressurization systems are described. An advanced helium pressure regulator capable of meeting both OMS and RCS helium pressurization system requirements is presented and its operating characteristics and predicted performance characteristics are discussed.

  8. The Quantitative Reasoning for College Science (QuaRCS) Assessment in non-Astro 101 Courses II

    Kirkman, Thomas W.; Jensen, Ellen


    The Quantitative Reasoning for College Science (QuaRCS) Assessment[1] aims to measure the pre-algebra mathematical skills that are often part of "general education" science courses like Astro 101. In four majors STEM classes, we report comparisons between QuaRCS metrics, ACT math, GPAO, and the course grade. In three of four classes QuaRCS QR score and ACT math were statistically significantly correlated (with r˜.6), however in the fourth course —a senior-level microbiology course— there was no statistically significantly correlation (in fact, rmath in science was seen to grow with the course level. Pre/post QuaRCS testing in Physics courses showed fractional sigma gains in QR, self-estimated math fluency and math importance, but not all of those increases were statistically significant. Using a QuaRCS map relating the questions to skill areas, we found graph reading, percentages, and proportional reasoning to be the most misunderstood skills in all four courses.[1] QuaRCS, Follette, et al.,2015, DOI:

  9. An investigation of the RCS (radar cross section) computation of grid cavities

    Sabihi, Ahmad


    In this paper, the aperture of a cavity is covered by a metallic grid net. This metallic grid is to reduce RCS deduced by impinging radar ray on the aperture. A radar ray incident on a grid net installed on a cavity may create six types of propagation. 1-Incident rays entering inside the cavity and backscattered from it.2-Incidebnt rays on the grid net and created reection rays as an array of scatterers. These rays may create a wave with phase difference of 180 degree with respect to the exiting rays from the cavity.3-Incident rays on the grid net create surface currents owing on the net and make travelling waves, which regenerate the magnetic and electric fields. These fields make again propagated waves against incident ones.4-Creeping waves.5-Diffracted rays due to leading edges of net's elements.6-Mutual impedance among elements of the net could be effective on the resultant RCS. Therefore, the author compares the effects of three out of six properties to a cavity without grid net. This comparison shows that RCS prediction of cavity having a grid net is much more reduced than that of without one.

  10. An investigation of the RCS (radar cross section) computation of grid cavities

    Sabihi, Ahmad [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, the aperture of a cavity is covered by a metallic grid net. This metallic grid is to reduce RCS deduced by impinging radar ray on the aperture. A radar ray incident on a grid net installed on a cavity may create six types of propagation. 1-Incident rays entering inside the cavity and backscattered from it.2-Incidebnt rays on the grid net and created reection rays as an array of scatterers. These rays may create a wave with phase difference of 180 degree with respect to the exiting rays from the cavity.3-Incident rays on the grid net create surface currents owing on the net and make travelling waves, which regenerate the magnetic and electric fields. These fields make again propagated waves against incident ones.4-Creeping waves.5-Diffracted rays due to leading edges of net’s elements.6-Mutual impedance among elements of the net could be effective on the resultant RCS. Therefore, the author compares the effects of three out of six properties to a cavity without grid net. This comparison shows that RCS prediction of cavity having a grid net is much more reduced than that of without one.

  11. Broadband RCS Reduction of Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Bandstop Frequency Selective Surface

    H. H. Yang


    Full Text Available In this article, a simple and effective approach is presented to reduce the Radar Cross Section (RCS of microstrip patch antenna in ultra broad frequency band. This approach substitutes a metallic ground plane of a conventional patch antenna with a hybrid ground consisting of bandstop Frequency Selective Surface (FSS cells with partial metallic plane. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach, the influence of different ground planes on antenna’s performance is investigated. Thus, a patch antenna with miniaturized FSS cells is proposed. The results suggest that this antenna shows 3dB RCS reduction almost in the whole out-of operating band within 1-20GHz for wide incident angles when compared to conventional antenna, while its radiation characteristics are sustained simultaneously. The reasonable agreement between the measured and the simulated results verifies the efficiency of the proposed approach. Moreover, this approach doesn’t alter the lightweight, low-profile, easy conformal and easy manufacturing nature of the original antenna and can be extended to obtain low-RCS antennas with metallic planes in broadband that are quite suitable for the applications which are sensitive to the variation of frequencies.

  12. Characterizing the galaxy populations within different environments in the RCS2319 supercluster

    Delahaye, Anna; Webb, Tracy

    We present the results of a multi-wavelength photometric study of the high redshift supercluster RCS2319+00. RCS2319+00 is a high-redshift (z ~ 0.9) supercluster comprising three spectroscopically confrmed cluster cores discovered in the Red Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS) (Gladders & Yee 2005). Core proximities and merger rates estimate coalescence into a 1015 M ⊙ cluster by z ~ 0.5 (Gilbank et al. 2008). Spectroscopic studies of the system have revealed over 300 supercluster members located in the cores and several infalling groups (Faloon et al. 2013). RCS2319 presents a diverse range of dynamical systems and densities making it an ideal laboratory in which to study the effects of environment on galaxy properties. Imaging in optical and near infrared (griz' from MegaCam, JK s from WIRCam, both at CFHT), as well as 3.6 μm and 4.5μm from IRAC have enabled the assembly of a large photometric catalogue. Coupled with an extensive spectroscopic survey (Faloon et al. 2013) providing nearly 2400 redshifts across the field, photometric redshifts were determined using the template fitting code EAZY (Brammer et al. 2008). Nearly 80 000 photometric redshifts were measured providing a sample of nearly 3000 cluster members. To investigate effects of global environment, analysis was done utilizing a friend-of-friends group finding algorithm identifying several large and small infalling groups along with the three cluster cores. The cores are found to be dominated by massive, red galaxies and the field galaxies are populated by low mass, blue galaxies, as is the case in the local universe. Interestingly, the large groups exhibit intermediate properties between field and core populations, suggesting possible pre-processing as they are being accreted into the core halos. Relative fifth-nearest neighbour overdensity, log(1+δ5), is used as a proxy for local environment to investigate environmental dependence on galaxy colour. While there is an overall dependence of colour on

  13. Analytical Redundancy Design for Aeroengine Sensor Fault Diagnostics Based on SROS-ELM

    Jun Zhou


    Full Text Available Analytical redundancy technique is of great importance to guarantee the reliability and safety of aircraft engine system. In this paper, a machine learning based aeroengine sensor analytical redundancy technique is developed and verified through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation. The modified online sequential extreme learning machine, selective updating regularized online sequential extreme learning machine (SROS-ELM, is employed to train the model online and estimate sensor measurements. It selectively updates the output weights of neural networks according to the prediction accuracy and the norm of output weight vector, tackles the problems of singularity and ill-posedness by regularization, and adopts a dual activation function in the hidden nodes combing neural and wavelet theory to enhance prediction capability. The experimental results verify the good generalization performance of SROS-ELM and show that the developed analytical redundancy technique for aeroengine sensor fault diagnosis based on SROS-ELM is effective and feasible.

  14. Incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo for autonomous robotic capture of non-cooperative space debris

    Dong, Gangqi; Zhu, Z. H.


    This paper proposed a new incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo approach for robotic manipulators to capture a non-cooperative target autonomously. The target's pose and motion are estimated by a vision system using integrated photogrammetry and EKF algorithm. Based on the estimated pose and motion of the target, the instantaneous desired position of the end-effector is predicted by inverse kinematics and the robotic manipulator is moved incrementally from its current configuration subject to the joint speed limits. This approach effectively eliminates the multiple solutions in the inverse kinematics and increases the robustness of the control algorithm. The proposed approach is validated by a hardware-in-the-loop simulation, where the pose and motion of the non-cooperative target is estimated by a real vision system. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed estimation approach for the target and the incremental control strategy for the robotic manipulator.

  15. Support vector regression model for complex target RCS predicting

    Wang Gu; Chen Weishi; Miao Jungang


    The electromagnetic scattering computation has developed rapidly for many years; some computing problems for complex and coated targets cannot be solved by using the existing theory and computing models. A computing model based on data is established for making up the insufficiency of theoretic models. Based on the "support vector regression method", which is formulated on the principle of minimizing a structural risk, a data model to predicate the unknown radar cross section of some appointed targets is given. Comparison between the actual data and the results of this predicting model based on support vector regression method proved that the support vector regression method is workable and with a comparative precision.

  16. Numerical study for beam loss occurring for wide-ranging transverse injection painting and its mitigation scenario in the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS

    Hotchi, Hideaki; Tani, Norio; Watanabe, Yasuhiro


    In the J-PARC 3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), transverse injection painting is utilized to manipulate the transverse beam profile according to the requirements from the downstream facilities as well as to mitigate the space-charge induced beam loss in RCS. Therefore, a flexible control is required for the transverse painting area. But now the available range of transverse painting is limited to small area due to beta function beating caused by the edge focus of injection bump magnets which operate during the beam injection period. This beta function beating additionally excites various random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice super-periodicity, causing a shrinkage of the dynamic aperture during the injection period. This decrease of the dynamic aperture leads to extra beam loss at present when applying large transverse painting. For beta function beating caused by the edge focus, we proposed a correction scheme with additional pulse-type quadrupole correctors. In this paper, we will discuss the feasibility and effectiveness of this correction scheme for expanding the transverse injection painting area with no extra beam loss, while considering the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms, based on numerical simulations.

  17. Model Checking and Model-based Testing in the Railway Domain

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan


    This chapter describes some approaches and emerging trends for verification and model-based testing of railway control systems. We describe state-of-the-art methods and associated tools for verifying interlocking systems and their configuration data, using bounded model checking and k......-induction. Using real-world models of novel Danish interlocking systems, it is exemplified how this method scales up and is suitable for industrial application. For verification of the integrated HW/SW system performing the interlocking control tasks, a modelbased hardware-in-the-loop testing approach is presented...... with good test strength are explained. Interlocking systems represent just one class of many others, where concrete system instances are created from generic representations, using configuration data for determining the behaviour of the instances. We explain how the systematic transition from generic...

  18. Control of single-phase islanded PV/battery minigrids based on power-line signaling

    Quintana, Pablo; Guerrero, Josep M.; Dragicevic, Tomislav


    should be utilized as efficiently as possible. This paper proposes a coordinated control strategy based on power-line signaling (PLS), instead of common communications, for a single-phase minigrid in which each unit can operate in different operation modes taking into account the resource limitation...... types of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage systems (ESS). Specifically, the recharging process of secondary battery, the most prominent ESS, should be done in a specific manner to preserve its life-time, microgrid line voltage must be kept within the bounds and the energy offered by RES....... The whole system is explained ahead and finally, Hardware in the loop results obtained with a dSPACE are presented in order to validate the proposed control strategy....

  19. Dynamic Consensus Algorithm Based Distributed Global Efficiency Optimization of a Droop Controlled DC Microgrid

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.


    . Accordingly, this paper proposes a dynamic consensus algorithm based distributed optimization method aiming at improving the system efficiency while offering higher expandability and flexibility when compared to centralized control. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness......In a DC microgrid, several paralleled conversion systems are installed in distributed substations for transferring power from external grid to a DC microgrid. Droop control is used for the distributed load sharing among all the DC/DC converters. Considering the typical efficiency feature of power...... electronic converters, optimization method can be implemented in tertiary level for improving the overall system efficiency. However, optimization purposes usually require centralized communication, data acquisition and computation which might be either impractical or costly for dispersed systems...

  20. Suboptimal LQR-based spacecraft full motion control: Theory and experimentation

    Guarnaccia, Leone; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Pastorelli, Stefano P.


    This work introduces a real time suboptimal control algorithm for six-degree-of-freedom spacecraft maneuvering based on a State-Dependent-Algebraic-Riccati-Equation (SDARE) approach and real-time linearization of the equations of motion. The control strategy is sub-optimal since the gains of the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) are re-computed at each sample time. The cost function of the proposed controller has been compared with the one obtained via a general purpose optimal control software, showing, on average, an increase in control effort of approximately 15%, compensated by real-time implementability. Lastly, the paper presents experimental tests on a hardware-in-the-loop six-degree-of-freedom spacecraft simulator, designed for testing new guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for nano-satellites in a one-g laboratory environment. The tests show the real-time feasibility of the proposed approach.

  1. Controlling Torque Distribution for Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Based on Hierarchical Structure Fuzzy Logic

    HuangMiao-hua; JinGuo-dong


    The Hierarchical Structure Fuzzy Logic Control(HSFLC) strategies of torque distribute for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) in the mocle of operation of the vehicle i. e. , acceleration, cruise, deceleration etc. have been studied. Using secondly developed the hybrid vehicle simulation tool ADVISOR, the dynamic model of PHEV has been set up by MATLAB/SIMULINK. The engine, motor as well as the battery characteristics have been studied. Simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical structured fuzzy logic control strategy is effective over the entire operating range of the vehicle in terms of fuel economy. Based on the analyses of the simulation results and driver's experiences, a fuzzy controller is designed and developed to control the torque distribution. The controller is evaluated via hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS). The results show that controller verify its value.

  2. Clinical Investigation Program Report, RCS MED-300 (R-1).


    Hypesensitivity with and without Iontophoresis. (0) 45 1985 The Use of Ultrasound for Diagnosis in Periodontal Bone Morphology. (0) 46 1985 The Effect of...Phase II. (C) 77 1984 SWOG 8049, The Treatment of Resected, Poor Risk Prognosis Malignant Melanoma: Stage Is Surgical Excision vs Surgical Excision...gingival tissues A pilot study. Submitted to J Periodontology. Rossmann JA, Prior RF, Fica:a A3, Koudelka BM: New periodontal attachment based on

  3. Universal real-time control framework and Internet of Things for fast-paced research and development based production environments

    Chaoui, Hicham


    This paper introduces a universal real-time control platform for complex research and development (R&D) based products design. The inherent complexity in R&D projects makes products development a difficult task to undertake. The use of state of the art development tools for modeling, simulation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation contributes to a complexity reduction. However, R&D projects still require significant development time since many design iterations are usually necessary before final solution, which increases the cost. In most R&D processes, these tools are not used beyond rapid prototyping since development for mass production is usually performed in another environment, using different tools. This paper presents a fast and cost effective way of R&D-based products development, speeding-up time to market.

  4. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China

    Derong eDong


    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniae in clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to assess the reaction. Then dissemination of K. pneumoniae strains was investigated from ICU patients in three top hospitals in Beijing, China. The results showed that the detection limit of the LAMP method was 0.115 pg/µl DNA within 60 min under isothermal conditions (61°C, a 100-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 30 non- K. pneumoniae strains tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the LAMP reaction. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 110 clinical sputum samples collected from ICU patients with clinically suspected multi-resistant infections in China, a total of 32 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified for LAMP-based surveillance of rcsA. All isolates belonged to nine different K. pneumoniae multilocus sequence typing (MLST groups. Strikingly, of the 32 K. pneumoniae strains, 18 contained the Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC-encoding gene blaKPC-2 and had high resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Moreover, K. pneumoniae WJ-64 was discovered to contain blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 genes simultaneously in the isolate. Our data showed the high prevalence of blaKPC-2 among K. pneumoniae and co-occurrence of many resistant genes in the clinical strains signal a rapid and continuing evolution of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid and sensitive visual K. pneumoniae detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for clinical screening


    M. Madheswaran


    Full Text Available Modern fighter aircrafts, ships, missiles etc need to be very low Radar Cross Section (RCS designs, to avoid detection by hostile radars. Hence accurate prediction of RCS of complex objects like aircrafts is essential to meet this requirement. A simple and efficient numerical procedure for treating problems of wide band RCS prediction Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC objects is developed using Method of Moment (MoM. Implementation of MoM for prediction of RCS involves solving Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE for electric current using the vector and scalar potential solutions, which satisfy the boundary condition that the tangential electric field at the boundary of the PEC body is zero. For numerical purposes, the objects are modeled using planar triangular surfaces patches. Set of special sub-domain type basis functions are defined on pairs of adjacent triangular patches. These basis functions yield a current representation free of line or point charges at sub-domain boundaries. Once the current distribution is obtained, dipole model is used to find Scattering field in free space. RCS can be calculated from the scattered and incident fields. Numerical results for a square plate, a cube, and a sphere are presented over a bandwidth.

  6. Metabolite profiling of RCS-4, a novel synthetic cannabinoid designer drug, using human hepatocyte metabolism and TOF-MS

    Gandhi, Adarsh S; Zhu, Mingshe; Pang, Shaokun; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A


    Background Since 2009, scheduling legislation of synthetic cannabinoids prompted new compound emergence to circumvent legal restrictions. 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indol-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4) is a potent cannabinoid receptor agonist sold in herbal smoking blends. Absence of parent synthetic cannabinoids in urine suggests the importance of metabolite identification for detecting RCS-4 consumption in clinical and forensic investigations. Materials & methods & Results With 1 h human hepatocyte incubation and TOF high-resolution MS, we identified 18 RCS-4 metabolites, many not yet reported. Most metabolites were hydroxylated with or without demethylation, carboxylation and dealkylation followed by glucuronidation. One additional sulfated metabolite was also observed. O-demethylation was the most common biotransformation and generated the major metabolite. Conclusion For the first time, we present a metabolic scheme of RCS-4 obtained from human hepatocytes, including Phase I and II metabolites. Metabolite structural information and associated high-resolution mass spectra can be employed for developing clinical and forensic laboratory RCS-4 urine screening methods. PMID:25046048

  7. A QoS Architecture for DVB-RCS Next Generation Satellite Networks

    Gayraud Thierry


    Full Text Available The standardization of a return channel via satellite (DVB-RCS and satellite community efforts in term of interoperability over the last few years leads to quite a positive outcome: geostationary satellite networks are intended to provide broadband access to interactive multimedia services in low-infrastructure areas. However, in order to take in account real-time multimedia traffic, an efficient resource management scheme is still necessary to maximize the scarce uplink capacities usage. To address this capacity issue, this paper proposes a complete DVB-RCS QoS architecture that is implemented, thanks to an emulation platform, and evaluated with real multimedia applications. This paper first gives an overview of the QoS architecture usually used in DVB-S/RCS satellite system, especially in layers 2 and 3. It then introduces the satellite system emulation used in the experimentation and its calibration. The main contribution of this work focuses on the signaling principle designed to allow applications to take benefit from the QoS features of the satellite system even if they are non-QoS aware. It is then shown how signaling in such QoS architecture allows the user to change dynamically the QoS of his application using QoS agent and QoS server applications even if the application is not QoS-aware. It is also given quantitative results related to such a dynamic QoS change in the experiments done on the satellite emulation system.

  8. A QoS Architecture for DVB-RCS Next Generation Satellite Networks

    Pascal Berthou


    Full Text Available The standardization of a return channel via satellite (DVB-RCS and satellite community efforts in term of interoperability over the last few years leads to quite a positive outcome: geostationary satellite networks are intended to provide broadband access to interactive multimedia services in low-infrastructure areas. However, in order to take in account real-time multimedia traffic, an efficient resource management scheme is still necessary to maximize the scarce uplink capacities usage. To address this capacity issue, this paper proposes a complete DVB-RCS QoS architecture that is implemented, thanks to an emulation platform, and evaluated with real multimedia applications. This paper first gives an overview of the QoS architecture usually used in DVB-S/RCS satellite system, especially in layers 2 and 3. It then introduces the satellite system emulation used in the experimentation and its calibration. The main contribution of this work focuses on the signaling principle designed to allow applications to take benefit from the QoS features of the satellite system even if they are non-QoS aware. It is then shown how signaling in such QoS architecture allows the user to change dynamically the QoS of his application using QoS agent and QoS server applications even if the application is not QoS-aware. It is also given quantitative results related to such a dynamic QoS change in the experiments done on the satellite emulation system.

  9. Physical and Structural Design of Fast Extraction Kickers for CSNS/RCS

    Lei, Wang; Yao-Dou, Hao; Yuan, Chen; Li-Hua, Huo


    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a high intensity beam facility being built now in China. Three kicker assemblies, eight pulsed magnets, will be used in the CSNS rapid circle synchrotron (RCS). The physical and structural designs of eight kicker magnets that are grouped in 5 different types are presented. The results of OPERA-3D simulation show that magnet center field integral meet the physics requirements of design by choosing a suitable magnet coil structure. Field uniformity for 60% width is +/-0.7%. The ferrite magnet structure and composition is introduced, and the high voltage feedthrough design, the installation of six magnets in long vacuum cavity design is discussed.

  10. PO Analysis for RCS of Nonorthogonal Dihedral Corner Reflectors Coated by RAM


    The backscattering radar cross section (RCS) of nonorthogonal dihedral corner reflectors coated by RAM (radar absorbing materials) is formulated by the method of PO (physical optics), where singly, doubly, and triply reflected contributions are considered. The final expressions are analytical and allow for the incidence nonperpendicular to the fold axis of the reflector. The results are compared with ones of MoM (method of moment), which shows that the trend of backscatter patterr of the dihedral corner reflector can be well predicted by this method.

  11. Thermal Vacuum Testing of ICPTA RCS at Plum Brook B-2

    Atwell, M. J.; Hurlbert, E. A.; Melcher, J. C.; Morehead, R. L.


    Vacuum and thermal vacuum testing of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) was performed at the Plum Brook B-2 facility as a part of a system checkout and facility characterization effort. Multiple test objectives included: integrated Reaction Control System (RCS) characterization, cold helium pressurization system characterization, modal propellant gaging experiment (Orion), CFM propellant loading experiments, main engine characterization. The ICPTA is a test bed for LOX/LCH4 technologies built in 2016 using new components and hardware from the former Morpheus vehicle and other projects.

  12. Summary of LO2/Ethanol OMS/RCS Technology and Advanced Development 99-2744

    Curtis, Leslie A.; Hurlbert, Eric A.


    NASA is pursuing non-toxic propellant technologies applicable to RLV and Space Shuttle orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and reaction control system (RCS). The primary objectives of making advancements in an OMS/RCS system are improved safety, reliability, and reduced operations and maintenance cost, while meeting basic operational and performance requirements. An OMS/RCS has a high degree of direct interaction with the vehicle and crew and requires subsystem and components that are compatible with integration into the vehicle with regard to external mold-line, power, and thermal control. In July 1997, a Phase I effort for the technology and advanced development of an upgrade of the space shuttle was conducted to define the system architecture, propellant tank, feed system, RCS thrusters, and OMS engine. Phase I of the project ran from July 1997 to October 1998. Phase II is currently being planned for the development and test of full-scale prototype of the system in 1999 and 2000. The choice of pressure-fed liquid oxygen (LO2) and ethanol is the result of numerous trade studies conducted from 1980 to 1996. Liquid oxygen and ethanol are clean burning, high-density propellants that provide a high degree of commonality with other spacecraft subsystems including life support, power, and thermal control, and with future human exploration and development of space missions. The key to this pressure-fed system is the use of subcooled liquid oxygen at 350 psia. In this approach, there is 80 degrees R of subcooling, which means that boil-off will not occur until the temperature has risen 80 R. The sub-cooling results naturally from loading propellants at 163 R, which is the saturation temperature at 14.7 psia, and then pressurizing to 350 psia on the launch pad. Thermal insulation and conditioning techniques are then used to limit the LO2 temperature to 185 R maximum, and maintain the sub-cooling. The other key is the wide temperature range of ethanol, -173 F to +300 F, which

  13. Galaxy scale lenses in the RCS2: I. First catalog of candidate strong lenses

    Anguita, T; Gladders, M D; Faure, C; Yee, H; Gilbank, D


    We present the first galaxy scale lens catalog from the second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2). The catalog contains 60 lensing system candidates comprised of Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) lenses at 0.2 ~5.5x10e11 M_sun/h) and rich in dark matter (~14 M_sun/L_sun,B*h). Even though a slight increasing trend in the mass-to-light ratio is observed from z=0.2 to z=0.5, current redshift and light profile measurements do not allow stringent constraints on the mass-to-light ratio evolution of LRGs.

  14. Mechanism of Resource Virtualization in RCS for Multitask Stream Applications

    L. Kirischian


    Full Text Available Virtualization of logic, routing, and communication resources in recent FPGA devices can provide a dramatic improvement in cost-efficiency for reconfigurable computing systems (RCSs. The presented work is “proof-of-concept” research for the virtualization of the above resources in partially reconfigurable FPGA devices with a tile-based architecture. The following aspects have been investigated, prototyped, tested, and analyzed: (i platform architecture for hardware support of the dynamic allocation of Application Specific Virtual Processors (ASVPs, (ii mechanisms for run-time on-chip ASVP assembling using virtual hardware Components (VHCs as building blocks, and (iii mechanisms for dynamic on-chip relocation of VHCs to predetermined slots in the target FPGA. All the above mechanisms and procedures have been implemented and tested on a prototype platform—MARS (multitask adaptive reconfigurable system using a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. The on-chip communication infrastructure has been developed and investigated in detail, and its timing and hardware overhead were analyzed. It was determined that component relocation can be done without affecting the ASVP pipeline cycle time and throughput. The hardware overhead was estimated as relatively small compared to the gain of other performance parameters. Finally, industrial applications associated with next generation space-borne platforms are discussed, where the proposed approach can be beneficial.

  15. Orion MPCV Continuum RCS Heating Augmentation Model Development

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; White, Molly E.


    The reaction control system jets of the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the surface heat flux on the leeside of the aft-body, when they are fired. Changes in surface heating are expressed in terms of augmentation factor over the baseline smooth body heating. Wind tunnel tests revealed heating augmentation factors as high as 13.0, 7.6, 2.8, and 5.8 for the roll, pitch down, pitch up, and yaw jets respectively. Heating augmentation factor models, based almost exclusively on data from a series of wind tunnel tests have been developed, for the purposes of thermal protection system design. The wind tunnel tests investigated several potential jet-to-freestream similarity parameters, and heating augmentation factors derived from the data showed correlation with the jet-to-freestream momentum ratio. However, this correlation was not utilized in the developed models. Instead augmentation factors were held constant throughout the potential trajectory space. This simplification was driven by the fact that ground to flight traceability and sting effects are not well understood. Given the sensitivity of the reaction control system jet heating augmentation to configuration, geometry, and orientation the focus in the present paper is on the methodology used to develop the models and the lessons learned from the data. The models that are outlined in the present work are specific to the aerothermal database used to design the thermal protection system for the Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle.

  16. Isolation and characterization of centromere RCS1 homology sequence from Triticum boeoticum%野生一粒小麦着丝粒RCS1相关序列的克隆鉴定

    陈凡国; 封德顺; 夏光敏


    用水稻着丝粒重复序列RCS1为探针,与3072个克隆进行菌落杂交,得到了32个阳性克隆,用RCS1与拟斯卑尔脱山羊草着丝粒重复序列Tcs250为探针进一步筛选,在32个RCS1相关的阳性克隆中任选10个克隆进行点杂交,分别有6个和 5个阳性克隆.为了克隆RCS1相关片段,依据RCS1的序列设计了三对引物,将引物3从上述阳性克隆中扩增的一个543 bp的片段克隆测序,发现与水稻RCS1部分片段达到约83%的同源,与大麦的反转座子(Ty3/gypsy)部分序列同源性达到了92%,与节节麦中着丝粒的整合酶基因部分序列同源性达到了96%,命名为TBRCS1.TBRCS1可能是野生一粒小麦着丝粒区的组成部分.

  17. Control of single-phase islanded PV/battery streetlight cluster based on power-line signaling

    Quintana, Pablo; Garcia, Jorge; Guerrero, Josep M.


    should be utilized as efficiently as possible. This paper proposes a coordinated control strategy based on power-line signaling (PLS), instead of common communications, for a single-phase minigrid in which each unit can operate in different operation modes taking into account the resource limitation...... types of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage systems (ESS). Specifically, the recharging process of secondary battery, the most prominent ESS, should be done in a specific manner to preserve its life-time, microgrid line voltage must be kept within the bounds and the energy offered by RES....... The whole system is explained ahead and finally, Hardware in the loop results obtained with a dSPACE are presented in order to validate the proposed control strategy....

  18. Design and Implementation of Adaptive Turbo Encoder for Quantized Software Defined Low-Power DVB-RCS Radios

    S. H. Elramly


    Full Text Available Turbo codes are employed in every robust wireless digital communications system. Those codes have been adopted for the satellite return channel in DVB-RCS (Return Channel via Satellite standard. In Software Defined Radios (SDRs, Field Programmable Gate Array technology (FPGA is considered a highly configurable option for implementing many sophisticated signal processing tasks. The implementation for such codes is complex and dissipates a large amount of power. This paper studies the efficient implementation of quantized DVB-RCS turbo coding. Also, a low-power, turbo encoder for DVB-RCS is described using a VHDL code. The proposed encoder design is implemented on Xilinx Virtex-II Pro, XC2vpx30 FPGA chip. FPGA Advantage Pro package provided by Mentor Graphics is used for VHDL description and ISE 10.1 by Xilinx is used for synthetization.

  19. Inverse regulation in the metabolic genes pckA and metE revealed by proteomic analysis of the Salmonella RcsCDB regulon.

    Paradela, Alberto; Mariscotti, Javier F; Navajas, Rosana; Ramos-Fernández, Antonio; Albar, Juan Pablo; García-del Portillo, Francisco


    The RcsC, RcsD, and RcsB proteins compose a system used by enteric bacteria to sense envelope stress. Signal transmission occurs from the sensor RcsC to the transcriptional regulator RcsB. Accessory proteins, such as IgaA, are known to adjust the response level. In a previous transcriptomic study, we uncovered 85 genes differentially expressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium igaA mutants. Here, we extended these observations to proteomics by performing differential isotope-coded protein labeling (ICPL) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Five-hundred five proteins were identified and quantified, with 75 of them displaying significant changes in response to alterations in the RcsCDB system. Divergent expression at the RNA and protein level was observed for the metabolic genes pckA and metE, involved in gluconeogenesis and methionine synthesis, respectively. When analyzed in diverse environmental conditions, including the intracellular niche of eukaryotic cells, inverse regulation was more evident for metE and in bacteria growing in defined minimal medium or to stationary phase. The RcsCDB system was also shown to repress the synthesis of the small RNA FnrS, previously reported to modulate metE expression. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involving the RcsCDB system and its control over metabolic functions.

  20. Bunch stabilization using rf phase modulation in the Intense Pulse Neutron Source (IPNS) Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS).

    Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; McMichael, G. E.


    Phase modulation (PM) is used to increase the current limit in the IPNS RCS. A device referred to as a scrambler introduces a small oscillating phase between the two RCS rf cavities at approximately twice the synchrotrons frequency, f{sub s}. The modulation introduced by the scrambler generates longitudinal oscillations in the bunch at 2f{sub s}. Modulations in the bunch are also observed transversely indicating a coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion. Comparing PM with amplitude modulation (AM), coupling to the beam is roughly equivalent at 2f{sub s}.

  1. Transient electromagnetic simulation and thermal analysis of the DC-biased AC quadrupole magnet for CSNS/RCS

    SUN Xian-Jing; DENG Chang-Dong; KANG Wen


    Due to the large cddy currents at the ends of the quadrupole magnets for CSNS/RCS,the magnetic field properties and the heat generation are of great concern.In this paper,we take transient electromagnetic simulation and make use of the eddy current loss from the transient electromagnetic results to perform thermal analysis.Through analysis of the simulated results,the magnetic field dynamic properties of these magnets and a temperature rise are achieved.Finally,the accuracy of the thermal analysis is confirmed by a test of the prototype quadrupole magnet of the RCS.

  2. RCS2 J232727.6-020437: An Efficient Cosmic Telescope at $z=0.6986$

    Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuang-Han; Ryan, Russell E; Sharon, Keren; Schrabback, Tim; Schmidt, Kasper B; Cain, Benjamin; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hinz, Joannah L; Lemaux, Brian C; von der Linden, Anja; Lubin, Lori M; Treu, Tommaso; Zaritsky, Dennis


    We present a detailed gravitational lens model of the galaxy cluster RCS2 J232727.6-020437. Due to cosmological dimming of cluster members and ICL, its high redshift ($z=0.6986$) makes it ideal for studying background galaxies. Using new ACS and WFC3/IR HST data, we identify 16 multiple images. From MOSFIRE follow up, we identify a strong emission line in the spectrum of one multiple image, likely confirming the redshift of that system to $z=2.083$. With a highly magnified ($\\mu\\gtrsim2$) source plane area of $\\sim0.7$ arcmin$^2$ at $z=7$, RCS2 J232727.6-020437 has a lensing efficiency comparable to the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters. We discover four highly magnified $z\\sim7$ candidate Lyman-break galaxies behind the cluster, one of which may be multiply-imaged. Correcting for magnification, we find that all four galaxies are fainter than $0.5 L_{\\star}$. One candidate is detected at ${>10\\sigma}$ in both Spitzer/IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] channels. A spectroscopic follow-up with MOSFIRE does not result in the de...

  3. Planar Fluorescence Imaging and Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Capsule RCS Jets

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Buck, Gregory M.; Mccrea, Andrew C.


    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) flowfield visualization has been used to investigate reaction control system (RCS) jet flows in the wake of hypersonic capsule reentry vehicles. Pitch, roll, and yaw RCS jets were all studied. PLIF was used to obtain off-body flow images at planar slices in these flowfields, which are not easily visualized by other techniques owing to characteristically low gas density. When viewed individually, these slices are shown to provide spatially and temporally resolved information, including the locations and characteristics of turbulent flow structures and the location of the jet flow relative to the vehicle. In addition, ensembles of slices, acquired at multiple locations throughout the flowfield, are combined using computer visualization techniques to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape of the flow. Collectively, the off-body flow visualization data set acquired in these tests represents a valuable compliment to surface measurements, especially as a basis for explaining otherwise perplexing discrepancies between such measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results. The tests described herein were conducted in the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center.

  4. Thermal analysis and cooling structure design of the primary collimator in CSNS/RCS

    Zou, Yi-Qing; Kang, Ling; Qu, Hua-Min; He, Zhe-Xi; Yu, Jie-Bing; 10.1088/1674-1137/37/5/057004


    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a high intensity proton ring with beam power of 100 kW. In order to control the residual activation to meet the requirements of hands-on maintenance, a two-stage collimation system has been designed for the RCS. The collimation system consists of one primary collimator made of thin metal to scatter the beam and four secondary collimators as absorbers. Thermal analysis is an important aspect in evaluating the reliability of the collimation system. The calculation of the temperature distribution and thermal stress of the primary collimator with different materials is carried out by using ANSYS code. In order to control the temperature rise and thermal stress of the primary collimator to a reasonable level, an air cooling structure is intended to be used. The mechanical design of the cooling structure is presented, and the cooling effciency with different chin numbers and wind velocity is also analyzed. Finally, the fatigue life...

  5. Constraining the Redshift Evolution of FIRST Radio Sources in RCS1 Galaxy Clusters

    Gralla, Megan B; Yee, H K C; Barrientos, L Felipe


    We conduct a statistical analysis of the radio source population in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift by matching radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) catalog with 618 optically-selected galaxy clusters from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1). The number of excess radio sources (above the background level) per cluster is 0.14 +/- 0.02 for clusters with 0.35 1.5 sigma) in the number of radio sources per unit of cluster mass for the galaxy clusters with 0.35 4.1 X 10^(24) W/Hz) radio sources per unit (10^14 solar masses) mass, which we measure to be 0.031 +/- 0.004. We further characterize the population of galaxy cluster-related radio sources through visual inspection of the RCS1 images, finding that although the radio activity of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) also does not strongly evolve between our high and low redshift samples, the lower-redshift, richest clusters are more likely to host radio-loud BCGs than the higher-redshift, rich est...

  6. RCS043938-2904.9: A New Rich Cluster of Galaxies at z=0.951

    Barrientos, L F; Yee, H K C; Infante, L; Ellingson, E; Hall, P B; Hertling, G; Gladders, Michael D.; Infante, Leopoldo; Ellingson, Erica; Hall, Patrick B.; Hertling, Gisela


    We present deep I, J_s, K_s imaging and optical spectroscopy of the newly discovered Red-Sequence Cluster Survey cluster RCS043938-2904.9. This cluster, drawn from an extensive preliminary list, was selected for detailed study on the basis of its apparent optical richness. Spectroscopy of 11 members places the cluster at z=0.951 +- 0.006, and confirms the photometric redshift estimate from the (R-z) color-magnitude diagram. Analysis of the infrared imaging data demonstrates that the cluster is extremely rich, with excess counts in the Ks-band exceeding the expected background counts by 9 sigma. The properties of the galaxies in RCS043938-2904.9 are consistent with those seen in other clusters at similar redshifts. Specifically, the red-sequence color, slope and scatter, and the size-magnitude relation of these galaxies are all consistent with that seen in the few other high redshift clusters known, and indeed are consistent with appropriately evolved properties of local cluster galaxies. The apparent consiste...

  7. The stress-related, rhizobial small RNA RcsR1 destabilizes the autoinducer synthase encoding mRNA sinI in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Baumgardt, Kathrin; Šmídová, Klára; Rahn, Helen; Lochnit, Günter; Robledo, Marta; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena


    Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent communication system of bacteria relying on autoinducer molecules. During the analysis of the post-transcriptional regulation of quorum sensing in the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, we predicted and verified a direct interaction between the 5'-UTR of sinI mRNA encoding the autoinducer synthase and a small RNA (sRNA), which we named RcsR1. In vitro, RcsR1 prevented cleavage in the 5'-UTR of sinI by RNase E and impaired sinI translation. In line with low ribosomal occupancy and transcript destabilization upon binding of RcsR1 to sinI, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti resulted in lower level and shorter half-life of sinI mRNA, and in decreased autoinducer amount. Although RcsR1 can influence quorum sensing via sinI, its level did not vary at different cell densities, but decreased under salt stress and increased at low temperature. We found that RcsR1 and its stress-related expression pattern, but not the interaction with sinI homologs, are conserved in Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. Consistently, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti and Agrobacterium tumefaciens inhibited growth at high salinity. We identified conserved targets of RcsR1 and showed that most conserved interactions and the effect on growth under salt stress are mediated by the first stem-loop of RcsR1, while its central part is responsible for the species-specific interaction with sinI. We conclude that RcsR1 is an ancient, stress-related riboregulator in rhizobia and propose that it links stress responses to quorum sensing in S. meliloti.

  8. Examining the Role of Numeracy in College STEM Courses: Results from the Quantitative Reasoning for College Science (QuaRCS) Assessment Instrument

    Follette, Katherine B.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Dokter, Erin F.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Prather, Edward E.


    Is quantitative literacy a prerequisite for science literacy? Can students become discerning voters, savvy consumers and educated citizens without it? Should college science courses for nonmajors be focused on "science appreciation", or should they engage students in the messy quantitative realities of modern science? We will present results from the recently developed and validated Quantitative Reasoning for College Science (QuaRCS) Assessment, which probes both quantitative reasoning skills and attitudes toward mathematics. Based on data from nearly two thousand students enrolled in nineteen general education science courses, we show that students in these courses did not demonstrate significant skill or attitude improvements over the course of a single semester, but find encouraging evidence for longer term trends.

  9. 机翼前缘后掠角对飞机RCS影响的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Wing Leading Edge Sweep Angle Under the RCS Influence

    徐鸣; 左君伟; 岳奎志; 郁大照


    In this paper, the RCS characteristics of the aircraft 3-D digital prototype with a parametric adjustable wing lead-ing edge sweep angle was studied,in order to improve stealth performance in the aircraft conceptual design. The CATIA was used to establish aircraft 3-D prototype. RCS Ansys and X-band radar were used to detect the aircraft based on physi-cal optics and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method. In the radar incident wave pitch angle of-15° , 0° and 15° , it conducted numerical simulation on RCS of the aircraft when the wing leading edge sweep angle varied between-30° and 60°. And then statistical analysis on the simulation results were conducted. In the condition of mutative wing leading edge sweep angle, the numerical simulation results of the aircraft RCS showed that the azimuth angle of the aircraft prior to the RCS peak equaled to the wing leading edge sweep angle and the features of the arithmetic mean of the aircraft prior to the RCS were that the bigger the straight wing, the smaller the forward-swept wing and swept wing and the even smaller the large swept wing, and relatively little change happed to the arithmetic mean value of the RCS of the aircraft lateral and tail.%为了在飞机总体设计时改善其隐身性能,对机翼前缘后掠角参数化可调的飞机三维数字样机的RCS特性进行了研究。使用CATIA软件,建立机翼前缘后掠角参数化可调的飞机三维数字样机;基于物理光学法和等效电磁流法,采用RCSAnsys软件,使用X波段雷达对飞机进行探测,雷达入射波的俯仰角在-15°、0°和15°条件下,数值模拟机翼前缘后掠角在-30°~+60°之间变化时飞机的RCS特性,并对数值模拟结果进行数理统计分析。在机翼前缘后掠角变化的条件下,飞机RCS特性数值模拟结果表明:飞机头向RCS峰值之一的方位角与机翼前缘后掠角的角度相等;飞机头向RCS算术平均值特性为直机翼大、前掠翼

  10. Critérios de ética da Revista Colombiana de Sociología (RCS

    Andrea Lampis


    Full Text Available A rcs tem como referência o Código de Conduta e boas práticas que define o Comitê de Etica para Publicações (Cope[1], para editores de revistas científicas [1] Committee on Publication Ethics (Cope.

  11. STS-46 Atlantis', OV-104's, vertical tail and OMS pods lit up by RCS jet firing


    STS-46 Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are highlighted by the glow of the reaction control system (RCS) jet firings. OV-104 was at an altitude of 128 nautical miles. The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is partially visible stowed along the port side sill longeron.

  12. Study on the transverse painting during the injection process for CSNS/RCS

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Huang, Nan; Qiu, Jing; Xu, Shou-Yan; Huang, Liang-Sheng


    For the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), a combination of the H- stripping and phase space painting method is used to accumulate a high intensity beam in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). In this paper, firstly, the injection processes with different painting ranges and different painting methods were studied. With the codes ORBIT and MATLAB, the particle distribution and painting image were obtained. Then, the reasonable painting range which is suitable for the aperture size and magnet gap can be selected. Since the real field uniformity of BH3 and BV3 is not completely in conformity with the design requirement, the painting method and painting range also need to be selected to reduce the effects of bad field uniformity.

  13. A physical optics/equivalent currents model for the RCS of trihedral corner reflectors

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis C.


    The scattering in the interior regions of both square and triangular trihedral corner reflectors is examined. The theoretical model presented combines geometrical and physical optics (GO and PO), used to account for reflection terms, with equivalent edge currents (EEC), used to account for first-order diffractions from the edges. First-order, second-order, and third-order reflection terms are included. Calculating the first-order reflection terms involves integrating over the entire surface of the illuminated plate. Calculating the second- and third-order reflection terms, however, is much more difficult because the illuminated area is an arbitrary polygon whose shape is dependent upon the incident angles. The method for determining the area of integration is detailed. Extensive comparisons between the high-frequency model, Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and experimental data are used for validation of the radar cross section (RCS) of both square and triangular trihedral reflectors.

  14. Magnetic fringe field interference between the quadrupole and corrector magnets in the CSNS/RCS

    Yang, Mei; Kang, Wen; Deng, Changdong; Sun, Xianjing; Li, Li; Wu, Xi; Gong, Lingling; Cheng, Da; Zhu, Yingshun; Chen, Fusan


    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) employs large aperture quadrupole and corrector magnets with small aspect ratios and relatively short iron to iron separations; so the fringe field interference becomes serious which results in integral field strength reduction and extra field harmonics. We have performed 3D magnetic field simulations to investigate the magnetic field interference in the magnet assemblies and made some adjustments on the magnet arrangement. The Fourier analysis is used to quantify the integral gradient reduction and field harmonic changes of the quadrupole magnets. Some magnetic field measurements are undertaken to verify the simulation results. The simulation details and the major results are presented in this paper.

  15. The effects of injection beam parameters and foil scattering for CSNS/RCS

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Na; Xu, Shou-Yan


    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) uses H- stripping and phase space painting method to fill large ring acceptance with the linac beam of small emittance. The dependence of the painting beam on the injection beam parameters was studied for the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of CSNS. The injection processes for different momentum spread, rms emittance of the injection beam, injection beam matching were simulated, then the beam losses, 99% and rms emittances were obtained and the optimized ranges of injection beam parameters were given. The interaction between the H- beam and the stripping foil was studied and the foil scattering was simulated. Then, the stripping efficiency was calculated and the suitable thickness of the stripping foil was obtained. The energy deposition on the foil and the beam losses due to the foil scattering were also studied.

  16. Effects of injection beam parameters and foil scattering for CSNS/RCS

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Wang, Sheng; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Na; Xu, Shou-Yan


    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) uses H- stripping and phase space painting method to fill a large ring acceptance with a small emittance linac beam. The dependence of the painting beam on the injection beam parameters was studied for the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). The simulation study was done for injection with different momentum spreads, different rms emittances of the injection beam, and different matching conditions. Then, the beam loss, 99% and rms emittances were obtained, and the optimized injection beam parameters were given. The interaction between H- beam and stripping foil was studied, and the effect of foil scattering was simulated. The stripping efficiency was calculated and the suitable thickness of stripping foil was obtained. In addition, the energy deposition on the foil and the beam loss due to the foil scattering were also studied.

  17. The eddy current induced in the pulsed bump magnet for the CSNS/RCS injection

    SONG Jin-Xing; KANG Wen; HUO Li-Hua; HAO Yao-Dou; WANG Lei


    The injecton pulsed bending bump magnets of Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) in China Spallar tion Neutron Source (CSNS) consist of four horizontal bending (BH) magnets and four vertical bending (BV)magnets. The BH magnets are operated at a repetition rate of 25 Hz and are excited with a trapezoid rectangle waveform with about 1.6 milliseconds duration. The eddy current is induced in BH magnets and in the end plates it is expected to be large, so the heat generation is of our great concern. In this paper, the eddy current loss of the BH magnet has been investigated and calculated by using a coupling method of 3D electromagnetic and thermal analysis. The accuracy of the analysis is confirmed by testing the prototype BH magnet. The end plate temperature of the BH magnet provided with slit cuts has been decreased obviously and met the requirements.

  18. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J


    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. 一种基于软件无线电思想的GMSK调制设计%A GMSK design based on the thought of software defined radio

    张骞; 邵宝杭


    GMSK在无线通信中得到了广泛的应用,是通信设备半实物仿真器生成的重要信号之一。文中针对仿真器信号源库的构建,在介绍通用通信设备半实物仿真器组成的基础上,分析了GMSK调制的设计,利用Matlab软件仿真了GMSK信号正交分量的生成。提出了一种基于软件无线电思想,在仿真器通用硬件框架下产生GMSK信号的设计方案。为通信设备半实物仿真器信号源库的构建提供了参考,也为通信设备的仿真和通信电磁环境的模拟提供了借鉴。%GMSK has been widely used in wireless communications. It is one of the important signals generated by the hardware-in-the-loop simulator. This paper aims at the source library building for emulator. It analyses GMSK modulation design and gives an matlab software simulation for the quadrature components generation of the GMSK signal which is based on the introduction about hardware-in-the-loop simulator construction. According to the software defined radio thought, the paper puts forward a GMSK signal generation design under the framework of the common hardware emulator. It provides a reference for the construction of signal source library and simulation of communication equipment as well as electromagnetic environment

  20. Experimental Measurement of RCS Jet Interaction Effects on a Capsule Entry Vehicle

    Buck, Gregory M.; Watkins, A. Neal; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Alderfer, David W.; Dyakonov, Artem A.


    An investigation was made in NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel to determine the effects of reaction-control system (RCS) jet interactions on the aft-body of a capsule entry vehicle. The test focused on demonstrating and improving advanced measurement techniques that would aid in the rapid measurement and visualization of jet interaction effects for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle while providing data useful for developing engineering models or validation of computational tools used to assess actual flight environments. Measurements included global surface imaging with pressure and temperature sensitive paints and three-dimensional flow visualization with a scanning planar laser induced fluorescence technique. The wind tunnel model was fabricated with interchangeable parts for two different aft-body configurations. The first, an Apollo-like configuration, was used to focus primarily on the forward facing roll and yaw jet interactions which are known to have significant aft-body heating augmentation. The second, an early Orion Crew Module configuration (4-cluster jets), was tested blowing only out of the most windward yaw jet, which was expected to have the maximum heating augmentation for that configuration. Jet chamber pressures and tunnel flow conditions were chosen to approximate early Apollo wind tunnel test conditions. Maximum heating augmentation values measured for the Apollo-like configuration (>10 for forward facing roll jet and 4 for yaw jet) using temperature sensitive paint were shown to be similar to earlier experimental results (Jones and Hunt, 1965) using a phase change paint technique, but were acquired with much higher surface resolution. Heating results for the windward yaw jet on the Orion configuration had similar augmentation levels, but affected much less surface area. Numerical modeling for the Apollo-like yaw jet configuration with laminar flow and uniform jet outflow conditions showed similar heating patterns

  1. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China

    Derong eDong; Wei eLiu; Huan eLi; Yufei eWang; Xinran eLi; Dayang eZou; Zhan eYang; Simo eHuang; Dongsheng eZhou; Liuyu eHuang; Jing eYuan


    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniae in clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to...

  2. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China

    Dong, Derong; Liu, Wei; Li, Huan; Wang, Yufei; Li, Xinran; Zou, Dayang; Yang, Zhan; Huang, Simo; Zhou, Dongsheng; Huang, Liuyu; Yuan, Jing


    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniaein clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to ...

  3. DVB-RCS return link radio resource management for broadband satellite systems using fade mitigation techniques at ka band


    Current Broadband Satellite systems supporting DVB-RCS at Ku band have static physical layer in order not to complicate their implementation. However at Ka band frequencies and above an adaptive physical layer wherein the physical layer parameters are dynamically modified on a per user basis is necessary to counteract atmospheric attenuation. Satellite Radio Resource Management (RRM) at the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer has become an important issue given the emphasis placed on Quality...

  4. A Multiwavelength Analysis of the Strong Lensing Cluster RCS 022434-0002.5 at z=0.778

    Hicks, Amalia K; Hoekstra, Henk; Gladders, Mike; Yee, Howard; Bautz, Mark; Gilbank, David; Webb, Tracy; Ivison, Rob


    We present the results of two (101 ks total) Chandra observations of the z=0.778 optically selected lensing cluster RCS022434-0002.5, along with weak lensing and dynamical analyses of this object. An X-ray spectrum extracted within R(2500) (362 h(70)^(-1) kpc) results in an integrated cluster temperature of 5.1 (+0.9,-0.5) keV. The surface brightness profile of RCS022434-0002.5 indicates the presence of a slight excess of emission in the core. A hardness ratio image of this object reveals that this central emission is primarily produced by soft X-rays. Further investigation yields a cluster cooling time of 3.3 times 10^9 years, which is less than half of the age of the universe at this redshift given the current LCDM cosmology. A weak lensing analysis is performed using HST images, and our weak lensing mass estimate is found to be in good agreement with the X-ray determined mass of the cluster. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that RCS022434-0002.5 has a velocity dispersion of 900 +/- 180 km/s, consistent with ...

  5. Alumina Ceramics Vacuum Duct for the 3GeV-RCS of the J-PARC

    Kinsho, Michikazu; Ogiwara, Norio; Saito, Yoshio


    It was success to develop alumina ceramics vacuum ducts for the 3GeV-RCS of J-PARC at JAERI. There are two types of alumina ceramics vacuum ducts needed, one being 1.5m-long duct with a circular cross section for use in the quadrupole magnet, the other being 3.5m-long and bending 15 degrees, with a race-track cross section for use in the dipole magnet. These ducts could be manufactured by joining several duct segments of 0.5-0.8 m in length by brazing. The alumina ceramics ducts have copper stripes on the outside surface of the ducts to reduce the duct impedance. One of the ends of each stripe is connected to a titanium flange by way of a capacitor so to interrupt an eddy current circuit. The copper stripes are produced by an electroforming method in which a stripe pattern formed by Mo-Mn metallization is first sintered on the exterior surface and then overlaid by PR-electroformed copper (Periodic current Reversal electroforming method). In order to reduce emission of secondary electrons when protons or elect...

  6. The origin of magnetic alloy core buckling in J-PARC 3 GeV RCS

    Nomura, M., E-mail: masahiro.nomura@j-parc.j [JAEA, 2-4, Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamamoto, M.; Schnase, A.; Shimada, T.; Suzuki, H.; Tamura, F. [JAEA, 2-4, Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hara, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Ohmori, C.; Toda, M.; Yoshii, M. [KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)


    We have been operating ten RF cavities loaded with magnetic alloy (MA) cores with a high field gradient of more than 20 kV/m in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) since September 2007. During 3 years operation, we detected three times the impedance reductions of RF cavities resulting from the buckling of MA cores. To find out the origin of the MA core buckling, we evaluated the thermal stress inside the MA cores in operation and studied the relationship between the MA core buckling and core structure. We figured out that the MA core buckling was caused by the thermal stress that was enhanced due to the impregnation with low viscosity epoxy resin. We improved the MA cores without the low viscosity epoxy resin impregnation and replaced all the cores in one RF cavity with them in March 2010. Up to now we operated the RF cavity loaded with the improved MA cores for 1500 h, it showed no impedance reduction and no buckling.

  7. A measurement of weak lensing by large scale structure in RCS fields

    Hoekstra, H; Gladders, M D; Barrientos, L F; Hall, P B; Infante, L; Hoekstra, Henk; Yee, Howard K.C.; Gladders, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Infante, Leopoldo


    We have analysed ~24 square degrees of R_C-band imaging data from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS), and measured the excess correlations between galaxy ellipticities on scales ranging from 1 to 30 arcminutes. We have used data from two different telescopes: ~16.4 square degrees of CFHT data and ~7.6 square degrees of CTIO 4-meter data, distributed over 13 widely separated patches. For the first time, a direct comparison can be made of the lensing signal measured using different instruments, which provides an important test of the weak lensing analysis itself. The measurements obtained from the two telescopes agree well. For the lensing analysis we use galaxies down to a limiting magnitude of R_C=24, for which the redshift distribution is known relatively well. This allows us to constrain some cosmological parameters. For the currently favored $\\Lambda$CDM model $(\\Omega_m=0.3, \\Omega_\\Lambda=0.7, \\Gamma=0.21)$ we obtain $\\sigma_8=0.81^{+0.14}_{-0.19}$ (95% confidence), in agreement with the results from ...


    Faloon, A. J.; Webb, T. M. A.; Geach, J. E.; Noble, A. G. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ellingson, E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, UCB-389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Yan, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose St., Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Gilbank, David G. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Barrientos, L. F. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica Pontifica Universidad Catholica de Chile, Vicuna MacKenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Gladders, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Richard, J. [Observatoire de Lyon, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Universite Lyon, 19 Avenue Charles Andre, F-69561 Saint-Genis-Laval (France)


    The RCS 2319+00 supercluster is a massive supercluster at z = 0.9 comprising three optically selected, spectroscopically confirmed clusters separated by <3 Mpc on the plane of the sky. This supercluster is one of a few known examples of the progenitors of present-day massive clusters (10{sup 15} M{sub Sun} by z {approx} 0.5). We present an extensive spectroscopic campaign carried out on the supercluster field resulting, in conjunction with previously published data, in 1961 high-confidence galaxy redshifts. We find 302 structure members spanning three distinct redshift walls separated from one another by {approx}65 Mpc ({Delta} z = 0.03). The component clusters have spectroscopic redshifts of 0.901, 0.905, and 0.905. The velocity dispersions are consistent with those predicted from X-ray data, giving estimated cluster masses of {approx}10{sup 14.5}-10{sup 14.9} M{sub Sun }. The Dressler-Shectman test finds evidence of substructure in the supercluster field and a friends-of-friends analysis identified five groups in the supercluster, including a filamentary structure stretching between two cluster cores previously identified in the infrared by Coppin et al. The galaxy colors further show this filamentary structure to be a unique region of activity within the supercluster, comprised mainly of blue galaxies compared to the {approx}43%-77% red-sequence galaxies present in the other groups and cluster cores. Richness estimates from stacked luminosity function fits result in average group mass estimates consistent with {approx}10{sup 13} M{sub Sun} halos. Currently, 22% of our confirmed members reside in {approx}> 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun} groups/clusters destined to merge onto the most massive cluster, in agreement with the massive halo galaxy fractions important in cluster galaxy pre-processing in N-body simulation merger tree studies.

  9. Network-based Mobility with DVB-RCS2 using the Evolved Packet Core

    Walraven, F.A.; Venemans, P.H.A.; Velt, R. in 't; Fransen, F.


    The network of the future consists of a combination of different access networks, each providing a level of network availability and mobility suited for a wide range of applications. Mobile network developments culminated in work on the E-UTRAN and Evolved Packet Core (EPC) network and can provide m

  10. CSNS/RCS粒子散射束流损失研究%Study of Beam Loss due to Particle Scattering in CSNS/RCS

    黄明阳; 王娜; 邱静; 王生; 黄楠


    在中国散裂中子源快循环同步加速器(CSNS/RCS)中,质子束流在加速过程中会与一些器件(如剥离膜、准直器、散射引出膜等)相互作用,产生粒子散射并导致束流损失.本工作首先利用ORBIT模拟RCS束流注入过程,并用FLUKA模拟注入束流穿过剥离膜的粒子散射过程,计算剥离膜散射所造成的束流损失.其次,模拟质子束流与准直器相互作用的粒子散射,计算质子束流与不同尺寸的次级准直器相互作用的吸收效率,作为对次级准直器优化的依据.最后,研究CSNS/RCS膜散射引出方案,利用FLUKA对不同引出方案进行模拟并比较,得到最佳的可行性方案.%In the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS/ RCS) , the proton beam will interact with some devices, such as the stripping foil, beam collimator, and foil for scattering extraction. These interactions result in some particle scattering and beam losses. In this paper, firstly, the beam transportation in the injection procedure was simulated by ORBIT and the particle scattering due to the interaction between the beam and stripping foil was simulated by FLUKA, then the beam loss due to the foil scattering was calculated. Secondly, the particle scattering due to the proton beam interacting with the secondary collimator was simulated, and based on which, the secondary collimator was optimized by calculating the absorb efficiency. The optimization was done for the foil scattering extraction scheme by simulating and comparing different schemes with FLUKA.

  11. Characterization of the rcsA Gene from Pantoea sp. Strain PPE7 and Its Influence on Extracellular Polysaccharide Production and Virulence on Pleurotus eryngii

    Kim, Min Keun; Lee, Sun Mi; Seuk, Su Won; Ryu, Jae San; Kim, Hee Dae; Kwon, Jin Hyeuk; Choi, Yong Jo; Yun, Han Dae


    RcsA is a positive activator of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis in the Enterobacteriaceae. The rcsA gene of the soft rot pathogen Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 in Pleurotus eryngii was cloned by PCR amplification, and its role in EPS synthesis and virulence was investigated. The RcsA protein contains 3 highly conserved domains, and the C-terminal end of the open reading frame shared significant amino acid homology to the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif of bacterial activator proteins. The inactivation of rcsA by insertional mutagenesis created mutants that had decreased production of EPS compared to the wild-type strain and abolished the virulence of Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 in P. eryngii. The Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 rcsA gene was shown to strongly affect the formation of the disease symptoms of a mushroom pathogen and to act as the virulence factor to cause soft rot disease in P. eryngii. PMID:28592946

  12. A bright, spatially extended lensed galaxy at z = 1.7 behind the cluster RCS2 032727-132623

    Wuyts, Eva; Gladders, Michael D; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B; Carrasco, Mauricio; Gilbank, David; Yee, H K C; Koester, Benjamin P; Muñoz, Roberto


    We present the discovery of an extremely bright and extended lensed source from the second Red Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2). RCSGA 032727-132609 is spectroscopically confirmed as a giant arc and counter-image of a background galaxy at $z=1.701$, strongly-lensed by the foreground galaxy cluster RCS2 032727-132623 at $z=0.564$. The giant arc extends over $\\sim 38$\\,\\arcsec and has an integrated $g$-band magnitude of 19.15, making it $\\sim 20$ times larger and $\\sim 4$ times brighter than the prototypical lensed galaxy MS1512-cB58. This is the brightest distant lensed galaxy in the Universe known to date. Its location in the `redshift desert' provides unique opportunities to connect between the large samples of galaxies known at $z\\sim3$ and $z\\sim1$. We have collected photometry in 9 bands, ranging from $u$ to $K_s$, which densely sample the rest-frame UV and optical light, including the age-sensitive 4000\\AA\\ break. A lens model is constructed for the system, and results in a robust total magnification of $2...

  13. Experiments and analysis of thin tungsten slice and W/Cu brazing for primary collimator scraper in CSNS/RCS

    Zou, YiQing; Kang, Ling; Yu, JieBing; Qu, HuaMin; He, ZheXi


    According to the requirements for the beam collimation system of the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), the main structure of a scraper of primary collimator is made by W/Cu brazing, in which the thickness of tungsten slice is 0.17 mm. In order to get the best mechanical properties, the brazing temperature is suggested to be controlled under the recrystallization temperature of tungsten, while the recrystallization temperature is affected directly by the thickness of tungsten. Because of little research and application on the brazing of thin tungsten slice of 0.17 mm and copper, tensile tests are done to get the mechanical properties of tungsten slices which experience different brazing temperatures. In keeping the inner relationships between the mechanical properties and temperature, another experiment is done by using SEM to scan the microstructures including the size and distribution of crystals. Finally we determine the recrystallization temperature of tungsten slice of 0.17 mm, and get the best parameters of W/Cu brazing for scrapers of primary collimator in CSNS/RCS.

  14. Biogenesis of outer membrane vesicles in Serratia marcescens is thermoregulated and can be induced by activation of the Rcs phosphorelay system.

    McMahon, Kenneth J; Castelli, Maria E; García Vescovi, Eleonora; Feldman, Mario F


    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have been identified in a wide range of bacteria, yet little is known of their biogenesis. It has been proposed that OMVs can act as long-range toxin delivery vectors and as a novel stress response. We have found that the formation of OMVs in the gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens is thermoregulated, with a significant amount of OMVs produced at 22 or 30°C and negligible quantities formed at 37°C under laboratory conditions. Inactivation of the synthesis of the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) resulted in a hypervesiculation phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that OMVs are produced in response to stress. We demonstrate that the phenotype can be reversed to wild-type (WT) levels upon the loss of the Rcs phosphorelay response regulator RcsB, but not RcsA, suggesting a role for the Rcs phosphorelay in the production of OMVs. MS fingerprinting of the OMVs provided evidence of cargo selection within wild-type cells, suggesting a possible role for Serratia OMVs in toxin delivery. In addition, OMV-associated cargo proved toxic upon injection into the haemocoel of Galleria mellonella larvae. These experiments demonstrate that OMVs are the result of a regulated process in Serratia and suggest that OMVs could play a role in virulence.

  15. In-flight measurements and RCS-predictions: A comparison on broad-side radar range profiles of a Boeing 737

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.


    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are not available. In this paper we present the first results of a comparison on one dimensional images, i.e., radar range profiles. The profi

  16. The rcsA Promoter of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii Features a Low-Level Constitutive Promoter and an EsaR Quorum-Sensing-Regulated Promoter

    Carlier, Aurelien L.; von Bodman, S B


    The upstream region of the Pantoea stewartii rcsA gene features two promoters, one for constitutive basal-level expression and a second autoregulated promoter for induced expression. The EsaR quorum-sensing repressor binds to a site centered between the two promoters, blocking transcription elongation from the regulated promoter under noninducing conditions.

  17. Modelling of combinable relationship-based composition service network and the theoretical proof of its scale-free characteristics

    Tao, Fei; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Lin; Cheng, Ying


    Existing works on service composition are primarily based on the requirements of service composition, such as describing language supporting service composition, service composition framework, mechanism and method for service composition, and service composition validation. Few works have been carried out from the perspective of combinable relationship among composite services and composition service network. This article emphasises on combinable relationship-based composition service network, i.e. CoRCS-Net. The principles for establishing and modelling CoRCS-Net were studied, and nine combinable relationships among services in CoRCS-Net were investigated and 14 elementary evolving operators for CoRCS-Net dynamic evolution were designed. According to the definition of scale-free network (SFN) and the investigations on its related research achievements, it is supposed that 'CoRCS-Net is a scale-free network' in this study. In order to prove the theoretical hypothesis, the concepts of combinable strength and variation of combinable strength were introduced, and combinable strength is used to describe the invoking times of a service being invoked for service composition. First we calculate the real time variation of combinable strength of an arbitrary service in CoRCS-Net, and then obtain the corresponding real time combinable strength and investigate its distribution for all services in CoRCS-Net. It is discovered that 'like many nature and social phenomenon, CoRCS-Net is "scale-free", and it is constructed by few "active services" and a great deal of "silent services". In the process of service composition, the invoking times for majority services are very small, while only few services are invoked frequently, and the probability (or invoking times) for the services in a CoRCS-Net to be invoked for service composition decays as a power-law'.

  18. Serratia marcescens ShlA pore-forming toxin is responsible for early induction of autophagy in host cells and is transcriptionally regulated by RcsB.

    Di Venanzio, Gisela; Stepanenko, Tatiana M; García Véscovi, Eleonora


    Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterium that thrives in a wide variety of ambient niches and interacts with an ample range of hosts. As an opportunistic human pathogen, it has increased its clinical incidence in recent years, being responsible for life-threatening nosocomial infections. S. marcescens produces numerous exoproteins with toxic effects, including the ShlA pore-forming toxin, which has been catalogued as its most potent cytotoxin. However, the regulatory mechanisms that govern ShlA expression, as well as its action toward the host, have remained unclear. We have shown that S. marcescens elicits an autophagic response in host nonphagocytic cells. In this work, we determine that the expression of ShlA is responsible for the autophagic response that is promoted prior to bacterial internalization in epithelial cells. We show that a strain unable to express ShlA is no longer able to induce this autophagic mechanism, while heterologous expression of ShlA/ShlB suffices to confer on noninvasive Escherichia coli the capacity to trigger autophagy. We also demonstrate that shlBA harbors a binding motif for the RcsB regulator in its promoter region. RcsB-dependent control of shlBA constitutes a feed-forward regulatory mechanism that allows interplay with flagellar-biogenesis regulation. At the top of the circuit, activated RcsB downregulates expression of flagella by binding to the flhDC promoter region, preventing FliA-activated transcription of shlBA. Simultaneously, RcsB interaction within the shlBA promoter represses ShlA expression. This circuit offers multiple access points to fine-tune ShlA production. These findings also strengthen the case for an RcsB role in orchestrating the expression of Serratia virulence factors.

  19. Vacuum tube operation analysis under multi-harmonic driving and heavy beam loading effect in J-PARC RCS

    Yamamoto, M.; Nomura, M.; Shimada, T.; Tamura, F.; Hara, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Ohmori, C.; Toda, M.; Yoshii, M.; Schnase, A.


    An rf cavity in the J-PARC RCS not only covers the frequency range of a fundamental acceleration pattern but also generates multi-harmonic rf voltage because it has a broadband impedance. However, analyzing the vacuum tube operation in the case of multi-harmonics is very complicated because many variables must be solved in a self-consistent manner. We developed a method to analyze the vacuum tube operation using a well-known formula and which includes the dependence on anode current for some variables. The calculation method is verified with beam tests, and the results indicate that it is efficient under condition of multi-harmonics with a heavy beam loading effect.

  20. A New Threshold Switching Scheme for a DVB-RCS Mobile Return Link in a Terrestrian Railway Scenario

    Mauro Tropea


    Full Text Available The new standard for DVB-RCS includes guidelines for mobile user in the market of aircraft, maritime and terrestrial transportation. The standard proposed by ETSI suggests the possibility of using a continuous carrier operation mode in the return channel, beside the classical MF-TDMA mode for better adapting the satellite bandwidth to the new requests of mobile users. It can be important a mechanism for switching between these modalities, in order to exploit in a better way the satellite resources. In this paper a proposal of a novel switching mechanism is presented. Simulation campaigns are carried out in order to validate the proposal algorithm considering different user application distributions. Simulation results proof the goodness of the proposal and provide some guidelines to the satellite operators that want to adopt in their satellite system this hybrid mode called by ETSI standard “Basic Mode”.

  1. 视网膜色素上皮变性大鼠随生长发育的视网膜电图改变%Study on dark-adapted electroretinogram of RCS rats during development

    陈莹迪; 阴正勤; 翁传煌; 戴加满


    背景 RCS-rdy--P+大鼠随着生长发育会逐渐发生视网膜色素变性(RP),记录其生长发育过程中的视网膜电图(ERG)改变可为该模型鼠的进一步研究奠定基础.目的 观察RCS-rdy--P+大鼠视网膜发育过程中的ERG变化,研究ERG随发育的变化特点.方法 采用RETI-port系统、环形角膜电极和不锈钢针状电极分别记录生后21、32、37、45、60 d的RCS-rdy--P+大鼠的系列暗适应ERG,每个年龄组6只鼠.取相同时间点及数量的同种系正常的RCS-rdy+-P+大鼠作为正常对照.暗适应不同时间的ERG对比采用RCS-rdy+-P+生后60 d大鼠共9只,每组3只.结果在刺激光强、刺激频率、体温相同的情况下,RCS-rdy+-P+大鼠ERG b波振幅与暗适应时间有关,随着暗适应时间的延长,b波振幅增加,当暗适应时间超过12 h时,即使暗适应时间增加,b波振幅不再增长,说明暗适应超过12 h可以得到RCS-rdy+-P+大鼠一个较为稳定的ERG波形.与RCS-rdy+-P+大鼠比较,RCS-rdy--P+大鼠在生后21 d时ERG已出现a波、b波振幅的下降,同时隐含时明显延长,以a波改变为主.随着RCS-rdy--P+大鼠年龄增长及RP的进展,ERG a波、b波振幅进一步下降,隐含时延长,RCS-rdy--P+大鼠生后60 d时,其ERG反应记录不到.对照组大鼠在21 d时,ERG的a波、b波均振幅较低;生后32 d时RCS-rdy--P+大鼠b波振幅增加,但隐含时缩短;到生后45 d仅小幅增加,45-60 d再次出现b波振幅显著增加,隐含时缩短.结论 RCS-rdy--P+大鼠随着年龄的增长发生视网膜功能的变化,其暗适应ERG改变符合RP的进展过程.%Background RCS-rdy--P+ rat occur retinitis pigmentosa (PR) with the aging and development.To find OUt the retinal functional change using electrophysiological technique is useful for the further study of RCS-rdy--P+ rat. Ohjectlve The goal of this experiment was to investigate the dark-adapted electroretinogram (ERG) of RCS rats with aging. Methods The series of seotopic ERG were

  2. Satellite Angular Velocity Estimation Based on Star Images and Optical Flow Techniques

    Giancarmine Fasano


    Full Text Available An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components.

  3. A Robust Vision-based Runway Detection and Tracking Algorithm for Automatic UAV Landing

    Abu Jbara, Khaled F.


    This work presents a novel real-time algorithm for runway detection and tracking applied to the automatic takeoff and landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The algorithm is based on a combination of segmentation based region competition and the minimization of a specific energy function to detect and identify the runway edges from streaming video data. The resulting video-based runway position estimates are updated using a Kalman Filter, which can integrate other sensory information such as position and attitude angle estimates to allow a more robust tracking of the runway under turbulence. We illustrate the performance of the proposed lane detection and tracking scheme on various experimental UAV flights conducted by the Saudi Aerospace Research Center. Results show an accurate tracking of the runway edges during the landing phase under various lighting conditions. Also, it suggests that such positional estimates would greatly improve the positional accuracy of the UAV during takeoff and landing phases. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is further validated using Hardware in the Loop simulations with diverse takeoff and landing videos generated using a commercial flight simulator.

  4. Online energy management strategy of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles based on data fusion approach

    Zhou, Daming; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Gao, Fei; Ravey, Alexandre; Matraji, Imad; Godoy Simões, Marcelo


    Energy management strategy plays a key role for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs), it directly affects the efficiency and performance of energy storages in FCHEVs. For example, by using a suitable energy distribution controller, the fuel cell system can be maintained in a high efficiency region and thus saving hydrogen consumption. In this paper, an energy management strategy for online driving cycles is proposed based on a combination of the parameters from three offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers using data fusion approach. The fuzzy logic controllers are respectively optimized for three typical driving scenarios: highway, suburban and city in offline. To classify patterns of online driving cycles, a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM) is used to provide probabilistic classification results. Based on the classification results of the online driving cycle, the parameters of each offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers are then fused using Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory, in order to calculate the final parameters for the online fuzzy logic controller. Three experimental validations using Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) platform with different-sized FCHEVs have been performed. Experimental comparison results show that, the proposed PSVM-DS based online controller can achieve a relatively stable operation and a higher efficiency of fuel cell system in real driving cycles.


    YU Shitao; YANG Shiwei; YANG Lin; GONG Yuanming; ZHUO Bin


    A real-time operating system (RTOS), also named OS, is designed based on the hardware platform of MC68376, and is implemented in the electronic control system for unit pump in diesel engine. A parallel and time-based task division method is introduced and the multi-task software architecture is built in the software system for electronic unit pump (EUP) system. The V-model software development process is used to control algorithm of each task. The simulation results of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system (HILSS) and the engine experimental results show that the OS is an efficient real-time kernel, and can meet the real-time demands of EUP system; The built multi-task software system is real-time, determinate and reliable. V-model development is a good development process of control algorithms for EUP system, the control precision of control system can be ensured, and the development cycle and cost are also decreased.

  6. Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven Systems.

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; Huang, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Kai-Hui


    This paper proposes a current sensor fault detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the fault residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain faults and slow-variation offset faults in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed fault detection system are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven Systems

    Gang Huang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a current sensor fault detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the fault residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain faults and slow-variation offset faults in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed fault detection system are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. FPGA-based real-time simulation of power converters of renewable energy sources

    Kokenyesi, Tamas; Varjasi, Istvan [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Automation and Applied Informatics (Hungary)], e-mail:, email:


    This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop testing (HIL) approach based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) real-time simulation with real measured signals designed to reduce the cost and time for testing the main circuit of a power converter significantly. This method allows the control unit to measure its outputs on the same signal level in a completely transparent way, unlike other computer based simulation methods. As an example, a simulator for a three-phase inverter used for DC/AC conversion or frequency control is described and the simulated network illustrated. The calculation procedure and relative equations are also detailed, with simulation parameters and some measurement results being presented. It was found that the main advantage of this method is speed, which was only limited by the actual capabilities of the FPGA used. This method can be applied to a wide variety of analog circuits, reducing time to market. More complex circuits and higher frequencies could be simulated in the future with the evolution of FPGAs.

  9. Beam Commissioning Results of the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS Injection System with Upgraded 400 MeV Beam

    Saha, P. K.

    In order to achieve 1 MW beam power, injection system of the 3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) was upgraded to the design injection energy of 400 MeV in the 2013 from that of 181 MeV. The higher injection energy plays a key role to mitigate the space charge effect at lower energy region so as to realize 1 MW beam. The beam commissioning with newly installed and upgraded components was successful to demonstrate a more than 550 kW beam power in the RCS with sufficiently low beam loss. This is a milestone towards realizing 1 MW, which is scheduled in October 2014. A detail of the design criteria along with 1st stage beam commissioning results are presented.

  10. The Evaluation of the Residual Dose Caused by the Large-Angle Foil Scattering Beam Loss for the High Intensity Beam Operation in the J-PARC RCS

    Kato, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Kazami; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hotchi, Hideaki; Saha, Pranab K.; Kinsho, Michikazu

    The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) has adopted the multi-turn charge-exchange injection scheme that uses H- beams. During injection, both the injected and circulating beams scatter from the charge-exchange foil. Therefore, the beam loss caused by the large-angle scattering from the foil occurs downstream of the injection point. For countermeasure against the uncontrolled beam loss, a new collimation system was developed and installed in the summer shutdown period in 2011. During beam commissioning, this uncontrolled beam loss was successfully localized for a 300 kW beam. Since the present target power of the RCS is 1 MW, the accurate simulation model to reproduce experimental results has been constructed in order to evaluate residual dose at higher power operation.

  11. Engineering description of the OMS/RCS/DAP modes used in the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP)

    Wilson, S. W.


    Simplified mathematical models are reported for the space shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), and on-orbit Digital Autopilot (DAP) that have been incorporated in the High-Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP) for the HP-9825A desk-top calculator. Comparisons were made between data generated by the HFRMP and by the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator (SSFS), which models the cited shuttle systems in much greater detail. These data include propellant requirements for representative translational maneuvers, rotational maneuvers, and attitude maintenance options. Also included are data relating to on-orbit trajectory deviations induced by RCS translational cross coupling. Potential close-range stationkeeping problems that are suggested by HFRMP simulations of 80 millisecond (as opposed to 40 millisecond) DAP cycle effects are described. The principal function of the HFRMP is to serve as a flight design tool in the area of proximity operations.

  12. Research on Parameter Selection of Low RCS Serrated Pylon%低RCS齿形挂架参数选择研究

    黄沛霖; 马东立; 武哲


    常规飞机的机翼与外挂架构成90°的二面角,成为飞机侧向的重要散射源.为求在不改变机体结构的前提下减缩飞机侧向RCS,采用齿形方案改变了挂架外形,消除了直角二面角结构,削弱了耦合效应.计算结果显示,改形的国产某型战斗机的机翼-外挂架结构的RCS在侧向重点姿态角内降低了9~13dBsm,证明了齿形改形方案能明显改善飞机侧向的耦合散射效应.在计算过程中使用了射线追踪法.%Wing and pylon form a structure which is the major lateral scattering sources of an ordinary aircraft because a dihedral angle of ninety degrees is formed. In order to implement a reduction of RCS without any other change on the aircraft, the outline of the pylon is changed by applying a serrated scheme and the right dihedral angle structure is removed, so coupling effect is waken. Computation results reveal that the RCS of the wing-pylon structure on a domestic active fighter plane is reduced by 9 to 13 dBsm in the typical lateral attitude angle range. So it is proved that the serrated scheme could be significant useful in the control of the lateral coupling RCS of the ordinary aircraft. The ray trace method is used to do the calculation of the RCS.

  13. Development of a Robotics-based Satellites Docking Simulator

    Zebenay, M.


    The European Proximity Operation Simulator (EPOS) is a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system aiming, among other objectives, at emulating on-orbit docking of spacecraft for verification and validation of the docking phase. This HIL docking simulator set-up essentially consists of docking interfaces, sim

  14. 终端VoLTE与RCS融合方案研究%Research on Integration Scheme of VoLTE and RCS on Terminals

    张达; 张婷; 戴国华


    介绍了VoLTE和RCS的发展历程,VoLTE与RCS融合是必然趋势,但在此过程中一些关键问题仍未达成一致,不同终端厂家在APN配置、协议栈架构、业务融合等方面实现迥异。通过对VoLTE与RCS融合关键问题进行详细分析,提出了终端VoLTE与RCS融合解决方案的建议。%The development history of VoLTE and RCS is introduced and the integration of them is the inevitable trend. Some critical problems still exist during the integration. Manufacturers behave differently in APN configuration, protocol stack architecture and business integration. By analyzing the key problems for the integration of VoLTE and RCS in detail, the integration solution of VoLTE and RCS on terminals is put forward.

  15. Analyzing the Transcriptomes of Two Quorum-Sensing Controlled Transcription Factors, RcsA and LrhA, Important for Pantoea stewartii Virulence.

    Kernell Burke, Alison; Duong, Duy An; Jensen, Roderick V; Stevens, Ann M


    The Gram-negative proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes wilt disease in corn plants. Wilting is primarily due to bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) production that blocks water transport in the xylem during the late stages of infection. EsaR, the master quorum-sensing (QS) regulator in P. stewartii, modulates EPS levels. At low cell densities EsaR represses or activates expression of a number of genes in the absence of its acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) ligand. At high cell densities, binding of AHL inactivates EsaR leading to derepression or deactivation of its direct targets. Two of these direct targets are the key transcription regulators RcsA and LrhA, which in turn control EPS production and surface motility/adhesion, respectively. In this study, RNA-Seq was used to further examine the physiological impact of deleting the genes encoding these two second-tier regulators. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the regulation observed in the RNA-Seq data. A GFP transcriptional fusion reporter confirmed the existence of a regulatory feedback loop in the system between LrhA and RcsA. Plant virulence assays carried out with rcsA and lrhA deletion and complementation strains demonstrated that both transcription factors play roles during establishment of wilt disease in corn. These efforts further define the hierarchy of the QS-regulated network controlling plant virulence in P. stewartii.

  16. FPGA-Based Efficient Hardware/Software Co-Design for Industrial Systems with Consideration of Output Selection

    Deliparaschos, Kyriakos M.; Michail, Konstantinos; Zolotas, Argyrios C.; Tzafestas, Spyros G.


    This work presents a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based embedded software platform coupled with a software-based plant, forming a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) that is used to validate a systematic sensor selection framework. The systematic sensor selection framework combines multi-objective optimization, linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG)-type control, and the nonlinear model of a maglev suspension. A robustness analysis of the closed-loop is followed (prior to implementation) supporting the appropriateness of the solution under parametric variation. The analysis also shows that quantization is robust under different controller gains. While the LQG controller is implemented on an FPGA, the physical process is realized in a high-level system modeling environment. FPGA technology enables rapid evaluation of the algorithms and test designs under realistic scenarios avoiding heavy time penalty associated with hardware description language (HDL) simulators. The HIL technique facilitates significant speed-up in the required execution time when compared to its software-based counterpart model.

  17. Verification of Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System using air-bearing-based attitude control simulator

    Ousaloo, H. S.; Nodeh, M. T.; Mehrabian, R.


    This paper accomplishes one goal and it was to verify and to validate a Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System (SMACS) program and to perform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) air-bearing experiments. A study of a closed-loop magnetic spin controller is presented using only magnetic rods as actuators. The magnetic spin rate control approach is able to perform spin rate control and it is verified with an Attitude Control System (ACS) air-bearing MATLAB® SIMULINK® model and a hardware-embedded LABVIEW® algorithm that controls the spin rate of the test platform on a spherical air bearing table. The SIMULINK® model includes dynamic model of air-bearing, its disturbances, actuator emulation and the time delays caused by on-board calculations. The air-bearing simulator is employed to develop, improve, and carry out objective tests of magnetic torque rods and spin rate control algorithm in the experimental framework and to provide a more realistic demonstration of expected performance of attitude control as compared with software-based architectures. Six sets of two torque rods are used as actuators for the SMACS. It is implemented and simulated to fulfill mission requirement including spin the satellite up to 12 degs-1 around the z-axis. These techniques are documented for the full nonlinear equations of motion of the system and the performances of these techniques are compared in several simulations.

  18. Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Observation Period (RCS-IOP) millimeter-wave radar calibration and data intercomparison

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)] [and others


    During April 1994, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) fielded two millimeter-wave atmospheric radars in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operation Period (RCS-IOP) experiment. The UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) operates simultaneously at 33.12 GHz and 94.92 GHz through a single antenna. The Penn State radar operates at 93.95 GHz and has separate transmitting and receiving antennas. The two systems were separated by approximately 75 meters and simultaneously observed a variety of cloud types at verticle incidence over the course of the experiment. This abstract presents some initial results from our calibration efforts. An absolute calibration of the UMass radar was made from radar measurements of a trihedral corner reflector, which has a known radar cross-section. A relative calibration of between the Penn State and UMass radars is made from the statistical comparison of zenith pointing measurements of low altitude liquid clouds. Attenuation is removed with the aid of radiosonde data, and the difference in the calibration between the UMass and Penn State radars is determined by comparing the ratio of 94-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity values to a model that accounts for parallax effects of the two antennas used in the Penn State system.

  19. Calculation and Analysis of Certain Missile's Drone RCS%某导弹靶标RCS的计算与分析

    高田; 景占荣; 许家栋; 邹昕


    利用某导弹靶标可对反导防御系统进行性能评估,以满足武器系统的定型、试验和训练的要求;为分析靶标的RCS,文章从基本电磁散射理论入手,介绍了物理光学法和等效电磁流法,并给出了目标表面反射场和边缘绕射场的RCS计算方法;最后利用物理光学法(PO:Physical Optics)和等效电磁流法(MEC:Method of Equivalent Currents)相结合的方法对某导弹靶标模型进行仿真计算;结果表明,该方法运算速度快,计算结果符合导弹靶标RCS的变化规律,可以满足工程设计的需要,为后续的研究提供了可信的数据.

  20. Research of Reducing the Surface's RCS by Using Active Periodical Structure%有源周期性结构缩减表面RCS的研究

    周焱; 苏东林


    How to reduce Radar Cross Section(RCS) of aircraft's surface effectively is important and key issue at the field of research of aircraft steal.Structural absorb is proposed in this paper, using the periodical surface's character of band gap and impedance transition of electromagnetic crystal structure such as Photonic band gap and high impedance surface(HIS) and so on, to put single or multilayer periodical structure on the surface of the shell of aircraft, and to put the Varactor Diode onto the approximate HIS to join each cell of metal on top layer to realize the electronic control for periodical structure, will establish the active periodical structure.This structure could realize absorbing the exotic electromagnetic wave and restrain surface wave on it.The result of above process is reducing the RCS of the surface of aircraft effectively.The simulation test prove that this method and technology could reduce RCS 3~14 dB at working frequency band by using single or double layer active periodical structure, and reduce RCS 20 dB with the ideal condition of multilayer structure, and the working frequency band could be changed and controlled by electronic method also.%在飞行器隐身的研究中,如何有效地降低其表面雷达散射截面(RCS)是重点和研究热点.提出结构性吸收概念,利用如光带隙电磁结晶结构、高阻抗结构等周期性结构的带隙特性和阻抗特性,在物体表面设置单层或多层周期性结构,并通过在类似高阻抗表面的周期性金属单元表面铺设有源器件一变容二极管控制周期性结构的性能,从而实现对入射电磁波的吸收和对表面波的抑制,有效降低了机身表面的RCS.仿真实验证明采用单层或双层有源周期性结构表面,在周期性结构带隙频带内,可以将RCS减缩到3~14 dB,并在多层结构理想化优化条件下,达到缩减RCS 20dB以上,并且可以通过电控方法控制减缩RCS的频带范围.

  1. Real-Time Algebraic Derivative Estimations Using a Novel Low-Cost Architecture Based on Reconfigurable Logic

    Rafael Morales


    Full Text Available Time derivative estimation of signals plays a very important role in several fields, such as signal processing and control engineering, just to name a few of them. For that purpose, a non-asymptotic algebraic procedure for the approximate estimation of the system states is used in this work. The method is based on results from differential algebra and furnishes some general formulae for the time derivatives of a measurable signal in which two algebraic derivative estimators run simultaneously, but in an overlapping fashion. The algebraic derivative algorithm presented in this paper is computed online and in real-time, offering high robustness properties with regard to corrupting noises, versatility and ease of implementation. Besides, in this work, we introduce a novel architecture to accelerate this algebraic derivative estimator using reconfigurable logic. The core of the algorithm is implemented in an FPGA, improving the speed of the system and achieving real-time performance. Finally, this work proposes a low-cost platform for the integration of hardware in the loop in MATLAB.

  2. Digital Controller Development Methodology Based on Real-Time Simulations with LabVIEW FPGA Hardware-Software Toolset

    Tommaso Caldognetto


    Full Text Available In this paper, we exemplify the use of NI Lab-VIEW FPGA as a rapid prototyping environment for digital controllers. In our power electronics laboratory, it has been successfully employed in the development, debugging, and test of different power converter controllers for microgrid applications.The paper shows how this high level programming language,together with its target hardware platforms, including CompactRIO and Single Board RIO systems, allows researchers and students to develop even complex applications in reasonable times. The availability of efficient drivers for the considered hardware platforms frees the users from the burden of low level programming. At the same time, the high level programming approach facilitates software re-utilization, allowing the laboratory know-how to steadily grow along time. Furthermore, it allows hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulation, that proved to be effective, and safe, in debugging even complex hardware and software co-designed controllers. To illustrate the effectiveness of these hardware-software toolsets and of the methodology based upon them, two case studies are

  3. The Rcs stress response and accessory envelope proteins are required for de novo generation of cell shape in Escherichia coli.

    Ranjit, Dev K; Young, Kevin D


    Interactions with immune responses or exposure to certain antibiotics can remove the peptidoglycan wall of many Gram-negative bacteria. Though the spheroplasts thus created usually lyse, some may survive by resynthesizing their walls and shapes. Normally, bacterial morphology is generated by synthetic complexes directed by FtsZ and MreBCD or their homologues, but whether these classic systems can recreate morphology in the absence of a preexisting template is unknown. To address this question, we treated Escherichia coli with lysozyme to remove the peptidoglycan wall while leaving intact the inner and outer membranes and periplasm. The resulting lysozyme-induced (LI) spheroplasts recovered a rod shape after four to six generations. Recovery proceeded via a series of cell divisions that produced misshapen and branched intermediates before later progeny assumed a normal rod shape. Importantly, mutants defective in mounting the Rcs stress response and those lacking penicillin binding protein 1B (PBP1B) or LpoB could not divide or recover their cell shape but instead enlarged until they lysed. LI spheroplasts from mutants lacking the Lpp lipoprotein or PBP6 produced spherical daughter cells that did not recover a normal rod shape or that did so only after a significant delay. Thus, to regenerate normal morphology de novo, E. coli must supplement the classic FtsZ- and MreBCD-directed cell wall systems with activities that are otherwise dispensable for growth under normal laboratory conditions. The existence of these auxiliary mechanisms implies that they may be required for survival in natural environments, where bacterial walls can be damaged extensively or removed altogether.

  4. Bandwidth estimation and optimisation in rain faded DVB-RCS networks


    Broadband satellite communication networks operating at Ka band (20-30 GHz) play a very important role in today’s worldwide telecommunication infrastructure. The problem, however, is that rain can be the most dominant impairment factor for radio propagation in these frequency bands. Allocating frequency bandwidth based on the worst-case rain fading leads to the waste of the frequency spectrum due to over reservation, as actual rain levels may vary. Therefore, it is essential that satellit...

  5. Control Loops for the J-PARC RCS Digital Low-Level RF Control

    Schnase, Alexander; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Takagi, Akira; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito


    The low-level radiofrequency control for the Rapic Cycling Synchrotron of J-PARC is based on digital signal processing. This system controls the acceleration voltages of 12 magnetic alloy loaded cavities. To achive a short overall delay, mandatory for stable loop operation, the data-processing is based on distributed arithmetics in FPGA. Due to the broadband characteristic of the acceleration cavities, no tuning loop is needed. To handle the large beam current, the RF system operates simultaneously with dual harmonics (h=2) and (h=4). The stability of the amplitude loops is limited by the delay of the FIR filters used after downconversion. The phase loop offers several operation modes to define the phase relation of (h=2) and (h=4) between the longitudinal beam signal and the vector-sum of the cavity voltages. Besides the FIR filters, we provide cascaded CIC filters with smoothly varying coefficients. Such a filter tracks the revolution frequency and has a substantially shorter delay, thereby increasing the s...

  6. Model-based Design for Embedded C Code Realization and Validation%基于模型的嵌入式C代码的实现与验证

    徐超坤; 朱婷; 李威宣


    以51芯片为例,讲述了模型的建立、调试与验证,以及基于模型的嵌入式C代码的自动生成及软硬件在环测试。实践表明,该基于模型的设计方法可显著提高工作效率、缩短研发周期、降低开发成本,并且增加了代码的安全性与鲁棒性,有效降低了产品软件开发的风险。%Taking 51 chip as example, this article describes the model building and validation, model-based embedded C code automatic generation and software/hardware in the loop testing. Practice shows that the method can significantly improve work efficiency, shorten the development cycle, reduce development costs, increase code security and robustness, and effectively avoid the risks in product software development.

  7. Characterization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System Based on a Factorial Design of Experiments Using Hardware Simulation

    Restrepo, Bernardo; Banta, Larry E; Tucker, David


    A full factorial experimental design and a replicated fractional factorial design were carried out using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project facility installed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy to simulate gasifer/fuel cell/turbine hybrid power systems. The HyPer facility uses hardware in the loop (HIL) technology that couples a modified recuperated gas turbine cycle with hardware driven by a solid oxide fuel cell model. A 34 full factorial design (FFD) was selected to study the effects of four factors: cold-air, hot-air, bleed-air bypass valves, and the electric load on different parameters such as cathode and turbine inlet temperatures, pressure and mass flow. The results obtained, compared with former results where the experiments were made using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT), show that no strong interactions between the factors are present in the different parameters of the system. This work also presents a fractional factorial design (ffd) 34-2 in order to analyze replication of the experiments. In addition, a new envelope is described based on the results of the design of experiments (DoE), compared with OFAT experiments, and analyzed in an off-design integrated fuel cell/gas turbine framework. This paper describes the methodology, strategy, and results of these experiments that bring new knowledge concerning the operating state space for this kind of power generation system.

  8. 基因转染的虹膜色素上皮细胞移植后RCS鼠视网膜BDNF表达观察%Retinal BDNF expressions in RCS rats after transplantation of gene transfected iris pigment epithelium

    张英瑜; 高朋芬; 杨丽霞


    目的 探讨脑源性神经营养因子(brain-derived neurotrophic factor,BDNF)基因转染的虹膜色素上皮细胞(AAV-BDNF-IPE)移植入皇家外科学院(royal college of surgeons,RCS)大鼠视网膜下腔后,不同时期视网膜组织BDNF表达变化.方法 通过外路途径将BDNF基因转染的虹膜色素上皮细胞移植到RCS大鼠视网膜下腔,术后3、5、7、9、11周分别取RCS大鼠手术眼及对照组动物眼视网膜组织,用酶联免疫吸附法(Elisa)检测视网膜组织中BDNF的表达水平,比较分析这些数据.结果 对照组RCS大鼠出生后3周龄时视网膜组织中BDNF仍保持较高水平,其后迅速降低,其中3周龄组与其它周龄组比较,P<0.01;手术组RCS大鼠术时、术后3、5、7、9、11周各组间两两比较,BDNF表达无显著差异(P>0.05);出生后6周龄直到14周龄的不同时期,AAV-BDNF-IPE移植手术组RCS大鼠视网膜BDNF表达水平均明显高于对照组(其中6周龄组P<0.05,其它各周龄组P<0.01).结论 BDNF基因转染的虹膜色素上皮细胞在RCS大鼠视网膜下腔移植后,视网膜组织中BDNF可以持续稳定高水平表达,这为临床开发新的神经营养因子给药方式提供了实验依据.%Objective To investigate the retinal brain derived neurotrophic factor( BDNF) expressions in different phases of royal college of surgeons( RCS) rats after BDNF transfected iris pigment epithelium( AAV-BDNF-IPE) being transplanted into the subretinal space of RCS rat. Methods AAV-BDNF-IPEs were transplanted into the subretinal space of RCS rats. BDNF expressions in retinal tissue of intact RCS rats and surgery RCS rats were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( Elisa) at 3 ,5 ,7 ,9and 11 weeks after surgery. Results BDNF expressions in retinal tissue of intact RCS rats were still high at postnatal 3w and were sharply decreased into low level later; retinal BDNF expression of intact RCS rats at postnatal 3w were much higher than those at other

  9. Cross-layer anticipation of ressource allocation for multimedia applications based on SIP signaling over DVB-RCS satellite system

    Nivor, Frédéric; Gineste, Mathieu; Baudoin, C; Berthou, Pascal; Gayraud, Thierry


    International audience; This paper introduces a cross-layer approach for improving QoS guaranties to interactive multimedia applications over an efficient satellite access assignment scheme (on-demand). It particularly focuses on the communication opening which represents the weakness of on-demand capacity allocation in the satellite context (due to significant delays). It finally presents experimental results of the various proposed enhancements.

  10. Weak-lensing-inferred scaling relations of galaxy clusters in the RCS2: mass-richness, mass-concentration, mass-bias and more

    van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Semboloni, Elisabetta; Gladders, Michael D; Yee, H K C


    We study a sample of ~10^4 galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.2 5x10^13 h_70^-1 M_sun, discovered in the second Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2). The depth and excellent image quality of the RCS2 enable us to detect the cluster-mass cross-correlation up to z~0.7. To obtain cluster masses, concentrations and halo biases, we fit a cluster halo model simultaneously to the lensing signal and to the projected density profile of red-sequence cluster members, as the latter provides tight constraints on the cluster miscentring distribution. We parametrise the mass-richness relation as M_200 = A x (N_200/20)^alpha, and find A = (16.7 +- 1.2) x 10^13 h_70^-1 M_sun and alpha = 0.73 +- 0.09 at low redshift (0.2

  11. Evidence for line-of-sight structure in a comparison of X-ray and optical observations of the high-redshift cluster RCS043938-2904.7

    Cain, Benjamin; Bautz, M W; Hicks, A; Yee, H K; Gladders, M; Ellingson, E; Barrientos, L F; Garmire, G P


    We present new Chandra observations of a high redshift (z~1) galaxy cluster discovered in the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS): RCS043938-2904.7. X-ray luminosity measurements and mass estimates are consistent with L_X-T_X and M_delta-T_X relationships obtained from low-redshift data. Assuming a single cluster, X-ray mass estimates are a factor of ~10-100 below the red-sequence optical richness mass estimate. Optical spectroscopy reveals that this cluster comprises two components which are close enough to perhaps be physically associated. We present simple modeling of this two-component system which then yields an X-ray mass and optical richness consistent with expectations from statistical samples of lower redshift clusters. An unexpectedly high gas mass fraction is measured assuming a single cluster, which independently supports this interpretation. Additional observations will be necessary to confirm the excess gas mass fraction and to constrain the mass distribution.

  12. An overview of an accelerator-based neutron spallation source

    Lessner, E.S.


    An overview of the feasibility study of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source is presented. The machine delivers 1 MW of proton beam power to spallation targets where slow neutrons are produced. The slow neutrons can be used for isotope production, materials irradiation, and neutron scattering research. The neutron source facility is based on a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) and consists of a 400-MeV linac, a 30-Hz RCS that accelerates the 400-MeV beam to 2 GeV, and two neutron-generating target stations. The RCS accelerates an average proton beam current of 0.5 mA, corresponding to 1.04 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse. This intensity is about two times higher than that of existing machines. A key feature of this accelerator system design is that beam losses are minimized from injection to extraction, reducing activation to levels consistent with hands-on maintenance.

  13. Transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells migrate in RCS-P+ rat retina through secreting MMP-3%嗅鞘细胞移植后通过分泌MMP-3在RCS-P+大鼠视网膜中迁移

    谢晶; 李瑶琛; 阴正勤


    目的 初步研究将嗅鞘细胞( olfactory ensheathing cells,OECs)及嗅球成纤维细胞(olfactory nerve fibroblasts,ONF)混合细胞移植到皇家外科学院大鼠(Royal College of Surgeon rat,RCS-P+ rat)的视网膜下腔后,OECs/ONF迁移进入视网膜的机制.方法 离体实验中,取成年RCS-rdy+-P+大鼠的嗅球培养OECs/ONF至14d行OECs/ONF的基质金属蛋白酶-3(matrix- metalloproteinase-3,MMP-3)细胞免疫荧光染色.收集5、8、11、14 d OECs/ONF培养液上清,与普通培养液超滤后进行酶联免疫吸附实验( ELISA),检测MMP-3的含量变化.在体实验中,制作40只RCS-P+大鼠单眼视网膜下腔细胞移植,并以对侧眼作为伪手术组以及相同天龄未处理大鼠作为对照组.术后7、14、21、28 d用ELISA法检测细胞移植组、伪手术组及未处理组大鼠视网膜中MMP-3含量的变化.将携带绿色荧光的慢病毒感染后的OECs/ONF移植到4只RCS-P+大鼠视网膜下腔,激光共聚焦显微镜观察移植后7、14、21 d及28 d OECs/ONF在视网膜中迁移情况.结果 离体实验中,培养14d时OECs/ONF的MMP-3免疫细胞化学染色阳性.OECs/ONF培养液上清MMP-3含量分别为5d(2.83±0.80)、8 d(6.34±1.12)、11 d(11.65±1.35)、14 d(19.11 ±2.11),明显高于普通D/F12+ 10% FBS培养液(1.65±0.44) (P<0.01);在体实验中,移植后21 d及28 d,OECs/ONF移植组视网膜MMP-3的含量[(1.80±0 29)、(3.96±0.51)]明显高于伪手术组[(1.17±0.20)、(1.83±0.26)]和未处理组[(1.19±0.17)、(1.92±0.25)](P<0.01),伪手术组与未处理组之间无明显统计学差异(P>0.05).激光共聚焦显微镜观察可见移植后7~28 d,OECs/ONF 在视网膜中迁移,最远能够达到神经节细胞层.结论 OECs/ONF移植到RCS视网膜下腔后,可能通过分泌MMP-3在RCS-P+大鼠视网膜中迁移.%Objective To investigate how olfactory ensheathing cells ( OECs) migrate in the retina of pigmented Royal College of Surgeon rats (RCS-P + rats) after being

  14. CSNS/RCS中主要阻抗元件的仿真计算研究%Impedance Computation of Main Components in CSNS/RCS

    李勇; 王娜; 刘瑜冬; 李志平; 施华; 黄良生; 王生


    中国散裂中子源(CSNS)快循环同步加速器(RCS)是强流质子加速器,对环中真空元件的阻抗研究是判断束流能否稳定运行的重要依据.通过正确估算环中元件阻抗,可及时对元件的阻抗进行有效控制和防止束流不稳定性发生,从而减小束流损失.本文利用CST电磁场仿真软件给出了RCS环中高频腔及准直器的耦合阻抗,并探讨了bus- bar结构对高频腔本身及束流稳定的影响,发现需重新设计bus-bar结构使腔固有频率大于10 MHz才能彻底解决因共振可能引起的丢束.此外,计算表明,主准直器屏蔽有利于减小耦合阻抗及损失功率,在安装代价较小的情况下需对主准直器进行屏蔽.%The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a high intensity proton accelerator. The study on the coupling impedance in the ring plays an important role in the stability of the beams. The total impedances of the ring and the occurrence of the beam instability can be controlled by evaluating of the coupling impedance accurately. The impedances of some main components in the RCS ring, such as RF cavities and collimator were calculated by using numerical simulation. The impact of bus-bar's configuration on RF cavities and beams was estimated by impedance calculation. To solve resonance thoroughly, the inherent frequency should be more than 10 MHz by designing bus-bar's structure again. Furthermore, the RF shield of primary collimator was introduced, which shows a significant reduction of both the longitudinal coupling impedances and the loss power with small installation cost.

  15. A Multi-Wavelength Mass Analysis of RCS2 J232727.6-020437, a ~3x10$^{15}$M$_{\\odot}$ Galaxy Cluster at z=0.7

    Sharon, K; Marrone, D P; Hoekstra, H; Rasia, E; Bourdin, H; Gifford, D; Hicks, A K; Greer, C; Barrientos, L F; Bayliss, M; Carlstrom, J E; Gilbank, D G; Gralla, M; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Leitch, E; Mazzotta, P; Mroczkowski, T; Muchovej, S J C; Schrabback, T; Yee, H K C


    We present an initial study of the mass and evolutionary state of a massive and distant cluster, RCS2 J232727.6-020437. This cluster, at z=0.6986, is the richest cluster discovered in the RCS2 project. The mass measurements presented in this paper are derived from all possible mass proxies: X-ray measurements, weak-lensing shear, strong lensing, Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect decrement, the velocity distribution of cluster member galaxies, and galaxy richness. While each of these observables probe the mass of the cluster at a different radius, they all indicate that RCS2 J232727.6-020437 is among the most massive clusters at this redshift, with an estimated mass of M_200 ~3 x10^15 h^-1 Msun. In this paper, we demonstrate that the various observables are all reasonably consistent with each other to within their uncertainties. RCS2 J232727.6-020437 appears to be well relaxed -- with circular and concentric X-ray isophotes, with a cool core, and no indication of significant substructure in extensive galaxy velocity d...

  16. Auto Code Generation for Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System

    MolinaFraticelli, Jose Carlos


    This paper details the work done to auto generate C code from a Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System (ADCS) to be used in target platforms. NASA Marshall Engineers have developed an ADCS Simulink simulation to be used as a component for the flight software of a satellite. This generated code can be used for carrying out Hardware in the loop testing of components for a satellite in a convenient manner with easily tunable parameters. Due to the nature of the embedded hardware components such as microcontrollers, this simulation code cannot be used directly, as it is, on the target platform and must first be converted into C code; this process is known as auto code generation. In order to generate C code from this simulation; it must be modified to follow specific standards set in place by the auto code generation process. Some of these modifications include changing certain simulation models into their atomic representations which can bring new complications into the simulation. The execution order of these models can change based on these modifications. Great care must be taken in order to maintain a working simulation that can also be used for auto code generation. After modifying the ADCS simulation for the auto code generation process, it is shown that the difference between the output data of the former and that of the latter is between acceptable bounds. Thus, it can be said that the process is a success since all the output requirements are met. Based on these results, it can be argued that this generated C code can be effectively used by any desired platform as long as it follows the specific memory requirements established in the Simulink Model.

  17. Research on Space Target Recognition Algorithm Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Shen Yiying


    Full Text Available The space target recognition algorithm, which is based on the time series of radar cross section (RCS, is proposed in this paper to solve the problems of space target recognition in the active radar system. In the algorithm, EMD method is applied for the first time to extract the eigen of RCS time series. The normalized instantaneous frequencies of high-frequency intrinsic mode functions obtained by EMD are used as the eigen values for the recognition, and an effective target recognition criterion is established. The effectiveness and the stability of the algorithm are verified by both simulation data and real data. In addition, the algorithm could reduce the estimation bias of RCS caused by inaccurate evaluation, and it is of great significance in promoting the target recognition ability of narrow-band radar in practice.  

  18. Shifting Rule Modification Strategy of Automatic Transmission Based on Driver-vehicle-road Environment

    WU Guangqiang; ZHANG Deming


    Accidental or frequent shift often occurs when the shifting rule is built based on traditional two parameters (I.e., velocity and throttle), because the speed of engine varies slower than change of throttle opening. Currently, modifying shift point velocity value or throttle by throttle change rate is one of common methods, but the results are not so satisfactory in some working condition such as uphill. The reason is that these methods merely consider throttle change rate which is not enough for a car driving in driver-vehicle-road environment system. So a novel fuzzy control modification strategy is proposed to avoid or reduce those abnormal shift actions. It can adjust shifting rule by the change rate of throttle, current gear position and road environment information, while different gear position and driving environment get corresponding modification value. In order to compare the results of shifting actions, fuel consumption and braking distance, emergent braking in level road and extra-urban driving cycle(EUDC) working conditions with fuzzy shifting schedule modification strategy are simulated digitally. Furthermore, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform is introduced to verify its effect in slope road condition according to the ON/OFF numbers of solenoid valve in hydraulic system. The simulation results show that the problem of unexpected shift in those working conditions may be resolved by fuzzy modification strategy. At last, it is concluded that although there is some slight decline in power performance in uphill situation, this fuzzy modification strategy could correctly identify slope of road, decrease braking distance, improve vehicle comfort and fuel economy effectively and prolong the life of clutch system. So, this fuzzy logic shifting strategy provides important References for vehicle intelligent shifting schedule.

  19. Simulation-Based Analysis of Reentry Dynamics for the Sharp Atmospheric Entry Vehicle

    Tillier, Clemens Emmanuel


    This thesis describes the analysis of the reentry dynamics of a high-performance lifting atmospheric entry vehicle through numerical simulation tools. The vehicle, named SHARP, is currently being developed by the Thermal Protection Materials and Systems branch of NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The goal of this project is to provide insight into trajectory tradeoffs and vehicle dynamics using simulation tools that are powerful, flexible, user-friendly and inexpensive. Implemented Using MATLAB and SIMULINK, these tools are developed with an eye towards further use in the conceptual design of the SHARP vehicle's trajectory and flight control systems. A trajectory simulator is used to quantify the entry capabilities of the vehicle subject to various operational constraints. Using an aerodynamic database computed by NASA and a model of the earth, the simulator generates the vehicle trajectory in three-dimensional space based on aerodynamic angle inputs. Requirements for entry along the SHARP aerothermal performance constraint are evaluated for different control strategies. Effect of vehicle mass on entry parameters is investigated, and the cross range capability of the vehicle is evaluated. Trajectory results are presented and interpreted. A six degree of freedom simulator builds on the trajectory simulator and provides attitude simulation for future entry controls development. A Newtonian aerodynamic model including control surfaces and a mass model are developed. A visualization tool for interpreting simulation results is described. Control surfaces are roughly sized. A simple controller is developed to fly the vehicle along its aerothermal performance constraint using aerodynamic flaps for control. This end-to-end demonstration proves the suitability of the 6-DOF simulator for future flight control system development. Finally, issues surrounding real-time simulation with hardware in the loop are discussed.

  20. Evolution of the luminosity-to-halo mass relation of LRGs from a combined SDSS-DR10+RCS2 analysis

    van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Herbonnet, Ricardo


    We study the evolution of the luminosity-to-halo mass relation of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We select a sample of 52 000 LOWZ and CMASS LRGs from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) SDSS-DR10 in the ~450 deg^2 that overlaps with imaging data from the second Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2), group them into bins of absolute magnitude and redshift and measure their weak lensing signals. The source redshift distribution has a median of 0.7, which allows us to study the lensing signal as a function of lens redshift. We interpret the lensing signal using a halo model, from which we obtain the halo masses as well as the normalisations of the mass-concentration relations. We find that the concentration of haloes that host LRGs is consistent with dark matter only simulations once we allow for miscentering or satellites in the modelling. The slope of the luminosity-to-halo mass relation has a typical value of 1.4 and does not change with redshift, but we do find evidence for a change in amplitude:...

  1. 直升机旋翼涂敷吸波材料减缩RCS试验研究%Test Research on RCS Reduction of Coating RAM for Helicopter Blades

    刘军辉; 张云飞


    翼面类部件的RCS减缩始终是飞行器隐身研究的重要课题,在微波暗室对某直升机旋翼金属模型和涂敷吸波材料模型进行测试研究。在金属旋翼模型表面涂敷1 mm厚吸波材料,可以在8~18 GHz、HH极化下,将其RCS的峰值减缩5~8 dB,360°周向算术均值减缩约5 dB,充分利用了所用吸波材料平板试件法向减缩量8~11 dB的性能,减缩效果十分明显。而在VV极化,除了前缘RCS峰值的减缩量能达到3~5 dB外,后缘RCS峰值和周向RCS算术均值的减缩量均很小。研究结果对于翼面类部件的RCS减缩具有重要参考价值。%RCS(Radar Cross Section) reduction of wing type components is an important issue for aircraft stealth design. The test on high frequency backscattering by a helicopter metal model blade and a model blade coated with radar absorbing material (RAM) were carded in the anechoic chamber. For horizontal polarization (HH), at frequency between 8~18 GHz, blade coated with 1 mm thick RAM compared with a metal one, the peak RCS was reduced by 5~8 dB and the arithmetic average RCS around 00-360~ was reduced by 5 dB. The reflective performance of plates coated with RAM is no more than 8-11 dB was full used. For VV polarization, the peak RCS of the leading edge was reduced by 3-5 dB, but the reducing shrinkage of the tail edge and the arithmetic average RCS around 0°-360° was a few. The result has important reference value for RCS reduction of the wing components.

  2. RCS大鼠病变过程中视网膜电图振荡电位的频域特性分析%Frequency domain analysis of dark-adapted oscillatory potentials of electroretinogram in RCS rats

    谢晶; 陈莹迪; 阴正勤; 翁传煌


    目的 观察皇家外科学院大鼠(royal college of surgeons,RCS)视网膜变性过程中的暗适应视网膜电图(electroretinogram,ERG)振荡电位(oscillatory potentials,OPs)频域特性.方法 选择出生后20、30、40 d及60 d的RCS大鼠各3只,采用RETI-sean记录系统进行闪光视网膜电图(flash electroretinogram,F-ERG)OPs记录,记录电极为环形角膜电极,参考电极为不锈钢针状电极,刺激强度为0dB,通过Matlab提取OPs成分,分析其频谱特性.结果 相对于同龄的正常大鼠,RCS大鼠OPs频域幅值明显重度降低(P<0.01),且高频成分缺失.RCS大鼠发育过程中,随着病程进展至40 d时对应的频率向高频部分明显延迟(P<0.05),进展至60d时其频域幅值明显降低(P<0.05).结论 RCS大鼠ERG的OPs频域特性与视网膜功能的变性程度存在相关性,利用这些特性可以更明显观察到视网膜变性对大鼠视网膜功能的影响.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of frequency domain of dark-adapted oscillatory potentials (OPs) of electroretinogram (ERG) in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats.Methods Different ages (20,30,40 and 60 d) of RCS-rdy--p + rats were involved,and there were three rats of each age.Dark-adapted OPs of flash ERG (F-ERG) was recorded with RETI-scan system.Gold-foil ring cornea electrode was used as the recording electrode and home-made stainless steel needle electrode was used as the reference.The intensity of light was 0 dB.OPs components were extracted by software Matlab 7.0 and the characteristics of OPs were analyzed.Results Compared with the normal rats with same age,the frequencydomain amplitude of RCS rats significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and the high-frequency components of RCS rats disappeared.With the development of the disease,the frequency of the peak amplitude was delayed to high frequency at 40 d (P < 0.05),and the amplitude of the peak reduced significantly at 60 d (P < 0.05).Conclusions There is a correlation

  3. Research on Equivalent Equipment of Launch Vehicle Nozzle Base on FPGA%基于FPGA的运载火箭喷管等效装置研究

    夏阳; 高晓颖; 邹莹


    In the hardware - in - the - loop simulation of launch vehicle control system, it is common that the e-quivalent equipment of launch vehicle nozzle is needed to simulate the speciality of nozzle and close the control system. The former equivalent equipment of nozzle couldnot meet the application demand of the simulation system nowadays. This paper firstly transforms the transfer function of the launch vehicle nozzle into the corresponding difference equations. Secondly, the operation process is realized with state machine principle based on the algorithm of floating point numbers with VHDL. Finally, the equivalent equipment of launch vehicle nozzle is realized based on the FPGA and other peripheral circuit. The tests of the equivalent equipment of launch vehicle nozzle indicate that it can simulate completely the speciality of the nozzles with high precision.%在运载火箭控制系统半实物仿真和全实物仿真过程中,通常需要喷管等效装置实现对运载火箭喷管的特性模拟和系统闭合.传统的喷管等效装置已不能满足现今的系统应用需求.从工程实际角度出发,首先将喷管传递函数离散化变换为对应的差分方程,再在VHDL浮点算法的基础上,采用状态机电路原理在FPGA上实现该差分方程的运算过程,最后基于该FPGA构建外围硬件电路,实现了运载火箭喷管等效装置.经测试表明,该喷管等效装置完全能够高精度模拟喷管特性.

  4. The Integrated Development System for Vehicle Control based on Seamless Connection between Hard and Software Implementation

    Xin ZHANG


    Full Text Available This paper, establishes a complete vehicle model in MATLAB/Simulink development environment, constructs a vehicle control application using Stateflow, Generates C source code for a microcontroller with Real Time Workshop, builds object code for target CPU, develops an efficient seamless development system used in real-time hardware in the loop system, and validates the system practical performance at the final stage by the implementation of vehicle ABS system.

  5. STOMP: A Software Architecture for the Design and Simulation UAV-Based Sensor Networks

    Jones, E D; Roberts, R S; Hsia, T C S


    This paper presents the Simulation, Tactical Operations and Mission Planning (STOMP) software architecture and framework for simulating, controlling and communicating with unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) servicing large distributed sensor networks. STOMP provides hardware-in-the-loop capability enabling real UAVs and sensors to feedback state information, route data and receive command and control requests while interacting with other real or virtual objects thereby enhancing support for simulation of dynamic and complex events.

  6. On the validation of SPDM task verification facility

    Ma, Ou; Wang, Jiegao; Misra, Sarthak; Liu, Michael


    This paper describes a methodology for validating a ground-based, hardware-in-the-loop, space-robot simulation facility. This facility, called ‘‘SPDM task verification facility,’’ is being developed by the Canadian Space Agency for the purpose of verifying the contact dynamics performance of the spe

  7. Visualization for starlight navigation simulation

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Hong; Du, Huijie; Gao, Yang; Lei, Jie


    The star sensor simulation system is uesed to test the star sensor performance on the ground,which is designed for star identification and spacecraft attitude determnation of the spacecraft. The computer star scene based on the astronomical star chat is generated for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the star sensor simulation system using by openGL.

  8. ATS/AGV: design, implementation and evaluation of a high performance AGV

    Ploeg, J.; Knaap, A.C.M. van der; Verburg, D.J.


    Within the framework of a full scale hardware-in-the-loop intelligent vehicle simulator called VEHIL, an automatic guided vehicle is developed in order to simulate traffic participants. This vehicle, called ATS/AGV, is based on a four wheel drive and four wheel steer concept which allows for a high

  9. ATS/AGV: design, implementation and evaluation of a high performance AGV

    Ploeg, J.; Knaap, A.C.M. van der; Verburg, D.J.


    Within the framework of a full scale hardware-in-the-loop intelligent vehicle simulator called VEHIL, an automatic guided vehicle is developed in order to simulate traffic participants. This vehicle, called ATS/AGV, is based on a four wheel drive and four wheel steer concept which allows for a high

  10. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan


    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  11. Excitation of half-integer resonances by random quadrupole field errors in the BETA-BEAM RCS

    Lachaize, A

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of the Beta-Beam facility has been designed to operatewith horizontal and vertical tunes between 6 and 7 in order to avoid systematicresonances up to the fourth order. Nevertheless, unavoidable magnet imperfections mayexcite non systematic second order resonances which may pertub particle motion.In this paper an Hamiltonian treatment based on a well established formalism [1-3] is used to analyze the resonance excitation and to suggest correction schemes minimizing their effects.[1] A. Schoch. Theory of linear and non linear perturbations of betatron oscillations inalternating gradient synchrotrons. CERN 52-21, 1958.[2] G. Guignard. A general treatment of resonances in accelerators. CERN 78-11, 1978.[3] J-L. Laclare, G. Leleux, and A. Tkatchenko. Resonnances quadrupolaires- aleatoiresquadrupolaires et corrections. DSS-GERS- 74-91/TP-06, 1974.

  12. Design of Motor-Driven Load Simulator Based on Improved Compensation Control Strategy%基于改进补偿控制策略的电动负载模拟器设计

    李瑞; 王明艳; 张奥扬


      负载模拟器可以模拟飞行器飞行过程中受到的空气力矩,是重要的半实物仿真设备之一。针对电动负载模拟器存在的多余力矩,且严重影响了加载精度和系统的稳定性,通过在加载系统的基本结构和原理上,对加载系统进行建模,分析常规补偿法的局限性,提出改进的补偿方法,并用复合控制策略来设计控制系统。仿真结果表明,此方法能够大幅度消除多余力矩,且在工程中有一定的可行性。%Load simulator is an important equipment in hardware-in-the-loop simulation, which can simulate the air torque during aircraft flight. The extra torque existing in the motor-driven load simulator influenced the load precision and system stability. The model of load system is built based on the basic structure and principle of load system, the limitations of the conventional compensation method are analyzed, and the improved compensation method is proposed. The control system is designed by compound control strategy. The simulation results show that the method can greatly reduce the extra torque and can be used in the engineering.

  13. Synchrotron based spallation neutron source concepts

    Cho, Y.


    During the past 20 years, rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) have been used very productively to generate short-pulse thermal neutron beams for neutron scattering research by materials science communities in Japan (KENS), the UK (ISIS) and the US (IPNS). The most powerful source in existence, ISIS in the UK, delivers a 160-kW proton beam to a neutron-generating target. Several recently proposed facilities require proton beams in the MW range to produce intense short-pulse neutron beams. In some proposals, a linear accelerator provides the beam power and an accumulator ring compresses the pulse length to the required {approx} 1 {micro}s. In others, RCS technology provides the bulk of the beam power and compresses the pulse length. Some synchrotron-based proposals achieve the desired beam power by combining two or more synchrotrons of the same energy, and others propose a combination of lower and higher energy synchrotrons. This paper presents the rationale for using RCS technology, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of synchrotron-based spallation sources.

  14. A Power Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation System Part Two A Novel Interface Algorithm Adapted to Active Hardware-under-test%功率连接型数字物理混合仿真系统(二)适应有源被试系统的新型接口算法

    胡昱宙; 张沛超; 包海龙; 方陈


    将实时数字仿真技术和动态物理模拟技术结合起来,可以对含可再生能源和储能的微网系统进行研究与测试.由于被试系统为有源系统,对混合仿真系统的接口算法提出了更高的要求.针对简化阻尼阻抗接口,设计了一种适用于有源被试系统的阻抗跟踪算法,实现了实时阻抗匹配.提出了一种新的混合接口模型,新接口用理想变压器接口构成前向驱动器,以激励物理模拟系统;由简化阻尼阻抗接口构成反向观测器,以获得精确的数字仿真结果.MATLAB仿真表明,对于有源被试系统,新接口算法兼顾了简化阻尼接口算法对数字仿真系统的“透明性”以及理想变压器接口的带有源负载能力.%In order to study and test the characteristics of the distributed energy resources and storages embedded in the microgrids, it is important to combine the real-time digital simulation and dynamic physical simulation. The condition that the hardware-under-test (HUT) is active puts forward higher requirement for the interface algorithm in terms of both stability and accuracy. An impedance tracking algorithm for simplified damping impedance method (SDIM) interface is designed to achieve real-time impedance matching of the HUT with power sources (active). A novel interface algorithm is proposed. It uses the ideal transformer model (ITM) interface to drive the physical HUT and employs the SDIM interface to obtain accurate response in the virtual electrical system. The results of MATLAB simulation show that the novel interface combines the merits of the SDIM interface and the ITM interface when the HUT is active.

  15. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan


    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  16. Kinetic Modeling of Dynamic Aspects of the Standard NH3-SCR Reaction Over V2O5-WO3/TiO2 and Fe-Zeolite Commercial Catalysts for the Aftertreatment of Diesel Engines Exhausts Modélisation cinétique d’aspects dynamiques de la réaction de RCS-NH3 standard sur des catalyseurs commerciaux V2O5-WO3/TiO2 et Fe-zéolite pour le post-traitement de gaz d’échappement de moteurs Diesel

    Nova I.


    Full Text Available Dynamic kinetic data collected over commercial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 and Fe-zeolite catalysts analyzing the standard NH3-SCR of NO for the abatement of NOx from vehicle exhausts showed transient effects at low temperatures related to the inhibiting action of excess ammonia. In order to describe such transient effects, a specific rate expression accounting for NH3 inhibition of the standard SCR reaction is needed in mathematical models of real SCR converters. We present herein a dual-site Mars-Ven Krevelen-type rate equation suitable to describe dynamic features associated with ammonia injection and shut-off over both V-based and Fe-zeolite catalysts. Les données cinétiques dynamiques recueillies sur des catalyseurs V2O5-WO3/TiO2 et Fe-zéolite commerciaux en analysant le RCS-NH3 standard du NO pour la réduction des NOx des gaz d’échappement de véhicules ont montré des effets transitoires à basse température, liés à l’action inhibitrice d’ammoniac en excès. Afin de décrire de tels effets transitoires, une expression de la vitesse spécifique prenant en compte l’inhibition par NH3 de la réaction de RCS standard est nécessaire pour des modèles mathématiques de convertisseurs par RCS réels. Nous présentons ici une équation de vitesse de type Mars-Van Krevelen à double site pour décrire les caractéristiques dynamiques associées à l’injection et à l’arrêt de l’ammoniac sur des catalyseurs à la fois à base de V et Fe-zéolite.

  17. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R


    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 热处理制度对RCS系着色微晶玻璃析晶性能的影响%Influence of Heat Treatment on Crystallization Properties of Colored RcS Glass-Ceramics

    李宏; 武艳萍; 陈方祎; 程金树


    采用不同热处理制度对掺加硫硒化镉的R2O-CaO-SiO2 (RCS,R为Na,K)系玻璃进行显色处理得到着色微晶玻璃.通过X射线衍射、场发射扫描电镜及紫外可见分光光度计等测试分析手段研究不同热处理制度对RCS系着色微晶玻璃析晶性能的影响.结果表明:在700℃进行显色热处理,微晶玻璃的主晶相为柱状的硬硅钙石[Ca6Si6O(17)(OH)2]:在750℃和800℃进行显色热处理,微晶玻璃的主晶相为放射状的硅碱钙石(K2Na4Ca5Si(12)O(30)F4)和α-硅碱钙石[K3Na3Ca5Si(12)O(3O)F3(OH)1H2O];随着显色温度的提高和显色时间的延长,微晶玻璃的颜色由黄色逐步向红色转变,微晶玻璃的截止波长向可见光谱的长波方向移动.%The colored R2O-CaO-SiO2 (RCS, R = Na, K) glass-ceramics were prepared through different heat treatment schedules.The influence of heat treatment on crystallization properties of the colored RCS glass-ceramics was investigated by X-ray diffraction,field emission scanning electron microscopy and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results indicate that the main crystalline phase of the glass-ceramics is colunnar xonotlite [Ca6Si6O17 (OH)2] at 700 ℃, and radial canasite (K2Na4Ca5Si12O3OF4) and frankamenite [K3Na3Ca5Si12O3OF3 (OH)1H2O] at 750 and 800 ℃. The color of the glass-ceramics changed from yellow to red and the cut-offwavelength shifted to a longer wavelength with the increase of heat treatment temperature and holding time.

  19. Material Properties of a Tricalcium Silicate-containing, a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-containing, and an Epoxy Resin-based Root Canal Sealer.

    Prüllage, Raquel-Kathrin; Urban, Kent; Schäfer, Edgar; Dammaschke, Till


    The aim was to compare the solubility, radiopacity, and setting times of a tricalcium silicate-containing (BioRoot RCS; Septodont, St Maur-des-Fossés, France) and a mineral trioxide aggregate-containing sealer (MTA Fillapex; Angelus, Londrina, Brazil) with an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). Solubility in distilled water, radiopacity, and setting time were evaluated in accordance with ISO 6876:2012. The solubility was also measured after soaking the materials in phosphate-buffered saline buffer (PBS). All data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. After immersion for 1 minute in distilled water, BioRoot RCS was significantly less soluble than AH Plus and MTA Fillapex (P  .05). The final setting time was 324 (±1) minutes for BioRoot RCS and 612 (±4) minutes for AH Plus. The difference was statistically significant (P < .05). MTA Fillapex did not set completely even after 1 week. The solubility and radiopacity of the sealers were in accordance with ISO 6876:2012. PBS decreased the solubility of BioRoot RCS. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 中国散裂中子源/快循环同步加速器电源系统数字化控制方案%A Digital Control Scheme of Power Supply System for RCS/CSNS

    胡伟; 张旌; 齐欣


    在中国散裂中子源工程中,需要设计1台1.6GeV快循环同步质子加速器.加速器的磁铁电源系统驱动9套怀特电路.这9套电源的输出都是带直流偏置的交流电流源.在每个重复加速周期内,电流(磁场)必须保证相位和幅值精度.数字控制技术的可靠性、温度漂移抑制、高集成性等等使得它在越来越广泛地应用于控制电路的设计中.为了达到中国散裂中子源电源系统苛刻的指标,本文提出了一种数字化控制方案.%A 1.6GeV proton rapid cycle synchrotron (RCS) was designed in the Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) Project. The magnet power supply system of the synchrotron drives nine sets of independent 25Hz White Circuit. The output currents of the nine sets of magnet power supply are the DC-biased AC source.The currents (magnetic fields) must meet the requirements of the phase and amplitude accuracy during the accelerator repetition cycle. Because of the advantages of the digital control technique such as reliability,temperature drift rejection, and high integration and so on, it has been adopted more and more widely in the equipment design. To achieve the rigorous goals such as stability and THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) in the RCS/CSNS magnet power supply system, a digital control scheme will be implemented which will be presented in this paper.

  1. 静态RCS测量雷达的设备布局及升降塔结构设计%Equipment Layout Design of Static RCS Measure Radar and Structure Design of Lift Tower

    张兴唐; 李志兵; 马萍


    文中对静态RCS全频段测量雷达多天线和多收发设备的布局进行了设计,针对结构设计的核心部分——可移动高架天线塔进行了详细论述,对升降塔风栽荷进行了分析计算并用有限元法校核了天线塔身和天线安装架的强度,结果满足结构设计强度要求。解决了高架天线塔升降、天线安装调整、天线塔所装设备维修性和安全性的问题。对多波段静态RCS测量设备总体布局设计和高架升降塔的设计具有参考借鉴意义。%This paper designs the layout of antennas and T/R equipments for whole frequency bands static RCS measure radar. Detailed discussion is per formed for the mobile antenna tower which is the key part of structure design. Wind-load computing is carried out for the lift tower, the strength of antenna tower and an- tenna mounting structure is checked by finite element method, the results meet the design requirements. The problems of antenna going up and down, antenna stance adjusting, maintenance and security of equipments in antenna tower are solved in this paper. Study results of this paper are helpful to the layout design of multi- bands static RCS measure equipments and the structure design of lift tower.

  2. Reducing composite restoration polymerization shrinkage stress through resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives.

    Naoum, S J; Mutzelburg, P R; Shumack, T G; Thode, Djg; Martin, F E; Ellakwa, A E


    The aim of this study was to determine whether employing resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives can reduce polymerization contraction stress generated at the interface of restorative composite adhesive systems. Five resin based adhesives (G Bond, Optibond-All-in-One, Optibond-Solo, Optibond-XTR and Scotchbond-Universal) and two resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives (Riva Bond-LC, Fuji Bond-LC) were analysed. Each adhesive was applied to bond restorative composite Filtek-Z250 to opposing acrylic rods secured within a universal testing machine. Stress developed at the interface of each adhesive-restorative composite system (n = 5) was calculated at 5-minute intervals over 6 hours. The resin based adhesive-restorative composite systems (RBA-RCS) demonstrated similar interface stress profiles over 6 hours; initial rapid contraction stress development (0-300 seconds) followed by continued contraction stress development ≤0.02MPa/s (300 seconds - 6 hours). The interface stress profile of the resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesive-restorative composite systems (RMGIBA-RCS) differed substantially to the RBA-RCS in several ways. Firstly, during 0-300 seconds the rate of contraction stress development at the interface of the RMGIBA-RCS was significantly (p resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives can significantly reduce the magnitude and rate of polymerization contraction stress developed at the interface of adhesive-restorative composite systems. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  3. MOAST and USARSim: a combined framework for the development and testing of autonomous systems

    Scrapper, Christopher; Balakirsky, Stephen; Messina, Elena


    Urban Search and Rescue Simulation (USARSim) is an open source package that provides a high-resolution, physics based simulation of robotic platforms. The package provides models of several common robotic platforms and sensors as well as sample worlds and a socket interface into a commonly used commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) simulation package. Initially introduced to support the development of search and rescue robots, USARSim has proved to be a tool with a broader scope, from robot education to human robot interfaces, including cooperation, and more. During Robocup 2006, a new competition based on USARSim will be held in the context of the urban search and rescue competitions. The Mobility Open Architecture Simulation and Tools (MOAST) is a framework that builds upon the 4-D Real-time Control Systesm (4D/RCS) architecture to analyze the performance of autonomous vehicles and multiagent systems. MOAST provides controlled environments that allow for the transparent transference of data between a matrix of real and virtual components. This framework is glued together through well-defined interfaces and communications protocols, and detailed specifications on individual subsystem input/output (IO). This allows developers to freely swap components and analyze the effect on the overall system by means of comparison to baseline systems with a limited set of functionality. When taken together, the combined USARSim/MOAST system may be used to provide a comprehensive development and testing environment for complex robotic systems. This paper will provide an overview of each system and describe how the combined system may be used for stand-alone simulated development and test, or hardware-in-the-loop development and testing of autonomous mobile robot systems.

  4. Space Fence Ground-Based Radar System Increment 1 (Space Fence Inc 1)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-438 Space Fence Ground-Based Radar System Increment 1 (Space Fence Inc 1) As of FY 2017...11 Track to Budget 17 Cost and Funding 18 Low Rate Initial Production 23 Foreign Military Sales 24 Nuclear Costs 24 Unit Cost...Document CLIN - Contract Line Item Number CPD - Capability Production Document CY - Calendar Year DAB - Defense Acquisition Board DAE - Defense Acquisition

  5. Backscatter Transponder Based on Frequency Selective Surface for FMCW Radar Applications



    Full Text Available This paper describes an actively-controlled frequency selective surface (FSS to implement a backscatter transponder. The FSS is composed by dipoles loaded with switching PIN diodes. The transponder exploits the change in the radar cross section (RCS of the FSS with the bias of the diodes to modulate the backscattered response of the tag to the FMCW radar. The basic operation theory of the system is explained here. An experimental setup based on a commercial X-band FMCW radar working as a reader is proposed to measure the transponders. The transponder response can be distinguished from the interference of non-modulated clutter, modulating the transponder’s RCS. Some FSS with different number of dipoles are studied, as a proof of concept. Experimental results at several distances are provided.

  6. 基于dSPACE的高速列车牵引传动系统%Drive system based on dSPACE platform for high-speed train

    葛兴来; 宋文胜; 冯晓云


    The variable-frequency speed regulation based on rotor flux control for the traction inverter-motor system with three-level diode NPC (Neutral-Point-Clamped) topology is analyzed covering whole speed range of high-speed train. The functional block of rotor-flux-oriented indirect vector control is given and its implementation algorithm is discussed in detail. The compensation algorithm for the precise modeling of the main circuit of three-level traction drive is presented,which considers the effect of dead-time and PWM sampling error. Its simulation model is built based on the hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulation platform of dSPACE and the traction drive control algorithm is programmed based on TMS320F2812 DSP. The comparison of control performance among different main circuit realization methods and among different calculation steps demonstrates the validity of the real-time simulation modeling algorithm and the drive control algorithm.%针对高速列车二极管中点箝位三电平拓扑牵引逆变器-牵引电机系统运行控制的要求,对牵引电机运行全速度范围中基于转子磁通控制的变频调速控制方式进行了分析,给出了转子磁场定向间接矢量控制功能框图并对实现算法进行了详细阐述.考虑死区效应和PWM采样误差的影响提出了三电平牵引传动主电路精确建模的补偿算法,建立了基于dSPACE半实物仿真平台的牵引传动主电路实时仿真模型,根据上述理论分析编制了基于TMS320F2812型DSP的牵引传动控制实现算法.对该控制算法在不同的主电路模型实现算法和不同计算步长下的实时仿真实验结果进行了对比分析,结果验证了该牵引传动主电路实时仿真建模算法和传动控制算法的有效性.

  7. 不同破坏机制的装配式RCS框架节点抗震性能试验研究%Experimental study on seismic behavior of prefabricated RCS frame joints with different failure mechanisms

    刘阳; 郭子雄; 戴镜洲; 黄群贤


    提出一种新型钢筋混凝土柱-钢梁(RCS)混合框架节点构造形式,通过对12个1/2比例的柱贯通型RCS混合节点低周往复加载试验,研究强节点系数ηj、节点核芯区加劲腹板构造、钢梁与节点连接构造等参数对试件破坏模式、滞回耗能特性和变形组成的影响.试验研究表明:随着强节点系数的减小,试件破坏形态由梁端的弯曲破坏转变为节点的剪切破坏;试件滞回曲线也相应的由耗能能力较好的梭型转变为捏拢的反S型.ηj>1的试件梁端弯曲变形引起的层间位移超过总位移的60%,而ηj<1的试件,层间位移主要由柱端弯曲变形引起.节点核芯区的加劲腹板有效提高了节点的抗剪强度和刚度,节点区的剪切变形对层间位移的贡献最大不超过10%.ηj<1的试件,节点核芯区加劲腹板在1/20层间位移角时达到屈服,节点的受剪强度同时达到峰值,且随节点剪切变形的进一步增加无明显衰减.节点核芯区预埋高强螺栓和钢梁的连接构造合理可靠,加载过程中无明显相对变形,可满足梁柱刚性节点假设.成果可供装配式RCS混合结构的工程设计参考.%A new type of RC column-steel beam( RCS) hybrid joints was proposed and twelve half scale through-column-type RCS hybrid joints were tested under cyclic loads to investigate the effect laws of strong joint coefficient ηj, details of steel web plate, connection details between steel beams and joint core to the failure modes, hysteretic performance and energy dissipation capacity of specimens. It is indicated that with the decrease of strong joint coefficient ηj, the failure modes of specimens converted from flexural failure of steel beams, which induced a good energy dissipation capacity of specimens with hysteretic loops of plump shape, into shear failure of joint core, which induced a poor energy dissipation capacity with hysteretic loops of inverse "S" shape. For specimens with

  8. Design of a Control System Platform Based on dSPACE and FESTO%基于dSPACE及FESTO的控制系统平台设计

    潘红; 毕效辉


    一些用于实验教学的传统控制装置存在着软件源代码不公开、控制算法单一固定等问题,利用率比较低,因此对其改造很有必要。为了节约成本,提高控制装置的利用率,提出一种基于dSPACE半实物仿真系统和MAT-LAB/Simulink技术的改造方案,并将这一方案运用到具体的FESTO传统控制系统,设计了一个改造实例,建立了系统控制平台。最后对此平台进行了基于单神经元自适应PID控制算法的实验仿真。实验结果表明该控制平台克服了FESTO传统控制系统的弊端,能方便验证控制算法的有效性。%Some traditional control devices don't open software source code and only have some simple control algorithms in experimental teaching, so that the utilization rate of the device is lower. Therefore it is necessary to reform them. In order to cut costs and improve the utilization rate of the control device, this paper presents a retrofit scheme based on hardware-in-the-loop simulation system of dSPACE and MATLAB/Simulink technology, which is used in the specific FESTO traditional control system, and designs an example, and then establishes the system control platform. Finally this platform is simulated based on single neuron adaptive PID control algorithm. The experimental results show that the control platform overcomes the disadvantages of FESTO traditional control system, and verifies the effectiveness of the control algorithm conveniently.

  9. Optimization of Kinematics of a Flapping Wing Mechanism

    George, Ryan; Thomson, Scott; Mattson, Christopher; Colton, Mark; Tree, Mike


    Flapping flight offers several potential advantages over conventional fixed wing flight, such as agility and maneuverability in confined spaces, potentially decreased noise and detectability, and hovering capability. In this presentation, a water tunnel-based flapping wing apparatus is introduced that allows for arbitrary wing trajectories in three rotational degrees of freedom and simultaneous measurements of lift and thrust production. An optimal flapping trajectory for takeoff is found using hardware-in-the-loop optimization methodology. Wing motion derived from high-speed imaging of a ladybug during takeoff is used as a first iteration of the hardware-in-the-loop optimization. Using real-time force measurements and a gradient-based optimization approach, the algorithm searches for the optimal trajectory for a variety of parameters such as lift or efficiency. Hardware performance is assessed. Results from the optimization routine, including the final flapping trajectory are reported for both rigid and compliant wings.

  10. Synergetic Optimization of Missile Shapes for Aerodynamic and Radar Cross-Section Performance Based on Multi- objective Evolutionary Algorithm



    A multiple-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) with a new Decision Making (DM) scheme for MOD of conceptual missile shapes was presented, which is contrived to determine suitable tradeoffs from Pareto optimal set using interactive preference articulation. There are two objective functions, to maximize ratio of lift to drag and to minimize radar cross-section (RCS) value. 3D computational electromagnetic solver was used to evaluate RCS, electromagnetic performance. 3D Navier-Stokes flow solver was adopted to evaluate aerodynamic performance. A flight mechanics solver was used to analyze the stability of the missile. Based on the MOEA, a synergetic optimization of missile shapes for aerodynamic and radar cross-section performance is completed. The results show that the proposed approach can be used in more complex optimization case of flight vehicles.


    潘峰; 王薇; 沈丽; 杨磊


    目的 通过成功纯视细胞移植,观察RCS鼠视皮质内抑制性神经递质γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的分布和变化。 方法 取同龄Wistar/皇家外科学院(RoyalCollegeofSurgeon,RCS)鼠为供/受体,准分子激光切削法制备视细胞层,外路途径移入RCS鼠的视网膜下腔,术后2周取RCS鼠手术组眼、手术对照组眼、RCS对照组眼及其视皮质分别做冰冻切片,免疫组织化学染色法染色,普通光学显微镜下观察。 结果 视细胞移植术后2周,移植视细胞存活,外丛状层重建,与手术对照眼、RCS对照眼相比,重建视网膜受体RCS鼠对侧视皮质内GABA免疫反应神经元数量较多,而同侧视皮质内无GABA免疫反应神经元。 结论 成功纯视细胞移植可以重建RCS鼠的视觉传导通路,移植的纯视细胞使RCS鼠视皮质内GABA免疫反应的分布发生变化。%Objective We observe the γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA)′s var iationin the visual cortex of Royal College of Surgeons Rat(RCS rat)′s retina following the photoreceptor cell transplantation. Method The healthy Wistar rats′photoreceptor cells were grafted into the sub-retinal space of the left eye of the RCS rat by outer-pa th way.Two weeks later,host animals were sacrificed.Both sides of visual cortex were processed for light microscopic analysis.So did the 74 days Wistar rats an d 74 days RCS rats.Then immunocytochemistry was used to determine the localizati on of the amino acid neurotransmitters(γ-aminobutyrate,GABA).Results After two weeks of transplantation,the transplanted photoreceptor cells survived.On the opposite side of the visula cor tex in the grafted RCS rats,GABA-like immunoreactivity was intensely stained.Bu t the same side of the visual cortex in the grafted RCS rats,GABA-like immunore activity could not be observed.Conclusion These results suggest that we can rebuild the visual pat hway by transplanting the photoreceptor cells.In the visual cortex of the grafted

  12. Computer-aided design-based high-frequency electromagnetic wave scattering from complex bodies

    Baldauf, John Eric


    This work investigates the use of high frequency electromagnetic scattering techniques, such as the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) and the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) and the shooting and bouncing rays (SBR) method combined with computer aided design (CAD) compatible geometries, to perform the electromagnetic scattering analysis of complex arbitrary bodies. The use of CAD formats such as solid modelled bodies and bodies modelled with triangular patch surface elements allows the scattering analysis of arbitrary bodies which can be constructed using CAD packages. The scattering analyses are applied to radar cross section (RCS) problems, cavity radiation problems, and antenna pattern predictions of complex electrically large structures, thereby showing that it is feasible to accurately approximate the electromagnetic wave scattering from general complex bodies using CAD techniques and high frequency scattering techniques. First, the RCS of large targets which involve multiple geometric optics (GO) interactions are investigated by comparing the RCS calculated using CAD designed radar targets and the SBR method and PTD for targets such as trihedral corner reflectors and an idealized military vehicle model with the experimentally obtained RCS. The comparisons between the calculated and measured results demonstrate that the SBR and PTD can provide accurate approximations of the RCS for targets which have complex multiple GO interactions. Second, the problem of interior cavity radiation for closed cavities is approached using a ray tracing and GO method based on the SBR method and triangular surface patch described geometries. Comparisons between the ray-based calculations and more exact techniques such as the method of moments (MM) for two-dimensional cavities demonstrate that ray-based methods can provide good approximations for the field behavior inside of nonresonant cavities. A three-dimensional case is shown to demonstrate that this technique can be

  13. 基于电池SOC保持的混联式混合动力车辆能量管理策略的研究%A Research on SOC Retaining-Based Energy Management Strategy for PSHEV

    王伟达; 项昌乐; 韩立金; 刘辉; 刘晓亭


    针对混联式混合动力重型车辆的大驱动功率需求,研究了基于电池SOC保持的能量管理策略.该策略根据保持电池SOC在较高水平的要求进行能量管理与分配,使电池具有较高的功率与能量裕度,从而使电动机可以较大的功率和较长的时间在急加速等大驱动功率需求工况对发动机进行助力,实现重型车辆较高的动力性指标.在此基础上设计了综合控制器并编写了程序代码,采用基于dSPACE的硬件在环仿真系统进行了仿真.结果表明该控制策略在满足燃油经济性和车辆驱动等基本要求的前提下,实现了混联式混合动力车辆能量管理功能与预期的电池SOC保持的目标.%Aiming at the high drive power demand of heavy parallel-serial hybrid electric vehicle ( PSHEV), an energy management strategy based on battery state of charge (SOC) maintaining is studied. With the strategy, energy management and distribution are conducted according to the requirement of maintaining battery SOC at a relatively high level for the battery having higher power and energy margin to enable electric motor to assist the engine with higher power in longer time at a working condition demanding high drive power such as hard acceleration, achieving higher power performance indicator of heavy vehicles. On these bases the ECU is designed with a corresponding program code written, and a simulation is performed with a dSPACE-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. The results indicate that the control algorithm can realize the energy management function and the expected battery SOC keeping target of PSHEV while meeting the basic requirements, including fuel economy and vehicle drive.

  14. 北京散裂中子源RCS注入系统物理设计和研究%Physics Design and Study of the BSNS RCS Injection System

    唐靖宇; 邱静; 王生; 韦杰


    With the Beijing Spallation Neutron Source (BSNS) accelerator in design, intense H- beams are first accelerated by the linac and then injected in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) for accumulation and further acceleration. The injection system uses H- stripping and phase space painting method to fill the large ring acceptance with the linac beam of small emittance. The method is crucial to maintain low beam loss rate during the accumulation and initial acceleration. Different from the injection design of similar high-intensity accelerators in the world, the BSNS ring injection is accomplished by magnetic elements that are completely contained in a 9 meter-long uninterrupted space of near-zero dispersion. With the accumulated 1.9×1013 particles, space charge effects play a very important role. The 3D simulations including space charge effects have been carried out to optimize the injection design. This paper presents the physics design, computer simulation results and design optimization of the injection system.%北京散裂中子源(BSNS)的主加速器--快循环同步加速器(RCS)采用H-剥离注入方法,将从直线加速器预加速的束流进行累积和进一步加速.束流损失率的控制是该类高功率质子加速器所面临的关键问题之一,而束流损失中很重要的部分是由空间电荷效应造成的.为了减小该类束流损失,注入系统设计中利用H-剥离注入和相空间涂抹方法将直线加速器预加速的发射度较小的束流尽可能均匀地涂抹到较大的横向相空间中.与其他的类似加速器相比,RCS注入系统将所有注入元件放在一个长为9m的无色散漂移节中以充分节省RCS环的纵向空间,并使对注入系统的操作与对RCS主体的操作完全独立.对于RCS累积的粒子数1.9×1013,空间电荷效应对粒子的运动有非常重要的作用,本文介绍了采用ORBIT程序进行三维模拟计算并进行设计优化的结果.还介绍了系统设计时需

  15. The United States Army Logistics Center Historical Summary. (RCS-HIS-6 (R2)). 1 October 1976 to 30 September 1978.


    special review to further assess the program and provided Dr. Percy Pierre, the Assistant Secretary Army (RDA), information upon which to base a...ATCL-TA, 11 Oct 77, Subj: US Army Training Center, Ft Jackson ; Ltr, ATCL-TA, LOGC, 9 Dec 77, Subj: Containerized Shipment and Storage of Ammunition...COSSA); LOGC DMMC Independent Evaluation Report, 2 Mar 78; Trip Report, ATCL-TA, 26 Jun 78, Subj: Staff Visit to Ft Jackson ; Trip Report, ATCL-TA, 11

  16. Design of Large-capacity Real-time Data Management System Based on RTX%基于RTX的大容量实时数据管理系统设计



    针对传统半实物仿真系统中通信系统带宽不足、存储系统实时性不高的问题,基于实时操作系统RTX,设计能够处理大容量、高速度实时数据的数据管理系统.采用RTX下PCI设备操作技术,构建反射内存网络实时数据通信系统,有效增加了数据的通信带宽.采用内存管理技术并结合多缓冲读写技术、消息队列技术和进程间通信技术,设计实时数据存储系统,大幅提高了实时数据库的处理速度.测试结果表明,该系统实时性可达1ms,通信速率可达70MB/s.%In order to improve the bandwidth of communication system and real-time performance of data storage system for the traditional Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation system,a real-time data management system for large capacity and high speed data based on RTX is designed.RTX PCI device driver development technology is used to establish reflective memory communication system,which increases bandwidth effectively.The Real-time Database System (RTDBS) is designed to improve real-time data processing speed by using RTX memory management technology,multi-buffer read-write technology,message queue technology and inter process communication technology.The test results show that,the Real-time Data Management System can meet the request of HILS system,with real-time performance in 1ms and communication speed at 70MB/s.

  17. Pneumatic electronic assistant brake device based on high-speed on/off valve%基于高速开关阀的气压电控辅助制动装置

    王建强; 杨波; 李升波; 李克强


    为了满足商用车辆纵向驾驶辅助系统对于自动制动的要求,设计了一种基于高速开关阀的气压电控辅助制动装置。建立了装置的数学模型,设计了抗积分饱和的PI控制器,采用脉宽调制方法动态调节高速开关阀,实现对车辆制动压力的主动控制。搭建了电控辅助制动装置的硬件在环仿真试验平台,对其控制效果进行试验验证。分析结果表明:该装置不仅能够快速准确地响应制动指令,其稳态误差小于0.01 MPa,响应时间小于0.3 s,同时具有安装方便,与商用车制动系统兼容性好的优点。%In order to satisfy the demands of automatic braking in longitudinal driving assistance systems for commercial vehicles,a pneumatic electronic assistant brake device was developed based on high-speed on/off valves.Its mathematical model was built,and a PI controller with resistance integral saturation was designed.High-speed on/off valves were regulated dynamically by using pulse width modulation method,and the brake pressure of vehicle was controlled actively.The hardware-in-the-loop platform of pneumatic electronic assistant brake device was developed,and its control performance was verified.Analysis result shows that the device can respond to brake command fast and accurately,its stable error and response time are less than 0.01 MPa and 0.3 s respectively.While it is easy to be fixed,and has good compatibility with the braking system of commercial vehicle.13 figs,15 refs.

  18. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; (Lamar) Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan


    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future.

  19. hEPO gene modified Müller cells protects against retinal degeneration of RCS rats%EPO修饰增强Müller细胞对RCS大鼠视网膜变性的干预效果

    李宗义; 李鹏; 高芙蓉; 范氏雪幸; 张敬法; 王方; 吕立夏; 徐国彤


    ller cells with hEPO or GFP plasmids, and then selected by Puromycin. To study the effect of hEPO-Müller, retinal explant cultures and subretinal transplantation of hEPO-Müller and GFP-Müller cells were used. The retinas were embedded, sectioned and stained or collected for RT-PCR. Results The stable hEPO-Müller and GFP-Müller were established. The retinal tissue from the 21-day-old RCS rats were dissected and cultured under 5 different conditions for 2 weeks. The thicknesses of the inner nuclear layer (INL) and the outer nuclear layer (ONL) with the Müller lysate were (15.94 ± 1.77)μm and (24.81 ± 3.03)μm, respectively. Compared with these, the thicknesses of INL and ONL were (23.03 ± 3.29)μm,(33.92 ± 7.59)μm in hEPO group (P < 0.05);(24.81 ± 2.02)μm,(32.15 ± 3.03)μm in Müller group (P<0.05);(32.40 ± 8.35)μm,(40.25 ± 3.29)μm in hEPO-Müller group (n=3,P<0.01). And the thicknesses in hEPO-Müller group were thicker significantly (P < 0.05). The results suggested that both hEPO and Müller can intervene the retinal degeneration and these two can work together. Then, the hEPO-Müller or GFP-Müller was transplanted into the subretinal space of 21-day-old RCS rats. Four weeks later, the expressions of GFAP and Vimentin, the markers of gliosis, were found not increased in these rats, when compared with the control group. DAPI and Recoverin staining showed more photoreceptor cells survived in the rats treated with hEPO-Müller or GFP-Müller transplantation, and there were much more photoreceptors in the hEPO-Müller group. Conclusion Müller cell can slow down the process of retinal degeneration in RCS rats, and the hEPO modified Müller cells can further improve such effects.

  20. Carrier-based Modulation and Capacitor Voltage Balance Control Method With Voltage Offset Injection of Single Phase Cascaded H-bridge Rectifiers%基于电压补偿分量注入的单相级联H桥整流器载波调制与电容电压平衡方法

    王顺亮; 宋文胜; 冯晓云


    无工频牵引变压器技术是实现高速列车轻量化的手段之一。该文首先分析了无工频变压器电力牵引传动系统前端级联 H 桥整流器的工作原理,以及开关状态和网侧电流对直流侧电容充放电的影响。针对级联 H 桥整流器电容电压平衡问题,为了实现负载严重不对称情况下直流侧电容电压快速平衡的控制目标,以传统的载波移相脉宽调制方法为基础,提出了一种基于电压补偿分量注入的载波移相脉宽调制算法。考虑负载不平衡度很大的恶劣情况,对该算法的电压补偿分量进行设计与定量计算,并针对该算法多个 H 桥级联拓扑的应用进行了理论扩展。计算机仿真和半实物实验都验证了该算法的有效性和正确性。%Transformerless technology is one of the realization of high-speed railway train lightweight. The operation principle of the front-end cascaded H-bridge rectifiers is analyzed, as well as switching states and the line current’s influence on DC-link capacitors’ charging and discharging. A carrier phase-shift PWM with voltage offset injection (CPSPWM-VOI) algorithm based on the conventional CPSPWM is proposed to balance DC-link capacitors’ voltages quickly in severe terrible application condition. Voltage offset component is designed and calculated quantitatively in a bad load imbalance degree. And the proposed algorithm is extended in multiple cascaded H-bridge rectifiers. The effectiveness and correctness of the CPSPWM-VOI algorithm are verified by the computer simulation and hardware-in-the-loop experiments.

  1. RADAR Anechoic Chamber/RCS Measurements Lab

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RF Anechoic Chamber is 56 feet long by 12 feet high by 13.5 feet wide, with an adjoining electronic computer control room. A double door entrance at one end of...

  2. Clinical Investigation Program, RCS MED-300 (RI).


    Esophagus, Phase II. (C) 1984 SWOG 8049, The Treatment of Resected, Poor Risk Prognosis 92 Malinnant Melanoma: Stage I: Surgical Excision vs Surgical...1984 SWOG 8111, The Treatment of Resected, Poor Prognosis 98 Malignant Melanoma: Staae II: Surgical Excision vs Surgical Excision + Vitamin A vs...Objective: Compare the healing and post-operative sequelae of two dif- ferent types of incisions used in periodontal surgery. Technical Approach

  3. 宽带超薄完美吸波体设计及在圆极化倾斜波束天线雷达散射截面缩减中的应用研究*%Design of ultra-thin broadband metamaterial absorber and its application for RCS reduction of circular polarization tilted beam antenna∗

    李思佳; 曹祥玉; 高军; 刘涛; 杨欢欢; 李文强


      为了缩减天线带内雷达散射截面(radar cross section, RCS),在双频带完美吸波材料的基础上,通过缩小两吸波率峰值之间的距离,设计出了一种频带较宽的超薄完美吸波体.该吸波体由两层金属及其中间的有耗介质组成,底面金属不刻蚀,顶面由方形贴片和绕其四周的开口方环组成,该结构具有低频点LC谐振和高频点偶极子谐振的特征.仿真和实验结果表明:该吸波体具有极化不敏感和宽入射角的特征,其在厚度小于0.01λ的条件下,具有8.2%的半波功率相对带宽,最大吸波率的峰值为91.6%和96.5%.将吸波体用于圆极化的倾斜波束(tilted beam, TB)天线,仿真和测试结果表明:该天线在保持增益不变的条件下,不仅轴比得到改善,有效带宽得到拓展,且在5.5—6.5 GHz范围内TB天线的RCS缩减至少在3 dBsm以上,在谐振频点处最大缩减幅度分别为11 dBsm和8 dBsm;在两谐振点处鼻锥方向−36◦—+36◦范围内, TB天线的RCS缩减均有明显效果.%  In order to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of antenna, a wideband-enhanced ultra-thin metamaterial absorber is designed by reducing the distance between the two absorption peaks due to the double resonances. The absorber is composed of two metallic layers separated by a lossy dielectric spacer. The top layer consists of a single-square loop with four splits on the four sides and a square metal patch in the center and the bottom one is of a solid metal. A dipole resonance and an LC resonance are caused by the structure of the metamaterial absorber. By fine adjusting geometry parameters of the structure, we can obtain a polarization-insensitive and wide-incident-angle ultra-thin absorber whose absorption values are 91.6%and 96.5%. On condition that thickness is less than 0.01λ the absorber has a full-width at half-maximum of 8.2%. The absorber is applied to the circularly polarized tilted beam antenna for reducing RCS

  4. 中国散裂中子源快循环同步加速器中色品校正及六极磁铁非线性效应%Chromatic correction for CSNS/RCS and nonlinear effects of chromaticity sextupoles

    许守彦; 王生


    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) accumulates an 80 MeV injected beam,and accelerates 1.56 × 1013 particles to the design energy of 1.6 GeV,and extracts the high energy beam to the target.In order to keep low beam losses in the ring,it is necessary to control the chromaticity and to minimize the dependence of the optical properties on beam momentum spread.Three chromatic correction schemes are proposed and compared for CSNS/RCS in this paper.The combined effects of sextupole field and space charge are investigated by using the code SIMPSONS.The tune spread produced by chromaticity can be apparently reduced by using chromaticitysextupoles.However,the chromaticitysextupoles are non linear elements,and can introduce an amplitude dependent tuneshift.The combined effects ofsextupole field and space charge can induce some heam loss.%中国散裂中子源(CSNS)快循环同步加速器(RCS)把能量为80 MeV的束流储存并加速到1.6 GeV然后引出到靶站.为了减少RCS中的束流损失,有必要对RCS做色品校正,并减小动量偏移对束流光学的影响.尝试了多种色品校正方案并对不同色品校正方案做了比较.用三维跟踪程序SIMPSONS研究了色品校正六极铁与空间电荷效应对束流的影响.色品校正六极铁可以有效减小色品引起的频散,但是由于六极铁为非线性元件,导致不同振幅的粒子间有一定频散.模拟发现同时存在空间电荷效应和色品校正六极铁时,会有少量的束流损失.

  5. VOLTTRON-Based System for Providing Ancillary Services with Residential Building Loads

    Jin, Xin


    interfaces, manufacturer-provided application programming interfaces, and proprietary communication interfaces. We document the ability to manage nine appliances, using four different standards or proprietary communication methods. A hardware-in-the-loop test was performed in a laboratory environment where the loads of a laboratory home and a large number of simulated homes are controlled by an aggregator. Upon receipt of an AGC signal, the VOLTTRON home energy management system (HEMS) of the laboratory home adjusts the end-device controls based on the comfort criteria set by the end users and sends telemetry to the aggregator to verify response. The aggregator then sends the AGC signal to other simulated homes in attempts to match the utility request as closely as possible. Frequency regulation is generally considered a higher value service than other ancillary services but it is also more challenging due to the constraint of short response time. A frequency regulation use case has been implemented with the regulation signals sent every 10 seconds. Experimental results indicate that the VOLTTRON-controlled residential loads are able to be controlled with sufficient fidelity to enable an aggregator to meet frequency regulation requirements. Future work is warranted, such as understanding the impact of this type of control on equipment life, and market requirements needed to open up residential loads to ancillary service aggregators.

  6. Sampling and isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from indoor air with the aid of the Reuter Centrifugal Sampler (RCS) and guizotia abyssinica creatinine agar. A contribution to the mycological-epidemiological control of Cr. neoformans in the fecal matter of caged birds.

    Staib, F


    In February and March 1984, Cryptococcus neoformans was detected in the manure and ambient air of a volery in the Berlin Zoo in which a Palm Cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus) was kept. Both times, 5 colony-forming units of Cr. neoformans could be isolated on the differential medium, Guizotia abyssinica creatinine agar, from 40 1 of air aspirated by the Reuter Centrifugal Sampler (RCS). The absence of a concurrent growth of moulds was found to be of special importance for the optimal isolation of Cr. neoformans on the above mentioned agar for purposes of epidemiological research into airborne dissemination of the fungus. The advantages and disadvantages of 0.1% biphenyl to inhibit concurring growth of moulds are discussed. The control of habitats and foci of Cr. neoformans in zoos and similar establishments is considered a necessity, to prevent inhalatory exposure of susceptible, e.g. immuno-compromised persons.

  7. Switch failure diagnosis based on inductor current observation for boost converters

    Jamshidpour, E.; Poure, P.; Saadate, S.


    Face to the growing number of applications using DC-DC power converters, the improvement of their reliability is subject to an increasing number of studies. Especially in safety critical applications, designing fault-tolerant converters is becoming mandatory. In this paper, a switch fault-tolerant DC-DC converter is studied. First, some of the fastest Fault Detection Algorithms (FDAs) are recalled. Then, a fast switch FDA is proposed which can detect both types of failures; open circuit fault as well as short circuit fault can be detected in less than one switching period. Second, a fault-tolerant converter which can be reconfigured under those types of fault is introduced. Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) results and experimental validations are given to verify the validity of the proposed switch fault-tolerant approach in the case of a single switch DC-DC boost converter with one redundant switch.

  8. A dual-waveband dynamic IR scene projector based on DMD

    Hu, Yu; Zheng, Ya-wei; Gao, Jiao-bo; Sun, Ke-feng; Li, Jun-na; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Fang


    Infrared scene simulation system can simulate multifold objects and backgrounds to perform dynamic test and evaluate EO detecting system in the hardware in-the-loop test. The basic structure of a dual-waveband dynamic IR scene projector was introduced in the paper. The system's core device is an IR Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) and the radiant source is a mini-type high temperature IR plane black-body. An IR collimation optical system which transmission range includes 3~5μm and 8~12μm is designed as the projection optical system. Scene simulation software was developed with Visual C++ and Vega soft tools and a software flow chart was presented. The parameters and testing results of the system were given, and this system was applied with satisfying performance in an IR imaging simulation testing.

  9. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R


    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  10. Sliding Mode Controller Design for Position and Speed Control of Flight Simulator Servo System with Large Friction

    刘金琨; 尔联洁


    Flight simulator is an important device and a typical high-performance position and speed servo system used in the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of flight control system. Friction is the main nonlinear resistance in the flight simulator servo system, especially in a low-speed state. Based on the description of dynamic and static models of a nonlinear Stribeck friction model, this paper puts forward sliding mode controller to overcome the friction, whose stability is proved. Simulation example indicates that the controller can guarantee a high robust performance and have a high precision of position tracking and speed tracking for a flight simulator servo system.

  11. Embedded Relative Navigation Sensor Fusion Algorithms for Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    DeKock, Brandon K.; Betts, Kevin M.; McDuffie, James H.; Dreas, Christine B.


    bd Systems (a subsidiary of SAIC) has developed a suite of embedded relative navigation sensor fusion algorithms to enable NASA autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D) missions. Translational and rotational Extended Kalman Filters (EKFs) were developed for integrating measurements based on the vehicles' orbital mechanics and high-fidelity sensor error models and provide a solution with increased accuracy and robustness relative to any single relative navigation sensor. The filters were tested tinough stand-alone covariance analysis, closed-loop testing with a high-fidelity multi-body orbital simulation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL).

  12. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez


    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  13. Hardware in Loop Simulation for Emergency Communication Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    YANG Jie; AN Jian-ping; LIU Heng


    For the research of mobile Ad hoc network (MANET), hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) is introduced to improve simulation fidelity. The architectures and frameworks of HILS system are discussed. Based on HILS and QualNet network simulator, two kinds of simulation frameworks for MANET multicast emergency communicati on network are proposed. By running simulation under this configuration and doing experiments with on-demand multicast routing protocol (ODMRP), unicast and multicast functions of this protocol are tested. Research results indicate that HILS method can effectively reduce the difficulty of system modeling and improve precision of simulation, and can further accelerate transition from design to system deployment.

  14. Real time wind farm emulation using SimWindFarm toolbox

    Topor, Marcel


    This paper presents a wind farm emulation solution using an open source Matlab/Simulink toolbox and the National Instruments cRIO platform. This work is based on the Aeolus SimWindFarm (SWF) toolbox models developed at Aalborg university, Denmark. Using the Matlab Simulink models developed in SWF, the modeling code can be exported to a real time model using the NI Veristand model framework and the resulting code is integrated as a hardware in the loop control on the NI 9068 platform.

  15. A Framework for Semi-Automated Generation of a Virtual Combine Harvester

    Hermann, Dan; Bilde, M.L.; Andersen, Nils Axel


    This paper describes a generic data-driven model of the threshing, separation and cleaning process in a combine harvester. The aim is a model that describes the actual material flow and sensor values for relevant actuator configurations and measured environmental disturbances in order to facilitate...... Hardware In the Loop (HIL) simulation and sensor based material flow estimation. A modular data-driven model structure is chosen as it maintains the actual steady-state values and facilitates verification and debugging using laboratory and field data. The overall model structure, model generation procedure......, and estimation of parameters from field data are described, as well as simulation results are presented....

  16. 基于扩展磁链的永磁同步牵引电机失磁在线监测%On-line Demagnetization Detection of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Traction Motor Based on Extended Flux Linkage

    黄刚; 罗意平; 张昌凡; 赵凯辉


    An online permanent magnet demagnetization failures detection method based on a minimum order ex‐tended flux linkage sliding mode observer was presented for torque closed‐loop control system of interior per‐manent magnet synchronous traction motor . After the establishment of a mathematical model in the two‐phase stationary reference frame for the demagnetization fault ,a variable rate reaching law sliding mode observer was built by using the extended flux linkage as state variables , to realize the reconstruction of torque and perma‐nent magnet flux linkage . The estimation method can accurately track the torque and permanent magnet flux linkage , with a shorter transient time , smaller overshoot in the dynamic process of the system , higher obser‐vation precision and stronger system robustness , It can offer real‐time accurate torque feedback and permanent magnet flux linkage information for the improvement of the control performance and reliability of the traction drive system of the permanent magnet synchronous motor . Then the RT‐LAB real‐time simulation was used to build the simulation model of hardware in the loop . The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method .%针对内置式永磁同步牵引电机转矩闭环控制系统,提出一种基于最小阶扩展磁链滑模变结构观测器的永磁体失磁在线监测方法。通过建立两相静止坐标系下永磁同步牵引电机失磁故障的数学模型,以扩展磁链为状态变量,构建变速趋近律滑模状态观测器,实现了转矩和永磁体磁链的重构。该方法能够准确观测转矩和永磁体磁链信息,系统动态响应速度快,动态过程超调小,观测精度高,系统鲁棒性更强,可为提高永磁同步电机牵引传动系统的控制性能和可靠性实时提供准确的转矩反馈和转子磁链信息。基于RT‐LAB搭建了硬件在环仿真试验系统,

  17. Conversion and Validation of Distribution System Model from a QSTS-Based Tool to a Real-Time Dynamic Phasor Simulator

    Chamana, Manohar; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Palmintier, Bryan; Baggu, Murali M.


    A software process is developed to convert distribution network models from a quasi-static time-series tool (OpenDSS) to a real-time dynamic phasor simulator (ePHASORSIM). The description of this process in this paper would be helpful for researchers who intend to perform similar conversions. The converter could be utilized directly by users of real-time simulators who intend to perform software-in-the-loop or hardware-in-the-loop tests on large distribution test feeders for a range of use cases, including testing functions of advanced distribution management systems against a simulated distribution system. In the future, the developers intend to release the conversion tool as open source to enable use by others.

  18. Full-order Luenberger observer based on fuzzy-logic control for sensorless field-oriented control of a single-sided linear induction motor.

    Holakooie, Mohammad Hosein; Ojaghi, Mansour; Taheri, Asghar


    This paper investigates sensorless indirect field oriented control (IFOC) of SLIM with full-order Luenberger observer. The dynamic equations of SLIM are first elaborated to draw full-order Luenberger observer with some simplifying assumption. The observer gain matrix is derived from conventional procedure so that observer poles are proportional to SLIM poles to ensure the stability of system for wide range of linear speed. The operation of observer is significantly impressed by adaptive scheme. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) is proposed as adaptive scheme to estimate linear speed using speed tuning signal. The parameters of FLC are tuned using an off-line method through chaotic optimization algorithm (COA). The performance of the proposed observer is verified by both numerical simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) implementation. Moreover, a detailed comparative study among proposed and other speed observers is obtained under different operation conditions.

  19. Conversion and Validation of Distribution System Model from a QSTS-Based Tool to a Real-Time Dynamic Phasor Simulator: Preprint

    Chamana, Manohar; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Palmintier, Bryan; Baggu, Murali M.


    A software process is developed to convert distribution network models from a quasi-static time-series tool (OpenDSS) to a real-time dynamic phasor simulator (ePHASORSIM). The description of this process in this paper would be helpful for researchers who intend to perform similar conversions. The converter could be utilized directly by users of real-time simulators who intend to perform software-in-the-loop or hardware-in-the-loop tests on large distribution test feeders for a range of use cases, including testing functions of advanced distribution management systems against a simulated distribution system. In the future, the developers intend to release the conversion tool as open source to enable use by others.

  20. Missile Electro-Optical Countermeasures Simulation Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory comprises several hardware-in-the-loop missile flight simulations designed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of electro-optical air defense...

  1. Advanced Simulation Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Simulation Center consists of 10 individual facilities which provide missile and submunition hardware-in-the-loop simulation capabilities. The following...

  2. Evidence-based recommendations for treatment with methotrexate in rheumatic disorders

    Madsen, Ole Rintek; Faurschou, Mikkel; Loft, Anne Gitte;


    The aim of this study was to develop 3E (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) recommendations (RCs) on the use of methotrexate in rheumatic disorders and to assess the agreement among Danish rheumatologists.......The aim of this study was to develop 3E (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) recommendations (RCs) on the use of methotrexate in rheumatic disorders and to assess the agreement among Danish rheumatologists....

  3. Distance estimates to five open clusters based on 2mass data of red clump giants

    Chen, Li; Gao, Xinhua


    Red clump (RC) giants are excellent standard candles in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The near-infrared K-band intrinsic luminosity of RC giants exhibits only a small variance and a weak dependence on chemical composition and age. In addition, RCs are often easily recognizable in the color-magnitude diagrams of open clusters, which renders them extremely useful distance indicators for some intermediate-age or old open clusters. Here we determine the distance moduli of five Galactic open clusters covering a range of metallicities and ages, based on RC giants in the cluster regions using 2mass photometric data. We compare our result with those from main-sequence fitting and also briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of RC-based cluster distance determination.

  4. A new methodology for PBL height estimations based on lidar depolarization measurements: analysis and comparison against MWR and WRF model-based results

    Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; de Arruda Moreira, Gregori; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; José Granados-Muñoz, María; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Pozo-Vázquez, David; Arbizu-Barrena, Clara; José Olmo Reyes, Francisco; Mallet, Marc; Alados Arboledas, Lucas


    The automatic and non-supervised detection of the planetary boundary layer height (zPBL) by means of lidar measurements was widely investigated during the last several years. Despite considerable advances, the experimental detection still presents difficulties such as advected aerosol layers coupled to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) which usually produces an overestimation of the zPBL. To improve the detection of the zPBL in these complex atmospheric situations, we present a new algorithm, called POLARIS (PBL height estimation based on lidar depolarisation). POLARIS applies the wavelet covariance transform (WCT) to the range-corrected signal (RCS) and to the perpendicular-to-parallel signal ratio (δ) profiles. Different candidates for zPBL are chosen and the selection is done based on the WCT applied to the RCS and δ. We use two ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) campaigns with lidar and microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements, conducted in 2012 and 2013, for the POLARIS' adjustment and validation. POLARIS improves the zPBL detection compared to previous methods based on lidar measurements, especially when an aerosol layer is coupled to the PBL. We also compare the zPBL provided by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with respect to the zPBL determined with POLARIS and the MWR under Saharan dust events. WRF underestimates the zPBL during daytime but agrees with the MWR during night-time. The zPBL provided by WRF shows a better temporal evolution compared to the MWR during daytime than during night-time.

  5. Research on DC-Link Capacitor Voltage Harmonics Reduction of PWM Rectifier Based on Carrier Phase-Shifting%基于载波移相控制的脉冲整流器直流侧支撑电容电压谐波抑制研究

    王娜; 宋文胜; 冯晓云


    In the paper, to reduce the DC-link capacitor voltage harmonics of dual-cascading PWM rectifier in electric traction AC drive system, firstly, the theoretical design method of DC-link capacitor was introduced, then, the characteristic of high order harmonics of DC-link voltage in the steady-state was derived, and DC link voltage ripple of the dual-cascading PWM with carrier phase-shifting technology was analyzed in detail. The theoretical analysis showed that the high order ripples of DC-link voltage were mainly distributed around the twice switching frequency, and the carrier phase-shifting technology could reduce these high order ripples to suppress the DC voltage ripple coefficient. Therefore, the DC-link capacitor could be minimized based on traditional design method in combination with carrier phase-shifting technology, Control methods with and without carrier phase-shifting technology were compared in computer simulation and hardware-in-the-loop(HIL) experiment system respectively, which showed the validity and effectiveness of theoretical analysis.%以电力牵引交流传动系统中两重化脉冲整流器拓扑为研究对象,以实现其直流侧支撑电容电压谐波抑制为目标,首先从理论上分析了直流侧支撑电容容量的设计方法;然后分析了稳态运行时直流侧电压高次谐波的产生机理,并重点分析了两重化脉冲整流器载波移相控制方法对直流侧脉动的影响.理论分析表明直流侧电压高次纹波主要分布在2倍开关频率附近,载波移相控制技术可以有效地抑制直流侧2倍开关频率附近的纹波电压,从而减小直流侧电压纹波系数.因此在传统直流侧支撑电容容量设计方法的基础上,加入载波移相控制可以进一步减小所设计的支撑电容大小.最后对未添加载波移相控制和添加载波移相控制的方法分别进行了计算机仿真和半实物试验测试.Matlab仿真和dSPACE半实物测试结果都验证了理

  6. Evaluation of the Inertial Response of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines Using Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    In this paper, we focus on the temporary frequency support effect provided by wind turbine generators (WTGs) through the inertial response. With the implemented inertial control methods, the WTG is capable of increasing its active power output by releasing parts of the stored kinetic energy when the frequency excursion occurs. The active power can be boosted temporarily above the maximum power points, but the rotor speed deceleration follows and an active power output deficiency occurs during the restoration of rotor kinetic energy. In this paper, we evaluate and compare the inertial response induced by two distinct inertial control methods using advanced simulation. In the first stage, the proposed inertial control methods are analyzed in offline simulation. Using an advanced wind turbine simulation program, FAST with TurbSim, the response of the researched wind turbine is comprehensively evaluated under turbulent wind conditions, and the impact on the turbine mechanical components are assessed. In the second stage, the inertial control is deployed on a real 600-kW wind turbine, the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine, which further verifies the inertial control through a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Various inertial control methods can be effectively evaluated based on the proposed two-stage simulation platform, which combines the offline simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The simulation results also provide insights in designing inertial control for WTGs.

  7. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique


    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by Manning's equation to obtain a data set containing the elevations of the river beds throughout the basin. The second advancement is the provision of parameter uncertainties and, therefore, the uncertainties in the rated discharge. The third advancement concerns estimating the discharge while considering backwater effects. We analyzed the Amazon Basin using nearly one thousand series that were obtained from ENVISAT and Jason-2 altimetry for more than 100 tributaries. Discharge values and related uncertainties were obtained from the rain-discharge MGB-IPH model. We used a global optimization algorithm based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Bayesian framework to determine the rating curves. The data were randomly allocated into 80% calibration and 20% validation subsets. A comparison with the validation samples produced a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of 0.68. When the MGB discharge uncertainties were less than 5%, the Ens value increased to 0.81 (mean). A comparison with the in situ discharge resulted in an Ens value of 0.71 for the validation samples (and 0.77 for calibration). The Ens values at the mouths of the rivers that experienced backwater effects significantly improved when the mean monthly slope was included in the RC. Our RCs were not mission-dependent, and the Ens value was preserved when applying ENVISAT rating curves to Jason-2 altimetry at crossovers. The cease-to-flow parameter of our RCs provided a good proxy for determining river bed elevation. This proxy was validated

  8. Foliar uptake of radiocaesium from irrigation water by paddy rice (Oryza sativa): an overlooked pathway in contaminated environments.

    Uematsu, Shinichiro; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Hees, May Van; Wannijn, Jean; Smolders, Erik


    Flooded (paddy) rice (Oryza sativa) can take up ions from the irrigation water by foliar uptake via the exposed stem base. We hypothesised that the stem base uptake of radiocaesium (RCs) is a pathway for rice grown in RCs-contaminated environments. We developed a bi-compartmental device which discriminates the stem base from root RCs uptake from solutions, thereby using RCs isotopes ((137) Cs and (134) Cs) with < 2% solution leak between the compartments. Radiocaesium uptake was linear over time (0-24 h). Radiocaesium uptake to the entire plant, expressed per dry weight of the exposed parts, was sixfold higher for the roots than for the exposed stem base. At equal RCs concentrations in both compartments, the exposed stem base and root uptake contributed almost equally to the total shoot RCs concentrations. Reducing potassium supply to the roots not only increased the root RCs uptake but also increased RCs uptake by the stem base. This study was the first to experimentally demonstrate active and internally regulated RCs uptake by the stem base of rice. Scenario calculations for the Fukushima-affected area predict that RCs in irrigation water could be an important source of RCs in rice as indirectly suggested from field data. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Base

    Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte; Johansson, Christer


    BASE - Engelsk basisgrammatik er resultatet af Lise-Lotte Hjulmands grundige bearbejdning og omfattende revidering af Christer Johanssons Engelska basgrammatik. Grammatikken adskiller sig fra det svenske forlæg på en lang række punkter. Den er bl.a. tilpasset til et dansk publikum og det danske...

  10. ERIC/RCS: Reader Response in the Classroom.

    Holbrook, Hilary Taylor


    Explores briefly the New Criticism that dominated literature instruction until recently and then provides an overview of reader response theory and how response approaches can be used in the classroom to enhance reading. (NKA)

  11. ERIC/RCS: Booklists on Young Adult Literature.

    Dorney, Jacqueline M.


    Annotates booklists of literature for young adults that were selected on the basis of their quality and interest. Topics include: (1) contemporary nonfiction; (2) fantasy, science fiction, and the supernatural; (3) titles for reluctant readers; (4) death and war; (5) love and teen sexuality; (6) science; (7) American and world culture; (8) Black…

  12. Clinical Investigation Program Report, RCS MED-300 (R1).


    Carolina for patients. We are presently randomizing a few patients who were previously ineligible due to high GGT’s and tubal ligation , but are eligible...Periodontal bone morphology - 40 Periodontal surgery - 36 Phantom pain - 25, 29 Polycystic ovarian syndrome - 69 Post herpetic neuralgia - 88 Postpartum...Surface Active Agent Induced Delay of Gastric Emptying. (0) (PR) (P) 21 1979 The Experimental Fat Embolism Syndrome : An Electron Microscopic Study of

  13. Bistatic Clutter RCS Simulation Using Scale Model Rough Surfaces


    degree) Figure Sa a.(HH and a.(HV) for laboratory depression angles 4i =4 10 220HH and HV for EBT4+13 S 1 S% I - liV Model . 301 -I; Aspect ange (doee...obtained by means of a mechanical profilometer "Mitutoyo Surftest 201", with a 5 PM diameter diamond stylus. Some of the parameters, such as the


    WEI, J.; CHEN, Y.; CHI, Y.L.; JIANG, Y.L.; KANG, W.; PANG, J.B.; QIN, Q.; WANG, S.; WANG, W.


    The BSNS extraction system takes use one of the four dispersion-free straight sections. Five vertical kickers and one Lambertson septum magnet are used for the one-turn extraction. The rise time of less 250 ns and the total kicking angle of 20 mrad are required for the kickers that are grouped into two tanks. The design for the kicker magnets and the PFN is also given. To reduce the low beam loss in the extraction channels due to large halo emittance, large apertures are used for both the kickers and septum. Stray magnetic field inside and at the two ends of the circulating path of the Lambertson magnet and its effect to the beam has been studied.

  15. Clinical Investigation Program RCS-MED-300 (R1)


    on breast-feeding mothers and infants. South Med J, in press Gehlbach DL, Morgenstern LL: Antenatal screening for thalassemia minor . Obstet Gynecol...12 Stewart Dennis A.: 86/48 (Ongoing) Alteration of Lymphomyelopoietic Cell Response and Treatment in Mice Following Burns and...41 -ix- Davis C.S.: 87/13 (Terminated) AZT Treatment for HTLV-III Positive Patients .......................... 42 Ellis R.: 88

  16. Clinical Investigation Program RCS-MED-300(R1).


    procedure is 21, patients between the ages of 18 and 21 years will have written and informed consent from a parent or guardian . A copy of the consent...maintained on diablo disc until the study is complete. Scintigraphic results will be compared to the other diagnostic modalities. These patients with

  17. RF trapping and acceleration in CSNS/RCS

    WEI Tao; FU Shi-Nian; QIN Qing; TANG Jing-Yu


    In this paper, two injection scenarios with different chopping rate are discussed. The waveforms of the RF voltage are studied and optimized, respectively. Some suggestions are made, concerning chopping and momentum painting of the injected beam. Furthermore, the momentum spread and transverse tune shift are calculated so that the beam aperture and the beam loss can be estimated. Finally, the beam loss with magnet field error is analyzed.

  18. Clinical Investigation Program, RCS MED-300 (R1)


    TD: The value of needle aspiration in the management of cellulitis . J Fam Prac 1986; 23(4):337-340. (C) Epperly TS: Hyperkalemia from baby food...1986; 86:735-742. Pezeshkpour G, Krarup C, Buchthal F, DiMauro S, Bresolin N, McBurney J: Peripheral neuropathy in mitochondrial disease. J

  19. Clinical Investigation Program RCS MED-300 (R1).


    Schools and "Latchkey" Issues ................................ 205 Work Unit No. 85/50 (FY85,O) Pediatric Intubation Training Utilizing the Feline ...The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, Washington, DC, Chapter 8, pp 390-408, 1985 Weisman IM, Moreno AJ, Parker AL, Sippo WC, Liles WJ...AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE Coleridge ST: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage. Chapter in Clinial Procedures in Emergency Medicine. Roberts JR, Hedges JR (eds.), W

  20. An Innovative 6-DOF Platform for Testing a Space Robotic System to Perform Contact Tasks in Zero-Gravity Environment


    Ma, O., Flores-Abad, A. and Boge, T., “Control of Industrial Robots for Hardware-in-the- Loop Simulation of Satellite Docking,” Acta Astronautica ...Boge, T., “Use of industrial robots for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of satellite rendezvous and docking,” Acta Astronautica , Vol. 81(1), 2012, pp

  1. Hail statistic in Western Europe based on a hyrid cell-tracking algorithm combining radar signals with hailstone observations

    Fluck, Elody


    Hail statistic in Western Europe based on a hybrid cell-tracking algorithm combining radar signals with hailstone observations Elody Fluck¹, Michael Kunz¹ , Peter Geissbühler², Stefan P. Ritz² With hail damage estimated over Billions of Euros for a single event (e.g., hailstorm Andreas on 27/28 July 2013), hail constitute one of the major atmospheric risks in various parts of Europe. The project HAMLET (Hail Model for Europe) in cooperation with the insurance company Tokio Millennium Re aims at estimating hail probability, hail hazard and, combined with vulnerability, hail risk for several European countries (Germany, Switzerland, France, Netherlands, Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg). Hail signals are obtained from radar reflectivity since this proxy is available with a high temporal and spatial resolution using several hail proxies, especially radar data. The focus in the first step is on Germany and France for the periods 2005- 2013 and 1999 - 2013, respectively. In the next step, the methods will be transferred and extended to other regions. A cell-tracking algorithm TRACE2D was adjusted and applied to two dimensional radar reflectivity data from different radars operated by European weather services such as German weather service (DWD) and French weather service (Météo-France). Strong convective cells are detected by considering 3 connected pixels over 45 dBZ (Reflectivity Cores RCs) in a radar scan. Afterwards, the algorithm tries to find the same RCs in the next 5 minute radar scan and, thus, track the RCs centers over time and space. Additional information about hailstone diameters provided by ESWD (European Severe Weather Database) is used to determine hail intensity of the detected hail swaths. Maximum hailstone diameters are interpolated along and close to the individual hail tracks giving an estimation of mean diameters for the detected hail swaths. Furthermore, a stochastic event set is created by randomizing the parameters obtained from the

  2. Evidence-based recommendations for treatment with methotrexate in rheumatic disorders

    Madsen, Ole Rintek; Faurschou, Mikkel; Loft, Anne Gitte;


    The aim of this study was to develop 3E (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) recommendations (RCs) on the use of methotrexate in rheumatic disorders and to assess the agreement among Danish rheumatologists....

  3. Feature Extraction Using Attributed Scattering Center Models for Model-Based Automatic Target Recognition (ATR)


    radar cross section (RCS), which is a measure of a target’s reflectivity. Assuming a specific imaging scene, we predict the SNR through the RCS of the...the effective length Lk of the scattering primitive. Many scattering geometries, such as dihedrals , corner reflectors , and cylinders, are...and M. T. Tuley. Radar Cross Section . Artech House, Boston, 1993. [4] E. R. Keydel, S. W. Lee and J. T. Moore. MSTAR extended operating conditions: a

  4. A smart radar absorber based on the phase-switched screen \\ud

    Chambers, B; Tennant, A


    Although conventional (i.e., passive) radar absorbers are widely used for modifying the radar cross-section (RCS) of current military platforms, such absorbers may not have adequate performance to satisfy future requirements. Active absorbers, however, offer the potential to overcome the so-called Rozanov performance limit and to enable additional smart functionality such as monitoring damage, adaptive control of RCS or target appearance, identification-friend-or-foe, and absorb-while-scan. T...

  5. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John


    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  6. Radar seeker based autonomous navigation update system using topography feature matching techniques

    Lerche, H. D.; Tumbreagel, F.


    The discussed navigation update system was designed for an unmanned platform with fire and forget capability. It meets the requirement due to fully autonomous operation. The system concept will be characterized by complementary use of the radar seeker for target identification as well as for navigation function. The system works in the navigation mode during preprogrammable phases where the primary target identification function is not active or in parallel processing. The dual function radar seeker system navigates the drone during the midcourse and terminal phases of the mission. Its high resolution due to range measurement and doppler beam sharpening in context with its radar reflectivity sensing capability are the basis for topography referenced navigation computation. The detected height jumps (coming from terrain elevation and cultural objects) and radar reflectivity features will be matched together with topography referenced features. The database comprises elevation data and selected radar reflectivity features that are robust against seasonal influences. The operational benefits of the discussed system are as follows: (1) the improved navigation performance with high probability of position fixing, even over flat terrain; (2) the operation within higher altitudes; and (3) bad weather capability. The developed software modules were verified with captive flight test data running in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation.

  7. Multi-Agent System-Based Microgrid Operation Strategy for Demand Response

    Hee-Jun Cha


    Full Text Available The microgrid and demand response (DR are important technologies for future power grids. Among the variety of microgrid operations, the multi-agent system (MAS has attracted considerable attention. In a microgrid with MAS, the agents installed on the microgrid components operate optimally by communicating with each other. This paper proposes an operation algorithm for the individual agents of a test microgrid that consists of a battery energy storage system (BESS and an intelligent load. A microgrid central controller to manage the microgrid can exchange information with each agent. The BESS agent performs scheduling for maximum benefit in response to the electricity price and BESS state of charge (SOC through a fuzzy system. The intelligent load agent assumes that the industrial load performs scheduling for maximum benefit by calculating the hourly production cost. The agent operation algorithm includes a scheduling algorithm using day-ahead pricing in the DR program and a real-time operation algorithm for emergency situations using emergency demand response (EDR. The proposed algorithm and operation strategy were implemented both by a hardware-in-the-loop simulation test using OPAL-RT and an actual hardware test by connecting a new distribution simulator.

  8. Combined of Lyapunov-stable and active disturbance rejection control for the path following of a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Yang Chen


    Full Text Available This article proposes a composite path following controller that allows the small fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle to follow a predefined path. Assuming that the vehicle is equipped with an autopilot for altitude and airspeed maintained well, the controller design adopts the hierarchical control structure. With the inner-loop controller design based on the notion of active disturbance rejection control which will respond to the desired roll angle command, the core part of the outer-loop controller is designed based on Lyapunov stability theorem to generate the desired course rate for the straight-line paths. The bank to turn maneuver is used to transform the desired course rate to the desired roll angle command. Both the hardware-in-the-loop simulation in the X-Plane simulator and actual experimental flight tests have been successfully achieved, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Provision of Flexible Load Control by Multi-Flywheel-Energy-Storage System in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Andrade, Fabio


    Electrical vehicle (EV) chargers are going to occupy a considerable portion of total energy consumption in the future smart grid. Fast charging stations (FCS), as the most demanding representatives of charging infrastructure, will be requested to provide some ancillary services to the power system...... in order to support basic electrical operation. This paper proposes a local implementation of a hysteresis-based aggregation algorithm for coordinated control of multiple stations that can provide functions such as peak shaving, spinning reserves, frequency control, regulation and load following. Local...... stability. Finally, corresponding hardware in the loop results based on dSPACE1006 platform have been reported in order to verify the validity of proposed approach....

  10. Modelling and controlling hydropower plants

    Munoz-Hernandez, German Ardul; Jones, Dewi Ieuan


    Hydroelectric power stations are a major source of electricity around the world; understanding their dynamics is crucial to achieving good performance.  Modelling and Controlling Hydropower Plants discusses practical and well-documented cases of modelling and controlling hydropower station modelling and control, focussing on a pumped storage scheme based in Dinorwig, North Wales.  Single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output models, which cover the linear and nonlinear characteristics of pump-storage hydroelectric power stations, are reviewed. The most important dynamic features are discussed, and the verification of these models by hardware in the loop simulation is described. To show how the performance of a pump-storage hydroelectric power station can be improved, classical and modern controllers are applied to simulated models of the Dinorwig power plant. These include PID, fuzzy approximation, feed-forward and model-based predictive control with linear and hybrid prediction models. Mod...

  11. The development of an autonomous rendezvous and docking simulation using rapid integration and prototyping technology

    Shackelford, John H.; Saugen, John D.; Wurst, Michael J.; Adler, James


    A generic planar 3 degree of freedom simulation was developed that supports hardware in the loop simulations, guidance and control analysis, and can directly generate flight software. This simulation was developed in a small amount of time utilizing rapid prototyping techniques. The approach taken to develop this simulation tool, the benefits seen using this approach to development, and on-going efforts to improve and extend this capability are described. The simulation is composed of 3 major elements: (1) Docker dynamics model, (2) Dockee dynamics model, and (3) Docker Control System. The docker and dockee models are based on simple planar orbital dynamics equations using a spherical earth gravity model. The docker control system is based on a phase plane approach to error correction.

  12. A Metaheuristic Algorithm Based on Chemotherapy Science: CSA

    Mohammad Hassan Salmani


    Full Text Available Among scientific fields of study, mathematical programming has high status and its importance has led researchers to develop accurate models and effective solving approaches to addressing optimization problems. In particular, metaheuristic algorithms are approximate methods for solving optimization problems whereby good (not necessarily optimum solutions can be generated via their implementation. In this study, we propose a population-based metaheuristic algorithm according to chemotherapy method to cure cancers that mainly search the infeasible region. As in chemotherapy, Chemotherapy Science Algorithm (CSA tries to kill inappropriate solutions (cancers and bad cells of the human body; however, this would inevitably risk incidentally destroying some acceptable solutions (healthy cells. In addition, as the cycle of cancer treatment repeats over and over, the algorithm is iterated. To align chemotherapy process with the proposed algorithm, different basic terms and definitions including Infeasibility Function (IF, objective function (OF, Cell Area (CA, and Random Cells (RCs are presented in this study. In the terminology of algorithms and optimization, IF and OF are mainly applicable as criteria to compare every pair of generated solutions. Finally, we test CSA and its structure using the benchmark Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP.

  13. A novel pre-control method of vehicle dynamics stability based on critical stable velocity during transient steering maneuvering

    Chen, Jie; Song, Jian; Li, Liang; Ran, Xu; Jia, Gang; Wu, Kaihui


    The current research of direct yaw moment control (DYC) system focus on the design of target yaw moment and the distribution of wheel brake force. The differential braking intervention can effectively improve the lateral stability of the vehicle, however, the effect of DYC can be improved a step further by applying the control of vehicle longitudinal velocity. In this paper, the relationship between the vehicle longitudinal velocity and lateral stability is studied, and the simulation results show that a decrease of 5 km/h of longitudinal velocity at a particular situation can bring 100° increasing of stable steering upper limit. A critical stable velocity considering the effect of steering and yaw rate measurement is defined to evaluate the risk of losing steer-ability or stability. A novel velocity pre-control method is proposed by using a hierarchical pre-control logic and is integrated with the traditional DYC system. The control algorithm is verified through a hardware in-the-loop simulation system. Double lane change (DLC) test results on both high friction coefficient (μ) and low μ roads show that by using the pre-control method, the steering effort in DLC test can be reduced by 38% and 51% and the peak value of brake pressure control can be reduced by 20% and 12% respectively on high μ and low μ roads, the lateral stability is also improved. This research proposes a novel DYC system with lighter control effort and better control effect.

  14. Ground Simulation of an Autonomous Satellite Rendezvous and Tracking System Using Dual Robotic Systems

    Trube, Matthew J.; Hyslop, Andrew M.; Carignan, Craig R.; Easley, Joseph W.


    A hardware-in-the-loop ground system was developed for simulating a robotic servicer spacecraft tracking a target satellite at short range. A relative navigation sensor package "Argon" is mounted on the end-effector of a Fanuc 430 manipulator, which functions as the base platform of the robotic spacecraft servicer. Machine vision algorithms estimate the pose of the target spacecraft, mounted on a Rotopod R-2000 platform, relay the solution to a simulation of the servicer spacecraft running in "Freespace", which performs guidance, navigation and control functions, integrates dynamics, and issues motion commands to a Fanuc platform controller so that it tracks the simulated servicer spacecraft. Results will be reviewed for several satellite motion scenarios at different ranges. Key words: robotics, satellite, servicing, guidance, navigation, tracking, control, docking.

  15. A Nonlinear Digital Control Solution for a DC/DC Power Converter

    Zhu, Minshao


    A digital Nonlinear Proportional-Integral-Derivative (NPID) control algorithm was proposed to control a 1-kW, PWM, DC/DC, switching power converter. The NPID methodology is introduced and a practical hardware control solution is obtained. The design of the controller was completed using Matlab (trademark) Simulink, while the hardware-in-the-loop testing was performed using both the dSPACE (trademark) rapid prototyping system, and a stand-alone Texas Instruments (trademark) Digital Signal Processor (DSP)-based system. The final Nonlinear digital control algorithm was implemented and tested using the ED408043-1 Westinghouse DC-DC switching power converter. The NPID test results are discussed and compared to the results of a standard Proportional-Integral (PI) controller.

  16. Performance analysis results of a battery fuel gauge algorithm at multiple temperatures

    Balasingam, B.; Avvari, G. V.; Pattipati, K. R.; Bar-Shalom, Y.


    Evaluating a battery fuel gauge (BFG) algorithm is a challenging problem due to the fact that there are no reliable mathematical models to represent the complex features of a Li-ion battery, such as hysteresis and relaxation effects, temperature effects on parameters, aging, power fade (PF), and capacity fade (CF) with respect to the chemical composition of the battery. The existing literature is largely focused on developing different BFG strategies and BFG validation has received little attention. In this paper, using hardware in the loop (HIL) data collected form three Li-ion batteries at nine different temperatures ranging from -20 °C to 40 °C, we demonstrate detailed validation results of a battery fuel gauge (BFG) algorithm. The BFG validation is based on three different BFG validation metrics; we provide implementation details of these three BFG evaluation metrics by proposing three different BFG validation load profiles that satisfy varying levels of user requirements.

  17. SILHIL Replication of Electric Aircraft Powertrain Dynamics and Inner-Loop Control for V&V of System Health Management Routines

    Bole, Brian; Teubert, Christopher Allen; Cuong Chi, Quach; Hogge, Edward; Vazquez, Sixto; Goebel, Kai; George, Vachtsevanos


    Software-in-the-loop and Hardware-in-the-loop testing of failure prognostics and decision making tools for aircraft systems will facilitate more comprehensive and cost-effective testing than what is practical to conduct with flight tests. A framework is described for the offline recreation of dynamic loads on simulated or physical aircraft powertrain components based on a real-time simulation of airframe dynamics running on a flight simulator, an inner-loop flight control policy executed by either an autopilot routine or a human pilot, and a supervisory fault management control policy. The creation of an offline framework for verifying and validating supervisory failure prognostics and decision making routines is described for the example of battery charge depletion failure scenarios onboard a prototype electric unmanned aerial vehicle.


    CHEN Deling; CHEN Li; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Yong


    An active front steering (AFS) intervention control during braking for vehicle stability is presented. Based on the investigation of AFS mechanism, a simplified model of steering system is established and integrated with vehicle model. Then the AFS control on vehicle handling dynamics during braking is designed. Due to the difficulties associated with the sideslip angle measurement of vehicle, a state observer is designed to provide real time estimation. Thereafter, the controller with the feedback of both sideslip and yaw angle is implemented. To evaluate the system control, the proposed AFS controlled vehicle has been tested in the Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) system and compared with that of conventional vehicle. Results show that AFS can improve vehicle lateral stability effectively without reducing the braking performance.

  19. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    Ren He


    Full Text Available This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system was constructed to validate and analyze the performance of the hybrid brake system. Through lots of experiments on dry and wet asphalt roads, the hybrid brake system achieves perfect performance on the experimental bench, the hybrid system reduces abrasion and temperature of the brake disk, response speed is enhanced obviously, fuzzy controller keeps high utilization coefficient due to the optimal slip ratio regulation, and the total brake time has a smaller decrease than traditional hydraulic brake system.

  20. Advanced embedded nonlinear observer design and HIL validation using a Takagi-Sugeno approach with unmeasurable premise variables

    Olteanu, S. C.; Aitouche, A.; Belkoura, L.


    The article's goals are to illustrate the feasibility of implementing a Takagi Sugeno state observer on an embedded microcontroller based platform and secondly to present a methodology for validating a physical embedded system using a Hardware In The Loop architecture, where a simulation software replaces the process. As an application, a three water tank system was chosen. For the validation part, LMS AMESim software is employed to reproduce the process behaviour. The interface to the embedded platform is assured by Simulink on a Windows operating system, chosen as it is the most commonly used operating system. The lack of real time behaviour of the operating system is compensated by a real time kernel that manages to offer deterministic response times. The Takagi-Sugeno observer in the case of this process has the complex form that considers the premise variables to be unmeasurable. The embedded system consists of two Arduino boards connected in parallel, thus offering distributed resources.

  1. Non-Pilot Protection of the HVDC Grid

    Badrkhani Ajaei, Firouz

    This thesis develops a non-pilot protection system for the next generation power transmission system, the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) grid. The HVDC grid protection system is required to be (i) adequately fast to prevent damages and/or converter blocking and (ii) reliable to minimize the impacts of faults. This study is mainly focused on the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) -based HVDC grid since the MMC is considered as the building block of the future HVDC systems. The studies reported in this thesis include (i) developing an enhanced equivalent model of the MMC to enable accurate representation of its DC-side fault response, (ii) developing a realistic HVDC-AC test system that includes a five-terminal MMC-based HVDC grid embedded in a large interconnected AC network, (iii) investigating the transient response of the developed test system to AC-side and DC-side disturbances in order to determine the HVDC grid protection requirements, (iv) investigating the fault surge propagation in the HVDC grid to determine the impacts of the DC-side fault location on the measured signals at each relay location, (v) designing a protection algorithm that detects and locates DC-side faults reliably and sufficiently fast to prevent relay malfunction and unnecessary blocking of the converters, and (vi) performing hardware-in-the-loop tests on the designed relay to verify its potential to be implemented in hardware. The results of the off-line time domain transients studies in the PSCAD software platform and the real-time hardware-in-the-loop tests using an enhanced version of the RTDS platform indicate that the developed HVDC grid relay meets all technical requirements including speed, dependability, security, selectivity, and robustness. Moreover, the developed protection algorithm does not impose considerable computational burden on the hardware.

  2. Multidimensional optimal droop control for wind resources in DC microgrids

    Bunker, Kaitlyn J.

    Two important and upcoming technologies, microgrids and electricity generation from wind resources, are increasingly being combined. Various control strategies can be implemented, and droop control provides a simple option without requiring communication between microgrid components. Eliminating the single source of potential failure around the communication system is especially important in remote, islanded microgrids, which are considered in this work. However, traditional droop control does not allow the microgrid to utilize much of the power available from the wind. This dissertation presents a novel droop control strategy, which implements a droop surface in higher dimension than the traditional strategy. The droop control relationship then depends on two variables: the dc microgrid bus voltage, and the wind speed at the current time. An approach for optimizing this droop control surface in order to meet a given objective, for example utilizing all of the power available from a wind resource, is proposed and demonstrated. Various cases are used to test the proposed optimal high dimension droop control method, and demonstrate its function. First, the use of linear multidimensional droop control without optimization is demonstrated through simulation. Next, an optimal high dimension droop control surface is implemented with a simple dc microgrid containing two sources and one load. Various cases for changing load and wind speed are investigated using simulation and hardware-in-the-loop techniques. Optimal multidimensional droop control is demonstrated with a wind resource in a full dc microgrid example, containing an energy storage device as well as multiple sources and loads. Finally, the optimal high dimension droop control method is applied with a solar resource, and using a load model developed for a military patrol base application. The operation of the proposed control is again investigated using simulation and hardware-in-the-loop techniques.

  3. An Experimental Study on Dynamics of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuous Variable Transmission Based on a Newly Developed Test Rig

    Pak Kin Wong


    Full Text Available A novel dual-belt Van Doorne’s continuous variable transmission (DBVCVT system, which is applicable to heavy-duty vehicles, has been previously proposed by the authors in order to improve the low torque capacity of traditional single-belt CVT. This DBVCVT is a novel design among continuously variable transmissions and is necessary to be prototyped for experimental study, and the analytical dynamic model for this DBVCVT also needs to be experimentally validated. So, this work originally fabricated a prototype of DBVCVT and integrates this prototype to a light-load hardware-in-the-loop test rig by replacing the engine and load equipment with the AC motor and magnetic powder dynamometer. Moreover, with the use of this newly developed test rig, this work implements the experimental study of this DBVCVT for the first time. The comparison of experimental and simulation results validates the previously proposed analytical model for DBVCVT, and some basic characteristics of the DBVCVT in terms of the reliability, speed ratio, and transmission efficiency are also experimentally studied. In all, this developed test rig with the analytical model lays the foundation for further study on this novel DBVCVT.

  4. Real-Time Control of Active and Reactive Power for Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG-Based Wind Energy Conversion System

    Aman Abdulla Tanvir


    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling, rapid control prototyping, and hardware-in-the-loop testing for real-time simulation and control of a grid-connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG in a laboratory-size wind turbine emulator for wind energy conversation systems. The generator is modeled using the direct-quadrature rotating reference frame circuit along with the aligned stator flux, and the field-oriented control approach is applied for independent control of the active and reactive power and the DC-link voltage at the grid side. The control of the active, reactive power and the DC-link voltage are performed using a back-to-back converter at sub- and super-synchronous as well as at variable speeds. The control strategy is experimentally validated on an emulated wind turbine driven by the Opal-RT real-time simulator (OP5600 for simultaneous control of the DC-link voltage, active and reactive power.

  5. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    Huang, Xianjun, E-mail: [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Hu, Zhirun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Liu, Peiguo [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)


    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  6. Replication of Electric Aircraft Powertrain Dynamics and Inner-Loop Control for V&V of System Health Management Routines

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop testing of failure prognostics and decision making tools for aircraft systems will facilitate more comprehensive and...

  7. Multi-Purpose Radio Signal Generation System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Early Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation is essential to early retirement of space mission development risks. Upcoming NASA missions such as MMS involve complex...

  8. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  9. Razor UAS Test and Evaluation System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adsys Controls' Razor UAS Test System is a high fidelity simulation and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) test system. Razor provides extensive existing capability for high...

  10. HIL Simulation of Power Electronics and Electric Drives for Automotive Applications

    Frank Puschmann


    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is today a standard method for testing electronic equipment in the automotive industry. Since electric drives and power electronic devices are more and more important in automotive applications, these kinds of systems have to be integrated into the hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Power converters and electric drives are used in many different applications in vehicles today (hybrid electric or electric powertrain, electric steering systems, DC-DC converters, etc.. The wide range of applications, topologies, and power levels results in various different approaches and solutions for hardware-in-the-loop testing. This paper gives an overview of hardware-in-the-loop simulation of power electronics and electric drives in the automotive industry. The currently available technologies are described and future challenges are outlined.

  11. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Test Plan - Result Summary

    Hoke, Anderson; Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh


    This presentation is intended to share the results of lab testing of five PV inverters with the Hawaiian Electric Companies and other stakeholders and interested parties. The tests included baseline testing of advanced inverter grid support functions, as well as distribution circuit-level tests to examine the impact of the PV inverters on simulated distribution feeders using power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques. hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques.

  12. An autotuning respiration compensation system based on ultrasound image tracking.

    Kuo, Chia-Chun; Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Teng, Kuan-Ting; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Tien, Der-Chi; Wu, Chih-Jen; Jeng, Shiu-Chen; Chiou, Jeng-Fong


    The purpose of this study was to develop an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) for extracting the exact displacement of internal organs caused by respiratory motion. The program can track organ displacements in real time, and analyze the displacement signals associated with organ displacements via a respiration compensating system (RCS). The ultrasound imaging system is noninvasive and has a high spatial resolution and a high frame rate (around 32 frames/s), which reduces the radiation doses that patients receive during computed tomography and X-ray observations. This allows for the continuous noninvasive observation and compensation of organ displacements simultaneously during a radiation therapy session.This study designed a UITA for tracking the motion of a specific target, such as the human diaphragm. Simulated diaphragm motion driven by a respiration simulation system was observed with an ultrasound imaging system, and then the induced diaphragm displacements were calculated by our proposed UITA. These signals were used to adjust the gain of the RCS so that the amplitudes of the compensation signals were close to the target movements. The inclination angle of the ultrasound probe with respect to the surface of the abdomen affects the results of ultrasound image displacement tracking. Therefore, the displacement of the phantom was verified by a LINAC with different inclination-angle settings of the ultrasound probe. The experimental results indicate that the best inclination angle of the ultrasound probe is 40 degrees, since this results in the target displacement of the ultrasound images being close to the actual target motion. The displacement signals of the tracking phantom and the opposing displacement signals created by the RCS were compared to assess the positioning accuracy of our proposed ultrasound image tracking technique combined with the RCS.When the ultrasound probe was inclined by 40 degrees in simulated respiration experiments using sine

  13. A model for calculation of RCS pressure during reflux boiling under reduced inventory conditions and its assessment against PKL data. [Reactor Cooling Systems (RCS)

    Palmrose, D.E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Mandl, R.M. (Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany))


    There has been recent interest in the United States concerning the loss of residual heat removal system (RHRS) under reduced coolant inventory conditions for pressurized water reactors. This issue is also of interest in the Federal Republic of Germany and an experiment was performed in the integral PKL-HI experimental facility at Siemens-KWU to supply applicable data. Recently, an NRC-sponsored effort has been undertaken at the Idaho-National Engineering Laboratory to identify and analyze the important thermal-hydraulic phenomena in pressurized water reactors following the long term loss-of-RHRS during reduced inventory operation. The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed reactor coolant system during such a transient is investigated in this report. Some of the specific processes investigated include: reflux condensation in the steam generators, the corresponding pressure increase in the reactor coolant system, and void fraction distributions on the primary side of the system. Mathematical models of these and other physical processes Experiment B4.5.

  14. Cramer-Rao Lower Bound Evaluation for Linear Frequency Modulation Based Active Radar Networks Operating in a Rice Fading Environment

    Chenguang Shi


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the joint target parameter (delay and Doppler estimation performance of linear frequency modulation (LFM-based radar networks in a Rice fading environment. The active radar networks are composed of multiple radar transmitters and multichannel receivers placed on moving platforms. First, the log-likelihood function of the received signal for a Rician target is derived, where the received signal scattered off the target comprises of dominant scatterer (DS component and weak isotropic scatterers (WIS components. Then, the analytically closed-form expressions of the Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs on the Cartesian coordinates of target position and velocity are calculated, which can be adopted as a performance metric to access the target parameter estimation accuracy for LFM-based radar network systems in a Rice fading environment. It is found that the cumulative Fisher information matrix (FIM is a linear combination of both DS component and WIS components, and it also demonstrates that the joint CRLB is a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, target’s radar cross section (RCS and transmitted waveform parameters, as well as the relative geometry between the target and the radar network architectures. Finally, numerical results are provided to indicate that the joint target parameter estimation performance of active radar networks can be significantly improved with the exploitation of DS component.

  15. Cramer-Rao Lower Bound Evaluation for Linear Frequency Modulation Based Active Radar Networks Operating in a Rice Fading Environment.

    Shi, Chenguang; Salous, Sana; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang


    This paper investigates the joint target parameter (delay and Doppler) estimation performance of linear frequency modulation (LFM)-based radar networks in a Rice fading environment. The active radar networks are composed of multiple radar transmitters and multichannel receivers placed on moving platforms. First, the log-likelihood function of the received signal for a Rician target is derived, where the received signal scattered off the target comprises of dominant scatterer (DS) component and weak isotropic scatterers (WIS) components. Then, the analytically closed-form expressions of the Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) on the Cartesian coordinates of target position and velocity are calculated, which can be adopted as a performance metric to access the target parameter estimation accuracy for LFM-based radar network systems in a Rice fading environment. It is found that the cumulative Fisher information matrix (FIM) is a linear combination of both DS component and WIS components, and it also demonstrates that the joint CRLB is a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), target's radar cross section (RCS) and transmitted waveform parameters, as well as the relative geometry between the target and the radar network architectures. Finally, numerical results are provided to indicate that the joint target parameter estimation performance of active radar networks can be significantly improved with the exploitation of DS component.

  16. Reactivity, Selectivity, and Reaction Mechanisms of Aminoguanidine, Hydralazine, Pyridoxamine, and Carnosine as Sequestering Agents of Reactive Carbonyl Species: A Comparative Study.

    Colzani, Mara; De Maddis, Danilo; Casali, Gaia; Carini, Marina; Vistoli, Giulio; Aldini, Giancarlo


    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are endogenous or exogenous byproducts involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of different oxidative-based disorders. Detoxification of RCS by carbonyl quenchers is a promising therapeutic strategy. Among the most studied quenchers are aminoguanidine, hydralazine, pyridoxamine, and carnosine; their quenching activity towards four RCS (4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and malondialdehyde) was herein analyzed and compared. Their ability to prevent protein carbonylation was evaluated in vitro by using an innovative method based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The reactivity of the compounds was RCS dependent: carnosine efficiently quenched 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, pyridoxamine was particularly active towards malondialdehyde, aminoguanidine was active towards methylglyoxal and glyoxal, and hydralazine efficiently quenched all RCS. Reaction products were generated in vitro and were characterized by HRMS. Molecular modeling studies revealed that the reactivity was controlled by specific stereoelectronic parameters that could be used for the rational design of improved carbonyl quenchers.

  17. Design and Prototyping Flow of Flexible and Efficient NISC-Based Architectures for MIMO Turbo Equalization and Demapping

    Mostafa Rizk


    Full Text Available In the domain of digital wireless communication, flexible design implementations are increasingly explored for different applications in order to cope with diverse system configurations imposed by the emerging wireless communication standards. In fact, shrinking the design time to meet market pressure, on the one hand, and adding the emerging flexibility requirement and, hence, increasing system complexity, on the other hand, require a productive design approach that also ensures final design quality. The no instruction set computer (NISC approach fulfills these design requirements by eliminating the instruction set overhead. The approach offers static scheduling of the datapath, automated register transfer language (RTLsynthesis and allows the designer to have direct control of hardware resources. This paper presents a complete NISC-based design and prototype flow, from architecture specification till FPGA implementation. The proposed design and prototype flow is illustrated through two case studies of flexible implementations, which are dedicated to low-complexity MIMO turbo-equalizer and a universal turbo-demapper. Moreover, the flexibility of the proposed prototypes allows supporting all communication modes defined in the emerging wireless communication standards, such LTE, LTE-Advanced, WiMAX, WiFi and DVB-RCS. For each prototype, its functionality is evaluated, and the resultant performance is verified for all system configurations.

  18. Hardware-Based Simulation of a Fuel Cell Turbine Hybrid Response to Imposed Fuel Cell Load Transients

    Smith, T.P. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Tucker, D.A.; Haynes, C.L. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Liese, E.A.; Wepfer, W.J. (Georgia Inst. of Technology)


    Electrical load transients imposed on the cell stack of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power system are studied using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project. The hardware simulation facility is located at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). A computational fuel cell model capable of operating in real time is integrated with operating gas turbine hardware. The thermal output of a modeled 350 kW solid oxide fuel cell stack is replicated in the facility by a natural gas fired burner in a direct fired hybrid configuration. Pressure vessels are used to represent a fuel cell stack's cathode flow and post combustion volume and flow impedance. This hardware is used to simulate the fuel cell stack and is incorporated with a modified turbine, compressor, and 120 kW generator on a single shaft. For this study, a simulation was started with a simulated current demand of 307 A on the fuel cell at approximately 0.75 V and an actual 45 kW electrical load on the gas turbine. An open loop response, allowing the turbine rotational speed to respond to thermal transients, was successfully evaluated for a 5% current reduction on the fuel cell followed by a 5% current increase. The impact of the fuel cell load change on system process variables is presented. The test results demonstrate the capabilities of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation approach in evaluating hybrid fuel cell turbine dynamics and performance.

  19. 基于V2X的混合动力汽车分层能量管理及优化%Hierarchical energy management and optimization of hybrid electric vehicles based on V2X

    钱立军; 邱利宏; 林如宁; 辛付龙


    ), Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and cellular network. This paper focused on the hierarchical control of a group of 4 connected vehicles. The upper level controller integrated signal phase and timing (SPAT), multi-island genetic algorithm and nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC), which dealt with the generation of the primary velocity profiles, the best locations and target velocities, and the optimal target velocity sequences respectively. The lower level controller dealt with the energy management of HEV with adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS), and obtained the optimal power splits of the engine and motor at a given time. One thing that should be addressed was that the higher level controller and lower level controller were both virtual controllers embedded in the distant server, which communicated with the driver and vehicle parts by wireless communications. Because of the super calculation ability of the server or cloud computing, the real-time control of HEVs could be achieved. In the upper level controller, the mathematic description of the problem was presented, which consisted of the vehicle longitude dynamics equation, the power request equation and the cost minimization function, and was a weighted sum of the fuel consumption, the velocity deviations between the vehicle and the one at its immediate back, the control variables of traction or braking force per unit mass, and the relative distance between the 2 vehicles. The aim of the higher level controller was to get the optimal velocity profile as well as the avoidance of red light stopping. Another method based on Gipp’s car following model was also presented as a baseline method. With the best positions and target velocity sequences obtained from the optimal control problem, the optimal target velocity was calculated using NMPC over a given time horizon. The hierarchical control strategy was validated using hardware-in-the-loop and Clemson Palmetto server. The simulation results showed that

  20. Investigation of the Effects of Target Feature Variations on Ballistic Missile RCS


    Michael J. Havrilla (Member) date //Signed// ___________ Andrew to thank my committee members, Dr. Michael J. Havrilla and Dr. Andrew J. Terzouli, for lending me their immense knowledge and expertise. Many