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Sample records for rca mutant expressing

  1. Characterization of harpy/Rca1/emi1 mutants: patterning in the absence of cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Bruce B; Sweet, Elly M; Heck, Rebecca; Evans, Adrienne; McFarland, Karen N; Warga, Rachel M; Kane, Donald A

    2010-03-01

    We have characterized mutations in the early arrest gene, harpy (hrp), and show that they introduce premature stops in the coding region of early mitotic inhibitor1 (Rca1/emi1). In harpy mutants, cells stop dividing during early gastrulation. Lineage analysis confirms that there is little change in cell number after approximately cycle-14. Gross patterning occurs relatively normally, and many organ primordia are produced on time but with smaller numbers of cells. Despite the lack of cell division, some organ systems continue to increase in cell number, suggesting recruitment from surrounding areas. Analysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation shows that endoreduplication continues in many cells well past the first day of development, but cells cease endoreduplication once they begin to differentiate and express cell-type markers. Despite relatively normal gross patterning, harpy mutants show several defects in morphogenesis, cell migration and differentiation resulting directly or indirectly from the arrest of cell division. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The Neurospora rca-1 gene complements an Aspergillus flbD sporulation mutant but has no identifiable role in Neurospora sporulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, W C; Wieser, J; Adams, T H; Ebbole, D J

    1998-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans flbD gene encodes a protein with a Myb-like DNA-binding domain that is proposed to act in concert with other developmental regulators to control initiation of conidiophore development. We have identified a Neurospora crassa gene called rca-1 (regulator of conidiation in Aspergillus) based on its sequence similarity to flbD. We found that N. crassa rca-1 can complement the conidiation defect of an A. nidulans flbD mutant and that induced expression of rca-1 caused coni...

  3. Neural cell fate in rca1 and cycA mutants: the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in asymmetric division in the Drosophila central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, B C; Skeath, J B; Patel, N H

    1999-11-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila embryos lacking regulator of cyclin A (rca1) or cyclin A, we observe that several ganglion mother cells (GMCs) fail to divide. Whereas GMCs normally produce two sibling neurons that acquire different fates ('A/B'), non-dividing GMCs differentiate exclusively in the manner of one of their progeny ('B'). In zygotic numb mutants, sibling neuron fate alterations ('A/B' to 'A/A') occur infrequently or do not occur in some sibling pairs; we have determined that depletion of both maternal and zygotic numb causes sibling neurons to acquire equalized fates ('A/A') with near-complete expressivity. In rca1, numb mutant embryos, we observe binary cell fate changes ('B' to 'A') in several GMCs as well. Finally, we have demonstrated that expression of Delta in the mesoderm is sufficient to attain both sibling fates. Our results indicate that the intrinsic determinant Numb is absolutely required to attain differential sibling neuron fates. While the extrinsic factors Notch and Delta are also required to attain both fates, our results indicate that Delta signal can be received from outside the sibling pair.

  4. Three genes for mitochondrial proteins suppress null-mutations in both Afg3 and Rca1 when over-expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rep, M; Nooy, J; Guélin, E; Grivell, L A

    1996-08-01

    The AFG3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane protein with ATP-dependent protease activity. To gain more insight into the function of this protein, multi-copy suppressors of an afg3-null mutation were isolated. Three genes were found that restored partial growth on non-fermentable carbon sources, all of which affect the biogenesis of respiratory competent mitochondria: PIM1(LON) encodes a matrix-localized ATP-dependent protease involved in the turnover of matrix proteins; OXA1(PET1402) encodes a putative mitochondrial inner membrane protein involved in the biogenesis of the respiratory chain; and MBA1 encodes a mitochondrial protein required for optimal respiratory growth. All three genes also suppressed a null mutation in a related gene, RCA1, as well as in the combination of afg3- and rca1-null.

  5. RCA annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The report covers the calendar year 1988. It contains an extended preface on Asian regional co-operation in the application of nuclear techniques, a summary of major RCA meetings, administrative questions, a summary of technical aspects of the programme and an analysis of the resources including a prediction of project activities for 1989-1991. 4 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Identification and functional characterization of Rca1, a transcription factor involved in both antifungal susceptibility and host response in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Pradervand, Sylvain; Ischer, Françoise; Coste, Alix T; Ferrari, Sélène; Harshman, Keith; Sanglard, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    The identification of novel transcription factors associated with antifungal response may allow the discovery of fungus-specific targets for new therapeutic strategies. A collection of 241 Candida albicans transcriptional regulator mutants was screened for altered susceptibility to fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine. Thirteen of these mutants not yet identified in terms of their role in antifungal response were further investigated, and the function of one of them, a mutant of orf19.6102 (RCA1), was characterized by transcriptome analysis. Strand-specific RNA sequencing and phenotypic tests assigned Rca1 as the regulator of hyphal formation through the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathway and the transcription factor Efg1, but also probably through its interaction with a transcriptional repressor, most likely Tup1. The mechanisms responsible for the high level of resistance to caspofungin and fluconazole observed resulting from RCA1 deletion were investigated. From our observations, we propose that caspofungin resistance was the consequence of the deregulation of cell wall gene expression and that fluconazole resistance was linked to the modulation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our large-scale screening of a C. albicans transcription factor mutant collection allowed the identification of new effectors of the response to antifungals. The functional characterization of Rca1 assigned this transcription factor and its downstream targets as promising candidates for the development of new therapeutic strategies, as Rca1 influences host sensing, hyphal development, and antifungal response.

  7. RCA's regional industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) for Research Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, formulated under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), came into force in June 1972. The overall objective of RCA is to promote technical cooperation among the developing and developed countries in the Asia Pacific region in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and related technology. Currently, the biggest project under RCA is the Regional Project on the Industrial Applications of Isotopes and Radiation Technology for Asia and the Pacific. The project was established in 1982 for a period of five years and was completed in December 1986. The first phase of the project has generated a high degree of awareness on the industrial potential of isotopes and radiation technology throughout the region; produced a cadre of trained manpower in all areas covered by the project; identified the expertise available in the region; and developed in the region, a unique network of people and institutions involved with the utilization of isotope and radiation technology. A Phase II of the project, which cover all but one of the sub-projects under Phase I, was approved in early 1987 for another five years until 1991. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Control of G1 in the developing Drosophila eye: rca1 regulates Cyclin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zavitz, K H; Thomas, B J; Lin, M; Campbell, S; Zipursky, S L

    1997-01-01

    In the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster, cells become synchronized in the G1 phase of the cell cycle just prior to the onset of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. In roughex (rux) mutants, cells enter S phase precociously because of ectopic activation of a Cyclin A/Cdk complex in early G1. This leads to defects in cell fate and pattern formation, and results in abnormalities in the morphology of the adult eye. A screen for dominant suppressors of the rux eye phenotype led to the identification of mutations in cyclin A, string (cdc25), and new cell cycle genes. One of these genes, regulator of cyclin A (rca1), encodes a novel protein required for both mitotic and meiotic cell cycle progression. rca1 mutants arrest in G2 of embryonic cell cycle 16 with a phenotype very similar to cyclin A loss of function mutants. Expression of rca1 transgenes in G1 or in postmitotic neurons promotes Cyclin A protein accumulation and drives cells into S phase in a Cyclin A-dependent fashion.

  9. RCA : resource consumptions accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Valeska Rodriguez Lucas de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Devido à grande concorrência do mercado o controle de custos passa a ser peça fundamental no auxílio à tomada de decisão quanto à redução dos custos, visando uma lucratividade maior por parte das empresas. Essa dissertação trata sobre um novo modelo de custos, o RCA – Resource Consumption Accounting, que ainda não foi adotado por nenhuma empresa. Esse novo método de custeio foi aplicado como modelo piloto em uma empresa Americana onde os resultados foram favoráveis a ele em relação aos modelo...

  10. The use of mutant stock for semi-dwarf plant type and early maturity as cross-breeding materials in rice (coordinated programme on semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement in Asia and the Pacific Region - RCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pookamana, P.

    1985-11-01

    Development of semi-dwarf type varieties has led to a substantial yield increase in Thailand, where rice is cultivated on areas of about 8 million hectars. Of 19 recommended Thai rice varieties, 10 possess the DGWG gene which determines semi-dwarf character. This situation can create some problems in terms of genetic vulnerability towards pests, diseases and other adverse stresses. The authors found that susceptibility to disease and insect pests as well as poor grain quality are major drawbacks associated with the DGWG gene. With this background, the major project goal was to obtain, by mutation techniques, a new genetic source of semi-dwarfness. For this purpose 3 tall local Thai varieties (Leaung Awn 29, Niaw Sanpah Tawng and Khao Dawk Mali) with very good grain quality, were chosen as parent material. Using radiation techniques 2 glutinous and 7 non-glutinous semi-dwarf mutants were obtained. Results of agronomic trials indicated that the mutants from local varieties were more promising and higher yielding in comparison to introduced varieties from IRRI, Taiwan, China, France and the USA. The preliminary genetics analysis of these mutants indicated an allelic relationship to the DGWG gene. This result is very important for the rice breeding programme because it made available the semi-dwarf gene in a new genetic background - with desirable characteristics for cultivation in Thailand. These positive results stimulated efforts to obtain new semi-dwarf mutants from other local, lowland rice varieties such as Leaung Tawang and Leb Mue Nahng 111. 49 and 35 semi-dwarf mutants were already selected after irradiation and are now under agronomic evaluation

  11. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection.

  12. Mutations in RCA1 and AFG3 inhibit F1-ATPase assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M F; Tzagoloff, A

    1995-10-02

    The RCA1 (YTA12) and AFG3 (YTA10) genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae code for homologous mitochondrial proteins that belong to the recently described AAA protein-family [Kunau et al. (1993) Biochimie 75,209-224]. Mutations in either gene have been shown to induce a respiratory defect. In the case of rca1 mutants this phenotype has been ascribed to defective assembly of cytochrome oxidase and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase. In the present study we show that the respiratory defect of afg3 mutants, like that of rca1 mutants, is also caused by an arrest in assembly of cytochrome oxidase and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase. In addition to the absence of the respiratory complexes, rca1 and afg3 mutants exhibit reduced mitochondrial ATPase activity. As a first step to an understanding of the biochemical basis for the ATPase defect we have examined the assembly of the F1 and F0 constituents of the ATPase complex. We present evidence that the ATPase lesion stems at least in part from the failure of rca1 and afg3 mutants to assemble F1. Although the mutants also display lower steady-state concentrations of some F0 subunits, this could be a secondary effect of defective F1 assembly.

  13. Rca1 inhibits APC-Cdh1(Fzr) and is required to prevent cyclin degradation in G2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskortenhaus, Ruth; Sprenger, Frank

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate that Rca1 is an essential inhibitor of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) in Drosophila. APC activity is restricted to mitotic stages and G1 by its activators Cdc20-Fizzy (Cdc20(Fzy)) and Cdh1-Fizzy-related (Cdh1(Fzr)), respectively. In rca1 mutants, cyclins are degraded prematurely in G2 by APC-Cdh1(Fzr)-dependent proteolysis, and cells fail to execute mitosis. Overexpression of Cdh1(Fzr) mimics the rca1 phenotype, and coexpression of Rca1 blocks this Cdh1(Fzr) function. We show that Rca1 and Cdh1(Fzr) are in a complex that also includes the APC component Cdc27. Previous studies have shown that phosphorylation of Cdh1 prevents its interaction with the APC. Our data reveal a different mode of APC regulation by Rca1 at the G2 stage, when low Cdk activity is unable to inhibit Cdh1(Fzr) interaction.

  14. Recognition factors of Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA(1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert M; Wu, June H; Singh, Tanuja; Lai, Li-Ju; Yang, Zhangung; Herp, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) is one of the most important applied lectins that has been widely used as a tool to study cell surfaces and to purify glycans. Although the carbohydrate specificity of RCA1 has been described, the information obtained was mainly focused on inhibition of simple Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides and simple clusters. Here, all possible recognition factors of RCA1 of glycan binding were examined by enzyme-linked lectinosorbent (ELLSA) and inhibition assays, using known mammalian Gal/GalNAc carbohydrate structural units and natural polyvalent glycans. Among the glycoproteins (gps) tested and expressed as 50% nanogram inhibition, the high-density polyvalent Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) glycotopes occurring in natural gps, such as Pneumococcus type 14 capsular polysaccharide which is composed of repeating poly II residues, resulted in 9.0 x 10(4), 1.5 x 10(5), 2.3 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(4)-fold higher affinities to RCA1 than the monomeric Gal, linear I/II and Tri-antennary-II (Tri-II). Of the ligands tested and expressed as nanomoles of 50% inhibition, Tri-II was the best, being about 2, 4, 25.6 and 33.3 times better inhibitor than Di-II, II, I (Galbeta1-3GlcNAc) and Gal, respectively. From the results of this study, it is concluded that: (a) Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and other Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides are essential for lectin binding and their polyvalent form in macromolecules should be the most important recognition factor for RCA1; (b) the combining site of RCA1 may be a groove type, recognizing Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) as the major binding site; (c) its combining size may be large enough to accommodate a tetrasaccharide of beta-anomeric Gal at the non-reducing end and most complementary to human blood group I Ma active trisaccharide (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-6Gal) and lacto-N-neotetraose (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc); (d) RCA1 has a preference for the beta-anomer of Gal oligosaccharides with a Galbeta1-4 linkage > Galbeta1-6 > or = Galbeta

  15. VH gene expression and regulation in the mutant Alicia rabbit. Rescue of VHa2 allotype expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Young-Cooper, G O; Mage, R G

    1993-04-01

    Rabbits of the Alicia strain, derived from rabbits expressing the VHa2 allotype, have a mutation in the H chain locus that has a cis effect upon the expression of VHa2 and VHa- genes. A small deletion at the most J-proximal (3') end of the VH locus leads to low expression of all the genes on the entire chromosome in heterozygous ali mutants and altered relative expression of VH genes in homozygotes. To study VH gene expression and regulation, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the VH genes expressed in spleens of young and adult wild-type and mutant Alicia rabbits. The cDNA from reverse transcription of splenic mRNA was amplified and polymerase chain reaction libraries were constructed and screened with oligonucleotides from framework regions 1 and 3, as well as JH. Thirty-three VH-positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. We found that in mutant Alicia rabbits, products of the first functional VH gene (VH4a2), (or VH4a2-like genes) were expressed in 2- to 8-wk-olds. Expression of both the VHx and VHy types of VHa- genes was also elevated but the relative proportions of VHx and VHy, especially VHx, decreased whereas the relative levels of expression of VH4a2 or VH4a2-like genes increased with age. Our results suggest that the appearance of sequences resembling that of the VH1a2, which is deleted in the mutant ali rabbits, could be caused by alterations of the sequences of the rearranged VH4a2 genes by gene conversions and/or rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development.

  16. Mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with elevated vir gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazour, G.J.; Ta, C.N.; Das, A.

    1991-01-01

    Expression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence (vir) genes requires virA, virG, and a plant-derived inducing compound such as acetosyringone. To identify the critical functional domains of virA and virG, a mutational approach was used. Agrobacterium A136 harboring plasmid pGP159, which contains virA, virG, and a reporter virB:lacZ gene fusion, was mutagenized with UV light or nitrosoguanidine. Survivors that formed blue colonies on a plate containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactoside were isolated and analyzed. Quantification of beta-galactosidase activity in liquid assays identified nine mutant strains. By plasmid reconstruction and other procedures, all mutations mapped to the virA locus. These mutations caused an 11- to 560-fold increase in the vegetative level of virB:lacZ reporter gene expression. DNA sequence analysis showed that the mutations are located in four regions of VirA: transmembrane domain one, the active site, a glycine-rich region with homology to ATP-binding sites, and a region at the C terminus that has homology to the N terminus of VirG

  17. RCA - a regional approach to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.; Easey, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Asia and Oceania is the oldest of four International Atomic Energy Agency Member State regional programs. Organized in 1972, 17 countries are now members of RCA - Australia, Bangladesh, Peoples Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. A number of projects related to the application of a wide range of nuclear technologies are conducted through RCA. The program is established by national coordinators for each project area, in consultation with IAEA technical officers. Most of the funding comes directly from RCA regional donor countries, with about one third supplied through the IAEA Technical Cooperation program. In 1986, following the Chernobyl accident, national coordinators and the IAEA staff recognized the value of establishing an RCA project aimed at strengthening regional radiation protection programs. The potential importance of RCA involvement in radiation protection is underscored by the fact that its member states comprise more than half of the world's population. The regional approach to addressing radiation protection issues allows member states to take advantage of regional resources to solve common regional problems. RCA provides the opportunity for specialists who may have few professional colleagues in their country to develop valuable contacts with regional radiation protection experts. In a very real way, specialists can network with their neighbours, often establishing bilateral programs outside of the RCA auspices. The current five year RCA Project to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure, with the IAEA designation - RAS/9/006, will be completed at the end of 1997. The project was developed to address five mayor areas of activity: Off-site emergency response; individual monitoring, internal and external; characterization of the physical, anatomical, physiological

  18. Analysis of Rca1 function at the G1-S transition in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Querings, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Tight control of APC/C-Cdh1Fzr activity is essential for progression through mitosis and establishment of the G1 phase. Rca1 is a nuclear protein that inhibits the APC/C-Cdh1Fzr complex during G2 to allow cyclin accumulation and subsequent entry into mitosis. In this thesis, a localisation study of Rca1 was performed revealing that a nuclear localisation sequence (NLS) and other domains in the protein mediate efficient nuclear accumulation. Besides its function in G2, Rca1 expression can prom...

  19. Expression of CALR mutants causes mpl-dependent thrombocytosis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K-H; Chang, Y-C; Chiang, Y-H; Lin, H-C; Chang, C-Y; Lin, C-S; Huang, L; Wang, W-T; Gon-Shen Chen, C; Chou, W-C; Kuo, Y-Y

    2016-10-07

    CALR mutations are identified in about 30% of JAK2/MPL-unmutated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis. Although the molecular pathogenesis of CALR mutations leading to MPNs has been studied using in vitro cell lines models, how mutant CALR may affect developmental hematopoiesis remains unknown. Here we took advantage of the zebrafish model to examine the effects of mutant CALR on early hematopoiesis and model human CALR-mutated MPNs. We identified three zebrafish genes orthologous to human CALR, referred to as calr, calr3a and calr3b. The expression of CALR-del52 and CALR-ins5 mutants caused an increase in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells followed by thrombocytosis without affecting normal angiogenesis. The expression of CALR mutants also perturbed early developmental hematopoiesis in zebrafish. Importantly, morpholino knockdown of mpl but not epor or csf3r could significantly attenuate the effects of mutant CALR. Furthermore, the expression of mutant CALR caused jak-stat signaling activation in zebrafish that could be blocked by JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib and fedratinib). These findings showed that mutant CALR activates jak-stat signaling through an mpl-dependent mechanism to mediate pathogenic thrombopoiesis in zebrafish, and illustrated that the signaling machinery related to mutant CALR tumorigenesis are conserved between human and zebrafish.

  20. Differentially expressed genes in white egg 2 mutant of silkworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... In order to obtain an overall view on gene expression profiles at early embryo ... existed multi-allelic mutations. As of other insects, the color of the eggs of silkworm ..... Acid-sensitive two pore domain K+ channel dTASK-6.

  1. Analysis on expression of gene for flower shape in Dendrobium sonia mutants using differential display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Ahmad Syazni Kamarudin; Nurul Nadia Aminuddin; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2004-01-01

    In vitro mutagenesis on Dendrobium Sonia in MINT has produced mutants with wide range of flower form and colour variations. Among the mutants are plants with different flower size and shape. These changes could be caused by alterations to the expression level of the genes responsible for the characteristics. In this studies, Differential Display technique was used to identify and analyse altered gene expression at the mRNA level. Total RNA of the control and mutants were reversed transcribed using three anchored oligo-d T primers. Subsequently, these cDNAs were Pcr amplified in combination with 16 arbitrary primers. The amplified products were electrophoresed side by side on agarose gel. Differentially expressed bands are isolated for further analysis. (Author)

  2. Nuclear protein import is reduced in cells expressing nuclear envelopathy-causing lamin A mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Albert; Kiel, Tilman; Heupel, Wolfgang-M.; Wehnert, Manfred; Huebner, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, not only constitute an important determinant of nuclear architecture, but additionally play essential roles in many nuclear functions. Mutations in A-type lamins cause a wide range of human genetic disorders (laminopathies). The importance of lamin A (LaA) in the spatial arrangement of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) prompted us to study the role of LaA mutants in nuclear protein transport. Two mutants, causing prenatal skin disease restrictive dermopathy (RD) and the premature aging disease Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome, were used for expression in HeLa cells to investigate their impact on the subcellular localization of NPC-associated proteins and nuclear protein import. Furthermore, dynamics of the LaA mutants within the nuclear lamina were studied. We observed affected localization of NPC-associated proteins, diminished lamina dynamics for both LaA mutants and reduced nuclear import of representative cargo molecules. Intriguingly, both LaA mutants displayed similar effects on nuclear morphology and functions, despite their differences in disease severity. Reduced nuclear protein import was also seen in RD fibroblasts and impaired lamina dynamics for the nucleoporin Nup153. Our data thus represent the first study of a direct link between LaA mutant expression and reduced nuclear protein import.

  3. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei; Ouyang, Pin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB +/− mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity

  4. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei [Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Ouyang, Pin, E-mail: ouyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB{sup +/−} mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity.

  5. P22 Arc repressor: enhanced expression of unstable mutants by addition of polar C-terminal sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla, M. E.; Brown, B. M.; Sauer, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    Many mutant variants of the P22 Arc repressor are subject to intracellular proteolysis in Escherichia coli, which precludes their expression at levels sufficient for purification and subsequent biochemical characterization. Here we examine the effects of several different C-terminal extension sequences on the expression and activity of a set of Arc mutants. We show that two tail sequences, KNQHE (st5) and H6KNQHE (st11), increase the expression levels of most mutants from 10- to 20-fold and, ...

  6. Che-1 gene silencing induces osteosarcoma cell apoptosis by inhibiting mutant p53 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Dan, E-mail: danwangwdd@163.com; Li, Ning

    2016-04-22

    The transcriptional cofactor Che-1 is an RNA polymerase II (Pol II) which is involved in tumorigenesis, such as breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Che-1 can also regulate mutant p53 expression, which plays roles in many types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and specific mechanism of Che-1 in the regulation of osteosarcoma (OS) cell growth. We found that Che-1 is highly expressed in several kinds of OS cells compared with osteoblast hFOB1.19 cells. MTT and flow cytometry assays showed that Che-1 depletion by siRNA markedly suppressed MG-63 and U2OS cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay verified the presence of Che-1 on the p53 promoter in MG-63 and U2OS cells carrying mutant p53. Further studies showed that Che-1 depletion inhibited mutant p53 expression. Notably, our study showed that the loss of Che-1 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in MG-63 cells by decreasing the level of mutant p53. Therefore, these findings open the possibility that silencing of Che-1 will have therapeutic benefit in OS. - Highlights: • Che-1 is highly expressed in several kinds of OS cells. • Che-1 depletion suppressed MG-63 and U2OS cell growth. • Che-1 is existed in the p53 promoter in MG-63 and U2OS cells. • Che-1 depletion inhibited mutant p53 expression. • Che-1 depletion inhibits cell growth by decreasing the level of mutant p53.

  7. Gene expression profiling of brakeless mutant Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crona, Filip; Singla, Bhumica; Mannervik, Mattias

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional co-regulator Brakeless performs many important functions during Drosophila development, but few target genes have been identified. Here we use Affymetrix microarrays to identify Brakeless-regulated genes in 2-4 h old Drosophila embryos. Robust multi-array analysis (RMA) and statistical tests revealed 240 genes that changed their expression more than 1.5 fold. We find that up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct gene ontology categories. In our associated study [2] we demonstrate that both up- and down-regulated genes can be direct Brakeless targets. Our results indicate that the co-repressor and co-activator activities of Brakeless may result in distinct biological responses. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and is deposited in GEO under accession number GSE60048.

  8. Expression profiling of S. pombe acetyltransferase mutants identifies redundant pathways of gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Anthony PH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs are implicated in regulation of transcription. HATs from different families may overlap in target and substrate specificity. Results We isolated the elp3+ gene encoding the histone acetyltransferase subunit of the Elongator complex in fission yeast and characterized the phenotype of an Δelp3 mutant. We examined genetic interactions between Δelp3 and two other HAT mutants, Δmst2 and Δgcn5 and used whole genome microarray analysis to analyze their effects on gene expression. Conclusions Comparison of phenotypes and expression profiles in single, double and triple mutants indicate that these HAT enzymes have overlapping functions. Consistent with this, overlapping specificity in histone H3 acetylation is observed. However, there is no evidence for overlap with another HAT enzyme, encoded by the essential mst1+ gene.

  9. Purification, gene cloning, gene expression, and mutants of Dps from the obligate anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueshima, Junichi; Shoji, Mikio; Ratnayake, Dinath B; Abe, Kihachiro; Yoshida, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Koji

    2003-03-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is an obligate anaerobe that is devoid of catalase but exhibits a relatively high degree of resistance to peroxide stress. In the present study, we demonstrate that P. gingivalis contains a Dps homologue that plays an important role in the protection of cells from peroxide stress. The Dps protein isolated from P. gingivalis displayed a ferritin-like spherical polymer consisting of 19-kDa subunits. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding this protein revealed that it had a high similarity in nucleotide and amino acid sequences to Dps proteins from other species. The expression of Dps was significantly increased by exposure of P. gingivalis to atmospheric oxygen in an OxyR-dependent manner, indicating that it is regulated by the reactive oxygen species-regulating gene oxyR. The Dps-deficient mutants, including the dps single mutant and the ftn dps double mutant, showed no viability loss upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen for 6 h. In contrast to the wild type, however, these mutants exhibited the high susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide, thereby disrupting the viability. On the other hand, no significant difference in sensitivity to mitomycin C and metronidazole was observed between the wild type and the mutants. Furthermore, the dps single mutant, compared with the wild type, showed a lower viability in infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  10. Genetic requirements for high constitutive SOS expression in recA730 mutants of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlašić, Ignacija; Šimatović, Ana; Brčić-Kostić, Krunoslav

    2011-09-01

    The RecA protein in its functional state is in complex with single-stranded DNA, i.e., in the form of a RecA filament. In SOS induction, the RecA filament functions as a coprotease, enabling the autodigestion of the LexA repressor. The RecA filament can be formed by different mechanisms, but all of them require three enzymatic activities essential for the processing of DNA double-stranded ends. These are helicase, 5'-3' exonuclease, and RecA loading onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). In some mutants, the SOS response can be expressed constitutively during the process of normal DNA metabolism. The RecA730 mutant protein is able to form the RecA filament without the help of RecBCD and RecFOR mediators since it better competes with the single-strand binding (SSB) protein for ssDNA. As a consequence, the recA730 mutants show high constitutive SOS expression. In the study described in this paper, we studied the genetic requirements for constitutive SOS expression in recA730 mutants. Using a β-galactosidase assay, we showed that the constitutive SOS response in recA730 mutants exhibits different requirements in different backgrounds. In a wild-type background, the constitutive SOS response is partially dependent on RecBCD function. In a recB1080 background (the recB1080 mutation retains only helicase), constitutive SOS expression is partially dependent on RecBCD helicase function and is strongly dependent on RecJ nuclease. Finally, in a recB-null background, the constitutive SOS expression of the recA730 mutant is dependent on the RecJ nuclease. Our results emphasize the importance of the 5'-3' exonuclease for high constitutive SOS expression in recA730 mutants and show that RecBCD function can further enhance the excellent intrinsic abilities of the RecA730 protein in vivo. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Destabilizing protein polymorphisms in the genetic background direct phenotypic expression of mutant SOD1 toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Gidalevitz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background exerts a strong modulatory effect on the toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins in conformational diseases. In addition to influencing the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the mutant proteins, polymorphisms in putative modifier genes may affect the molecular processes leading to the disease phenotype. Mutations in SOD1 in a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS cases confer dominant but clinically variable toxicity, thought to be mediated by misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 protein. While the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown, both the nature of the SOD1 mutation and the genetic background in which it is expressed appear important. To address this, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to systematically examine the aggregation behavior and genetic interactions of mutant forms of SOD1. Expression of three structurally distinct SOD1 mutants in C. elegans muscle cells resulted in the appearance of heterogeneous populations of aggregates and was associated with only mild cellular dysfunction. However, introduction of destabilizing temperature-sensitive mutations into the genetic background strongly enhanced the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, resulting in exposure of several deleterious phenotypes at permissive conditions in a manner dependent on the specific SOD1 mutation. The nature of the observed phenotype was dependent on the temperature-sensitive mutation present, while its penetrance reflected the specific combination of temperature-sensitive and SOD1 mutations. Thus, the specific toxic phenotypes of conformational disease may not be simply due to misfolding/aggregation toxicity of the causative mutant proteins, but may be defined by their genetic interactions with cellular pathways harboring mildly destabilizing missense alleles.

  12. Current status of RCA projects and strategies for future implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

    1998-12-01

    This report is intended to provide basic overall information about ways to promote technical cooperation within the framework of RCA to accelerate and coordinate cooperative activities in nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific region through a thorough review on the current status and through suggesting future implementation strategies. The contents of this report include an overall introduction of RCA, guidelines and operating rules for RCA programmes, current status and future plans for RCA projects as well as the RCA vision for the next 25 years. By reviewing the current status and future implementation strategies for RCA projects, it will help to set up a national nuclear policy aimed at seeking maximum benefits from participation in RCA projects and to implement programmes for nuclear cooperation with Asian-Pacific countries. It is expected that as a lead country for the energy sector, which is one of five thematic areas for the year 1999 - 2000 cycle programmes, Korea will continue to make significant contributions towards the implementation of RCA programmes in the future. With this report, we plan to keep up with future developments as well as implement an effective cooperation with the countries in the region so that the opinion of Korea, one of the nuclear advanced countries in the region, can be fully reflected in the establishment of future plans for RCA programmes. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Nimotuzumab enhances temozolomide?induced growth suppression of glioma cells expressing mutant EGFR in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Nitta, Yusuke; Shimizu, Saki; Shishido?Hara, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kaori; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nagane, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, is common in glioblastoma (GBM) and confers enhanced tumorigenic activity and drug resistance. Nimotuzumab, an anti?EGFR antibody, has shown preclinical and clinical activity to GBM, but its specific activity against EGFRvIII has not been fully investigated. Human glioma U87MG or LNZ308 cells overexpressing either wild?type (wt) EGFR or EGFRvIII were treated with nimotuzumab, temozolomide, or both. Expression and pho...

  14. Twenty-sixth general conference meeting of representatives of RCA member states. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The meeting discussed the following issues: RCA Annual Report 1996; Report of the 19th RCA Working Group Meeting, Yangon Myanmar, 10-14 March 1997; RCA in the next 25 years; Development finance and the RCA; locating a senior RCA representative in the region; RCA guidelines and operating rules; TCDC activities; terminal tripartite review meeting on UNDP/RCA/IAEA project; status of new joint UNDP/RCA/IAEA project; options for the new joint project; RCA activities and budget in 1997 and 1998; reformulation and health care project; RCA proposed programme for 1999-2000; country statements; extension of RCA agreement; RCA 25th anniversary; venue and date of the 20th regular meeting of national RCA representatives

  15. Twenty-sixth general conference meeting of representatives of RCA member states. Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The meeting discussed the following issues: RCA Annual Report 1996; Report of the 19th RCA Working Group Meeting, Yangon Myanmar, 10-14 March 1997; RCA in the next 25 years; Development finance and the RCA; locating a senior RCA representative in the region; RCA guidelines and operating rules; TCDC activities; terminal tripartite review meeting on UNDP/RCA/IAEA project; status of new joint UNDP/RCA/IAEA project; options for the new joint project; RCA activities and budget in 1997 and 1998; reformulation and health care project; RCA proposed programme for 1999-2000; country statements; extension of RCA agreement; RCA 25th anniversary; venue and date of the 20th regular meeting of national RCA representatives.

  16. Selective Transgenic Expression of Mutant Ubiquitin in Purkinje Cell Stripes in the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Bert M; Gentier, Romina J G; Hermes, Denise J H P; van Leeuwen, Fred W; Hopkins, David A

    2017-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the major mechanisms for protein breakdown in cells, targeting proteins for degradation by enzymatically conjugating them to ubiquitin molecules. Intracellular accumulation of ubiquitin-B +1 (UBB +1 ), a frameshift mutant of ubiquitin-B, is indicative of a dysfunctional UPS and has been implicated in several disorders, including neurodegenerative disease. UBB +1 -expressing transgenic mice display widespread labeling for UBB +1 in brain and exhibit behavioral deficits. Here, we show that UBB +1 is specifically expressed in a subset of parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex of a UBB +1 -expressing mouse model. This expression pattern is reminiscent of that of the constitutively expressed Purkinje cell antigen HSP25, a small heat shock protein with neuroprotective properties.

  17. Predicting of the compressive strength of RCA concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskulski Roman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of predicting the strength of 61 concretes made with the use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA. Five models in the form of first-order polynomials containing two to six variables characterizing the composition of the mixture were formulated for this purpose. Factors for unknowns were selected using linear regression in two variants: with and without additional coefficient. For each model, the average absolute error of the concrete strength estimation was determined. Because of the various consequences of underestimation and overestimation of the results, the analysis of models quality was carried out with the distinction of the two cases. The results indicate that the key to improving the quality of models is to take into account the quality of the aggregate expressed by the ACV parameter. Better match results were also obtained for models with more variables and the additional coefficient.

  18. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Hawes, Kevin; Wichowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 system is currently under development by NASA, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in conjunction with United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS). The RCA technology is a new carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity removal system that has been baselined for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System. The evolution of the RCA development has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0 test articles. The RCA is an advancement over currently technologies due to its unique regeneration capability. The RCA is capable of simultaneously removing CO2 and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. The RCA technology uses two solid amine sorbent beds in an alternating fashion to adsorb CO2 and water (uptake mode) and desorb CO2 and water (regeneration mode) at the same time. The two beds operate in an efficient manner so that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a novel valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The RCA technology also is low power, small, and has performed extremely well in all development testing thus far. A final design was selected for the RCA 3.0, fabricated, assembled, and performance tested in 2014 with delivery to NASAJSC in January 2015. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA 3.0 system design and results of pre-delivery testing with references to the development of RCA 1.0 and RCA 2.0.

  19. Characterization of D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase gene expression in two soybean low phytate mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fengjie; Dong Dekun; Li Baiquan; Yu Xiaomin; Fu Xujun; Zhu Danhua; Zhu Shenlong; Yang Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS) gene plays a significant role in phytic acid biosynthesis. In this study, we used two low phytic acid mutants Gm-lpa-TW-1, Gm-lpa-ZC-2 and their respective wild type parents Taiwan75 and Zhechun No.3 to analyze the expression pattern and characterization of MIPS1 gene. The results showed that there was a common expression pattern of MIPS1 in soybean developing seeds. Expression was weak as detected by RT-PCR in initial stage, increased in the following stages, and the peak expression was appeared in 22 day after flowering (DAF). The expression of MIPS1 gene of non-seed tissues in mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 and its wildtype Taiwan75 was very weak. In the developing seeds, the MIPS1 expression by qRT-PCR revealed a significant reduction in 22 DAF in mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 as compared with the wildtype. Similarly, the expression of MIPS1 gene in non-seed tissue of Zhenchun No.3 and Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was very weak. However, stronger expression in developing seeds of the mutant Gm-lpa-ZC-2 than Zhechun No.3 was found. We concluded that the MIPS1 gene expression in the developing seed exhibited an up-regulation pattern in mutant Gm-lpa-ZC-2, but a down-regulation pattern in the mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1. (authors)

  20. Cerebellar Expression of the Neurotrophin Receptor p75 in Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahimi Balaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous mutation in the lysosomal acid phosphatase 2 (Acp2 mouse (nax—naked-ataxia mutant mouse correlates with severe cerebellar defects including ataxia, reduced size and abnormal lobulation as well as Purkinje cell (Pc degeneration. Loss of Pcs in the nax cerebellum is compartmentalized and harmonized to the classic pattern of gene expression of the cerebellum in the wild type mouse. Usually, degeneration starts in the anterior and posterior zones and continues to the central and nodular zones of cerebellum. Studies have suggested that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR plays a role in Pc degeneration; thus, in this study, we investigated the p75NTR pattern and protein expression in the cerebellum of the nax mutant mouse. Despite massive Pc degeneration that was observed in the nax mouse cerebellum, p75NTR pattern expression was similar to the HSP25 pattern in nax mice and comparable with wild type sibling cerebellum. In addition, immunoblot analysis of p75NTR protein expression did not show any significant difference between nax and wild type sibling (p > 0.5. In comparison with wild type counterparts, p75NTR pattern expression is aligned with the fundamental cytoarchitecture organization of the cerebellum and is unchanged in the nax mouse cerebellum despite the severe neurodevelopmental disorder accompanied with Pc degeneration.

  1. Deafness and permanently reduced potassium channel gene expression and function in hypothyroid Pit1dw mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mirna; Fang, Qing; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Dolan, David F.; Raphael, Yehoash; Camper, Sally A.; Duncan, R. Keith

    2012-01-01

    The absence of thyroid hormone (TH) during late gestation and early infancy can cause irreparable deafness in both humans and rodents. A variety of rodent models have been utilized in an effort to identify the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, we characterize a mouse model of secondary hypothyroidism, pituitary transcription factor 1 (Pit1dw), which has profound, congenital deafness that is rescued by oral TH replacement. These mutants have tectorial membrane abnormalities, including a prominent Hensen's stripe, elevated β-tectorin composition, and disrupted striated-sheet matrix. They lack distortion product otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic responses, and exhibit reduced endocochlear potentials, suggesting defects in outer hair cell function and potassium recycling. Auditory system and hair cell physiology, histology and anatomy studies reveal novel defects of hormone deficiency related to deafness: (1) permanently impaired expression of KCNJ10 in the stria vascularis of Pit1dw mice, which likely contributes to the reduced endocochlear potential, (2) significant outer hair cell loss in the mutants, which may result from cellular stress induced by the lower KCNQ4 expression and current levels in Pit1dw mutant outer hair cells and (3) sensory and strial cell deterioration, which may have implications for thyroid hormone dysregulation in age related hearing impairment. In summary, we suggest that these defects in outer hair cell and strial cell function are important contributors to the hearing impairment in Pit1dw mice. PMID:19176829

  2. Prion Propagation in Cells Expressing PrP Glycosylation Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Muhammad K.; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrPC) to a disease-related isoform (PrPSc). PrPC carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrPC glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrPSc and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrPSc, while PrPC with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrPC, were able to form infectious PrPSc. Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection. PMID:21248032

  3. Co-expression and characterization of enterocin CRL35 and its mutant in Escherichia coli Rosetta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masías Emilse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though many sequences and structures of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria have been fully characterized so far, little information is currently available about bacteriocins heterologously produced by Escherichia coli. For this purpose, the structural gene of enterocin CRL35, munA, was PCR-amplified using specific primers and cloned downstream of PelB sequence in the pET22b (+ expression vector. E. coli Rosetta (DE3 pLysS was chosen as the host for production and enterocin was purified by an easy two-step protocol. The bacteriocin was correctly expressed with the expected intramolecular disulfide bond. Nevertheless, it was found that a variant of the enterocin, differing by 12 Da from the native polypeptide, was co-expressed by E. coli Rosetta in comparable amount. Indeed, the mutant bacteriocin contained two amino acid substitutions that were characterized by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF and HPLCelectrospray (ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/ MS sequencing. This is the first report regarding the production of mutants of pediocin-like bacteriocins in the E. coli expression system.

  4. Cell lineage of timed cohorts of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and Tbx6 mutant embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Concepcion

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tbx6 is a T-box transcription factor with multiple roles in embryonic development as evidenced by dramatic effects on mesoderm cell fate determination, left/right axis determination, and somite segmentation in mutant mice. The expression of Tbx6 is restricted to the primitive streak and presomitic mesoderm, but some of the phenotypic features of mutants are not easily explained by this expression pattern. We have used genetically-inducible fate mapping to trace the fate of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and mutant embryos to explain some of the puzzling features of the mutant phenotype. We created an inducible Tbx6-creERT2 transgenic mouse in which cre expression closely recapitulates endogenous Tbx6 expression both temporally and spatially. Using a lacZ-based Cre reporter and timed tamoxifen injections, we followed temporally overlapping cohorts of cells that had expressed Tbx6 and found contributions to virtually all mesodermally-derived embryonic structures as well as the extraembryonic allantois. Contribution to the endothelium of major blood vessels may account for the embryonic death of homozygous mutant embryos. In mutant embryos, Tbx6-creERT2-traced cells contributed to the abnormally segmented anterior somites and formed the characteristic ectopic neural tubes. Retention of cells in the mutant tail bud indicates a deficiency in migratory behavior of the mutant cells and the presence of Tbx6-creERT2-traced cells in the notochord, a node derivative provides a possible explanation for the heterotaxia seen in mutant embryos.

  5. Elevated expression of ribosomal protein genes L37, RPP-1, and S2 in the presence of mutant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loging, W T; Reisman, D

    1999-11-01

    The wild-type p53 protein is a DNA-binding transcription factor that activates genes such as p21, MDM2, GADD45, and Bax that are required for the regulation of cell cycle progression or apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Mutant forms of p53, which are transforming oncogenes and are expressed at high levels in tumor cells, generally have a reduced binding affinity for the consensus DNA sequence. Interestingly, some p53 mutants that are no longer effective at binding to the consensus DNA sequence and transactivating promoters containing this target site have acquired the ability to transform cells in culture, in part through their ability to transactivate promoters of a number of genes that are not targets of the wild-type protein. Certain p53 mutants are therefore considered to be gain-of-function mutants and appear to be promoting proliferation or transforming cells through their ability to alter the expression of novel sets of genes. Our goal is to identify genes that have altered expression in the presence of a specific mutant p53 (Arg to Trp mutation at codon 248) protein. Through examining differential gene expression in cells devoid of p53 expression and in cells that express high levels of mutant p53 protein, we have identified three ribosomal protein genes that have elevated expression in response to mutant p53. Consistent with these findings, the overexpression of a number of ribosomal protein genes in human tumors and evidence for their contribution to oncogenic transformation have been reported previously, although the mechanism leading to this overexpression has remained elusive. We show results that indicate that expression of these specific ribosomal protein genes is increased in the presence of the R248W p53 mutant, which provides a mechanism for their overexpression in human tumors.

  6. Nuclear Expression of a Mitochondrial DNA Gene: Mitochondrial Targeting of Allotopically Expressed Mutant ATP6 in Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Dunn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear encoding of mitochondrial DNA transgenes followed by mitochondrial targeting of the expressed proteins (allotopic expression; AE represents a potentially powerful strategy for creating animal models of mtDNA disease. Mice were created that allotopically express either a mutant (A6M or wildtype (A6W mt-Atp6 transgene. Compared to non-transgenic controls, A6M mice displayed neuromuscular and motor deficiencies (wire hang, pole, and balance beam analyses; P0.05. This study illustrates a mouse model capable of circumventing in vivo mitochondrial mutations. Moreover, it provides evidence supporting AE as a tool for mtDNA disease research with implications in development of DNA-based therapeutics.

  7. [hHO-1 structure prediction and its mutant construct, expression, purification and activity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhen Wei; Cui, Wen Jun; Zhou, Wen Pu; Zhang, Xue Hong; Shen, Qing Xiang; Li, Yun Zhu; Yu, Shan Chang

    2004-10-01

    Human Heme Oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism reaction of heme, which directly regulates the concentration of bilirubin in human body. The mutant structure was simulated by Swiss-pdbviewer procedure, which showed that the structure of active pocket was changed distinctly after Ala25 substituted for His25 in active domain, but the mutated enzyme still binded with heme. On the basis of the results, the expression vectors, pBHO-1 and pBHO-1(M), were constructed, induced by IPTG and expressed in E. coli DH5alpha strain. The expression products were purified with 30%-60% saturation (NH4)2SO4 and Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography. The concentration of hHO-1 in 30%-60% saturation (NH4)2SO4 components and in fractions through twice column chromatography was 3.6-fold and 30-fold higher than that in initial product, respectively. The activity of wild hHO-1 (whHO-1) and mutant hHO-1 (deltahHO-1) showed that the activity of deltahHO-1 was reduced 91.21% compared with that of whHO-1. The study shows that His25 is of importance for the mechanism of hHO-1, and provides the possibility for effectively regulating the activity to exert biological function.

  8. [The Expression of Pokemon in Endometrial Carcinoma Tissue and the Correlation with Mutant p53].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tian-jin; Wang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    To detect the expression of Pokemon in endometrial carcinoma (EC), to provide preliminary theoretical basis for clarifying pathogenesis and searching for effective targets. Ninety-eight cases of endometrial tissue paraffin specimens form July 2012 to July 2014 in West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, were collected, including: EC group, consisting of adenocarcinoma 23 cases, adenosquamous 12 cases, serous 3 cases, mucinous 11 cases and clear cell 9 cases, and control group, consisting of atypical hyperplasia endometrium 20 cases and normal endometrium 20 cases (secretory 10 cases, hyperplasia 10 cases). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Pokemonin each section, analyzing the correlation of Pokemon expression with clinicopathologic characteristics and p53 expression. The positive rate of Pokemon in normal endometrium was 25% (5/20), significantly lower than that in atypical hyperplasia endometrium (60.0%, 12/20) and EC (93.1%, 54/58) (P Pokemon in III-IV stage, type II and Ki-67 ≥ 50 EC tissue was much higher (P = 0.012, 0.023, 0.029). In type II EC tissue, the correlation index between Pokemon and p53 is 0.669 (P = 0.000). The over expression of Pokemon upregulates the expression of mutant p53, which may be one of the carcinogenesis modes in type II EC.

  9. A study on strategies for effective participation in the IAEA/RCA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Jun, Byung Jin; Lee, Man Ki; Jin, Joon Ha; Choi, Pyung Hoon; Kim, Myung Ro; Min, Do Young

    2002-07-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following provisions were made. First of all, how this project supported RCA events that were held in Korea during the project period was described. Also, participation in RCA major policy level meetings, RCA-30 Scientific Forum, RCA Regional Office Opening were briefly reviewed. Secondly, RCA's general features including history and objective of its establishment, basic policy, administrative structure, major meetings was also reviewed. Thirdly, Overview of RCA projects, project implementation mechanism, on-going and planned project, review of technology utilization so fat and success stories were described. Fourthly, the issues related to the effective RCA management such as lead countries, Regional Resources Units (RRUs), RCA future vision and outsourcing of technical cooperation projects were reviewed. Finally, proper strategies and recommendations for active implementation of RCA projects were presented. This study can be utilized as basic reference material in the efficient implementation of RCA programmes in the future and for the personnel involved in the RCA projects as the fundamental elements for implementing the RCA cooperation are presented. The effective implementation direction for RCA programmes and strategies for strengthening Korea's participation in RCA projects can be utilized as basic reference material for the effective planning and implementation of RCA projects. It is hoped that this study will be widely utilized for expanding Korea's participation in the RCA project and for establishing a future direction for RCA projects by the governments, industries, academic circles and research institutions

  10. In retrospect. 7th workshop RCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knappik, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    The 7th Workshop RCA with 27 lectures and 12 poster presentation took place on 10 and 11 June 2013 in Dresden-Rossendorf. The traditional German event brought over 90 participants together from Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland and the Netherlands. This time the workshop put forward a special subject for the first time ('Obstacles and pitfalls when characterising waste packages'). A remarkable range of contributions was presented, which demonstrated the diversity and the problems of this subject matter. Medium to low radioactive waste and their final disposal was discussed. Other topics were the upcoming approval of recycling materials according to paragraph 29 StrlSchV as well as those from NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) regarding radionuclide analytics, the range of matrices to be processed and the practical problems this causes. Although the radiological feature was the central focus, other material aspects were dealt with, above all the approval of recycling materials when nuclear power plants are dismantled, but also in research institutes, which is demanding more and more attention. The lectures by Jessica Riemer (GSI Darmstadt) on the topic 'Waste material management of a research centre with heavy ion accelerators' and Elvira Mesalic (TU Munich) on 'Determining the activity inventory of bituminized old wastes' as well as the poster by Sina Brockmann on the 'Locally resolved analysis or uranium species using a couple systems of CLSM and LIFS' were awarded prizes for being outstanding presentations. (orig.)

  11. Biodegradation of dioxins by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing rat CYP1A1 or its mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkyo, Raku; Inouye, Kuniyo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Food Science and Biotechnology; Kamakura, Masaki; Ikushiro, Shin-ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki [Toyama Prefectural Univ. (Japan). Biotechnology Research Center

    2006-09-15

    Among polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) is the most toxic one. Recently, we reported that rat CYP1A1 mutant, F240A, expressed in yeast showed metabolic activity toward 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. In this study, we successfully expressed N-terminal truncated P450s ({delta}1A1 and {delta}F240A) in Escherichia coli cells. Kinetic analysis using membrane fractions prepared from the recombinant E. coli cells revealed that {delta}F240A has enzymatic properties similar to F240A expressed in yeast. The metabolism of PCDDs by recombinant E. coli cells expressing both {delta}F240A and human NADPH-P450 reductase was also examined. When 2,3,7-TriCDD was added to the E. coli cell culture at a final concentration of 10 {mu}M, approximately 90% of the 2,3,7-TriCDD was converted into multiple metabolites within 8 h. These results indicate the possible application of prokaryotic cells expressing {delta}F240A to the bioremediation of PCDD-contaminated soil. (orig.)

  12. Thirteenth meeting of representatives of RCA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The 13th Meeting of Member States of RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology) was held on 26 September 1984 in Vienna. This document constitutes the report of that meeting. It includes the list of participants, agenda, summary of discussions, and 1984 costing table. The Report of Recommendations for the meeting consisted of the Summary Report of the Sixth RCA Working Group Meeting held in Kalpakkam, India, 20-23 March 1984. This Summary Report dealt with such topics as RCA research projects (including nuclear techniques to improve legume and buffalo production, radiosterilization of medical supplies, maintenance of nuclear instruments, isotope applications in hydrology and sedimentology), progress of the RCA/UNDP Industrial Project, and future programmes and budget

  13. Molecular characterization and expression study of a histidine auxotrophic mutant (his1-) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Malki, F; Jacobs, M

    2001-01-01

    The histidine auxotroph mutant his 1(-) isolated from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia haploid protoplasts was first characterized to be deficient for the enzyme histidinol phosphate aminotransferase that is responsible for one of the last steps of histidine biosynthesis. Expression of the mutated gene at the RNA level was assessed by northern analysis of various tissues. Transcriptional activity was unimpaired by the mutation and, in contrast, a higher level of expression was obtained when compared to the wild-type. The cDNA sequence encoding the mutated gene was isolated by RT-PCR and compared to the wild-type gene. A single point mutation corresponding to the substitution of a G nucleotide by A was identified at position 1212 starting from the translation site. The alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences from the mutated and wild-type gene showed that this mutation resulted in the substitution of an Arg by a His residue at position 381. This Arg residue is a conserved amino acid for histidinol phosphate aminotransferase of many species. These results indicate that the identified mutation results in an altered histidinol phosphate aminotransferase enzyme that is unable to convert the substrate imidazole acetol phosphate to histidinol phosphate and thereby leads to the blockage of histidine biosynthesis. Possible consequences of this blockage on the expression of other amino acid biosynthesis genes were evaluated by analysing the expression of the dhdps gene encoding dihydrodipicolinate synthase, the first key enzyme of the lysine pathway.

  14. RNAi reduces expression and intracellular retention of mutant cartilage oligomeric matrix protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Posey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP, a large extracellular glycoprotein expressed in musculoskeletal tissues, cause two skeletal dysplasias, pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. These mutations lead to massive intracellular retention of COMP, chondrocyte death and loss of growth plate chondrocytes that are necessary for linear growth. In contrast, COMP null mice have only minor growth plate abnormalities, normal growth and longevity. This suggests that reducing mutant and wild-type COMP expression in chondrocytes may prevent the toxic cellular phenotype causing the skeletal dysplasias. We tested this hypothesis using RNA interference to reduce steady state levels of COMP mRNA. A panel of shRNAs directed against COMP was tested. One shRNA (3B reduced endogenous and recombinant COMP mRNA dramatically, regardless of expression levels. The activity of the shRNA against COMP mRNA was maintained for up to 10 weeks. We also demonstrate that this treatment reduced ER stress. Moreover, we show that reducing steady state levels of COMP mRNA alleviates intracellular retention of other extracellular matrix proteins associated with the pseudoachondroplasia cellular pathology. These findings are a proof of principle and the foundation for the development of a therapeutic intervention based on reduction of COMP expression.

  15. Resveratrol Modulation of Protein Expression in parkin-Mutant Human Skin Fibroblasts: A Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vergara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS analysis the effects of resveratrol treatment on skin primary fibroblasts from a healthy subject and from a parkin-mutant early onset Parkinson’s disease patient. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the most frequently mutated gene in hereditary Parkinson’s disease. Functional alteration of parkin leads to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, resulting in the accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins accountable for the neurodegenerative process. The identification of proteins differentially expressed revealed that resveratrol treatment can act on deregulated specific biological process and molecular function such as cellular redox balance and protein homeostasis. In particular, resveratrol was highly effective at restoring the heat-shock protein network and the protein degradation systems. Moreover, resveratrol treatment led to a significant increase in GSH level, reduction of GSSG/GSH ratio, and decrease of reduced free thiol content in patient cells compared to normal fibroblasts. Thus, our findings provide an experimental evidence of the beneficial effects by which resveratrol could contribute to preserve the cellular homeostasis in parkin-mutant fibroblasts.

  16. Resveratrol Modulation of Protein Expression in parkin-Mutant Human Skin Fibroblasts: A Proteomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballo, Antonio; Signorile, Anna; Tanzarella, Paola; Pacelli, Consiglia; Di Paola, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis the effects of resveratrol treatment on skin primary fibroblasts from a healthy subject and from a parkin-mutant early onset Parkinson's disease patient. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the most frequently mutated gene in hereditary Parkinson's disease. Functional alteration of parkin leads to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, resulting in the accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins accountable for the neurodegenerative process. The identification of proteins differentially expressed revealed that resveratrol treatment can act on deregulated specific biological process and molecular function such as cellular redox balance and protein homeostasis. In particular, resveratrol was highly effective at restoring the heat-shock protein network and the protein degradation systems. Moreover, resveratrol treatment led to a significant increase in GSH level, reduction of GSSG/GSH ratio, and decrease of reduced free thiol content in patient cells compared to normal fibroblasts. Thus, our findings provide an experimental evidence of the beneficial effects by which resveratrol could contribute to preserve the cellular homeostasis in parkin-mutant fibroblasts. PMID:29138676

  17. Differential gene expression in ADAM10 and mutant ADAM10 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postina Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD, cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP by the α-secretase ADAM10 prevented amyloid plaque formation, and alleviated cognitive deficits. Furthermore, ADAM10 overexpression increased the cortical synaptogenesis. These results suggest that upregulation of ADAM10 in the brain has beneficial effects on AD pathology. Results To assess the influence of ADAM10 on the gene expression profile in the brain, we performed a microarray analysis using RNA isolated from brains of five months old mice overexpressing either the α-secretase ADAM10, or a dominant-negative mutant (dn of this enzyme. As compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice, in ADAM10 transgenic mice 355 genes, and in dnADAM10 mice 143 genes were found to be differentially expressed. A higher number of genes was differentially regulated in double-transgenic mouse strains additionally expressing the human APP[V717I] mutant. Overexpression of proteolytically active ADAM10 affected several physiological pathways, such as cell communication, nervous system development, neuron projection as well as synaptic transmission. Although ADAM10 has been implicated in Notch and β-catenin signaling, no significant changes in the respective target genes were observed in adult ADAM10 transgenic mice. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed a downregulation of genes coding for the inflammation-associated proteins S100a8 and S100a9 induced by moderate ADAM10 overexpression. Overexpression of the dominant-negative form dnADAM10 led to a significant increase in the expression of the fatty acid-binding protein Fabp7, which also has been found in higher amounts in brains of Down syndrome patients. Conclusion In general, there was only a moderate alteration of gene expression in ADAM10 overexpressing mice. Genes coding for pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic proteins were not over-represented among differentially regulated genes. Even a decrease of

  18. Mutant uromodulin expression leads to altered homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum and activates the unfolded protein response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Schaeffer

    Full Text Available Uromodulin is the most abundant urinary protein in physiological conditions. It is exclusively produced by renal epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL and it plays key roles in kidney function and disease. Mutations in UMOD, the gene encoding uromodulin, cause autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease uromodulin-related (ADTKD-UMOD, characterised by hyperuricemia, gout and progressive loss of renal function. While the primary effect of UMOD mutations, retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, is well established, its downstream effects are still largely unknown. To gain insight into ADTKD-UMOD pathogenesis, we performed transcriptional profiling and biochemical characterisation of cellular models (immortalised mouse TAL cells of robust expression of wild type or mutant GFP-tagged uromodulin. In this model mutant uromodulin accumulation in the ER does not impact on cell viability and proliferation. Transcriptional profiling identified 109 genes that are differentially expressed in mutant cells relative to wild type ones. Up-regulated genes include several ER resident chaperones and protein disulphide isomerases. Consistently, pathway enrichment analysis indicates that mutant uromodulin expression affects ER function and protein homeostasis. Interestingly, mutant uromodulin expression induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR, and specifically the IRE1 branch, as shown by an increased splicing of XBP1. Consistent with UPR induction, we show increased interaction of mutant uromodulin with ER chaperones Bip, calnexin and PDI. Using metabolic labelling, we also demonstrate that while autophagy plays no role, mutant protein is partially degraded by the proteasome through ER-associated degradation. Our work demonstrates that ER stress could play a central role in ADTKD-UMOD pathogenesis. This sets the bases for future work to develop novel therapeutic strategies through modulation of ER homeostasis and

  19. Nimotuzumab enhances temozolomide-induced growth suppression of glioma cells expressing mutant EGFR in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yusuke; Shimizu, Saki; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kaori; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nagane, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, is common in glioblastoma (GBM) and confers enhanced tumorigenic activity and drug resistance. Nimotuzumab, an anti-EGFR antibody, has shown preclinical and clinical activity to GBM, but its specific activity against EGFRvIII has not been fully investigated. Human glioma U87MG or LNZ308 cells overexpressing either wild-type (wt) EGFR or EGFRvIII were treated with nimotuzumab, temozolomide, or both. Expression and phosphorylation status of molecules were determined by Western blot analysis. Methylation status of promoter region of O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Antitumor activity was tested using nude mice bearing either subcutaneous or intracerebral xenografts along with analyses of EGFR phosphorylation status, proliferation, apoptosis, and vessel density. Nimotuzumab treatment resulted in reduction of EGFRvIII tyrosine phosphorylation with a decrease in Akt phosphorylation that was greater than that of wtEGFR. Correspondingly, antitumor effects, growth suppression and survival elongation, were more significant in mice bearing either subcutaneous or intracerebral tumor expressing EGFRvIII than in those expressing wtEGFR. These effects were markedly increased when temozolomide was combined with nimotuzumab. The post-treatment recurrent brain tumors exhibited a decrease in expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, MSH6 and MLH1, but their methylated MGMT status did not changed. Nimotuzumab has in vivo antitumor activity against GBM, especially those expressing EGFRvIII, when combined with temozolomide. This could provide a basis for preselection of patients with GBM by EGFR status who might benefit from the nimotuzumab and temozolomide combination therapy

  20. [Expression in E.coli and bioactivity assay of Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor domain and its mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chen-Li; Shi, Jie-Ran; Shi, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Hai; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Ting-Fen; Zhao, Yong; Xi, Li

    2008-10-01

    To express Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) domain and its mutants in prokaryotic cells, and to investigate their bioactivity. The gene of Rpf domain and its mutants (E54K, E54A) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the genome of Micrococcus luteus and cloned into pMD18-T vector. After sequenced, the Rpf domain and its mutant gene were subcloned into expression vector PGEX-4T-1, and transfected into E. coli DH5alpha. The expressed product was purified by affinity chromatography using GST Fusion Protein Purification bead. The aim proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE analysis and by Western blot with monoclonal antibodies against Rpf domain (mAb). The bioactivity of the proteins was analyzed by stimulating the resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. The sequences of the PCR products were identical to those of the Rpf domain and its mutant gene in GenBank. The relative molecular mass identified by SDS-PAGE analysis was consistent with that had been reported, which was also confirmed by Western blot analysis that there were specific bindings at 32 000 with Rpf domain mAb. The purified GST-Rpf domain could stimulate resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Replacements E54A and especially E54K resulted in inhibition of Rpf resuscitation activity. Rpf domain and two kinds of its mutant protein were obtained, and its effects on the resuscitation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis were clarified.

  1. Optically Guided Photoactivity: Coordinating Tautomerization, Photoisomerization, Inhomogeneity, and Reactive Intermediates within the RcaE Cyanobacteriochrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sean M; Chang, Che-Wei; Martin, Shelley S; Rockwell, Nathan C; Lagarias, J Clark; Larsen, Delmar S

    2014-05-01

    The RcaE cyanobacteriochrome uses a linear tetrapyrrole chromophore to sense the ratio of green and red light to enable the Fremyella diplosiphon cyanobacterium to control the expression of the photosynthetic infrastructure for efficient utilization of incident light. The femtosecond photodynamics of the embedded phycocyanobilin chromophore within RcaE were characterized with dispersed femtosecond pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, which resolved a complex interplay of excited-state proton transfer, photoisomerization, multilayered inhomogeneity, and reactive intermediates. These reactions were integrated within a central model that incorporated a rapid (200 fs) excited-state Le Châtelier redistribution between parallel evolving populations ascribed to different tautomers. Three photoproducts were resolved and originates from four independent subpopulations, each with different dump-induced behavior: Lumi-Go was depleted, Lumi-Gr was unaffected, and Lumi-Gf was enhanced. This suggests that RcaE may be engineered to act either as an in vivo fluorescent probe (after single-pump excitation) or as an in vivo optogenetic sample (after pump and dump excitation).

  2. Gene expression profiling in wild-type and metallothionein mutant fibroblast cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGELA D ARMENDÁRIZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of metallothioneins (MT in copper homeostasis is of great interest, as it appears to be partially responsible for the regulation of intracellular copper levels during adaptation to extracellular excess of the metal. To further investigate a possible role of MTs in copper metabolism, a genomics approach was utilized to evaluate the role of MT on gene expression. Microarray analysis was used to examine the effects of copper overload in fibroblast cells from normal and MT I and II double knock-out mice (MT-/-. As a first step, we compared genes that were significantly upregulated in wild-type and MT-/- cells exposed to copper. Even though wild-type and mutant cells are undistinguishable in terms of their morphological features and rates of growth, our results show that MT-/- cells do not respond with induction of typical markers of cellular stress under copper excess conditions, as observed in the wild-type cell line, suggesting that the transcription initiation rate or the mRNA stability of stress genes is affected when there is an alteration in the copper store capacity. The functional classification of other up-regulated genes in both cell lines indicates that a large proportion (>80% belong to two major categories: 1 metabolism; and 2 cellular physiological processes, suggesting that at the transcriptional level copper overload induces the expression of genes associated with diverse molecular functions. These results open the possibility to understand how copper homeostasis is being coordinated with other metabolic pathways.

  3. Strategy for effective participation in the RCA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

    1998-12-01

    This report attempts briefly to bring to light the current RCA programmes and to suggest ways of implementing future RCA programmes effectively. It is based principally upon the discussions and proposals made by the Member States of the RCA at the 20th Regular Meeting of Representative of RCA Member States at Taupo, New Zealand in April 1998 and at the 27th General Conference Meeting at Vienna, Austria in September 1998. The Asia-Pacific region is slowly but steadily growing in importance. With its vast human and natural resources, strategic geographical location and its scientific and technological backing, the countries in the region have tremendous potential to become the most dynamic, even leading nations of the world in the 21st century. During the past years, RCA has experienced great changes in its policies, strategies. These changes have also affected in the role of the Member States and the relation between the Agency and Member States. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Abnormal trafficking of endogenously expressed BMPR2 mutant allelic products in patients with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Frump

    Full Text Available More than 200 heterozygous mutations in the type 2 BMP receptor gene, BMPR2, have been identified in patients with Heritable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (HPAH. More severe clinical outcomes occur in patients with BMPR2 mutations by-passing nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD negative mutations. These comprise 40% of HPAH mutations and are predicted to express BMPR2 mutant products. However expression of endogenous NMD negative BMPR2 mutant products and their effect on protein trafficking and signaling function have never been described. Here, we characterize the expression and trafficking of an HPAH-associated NMD negative BMPR2 mutation that results in an in-frame deletion of BMPR2 EXON2 (BMPR2ΔEx2 in HPAH patient-derived lymphocytes and in pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs from mice carrying the same in-frame deletion of Exon 2 (Bmpr2 (ΔEx2/+ mice. The endogenous BMPR2ΔEx2 mutant product does not reach the cell surface and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, chemical chaperones 4-PBA and TUDCA partially restore cell surface expression of Bmpr2ΔEx2 in PECs, suggesting that the mutant product is mis-folded. We also show that PECs from Bmpr2 (ΔEx2/+ mice have defects in the BMP-induced Smad1/5/8 and Id1 signaling axis, and that addition of chemical chaperones restores expression of the Smad1/5/8 target Id1. These data indicate that the endogenous NMD negative BMPRΔEx2 mutant product is expressed but has a folding defect resulting in ER retention. Partial correction of this folding defect and restoration of defective BMP signaling using chemical chaperones suggests that protein-folding agents could be used therapeutically in patients with these NMD negative BMPR2 mutations.

  5. Expression and characterization of active site mutants of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Evert; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Sibbald, Mark; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Beintema, Jaap J.

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. Its active site contains Asp125, Glu127, and Tyr183, which interact with the -1 sugar residue of the substrate. To investigate their role in catalysis, we have successfully expressed wild-type enzyme and mutants of these residues as

  6. Submitochondrial distributions and stabilities of subunits 4, 5, and 6 of yeast cytochrome oxidase in assembly defective mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, D M; Tzagoloff, A

    1997-08-04

    The concentration and submitochondrial distribution of the subunit polypeptides of cytochrome oxidase have been studied in wild type yeast and in different mutants impaired in assembly of this respiratory complex. All the subunit polypeptides of the enzyme are associated with mitochondrial membranes of wild type cells, except for a small fraction of subunits 4 and 6 that is recovered in the soluble protein fraction of mitochondria. Cytochrome oxidase mutants consistently display a severe reduction in the steady-state concentration of subunit 1 due to its increased turnover. As a consequence, most of subunit 4, which normally is associated with subunit 1, is found in the soluble fraction. A similar shift from membrane-bound to soluble subunit 6 is seen in mutants blocked in expression of subunit 5a. In contrast, null mutations in COX6 coding for subunit 6 promote loss of subunit 5a. The absence of subunit 5a in the cox6 mutant is the result of proteolytic degradation rather than regulation of its expression by subunit 6. The possible role of the ATP-dependent proteases Rca1p and Afg3p in proteolysis of subunits 1 and 5a has been assessed in strains with combined mutations in COX6, RCA1, and/or AFG3. Immunochemical assays indicate that another protease(s) must be responsible for most of the proteolytic loss of these proteins.

  7. LFI Radiometric Chain Assembly (RCA) data handling ``Rachel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, M.; Franceschi, E.; Battaglia, P.; Binko, P.; Butler, R. C.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fogliani, S.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Galeotta, S.; Gasparo, F.; Gregorio, A.; Lapolla, M.; Leonardi, R.; Maggio, G.; Mandolesi, N.; Manzato, P.; Maris, M.; Meharga, M.; Meinhold, P.; Morisset, N.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Rohlfs, R.; Sandri, M.; Tomasi, M.; Türler, M.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    Planck's Low Frequency Instrument is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. Before integrating the overall array assembly, a first set of tests has been performed for each radiometer chain assembly (RCA), consisting of two radiometers. In this paper, we describe Rachel, a software application which has been purposely developed and used during the RCA test campaign to carry out both near-realtime on-line data analysis and data storage (in FITS format) of the raw output from the radiometric chains.

  8. LFI Radiometric Chain Assembly (RCA) data handling 'Rachel'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaspina, M; Franceschi, E; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N; Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C; Lapolla, M; Binko, P; Meharga, M; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Maggio, G; Manzato, P; Maris, M; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P

    2009-01-01

    Planck's Low Frequency Instrument is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. Before integrating the overall array assembly, a first set of tests has been performed for each radiometer chain assembly (RCA), consisting of two radiometers. In this paper, we describe Rachel, a software application which has been purposely developed and used during the RCA test campaign to carry out both near-realtime on-line data analysis and data storage (in FITS format) of the raw output from the radiometric chains.

  9. RCA activities in the Asian and Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.

    1984-01-01

    So-called ''RCA'' activities - practical work undertaken within the framework of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for the Asian and Pacific region - are widely regarded as an example of successful co-operative effort in the application of nuclear techniques at a regional level. Activities undertaken to promote the transfer of nuclear technology within the framework of the RCA cover a large spectrum of nuclear applications in agriculture and food production, medicine, study of the environment, industry, and physics. Fourteen projects are operational this year (1984)

  10. Ectopic expression of specific GA2 oxidase mutants promotes yield and stress tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Liu, Yi-Lun; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Hsieh, Kun-Ting; Chen, Ku-Ting; Yu, Lin-Chih; Lee, Miin-Huey; Chen, Chi-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Pi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Su-May

    2017-07-01

    A major challenge of modern agricultural biotechnology is the optimization of plant architecture for enhanced productivity, stress tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE). To optimize plant height and tillering that directly link to grain yield in cereals and are known to be tightly regulated by gibberellins (GAs), we attenuated the endogenous levels of GAs in rice via its degradation. GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) is a key enzyme that inactivates endogenous GAs and their precursors. We identified three conserved domains in a unique class of C 20 GA2ox, GA2ox6, which is known to regulate the architecture and function of rice plants. We mutated nine specific amino acids in these conserved domains and observed a gradient of effects on plant height. Ectopic expression of some of these GA2ox6 mutants moderately lowered GA levels and reprogrammed transcriptional networks, leading to reduced plant height, more productive tillers, expanded root system, higher WUE and photosynthesis rate, and elevated abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic rice. Combinations of these beneficial traits conferred not only drought and disease tolerance but also increased grain yield by 10-30% in field trials. Our studies hold the promise of manipulating GA levels to substantially improve plant architecture, stress tolerance and grain yield in rice and possibly in other major crops. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Distinct Fiber Type Signature in Mouse Muscles Expressing a Mutant Lamin A Responsible for Congenital Muscular Dystrophy in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Barateau

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific mutations in LMNA, which encodes nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamins A/C, affect skeletal muscle tissues. Early-onset LMNA myopathies reveal different alterations of muscle fibers, including fiber type disproportion or prominent dystrophic and/or inflammatory changes. Recently, we identified the p.R388P LMNA mutation as responsible for congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD and lipodystrophy. Here, we asked whether viral-mediated expression of mutant lamin A in murine skeletal muscles would be a pertinent model to reveal specific muscle alterations. We found that the total amount and size of muscle fibers as well as the extent of either inflammation or muscle regeneration were similar to wildtype or mutant lamin A. In contrast, the amount of fast oxidative muscle fibers containing myosin heavy chain IIA was lower upon expression of mutant lamin A, in correlation with lower expression of genes encoding transcription factors MEF2C and MyoD. These data validate this in vivo model for highlighting distinct muscle phenotypes associated with different lamin contexts. Additionally, the data suggest that alteration of muscle fiber type identity may contribute to the mechanisms underlying physiopathology of L-CMD related to R388P mutant lamin A.

  12. Over-expression of p53 mutants in LNCaP cells alters tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perryman, L.A.; Blair, J.M.; Kingsley, E.A.; Szymanska, B.; Ow, K.T.; Wen, V.W.; MacKenzie, K.L.; Vermeulen, P.B.; Jackson, P.; Russell, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This study has investigated the impact of three specific dominant-negative p53 mutants (F134L, M237L, and R273H) on tumorigenesis by LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mutant p53 proteins were associated with an increased subcutaneous 'take rate' in NOD-SCID mice, and increased production of PSA. Tumors expressing F134L and R273H grew slower than controls, and were associated with decreased necrosis and apoptosis, but not hypoxia. Interestingly, hypoxia levels were increased in tumors expressing M237L. There was less proliferation in F134L-bearing tumors compared to control, but this was not statistically significant. Angiogenesis was decreased in tumors expressing F134L and R273H compared with M237L, or controls. Conditioned medium from F134L tumors inhibited growth of normal human umbilical-vein endothelial cells but not telomerase-immortalized bone marrow endothelial cells. F134L tumor supernatants showed lower levels of VEGF and endostatin compared with supernatants from tumors expressing other mutants. Our results support the possibility that decreased angiogenesis might account for reduced growth rate of tumor cells expressing the F134L p53 mutation

  13. Differential requirements of two recA mutants for constitutive SOS expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarukit Edward Long

    Full Text Available Repairing DNA damage begins with its detection and is often followed by elicitation of a cellular response. In E. coli, RecA polymerizes on ssDNA produced after DNA damage and induces the SOS Response. The RecA-DNA filament is an allosteric effector of LexA auto-proteolysis. LexA is the repressor of the SOS Response. Not all RecA-DNA filaments, however, lead to an SOS Response. Certain recA mutants express the SOS Response (recA(C in the absence of external DNA damage in log phase cells.Genetic analysis of two recA(C mutants was used to determine the mechanism of constitutive SOS (SOS(C expression in a population of log phase cells using fluorescence of single cells carrying an SOS reporter system (sulAp-gfp. SOS(C expression in recA4142 mutants was dependent on its initial level of transcription, recBCD, recFOR, recX, dinI, xthA and the type of medium in which the cells were grown. SOS(C expression in recA730 mutants was affected by none of the mutations or conditions tested above.It is concluded that not all recA(C alleles cause SOS(C expression by the same mechanism. It is hypothesized that RecA4142 is loaded on to a double-strand end of DNA and that the RecA filament is stabilized by the presence of DinI and destabilized by RecX. RecFOR regulate the activity of RecX to destabilize the RecA filament. RecA730 causes SOS(C expression by binding to ssDNA in a mechanism yet to be determined.

  14. In retrospect. 7th workshop RCA; Nachlese. 7. Workshop RCA. Conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappik, Reinhard [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). Programmausschuss Workshop RCA

    2013-08-15

    The 7th Workshop RCA with 27 lectures and 12 poster presentation took place on 10 and 11 June 2013 in Dresden-Rossendorf. The traditional German event brought over 90 participants together from Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland and the Netherlands. This time the workshop put forward a special subject for the first time ('Obstacles and pitfalls when characterising waste packages'). A remarkable range of contributions was presented, which demonstrated the diversity and the problems of this subject matter. Medium to low radioactive waste and their final disposal was discussed. Other topics were the upcoming approval of recycling materials according to paragraph 29 StrlSchV as well as those from NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) regarding radionuclide analytics, the range of matrices to be processed and the practical problems this causes. Although the radiological feature was the central focus, other material aspects were dealt with, above all the approval of recycling materials when nuclear power plants are dismantled, but also in research institutes, which is demanding more and more attention. The lectures by Jessica Riemer (GSI Darmstadt) on the topic 'Waste material management of a research centre with heavy ion accelerators' and Elvira Mesalic (TU Munich) on 'Determining the activity inventory of bituminized old wastes' as well as the poster by Sina Brockmann on the 'Locally resolved analysis or uranium species using a couple systems of CLSM and LIFS' were awarded prizes for being outstanding presentations. (orig.)

  15. Structure and expression of cytochrome f in an Oenothera plastome mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E M; Sears, B B

    1990-06-01

    The chloroplast mutant pm7 is one of a number of mutants derived from the plastome mutator (pm) line of Oenothera hookeri, strain Johansen. Immunoblotting showed that this mutant accumulates a protein that is cross-antigenic with cytochrome f, but five kilodaltons larger than the mature wild-type protein. Since cytochrome f is known to be translated on plastid ribosomes as a precursor with an amino-terminal extension, it is proposed that the unprocessed cytochrome f precursor accumulates in pm7. In addition to this precursor-sized cytochrome f protein, some mature-sized cytochrome f was also found in the mutant plastids. The pm7 mutation is inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion; but no alterations in chloroplast DNA restriction patterns, or differences in DNA sequence in the region encoding cytochrome f, were found in a comparison of the wild-type and pm7 chloroplast DNAs. Although the mutant was capable of synthesizing heme, no covalently-bound heme, normally found associated with mature, functional, cytochrome f was detected in the mutant at sizes expected for the presumed precursor, or for mature cytochrome f. These results indicate that the aberrant accumulation of a precursor-sized cytochrome f in pm7 is not due to a lesion directly in the plastid gene encoding cytochrome f, petA, or to a deficiency in the ability of the mutant plastids to synthesize or accumulate heme.

  16. Inheritance and gene expression of a root-growth inhibiting mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, H.; Futsuhara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: A root-growth inhibiting mutant was induced in the dwarf mutant line, 'Fukei 71', through ethylene-imine. The mutant is characterised by the excessive inhibition of both seminal and crown roots elongation just after germination, although its shoots grow nearly normal. To study the genetics, the mutant was crossed with its original line 'Fukei 71' and some other normal cultivars. Results show that the root-growth inhibition is controlled by a recessive gene (rt), independent of the dwarf gene, d-50(t) locus in Fukei 71. For elucidating the gene action on root morphogenesis, histological and cytological experiments were carried out using a longitudinal and transverse thin section of seminal and/or crown root tips. Observations suggest that the rt gene affects the normal formation of the epidermal system which is differentiated from the protoderm of the root apical meristem. (author)

  17. Altered expression of the caffeine synthase gene in a naturally caffeine-free mutant of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Perez Maluf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the biosynthesis of caffeine by examining the expression of genes involved in this biosynthetic pathway in coffee fruits containing normal or low levels of this substance. The amplification of gene-specific transcripts during fruit development revealed that low-caffeine fruits had a lower expression of the theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase genes and also contained an extra transcript of the caffeine synthase gene. This extra transcript contained only part of exon 1 and all of exon 3. The sequence of the mutant caffeine synthase gene revealed the substitution of isoleucine for valine in the enzyme active site that probably interfered with enzymatic activity. These findings indicate that the absence of caffeine in these mutants probably resulted from a combination of transcriptional regulation and the presence of mutations in the caffeine synthase amino acid sequence.

  18. Impaired Integrin-mediated Adhesion and Signaling in Fibroblasts Expressing a Dominant-negative Mutant PTP1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Carlos O.; Balsamo, Janne; Lilien, Jack

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the role of nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in β1-integrin– mediated adhesion and signaling, we transfected mouse L cells with normal and catalytically inactive forms of the phosphatase. Parental cells and cells expressing the wild-type or mutant PTP1B were assayed for (a) adhesion, (b) spreading, (c) presence of focal adhesions and stress fibers, and (d) tyrosine phosphorylation. Parental cells and cells expressing wild-type PTP1B show similar morphology, are able to attach and spread on fibronectin, and form focal adhesions and stress fibers. In contrast, cells expressing the inactive PTP1B have a spindle-shaped morphology, reduced adhesion and spreading on fibronectin, and almost a complete absence of focal adhesions and stress fibers. Attachment to fibronectin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin in parental cells and cells transfected with the wild-type PTP1B, while in cells transfected with the mutant PTP1B, such induction is not observed. Additionally, in cells expressing the mutant PTP1B, tyrosine phosphorylation of Src is enhanced and activity is reduced. Lysophosphatidic acid temporarily reverses the effects of the mutant PTP1B, suggesting the existence of a signaling pathway triggering focal adhesion assembly that bypasses the need for active PTP1B. PTP1B coimmunoprecipitates with β1-integrin from nonionic detergent extracts and colocalizes with vinculin and the ends of actin stress fibers in focal adhesions. Our data suggest that PTP1B is a critical regulatory component of integrin signaling pathways, which is essential for adhesion, spreading, and formation of focal adhesions. PMID:9813103

  19. Truncating PREX2 mutations activate its GEF activity and alter gene expression regulation in NRAS-mutant melanoma

    KAUST Repository

    Lissanu Deribe, Yonathan

    2016-03-01

    PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac-exchange factor 2) is a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) binding protein that is significantly mutated in cutaneous melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, genetic and biochemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the nature and mechanistic basis of PREX2 mutation in melanoma development. By generating an inducible transgenic mouse model we showed an oncogenic role for a truncating PREX2 mutation (PREX2E824*) in vivo in the context of mutant NRAS. Using integrative cross-species gene expression analysis, we identified deregulated cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization as significantly perturbed biological pathways in PREX2 mutant tumors. Mechanistically, truncation of PREX2 activated its Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, abolished binding to PTEN and activated the PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We further showed that PREX2 truncating mutations or PTEN deletion induces down-regulation of the tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator CDKN1C (also known as p57KIP2). This down-regulation occurs, at least partially, through DNA hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region in chromosome 11 that is a known regulatory region for expression of the CDKN1C gene. Together, these findings identify PREX2 as a mediator of NRAS-mutant melanoma development that acts through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway to regulate gene expression of a cell cycle regulator.

  20. Truncating PREX2 mutations activate its GEF activity and alter gene expression regulation in NRAS-mutant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissanu Deribe, Yonathan; Shi, Yanxia; Rai, Kunal; Nezi, Luigi; Amin, Samir B; Wu, Chia-Chin; Akdemir, Kadir C; Mahdavi, Mozhdeh; Peng, Qian; Chang, Qing Edward; Hornigold, Kirsti; Arold, Stefan T; Welch, Heidi C E; Garraway, Levi A; Chin, Lynda

    2016-03-01

    PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac-exchange factor 2) is a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) binding protein that is significantly mutated in cutaneous melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, genetic and biochemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the nature and mechanistic basis of PREX2 mutation in melanoma development. By generating an inducible transgenic mouse model we showed an oncogenic role for a truncating PREX2 mutation (PREX2(E824)*) in vivo in the context of mutant NRAS. Using integrative cross-species gene expression analysis, we identified deregulated cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization as significantly perturbed biological pathways in PREX2 mutant tumors. Mechanistically, truncation of PREX2 activated its Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, abolished binding to PTEN and activated the PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We further showed that PREX2 truncating mutations or PTEN deletion induces down-regulation of the tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator CDKN1C (also known as p57(KIP2)). This down-regulation occurs, at least partially, through DNA hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region in chromosome 11 that is a known regulatory region for expression of the CDKN1C gene. Together, these findings identify PREX2 as a mediator of NRAS-mutant melanoma development that acts through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway to regulate gene expression of a cell cycle regulator.

  1. Astrocytes expressing ALS‐linked mutant FUS induce motor neuron death through release of tumor necrosis factor‐alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Azadeh; McAvoy, Kevin; Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Trotti, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS) are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. While it is established that astrocytes contribute to the death of motor neurons in ALS, the specific contribution of mutant FUS (mutFUS) through astrocytes has not yet been studied. Here, we used primary astrocytes expressing a N‐terminally GFP tagged R521G mutant or wild‐type FUS (WTFUS) and show that mutFUS‐expressing astrocytes undergo astrogliosis, damage co‐cultured motor neurons via activation of an inflammatory response and produce conditioned medium (ACM) that is toxic to motor neurons in isolation. Time lapse imaging shows that motor neuron cultures exposed to mutFUS ACM, but not WTFUS ACM, undergo significant cell loss, which is preceded by progressive degeneration of neurites. We found that Tumor Necrosis Factor‐Alpha (TNFα) is secreted into ACM of mutFUS‐expressing astrocytes. Accordingly, mutFUS astrocyte‐mediated motor neuron toxicity is blocked by targeting soluble TNFα with neutralizing antibodies. We also found that mutant astrocytes trigger changes to motor neuron AMPA receptors (AMPAR) that render them susceptible to excitotoxicity and AMPAR‐mediated cell death. Our data provide the first evidence of astrocytic involvement in FUS‐ALS, identify TNFα as a mediator of this toxicity, and provide several potential therapeutic targets to protect motor neurons in FUS‐linked ALS. PMID:29380416

  2. Truncating PREX2 mutations activate its GEF activity and alter gene expression regulation in NRAS-mutant melanoma

    KAUST Repository

    Lissanu Deribe, Yonathan; Shi, Yanxia; Rai, Kunal; Nezi, Luigi; Amin, Samir B.; Wu, Chia-Chin; Akdemir, Kadir C.; Mahdavi, Mozhdeh; Peng, Qian; Chang, Qing Edward; Hornigold, Kirsti; Arold, Stefan T.; Welch, Heidi C. E.; Garraway, Levi A.; Chin, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac-exchange factor 2) is a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) binding protein that is significantly mutated in cutaneous melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, genetic and biochemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the nature and mechanistic basis of PREX2 mutation in melanoma development. By generating an inducible transgenic mouse model we showed an oncogenic role for a truncating PREX2 mutation (PREX2E824*) in vivo in the context of mutant NRAS. Using integrative cross-species gene expression analysis, we identified deregulated cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization as significantly perturbed biological pathways in PREX2 mutant tumors. Mechanistically, truncation of PREX2 activated its Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, abolished binding to PTEN and activated the PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We further showed that PREX2 truncating mutations or PTEN deletion induces down-regulation of the tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator CDKN1C (also known as p57KIP2). This down-regulation occurs, at least partially, through DNA hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region in chromosome 11 that is a known regulatory region for expression of the CDKN1C gene. Together, these findings identify PREX2 as a mediator of NRAS-mutant melanoma development that acts through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway to regulate gene expression of a cell cycle regulator.

  3. The differential gene expression of key enzyme in the gibberellin pathway in the potato (solanum tuberosum) mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.B.; Ye, G.J.; Yang, Y.Z.; Wang, F.; Zhou, Y; Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the expression patterns of the key genes in the gibberellin synthesis pathway in the potato dwarf mutant M4P-9 were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Using Actin as an internal control, CPS1, KS, KO, GA20ox1, and GA2ox1, genes for key gibberellin synthesis enzymes, were evaluated, along with a gibberellin receptor gene. The standard curves were obtained from dilutions of PCR product; the correlation coefficient for Actin was 0.995, and those for the target genes varied from 0.994 to 1.000. The expression patterns of gibberellin pathway genes in different growth stages and tissues were calculated according to the method of Pfaffl. These genes showed expression patterns that varied based on growth stage and tissue type. The higher expression levels of CPS1 and GA2ox1 in roots, the lower expression levels of GA20ox1 in roots during tuber formation stage; as well as the increased expression of GA20ox1 and GA2ox1 genes in stems during the tuber formation stage, likely play key roles in the plant height phenotype in M4P-9 mutant materials. This article provides a basis for researching the mechanism of gibberellin synthesis in potato. (author)

  4. Switch-like reprogramming of gene expression after fusion of multinucleate plasmodial cells of two Physarum polycephalum sporulation mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Pauline; Hoffmann, Xenia-Katharina; Ebeling, Britta; Haas, Markus; Marwan, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.marwan@ovgu.de

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •We investigate reprogramming of gene expression in multinucleate single cells. •Cells of two differentiation control mutants are fused. •Fused cells proceed to alternative gene expression patterns. •The population of nuclei damps stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. •Dynamic processes of cellular reprogramming can be observed by repeated sampling of a cell. -- Abstract: Nonlinear dynamic processes involving the differential regulation of transcription factors are considered to impact the reprogramming of stem cells, germ cells, and somatic cells. Here, we fused two multinucleate plasmodial cells of Physarum polycephalum mutants defective in different sporulation control genes while being in different physiological states. The resulting heterokaryons established one of two significantly different expression patterns of marker genes while the plasmodial halves that were fused to each other synchronized spontaneously. Spontaneous synchronization suggests that switch-like control mechanisms spread over and finally control the entire plasmodium as a result of cytoplasmic mixing. Regulatory molecules due to the large volume of the vigorously streaming cytoplasm will define concentrations in acting on the population of nuclei and in the global setting of switches. Mixing of a large cytoplasmic volume is expected to damp stochasticity when individual nuclei deliver certain RNAs at low copy number into the cytoplasm. We conclude that spontaneous synchronization, the damping of molecular noise in gene expression by the large cytoplasmic volume, and the option to take multiple macroscopic samples from the same plasmodium provide unique options for studying the dynamics of cellular reprogramming at the single cell level.

  5. Switch-like reprogramming of gene expression after fusion of multinucleate plasmodial cells of two Physarum polycephalum sporulation mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Pauline; Hoffmann, Xenia-Katharina; Ebeling, Britta; Haas, Markus; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We investigate reprogramming of gene expression in multinucleate single cells. •Cells of two differentiation control mutants are fused. •Fused cells proceed to alternative gene expression patterns. •The population of nuclei damps stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. •Dynamic processes of cellular reprogramming can be observed by repeated sampling of a cell. -- Abstract: Nonlinear dynamic processes involving the differential regulation of transcription factors are considered to impact the reprogramming of stem cells, germ cells, and somatic cells. Here, we fused two multinucleate plasmodial cells of Physarum polycephalum mutants defective in different sporulation control genes while being in different physiological states. The resulting heterokaryons established one of two significantly different expression patterns of marker genes while the plasmodial halves that were fused to each other synchronized spontaneously. Spontaneous synchronization suggests that switch-like control mechanisms spread over and finally control the entire plasmodium as a result of cytoplasmic mixing. Regulatory molecules due to the large volume of the vigorously streaming cytoplasm will define concentrations in acting on the population of nuclei and in the global setting of switches. Mixing of a large cytoplasmic volume is expected to damp stochasticity when individual nuclei deliver certain RNAs at low copy number into the cytoplasm. We conclude that spontaneous synchronization, the damping of molecular noise in gene expression by the large cytoplasmic volume, and the option to take multiple macroscopic samples from the same plasmodium provide unique options for studying the dynamics of cellular reprogramming at the single cell level

  6. Development of new mouse lung tumor models expressing EGFR T790M mutants associated with clinical resistance to kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regales, Lucia; Balak, Marissa N; Gong, Yixuan; Politi, Katerina; Sawai, Ayana; Le, Carl; Koutcher, Jason A; Solit, David B; Rosen, Neal; Zakowski, Maureen F; Pao, William

    2007-08-29

    The EGFR T790M mutation confers acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors in human EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, is occasionally detected before treatment, and may confer genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. To study further its role in lung tumorigenesis, we developed mice with inducible expression in type II pneumocytes of EGFR(T790M) alone or together with a drug-sensitive L858R mutation. Both transgenic lines develop lung adenocarcinomas that require mutant EGFR for tumor maintenance but are resistant to an EGFR kinase inhibitor. EGFR(L858R+T790M)-driven tumors are transiently targeted by hsp90 inhibition. Notably, EGFR(T790M)-expressing animals develop tumors with longer latency than EGFR(L858R+T790M)-bearing mice and in the absence of additional kinase domain mutations. These new mouse models of mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas provide insight into clinical observations. The models should also be useful for developing improved therapies for patients with lung cancers harboring EGFR(T790M) alone or in conjunction with drug-sensitive EGFR kinase domain mutations.

  7. Development of new mouse lung tumor models expressing EGFR T790M mutants associated with clinical resistance to kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Regales

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The EGFR T790M mutation confers acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors in human EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, is occasionally detected before treatment, and may confer genetic susceptibility to lung cancer.To study further its role in lung tumorigenesis, we developed mice with inducible expression in type II pneumocytes of EGFR(T790M alone or together with a drug-sensitive L858R mutation. Both transgenic lines develop lung adenocarcinomas that require mutant EGFR for tumor maintenance but are resistant to an EGFR kinase inhibitor. EGFR(L858R+T790M-driven tumors are transiently targeted by hsp90 inhibition. Notably, EGFR(T790M-expressing animals develop tumors with longer latency than EGFR(L858R+T790M-bearing mice and in the absence of additional kinase domain mutations.These new mouse models of mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas provide insight into clinical observations. The models should also be useful for developing improved therapies for patients with lung cancers harboring EGFR(T790M alone or in conjunction with drug-sensitive EGFR kinase domain mutations.

  8. Global Expression in Sorghum Brown Midrib Mutants to Improve Biomass for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (bmr) mutants are being investigated for their ability to increase the conversion efficiency of sorghum biomass for lignocellulosic bioenergy. Brown midrib 6 and 12 (bmr6 and 12) are impaired the last two steps of monolignol biosynthesis resulting in reduced lignin content and altered ...

  9. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brown midrib mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), with a high biomass yield and excellent tolerance to drought and low nutrition, has been recommended as one of the most competitive bioenergy crops. Brown midrib (bmr) mutant sorghum with reduced lignin content showed a high potential for the improvement of bioethanol ...

  10. Analyse der F-box Funktion von Rca1 in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Rca1 ist ein wichtiger Inhibitor für die Ubiqutin-E3-Ligase APC/C mit dem Aktivatorproteine Fzr (Fizzy-related, ortholog zu Cdh1), vor allem in der G2-Phase des Zellzyklus, und ermöglicht die Akkumulati-on von Cyclinen für die darauffolgende Mitose. Embryonen, die die rca1-Allele rca1[2] und rca1[C1474] tragen, arretieren deshalb im Zellzyklus 16 und können nicht in die Mitose 16 eintreten. Durch Überexpression von Rca1 und Rca1 mit deletierter F-box (Rca1ΔF-box) konnte dieser Phänotyp komple...

  11. Protein expression profiling of the drosophila fragile X mutant brain reveals up-regulation of monoamine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong Q; Friedman, David B; Wang, Zhe; Woodruff, Elvin; Pan, Luyuan; O'donnell, Janis; Broadie, Kendal

    2005-03-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation, associated with both cognitive and behavioral anomalies. The disease is caused by silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene, which encodes the mRNA-binding, translational regulator FMRP. Previously we established a disease model through mutation of Drosophila fmr1 (dfmr1) and showed that loss of dFMRP causes defects in neuronal structure, function, and behavioral output similar to the human disease state. To uncover molecular targets of dFMRP in the brain, we use here a proteomic approach involving two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analyses followed by mass spectrometry identification of proteins with significantly altered expression in dfmr1 null mutants. We then focus on two misregulated enzymes, phenylalanine hydroxylase (Henna) and GTP cyclohydrolase (Punch), both of which mediate in concert the synthetic pathways of two key monoamine neuromodulators, dopamine and serotonin. Brain enzymatic assays show a nearly 2-fold elevation of Punch activity in dfmr1 null mutants. Consistently brain neurochemical assays show that both dopamine and serotonin are significantly increased in dfmr1 null mutants. At a cellular level, dfmr1 null mutant neurons display a highly significant elevation of the dense core vesicles that package these monoamine neuromodulators for secretion. Taken together, these data indicate that dFMRP normally down-regulates the monoamine pathway, which is consequently up-regulated in the mutant condition. Elevated brain levels of dopamine and serotonin provide a plausible mechanistic explanation for aspects of cognitive and behavioral deficits in human patients.

  12. Thylakoid redox signals are integrated into organellar-gene-expression-dependent retrograde signalling in the prors1-1 mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eTadini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations in organellar gene expression (OGE and the thylakoid redox state (TRS activate retrograde signalling pathways that adaptively modify nuclear gene expression (NGE, according to developmental and metabolic needs. The prors1-1 mutation in Arabidopsis down-regulates the expression of the nuclear gene Prolyl-tRNA Synthetase1 (PRORS1 which acts in both plastids and mitochondria, thereby impairing protein synthesis in both organelles and triggering OGE-dependent retrograde signalling. Because the mutation also affects thylakoid electron transport, TRS-dependent signals may likewise have an impact on the changes in NGE observed in this genotype. In this study, we have investigated whether signals related to TRS are actually integrated into the OGE-dependent retrograde signalling pathway. To this end, the chaos mutation (for chlorophyll a/b binding protein harvesting-organelle specific, which shows a partial loss of PSII antennae proteins and thus a reduction in PSII light absorption capability, was introduced into the prors1-1 mutant background. The resulting double mutant displayed a prors1-1-like reduction in plastid translation rate and a chaos-like decrease in PSII antenna size, whereas the hyper-reduction of the thylakoid electron transport chain, caused by the prors1-1 mutation, was alleviated, as determined by monitoring chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence and thylakoid phosphorylation. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the nucleus-encoded photosynthesis genes down-regulated in the prors1-1 mutant are expressed at nearly wild-type rates in prors1-1 chaos leaves, and this recovery is reflected in the steady-state levels of their protein products in the chloroplast. We therefore conclude that signals related to photosynthetic electron transport and TRS, and indirectly to carbohydrate metabolism and energy balance, are indeed fed into the OGE-dependent retrograde pathway to modulate NGE and adjust the abundance of chloroplast proteins.

  13. Induction of expression and co-localization of heat shock polypeptides with the polyalanine expansion mutant of poly(A)-binding protein N1 after chemical stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qishan; Bag, Jnanankur

    2008-01-01

    Formation of nuclear inclusions consisting of aggregates of a polyalanine expansion mutant of nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1) is the hallmark of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). OPMD is a late onset autosomal dominant disease. Patients with this disorder exhibit progressive swallowing difficulty and drooping of their eye lids, which starts around the age of 50. Previously we have shown that treatment of cells expressing the mutant PABPN1 with a number of chemicals such as ibuprofen, indomethacin, ZnSO 4 , and 8-hydroxy-quinoline induces HSP70 expression and reduces PABPN1 aggregation. In these studies we have shown that expression of additional HSPs including HSP27, HSP40, and HSP105 were induced in mutant PABPN1 expressing cells following exposure to the chemicals mentioned above. Furthermore, all three additional HSPs were translocated to the nucleus and probably helped to properly fold the mutant PABPN1 by co-localizing with this protein

  14. Enhanced expression of membrane proteins in E. coli with a PBAD promoter mutant: synergies with chaperone pathway engineering strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannenga Brent L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins (MPs populate 20-30% of genomes sequenced to date and hold potential as therapeutic targets as well as for practical applications in bionanotechnology. However, MP toxicity and low yields in normally robust expression hosts such as E. coli has curtailed progress in our understanding of their structure and function. Results Using the seven transmembrane segments H. turkmenica deltarhodopsin (HtdR as a reporter, we isolated a spontaneous mutant in the arabinose-inducible PBAD promoter leading to improved cell growth and a twofold increase in the recovery of active HtdR at 37°C. A single transversion in a conserved region of the cyclic AMP receptor protein binding site caused the phenotype by reducing htdR transcript levels by 65%. When the mutant promoter was used in conjunction with a host lacking the molecular chaperone Trigger Factor (Δtig cells, toxicity was further suppressed and the amount of correctly folded HtdR was 4-fold that present in the membranes of control cells. More importantly, while improved growth barely compensated for the reduction in transcription rates when another polytopic membrane protein (N. pharonis sensory rhodopsin II was expressed under control of the mutant promoter in wild type cells, a 4-fold increase in productivity could be achieved in a Δtig host. Conclusions Our system, which combines a downregulated version of the tightly repressed PBAD promoter with a TF-deficient host may prove a valuable alternative to T7-based expression for the production of membrane proteins that have so far remained elusive targets.

  15. Delayed expression of apoptosis in X-irradiated human leukemic MOLT-4 cells transfected with mutant p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hisako; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Kunio

    2003-01-01

    The effects of X-rays on cell survival, apoptosis, and long-term response in the development of cell death as measured by the dye exclusion test were studied in human leukemic MOLT-4 cells (p53 wild-type) stably transfected with a mutant p53 cDNA expression vector. Cell survival, as determined from colony-forming ability, was increased in an expression level dependent manner, but the increase was partial even with the highest-expressing clone (B3). This contrasts with the prior observation that cell death and apoptosis in B3 are completely inhibited at 24 h after irradiation with 1.8 Gy of X-rays. The examination of B3 cells incubated for longer than 24 h after X-irradiation showed a delay in the induction of cell death and apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that the time required to reach the highest level of wild-type p53 protein in B3 was longer than the time in MOLT-4 and that the p53 may be stabilized by the phosphorylation at Ser-15. These results suggest that the introduction of mutant p53 into MOLT-4 merely delays the development of apoptosis, during which the cells could repair the damage induced by X-rays, and results in the partial increase in cell survival. (author)

  16. Dopaminergic neuronal loss, reduced neurite complexity and autophagic abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing G2019S mutant LRRK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ramonet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD and also contribute to idiopathic PD. LRRK2 mutations represent the most common cause of PD with clinical and neurochemical features that are largely indistinguishable from idiopathic disease. Currently, transgenic mice expressing wild-type or disease-causing mutants of LRRK2 have failed to produce overt neurodegeneration, although abnormalities in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission have been observed. Here, we describe the development and characterization of transgenic mice expressing human LRRK2 bearing the familial PD mutations, R1441C and G2019S. Our study demonstrates that expression of G2019S mutant LRRK2 induces the degeneration of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons in an age-dependent manner. In addition, we observe autophagic and mitochondrial abnormalities in the brains of aged G2019S LRRK2 mice and markedly reduced neurite complexity of cultured dopaminergic neurons. These new LRRK2 transgenic mice will provide important tools for understanding the mechanism(s through which familial mutations precipitate neuronal degeneration and PD.

  17. Tunable Control of an Escherichia coli Expression System for the Overproduction of Membrane Proteins by Titrated Expression of a Mutant lac Repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Oh Cheol; Kim, Jihyun F; Yoon, Sung Ho

    2017-09-15

    Most inducible expression systems suffer from growth defects, leaky basal induction, and inhomogeneous expression levels within a host cell population. These difficulties are most prominent with the overproduction of membrane proteins that are toxic to host cells. Here, we developed an Escherichia coli inducible expression system for membrane protein production based on titrated expression of a mutant lac repressor (mLacI). Performance of the mLacI inducible system was evaluated in conjunction with commonly used lac operator-based expression vectors using a T7 or tac promoter. Remarkably, expression of a target gene can be titrated by the dose-dependent addition of l-rhamnose, and the expression levels were homogeneous in the cell population. The developed system was successfully applied to overexpress three membrane proteins that were otherwise difficult to produce in E. coli. This gene expression control system can be easily applied to a broad range of existing protein expression systems and should be useful in constructing genetic circuits that require precise output signals.

  18. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Transgenic Poplar Dwarf Mutant Reveals Numerous Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research, the Tamarix androssowii LEA gene (Tamarix androssowii late embryogenesis abundant protein Mrna, GenBank ID: DQ663481 was transferred into Populus simonii × Populus nigra. Among the eleven transgenic lines, one exhibited a dwarf phenotype compared to the wild type and other transgenic lines, named dwf1. To uncover the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, digital gene expression libraries were produced from dwf1, wild-type, and other normal transgenic lines, XL-5 and XL-6. Gene expression profile analysis indicated that dwf1 had a unique gene expression pattern in comparison to the other two transgenic lines. Finally, a total of 1246 dwf1-unique differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were further subjected to gene ontology and pathway analysis. Results indicated that photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism related genes were significantly affected. In addition, many transcription factors genes were also differentially expressed in dwf1. These various differentially expressed genes may be critical for dwarf mutant formation; thus, the findings presented here might provide insight for our understanding of the mechanisms of tree growth and development.

  19. RCA/IAEA third external dosimetry intercomparison in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Cruz Suarez, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Several intercomparison exercises were organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or interregional basis. These exercises revealed significant differences in the approach, methods and assumptions, and consequently in the measurement results obtained by participating laboratories. In the East Asia region, the third phase of the Hp(10) intercomparison, organized within the frame of the Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) as a follow-up to previous exercises during 1990-92 and 1995-96, was completed mid-2004. The first phase grouped 25 laboratories from 16 member states, and 4 Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories irradiated dosimeters in 6 different qualities for photon and beta radiations. In the second phase, 23 laboratories from 16 member states participated, and 3 Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories provided irradiation in 5 different radiation qualities simulating workplace fields. The results of the second phase for the determination of operational quantities Hp(d) were satisfactory for all participating Member States, with marked improvement from the first phase; the laboratories demonstrated good performance in both quantities tested. These results underline the importance of such an intercomparison programme as a key element towards the harmonization of quantities and units on an international level. This paper presents the results of this RCA/IAEA intercomparison, and also the forthcoming RCA activities supporting intercomparison runs for the assessment of occupational exposure. Member states strongly recommend that the IAEA continue acting as a focal point for, inter alia, training in all forms, particularly in measurements and dosimetry techniques. This exercise also stressed the importance for the IAEA to take an active role in establishing a network of monitoring laboratories for radiation protection purposes, as it would provide for better information

  20. Results of the IAEA/RCA personal dosemeter intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Momose, Takumaro; Hayashi, Naomi [Environment and Safety Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    The intercomparison of personal dosemeters for photon was carried out between 1990 and 1996 as part of the IAEA/RCA 'strengthening of radiation protection infrastructure' project. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute participated in the intercomparison as one of the in-house personal dosimetry service organizations in Japan and also served the host irradiating laboratory. This report summarizes the dose evaluation results obtained from the JNC-TLD badges in the past four intercomparison programs. In the latest intercomparison the evaluated doses agreed to the reference doses with an accuracy of 10%. (author)

  1. Tenth working group meeting of representatives of RCA Member States. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The Tenth RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology) Working Group meeting of representatives of RCA Member States was held at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, between 11-14 April 1988. The report on the meeting consists of a presentation of the seven technical sessions which dealt with topics such as nuclear techniques in industry, agriculture and medicine, nuclear power and of the project reports under RCA

  2. Functional analysis of the cell cycle regulator Rca1 in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Norman

    2007-01-01

    Tight regulation of APC/C activity is essential for cell cycle progression. An important class of negative APC/C regulators are the Rca1/Emi1 family proteins. All members of the Rca1/Emi1 family share a conserved zinc binding region (ZBR) which is essential for their inhibitory activity. The Rca1/Emi1 proteins belong to the class of F-box proteins that are known to act as substrate recognition subunits in SCF-E3-ligase complexes. Emi1 and Rca1 interact in vitro with members of the Skp family ...

  3. Report of the IAEA/RCA-NDT education project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, Kiichi; Terada, Kunio; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Niwa, Noboru

    1988-11-01

    The Japan Non-Destructive Test (NDT) Association has been carried out an NDT technical education project with support from IAEA. Phase I of the project was successfully completed last year. The present report briefly outlines the second five-year plan (Phase II) to be carried out under the project. The project was first established in 1981 after receiving a request from IAEA to provide NDT education for participants from the RCA countries (13 countries in Asian and Pacific area). Phase I was mainly designed to provide lectures on NDT techniques. Prior to the start of Phase II, the International Education Subcommittee was established in December 1986 to take the leadership in carrying out Phase II of the project. In addition, the NDT Expert Working Group (formally called Advisory Group) has been installed which consists of representative from Japan. Australia India and Singapore. The Group held nine meetings during Phase I. Three lecture meetings at Singapore and another three at Tokyo were held to provide education according to a plan developed by the Group. It has been decided that Japan be support the lecture meetings to be held during Phase II. To conduct such meetings, a group comprising all of the National Coordinators from the RCA countries was set up to replace the Working Group. The National Coordinator Conference was held four times since its establishment. (N.K.).

  4. Report of the IAEA/RCA-NDT education project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooka, Kiichi; Terada, Kunio; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Niwa, Noboru.

    1988-01-01

    The Japan Non-Destructive Test (NDT) Association has been carried out an NDT technical education project with support from IAEA. Phase I of the project was successfully completed last year. The present report briefly outlines the second five-year plan (Phase II) to be carried out under the project. The project was first established in 1981 after receiving a request from IAEA to provide NDT education for participants from the RCA countries (13 countries in Asian and Pacific area). Phase I was mainly designed to provide lectures on NDT techniques. Prior to the start of Phase II, the International Education Subcommittee was established in December 1986 to take the leadership in carrying out Phase II of the project. In addition, the NDT Expert Working Group (formally called Advisory Group) has been installed which consists of representative from Japan. Australia India and Singapore. The Group held nine meetings during Phase I. Three lecture meetings at Singapore and another three at Tokyo were held to provide education according to a plan developed by the Group. It has been decided that Japan be support the lecture meetings to be held during Phase II. To conduct such meetings, a group comprising all of the National Coordinators from the RCA countries was set up to replace the Working Group. The National Coordinator Conference was held four times since its establishment. (N.K.)

  5. Expression and characterization of recombinant human factor V and a mutant lacking a major portion of the connecting region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, W.H.; Devore-Carter, D.; Ortel, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    Human coagulation factor V is a protein cofactor that is an essential component of the prothrombinase complex. A full-length factor V cDNA has been subcloned into the mammalian expression vector pDX and used to transfect COS cells. Approximately 95 ± 4% of the recombinant human factor V (rHFV) synthesized in COS cells is secreted into the culture medium. Factor V activity determined by fibrometer assay increased approximately 5-fold from 0.027 ± 0.012 to 0.124 ± 0.044 unit/mL following activation by the factor V activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom (RVV-V). A chromogenic assay specific for factor Va indicated that recombinant factor V had 3.8 ± 1.3% of the activity of the activated protein. The estimated specific activity of the recombinant factor Va was approximately 1,800 ± 500 units/mg, which is similar to the specific activity of purified plasma factor Va of 1,700-2,000 units/mg. Immunoprecipitation of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled rHFV revealed a single high molecular mass component. Treatment of rHFV with thrombin or RVV-V resulted in the formation of proteolytic products that were similar to those seen with plasma factor V. The authors have also expressed a mutant, rHFV-des-B 811-1441 , that lacks a large portion of the highly glycosylated connecting region that is present in factor V. This mutant constitutively expressed 38 ± 7% of the activity of the RVV-V-activated protein. These results suggest that one of the functions of the large connecting region in factor V is to inhibit constitutive procoagulant activity

  6. Expression Pattern of Two Paralogs Encoding Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis. Isolation and Characterization of the Corresponding Mutants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Pollet, Brigitte; Goujon, Thomas; Mila, Isabelle; Granier, Fabienne; Séguin, Armand; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise

    2003-01-01

    Studying Arabidopsis mutants of the phenylpropanoid pathway has unraveled several biosynthetic steps of monolignol synthesis. Most of the genes leading to monolignol synthesis have been characterized recently in this herbaceous plant, except those encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We have used the complete sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome to highlight a new view of the complete CAD gene family. Among nine AtCAD genes, we have identified the two distinct paralogs AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D, which share 75% identity and are likely to be involved in lignin biosynthesis in other plants. Northern, semiquantitative restriction fragment-length polymorphism-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western analysis revealed that AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D mRNA and protein ratios were organ dependent. Promoter activities of both genes are high in fibers and in xylem bundles. However, AtCAD-C displayed a larger range of sites of expression than AtCAD-D. Arabidopsis null mutants (Atcad-D and Atcad-C) corresponding to both genes were isolated. CAD activities were drastically reduced in both mutants, with a higher impact on sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (6% and 38% of residual sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities for Atcad-D and Atcad-C, respectively). Only Atcad-D showed a slight reduction in Klason lignin content and displayed modifications of lignin structure with a significant reduced proportion of conventional S lignin units in both stems and roots, together with the incorporation of sinapaldehyde structures ether linked at Cβ. These results argue for a substantial role of AtCAD-D in lignification, and more specifically in the biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol, the precursor of S lignin units. PMID:12805615

  7. Expression pattern of two paralogs encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis. Isolation and characterization of the corresponding mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Pollet, Brigitte; Goujon, Thomas; Mila, Isabelle; Granier, Fabienne; Séguin, Armand; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise

    2003-06-01

    Studying Arabidopsis mutants of the phenylpropanoid pathway has unraveled several biosynthetic steps of monolignol synthesis. Most of the genes leading to monolignol synthesis have been characterized recently in this herbaceous plant, except those encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We have used the complete sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome to highlight a new view of the complete CAD gene family. Among nine AtCAD genes, we have identified the two distinct paralogs AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D, which share 75% identity and are likely to be involved in lignin biosynthesis in other plants. Northern, semiquantitative restriction fragment-length polymorphism-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western analysis revealed that AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D mRNA and protein ratios were organ dependent. Promoter activities of both genes are high in fibers and in xylem bundles. However, AtCAD-C displayed a larger range of sites of expression than AtCAD-D. Arabidopsis null mutants (Atcad-D and Atcad-C) corresponding to both genes were isolated. CAD activities were drastically reduced in both mutants, with a higher impact on sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (6% and 38% of residual sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities for Atcad-D and Atcad-C, respectively). Only Atcad-D showed a slight reduction in Klason lignin content and displayed modifications of lignin structure with a significant reduced proportion of conventional S lignin units in both stems and roots, together with the incorporation of sinapaldehyde structures ether linked at Cbeta. These results argue for a substantial role of AtCAD-D in lignification, and more specifically in the biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol, the precursor of S lignin units.

  8. Constitutive non-inducible expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana Nia 2 gene in two nitrate reductase mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, C; Crawford, N M; Malmberg, R L

    1997-04-01

    We have isolated a haploid cell line of N. plumbaginifolia, hNP 588, that is constitutive and not inducible for nitrate reductase. Nitrate reductase mutants were isolated from hNP 588 protoplasts upon UV irradiation. Two of these nitrate reductase-deficient cell lines, nia 3 and nia 25, neither of which contained any detectable nitrate reductase activity, were selected for complementation studies. A cloned Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate reductase gene Nia 2 was introduced into each of the two mutants resulting in 56 independent kanamycin-resistant cell lines. Thirty of the 56 kanamycin-resistant cell lines were able to grow on nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Eight of these were further analyzed for nitrate reductase enzyme activity and nitrate reductase mRNA production. All eight lines had detectable nitrate reductase activity ranging from 7% to 150% of wild-type hNP 588 callus. The enzyme activity levels were not influenced by the nitrogen source in the medium. The eight lines examined expressed a constitutive, non-inducible 3.2 kb mRNA species that was not present in untransformed controls.

  9. Limited number of immunoglobulin VH regions expressed in the mutant rabbit "Alicia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, L A; Short, J A; Zhai, S K; Kelus, A S; Meier, D; Knight, K L

    1990-06-01

    A unique feature of rabbit Ig is the presence of VH region allotypic specificities. In normal rabbits, more than 80% of circulating immunoglobulin molecules bear the VHa allotypic specificities, al, a2 or a3; the remaining 10% to 20% of immunoglobulin molecules lack VHa allotypic specificities and are designated VHa-. A mutant rabbit designated Alicia, in contrast, has predominantly serum immunoglobulin molecules that lack the VHa allotypic specificities (Kelus and Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1986. 83: 4883). To study the nature and molecular complexity of VHa- molecules, we cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of seven cDNA prepared from splenic RNA of an Alicia rabbit. Six of the clones appeared to encode VHa- molecules; the framework regions encoded by these clones were remarkably similar to each other, each having an unusual insertion of four amino acids at position 10. This insertion of four amino acids has been seen in only 2 of 54 sequenced rabbit VH genes. The similarity of the sequences of the six VHa- clones to each other and their dissimilarity to most other VH genes leads us to suggest that the VHa- molecules in Alicia rabbits are derived predominantly from one or a small number of very similar VH genes. Such preferential utilization of a small number of VH genes may explain the allelic inheritance of VH allotypes.

  10. Lifespan decrease in a Caenorhabditis elegans mutant lacking TRX-1, a thioredoxin expressed in ASJ sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Fierro González, Juan Carlos; Gahmon, Gabriele; Burghoorn, Jan; Navas, Plácido; Swoboda, Peter

    2006-01-23

    Thioredoxins are a class of small proteins that play a key role in regulating many cellular redox processes. We report here the characterization of the first member of the thioredoxin family in metazoans that is mainly associated with neurons. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene B0228.5 encodes a thioredoxin (TRX-1) that is expressed in ASJ ciliated sensory neurons, and to some extent also in the posterior-most intestinal cells. TRX-1 is active at reducing protein disulfides in the presence of a heterologous thioredoxin reductase. A mutant worm strain carrying a null allele of the trx-1 gene displays a reproducible decrease in both mean and maximum lifespan when compared to wild-type. The identification and characterization of TRX-1 paves the way to use C. elegans as an in vivo model to study the role of thioredoxins in lifespan and nervous system physiology and pathology.

  11. Effects of mycoplasma contamination on phenotypic expression of mitochondrial mutants in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersen, C J; Stanbridge, E J

    1981-04-01

    HeLa cells sensitive to the mitochondrial protein synthesis inhibitors erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and HeLa variants resistant to the effects of these drugs were purposefully infected with drug-sensitive and -resistant mycoplasma strains. Mycoplasma hyorhinis and the ERY-resistant strain of Mycoplasma orale, MO-ERYr, did not influence the growth of HeLa and ERY-resistant ERY2301 cells in the presence or absence of ERY. M. hyorhinis also did not affect the growth of HeLa and CAP-resistant Cap-2 cells in the presence or absence of CAP. However, both HeLa and Cap-2 cells infected with the CAP-resistant strain of M. hyorhinis, MH-CAPr, were more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of CAP. This may be due to the glucose dependence of the cells, which was compromised by the increased utilization of glucose by MH-CAPr in these infected cell cultures. In vitro protein synthesis by isolated mitochondria was significantly altered by mycoplasma infection of the various cell lines. A substantial number of mycoplasmas copurified with the mitochondria, resulting in up to a sevenfold increase in the incorporation of [3H]leucine into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. More importantly, the apparent drug sensitivity or resistance of mitochondrial preparations from mycoplasma-infected cells reflected the drug sensitivity or resistance of the contaminating mycoplasmas. These results illustrate the hazards in interpreting mitochondrial protein synthesis data derived from mycoplasma-infected cell lines, particularly putative mitochondrially encoded mutants resistant to inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis.

  12. An ALS-linked mutant SOD1 produces a locomotor defect associated with aggregation and synaptic dysfunction when expressed in neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiou Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of toxic effects exerted on neurons by misfolded proteins, occurring in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, is poorly understood. One approach to this problem is to measure effects when such proteins are expressed in heterologous neurons. We report on effects of an ALS-associated, misfolding-prone mutant human SOD1, G85R, when expressed in the neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Stable mutant transgenic animals, but not wild-type human SOD1 transgenics, exhibited a strong locomotor defect associated with the presence, specifically in mutant animals, of both soluble oligomers and insoluble aggregates of G85R protein. A whole-genome RNAi screen identified chaperones and other components whose deficiency increased aggregation and further diminished locomotion. The nature of the locomotor defect was investigated. Mutant animals were resistant to paralysis by the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, while exhibiting normal sensitivity to the cholinergic agonist levamisole and normal muscle morphology. When fluorescently labeled presynaptic components were examined in the dorsal nerve cord, decreased numbers of puncta corresponding to neuromuscular junctions were observed in mutant animals and brightness was also diminished. At the EM level, mutant animals exhibited a reduced number of synaptic vesicles. Neurotoxicity in this system thus appears to be mediated by misfolded SOD1 and is exerted on synaptic vesicle biogenesis and/or trafficking.

  13. The 2015 Resuscitation Council of Asia (RCA) guidelines on adult basic life support for lay rescuers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Phil; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Lim, Swee Han; Ma, Mathew Huei-Ming; Wang, Tzong-Luen; Lavapie, Francis; Krisanarungson, Sopon; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Hwang, Sung Oh

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces adult basic life support (BLS) guidelines for lay rescuers of the resuscitation council of Asia (RCA) developed for the first time. The RCA BLS guidelines for lay rescuers have been established by expert consensus among BLS Guidelines Taskforce of the RCA on the basis of the 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. The RCA recommends compression-only CPR for lay rescuers and emphasizes high-quality CPR with chest compression depth of approximately 5cm and chest compression rate of 100-120min(-1). Role of emergency medical dispatchers in helping lay rescuers recognize cardiac arrest and perform CPR is also emphasized. The RCA guidelines will contribute to help Asian countries establish and implement their own CPR guidelines in the context of their domestic circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional characterization of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus mutant lacking late expression factor 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Shi, Y; Yu, H; Li, J; Quan, Y; Shu, T; Nie, Z; Zhang, Y; Yu, W

    Baculoviridae is a family of invertebrate viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes. Proteins encoded by some late expression factor (lef ) genes are involved in the regulation of viral gene expression. Lef-9 is one of four transcription-specific Lefs, which are components of the virus-encoded RNA polymerase, and can initiate and transcribe late and very late genes. As a multifunctional protein encoded by the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), Lef-9 may be involved in the regulation of viral propagation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To determine the role of lef-9 in baculovirus infection, lef-9-knockout virus (lef-9-KO-Bacmid virus) was constructed using the Red recombination system, and the Bac-to-Bac system was used to prepare lef-9-repaired virus (lef-9-Re-Bacmid virus). The lef-9-KO virus did not produce infectious viruses or show infection activity, while the lef-9-repaired virus recovered both. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the transcription levels in wild-type-Bacmid, lef-9-KO-Bacmid, and lef-9-Re-Bacmid viruses showed that the lef-9-KO bacmid had little effect on viral genome replication. However, the transcription levels of the early and late viral genes, lef-3, ie-1, vp39, and p10, were significantly lower in BmN cells transfected with lef-9-KO-Bacmids than in the controls. Electron microscopy showed no visible enveloped virions in cells transfected with lef-9-KO-Bacmids, while many mature virions in cells transfected with lef-9-Re-Bacmid and wt-Bacmid were present. Thus, lef-9 was not essential for viral genome replication, but significantly affected viral gene transcription and expression in all periods of cell life cycle.

  15. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal iron metabolism and oxidative stress in mice expressing a mutant form of the ferritin light polypeptide gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito, Ana G.; Garringer, Holly J.; Baraibar, Martin A.; Gao, Xiaoying; Arredondo, Miguel; Núñez, Marco T.; Smith, Mark A.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Insertional mutations in exon 4 of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene are associated with hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of motor and cognitive functions. To determine the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutations in FTL lead to neurodegeneration, we investigated iron metabolism and markers of oxidative stress in the brain of transgenic (Tg) mice that express the mutant human FTL498-499InsTC cDNA. Compared with wild-type mice, brain extracts from Tg (FTL-Tg) mice showed an increase in the cytoplasmic levels of both FTL and ferritin heavy chain polypeptides, a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of transferrin receptor-1, and a significant increase in iron levels. Transgenic mice also showed the presence of markers for lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, and nitrone–protein adducts in the brain. However, gene expression analysis of iron management proteins in the liver of Tg mice indicates that the FTL-Tg mouse liver is iron deficient. Our data suggest that disruption of iron metabolism in the brain has a primary role in the process of neurodegeneration in HF and that the pathogenesis of HF is likely to result from a combination of reduction in iron storage function and enhanced toxicity associated with iron-induced ferritin aggregates in the brain. PMID:19519778

  17. Dysregulation of gene expression in the striatum of BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin and associated abnormalities on molecular and protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Taeger, Libo; Bonin, Michael; Stricker-Shaver, Janice; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Hoa Huu Phuc

    2017-05-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for the huntingtin protein (HTT). Mutant HTT (mHTT) has been proposed to cause neuronal dysfunction and neuronal loss through multiple mechanisms. Transcriptional changes may be a core pathogenic feature of HD. Utilizing the Affymetrix platform we performed a genome-wide RNA expression analysis in two BACHD transgenic rat lines (TG5 and TG9) at 12 months of age, both of which carry full-length human mHTT but with different expression levels. By defining the threshold of significance at p < 0.01, we found 1608 genes and 871 genes differentially expressed in both TG5 and TG9 rats when compared to the wild type littermates, respectively. We only chose the highly up-/down-regulated genes for further analysis by setting an additional threshold of 1.5 fold change. Comparing gene expression profiles of human HD brains and BACHD rats revealed a high concordance in both functional and IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) canonical pathways relevant to HD. In addition, we investigated the causes leading to gene expression changes at molecular and protein levels in BACHD rats including the involvement of polyQ-containing transcription factors TATA box-binding protein (TBP), Sp1 and CBP as well as the chromatin structure. We demonstrate that the BACHD rat model recapitulates the gene expression changes of the human disease supporting its role as a preclinical research animal model. We also show for the first time that TFIID complex formation is reduced, while soluble TBP is increased in an HD model. This finding suggests that mHTT is a competitor instead of a recruiter of polyQ-containing transcription factors in the transcription process in HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Chemokines and Receptors Expression Profile in the Myelin Mutant Taiep Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Soto-Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiep rat has a failure in myelination and remyelination processes leading to a state of hypomyelination throughout its life. Chemokines, which are known to play a role in inflammation, are also involved in the remyelination process. We aimed to demonstrate that remyelination-stimulating factors are altered in the brainstem of 1- and 6-month-old taiep rats. We used a Rat RT2 Profiler PCR Array to assess mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors. We also evaluated protein levels of CCL2, CCR1, CCR2, CCL5, CCR5, CCR8, CXCL1, CXCR2, CXCR4, FGF2, and VEGFA by ELISA. Sprague-Dawley rats were used as a control. PCR Array procedure showed that proinflammatory cytokines were not upregulated in the taiep rat. In contrast, some mRNA levels of beta and alpha chemokines were upregulated in 1-month-old rats, but CXCR4 was downregulated at their 6 months of age. ELISA results showed that CXCL1, CCL2, CCR2, CCR5, CCR8, and CXCR4 protein levels were decreased in brainstem at the age of 6 months. These results suggest the presence of a chronic neuroinflammation process with deficiency of remyelination-stimulating factors (CXCL1, CXCR2, and CXCR4, which might account for the demyelination in the taiep rat.

  19. Differentially expressed genes in the head of the 2nd instar pre-molting larvae of the nm2 mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyang Wang

    Full Text Available Molting is an important physiological process in the larval stage of Bombyx mori and is controlled by various hormones and peptides. The silkworm mutant that exhibits the phenotype of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2 is incapable of molting in the 2nd instar and dies after seven or more days. The ecdysone titer in the nm2 mutant is lower than that in the wildtype, and the mutant can be rescued by feeding with 20E and cholesterol. The results of positional cloning indicated that structural alteration of BmCPG10 is responsible for the phenotype of the nm2 mutant. To explore the possible relationship between BmCPG10 and the ecdysone titer as well as the genes affected by BmCPG10, digital gene expression (DGE profile analysis was conducted in the nm2 mutant, with the wildtype strain C603 serving as the control. The results revealed 1727 differentially expressed genes, among which 651 genes were upregulated and 1076 were downregulated in nm2. BLASTGO analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes were involved in various biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions. KEGG analysis indicated an enrichment of these differentially expressed genes in 240 pathways, including metabolic pathways, pancreatic secretion, protein digestion and absorption, fat digestion and absorption and glycerolipid metabolism. To verify the accuracy of the DGE results, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR was performed, focusing on key genes in several related pathways, and the results were highly consistent with the DGE results. Our findings indicated significant differences in cuticular protein genes, ecdysone biosynthesis genes and ecdysone-related nuclear receptors genes, but no significant difference in juvenile hormone and chitin biosynthesis genes was detected. Our research findings lay the foundation for further research on the formation mechanism of the nm2 mutant.

  20. Resistance to organophosphorus agent toxicity in transgenic mice expressing the G117H mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxia; Ticu Boeck, Andreea; Duysen, Ellen G.; Van Keuren, Margaret; Saunders, Thomas L.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2004-01-01

    Organophosphorus toxicants (OP) include chemical nerve agents and pesticides. The goal of this work was to find out whether an animal could be made resistant to OP toxicity by genetic engineering. The human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutant G117H was chosen for study because it has the unusual ability to hydrolyze OP as well as acetylcholine, and it is resistant to inhibition by OP. Human G117H BChE, under the control of the ROSA26 promoter, was expressed in all tissues of transgenic mice. A stable transgenic mouse line expressed 0.5 μg/ml of human G117H BChE in plasma as well as 2 μg/ml of wild-type mouse BChE. Intestine, kidneys, stomach, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, brain, and muscle expressed 0.6-0.15 μg/g of G117H BChE. Transgenic mice were normal in behavior and fertility. The LD50 dose of echothiophate for wild-type mice was 0.1 mg/kg sc. This dose caused severe cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality in wild-type mice, but caused no deaths and only mild toxicity in transgenic animals. The mechanism of protection was investigated by measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE activity. It was found that AChE and endogenous BChE were inhibited to the same extent in echothiophate-treated wild type and transgenic mice. This led to the hypothesis that protection against echothiophate toxicity was not explained by hydrolysis of echothiophate. In conclusion, the transgenic G117H BChE mouse demonstrates the factors required to achieve protection from OP toxicity in a vertebrate animal

  1. Automated N-glycan profiling of a mutant Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase expressed in Pichia pastoris, using tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Haiying; Rasmussen, Morten I; Larsen, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    A mutant Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase, Tr7, expressed in Pichia pastoris, exhibits significant trans-sialidase activity, and has been used for analytical-scale production of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides. Mass spectrometry-based site-specific N-glycoprofiling of Tr7 showed that heteroge...

  2. Spontaneous nisin-resistant Listeria monocytogenes mutants with increased expression of a putative penicillin-binding protein and their sensitivity to various antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Anne; Sorensen, K.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    -molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), a histidine protein kinase, a protein of unknown function, and ClpB (putative functions from homology), The three former proteins had increased expression in a total of six out of 10 independent mutants originating from five different wildtype strains, indicating...

  3. The Arabidopsis mutant iop1 exhibits induced over-expression of the plant defensin gene PDF1.2 and enhanced pathogen resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninckx, I.A.M.A.; Eggermont, K.; Schenk, P.M.; Ackerveken, van den G.; Cammue, B.P.A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Jasmonate and ethylene are concomitantly involved in the induction of the Arabidopsis plant defensin gene PDF1.2. To define genes in the signal transduction pathway leading to the induction of PDF1.2, we screened for mutants with induced over-expression of a β-glucuronidase reporter, under the

  4. Transcriptome changes associated wtih delayed flower senescence on transgenic petunia by inducing expression of etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr 1-1), a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr 1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a c...

  5. 19. working group meeting of representatives of RCA member States. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The 19. RCA Working Group Meeting was hosted by the Myanmar Atomic Energy Committee in Yangon from 10-14 March 1997. The meeting marked the 25. anniversary of the RCA which commenced in 1972. It was attended by 29 delegates from 15 visiting RCA Member States, 15 participants from Myanmar and 4 from the IAEA. The report contains the statements of the following countries: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Tabs

  6. 19. working group meeting of representatives of RCA member States. Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The 19. RCA Working Group Meeting was hosted by the Myanmar Atomic Energy Committee in Yangon from 10-14 March 1997. The meeting marked the 25. anniversary of the RCA which commenced in 1972. It was attended by 29 delegates from 15 visiting RCA Member States, 15 participants from Myanmar and 4 from the IAEA. The report contains the statements of the following countries: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Tabs.

  7. The fourth UNDP/RCA/IAEA/meeting of national co-ordinators for radiation technology. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the Meeting were to provide information for the Terminal Report of the joint UNDP/RCA/IAEA project RAS/92/073 and to look into future activities under the Radiation Technology project. The main achievements of this Meeting are: The Meeting reviewed the implementation of all radiation technology sub-projects and agreed that all of them were successful but not yet equally developed among RCA Member States. The Meeting recommended to have three projects carried out in the form of Co-ordinated Research Programs and requested the IAEA to find new ways to implement the organized in RCA Member States to carry these CRPs out. Figs, tabs

  8. The Arabidopsis ppi1 Mutant Is Specifically Defective in the Expression, Chloroplast Import, and Accumulation of Photosynthetic ProteinsW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Sybille; Baldwin, Amy; Patel, Ramesh; Razzaq, Azam; Dupree, Paul; Lilley, Kathryn; Kurth, Joachim; Leister, Dario; Jarvis, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The import of nucleus-encoded proteins into chloroplasts is mediated by translocon complexes in the envelope membranes. A component of the translocon in the outer envelope membrane, Toc34, is encoded in Arabidopsis by two homologous genes, atTOC33 and atTOC34. Whereas atTOC34 displays relatively uniform expression throughout development, atTOC33 is strongly upregulated in rapidly growing, photosynthetic tissues. To understand the reason for the existence of these two related genes, we characterized the atTOC33 knockout mutant ppi1. Immunoblotting and proteomics revealed that components of the photosynthetic apparatus are deficient in ppi1 chloroplasts and that nonphotosynthetic chloroplast proteins are unchanged or enriched slightly. Furthermore, DNA array analysis of 3292 transcripts revealed that photosynthetic genes are moderately, but specifically, downregulated in ppi1. Proteome differences in ppi1 could be correlated with protein import rates: ppi1 chloroplasts imported the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit and 33-kD oxygen-evolving complex precursors at significantly reduced rates, but the import of a 50S ribosomal subunit precursor was largely unaffected. The ppi1 import defect occurred at the level of preprotein binding, which is consistent with a role for atToc33 during preprotein recognition. The data suggest that atToc33 is involved preferentially in the import of photosynthetic proteins and, by extension, that atToc34 is involved in the import of nonphotosynthetic chloroplast proteins. PMID:12897258

  9. Using mass spectrometry for identification of ABC transporters from Xanthomonas citri and mutants expressed in different growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, J.N.; Balan, A.; Paes Leme, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Xanthomonas citri is a phytopathogenic bacterium that infects citrus plants causing significant losses for the economy. In our group, we have focused on the identification and characterization of ABC transport proteins of this bacterium, in order to determinate their function for growth in vitro and in vivo, during infection. ABC transporters represent one of the largest families of proteins, which transport since small molecules as ions up to oligopeptides and sugars. In prokaryotic cells many works have reported the ABC transport function in pathogenesis, resistance, biofilm formation, infectivity and DNA repair, but until our knowledge, there is no data related to these transporters and X. citri. So, In order to determinate which transporters are expressed in X. citri, we started a proteomic analysis based on mono and bi-dimensional gels associated to mass spectrometry analyses. After growing X. citri and two different mutants deleted for ssuA and nitA genes in LB and minimum media, cellular extracts were obtained and used for preparation of mono and bi-dimensional gels. Seven bands covering the expected mass of ABC transporter components (20 kDa to 50 kDa) in SDS-PAGE were cut off the gel, treated with trypsin and submitted to the MS for protein identification. The results of 2D gels were good enough and will serve as a standard for development of similar experiments in large scale. (author)

  10. Production of a Marfan cellular phenotype by expressing a mutant human fibrillin allele on a normal human or murine genetic background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldadah, Z.A.; Dietz, H.C. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Brenn, T. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Marfan Syndrome (MFS) is a heritable disorder of connective tissue caused by defects in fibrillin (FBN1), a 350 kD glycoprotein and principal component of the extracellular microfibril. Previous correlations of mutant transcript level and disease severity suggested a dominant negative model of MFS pathogenesis. To address this hypothesis we assembled an expression construct containing the mutant allele from a patient with severe MFS. This mutation causes skipping of FBN1 exon 2 and a frame shift, leading to a premature termination codon in exon 4. The predicted peptide would thus consist of 55 wild type and 45 missense amino acids. The construct was stably transfected into cultured human and mouse fibroblasts, and several clonal cell populations were established. Human and mouse cells expressing the truncated peptide exhibited markedly diminished fibrillin deposition and disorganized microfibrillar architecture by immunofluorescence. Pulse-chase analysis of these cells demonstrated normal levels of fibrillin synthesis but substantially decreased fibrillin deposition into the extracellular matrix. These data illustrate that expression of a mutant FBN1 allele, on a background of two normal alleles, is sufficient to disrupt normal fibrillin aggregation and reproduce the MFS cellular phenotype. This provides confirmation of a dominant negative model of MFS pathogenesis and may offer mutant allele knockout as a strategy for gene therapy. In addition, these data underscore the importance of the FBN1 amino-terminus in normal multimer formation and suggest that expression of the human extreme 5{prime} FBN1 coding sequence may be sufficient, in isolation, to produce an animal model of MFS. Indeed, transgenic mice harboring this mutant allele have been produced, and phenotype analysis is currently in progress.

  11. Whole genome-wide transcript profiling to identify differentially expressed genes associated with seed field emergence in two soybean low phytate mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fengjie; Yu, Xiaomin; Dong, Dekun; Yang, Qinghua; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Shenlong; Zhu, Danhua

    2017-01-18

    Seed germination is important to soybean (Glycine max) growth and development, ultimately affecting soybean yield. A lower seed field emergence has been the main hindrance for breeding soybeans low in phytate. Although this reduction could be overcome by additional breeding and selection, the mechanisms of seed germination in different low phytate mutants remain unknown. In this study, we performed a comparative transcript analysis of two low phytate soybean mutants (TW-1 and TW-1-M), which have the same mutation, a 2 bp deletion in GmMIPS1, but show a significant difference in seed field emergence, TW-1-M was higher than that of TW-1 . Numerous genes analyzed by RNA-Seq showed markedly different expression levels between TW-1-M and TW-1 mutants. Approximately 30,000-35,000 read-mapped genes and ~21000-25000 expressed genes were identified for each library. There were ~3900-9200 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each contrast library, the number of up-regulated genes was similar with down-regulated genes in the mutant TW-1and TW-1-M. Gene ontology functional categories of DEGs indicated that the ethylene-mediated signaling pathway, the abscisic acid-mediated signaling pathway, response to hormone, ethylene biosynthetic process, ethylene metabolic process, regulation of hormone levels, and oxidation-reduction process, regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process and regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway had high correlations with seed germination. In total, 2457 DEGs involved in the above functional categories were identified. Twenty-two genes with 20 biological functions were the most highly up/down- regulated (absolute value Log2FC >5) in the high field emergence mutant TW-1-M and were related to metabolic or signaling pathways. Fifty-seven genes with 36 biological functions had the greatest expression abundance (FRPM >100) in germination-related pathways. Seed germination in the soybean low phytate mutants is a very complex process

  12. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling reveal tissue-specific expression and differentially-regulated genes involved in gibberellin metabolism between Williams banana and its dwarf mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Xie, Jianghui; Duan, Yajie; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-27

    Dwarfism is one of the most valuable traits in banana breeding because semi-dwarf cultivars show good resistance to damage by wind and rain. Moreover, these cultivars present advantages of convenient cultivation, management, and so on. We obtained a dwarf mutant '8818-1' through EMS (ethyl methane sulphonate) mutagenesis of Williams banana 8818 (Musa spp. AAA group). Our research have shown that gibberellins (GAs) content in 8818-1 false stems was significantly lower than that in its parent 8818 and the dwarf type of 8818-1 could be restored by application of exogenous GA3. Although GA exerts important impacts on the 8818-1 dwarf type, our understanding of the regulation of GA metabolism during banana dwarf mutant development remains limited. Genome-wide screening revealed 36 candidate GA metabolism genes were systematically identified for the first time; these genes included 3 MaCPS, 2 MaKS, 1 MaKO, 2 MaKAO, 10 MaGA20ox, 4 MaGA3ox, and 14 MaGA2ox genes. Phylogenetic tree and conserved protein domain analyses showed sequence conservation and divergence. GA metabolism genes exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns. Early GA biosynthesis genes were constitutively expressed but presented differential regulation in different tissues in Williams banana. GA oxidase family genes were mainly transcribed in young fruits, thus suggesting that young fruits were the most active tissue involved in GA metabolism, followed by leaves, bracts, and finally approximately mature fruits. Expression patterns between 8818 and 8818-1 revealed that MaGA20ox4, MaGA20ox5, and MaGA20ox7 of the MaGA20ox gene family and MaGA2ox7, MaGA2ox12, and MaGA2ox14 of the MaGA2ox gene family exhibited significant differential expression and high-expression levels in false stems. These genes are likely to be responsible for the regulation of GAs content in 8818-1 false stems. Overall, phylogenetic evolution, tissue specificity and differential expression analyses of GA metabolism genes can provide a

  13. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A; Van der Harst, Johanneke E; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Homberg, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild deficit in

  14. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Manfré

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype.This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability.Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF to the observed behavioral alterations.In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild

  15. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C.; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A.; Van der Harst, Johanneke E.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. Objective This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Methods Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. Results In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats

  16. Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanchaisri, Boonrak [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Samsang, Nuananong [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, Liang Deng; Singkarat, Somsorn [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, Somboon, E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-06-01

    The culm length of two semidwarf rice mutants (PKOS1, HyKOS1) obtained from low-energy N-ion beam bombardments of dehusked Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seeds showed 25.7% and 21.5% height reductions and one spindly rice mutant (TKOS4) showed 21.4% increase in comparison with that of the KDML 105 control. A cDNA-RAPD analysis identified differential gene expression in internode tissues of the rice mutants. Two genes identified from the cDNA-RAPD were OsSPY and 14-3-3, possibly associated with stem height variations of the semidwarf and spindly mutants, respectively. The OsSPY gene encoded the SPY protein which is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA). On the other hand, the 14-3-3 encoded a signaling protein which can bind and prevent the RSG (repression of shoot growth) protein function as a transcriptional repressor of the kaurene oxidase (KO) gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Expression analysis of OsSPY, 14-3-3, RSG, KO, and SLR1 was confirmed in rice internode tissues during the reproductive stage of the plants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The expression analysis showed a clear increase of the levels of OsSPY transcripts in PKOS1 and HyKOS1 tissue samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and TKOS4 samples at the age of 50-60 days which were at the ages of internode elongation. The 14-3-3 expression had the highest increase in the TKOS4 samples compared to those in KDML 105, PKOS1 and HyKOS1 samples. The expression analysis of RSG and KO showed an increase in TKOS4 samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and that of the two semidwarf mutants. These results indicate that changes of OsSPY and 14-3-3 expression could affect internode elongation and cause the phenotypic changes of semidwarf and spindly rice mutants, respectively.

  17. Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phanchaisri, Boonrak; Samsang, Nuananong; Yu, Liang Deng; Singkarat, Somsorn; Anuntalabhochai, Somboon

    2012-01-01

    The culm length of two semidwarf rice mutants (PKOS1, HyKOS1) obtained from low-energy N-ion beam bombardments of dehusked Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seeds showed 25.7% and 21.5% height reductions and one spindly rice mutant (TKOS4) showed 21.4% increase in comparison with that of the KDML 105 control. A cDNA-RAPD analysis identified differential gene expression in internode tissues of the rice mutants. Two genes identified from the cDNA-RAPD were OsSPY and 14-3-3, possibly associated with stem height variations of the semidwarf and spindly mutants, respectively. The OsSPY gene encoded the SPY protein which is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA). On the other hand, the 14-3-3 encoded a signaling protein which can bind and prevent the RSG (repression of shoot growth) protein function as a transcriptional repressor of the kaurene oxidase (KO) gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Expression analysis of OsSPY, 14-3-3, RSG, KO, and SLR1 was confirmed in rice internode tissues during the reproductive stage of the plants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The expression analysis showed a clear increase of the levels of OsSPY transcripts in PKOS1 and HyKOS1 tissue samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and TKOS4 samples at the age of 50–60 days which were at the ages of internode elongation. The 14-3-3 expression had the highest increase in the TKOS4 samples compared to those in KDML 105, PKOS1 and HyKOS1 samples. The expression analysis of RSG and KO showed an increase in TKOS4 samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and that of the two semidwarf mutants. These results indicate that changes of OsSPY and 14-3-3 expression could affect internode elongation and cause the phenotypic changes of semidwarf and spindly rice mutants, respectively.

  18. Transcriptomic and proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed genes and proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking chloroplastic 1 and cytosolic FBPases reveals several levels of metabolic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Suárez, Mauricio; Serrato, Antonio J; Rojas-González, José A; Bautista, Rocío; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2016-12-01

    During the photosynthesis, two isoforms of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), the chloroplastidial (cFBP1) and the cytosolic (cyFBP), catalyse the first irreversible step during the conversion of triose phosphates (TP) to starch or sucrose, respectively. Deficiency in cyFBP and cFBP1 isoforms provokes an imbalance of the starch/sucrose ratio, causing a dramatic effect on plant development when the plastidial enzyme is lacking. We study the correlation between the transcriptome and proteome profile in rosettes and roots when cFBP1 or cyFBP genes are disrupted in Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutants. By using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing the genome of Arabidopsis we were able to identify 1067 and 1243 genes whose expressions are altered in the rosettes and roots of the cfbp1 mutant respectively; whilst in rosettes and roots of cyfbp mutant 1068 and 1079 genes are being up- or down-regulated respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR validated 100% of a set of 14 selected genes differentially expressed according to our microarray analysis. Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis-based proteomic analysis revealed quantitative differences in 36 and 26 proteins regulated in rosettes and roots of cfbp1, respectively, whereas the 18 and 48 others were regulated in rosettes and roots of cyfbp mutant, respectively. The genes differentially expressed and the proteins more or less abundant revealed changes in protein metabolism, RNA regulation, cell signalling and organization, carbon metabolism, redox regulation, and transport together with biotic and abiotic stress. Notably, a significant set (25%) of the proteins identified were also found to be regulated at a transcriptional level. This transcriptomic and proteomic analysis is the first comprehensive and comparative study of the gene/protein re-adjustment that occurs in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs of Arabidopsis mutants lacking FBPase isoforms.

  19. The splicing mutant of the human tumor suppressor protein DFNA5 induces programmed cell death when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rossom, Sofie; Op de Beeck, Ken; Franssens, Vanessa; Swinnen, Erwin; Schepers, Anne; Ghillebert, Ruben; Caldara, Marina; Van Camp, Guy; Winderickx, Joris

    2012-01-01

    DFNA5 was first identified as a gene responsible for autosomal dominant deafness. Different mutations were found, but they all resulted in exon 8 skipping during splicing and premature termination of the protein. Later, it became clear that the protein also has a tumor suppression function and that it can induce apoptosis. Epigenetic silencing of the DFNA5 gene is associated with different types of cancers, including gastric and colorectal cancers as well as breast tumors. We introduced the wild-type and mutant DFNA5 allele in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of the wild-type protein was well tolerated by the yeast cells, although the protein was subject of degradation and often deposited in distinct foci when cells entered the diauxic shift. In contrast, cells had problems to cope with mutant DFNA5 and despite an apparent compensatory reduction in expression levels, the mutant protein still triggered a marked growth defect, which in part can be ascribed to its interaction with mitochondria. Consistently, cells with mutant DFNA5 displayed significantly increased levels of ROS and signs of programmed cell death. The latter occurred independently of the yeast caspase, Mca1, but involved the mitochondrial fission protein, Fis1, the voltage-dependent anion channel protein, Por1 and the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocators, Aac1 and Aac3. Recent data proposed DFNA5 toxicity to be associated to a globular domain encoded by exon 2–6. We confirmed these data by showing that expression of solely this domain confers a strong growth phenotype. In addition, we identified a point mutant in this domain that completely abrogated its cytotoxicity in yeast as well as human Human Embryonic Kidney 293T cells (HEK293T). Combined, our data underscore that the yeast system offers a valuable tool to further dissect the apoptotic properties of DFNA5.

  20. The splicing mutant of the human tumor suppressor protein DFNA5 induces programmed cell death when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rossom, Sofie [Department of Biology, Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Op de Beeck, Ken [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Franssens, Vanessa; Swinnen, Erwin [Department of Biology, Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium); Schepers, Anne [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Ghillebert, Ruben; Caldara, Marina [Department of Biology, Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium); Van Camp, Guy [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Winderickx, Joris, E-mail: guy.vancamp@ua.ac.be, E-mail: joris.winderickx@bio.kuleuven.be [Department of Biology, Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium)

    2012-07-25

    DFNA5 was first identified as a gene responsible for autosomal dominant deafness. Different mutations were found, but they all resulted in exon 8 skipping during splicing and premature termination of the protein. Later, it became clear that the protein also has a tumor suppression function and that it can induce apoptosis. Epigenetic silencing of the DFNA5 gene is associated with different types of cancers, including gastric and colorectal cancers as well as breast tumors. We introduced the wild-type and mutant DFNA5 allele in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of the wild-type protein was well tolerated by the yeast cells, although the protein was subject of degradation and often deposited in distinct foci when cells entered the diauxic shift. In contrast, cells had problems to cope with mutant DFNA5 and despite an apparent compensatory reduction in expression levels, the mutant protein still triggered a marked growth defect, which in part can be ascribed to its interaction with mitochondria. Consistently, cells with mutant DFNA5 displayed significantly increased levels of ROS and signs of programmed cell death. The latter occurred independently of the yeast caspase, Mca1, but involved the mitochondrial fission protein, Fis1, the voltage-dependent anion channel protein, Por1 and the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocators, Aac1 and Aac3. Recent data proposed DFNA5 toxicity to be associated to a globular domain encoded by exon 2–6. We confirmed these data by showing that expression of solely this domain confers a strong growth phenotype. In addition, we identified a point mutant in this domain that completely abrogated its cytotoxicity in yeast as well as human Human Embryonic Kidney 293T cells (HEK293T). Combined, our data underscore that the yeast system offers a valuable tool to further dissect the apoptotic properties of DFNA5.

  1. Ectopic expression of a polyalanine expansion mutant of poly(A)-binding protein N1 in muscle cells in culture inhibits myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qishan; Bag, Jnanankur

    2006-01-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset dominant genetic disease caused by the expansion of a GCG trinucleotide repeat that encodes the polyalanine tract at the N-terminus of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1). Presence of intranuclear inclusions (INIs) containing PABPN1 aggregates in the skeletal muscles is the hallmark of OPMD. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the mutant PABPN1 produced INIs in a muscle cell culture model and reduced expression of several muscle-specific proteins including α-actin, slow troponin C, muscle creatine kinase, and two myogenic transcription factors, myogenin and MyoD. However, the levels of two upstream regulators of the MyoD gene, the Myf-5 and Pax3/7, were not affected, but both proteins co-localized with the PABPN1 aggregates in the mutant PABPN1 overexpressing cells. In these cells, although myogenin and MyoD levels were reduced, these two transcription factors did not co-localize with the mutant PABPN1 aggregates. Therefore, sequestration of Myf5 and Pax3/7 by the mutant PABPN1 aggregates was a specific effect on these factors. Our results suggest that trapping of these two important myogenic determinants may interfere with an early step in myogenesis

  2. Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness syndrome-associated Cx26 mutants produce nonfunctional gap junctions but hyperactive hemichannels when co-expressed with wild type Cx43

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isaac E.; Maripillán, Jaime; Jara, Oscar; Ceriani, Ricardo; Palacios-Muñoz, Angelina; Ramachandran, Jayalakshimi; Olivero, Pablo; Pérez-Acle, Tomás; González, Carlos; Sáez, Juan C.; Contreras, Jorge E.; Martínez, Agustín D.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in Cx26 gene are found in most cases of human genetic deafness. Some mutations produce syndromic deafness associated with skin disorders, like Keratitis Ichthyosis Deafness syndrome (KID). Because in the human skin Cx26 is co-expressed with other connexins, like Cx43 and Cx30, and since KID syndrome is inherited as autosomal dominant condition, it is possible that KID mutations change the way Cx26 interacts with other co-expressed connexins. Indeed, some Cx26 syndromic mutations showed gap junction dominant negative effect when co-expressed with wild type connexins, including Cx26 and Cx43. The nature of these interactions and the consequences on hemichannels and gap junction channels functions remain unknown. In this study we demonstrate that syndromic mutations at the N-terminus segment of Cx26, change connexin oligomerization compatibility, allowing aberrant interactions with Cx43. Strikingly, heteromeric oligomer formed by Cx43/Cx26 (syndromic mutants) show exacerbated hemichannel activity, but nonfunctional gap junction channels; this also occurs for those Cx26 KID mutants that do not show functional homomeric hemichannels. Heterologous expression of these hyperactive heteromeric hemichannels increases cell membrane permeability, favoring ATP release and Ca2+ overload. The functional paradox produced by oligomerization of Cx43 and Cx26 KID mutants could underlie the severe syndromic phenotype in human skin. PMID:25625422

  3. Formation of multinucleated giant cells and microglial degeneration in rats expressing a mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Wolfgang J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglial neuroinflammation is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The purpose of this study was to provide a histopathological evaluation of the microglial neuroinflammatory response in a rodent model of ALS, the SOD1G93A transgenic rat. Methods Multiple levels of the CNS from spinal cord to cerebral cortex were studied in SOD1G93A transgenic rats during three stages of natural disease progression, including presymptomatic, early symptomatic (onset, and late symptomatic (end stage, using immuno- and lectin histochemical markers for microglia, such as OX-42, OX-6, and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4. Results Our studies revealed abnormal aggregates of microglia forming in the spinal cord as early as the presymptomatic stage. During the symptomatic stages there was prominent formation of multinucleated giant cells through fusion of microglial cells in the spinal cord, brainstem, and red nucleus of the midbrain. Other brain regions, including substantia nigra, cranial nerve nuclei, hippocampus and cortex showed normal appearing microglia. In animals during end stage disease at 4–5 months of age virtually all microglia in the spinal cord gray matter showed extensive fragmentation of their cytoplasm (cytorrhexis, indicative of widespread microglial degeneration. Few microglia exhibiting nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis indicative of apoptosis were identified at any stage. Conclusion The current findings demonstrate the occurrence of severe abnormalities in microglia, such as cell fusions and cytorrhexis, which may be the result of expression of mutant SOD1 in these cells. The microglial changes observed are different from those that accompany normal microglial activation, and they demonstrate that aberrant activation and degeneration of microglia is part of the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease.

  4. The pde2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is allelic to rca1 and encodes a phosphodiesterase which protects the cell from extracellular cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R B; Renault, G; Jacquet, M; Tatchell, K

    1993-07-05

    The high affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase, encoded by PDE2, is an important component of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An unexpected phenotype of pde2 mutants is sensitivity to external cAMP. This trait has been found independently for rca1 mutants and has been used to monitor the effects of cAMP on several biological processes. We demonstrate here that RCA1 is identical to PDE2. Further analysis of the phenotype of pde2 deletions reveal that exogenously added cAMP results in an increase in the internal level of cAMP. This increase slows down the rate of cell division by increasing the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle and leads to increased cell volume. Also, cells with a disrupted PDE2 gene previously arrested by nutrient starvation rapidly lose thermotolerance when incubated with exogenous cAMP. From these observations we propose that a role of the PDE2-encoded phosphodiesterase may be to help insulate the internal cAMP pools from the external environment. This protective role might also be important in other eukaryotic organisms where cAMP is a key second messenger.

  5. Sensitive magnetic biodetection using magnetic multi-core nanoparticles and RCA coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Blomgren, Jakob; Jonasson, Christian; Sarwe, Anna [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Arvid Hedvalls Backe 4, Göteborg (Sweden); Sepehri, Sobhan; Eriksson, Emil; Kalaboukhov, Alexei; Jesorka, Aldo; Winkler, Dag [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Schneiderman, Justin F. [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg and MedTech West, Göteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Mats [Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Albert, Jan [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa; Strømme, Maria [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Christer, E-mail: christer.johansson@acreo.se [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Arvid Hedvalls Backe 4, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    We use functionalized iron oxide magnetic multi-core particles of 100 nm in size (hydrodynamic particle diameter) and AC susceptometry (ACS) methods to measure the binding reactions between the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and bio-analyte products produced from DNA segments using the rolling circle amplification (RCA) method. We use sensitive induction detection techniques in order to measure the ACS response. The DNA is amplified via RCA to generate RCA coils with a specific size that is dependent on the amplification time. After about 75 min of amplification we obtain an average RCA coil diameter of about 1 µm. We determine a theoretical limit of detection (LOD) in the range of 11 attomole (corresponding to an analyte concentration of 55 fM for a sample volume of 200 µL) from the ACS dynamic response after the MNPs have bound to the RCA coils and the measured ACS readout noise. We also discuss further possible improvements of the LOD. - Highlights: • Biosensing using Brownian relaxation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. • Rolling circle amplification and magnetic nanoparticles enables biosensing. • Theoretical limit of detection estimated from the signal noise gives about 55 fM.

  6. Molecular dissection of the APC/C inhibitor Rca1 shows a novel F-box-dependent function

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Norman; Querings, Silvia; Grosskortenhaus, Ruth; Reis, Tânia; Sprenger, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Rca1 (regulator of Cyclin A)/Emi (early mitotic inhibitor) proteins are essential inhibitors of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). In Drosophila, Rca1 is required during G2 to prevent premature cyclin degradation by the Fizzy-related (Fzr)-dependent APC/C activity. Here, we present a structure and function analysis of Rca1 showing that a carboxy-terminal fragment is sufficient for APC/C inhibition. Rca1/Emi proteins contain a conserved F-box and interact with components of the ...

  7. Molecular dissection of the APC/C inhibitor Rca1 shows a novel F-box-dependent function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Norman; Querings, Silvia; Grosskortenhaus, Ruth; Reis, Tânia; Sprenger, Frank

    2006-12-01

    Rca1 (regulator of Cyclin A)/Emi (early mitotic inhibitor) proteins are essential inhibitors of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). In Drosophila, Rca1 is required during G2 to prevent premature cyclin degradation by the Fizzy-related (Fzr)-dependent APC/C activity. Here, we present a structure and function analysis of Rca1 showing that a carboxy-terminal fragment is sufficient for APC/C inhibition. Rca1/Emi proteins contain a conserved F-box and interact with components of the Skp-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex. So far, no function has been ascribed to this domain. We find that the F-box of Rca1 is dispensable for APC/C-Fzr inhibition during G2. Nevertheless, we show that Rca1 has an additional function at the G1-S transition, which requires the F-box. Overexpression of Rca1 accelerates the G1-S transition in an F-box-dependent manner. Conversely, S-phase entry is delayed in cells in which endogenous Rca1 is replaced by a transgene lacking the F-box. We propose that Rca1 acts as an F-box protein in an as yet uncharacterized SCF complex, which promotes S-phase entry.

  8. Global gene expression analysis of fission yeast mutants impaired in Ser-2 phosphorylation of the RNA pol II carboxy terminal domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saberianfar

    Full Text Available In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the nuclear-localized Lsk1p-Lsc1p cyclin dependent kinase complex promotes Ser-2 phosphorylation of the heptad repeats found within the RNA pol II carboxy terminal domain (CTD. Here, we first provide evidence supporting the existence of a third previously uncharacterized Ser-2 CTD kinase subunit, Lsg1p. As expected for a component of the complex, Lsg1p localizes to the nucleus, promotes Ser-2 phosphorylation of the CTD, and physically interacts with both Lsk1p and Lsc1p in vivo. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that lsg1Δ mutants--just like lsk1Δ and lsc1Δ strains--are compromised in their ability to faithfully and reliably complete cytokinesis. Next, to address whether kinase mediated alterations in CTD phosphorylation might selectively alter the expression of genes with roles in cytokinesis and/or the cytoskeleton, global gene expression profiles were analyzed. Mutants impaired in Ser-2 phosphorylation display little change with respect to the level of transcription of most genes. However, genes affecting cytokinesis--including the actin interacting protein gene, aip1--as well as genes with roles in meiosis, are included in a small subset that are differentially regulated. Significantly, genetic analysis of lsk1Δ aip1Δ double mutants is consistent with Lsk1p and Aip1p acting in a linear pathway with respect to the regulation of cytokinesis.

  9. Serotonin hyperinnervation and upregulated 5-HT2A receptor expression and motor-stimulating function in nigrostriatal dopamine-deficient Pitx3 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Qiu, Guozhen; Ding, Shengyuan; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2013-01-23

    The striatum receives serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) innervation and expresses 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) and other 5-HT receptors, raising the possibility that the striatal 5-HT system may undergo adaptive changes after chronic severe dopamine (DA) loss and contribute to the function and dysfunction of the striatum. Here we show that in transcription factor Pitx3 gene mutant mice with a selective, severe DA loss in the dorsal striatum mimicking the DA denervation in late Parkinson's disease (PD), both the 5-HT innervation and the 5-HT2AR mRNA expression were increased in the dorsal striatum. Functionally, while having no detectable motor effect in wild type mice, the 5-HT2R agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine increased both the baseline and l-dopa-induced normal ambulatory and dyskinetic movements in Pitx3 mutant mice, whereas the selective 5-HT2AR blocker volinanserin had the opposite effects. These results demonstrate that Pitx3 mutant mice are a convenient and valid mouse model to study the compensatory 5-HT upregulation following the loss of the nigrostriatal DA projection and that the upregulated 5-HT2AR function in the DA deficient dorsal striatum may enhance both normal and dyskinetic movements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutant Huntingtin Gene-Dose Impacts on Aggregate Deposition, DARPP32 Expression and Neuroinflammation in HdhQ150 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas; Mayer, Franziska; Vidotto, Nella; Schweizer, Tatjana; Berth, Ramon; Abramowski, Dorothee; Shimshek, Derya R.; van der Putten, P. Herman; Schmid, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive and fatal neurological disorder caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in exon-1 of the huntingtin gene. The encoded poly-glutamine stretch renders mutant huntingtin prone to aggregation. HdhQ150 mice genocopy a pathogenic repeat (∼150 CAGs) in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene and model predominantly pre-manifest HD. Treating early is likely important to prevent or delay HD, and HdhQ150 mice may be useful to assess therapeutic strategies targeting pre-manifest HD. This requires appropriate markers and here we demonstrate, that pre-symptomatic HdhQ150 mice show several dramatic mutant huntingtin gene-dose dependent pathological changes including: (i) an increase of neuronal intra-nuclear inclusions (NIIs) in brain, (ii) an increase of extra-nuclear aggregates in dentate gyrus, (iii) a decrease of DARPP32 protein and (iv) an increase in glial markers of neuroinflammation, which curiously did not correlate with local neuronal mutant huntingtin inclusion-burden. HdhQ150 mice developed NIIs also in all retinal neuron cell-types, demonstrating that retinal NIIs are not specific to human exon-1 R6 HD mouse models. Taken together, the striking and robust mutant huntingtin gene-dose related changes in aggregate-load, DARPP32 levels and glial activation markers should greatly facilitate future testing of therapeutic strategies in the HdhQ150 HD mouse model. PMID:24086450

  11. Global Expression in Sorghum Brown Midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 Mutants; a Tool to Improve Biomass for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (bmr) mutants are being investigated for their ability to increase the conversion efficiency of sorghum biomass for lignocellulosic bioenergy. Brown midrib 6 and 12 (bmr6 and 12) are impaired in the last two steps of monolignol biosynthesis resulting in reduced lignin content and alter...

  12. Frequency of mutant T lymphocytes defective in the expression of the T-cell antigen receptor gene among radiation-exposed people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Umeki, Shigeko; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1991-06-01

    The frequency of mutant T lymphocytes defective in T-cell receptor gene (α or β) expression was measured using the two-color flow cytometric technique. Results for a total of 203 atomic bomb survivors, 78 of whom were proximally exposed (DS86 doses of ≥ 1.5 Gy) and 125 of whom were distally exposed (DS86 doses of 228 Th formerly used for radiodiagnosis. In addition, thyroid disease patients treated with 131 I showed a dose-related increase of mutant frequency. It was suggested that the present T-cell receptor mutation assay has a unique characteristic as a biological dosimeter for the measurement of recent exposures to genotoxic agents. (author)

  13. Comparison of expression of key sporulation, solventogenic and acetogenic genes in C. beijerinckii NRRL B-598 and its mutant strain overexpressing spo0A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolek, J; Diallo, M; Vasylkivska, M; Branska, B; Sedlar, K; López-Contreras, A M; Patakova, P

    2017-11-01

    The production of acetone, butanol and ethanol by fermentation of renewable biomass has potential to become a valuable industrial process. Mechanisms of solvent production and sporulation involve some common regulators in some ABE-producing clostridia, although details of the links between the pathways are not clear. In this study, we compare a wild-type (WT) Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-598 with its mutant strain OESpo0A, in which the gene encoding Spo0A, an important regulator of both sporulation and solventogenesis, is overexpressed in terms of solvent and acid production. We also compare morphologies during growth on two different media: TYA broth, where the WT culture sporulates, and RCM, where the WT culture does not. In addition, RT-qPCR-based analysis of expression profiles of spo0A, spoIIE, sigG, spoVD, ald and buk1 genes involved in sporulation or solvent production in these strains, were compared. The OESpo0A mutant did not produce spores and butanol titre was lower compared to the WT, but increased amounts of butyric acid and ethanol were produced. The gene spo0A had high levels of expression in the WT under non-sporulating culture conditions while other selected genes for sporulation factors were downregulated significantly. Similar observations were obtained for OESpo0A where spo0A overexpression and downregulation of other sporulation genes were demonstrated. Higher expression of spo0A led to higher expression of buk1 and ald, which could confirm the role of spo0A in activation of the solventogenic pathway, although solvent production was not affected significantly in the WT and was weakened in the OESpo0A mutant.

  14. Perturbation of formate pathway for hydrogen production by expressions of formate hydrogen lyase and its transcriptional activator in wild Enterobacter aerogenes and its mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Lai, Qiheng; Xing, Xin-Hui [Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-06-15

    To examine perturbation effects of formate pathway on hydrogen productivity in Enterobacter aerogenes (Ea), formate dehydrogenase FDH-H gene (fdhF) and formate hydrogen lyase activator protein FHLA gene (fhlA) originated from Escherichia coli, were overexpressed in the wild strain Ea, its hycA-deleted mutant (A) by knockout the formate hydrogen lyase repressor and hybO-deleted mutant (O) by knockout of the uptake hydrogenase, respectively. Overexpression of fdhF and fhlA promoted cell growth and volumetric hydrogen production rates of all the strains, and the hydrogen production per gram cell dry weight (CDW) for Ea, A and O was increased by 38.5%, 21.8% and 5.25%, respectively. The fdhF and fhlA overexpression improved the hydrogen yield per mol glucose of strains Ea and A, but declined that of strain O. The increase of hydrogen yield of the strain Ea with fdhF and fhlA expression was mainly attributed to the increase of formate pathway, while for the mutant A, the improved hydrogen yield with fdhF and fhlA expression was mainly due to the increase of NADH pathway. Analysis of the metabolites and ratio of ethanol-to-acetate showed that the cellular redox state balance and energy level were also changed for these strains by fdhF and fhlA expression. These findings demonstrated that the hydrogen production was not only dependent on the hydrogenase genes, but was also affected by the regulation of the whole metabolism. Therefore, fdhF and fhlA expression in different strains of E. aerogenes could exhibit different perturbation effects on the metabolism and the hydrogen productivity. (author)

  15. Retrospective Molecular Epidemiology Study of PD-L1 Expression in Patients with EGFR-Mutant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jong Ho; Zhou, Wei; Choi, Yoon-La; Sun, Jong-Mu; Choi, Hyejoo; Kim, Tae-Eun; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Emancipator, Kenneth; Rutkowski, Mary Anne; Kim, Jhingook

    2018-01-01

    Data are limited on programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR )-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between PD-L1 expression and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival in 319 patients with EGFR -mutant NSCLC who were treated at Samsung Medical Center from 2006 to 2014. Membranous PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was measured using the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx antibody and reported as tumor proportion score (TPS). Kaplan-Meier methods, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards models were used for survival analysis. All patients had ≥1 EGFR mutation-54% in exon 19 and 39% in exon 21. Overall, 51% of patients had PD-L1-positive tumors. The prevalence of PD-L1 positivity was higher among patients with stages II-IV versus stage I disease (64% vs. 44%) and among patients with other EGFR mutations (75%) than with L858R mutation (39%) or exon 19 deletion (52%). PD-L1 positivity was associated with shorter RFS, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 2.84; median, 18 months) for the PD-L1 TPS ≥ 50% group, 1.51 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.21; median, 31 months) for the PD-L1 TPS 1%-49% group, and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.05 to 2.18) for the combined PD-L1-positive groups (TPS ≥ 1%) compared with the PD-L1-negative group (median, 35 months). PD-L1 expression is associated with disease stage and type of EGFR mutation. PD-L1 positivity might be associated with worse RFS among patients with surgically treated EGFR -mutant NSCLC.

  16. RCA/IAEA third external dosimetry intercomparisons in East Asia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Yoshizawa, M.; Murakami, H.; Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Kanai, K.; Cruz-Suarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Several intercomparison exercises were organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or inter-regional basis. In East Asia region, a third phase of the intercomparison finished in mid 2004. It was organised within the frame of the Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) as a follow-up to previous exercises carried out during 1990-1992 and 1995-1996. The results of this intercomparison for the determination of operational quantities were satisfactory for all Member States. The laboratories demonstrated a good performance in quantities tested. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the RCA/IAEA intercomparison and the future of RCA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure by organising intercomparison runs. (authors)

  17. Mutant human torsinA, responsible for early-onset dystonia, dominantly suppresses GTPCH expression, dopamine levels and locomotion in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Wakabayashi-Ito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia represents the third most common movement disorder in humans with over 20 genetic loci identified. TOR1A (DYT1, the gene responsible for the most common primary hereditary dystonia, encodes torsinA, an AAA ATPase family protein. Most cases of DYT1 dystonia are caused by a 3 bp (ΔGAG deletion that results in the loss of a glutamic acid residue (ΔE302/303 in the carboxyl terminal region of torsinA. This torsinAΔE mutant protein has been speculated to act in a dominant-negative manner to decrease activity of wild type torsinA. Drosophila melanogaster has a single torsin-related gene, dtorsin. Null mutants of dtorsin exhibited locomotion defects in third instar larvae. Levels of dopamine and GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH proteins were severely reduced in dtorsin-null brains. Further, the locomotion defect was rescued by the expression of human torsinA or feeding with dopamine. Here, we demonstrate that human torsinAΔE dominantly inhibited locomotion in larvae and adults when expressed in neurons using a pan-neuronal promoter Elav. Dopamine and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 levels were significantly reduced in larval brains and the expression level of GTPCH protein was severely impaired in adult and larval brains. When human torsinA and torsinAΔE were co-expressed in neurons in dtorsin-null larvae and adults, the locomotion rates and the expression levels of GTPCH protein were severely reduced. These results support the hypothesis that torsinAΔE inhibits wild type torsinA activity. Similarly, neuronal expression of a Drosophila DtorsinΔE equivalent mutation dominantly inhibited larval locomotion and GTPCH protein expression. These results indicate that both torsinAΔE and DtorsinΔE act in a dominant-negative manner. We also demonstrate that Dtorsin regulates GTPCH expression at the post-transcriptional level. This Drosophila model of DYT1 dystonia provides an important tool for studying the differences in the molecular function between the

  18. Dynamic range studies of the RCA streak tube in the LLL streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.W.; Phillips, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    As indicated by tests on several cameras, the dynamic range of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory streak-camera system appears to be about two orders of magnitude greater than those reported for other systems for 10- to 200-ps pulses. The lack of a fine mesh grid in the RCA streak tube used in these cameras probably contributes to a lower system dynamic noise and therefore raises the dynamic range. A developmental tube with a mesh grid was tested and supports this conjecture. Order-of-magnitude variations in input slit width do not affect the spot size on the phosphor or the dynamic range of the RCA tube. (author)

  19. The economic and social significance of RCA regional co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    The regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) is an established and valuable instrument between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Member States in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific or Far East for assisting in the transfer of modern technology to areas having economic and social importance to the region. The purpose of this review is to identify on-going or planned work which is designed to help achieve this goal. Currently approved RCA Regional Co-operative Research Projects are listed

  20. Expression of wild-type and mutant medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) cDNA in eucaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    1992-01-01

    An effective EBV-based expression system for eucaryotic cells has been developed and used for the study of the mitochondrial enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). 1325 bp of PCR-generated MCAD cDNA, containing the entire coding region, was placed between the SV40 early promoter...... and polyadenylation signals in the EBV-based vector. Both wild-type MCAD cDNA and cDNA containing the prevalent disease-causing mutation A to G at position 985 of the MCAD cDNA were tested. In transfected COS-7 cells, the steady state amount of mutant MCAD protein was consistently lower than the amount of wild......-type human enzyme. The enzyme activity in extracts from cells harbouring the wild-type MCAD cDNA was dramatically higher than in the controls (harbouring the vector without the MCAD gene) while only a slightly higher activity was measured with the mutant MCAD. The mutant MCAD present behaves like wild...

  1. The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, L.; West, J.S.; Tighe, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has on concrete bond strength with reinforcing steel. Two sources of RCA were used along with one natural aggregate source. Numerous aggregate properties were measured for all aggregate sources. Two types of concrete mixture proportions were developed replacing 100% of the natural aggregate with RCA. The first type maintained the same water-cement ratios while the second type was designed to achieve the same compressive strengths. Beam-end specimens were tested to determine the relative bond strength of RCA and natural aggregate concrete. On average, natural aggregate concrete specimens had bond strengths that were 9 to 19% higher than the equivalent RCA specimens. Bond strength and the aggregate crushing value seemed to correlate well for all concrete types.

  2. 45 CFR 400.66 - Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly... REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.66 Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program. (a) In administering a publicly-administered refugee cash assistance program, the...

  3. Design rules for RCA self-aligned silicon-gate CMOS/SOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The CMOS/SOS design rules prepared by the RCA Solid State Technology Center (SSTC) are described. These rules specify the spacing and width requirements for each of the six design levels, the seventh level being used to define openings in the passivation level. An associated report, entitled Silicon-Gate CMOS/SOS Processing, provides further insight into the usage of these rules.

  4. Operation EUFOR TCHAD/RCA and the European Union’s Common Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Lessons from EUFOR Tchad/RCA, March 2010. 152. For a more detailed description of the EU Battlegroups, see Gustav Lindstrom , “Enter the EU Battlegroups...Major General Gregg F. Martin Commandant ***** STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE Director Professor Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr. Director of Research Dr. Antulio J

  5. The Expression of Millettia pinnata Chalcone Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salt-Sensitive Mutants Enhances Salt-Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqu Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE. The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%–86%. Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa, whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1 showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  6. The expression of Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae salt-sensitive mutants enhances salt-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hu, Tangjin; Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Baiqu; Zheng, Yizhi

    2013-04-24

    The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI) whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM) via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp) was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%-86%). Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa), whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1) showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  7. Systematic strain construction and process development: Xylitol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Candida tenuis xylose reductase in wild-type or mutant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratter, S M; Eixelsberger, T; Nidetzky, B

    2015-12-01

    A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole-cell biocatalyst for xylitol production based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR) is presented. Six recombinant strains expressing wild-type CtXR or an NADH-specific mutant were constructed and evaluated regarding effects of expression mode, promoter strength, biocatalyst concentration and medium composition. Intracellular XR activities ranged from 0.09 U mgProt(-1) to 1.05 U mgProt(-1) but did not correlate with the strains' xylitol productivities, indicating that other factors limited xylose conversion in the high-activity strains. The CtXR mutant decreased the biocatalyst's performance, suggesting use of the NADPH-preferring wild-type enzyme when (semi-)aerobic conditions are applied. In a bioreactor process, the best-performing strain converted 40 g L(-1) xylose with an initial productivity of 1.16 g L(-1)h(-1) and a xylitol yield of 100%. The obtained results underline the potential of CtXR wild-type for xylose reduction and point out parameters to improve "green" xylitol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of wild-type and of an active-site mutant of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourigny, David S.; Elliott, Paul R.; Edgell, Louise J.; Hudson, Gregg M.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2010-01-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of wild-type and of an active-site mutant of C. jejuni glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is reported. The genome of the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni encodes a single glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that can utilize either NADP + or NAD + as coenzymes for the oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of both the wild type and an active-site mutant of the enzyme are presented. Preliminary X-ray analysis revealed that in both cases the crystals diffracted to beyond 1.9 Å resolution. The space group is shown to be I4 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.75, b = 90.75, c = 225.48 Å, α = 90.46, β = 90.46, γ = 222.79°; each asymmetric unit contains only one subunit of the tetrameric enzyme

  9. Expression Profiling of Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus Mutants Obtained by 5-Azacytosine Treatment or Serial Mycelial Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiujiang Yu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Previous studies found that repeated serial mycelial transfer or treatment of A. parasiticus with 5-azacytidine produced colonies with a fluffy phenotype and inability to produce aflatoxins. To understand how these treatments affect expression of genes involved in aflatoxin production and development, we carried out expressed sequence tag (EST-based microarray assays to identify genes in treated clones that are differentially expressed compared to the wild-type. Expression of 183 genes was significantly dysregulated. Of these, 38 had at least two-fold or lower expression compared to the untreated control and only two had two-fold or higher expression. The most frequent change was downregulation of genes predicted to encode membrane-bound proteins. Based on this result we hypothesize that the treatments cause changes in the structure of cellular and organelle membranes that prevent normal development and aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  10. Over-Expression of Porcine Myostatin Missense Mutant Leads to A Gender Difference in Skeletal Muscle Growth between Transgenic Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Xiao, Gaojun; Cui, Wentao

    2015-08-24

    Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-β family member, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Piedmontese cattle breeds have a missense mutation, which results in a cysteine to tyrosine substitution in the mature myostatin protein (C313Y). This loss-of-function mutation in myostatin results in a double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Myostatin propeptide is an inhibitor of myostatin activity and is considered a potential agent to stimulate muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing porcine myostatin missense mutant (pmMS), C313Y, and wild-type porcine myostatin propeptide (ppMS), respectively, to examine their effects on muscle growth in mice. Enhanced muscle growth was observed in both pmMS and ppMS transgenic female mice and also in ppMS transgenic male mice. However, there was no enhanced muscle growth observed in pmMS transgenic male mice. To explore why there is such a big difference in muscle growth between pmMS and ppMS transgenic male mice, the expression level of androgen receptor (AR) mutant AR45 was measured by Western blot. Results indicated that AR45 expression significantly increased in pmMS transgenic male mice while it decreased dramatically in ppMS transgenic male mice. Our data demonstrate that both pmMS and ppMS act as myostatin inhibitors in the regulation of muscle growth, but the effect of pmMS in male mice is reversed by an increased AR45 expression. These results provide useful insight and basic theory to future studies on improving pork quality by genetically manipulating myostatin expression or by regulating myostatin activity.

  11. Enhanced resistance to fluoroquinolones in laboratory-grown mutants & clinical isolates of Shigella due to synergism between efflux pump expression & mutations in quinolone resistance determining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: There is a worldwide emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella species. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoroquinolone resistance, naturally occurring fluoroquinolone-resistant strains and laboratory-induced spontaneous mutants of Shigella spp. were used and the relative contributions of acrAB-tolC efflux pumps, gyrase and topoisomerase target gene mutations towards fluoroquinolone resistance were determined. Methods: Eight Shigella flexneri and six S. dysenteriae clinical isolates were studied. Three consecutive mutants resistant to ciprofloxacin for S. flexneri SFM1 (≥0.25 µg/ml, SFM2 (≥4 µg/ml and SFM3 (≥32 µg/ml were selected in 15 steps from susceptible isolates by serial exposure to increasing concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Similarly, two mutants for S. dysenteriae SDM1 (≥0.25 µg/ml and SDM2 (≥4 µg/ml were selected in eight steps. After PCR amplification sequence analyses of gyrase and topoisomerase target genes were performed. Expression of efflux genes acrA, acrB, acrR and tolC was measured using real-time PCR. Results: Mutations were observed in gyrA Ser [83]→Leu, Asp [87]→Asn/Gly, Val [196]→Ala and in parC Phe [93]→Val, Ser [80]→Ile, Asp [101]→Glu and Asp [110]→Glu. Overall, acrA and acrB overexpression was associated with fluoroquinolone resistance ( p0 <0.05; while tolC and acrR expression levels did not. Interpretation & conclusions: Fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella spp. is the end product of either a single or a combination of mutations in QRDRs and/ or efflux activity. Novel polymorphisms were observed at Val [196]→Ala in gyrA in clinical isolates and Phe [93]→Val, Asp [101]→Glu, Asp [110]→Glu and in parC in majority of laboratory-grown mutants.

  12. Gene expression profiling of loss of TET2 and/or JAK2V617F mutant hematopoietic stem cells from mouse models of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Kameda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are clinically characterized by the chronic overproduction of differentiated peripheral blood cells and the gradual expansion of malignant intramedullary/extramedullary hematopoiesis. In MPNs mutations in JAK2 MPL or CALR are detected mutually exclusive in more than 90% of cases [1,2]. Mutations in them lead to the abnormal activation of JAK/STAT signaling and the autonomous growth of differentiated cells therefore they are considered as “driver” gene mutations. In addition to the above driver gene mutations mutations in epigenetic regulators such as TET2 DNMT3A ASXL1 EZH2 or IDH1/2 are detected in about 5%–30% of cases respectively [3]. Mutations in TET2 DNMT3A EZH2 or IDH1/2 commonly confer the increased self-renewal capacity on normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs but they do not lead to the autonomous growth of differentiated cells and only exhibit subtle clinical phenotypes [4,6–8,5]. It was unclear how mutations in such epigenetic regulators influenced abnormal HSCs with driver gene mutations how they influenced the disease phenotype or whether a single driver gene mutation was sufficient for the initiation of human MPNs. Therefore we focused on JAK2V617F and loss of TET2—the former as a representative of driver gene mutations and the latter as a representative of mutations in epigenetic regulators—and examined the influence of single or double mutations on HSCs (Lineage−Sca-1+c-Kit+ cells (LSKs by functional analyses and microarray whole-genome expression analyses [9]. Gene expression profiling showed that the HSC fingerprint genes [10] was statistically equally enriched in TET2-knockdown-LSKs but negatively enriched in JAK2V617F–LSKs compared to that in wild-type-LSKs. Double-mutant-LSKs showed the same tendency as JAK2V617F–LSKs in terms of their HSC fingerprint genes but the expression of individual genes differed between the two groups. Among 245 HSC fingerprint genes 100 were more

  13. Immunomodulatory response of mice splenocytes induced by RcaL, a lectin isolated from cobia fish (Rachycentron canadum) serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Silva, Cynarha Daysy Cardoso da; Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos de; Bezerra, Ranilson de Souza; Santos, Athiê Jorge Guerra; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2012-11-01

    This work reports the isolation of a serum lectin from cobia fish (Rachycentron canadum) named RcaL. Immunomodulatory activity on mice splenocyte experimental cultures through cytotoxic assays and cytokine production were also performed. RcaL was obtained through precipitation with ammonium sulphate and affinity chromatography on a Concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B column. The ammonium sulphate fraction F3 showed the highest specific hemagglutinating activity and was applied to affinity chromatography. The lectin was eluted with methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside. RcaL showed highest affinity for methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside and D-mannose; eluted fractions of RcaL agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes (titre, 128(-1)) retained 66 % of chromatographed lectin activity, and the obtained purification factor was 1.14. Under reducing conditions, a polypeptide band of 19.2 kDa was revealed in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). PAGE confirmed RcaL as an acidic protein revealed in a single band. Cytotoxic and immunomodulatory assays with RcaL in mice splenocyte cultures showed that the lectin was not cytotoxic and induced higher interferon gamma and nitric oxide production in splenocyte cultures. Purified RcaL induced preferential Th1 response, suggesting that it acts as an immunomodulatory compound.

  14. Expression of ALS/FTD-linked mutant CCNF in zebrafish leads to increased cell death in the spinal cord and an aberrant motor phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Alison L; Don, Emily K; Rayner, Stephanie L; Lee, Albert; Laird, Angela S; Watchon, Maxinne; Winnick, Claire; Tarr, Ingrid S; Morsch, Marco; Fifita, Jennifer A; Gwee, Serene S L; Formella, Isabel; Hortle, Elinor; Yuan, Kristy C; Molloy, Mark P; Williams, Kelly L; Nicholson, Garth A; Chung, Roger S; Blair, Ian P; Cole, Nicholas J

    2017-07-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Approximately 10% of cases have a known family history of ALS and disease-linked mutations in multiple genes have been identified. ALS-linked mutations in CCNF were recently reported, however the pathogenic mechanisms associated with these mutations are yet to be established. To investigate possible disease mechanisms, we developed in vitro and in vivo models based on an ALS-linked missense mutation in CCNF. Proteomic analysis of the in vitro models identified the disruption of several cellular pathways in the mutant model, including caspase-3 mediated cell death. Transient overexpression of human CCNF in zebrafish embryos supported this finding, with fish expressing the mutant protein found to have increased levels of cleaved (activated) caspase-3 and increased cell death in the spinal cord. The mutant CCNF fish also developed a motor neuron axonopathy consisting of shortened primary motor axons and increased frequency of aberrant axonal branching. Importantly, we demonstrated a significant correlation between the severity of the CCNF-induced axonopathy and a reduced motor response to a light stimulus (photomotor response). This is the first report of an ALS-linked CCNF mutation in vivo and taken together with the in vitro model identifies the disruption of cell death pathways as a significant consequence of this mutation. Additionally, this study presents a valuable new tool for use in ongoing studies investigating the pathobiology of ALS-linked CCNF mutations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Expression of a transgene encoding mutant p193/CUL7 preserves cardiac function and limits infarct expansion after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, R. J.; Nakajima, H.; Nakajima, H. O.; Doevendans, P. A.; Field, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Transgenic mice expressing the dominant interfering p193 protein in cardiomyocytes (MHC-1152stop mice) exhibit an induction of cell cycle activity and altered remodelling after experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Objective: To determine whether the altered remodelling results in

  16. RCA and its regional office for cooperative activities in the applications of nuclear techniques in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Sol

    2008-01-01

    The Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) is an intergovernmental agreement among 17 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in South Asia, South East Asia, Far East and the Pacific, established for promoting regional cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. Established in 1972, the RCA is a unique development within the technical cooperation framework coordinated by IAEA is support of the regional cooperation in the applications of nuclear technology to the benefit of its Member States. It has a well established network of scientists trained in the use of nuclear technologies in the agricultural, medical, industrial, and environmental sectors, with a good potentiality to use its regional technical and scientific resources to contribute to the solution of some of the significant problems in the region. The achievements recorded in the several decades of RCA history cover a wide spectrum of areas and these achievements have been published a Success Stories. Having recognized a need to enhance ownership of the region, the RCA Member States had wished to establish its Regional Office (RCARO). The Regional Office which is hosted by the Government of Republic of Korea was established in 2002. Located in Daejeon, the RCARO has been active in its endeavors toward increasing visibility of the RCA and establishing cooperative partnership between RCA and other international organizations. The RCARO has also played a key role in successfully implementing an RCA Project on Post-Tsunami Environment Impact Assessment in partnership with UNDP (Republic of Korea) with the participation of 14 RCA Member States. A number of projects for capacity building in the region are also being implemented by RCARO, mostly by providing training opportunities for young professionals in the region. The RCA community welcomes any contacts from potential end-users or

  17. Transcriptome Changes Associated with Delayed Flower Senescence on Transgenic Petunia by Inducing Expression of etr1-1, a Mutant Ethylene Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Zhen; Chang, Youhong; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1), a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1-1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic plants grew and developed normally without a chemical inducer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the abundance of transcripts of Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene was substantially induced in flowers with 30 μM dexamethasone (DEX). Consequently, t he life of the flowers was almost doubled and the peak of ethylene production was delayed. We compared gene expression changes of petals with DEX to those without DEX at 24 h and 48 h by microarray. Our results indicated that transcripts of many putative genes encoding transcription factors were down-regulated by etr1-1 induced expression at the early stage. In addition, putative genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, response to jasmonic acid/gibberellins stimulus, cell wall modification, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death were down-regulated associating with etr1-1 induced expression. We investigated time-course gene expression profiles and found two profiles which displayed totally opposite expression patterns under these two treatments. In these profiles, ‘the regulation of transcription’ was predominant in GO categories. Taking all results together, we concluded those transcription factors down-regulated at early stage might exert a major role in regulating the senescence process which were consequently characterized by cell wall modification and cell death. PMID:23874385

  18. Transcriptome changes associated with delayed flower senescence on transgenic petunia by inducing expression of etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1-1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic plants grew and developed normally without a chemical inducer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the abundance of transcripts of Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene was substantially induced in flowers with 30 μM dexamethasone (DEX. Consequently, t he life of the flowers was almost doubled and the peak of ethylene production was delayed. We compared gene expression changes of petals with DEX to those without DEX at 24 h and 48 h by microarray. Our results indicated that transcripts of many putative genes encoding transcription factors were down-regulated by etr1-1 induced expression at the early stage. In addition, putative genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, response to jasmonic acid/gibberellins stimulus, cell wall modification, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death were down-regulated associating with etr1-1 induced expression. We investigated time-course gene expression profiles and found two profiles which displayed totally opposite expression patterns under these two treatments. In these profiles, 'the regulation of transcription' was predominant in GO categories. Taking all results together, we concluded those transcription factors down-regulated at early stage might exert a major role in regulating the senescence process which were consequently characterized by cell wall modification and cell death.

  19. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniofacial birth defects result from defects in cranial neural crest (NC patterning and morphogenesis. The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton is derived from cranial NC cells and the patterning of these cells occurs within the pharyngeal arches. Substantial efforts have led to the identification of several genes required for craniofacial skeletal development such as the endothelin-1 (edn1 signaling pathway that is required for lower jaw formation. However, many essential genes required for craniofacial development remain to be identified. Results Through screening a collection of insertional zebrafish mutants containing approximately 25% of the genes essential for embryonic development, we present the identification of 15 essential genes that are required for craniofacial development. We identified 3 genes required for hyomandibular development. We also identified zebrafish models for Campomelic Dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. To further demonstrate the utility of this method, we include a characterization of the wdr68 gene. We show that wdr68 acts upstream of the edn1 pathway and is also required for formation of the upper jaw equivalent, the palatoquadrate. We also present evidence that the level of wdr68 activity required for edn1 pathway function differs between the 1st and 2nd arches. Wdr68 interacts with two minibrain-related kinases, Dyrk1a and Dyrk1b, required for embryonic growth and myotube differentiation, respectively. We show that a GFP-Wdr68 fusion protein localizes to the nucleus with Dyrk1a in contrast to an engineered loss of function mutation Wdr68-T284F that no longer accumulated in the cell nucleus and failed to rescue wdr68 mutant animals. Wdr68 homologs appear to exist in all eukaryotic genomes. Notably, we found that the Drosophila wdr68 homolog CG14614 could substitute for the vertebrate wdr68 gene even though insects lack the NC cell lineage. Conclusion This work represents a systematic

  20. Evidence for a Ustilago maydis Steroid 5α-Reductase by Functional Expression in Arabidopsis det2-1 Mutants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basse, Christoph W.; Kerschbamer, Christine; Brustmann, Markus; Altmann, Thomas; Kahmann, Regine

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a gene (udh1) in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis that is induced during the parasitic interaction with its host plant maize (Zea mays). udh1 encodes a protein with high similarity to mammalian and plant 5α-steroid reductases. Udh1 differs from those of known 5α-steroid reductases by six additional domains, partially predicted to be membrane-spanning. A fusion protein of Udh1 and the green fluorescent protein provided evidence for endoplasmic reticulum localization in U. maydis. The function of the Udh1 protein was demonstrated by complementing Arabidopsis det2-1 mutants, which display a dwarf phenotype due to a mutation in the 5α-steroid reductase encoding DET2 gene. det2-1 mutant plants expressing either the udh1 or the DET2 gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter differed from wild-type Columbia plants by accelerated stem growth, flower and seed development and a reduction in size and number of rosette leaves. The accelerated growth phenotype of udh1 transgenic plants was stably inherited and was favored under reduced light conditions. Truncation of the N-terminal 70 amino acids of the Udh1 protein abolished the ability to restore growth in det2-1 plants. Our results demonstrate the existence of a 5α-steroid reductase encoding gene in fungi and suggest a common ancestor between fungal, plant, and mammalian proteins. PMID:12068114

  1. Redox susceptibility of SOD1 mutants is associated with the differential response to CCS over-expression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Marjatta; Fu, Qiao; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Matthews, Christina M; Elliott, Jeffrey L

    2009-04-01

    Over-expression of CCS in G93A SOD1 mice accelerates neurological disease and enhances mitochondrial pathology. We studied the effect of CCS over-expression in transgenic mice expressing G37R, G86R or L126Z SOD1 mutations in order to understand factors which influence mitochondrial dysfunction. Over-expression of CCS markedly decreased survival and produced mitochondrial vacuolation in G37R SOD1 mice but not in G86R or L126Z SOD1 mice. Moreover, CCS/G37R SOD1 spinal cord showed specific reductions in mitochondrial complex IV subunits consistent with an isolated COX deficiency, while no such reductions were detected in CCS/G86R or CCS/L126Z SOD1 mice. CCS over-expression increased the ratio of reduced to oxidized SOD1 monomers in the spinal cords of G37R SOD1 as well as G93A SOD1 mice, but did not influence the redox state of G86R or L126Z SOD1 monomers. The effects of CCS on disease are SOD1 mutation dependent and correlate with SOD1 redox susceptibility.

  2. Cell type-specific deficiency of c-kit gene expression in mutant mice of mi/mi genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozaki, K.; Tsujimura, T.; Nomura, S.; Morii, E.; Koshimizu, U.; Nishimune, Y.; Kitamura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The mi locus of mice encodes a novel member of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein family of transcription factors (hereafter called mi factor). In addition to microphthalmus, osteopetrosis, and lack of melanocytes, mice of mi/mi genotype are deficient in mast cells. Since the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase plays an important role in the development of mast cells, and since the c-kit expression by cultured mast cells from mi/mi mice is deficient in both mRNA and protein levels, the mast cell deficiency of mi/mi mice has been attributed at least in part to the deficient expression of c-kit. However, it remained to be examined whether the c-kit expression was also deficient in tissues of mi/mi mice. In the present study, we examined the c-kit expression by mi/mi skin mast cells using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, we examined the c-kit expression by various cells other than mast cells in tissues of mi/mi mice. We found that the c-kit expression was deficient in mast cells but not in erythroid precursors, testicular germ cells, and neurons of mi/mi mice. This suggested that the regulation of the c-kit transcription by the mi factor was dependent on cell types. Mice of mi/mi genotype appeared to be a useful model to analyze the function of transcription factors in the whole-animal level. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7524330

  3. Mechanical properties of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faisal Sheikh; Azmi, Nurul Bazilah; Sumandi, Khairul Azwa Syafiq Mohd; Mazenan, Puteri Natasya

    2017-10-01

    Many construction and development activities today consume large amounts of concrete. The amount of construction waste is also increasing because of the demolition process. Much of this waste can be recycled to produce new products and increase the sustainability of construction projects. As recyclable construction wastes, concrete and ceramic can replace the natural aggregate in concrete because of their hard and strong physical properties. This research used 25%, 35%, and 45% recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate in producing concrete. Several tests, such as concrete cube compression and splitting tensile tests, were also performed to determine and compare the mechanical properties of the recycled concrete with those of the normal concrete that contains 100% natural aggregate. The concrete containing 35% RCA and 35% ceramic waste showed the best properties compared with the normal concrete.

  4. Characterization of conditionally expressed mutants affecting age-specific Drosophila melanogaster : Lethal conditions and temperature-sensitive periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, CJ; Bijlsma, R

    The specific genetic basis of inbreeding depression is poorly understood. To address this question, two conditionally expressed lethal effects that were found to cause line-specific life span reductions in two separate inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. were characterized phenotypically and

  5. Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Bie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1 is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1 was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  6. KRAS Mutant Status, p16 and β-catenin Expression May Predict Local Recurrence in Patients Who Underwent Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEMS) for Stage I Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Michail; Moorhead, Jane; Diaz-Cano, Salvador; Bjarnason, Ingvar; Haji, Amyn; Papagrigoriadis, Savvas

    2016-10-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is emerging as an alternative treatment for rectal cancer Stage I. There remains a risk of local recurrence. The Aim of the study was to study the effect of biomarkers in local recurrence for Stage I rectal cancer following TEMS plus or minus radiotherapy. This is a case control study where we compared 10 early rectal cancers that had recurred, against 19 cases with no recurrence, total 29 patients (age=28.25-86.87, mean age=67.92 years, SD=14.91, Male, N=18, Female, N=11). All patients underwent TEMS for radiological Stage I rectal cancer (yT1N0M0 or yT2N0M0) established with combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endorectal ultrasound. We prospectively collected all data on tumour histology, morphological features, as well as follow-up parameters. Molecular analysis was performed to identify their status on BRAF, KRAS, p16 O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and β-catenin. Out of 29 specimens analyzed, 19 were KRAS wild type (65.9%) and 10 mutant (34.5%). Recurrence of the tumour was noted in 10 cases (34.5%) from which 60% were pT1 (N=6) and 40% pT2 (N=4). There was a statistically significant association between KRAS mutant status and local recurrence (N=6, p=0.037). P16 expression greater than 5% (mean=10.8%, min=0, max=95) is linked with earlier recurrence within 11.70 months (N=7, p=0.004). Membranous β-catenin expression (N=12, 48%) was also related with KRAS mutant status (p=0.006) but not with survival (p>0.05). BRAF gene was found to be wild type in all cases tested (N=23). KRAS/p16/β-catenin could be used as a combined biomarker for prediction of local recurrence and stratification of the risk for further surgery. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of hypergravity on lignin formation and expression of lignin-related genes in inflorescence stems of an ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein3-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahara, Ichirou; Kobayashi, Mai; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    Our previous studies have shown that hypergravity inhibits growth and promotes lignin forma-tion in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana by up-regulation of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis (Tamaoki et al. 2006, 2009). In the present study, we have examined whether ethylene is involved in these responses using an ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein3-1. Our results revealed that hypergravity treatment at 300 G for 24 h significantly inhibited growth of inflorescence stems, promoted both deposition of acetyl bromide extractable lignin and gene expression involved in lignin formation in inflorescence stems of wild type plants. Growth inhibition of inflorescence stems was also observed in ein3-1. However, the effects of hypergravity on the promotion of the deposition of acetyl bromide lignin and the expression of genes involved in lignin formation were not observed in ein3-1, indicating that ethylene sig-naling is involved in the up-regulation of the expression of lignin-related genes as well as the promotion of deposition of lignin by hypergravity in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems.

  8. The tropical cedar tree (Cedrela fissilis Vell., Meliaceae) homolog of the Arabidopsis LEAFY gene is expressed in reproductive tissues and can complement Arabidopsis leafy mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2006-01-01

    A homolog of FLORICAULA/LEAFY, CfLFY (for Cedrela fissilis LFY), was isolated from tropical cedar. The main stages of the reproductive development in C. fissilis were documented by scanning electron microscopy and the expression patterns of CfLFY were studied during the differentiation of the floral meristems. Furthermore, the biological role of the CfLFY gene was assessed using transgenic Arabidopsis plants. CfLFY showed a high degree of similarity to other plant homologs of FLO/LFY. Southern analysis showed that CfLFY is a single-copy gene in the tropical cedar genome. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization results showed that CfLFY was expressed in the reproductive buds during the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, as well as in floral meristems and floral organs but was excluded from the vegetative apex and leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis lfy26 mutant lines expressing the CfLFY coding region, under the control of the LFY promoter, showed restored wild-type phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest that CfLFY is a FLO/LFY homolog probably involved in the control of tropical cedar reproductive development.

  9. Ontogeny of SERT Expression and Antidepressant-like Response to Escitalopram in Wild-Type and SERT Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nathan C; Gould, Georgianna G; Koek, Wouter; Daws, Lynette C

    2016-08-01

    Depression is a disabling affective disorder for which the majority of patients are not effectively treated. This problem is exacerbated in children and adolescents for whom only two antidepressants are approved, both of which are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs). Unfortunately SSRIs are often less effective in juveniles than in adults; however, the mechanism(s) underlying age-dependent responses to SSRIs is unknown. To this end, we compared the antidepressant-like response to the SSRI escitalopram using the tail suspension test and saturation binding of [(3)H]citalopram to the serotonin transporter (SERT), the primary target of SSRIs, in juvenile [postnatal day (P)21], adolescent (P28), and adult (P90) wild-type (SERT+/+) mice. In addition, to model individuals carrying low-expressing SERT variants, we studied mice with reduced SERT expression (SERT+/-) or lacking SERT (SERT-/-). Maximal antidepressant-like effects were less in P21 mice relative to P90 mice. This was especially apparent in SERT+/- mice. However, the potency for escitalopram to produce antidepressant-like effects in SERT+/+ and SERT+/- mice was greater in P21 and P28 mice than in adults. SERT expression increased with age in terminal regions and decreased with age in cell body regions. Binding affinity values did not change as a function of age or genotype. As expected, in SERT-/- mice escitalopram produced no behavioral effects, and there was no specific [(3)H]citalopram binding. These data reveal age- and genotype-dependent shifts in the dose-response for escitalopram to produce antidepressant-like effects, which vary with SERT expression, and may contribute to the limited therapeutic response to SSRIs in juveniles and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Mutant, wild type, or overall p53 expression: freedom from clinical progression in tumours of astrocytic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, F S; Hsu, D W; Zeheb, R; Efird, J T; Okunieff, P G; Malkin, D M

    2004-11-01

    Abnormalities of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene are found in a significant proportion of astrocytic brain tumours. We studied tumour specimens from 74 patients evaluated over 20 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, where clinical outcome could be determined and sufficient pathologic material was available for immunostaining. p53 expression studies employed an affinity-purified p53 monoclonal antibody, whose specificity was verified in absorption studies and, in a minority of cases, a second antibody recognising a different epitope of p53. Significant overexpression of p53 protein was found in 48% of the 74 tumours included in this series and high levels of expression were associated with higher mortality from astrocytic tumours (Pexpression of p53 plays an important role in the pathobiology of these tumours. In a subset of 36 cases, coding regions of the p53 gene were completely sequenced via SSCP and direct DNA sequencing, revealing that overexpression of p53 protein is not always associated with point mutations in conserved exons of the p53 gene. Finally, we confirmed p53 protein expression in early-passage human glioma cell lines of known p53 mutational status and immunostaining scores. Although grade continues to be the strongest prognostic variable, the use of p53 staining as a prognostic indicator, in contrast to mutational DNA analyses, may be a useful adjunct in identifying patients at higher risk of treatment failure.

  11. Characterization of cellular protective effects of ATP13A2/PARK9 expression and alterations resulting from pathogenic mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covy, Jason P; Waxman, Elisa A; Giasson, Benoit I

    2012-12-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2, which encodes a lysosomal P-type ATPase of unknown function, cause an autosomal recessive parkinsonian syndrome. With mammalian cells, we show that ATP13A2 expression protects against manganese and nickel toxicity, in addition to proteasomal, mitochondrial, and oxidative stress. Consistent with a recessive mode of inheritance of gene defects, disease-causing mutations F182L and G504R are prone to misfolding and do not protect against manganese and nickel toxicity because they are unstable as a result of degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-proteasome system. The protective effects of ATP13A2 expression are not due to inhibition of apoptotic pathways or a reduction in typical stress pathways, insofar as these pathways are still activated in challenged ATP13A2-expressing cells; however, these cells display a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of oxidized and damaged proteins. These data indicate that, contrary to a previous suggestion, ATP13A2 is unlikely to convey cellular resilience simply by acting as a lysosomal manganese transporter. Consistent with the recent identification of an ATP13A2 recessive mutation in Tibetan terriers that develop neurodegeneration with neuronal ceroid lipofucinoses, our data suggest that ATP13A2 may function to import a cofactor required for the function of a lysosome enzyme(s). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterization of mutants expressing thermostable D1 and D2 polypeptides of photosystem II in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Norihisa; Kaseda, Jun; Nakayama, Yasumune; Nagahama, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takahira; Matsuoka, Masayoshi

    2018-06-08

    Photosystem II complex embedded in thylakoid membrane performs oxygenic photosynthesis where the reaction center D1/D2 heterodimer accommodates all components of the electron transport chain. To express thermostable D1/D2 heterodimer in a cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, we constructed a series of mutant strains whose psbA1 and psbD1 genes encoding, respectively, the most highly expressed D1 and D2 polypeptides were replaced with those of a thermophilic strain, Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. Because the C-terminal 16 amino acid sequences of D1 polypeptides should be processed prior to maturation but diverge from each other, we also constructed the psbA1ΔC-replaced strain expressing a thermostable D1 polypeptide devoid of the C-terminal extension. The psbA1/psbD1-replaced strain showed decreased growth rate and oxygen evolution rate, suggesting inefficient photosystem II. Immunoblot analyses for thermostable D1, D2 polypeptides revealed that the heterologous D1 protein was absent in thylakoid membrane from any mutant strains with psbA1, psbA1ΔC, and psbA1/psbD1-replacements, whereas the heterologous D2 protein was present in thylakoid membrane as well as purified photosystem II complex from the psbA1/psbD1-replaced strain. In the latter strain, the compensatory expression of psbA3 and psbD2 genes was elevated. These data suggest that heterologous D2 polypeptide could be combined with the host D1 polypeptide to form chimeric D1/D2 heterodimer, whereas heterologous D1 polypeptide even without the C-terminal extension was unable to make complex with the host D2 polypeptide. Since the heterologous D1 could not be detected even in the whole cells of psbA1/psbD1-replaced strain, the rapid degradation of unprocessed or unassembled heterologous D1 was implicated. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alterations in gene expression in mutant amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice lacking Niemann-Pick type C1 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Maulik

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease, a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused mostly by mutation in NPC1 gene, is pathologically characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol in brain and other tissues. This is accompanied by gliosis and loss of neurons in selected brain regions, including the cerebellum. Recent studies have shown that NPC disease exhibits intriguing parallels with Alzheimer's disease, including the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and increased levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP-derived β-amyloid (Aβ peptides in vulnerable brain neurons. To evaluate the role of Aβ in NPC disease, we determined the gene expression profile in selected brain regions of our recently developed bigenic ANPC mice, generated by crossing APP transgenic (Tg mice with heterozygous Npc1-deficient mice. The ANPC mice exhibited exacerbated neuronal and glial pathology compared to other genotypes [i.e., APP-Tg, double heterozygous (Dhet, Npc1-null and wild-type mice]. Analysis of expression profiles of 86 selected genes using real-time RT-PCR arrays showed a wide-spectrum of alterations in the four genotypes compared to wild-type controls. The changes observed in APP-Tg and Dhet mice are limited to only few genes involved mostly in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, whereas Npc1-null and ANPC mice showed alterations in the expression profiles of a number of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis, APP metabolism, vesicular trafficking and cell death mechanism in both hippocampus and cerebellum compared to wild-type mice. Intriguingly, ANPC and Npc1-null mice, with some exceptions, exhibited similar changes, although more genes were differentially expressed in the affected cerebellum than the relatively spared hippocampus. The altered gene profiles were found to match with the corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that lack of Npc1 protein can alter the expression profile of selected transcripts as well as proteins, and

  14. P01.29 Mutant (R132H) IDH1-driven cellular transformation makes cells dependent on continued wild type IDH1 expression in a model of in vitro gliomagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, T.; Mukherjee, J.; Wood, M.; Viswanath, P.; Ohba, S.; Ronen, S.; Berkvig, R.; Pieper, R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Missense R132H mutations in the active site of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) biologically and diagnostically distinguish low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas from primary glioblastomas. IDH1 mutations lead to the formation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) from the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), which in turn facilitates tumorigenesis by modifying DNA and histone methylation as well blocking differentiation processes. We recently showed (Mol Cancer Res 14: 976–983, 2016) that although mutant IDH1 expression in hTERT-immortalized, p53/pRb-deficient astrocytes can drive cellular transformation and gliomagenesis, selective pharmacologic inhibition and elimination of 2-HG by the mutant IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 has little effect on the growth or clonagenicity of these transformed cells. To address the possible role of WT IDH1 in the growth of mutant IDH-driven tumor cells, we used a slightly different gliomagenesis model in which the transformation of TERT-deficient, p53/pRb-deficient astrocytes (pre-crisis cells) occurs only after prolonged expression of mutant IDH and passage through cellular crisis (post-crisis cells, Cancer Res 76:6680–6689, 2016). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using this system we introduced AGI-5198, or siRNA targeting both WT and mutant forms of IDH1 into p53/pRb-deficient, mutant IDH1-expressing human astrocytes prior to or following their transformation, and compared the effects on cell growth and clonagenicity. Results: AGI-5198 exposure decreased levels of 2HG by greater than 90%, and as previously reported had no effect on the growth of either the pre-or post-crisis cell populations. A one-day exposure to a pan IDH1 siRNA resulted in a similar, prolonged (greater than 6 day), 80% inhibition of both WT and mutant IDH1 protein levels and 2HG in both cell groups. While the growth of the mutant IDH-expressing, non-transformed cells was similar to that of scramble siRNA controls, the growth

  15. Differential Expression of Claudin Family Proteins in Mouse Ovarian Serous Papillary Epithelial Adenoma in Aging FSH Receptor-Deficient Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash Aravindakshan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease with long latency. To understand the consequences of loss of folliclestimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R signaling and to explore why the atrophic and anovulatory ovaries of follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO mice develop different types of ovarian tumors, including serous papillary epithelial adenoma later in life, we used mRNA expression profiling to gain a comprehensive view of misregulated genes. Using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, protein analysis, and cellular localization, we show, for the first time, in vivo evidence that, in the absence of FSH-R signaling, claudin-3, claudin-4, and claudin-11 are selectively upregulated, whereas claudin-1 decreases in ovarian surface epithelium and tumors in comparison to wild type. In vitro experiments using a mouse ovarian surface epithelial cell line derived from wild-type females reveal direct hormonal influence on claudin proteins. Although recent studies suggest that cell junction proteins are differentially expressed in ovarian tumors in women, the etiology of such changes remains unclear. Our results suggest an altered hormonal environment resulting from FSH-R loss as a cause of early changes in tight junction proteins that predispose the ovary to late-onset tumors that occur with aging. More importantly, this study identifies claudin-11 overexpression in mouse ovarian serous cystadenoma.

  16. Protein Expression Modifications in Phage-Resistant Mutants of Aeromonas salmonicida after AS-A Phage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Moreirinha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of infections by pathogenic bacteria is one of the main sources of financial loss for the aquaculture industry. This problem often cannot be solved with antibiotic treatment or vaccination. Phage therapy seems to be an alternative environmentally-friendly strategy to control infections. Recognizing the cellular modifications that bacteriophage therapy may cause to the host is essential in order to confirm microbial inactivation, while understanding the mechanisms that drive the development of phage-resistant strains. The aim of this work was to detect cellular modifications that occur after phage AS-A treatment in A. salmonicida, an important fish pathogen. Phage-resistant and susceptible cells were subjected to five successive streak-plating steps and analysed with infrared spectroscopy, a fast and powerful tool for cell study. The spectral differences of both populations were investigated and compared with a phage sensitivity profile, obtained through the spot test and efficiency of plating. Changes in protein associated peaks were found, and these results were corroborated by 1-D electrophoresis of intracellular proteins analysis and by phage sensitivity profiles. Phage AS-A treatment before the first streaking-plate step clearly affected the intracellular proteins expression levels of phage-resistant clones, altering the expression of distinct proteins during the subsequent five successive streak-plating steps, making these clones recover and be phenotypically more similar to the sensitive cells.

  17. Differential gene expression in a DNA double-strand-break repair mutant XRS-5 defective in Ku80. Analysis by cDNA microarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, John Y.H.; Chen, Lung-Kun; Chang, Jui-Feng [National Yang Ming Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Radiological Sciences] (and others)

    2001-12-01

    The ability of cells to rejoin DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) usually correlates with their radiosensitivity. This correlation has been demonstrated in radiosensitive cells, including the Chinese hamster ovary mutant XRS-5. XRS-5 is defective in a DNA end-binding protein, Ku80, which is a component of a DNA-dependent protein kinase complex used for joining strand breaks. However, Ku80-deficient cells are known to be retarded in cell proliferation and growth as well as other yet to be identified defects. Using custom-made 600-gene cDNA microarray filters, we found differential gene expressions between the wild-type and XRS-5 cells. Defective Ku80 apparently affects the expression of several repair genes, including topoisomerase-I and -IIA, ERCC5, MLH1, and ATM. In contrast, other DNA repair-associated genes, such as GADD45A, EGR1 MDM2 and p53, were not affected. In addition, for large numbers of growth-associated genes, such as cyclins and clks, the growth factors and cytokines were also affected. Down-regulated expression was also found in several categories of seemingly unrelated genes, including apoptosis, angiogenesis, kinase and signaling, phosphatase, stress protein, proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors, transcription and translation factors. A RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the XRS-5 cells used were defective in Ku80 expression. The diversified groups of genes being affected could mean that Ku80, a multi-functional DNA-binding protein, not only affects DNA repair, but is also involved in transcription regulation. Our data, taken together, indicate that there are specific genes being modulated in Ku80- deficient cells, and that some of the DNA repair pathways and other biological functions are apparently linked, suggesting that a defect in one gene could have global effects on many other processes. (author)

  18. Differential gene expression in a DNA double-strand-break repair mutant XRS-5 defective in Ku80. Analysis by cDNA microarray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, John Y.H.; Chen, Lung-Kun; Chang, Jui-Feng

    2001-01-01

    The ability of cells to rejoin DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) usually correlates with their radiosensitivity. This correlation has been demonstrated in radiosensitive cells, including the Chinese hamster ovary mutant XRS-5. XRS-5 is defective in a DNA end-binding protein, Ku80, which is a component of a DNA-dependent protein kinase complex used for joining strand breaks. However, Ku80-deficient cells are known to be retarded in cell proliferation and growth as well as other yet to be identified defects. Using custom-made 600-gene cDNA microarray filters, we found differential gene expressions between the wild-type and XRS-5 cells. Defective Ku80 apparently affects the expression of several repair genes, including topoisomerase-I and -IIA, ERCC5, MLH1, and ATM. In contrast, other DNA repair-associated genes, such as GADD45A, EGR1 MDM2 and p53, were not affected. In addition, for large numbers of growth-associated genes, such as cyclins and clks, the growth factors and cytokines were also affected. Down-regulated expression was also found in several categories of seemingly unrelated genes, including apoptosis, angiogenesis, kinase and signaling, phosphatase, stress protein, proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors, transcription and translation factors. A RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the XRS-5 cells used were defective in Ku80 expression. The diversified groups of genes being affected could mean that Ku80, a multi-functional DNA-binding protein, not only affects DNA repair, but is also involved in transcription regulation. Our data, taken together, indicate that there are specific genes being modulated in Ku80- deficient cells, and that some of the DNA repair pathways and other biological functions are apparently linked, suggesting that a defect in one gene could have global effects on many other processes. (author)

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of l-lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant wild-type l-lactate dehydrogenase from B. subtilis (BsLDH) was cocrystallized with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and NAD + and the crystal diffracted to 2.38 Å resolution. The H171C mutant of BsLDH was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD + and the crystals diffracted to 2.20 and 2.49 Å, respectively. All crystals belonged to space group P3. l-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to l-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD + . In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD + and the crystal diffracted to 2.38 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27 Å. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD + , and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49 Å resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34 Å and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09 Å, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals

  20. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant "Jingling Huangfeng" turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration.

  1. 3,3′,4,4′,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl Inhibits Drug Efflux Through P-Glycoprotein in KB-3 Cells Expressing Mutant Human P-Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujise

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the drug efflux of 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126, the most toxic of all coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs, were examined in KB-3 cells expressing human wild-type and mutant P-glycoprotein in which the 61st amino acid was substituted for serine or phenylalanine (KB3-Phe61. In the cells expressing P-glycoproteins, accumulations of vinblastine and colchicine decreased form 85% to 92% and from 62% to 91%, respectively, and the drug tolerances for these chemicals were increased. In KB3-Phe61, the decreases in drug accumulation were inhibited by adding PCB-126 in a way similar to that with cyclosporine A: by adding 1 μM PCB-126, the accumulations of vinblastine and colchicine increased up to 3.3- and 2.3-fold, respectively. It is suggested that PCB-126 decreased the drug efflux by inhibiting the P-glycoprotein in KB3-Phe61. Since there were various P-glycoproteins and many congeners of Co-PCBs, this inhibition has to be considered a new cause of the toxic effects of Co-PCBs.

  2. Altered methanol embryopathies in embryo culture with mutant catalase-deficient mice and transgenic mice expressing human catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the teratogenicity of methanol (MeOH) in rodents, unlike its acute toxicity in humans, are unclear, but may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). Embryonic catalase, although expressed at about 5% of maternal activity, may protect the embryo by detoxifying ROS. This hypothesis was investigated in whole embryo culture to remove confounding maternal factors, including metabolism of MeOH by maternal catalase. C57BL/6 (C57) mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Catb/J acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 4 mg/ml MeOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally. MeOH was embryopathic in C57 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed and turning, whereas hCat embryos were protected. Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to C3H WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. MeOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, with reduced anterior neuropore closure and head length only in catalase-deficient embryos. These data suggest that ROS may be involved in the embryopathic mechanism of methanol, and that embryonic catalase activity may be a determinant of teratological risk.

  3. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  4. Control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalase T gene (CTT1) expression by nutrient supply via the RAS-cyclic AMP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, P H; Wieser, R; Hamilton, B; Ruis, H

    1989-03-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lack of nutrients triggers a pleiotropic response characterized by accumulation of storage carbohydrates, early G1 arrest, and sporulation of a/alpha diploids. This response is thought to be mediated by RAS proteins, adenylate cyclase, and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases. This study shows that expression of the S. cerevisiae gene coding for a cytoplasmic catalase T (CTT1) is controlled by this pathway: it is regulated by the availability of nutrients. Lack of a nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus source causes a high-level expression of the gene. Studies with strains with mutations in the RAS-cAMP pathway and supplementation of a rca1 mutant with cAMP show that CTT1 expression is under negative control by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase and that nutrient control of CTT1 gene expression is mediated by this pathway. Strains containing a CTT1-Escherichia coli lacZ fusion gene have been used to isolate mutants with mutations in the pathway. Mutants characterized in this investigation fall into five complementation groups. Both cdc25 and ras2 alleles were identified among these mutants.

  5. Inhibition of MEK5 by BIX02188 induces apoptosis in cells expressing the oncogenic mutant FLT3-ITD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razumovskaya, Elena; Sun, Jianmin; Roennstrand, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study we have demonstrated that FLT3 activation leads to activation of ERK5. → We have demonstrated that ERK5 is involved in activation of AKT downstream of FLT3. → (BIX02188) blocks activation of ERK5 and induces apoptosis in FLT3 Ba/F3 cells. → (BIX02188) induce apoptosis in the two leukemic cell lines MV4-11 and MOLM-13. -- Abstract: Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) is a growth factor receptor normally expressed on hematopoietic progenitor cells. Approximately one third of all patients with AML carry an activating mutation in FLT3 that drives proliferation and survival of the leukemic cells. The most common activating mutation is the so-called internal tandem duplication (ITD), which involves an in-frame duplication of a segment of varying length in the region of the FLT3 gene that encodes the juxtamembrane domain. The pathways downstream of FLT3-ITD are partially known but further knowledge regarding the downstream signal transduction molecules is important in order to develop alternative strategies for pharmacological intervention. In this paper we have studied the role of MEK/ERK5 in FLT3-ITD mediated transformation. We have found that both wild-type FLT3 and FLT3-ITD activate MEK5 leading to the activation of ERK5. By use of the selective inhibitor of MEK5, (BIX02188), we have shown that activation of AKT downstream of FLT3 is partially dependent on ERK5. Furthermore, inhibition of MEK5/ERK5 induces apoptosis of both FLT3-ITD transfected Ba/F3 cells as well as the FLT3-ITD carrying leukemic cell lines MV4-11 and MOLM-13. These results suggest that MEK5/ERK5 is important for FLT3-ITD induced hematopoietic transformation and may thus represent an alternative therapeutic target in the treatment of FLT3-ITD positive leukemia.

  6. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6 causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sasado

    Full Text Available Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68. CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3'UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3'UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3'UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo.

  7. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6) causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasado, Takao; Kondoh, Hisato; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Naruse, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar) is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68). CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm) which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3'UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3'UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3'UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo.

  8. Programmed cell death in the leaves of the Arabidopsis spontaneous necrotic spots (sns-D mutant correlates with increased expression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael M.D.J.-M. Gaussand

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From a pool of transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana plants harboring an activator T-DNA construct, one mutant was identified that developed spontaneous necrotic spots (sns-D on the rosette leaves under aseptic conditions. The sns-D mutation is dominant and homozygous plants are embryo lethal. The mutant produced smaller rosettes with a different number of stomata than the wild-type. DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of cells in the necrotic spots and a significant increase of caspase-3 and caspase-6 like activities in sns-D leaf extracts indicated that the sns-D mutation caused programmed cell death (PCD. The integration of the activator T-DNA caused an increase of the expression level of At1g13020, which encodes the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4B2. The expression level of eIF4B2 was positively correlated with the severity of sns-D mutant phenotype. Overexpression of the eIF4B2 cDNA mimicked phenotypic traits of the sns-D mutant indicating that the sns-D mutant phenotype is indeed caused by activation tagging of eIF4B2. Thus, incorrect regulation of translation initiation may result in PCD.

  9. Partial rescue of postnatal growth plate abnormalities in Ihh mutants by expression of a constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yukiko; Schipani, Ernestina; Densmore, Michael J; Lanske, Beate

    2010-02-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is essential for chondrocyte proliferation/differentiation and osteoblast differentiation during prenatal endochondral bone formation. Ihh expression in postnatal chondrocytes has a non-redundant role in maintaining a growth plate and sustaining trabecular bone after birth. Loss of Ihh in postnatal chondrocytes results in fusion of the growth plate and a decrease in trabecular bone. In order to normalize this abnormal chondrocyte phenotype and to investigate whether a putative rescue of the growth plate anomalies is sufficient to correct the severe alterations in the bone, we expressed a constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor (an Ihh downstream target) in the chondrocytes of Col2 alpha 1-Cre ER; Ihh(dld) mice by mating Col2 alpha 1-Cre ER; Ihh(fl/fl) mice with Col2 alpha 1-constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor transgenic mice (Jansen, J). Col2 alpha 1-Cre ER; Ihh(f/f); J mice were then injected with tamoxifen at P0 to generate Col2 alpha 1-Cre ER; Ihh(d/d); J mice. In contrast with the previously reported growth plate phenotype of Col2 alpha 1-Cre ER; Ihh(d/d) mice that displayed ectopic chondrocyte hypertrophy at P7, growth plates of Col2 alpha 1-Cre ER; Ihh(d/d); J double mutants were well organized, and exhibited a gene expression pattern similar to the one of control mice. However, expression of osteoblast markers and Dkk1, a Wnt signaling target, remains decreased in the bone collar of Col2 alpha 1-Cre ER; Ihh(d/d); J mice when compared to control mice despite the rescue of abnormal chondrocyte differentiation. Moreover, proliferation of chondrocytes was still significantly impaired in Col2 alpha 1-Cre ER; Ihh(d/d); J mice, and this eventually led to the fusion of the growth plate at P14. In summary, we have demonstrated that expression of a Jansen receptor in chondrocytes was able to rescue abnormal chondrocyte differentiation but not impaired chondrocyte proliferation and the bone anomalies in mice lacking the Ihh gene in

  10. A combination of p53-activating APR-246 and phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody potently inhibits tumor development in hormone-dependent mutant p53-expressing breast cancer xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yayun Liang,1 Benford Mafuvadze,1 Cynthia Besch-Williford,2 Salman M Hyder1 1Deparment of Biomedical Sciences and Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, Columbia, MO, USA; 2IDEXX BioResearch, Columbia, MO, USA Background: Between 30 and 40% of human breast cancers express a defective tumor suppressor p53 gene. Wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein promotes cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor–dependent angiogenesis, whereas mutant p53 protein (mtp53 lacks these functions, resulting in tumor cell survival and metastasis. Restoration of p53 function is therefore a promising drug-targeted strategy for combating mtp53-expressing breast cancer. Methods: In this study, we sought to determine whether administration of APR-246, a small-molecule drug that restores p53 function, in combination with 2aG4, an antibody that targets phosphatidylserine residues on tumor blood vessels and disrupts tumor vasculature, effectively inhibits advanced hormone-dependent breast cancer tumor growth. Results: APR-246 reduced cell viability in mtp53-expressing BT-474 and T47-D human breast cancer cells in vitro, and significantly induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. However, APR-246 did not reduce cell viability in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which express wild-type p53. We next examined APR-246’s anti-tumor effects in vivo using BT-474 and T47-D tumor xenografts established in female nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with APR-246 and/or 2aG4 and tumor volume followed over time. Tumor growth was more effectively suppressed by combination treatment than by either agent alone, and combination therapy completely eradicated some tumors. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tumor tissue sections demonstrated that combination therapy more effectively induced apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation in tumor xenografts than either agent alone. Importantly, combination therapy dramatically reduced the density of blood

  11. Der Zellzyklusregulator Rca1 - Inhibitor und Substrat des Anaphase-Promoting-Komplexes in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenthaler, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Ein wichtiger Kontrollmechanismus des Zellzyklus ist die irreversible Proteolyse von Zellzyklus-Regulatoren. Dabei markieren E3-Ligasen Zielproteine durch Ubiquitinmoleküle. Für den Abbau in der Mitose und der G1-Phase reguliert der APC/C-Komplex (Anaphase-Promoting-Complex/Cyclosome) als E3-Ligase den zeitlichen Verlauf des Zellzyklus. Die Aktivität des APC/C wiederum wird in den übrigen Zellzyklusstadien durch Phosphorylierung und durch Proteine der Rca1/Emi1-Proteinfamilie inaktiv gehalten...

  12. Results of the IAEA/RCA personal dosemeter intercomparison in the Asian and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Minami, K.; Griffith, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, the International Atomic Energy Agency started the Regional Co-operative Agreement project for strengthening the radiation protection infrastructure in the Asian and Pacific region. One component of the initial programme was a regional personal dosimetry intercomparison, which was subsequently conducted in three phases over three years during the period 1990 to 1992. Seventeen organisations of all 14 member states participated in the programmes. Irradiations and data compilation were conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This paper describes the results of the intercomparison programmes and discusses some features and personal dosimetry problems in the RCA member states. (author)

  13. Transcriptome analysis of an mvp mutant reveals important changes in global gene expression and a role for methyl jasmonate in vernalization and flowering in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Amadou Oury; Agharbaoui, Zahra; Badawi, Mohamed A; Ali-Benali, Mohamed Ali; Moheb, Amira; Houde, Mario; Sarhan, Fathey

    2014-06-01

    The einkorn wheat mutant mvp-1 (maintained vegetative phase 1) has a non-flowering phenotype caused by deletions including, but not limited to, the genes CYS, PHYC, and VRN1. However, the impact of these deletions on global gene expression is still unknown. Transcriptome analysis showed that these deletions caused the upregulation of several pathogenesis-related (PR) and jasmonate-responsive genes. These results suggest that jasmonates may be involved in flowering and vernalization in wheat. To test this hypothesis, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content in mvp and wild-type plants was measured. The content of JA was comparable in all plants, whereas the content of MeJA was higher by more than 6-fold in mvp plants. The accumulation of MeJA was also observed in vernalization-sensitive hexaploid winter wheat during cold exposure. This accumulation declined rapidly once plants were deacclimated under floral-inductive growth conditions. This suggests that MeJA may have a role in floral transition. To confirm this result, we treated vernalization-insensitive spring wheat with MeJA. The treatment delayed flowering with significant downregulation of both TaVRN1 and TaFT1 genes. These data suggest a role for MeJA in modulating vernalization and flowering time in wheat. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Development of a High-Throughput Gene Expression Screen for Modulators of RAS-MAPK Signaling in a Mutant RAS Cellular Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severyn, Bryan; Nguyen, Thi; Altman, Michael D; Li, Lixia; Nagashima, Kumiko; Naumov, George N; Sathyanarayanan, Sriram; Cook, Erica; Morris, Erick; Ferrer, Marc; Arthur, Bill; Benita, Yair; Watters, Jim; Loboda, Andrey; Hermes, Jeff; Gilliland, D Gary; Cleary, Michelle A; Carroll, Pamela M; Strack, Peter; Tudor, Matt; Andersen, Jannik N

    2016-10-01

    The RAS-MAPK pathway controls many cellular programs, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In colorectal cancers, recurrent mutations in this pathway often lead to increased cell signaling that may contribute to the development of neoplasms, thereby making this pathway attractive for therapeutic intervention. To this end, we developed a 26-member gene signature of RAS-MAPK pathway activity utilizing the Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex 2.0 reagent system and performed both primary and confirmatory gene expression-based high-throughput screens (GE-HTSs) using KRAS mutant colon cancer cells (SW837) and leveraging a highly annotated chemical library. The screen achieved a hit rate of 1.4% and was able to enrich for hit compounds that target RAS-MAPK pathway members such as MEK and EGFR. Sensitivity and selectivity performance measurements were 0.84 and 1.00, respectively, indicating high true-positive and true-negative rates. Active compounds from the primary screen were confirmed in a dose-response GE-HTS assay, a GE-HTS assay using 14 additional cancer cell lines, and an in vitro colony formation assay. Altogether, our data suggest that this GE-HTS assay will be useful for larger unbiased chemical screens to identify novel compounds and mechanisms that may modulate the RAS-MAPK pathway. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analyses of a late-maturing mandarin mutant and its original cultivar reveals gene expression profiling associated with citrus fruit maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of late maturity in fruit are good agronomic traits for extending the harvest period and marketing time. However, underlying molecular basis of the late-maturing mechanism in fruit is largely unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to late-maturing characteristics from a late-maturing mutant ‘Huawan Wuzishatangju’ (HWWZSTJ (Citrus reticulata Blanco and its original line ‘Wuzishatangju’ (WZSTJ. A total of approximately 17.0 Gb and 84.2 M paried-end reads were obtained. DEGs were significantly enriched in the pathway of photosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, chlorophyll and abscisic acid (ABA metabolism. Thirteen candidate transcripts related to chlorophyll metabolism, carotenoid biosynthesis and ABA metabolism were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR at all fruit maturing stages of HWWZSTJ and WZSTJ. Chlorophyllase (CLH and divinyl reductase (DVR from chlorophyll metabolism, phytoene synthase (PSY and capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (CCS from carotenoid biosynthesis, and abscisic acid 8′-hydroxylase (AB1 and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 from ABA metabolism were cloned and analyzed. The expression pattern of NCED1 indicated its role in the late-maturing characteristics of HWWZSTJ. There were 270 consecutive bases missing in HWWZSTJ in comparison with full-length sequences of NCED1 cDNA from WZSTJ. Those results suggested that NCED1 might play an important role in the late maturity of HWWZSTJ. This study provides new information on complex process that results in the late maturity of Citrus fruit at the transcriptional level.

  16. Altered IFN-γ-mediated immunity and transcriptional expression patterns in N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced STAT4 mutants confer susceptibility to acute typhoid-like disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Megan M; Yuki, Kyoko E; Dauphinee, Shauna M; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A; Pyzik, Michal; Paquet, Marilène; Lathrop, Mark; Majewski, Jacek; Vidal, Silvia M; Malo, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a ubiquitous Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that continues to pose a global challenge to human health. The etiology of Salmonella pathogenesis is complex and controlled by pathogen, environmental, and host genetic factors. In fact, patients immunodeficient in genes in the IL-12, IL-23/IFN-γ pathway are predisposed to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella infection. Using a forward genomics approach by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) germline mutagenesis in mice, we identified the Ity14 (Immunity to Typhimurium locus 14) pedigree exhibiting increased susceptibility following in vivo Salmonella challenge. A DNA-binding domain mutation (p.G418_E445) in Stat4 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Factor 4) was the causative mutation. STAT4 signals downstream of IL-12 to mediate transcriptional regulation of inflammatory immune responses. In mutant Ity14 mice, the increased splenic and hepatic bacterial load resulted from an intrinsic defect in innate cell function, IFN-γ-mediated immunity, and disorganized granuloma formation. We further show that NK and NKT cells play an important role in mediating control of Salmonella in Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) mice. Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) mice had increased expression of genes involved in cell-cell interactions and communication, as well as increased CD11b expression on a subset of splenic myeloid dendritic cells, resulting in compromised recruitment of inflammatory cells to the spleen during Salmonella infection. Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) presented upregulated compensatory mechanisms, although inefficient and ultimately Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) mice develop fatal bacteremia. The following study further elucidates the pathophysiological impact of STAT4 during Salmonella infection.

  17. Bulk magnetic characterization of RCaCrO4 (Rrl02=Y, Pr, Sm ) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.L.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T.; Chen, Q.; Prieto, C.; Andres, A. de; Saez-Puche, R.; Romero, J.

    1995-01-01

    The system RCaCrO 4 (R=Y, Sm, Pr) presents an orthorhombic structure (space group Bmab) at room temperature (RT), similar to that observed in La 2 MO 4 (M=Cu, Ni, Co). The magnetic susceptibility for RCaCrO 4 shows a weak temperature dependence down to 250 K, probably due to the antiferromagnetic ordering of the Cr sublattice above RT. Below RT there is a strong upturn anomaly at 210, 190 and 130 K for Pr, Sm and Y, respectively. This anomaly is associated with the appearance of a weak ferromagnetic component, and could be related to a low temperature structural phase transition, similar to that observed in the related compounds R 2 NiO 4 or La 1.88 Ba 0.12 CuO 4 . In the case of YCaCrO 4 this ferromagnetic component produces a hysteresis curve at 4.5 K with a coercive field of 0.7 T. For PrCaCrO 4 the coercive field is very small ( 4 shows a more complicated behavior with a low temperature magnetic transition (T N2 ∼40 K), which could be associated with either the antiferromagnetic ordering of the Sm sublattice or a spin reorientation in the Cr sublattice. ((orig.))

  18. Comparative Global Gene Expression Profiles of Wild-Type Yersinia pestis CO92 and Its Braun Lipoprotein Mutant at Flea and Human Body Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristi L. Galindo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Braun/murein lipoprotein (Lpp is involved in inflammatory responses and septic shock. We previously characterized a Δlpp mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 and found that this mutant was defective in surviving in macrophages and was attenuated in a mouse inhalation model of plague when compared to the highly virulent wild-type (WT bacterium. We performed global transcriptional profiling of WT Y. pestis and its Δlpp mutant using microarrays. The organisms were cultured at 26 and 37 degrees Celsius to simulate the flea vector and mammalian host environments, respectively. Our data revealed vastly different effects of lpp mutation on the transcriptomes of Y. pestis grown at 37 versus 26C. While the absence of Lpp resulted mainly in the downregulation of metabolic genes at 26C, the Y. pestis Δlpp mutant cultured at 37C exhibited profound alterations in stress response and virulence genes, compared to WT bacteria. We investigated one of the stress-related genes (htrA downregulated in the Δlpp mutant relative to WT Y. pestis. Indeed, complementation of the Δlpp mutant with the htrA gene restored intracellular survival of the Y. pestis Δlpp mutant. Our results support a role for Lpp in Y. pestis adaptation to the host environment, possibly via transcriptional activation of htrA.

  19. Exogenous Expressions of FTO Wild-Type and R316Q Mutant Proteins Caused an Increase in HNRPK Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells as Demonstrated by DIGE Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Guzel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat mass and obesity-associated protein is an enzyme that oxidatively demethylates DNA. Although there are numerous studies regarding the catalytic function of FTO, the overall existence or absence of FTO on cellular proteome has not been investigated. This study investigated the changes in the soluble proteome of 3T3-L1 cells upon expression of the WT and the mutant (R316Q FTO proteins. Protein extracts prepared from 3T3-L1 cells expressing either the WT or the mutant FTO proteins were used in DIGE experiments. Analysis of the data revealed the number of spots matched to every member and there were 350 ± 20 spots with 30.5% overall mean coefficient of variation. Eleven regulated protein spots were excised from the gels and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. One of the identified proteins was heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, which displayed more than 2.6- and 3.7-fold increases in its abundance in the WT and the mutant FTO expressing cells, respectively. Western blot analysis validated these observations. This is the first study revealing the presence of a parallel increase in expressions of FTO and HNRNPK proteins. This increase may codictate the metabolic changes occurring in the cell and may attribute a significance to HNRNPK in FTO-associated transformations.

  20. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  1. Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA). A mechanism for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Muslim, N.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the regional cooperation programs of the IAEA which have as purpose to promote the applications of peaceful uses of atomic energy and to transfer technology to the developing countries. The paper focusses on the (RCA) program for Asia and the Pacific, it is considered the most important mechanism for genuine technology transfer. The annex no 1 lists the full text of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (13 articles). The annex no.3 lists also the full text of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (14 articles). 11 refs., 17 tabs

  2. Automatd assessment of the state of central hemodynamics using a radiocardioanalyser RCA 3-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivachenko, T.P.; Zozulya, A.A.; Sribnaya, A.F.; Ratmanskij, A.Yu.; Tishchenko, F.M.; Kurenya, A.G.; Krupka, I.N.; Kulagin, S.N.; Protsenko, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors presented the results of a clinical use of a new radiocardioanalyzer RCA 3-01 (manufactured in the USSR) providing for automated measurements and computations of indices of the central hemodynamics during studies using a method of dilution of radioactive nuclides. The main technical potentialities of the device designed on the basis of microprocessor technology, were described. The authors also provided the results of automated computation of the circulating blood volume and the main hemodynamic indices in a group of patients. Values of the hemodynamic indices were shown to correspond to actual ones and comparable to control ones and clinical evidence. The comparison of automated processing with a manual method of calculation indicated a significant coincidence of index values. The clinical use of the radiocardioanalyzer RGA 3-01 for automated assessment of the indices of the cardiovascular system was shown to hold promise among various groups of patients

  3. Role of nuclear energy in Bangladesh: experience with IAEA and RCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaiyum, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity is one of the most convenient forms of energy for sustaining and accelerating industrial growth and thus augmenting the poverty alleviation. All conventional modes of generation of electricity have adverse effects on environment. The nature, quantities and extents of such effects are, however, specific to the type of generations. Taking Bangladesh as a representative developing country the role of nuclear energy is presented. Demand projections for electricity, energy resources and energy development are discussed. It is highlighted that the lack of suitably qualified and experienced manpower has to be addressed properly. Hence training in selected areas is being arranged at home and abroad with own resources and also under different IAEA, RCA and bilateral assistance programmes. The paper also discusses the safety and environmental aspects of nuclear energy and highlights the contribution of IAEA and RCA in establishing global safety culture and pollution free environment. It is concluded that Bangladesh has to depend heavily on imported fuel. Among the important fuels, nuclear is a viable proposition and hence needs careful consideration. This is of course true for all other developing countries like Bangladesh. It is hoped that in order to dispel the apprehension of nuclear proliferation, the concept of regional reprocessing centre may be thought of. This centre may be planned and implemented by pulling resources and expertise of developing countries, specially the neighbouring ones, so as to recover the fissile materials from the spent fuel and use them in the fast breeder reactor which may be considered as the energy source of the future, and thus sustainable development can be ensured. (author)

  4. IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program on Reference Asian Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1990-01-01

    The Research Coordination Meeting was held in Mito City, Japan on October 17-21, 1988, inviting the chief investigating scientists from 11 RCA member countries to discuss practical plans for the Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man' based on the decision taken at the Project Formulation Meeting for the RCA Project 'Strengthening Radiation Protection' Tokyo, November 1987. Significance of the setting 'Reference Man' for Asian peoples to estimate more realistic radiation doses by applying the real typical physical, physiological and metabolic parameters for them instead of those recommended by ICRP based on the data for 'Caucasian Man' has been indicated by whole member countries and recognized again at the Meeting. The present status of 'Reference Man-oriented Studies' in each countries was presented by the participants and certain difference or difficulties were pointed out among the countries depending on the geographical, social, or economical conditions as well as the ethnic circumstances. After the mutual discussions and exchange of up-to-date information, the general conclusions were drawn as follows: acknowledging the importance of the CRP, research works should be carried out in each country with the expected supports from IAEA and other member countries. The first priority is given on the measurements of human physique (and internal organs) followed by the food consumption survey. Trace element analysis would be done by the countries where possible. The standard manual for data collection might be necessary. The establishments of Co-ordination Center or central body with data base and also subgroup systems are desirable to promote the CRP. (author)

  5. Analysis of the N-glycosylation of the serum glycoproteins defined by Con A, PHA-E, RCA1 and WGA in Chinese patients with gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Chen, Y; Dai, X; Wang, S

    1996-03-01

    Glycoproteins from tumor cells isolated by Con A, PHA-E and RCA1, were coupled to horse radish peroxidase and then used as reporters to evaluate the oligosaccharides change on serum glycoproteins in digestive tract diseases and individual healthy persons. A value 2 standard deviation above the mean of the healthy person group was considered positive. The results indicated that the positive rates of the oligosaccharides bound with Con A, PHA-E and RCA1 were 51% (61/119), 70.6% (84/119), and 76.4% (91/119) in patients with gastric cancer; 53.3% (16/30), 46.7% (14/30) and 66.7% (20/30) in esophageal cancers; 28.5% (15/49), 49.0% (24/49) and 46.9% (23/49) in colorectal cancer; 78.1% (25/32), 81.3% (26/32) and 31.3% (10/32) in gallbladder tumors; 60.4% (29/48), 54.1% (26/48) and 39.5% (19/48) in hepatocellular cancer. The positive rates among the patients with benign diseases were also found to be 12.7% (16/126), 15.5% (20/126) and 26.2% (33/126). However, the expression of the oligosaccharide moieties recognized by WGA on the glycoprotein bound with Con A, was significantly lower in the serum of patients with tumors than in those with benign disease and in healthy individuals (P < 0.01, P < 0.01).

  6. Contributions of Pakistan in the IAEA/RCA/UNDP regional project on management of marine coastal environment and its pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Fazil, M.; Ahmad, E.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, H.A.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, launched a five years (duration: 1998 - 2002) Joint Project on 'Better Management of the Environment and Industrial Growth Through Isotope and Radiation Technology (RAS/97/030)' in co-operation with the RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement) office, Vienna, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Marine Sub-project entitled 'Management of Marine Coastal Environment and its Pollution (RAS/8/083)' is 'Output 1.2' of this joint project. Pakistan is very actively participating in activities of the IAEA/RCA/UNDP Marine Sub-Project that were planned in two Project Formulation Meetings (PFMs) held at Manila, Philippines, during 1998. In Pakistan, various activities of the national marine pollution project are being administered by the nuclear institute namely, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), in collaboration with national end user institutions. To-date, Pakistan has significantly contributed in this project, both at national level and at RCA regional level. This paper highlights the progress and some accomplishments of Pakistan, up to the year 2001, for marine pollution studies related to the IAEA/RCA regional marine sub project. (author)

  7. Homozygous Expression of Mutant ELOVL4 Leads to Seizures and Death in a Novel Animal Model of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopiavuori, Blake R; Deák, Ferenc; Wilkerson, Joseph L; Brush, Richard S; Rocha-Hopiavuori, Nicole A; Hopiavuori, Austin R; Ozan, Kathryn G; Sullivan, Michael T; Wren, Jonathan D; Georgescu, Constantin; Szweda, Luke; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Towner, Rheal; Sherry, David M; Anderson, Robert E; Agbaga, Martin-Paul

    2018-02-01

    Lipids are essential components of the nervous system. However, the functions of very long-chain fatty acids (VLC-FA; ≥ 28 carbons) in the brain are unknown. The enzyme ELOngation of Very Long-chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of VLC-FA (Agbaga et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(35): 12843-12848, 2008; Logan et al., J Lipid Res 55(4): 698-708, 2014), which we identified in the brain as saturated fatty acids (VLC-SFA). Homozygous mutations in ELOVL4 cause severe neuropathology in humans (Ozaki et al., JAMA Neurol 72(7): 797-805, 2015; Mir et al., BMC Med Genet 15: 25, 2014; Cadieux-Dion et al., JAMA Neurol 71(4): 470-475, 2014; Bourassa et al., JAMA Neurol 72(8): 942-943, 2015; Aldahmesh et al., Am J Hum Genet 89(6): 745-750, 2011) and are post-natal lethal in mice (Cameron et al., Int J Biol Sci 3(2): 111-119, 2007; Li et al., Int J Biol Sci 3(2): 120-128, 2007; McMahon et al., Molecular Vision 13: 258-272, 2007; Vasireddy et al., Hum Mol Genet 16(5): 471-482, 2007) from dehydration due to loss of VLC-SFA that comprise the skin permeability barrier. Double transgenic mice with homozygous knock-in of the Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STDG3; 797-801_AACTT) mutation of Elovl4 with skin-specific rescue of wild-type Elovl4 expression (S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice) develop seizures by P19 and die by P21. Electrophysiological analyses of hippocampal slices showed aberrant epileptogenic activity in S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice. FM1-43 dye release studies showed that synapses made by cultured hippocampal neurons from S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice exhibited accelerated synaptic release kinetics. Supplementation of VLC-SFA to cultured hippocampal neurons from mutant mice rescued defective synaptic release to wild-type rates. Together, these studies establish a critical, novel role for ELOVL4 and its VLC-SFA products in regulating synaptic release kinetics and epileptogenesis. Future studies aimed at understanding the molecular

  8. The Heterologous Expression of the p22 RNA Silencing Suppressor of the Crinivirus Tomato Chlorosis Virus from Tobacco Rattle Virus and Potato Virus X Enhances Disease Severity but Does Not Complement Suppressor-Defective Mutant Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeo-Ríos, Yazmín; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Cañizares, M. Carmen

    2017-11-24

    To counteract host antiviral RNA silencing, plant viruses express suppressor proteins that function as pathogenicity enhancers. The genome of the Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) (genus Crinivirus , family Closteroviridae ) encodes an RNA silencing suppressor, the protein p22, that has been described as having one of the longest lasting local suppressor activities when assayed in Nicotiana benthamiana . Since suppression of RNA silencing and the ability to enhance disease severity are closely associated, we analyzed the effect of expressing p22 in heterologous viral contexts. Thus, we studied the effect of the expression of ToCV p22 from viral vectors Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Potato virus X (PVX), and from attenuated suppressor mutants in N. benthamiana plants. Our results show that although an exacerbation of disease symptoms leading to plant death was observed in the heterologous expression of ToCV p22 from both viruses, only in the case of TRV did increased viral accumulation occur. The heterologous expression of ToCV p22 could not complement suppressor-defective mutant viruses.

  9. Ectopic Lignification in the Flax lignified bast fiber1 Mutant Stem Is Associated with Tissue-Specific Modifications in Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantreau, Maxime; Portelette, Antoine; Dauwe, Rebecca; Kiyoto, Shingo; Crônier, David; Morreel, Kris; Arribat, Sandrine; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabi, Malika; Boerjan, Wout; Yoshinaga, Arata; Mesnard, François; Grec, Sebastien; Chabbert, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical screening of a flax ethyl methanesulfonate population led to the identification of 93 independent M2 mutant families showing ectopic lignification in the secondary cell wall of stem bast fibers. We named this core collection the Linum usitatissimum (flax) lbf mutants for lignified bast fibers and believe that this population represents a novel biological resource for investigating how bast fiber plants regulate lignin biosynthesis. As a proof of concept, we characterized the lbf1 mutant and showed that the lignin content increased by 350% in outer stem tissues containing bast fibers but was unchanged in inner stem tissues containing xylem. Chemical and NMR analyses indicated that bast fiber ectopic lignin was highly condensed and rich in G-units. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling showed large modifications in the oligolignol pool of lbf1 inner- and outer-stem tissues that could be related to ectopic lignification. Immunological and chemical analyses revealed that lbf1 mutants also showed changes to other cell wall polymers. Whole-genome transcriptomics suggested that ectopic lignification of flax bast fibers could be caused by increased transcript accumulation of (1) the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase monolignol biosynthesis genes, (2) several lignin-associated peroxidase genes, and (3) genes coding for respiratory burst oxidase homolog NADPH-oxidases necessary to increase H2O2 supply. PMID:25381351

  10. Expression of brown-midrib in a spontaneous sorghum mutant is linked to a 5'-UTR deletion in lignin biosynthesis gene SbCAD2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (bmr) mutants in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses are associated with reduced lignin concentration, altered lignin composition and improved cell wall digestibility, which are desirable properties in biomass development for the emerging lignocellulosic b...

  11. Differential expression of SOS genes in an E. coli mutant producing unstable lexA protein enhances excision repair but inhibits mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.R.; Ganesan, A.K.; Mount, D.W.; Stanford Univ., CA)

    1986-01-01

    The SOS response is displayed following treatments which damage DNA or inhibit DNA replication. Two associated activities include enhanced capacity for DNA repair resulting from derepression of the recA, uvrA, uvrB and uvrD genes and increased mutagenesis due to derepression of recA, umuC and umuD. These changes are the consequence of the derepression of at least seventeen unlinked operons negatively regulated by LexA repressor. Following treatments that induce the SOS response, a signal molecule interacts with RecA protein, converting it to an activated form. Activated RecA protein facilitates the proteolytic cleavage of LexA repressor, which results in derepression of the regulon. The cell then enters a new physiological state during which time DNA repair processes are augmented. The lexA41 mutant of E. coli is a uv-resistant derivative of another mutant, lexA3, which produces a repressor that is not cleaved following inducing treatments. The resultant protein is unstable. Lac operon fusions to most of the genes in the SOS regulon were used to show that the various damage-inducible genes were derepressed to different extents. uvrA, B, and D were almost fully derepressed. Consistent with this finding, the rate of removal of T4 endonuclease V-sensitive sites was more rapid in the uv-irradiated lexA41 mutant than in normal cells, suggesting a more active excision repair system. We propose that the instability of the LexA41 protein reduces the intracellular concentration of repressor to a level that allows a high level of excision repair. The additional observation that SOS mutagenesis was only weakly induced in a lexA41 uvrA - mutant implies that the mutant protein partially represses one or more genes whose products promote SOS mutagenesis. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Modes of overinitiation, dnaA gene expression, and inhibition of cell division in a novel cold-sensitive hda mutant of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimitsu, Kazuyuki; Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Mazda, Kensaku; Fu, Nisi; Kawakami, Hironori; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2008-08-01

    The chromosomal replication cycle is strictly coordinated with cell cycle progression in Escherichia coli. ATP-DnaA initiates replication, leading to loading of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. The DNA-loaded form of the beta clamp subunit of the polymerase binds the Hda protein, which promotes ATP-DnaA hydrolysis, yielding inactive ADP-DnaA. This regulation is required to repress overinitiation. In this study, we have isolated a novel cold-sensitive hda mutant, the hda-185 mutant. The hda-185 mutant caused overinitiation of chromosomal replication at 25 degrees C, which most likely led to blockage of replication fork progress. Consistently, the inhibition of colony formation at 25 degrees C was suppressed by disruption of the diaA gene, an initiation stimulator. Disruption of the seqA gene, an initiation inhibitor, showed synthetic lethality with hda-185 even at 42 degrees C. The cellular ATP-DnaA level was increased in an hda-185-dependent manner. The cellular concentrations of DnaA protein and dnaA mRNA were comparable at 25 degrees C to those in a wild-type hda strain. We also found that multiple copies of the ribonucleotide reductase genes (nrdAB or nrdEF) or dnaB gene repressed overinitiation. The cellular levels of dATP and dCTP were elevated in cells bearing multiple copies of nrdAB. The catalytic site within NrdA was required for multicopy suppression, suggesting the importance of an active form of NrdA or elevated levels of deoxyribonucleotides in inhibition of overinitiation in the hda-185 cells. Cell division in the hda-185 mutant was inhibited at 25 degrees C in a LexA regulon-independent manner, suggesting that overinitiation in the hda-185 mutant induced a unique division inhibition pathway.

  13. Modes of Overinitiation, dnaA Gene Expression, and Inhibition of Cell Division in a Novel Cold-Sensitive hda Mutant of Escherichia coli▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimitsu, Kazuyuki; Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Mazda, Kensaku; Fu, Nisi; Kawakami, Hironori; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    The chromosomal replication cycle is strictly coordinated with cell cycle progression in Escherichia coli. ATP-DnaA initiates replication, leading to loading of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. The DNA-loaded form of the β clamp subunit of the polymerase binds the Hda protein, which promotes ATP-DnaA hydrolysis, yielding inactive ADP-DnaA. This regulation is required to repress overinitiation. In this study, we have isolated a novel cold-sensitive hda mutant, the hda-185 mutant. The hda-185 mutant caused overinitiation of chromosomal replication at 25°C, which most likely led to blockage of replication fork progress. Consistently, the inhibition of colony formation at 25°C was suppressed by disruption of the diaA gene, an initiation stimulator. Disruption of the seqA gene, an initiation inhibitor, showed synthetic lethality with hda-185 even at 42°C. The cellular ATP-DnaA level was increased in an hda-185-dependent manner. The cellular concentrations of DnaA protein and dnaA mRNA were comparable at 25°C to those in a wild-type hda strain. We also found that multiple copies of the ribonucleotide reductase genes (nrdAB or nrdEF) or dnaB gene repressed overinitiation. The cellular levels of dATP and dCTP were elevated in cells bearing multiple copies of nrdAB. The catalytic site within NrdA was required for multicopy suppression, suggesting the importance of an active form of NrdA or elevated levels of deoxyribonucleotides in inhibition of overinitiation in the hda-185 cells. Cell division in the hda-185 mutant was inhibited at 25°C in a LexA regulon-independent manner, suggesting that overinitiation in the hda-185 mutant induced a unique division inhibition pathway. PMID:18502852

  14. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Mutant Expressing a Baculovirus Inhibitor of Apoptosis Gene in Place of Latency-Associated Transcript Has a Wild-Type Reactivation Phenotype in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ling; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Mott, Kevin R.; Osorio, Nelson; Naito, Julia; Brick, David J.; Carpenter, Dale; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    The latency-associated transcript (LAT) is essential for the wild-type herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) high-reactivation phenotype since LAT− mutants have a low-reactivation phenotype. We previously reported that LAT can decrease apoptosis and proposed that this activity is involved in LAT's ability to enhance the HSV-1 reactivation phenotype. The first 20% of the primary 8.3-kb LAT transcript is sufficient for enhancing the reactivation phenotype and for decreasing apoptosis, supporting this proposal. For this study, we constructed an HSV-1 LAT− mutant that expresses the baculovirus antiapoptosis gene product cpIAP under control of the LAT promoter and in place of the LAT region mentioned above. Mice were ocularly infected with this mutant, designated dLAT-cpIAP, and the reactivation phenotype was determined using the trigeminal ganglion explant model. dLAT-cpIAP had a reactivation phenotype similar to that of wild-type virus and significantly higher than that of (i) the LAT− mutant dLAT2903; (ii) dLAT1.5, a control virus containing the same LAT deletion as dLAT-cpIAP, but with no insertion of foreign DNA, thereby controlling for potential readthrough transcription past the cpIAP insert; and (iii) dLAT-EGFP, a control virus identical to dLAT-cpIAP except that it contained the enhanced green fluorescent protein open reading frame (ORF) in place of the cpIAP ORF, thereby controlling for expression of a random foreign gene instead of the cpIAP gene. These results show that an antiapoptosis gene with no sequence similarity to LAT can efficiently substitute for the LAT function involved in enhancing the in vitro-induced HSV-1 reactivation phenotype in the mouse. PMID:16160155

  15. Gene expression profile of zeitlupe/lov kelch protein1 T-DNA insertion mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana: Downregulation of auxin-inducible genes in hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Aya; Takase, Tomoyuki; Kitaki, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kiyosue, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of hypocotyl cells has been studied as a model for elucidating the contribution of cellular expansion to plant organ growth. ZEITLUPE (ZTL) or LOV KELCH PROTEIN1 (LKP1) is a positive regulator of warmth-induced hypocotyl elongation under white light in Arabidopsis, although the molecular mechanisms by which it promotes hypocotyl cell elongation remain unknown. Microarray analysis showed that 134 genes were upregulated and 204 genes including 15 auxin-inducible genes were downregulated in the seedlings of 2 ztl T-DNA insertion mutants grown under warm conditions with continuous white light. Application of a polar auxin transport inhibitor, an auxin antagonist or an auxin biosynthesis inhibitor inhibited hypocotyl elongation of control seedlings to the level observed with the ztl mutant. Our data suggest the involvement of auxin and auxin-inducible genes in ZTL-mediated hypocotyl elongation.

  16. BAG3-dependent expression of Mcl-1 confers resistance of mutant KRAS colon cancer cells to the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun Yan; Guo, Su Tang; Croft, Amanda; Yan, Xu Guang; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Xu Dong; Jiang, Chen Chen

    2018-02-01

    Past studies have shown that mutant KRAS colon cancer cells are susceptible to apoptosis induced by the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922. Nevertheless, intrinsic and acquired resistance remains an obstacle for the potential application of the inhibitor in the treatment of the disease. Here we report that Mcl-1 is important for survival of colon cancer cells in the presence of AUY922. Mcl-1 was upregulated in mutant KRAS colon cancer cells selected for resistance to AUY922-induced apoptosis. This was due to its increased stability mediated by Bcl-2-associated athanogene domain 3 (BAG3), which was also increased in resistant colon cancer cells by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) as a result of chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Functional investigations demonstrated that inhibition of Mcl-1, BAG3, or HSF1 triggered apoptosis in resistant colon cancer cells, and rendered AUY922-naïve colon cancer cells more sensitive to the inhibitor. Together, these results identify that the HSF1-BAG3-Mcl-1 signal axis is critical for protection of mutant KRAS colon cancer cells from AUY922-induced apoptosis, with potential implications for targeting HSF1/BAG3/Mcl-1 to improve the efficacy of AUY922 in the treatment of colon cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Rapid Identification of Seven Waterborne Exophiala Species by RCA DNA Padlock Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh, M J; Vicente, V A; Feng, Peiying; Naseri, A; Sun, Jiufeng; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A; de Hoog, G S

    2018-03-05

    The black yeast genus Exophiala includes numerous potential opportunistic species that potentially cause systematic and disseminated infections in immunocompetent individuals. Species causing systemic disease have ability to grow at 37-40 °C, while others consistently lack thermotolerance and are involved in diseases of cold-blooded, waterborne vertebrates and occasionally invertebrates. We explain a fast and sensitive assay for recognition and identification of waterborne Exophiala species without sequencing. The ITS rDNA region of seven Exophiala species (E. equina, E. salmonis, E. opportunistica, E. pisciphila, E. aquamarina, E. angulospora and E. castellanii) along with the close relative Veronaea botryosa was sequenced and aligned for the design of specific padlock probes for the detection of characteristic single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The assay demonstrated to successfully amplify DNA of target fungi, allowing detection at the species level. Amplification products were visualized on 1% agarose gels to confirm specificity of probe-template binding. Amounts of reagents were reduced to prevent the generation of false positive results. The simplicity, tenderness, robustness and low expenses provide padlock probe assay (RCA) a definite place as a very practical method among isothermal approaches for DNA diagnostics.

  18. Impacts of using spectral nudging on regional climate model RCA4 simulations of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Berg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA4 is investigated for the Arctic CORDEX (COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment region, with an emphasis on its suitability to be coupled to a regional ocean and sea ice model. Large biases in mean sea level pressure (MSLP are identified, with pronounced too-high pressure centred over the North Pole in summer of over 5 hPa, and too-low pressure in winter of a similar magnitude. These lead to biases in the surface winds, which will potentially lead to strong sea ice biases in a future coupled system. The large-scale circulation is believed to be the major reason for the biases, and an implementation of spectral nudging is applied to remedy the problems by constraining the large-scale components of the driving fields within the interior domain. It is found that the spectral nudging generally corrects for the MSLP and wind biases, while not significantly affecting other variables, such as surface radiative components, two-metre temperature and precipitation.

  19. Recombination reduction at the c-Si/RCA oxide interface through Ar-H2 plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landheer, Kees; Bronsveld, Paula C. P.; Poulios, Ioannis; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Kaiser, Monja; Schropp, Ruud E. I.; Rath, Jatin K.

    2017-02-01

    An Ar-H2 plasma treatment was applied on an ultrathin RCA oxide to create well-passivated silicon wafers with symmetric c-Si/SiOx:H/a-Si:H passivation layer stacks. The effective lifetime of these samples increased from 10 μs to 4 ms after annealing at 200 °C through Ar-H2 plasma treatment of the oxide. The results indicate that the plasma treatment can modify the RCA oxide and this enables atomic hydrogen diffusion at low annealing temperature, leading to a well passivated c-Si/SiOx:H interface. This might provide new possibilities to use wet chemical oxides in c-Si solar cells, for example as tunnel contacts.

  20. The contribution of the UNDP/RCA/IAEA programmes to the development of nuclear technology in the Asia Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The UNDP/RCA/IAEA Programmes are involving Member States in the Asia Pacific Region in projects to develop and increase the use of nuclear technologies. These efforts have already increased the level of awareness amongst the Region's scientists, engineers, technologists, and decision makers and has provided significant training to the scientists and engineers to enable them to play a role in technical back stopping at a national level. A new project has been started in 1993 and this will seek to expand the contribution of the nuclear technologies into further industrial and environmental fields. Much of the success of the programmes is credited to the high level of Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific

  1. Current status of food irradiation in overseas (2013). From the meeting report of RCA food irradiation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    The report introduces the activity of RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and Pacific) food irradiation project (RAS/5/057) and information obtained at the two workshops on current status of Asia and Pacific areas together with EU, USA and Japan. Also current trends of RAS/5/057 Implementing Best Practices for food irradiation for plant sanitary and phytosanitary purposes are described. Amount of food irradiation products of RCA member countries, minimum adopted doses for quarantine harmful insects (70 to 232 Gy) and import amount of fruits of USA (79 to 5500 tons) are tabulated. Finally current status of Japan is explained. (S. Ohno)

  2. Recombination reduction at the c-Si/RCA oxide interface through Ar-H2 plasma treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landheer, K.; Bronsveld, P.C.P.; Poulios, I.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Kaiser, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Rath, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    An Ar‑H2 plasma treatment was applied on an ultrathin RCA oxide to create well-passivated silicon wafers with symmetric c‑Si/SiOx:H/a‑Si:H passivation layer stacks. The effective lifetime of these samples increased from 10 μs to 4 ms after annealing at 200 °C through Ar‑H2 plasma treatment of the

  3. Analyzing the international competitiveness of the industry in Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain using revealed comparative advantages (RCA) indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Oelgemöller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the export structure of the four European countries Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain, the so called PIGS countries. These countries were all hit by the economic downturn in the course of the financial crisis and have been struggling with the national debt crisis and recession. One way to identify sectoral international competitiveness is provided by the revealed comparative advantage index developed by Balassa (RCA 1). This indicator evolved through several studie...

  4. PRIMA-1Met/APR-246 induces apoptosis and tumor growth delay in small cell lung cancer expressing mutant p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Selivanova, Galina; Christensen, Camilla Laulund

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis, necessitating the need to develop new and efficient treatment modalities. PRIMA-1(Met) (p53-dependent reactivation of massive apoptosis), also known as APR-246, is a small molecule, which restores tumor suppressor...... function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Since p53 is mutated in more than 90% of SCLC, we investigated the ability of PRIMA-1(Met) to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in SCLC with different p53 mutations....

  5. Differential gene expression in porcine SK6 cells infected with wild-type and SAP domain-mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zixin; Yang, Fan; Cao, Weijun; Zhang, Xiangle; Jin, Ye; Mao, Ruoqing; Du, Xiaoli; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Jianhong; Liu, Xiangtao; Zhu, Zixiang; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in livestock. The viral proteinase L(pro) of FMDV is involved in pathogenicity, and mutation of the L(pro) SAP domain reduces FMDV pathogenicity in pigs. To determine the gene expression profiles associated with decreased pathogenicity in porcine cells, we performed transcriptome analysis using next-generation sequencing technology and compared differentially expressed genes in SK6 cells infected with FMDV containing L(pro) with either a wild-type or mutated version of the SAP domain. This analysis yielded 1,853 genes that exhibited a ≥ 2-fold change in expression and was validated by real-time quantitative PCR detection of several differentially expressed genes. Many of the differentially expressed genes correlated with antiviral responses corresponded to genes associated with transcription factors, immune regulation, cytokine production, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. Alterations in gene expression profiles may be responsible for the variations in pathogenicity observed between the two FMDV variants. Our results provided genes of interest for the further study of antiviral pathways and pathogenic mechanisms related to FMDV L(pro).

  6. Spectrum of induced floral mutants in Petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, V.; Sudhakar, P.

    1987-01-01

    A total of six floral mutants of garden Petunia isolated from the populations raised from the seed treatment with γ-rays, 2, 4-D and sodium azide are described. Five of the mutants viz. stellata, Campyloflora, Rubriflora mixed, Grandiflora and Albiflora mixed originated as segregants in M 2 generation while the chimeral floral phenotype was expressed in M 1 generation itself. Breeding behaviour of these horticulturally interesting altered floral phenotypes were studied in subsequent generations and appropriate conclusions were drawn regarding mode of inheritance of the mutant traits. 15 refs., 4 figures, 1 table. (author)

  7. Construction and immunogenicity of replication-competent adenovirus 5 host range mutant recombinants expressing HIV-1 gp160 of SF162 and TV1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajat, Rachmat; Kuate, Seraphin; Venzon, David; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi; Kalisz, Irene; Treece, James; Lian, Ying; Barnett, Susan W; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2010-05-21

    An HIV Env immunogen capable of eliciting broad immunity is critical for a successful vaccine. We constructed and characterized adenovirus 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr) recombinants encoding HIV(SF162) gp160 (subtype B) and HIV(TV1) gp160 (subtype C). Immunization of mice with one or both induced cellular immunity to subtype B and C peptides by ELISpot, and antibody responses with high binding titers to HIV Env of subtypes A, B, C, and E. Notably, Ad5hr-HIV(TV1) gp160 induced better cellular immunity than Ad5hr-HIV(SF162) gp160, either alone or following co-administration. Thus, the TV1 Env recombinant alone may be sufficient for eliciting immune responses against both subtype B and C envelopes. Further studies of Ad5hr-HIV(TV1) gp160 in rhesus macaques will evaluate the suitability of this insert for a future phase I clinical trial using a replication-competent Ad4 vector. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Microarray Expression Analyses of Arabidopsis Guard Cells and Isolation of a Recessive Abscisic Acid Hypersensitive Protein Phosphatase 2C MutantW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Nathalie; Kwak, June M.; Robert, Nadia; Waner, David; Leonhardt, Guillaume; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2004-01-01

    Oligomer-based DNA Affymetrix GeneChips representing about one-third of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes were used to profile global gene expression in a single cell type, guard cells, identifying 1309 guard cell–expressed genes. Highly pure preparations of guard cells and mesophyll cells were isolated in the presence of transcription inhibitors that prevented induction of stress-inducible genes during cell isolation procedures. Guard cell expression profiles were compared with those of mesophyll cells, resulting in identification of 64 transcripts expressed preferentially in guard cells. Many large gene families and gene duplications are known to exist in the Arabidopsis genome, giving rise to redundancies that greatly hamper conventional genetic and functional genomic analyses. The presented genomic scale analysis identifies redundant expression of specific isoforms belonging to large gene families at the single cell level, which provides a powerful tool for functional genomic characterization of the many signaling pathways that function in guard cells. Reverse transcription–PCR of 29 genes confirmed the reliability of GeneChip results. Statistical analyses of promoter regions of abscisic acid (ABA)–regulated genes reveal an overrepresented ABA responsive motif, which is the known ABA response element. Interestingly, expression profiling reveals ABA modulation of many known guard cell ABA signaling components at the transcript level. We further identified a highly ABA-induced protein phosphatase 2C transcript, AtP2C-HA, in guard cells. A T-DNA disruption mutation in AtP2C-HA confers ABA-hypersensitive regulation of stomatal closing and seed germination. The presented data provide a basis for cell type–specific genomic scale analyses of gene function. PMID:14973164

  9. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  10. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Benjamin A; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-05-13

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in redox reactions and NAD(+)-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD(+) as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD(+) salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD(+) from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD(+) precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1-2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD(+) content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  11. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Benjamin A.; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R.; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C.; Vargas, Marcelo R.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) participates in redox reactions and NAD+-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD+-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD+ as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1–7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD+ salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD+ from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1–2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD+ content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. PMID:27002158

  12. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  13. A Report on IAEA/RCA C7-RAS 6/061-004 Training Course in Chiba, Japan in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Saga, Tsuneo; Paez, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The C7-RAS 6/061-004 training course by the International Atomic Energy Agency/Regional Cooperative Agreement (IAEA/RCA) was held in Chiba in 2014. The syllabus, pre- and post-course evaluations, and survey questionnaire results were assembled in this course. The post-course evaluation, including 32 questions similar to the pre-course evaluation, was performed right after the end of the final educational lecture. The mean score showed an improvement, with the score rising from 57.0 points at the beginning to 66.5 points at the end. Among 22 trainees, the greatest score was in a higher range, with an improvement from 82 points at the beginning to 88 points at the end. The grading distribution, with regard to the training course, was as follows: excellent (68.2%), good (31.8%), average (0%), fair (0%), and poor (0%). This report on the training course, held in Chiba in 2014, will contribute to the future global plans of IAEA/RCA. Continuous training courses in member states are required to decrease the present disparities in the knowledge level, instrumentation, and human resources

  14. An overview of the RCA/IAEA activities in the Australasian region using nuclear analysis techniques for monitoring air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) has identified air particulate matter pollution as a major transboundary environmental issue in the Australasian region. Sixteen countries in the region spanning from Pakistan to the Philippines and from China to New Zealand are participating in the regional programme RAS/7/013-Improved information of urban air quality management in the RCA region' that started in 1997. New Zealand is the lead-country for this programme in which nuclear analytical techniques, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) are used to measure key elements in PM 2.5-0 and PM 10-2.5 filters from GENT stacked samplers collected twice weekly. Major sources of air particulate matter pollution are identified using statistical source apportionment techniques. To identify transboundary air particulate matter pollution events, the data is collated in a large database. Additionally, the data is used by end-users of the participating countries in the programme. An overview is presented. (author)

  15. Modeling of C/EBPalpha mutant acute myeloid leukemia reveals a common expression signature of committed myeloid leukemia-initiating cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstetter, Peggy; Schuster, Mikkel B; Bereshchenko, Oksana

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the CEBPA gene are present in 7%-10% of human patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, no genetic models exist that demonstrate their etiological relevance. To mimic the most common mutations affecting CEBPA-that is, those leading to loss of the 42 kDa C/EBPalpha isoform (p...... penetrance. p42-deficient leukemia could be transferred by a Mac1+c-Kit+ population that gave rise only to myeloid cells in recipient mice. Expression profiling of this population against normal Mac1+c-Kit+ progenitors revealed a signature shared with MLL-AF9-transformed AML.......42) while retaining the 30kDa isoform (p30)-we modified the mouse Cebpa locus to express only p30. p30 supported the formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. However, p42 was required for control of myeloid progenitor proliferation, and p42-deficient mice developed AML with complete...

  16. Complementation Studies of Bacteriophage λ O Amber Mutants by Allelic Forms of O Expressed from Plasmid, and O-P Interaction Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sidney; Rajamanickam, Karthic; Hayes, Connie

    2018-04-05

    λ genes O and P are required for replication initiation from the bacteriophage λ origin site, ori λ, located within gene O . Questions have persisted for years about whether O-defects can indeed be complemented in trans . We show the effect of original null mutations in O and the influence of four origin mutations (three are in-frame deletions and one is a point mutation) on complementation. This is the first demonstration that O proteins with internal deletions can complement for O activity, and that expression of the N-terminal portion of gene P can completely prevent O complementation. We show that O-P co-expression can limit the lethal effect of P on cell growth. We explore the influence of the contiguous small RNA OOP on O complementation and P-lethality.

  17. A prime/boost strategy by DNA/fowlpox recombinants expressing a mutant E7 protein for the immunotherapy of HPV-associated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Antonia; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Zanotto, Carlo; Pacchioni, Sole; Bissa, Massimiliano; Franconi, Rosella; Massa, Silvia; Paolini, Francesca; Muller, Antonio; Venuti, Aldo

    2012-12-01

    Development of effective therapeutic vaccines against human papilloma virus (HPV) infections remains a priority, considering the high number of new cases of cervical cancer each year by high-risk HPVs, in particular by HPV-16. Vaccines expressing the E7 oncoprotein, which is detectable in all HPV-positive pre-cancerous and cancer cells, might clear already established tumors and support the treatment of HPV-related lesions. In this study, DNA or fowlpox virus recombinants expressing the harmless variant E7GGG of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein (DNA(E7GGG) and FP(E7GGG)) were generated. Two immunization regimens were tested in a pre-clinical mouse model by homologous (FP/FP) or heterologous (DNA/FP) prime-boost protocols to evaluate the immune response and therapeutic efficacy of the proposed HPV-16 vaccine. Low levels of anti-E7-specific antibodies were elicited after immunization, and in vivo experiments resulted in a higher number of tumor-free mice after the heterologous immunization. These results establish a preliminary indication for therapy of HPV-related tumors by the combined use of DNA and avipox recombinants, which might represent safer immunogens than vaccinia-based vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Maringer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA, and dominant negative (DN forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell–cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses.

  19. Widely Used Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 Deletion Mutant Strain dl1403 and Its Derivative Viruses Do Not Express Glycoprotein C Due to a Secondary Mutation in the gC Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina W Cunha

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 ICP0 is a multi-functional phosphoprotein expressed with immediate early kinetics. An ICP0 deletion mutant, HSV-1 dl1403, has been widely used to study the roles of ICP0 in the HSV-1 replication cycle including gene expression, latency, entry and assembly. We show that HSV-1 dl1403 virions lack detectable levels of envelope protein gC, and that gC is not synthesized in infected cells. Sequencing of the gC gene from HSV-1 dl1403 revealed a single amino acid deletion that results in a frameshift mutation. The HSV-1 dl1403 gC gene is predicted to encode a polypeptide consisting of the original 62 N-terminal amino acids of the gC protein followed by 112 irrelevant, non-gC residues. The mutation was also present in a rescuant virus and in two dl1403-derived viruses, D8 and FXE, but absent from the parental 17+, suggesting that the mutation was introduced during the construction of the dl1403 virus, and not as a result of passage in culture.

  20. Pharmacological and functional characterisation of the wild-type and site-directed mutants of the human H1 histamine receptor stably expressed in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguilevsky, N; Varsalona, F; Guillaume, J P; Noyer, M; Gillard, M; Daliers, J; Henichart, J P; Bollen, A

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA clone for the human histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a lung cDNA library and stably expressed in CHO cells. The recombinant receptor protein present in the cell membranes, displayed the functional and binding characteristics of histamine H1 receptors. Mutation of Ser155 to Ala in the fourth transmembrane domain did not significantly change the affinity of the receptor for histamine and H1 antagonists. However, mutation of the fifth transmembrane Asn198 to Ala resulted in a dramatic decrease of the affinity for histamine binding, and for the histamine-induced polyphosphoinositides breakdown, whereas the affinity towards antagonists was not significantly modified. In addition, mutation of another fifth transmembrane amino acid, Thr194 to Ala also diminished, but to a lesser extent, the affinity for histamine. These data led us to propose a molecular model for histamine interaction with the human H1 receptor. In this model, the amide moiety of Asn198 and the hydroxyl group of Thr194 are involved in hydrogen bonding with the nitrogen atoms of the imidazole ring of histamine. Moreover, mutation of Thr194 to Ala demonstrated that this residue is responsible for the discrimination between enantiomers of cetirizine.

  1. Generation of herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM)-restricted herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant viruses: resistance of HVEM-expressing cells and identification of mutations that rescue nectin-1 recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroaki; Shah, Waris A; Ozuer, Ali; Frampton, Arthur R; Goins, William F; Grandi, Paola; Cohen, Justus B; Glorioso, Joseph C

    2009-04-01

    Both initial infection and cell-to-cell spread by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) require the interaction of the viral glycoprotein D (gD) with an entry receptor on the cell surface. The two major HSV entry receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, mediate infection independently but are coexpressed on a variety of cells. To determine if both receptors are active in these instances, we have established mutant viruses that are selectively impaired for recognition of one or the other receptor. In plaque assays, these viruses showed approximately 1,000-fold selectivity for the matched receptor over the mismatched receptor. Separate assays showed that each virus is impaired for both infection and spread through the mismatched receptor. We tested several human tumor cell lines for susceptibility to these viruses and observed that HT29 colon carcinoma cells are susceptible to infection by nectin-1-restricted virus but are highly resistant to HVEM-restricted virus infection, despite readily detectable HVEM expression on the cell surface. HVEM cDNA isolated from HT29 cells rendered HSV-resistant cells permissive for infection by the HVEM-restricted virus, suggesting that HT29 cells lack a cofactor for HVEM-mediated infection or express an HVEM-specific inhibitory factor. Passaging of HVEM-restricted virus on nectin-1-expressing cells yielded a set of gD missense mutations that each restored functional recognition of nectin-1. These mutations identify residues that likely play a role in shaping the nectin-1 binding site of gD. Our findings illustrate the utility of these receptor-restricted viruses in studying the early events in HSV infection.

  2. Function, expression and localization of annexin A7 in platelets and red blood cells: Insights derived from an annexin A7 mutant mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamparelli Carlotta

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annexin A7 is a Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding protein expressed as a 47 and 51 kDa isoform, which is thought to be involved in membrane fusion processes. Recently the 47 kDa isoform has been identified in erythrocytes where it was proposed to be a key component in the process of the Ca2+-dependent vesicle release, a process with which red blood cells might protect themselves against an attack by for example complement components. Results The role of annexin A7 in red blood cells was addressed in erythrocytes from anxA7-/- mice. Interestingly, the Ca2+-mediated vesiculation process was not impaired. Also, the membrane organization appeared not to be disturbed as assessed using gradient fractionation studies. Instead, lack of annexin A7 led to an altered cell shape and increased osmotic resistance of red blood cells. Annexin A7 was also identified in platelets. In these cells its loss led to a slightly slower aggregation velocity which seems to be compensated by an increased number of platelets. The results appear to rule out an important role of annexin A7 in membrane fusion processes occurring in red blood cells. Instead the protein might be involved in the organization of the membrane cytoskeleton. Red blood cells may represent an appropriate model to study the role of annexin A7 in cellular processes. Conclusion We have demonstrated the presence of both annexin A7 isoforms in red blood cells and the presence of the small isoform in platelets. In both cell types the loss of annexin A7 impairs cellular functions. The defects observed are however not compatible with a crucial role for annexin A7 in membrane fusion processes in these cell types.

  3. [Architecture of the X chromosome, expression of LIM kinase 1, and recombination in the agnostic mutants of Drosophila: a model of human Williams syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvateeva-Popova, E V; Peresleni, A I; Sharagina, L M; Medvedeva, A V; Korochkina, S E; Grigor'eva, I V; Diuzhikova, N A; Popov, A V; Baricheva, E M; Karagodin, D; Heisenberg, M

    2004-06-01

    As the Human Genome and Drosophila Genome Projects were completed, it became clear that functions of human disease-associated genes may be elucidated by studying the phenotypic expression of mutations affecting their structural or functional homologs in Drosophila. Genomic diseases were identified as a new class of human disorders. Their cause is recombination, which takes place at gene-flanking duplicons to generate chromosome aberrations such as deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations. The resulting imbalance of the dosage of developmentally important genes arises at a frequency of 10(-3) (higher than the mutation rate of individual genes) and leads to syndromes with multiple manifestations, including cognitive defects. Genomic DNA fragments were cloned from the Drosophila melanogaster agnostic locus, whose mutations impair learning ability and memory. As a result, the locus was exactly localized in X-chromosome region 11A containing the LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) gene (CG1848), which is conserved among many species. Hemizygosity for the LIMK1 gene, which is caused by recombination at neighboring extended repeats, underlies cognitive disorders in human Williams syndrome. LIMK1 is a component of the integrin signaling cascade, which regulates the functions of the actin cytoskeleton, synaptogenesis, and morphogenesis in the developing brain. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed LIMK1 in all subdomains of the central complex and the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster. Like in the human genome, the D. melanogaster region is flanked by numerous repeats, which were detected by molecular genetic methods and analysis of ectopic chromosome pairing. The repeats determined a higher rate of spontaneous and induced recombination. including unequal crossing over, in the agnostic gene region. Hence, the agnostic locus was considered as the first D. melanogaster model suitable for studying the genetic defect associated with Williams syndrome in human.

  4. Special report for UNDP on regional RCA project for Asia and the Pacific on industrial applications of isotopes and radiation technology. Technical, economic and commercial analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report contains seven sub-projects for RCA countries on the following problems: tracer technology in industry; non-destructive testing practice; radiation processing; nucleonic control systems for paper manufacture and steel manufacture; mineral exploration, mining and process control; nuclear instruments maintenance practices

  5. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    target site. Finally, the RCA product inside the cells was detected by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The optimized protocol showed high specificity and signal-to-noise ratio but low detection frequency (up to 15% for single-copy genes and up to 43% for the multi-copy 16S rRNA gene...... as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells.......). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS-defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified...

  6. Predictive value of mutant p53 expression index obtained from nonenhanced computed tomography measurements for assessing invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1 Jian Li,2 Ransheng Liu,1 Aixu Zhang,1 Zhiyong Yuan1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To predict p53 expression index (p53-EI based on measurements from computed tomography (CT for preoperatively assessing pathologies of nodular ground-glass opacities (nGGOs. Methods: Information of 176 cases with nGGOs on high-resolution CT that were pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma was collected. Diameters, total volumes (TVs, maximum (MAX, average (AVG, and standard deviation (STD of CT attenuations within nGGOs were measured. p53-EI was evaluated through immunohistochemistry with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. A multiple linear stepwise regression model was established to calculate p53-EI prediction from CT measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of variables in differentiating preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA, and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC. Results: Diameters, TVs, MAX, AVG, and STD showed significant differences among PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (all P-values <0.001, with only MAX being incapable to differentiate MIAs from IACs (P=0.106. The mean p53-EIs of PIAs, MIAs, and IACs were 3.4±2.0, 7.2±1.9, and 9.8±2.7, with significant intergroup differences (all P-values <0.001. An equation was established by multiple linear regression as: p53-EI prediction =0.001* TVs +0.012* AVG +0.022* STD +9.345, through which p53-EI predictions were calculated to be 4.4%±1.0%, 6.8%±1.3%, and 8.5%±1.4% for PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (Kruskal–Wallis test P<0.001; Tamhane’s T2 test: PIA vs MIA P<0.001, MIA vs IAC P<0.001, respectively. Although not significant, p53-EI prediction

  7. The IAEA regional cooperative agreement programme (RCA) on enhancement and harmonization of radiation protection in the Asia-Pacific Region (1998-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.F.; Oresegun, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) was initiated in 1972, and currently consists of 17 Member States from East Asia and Oceania. These countries are Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The RCA is one of three cooperative agreements under the aegis of the IAEA, the other two being for Africa (AFRA) and Latin America (ARCAL). The RCA agreement has been extended five times, as it meets particular needs of the participating countries. The region covered by the RCA comprises nearly half of the world's population and is undergoing a rapid expansion in nuclear power development and in the uses of radiation sources (radioactive materials and irradiating equipment). A number of activities in a wide range of areas of Agency interest are carried out under RCA. The Project to Strengthen Radiation Protection Infrastructures was initiated in 1988, as a five year programme, to offer a regional response to some of the radiation protection issues that were raised following the Chernobyl accident. It was extended into Phase 2 from 1993 to 1998 and has now reached a new phase. The IAEA has a dual role to establish standards in radiation protection and safety and to provide for their application. Since the status of the implementation of radiation safety laws and regulations is variable within the RCA countries, the primary focus has been on providing assistance to member states in the drafting of laws and regulations to ensure that sources are authorized and are properly controlled. A number of accidents worldwide have resulted from inappropriate or a complete lack of regulations on the control of sources. However as countries develop, their needs change and it is important that the RCA project in radiation protection changes with them. Hence the new Phase 3 programme in radiation protection has a mixture of events to strengthen radiation

  8. Productive mutants of niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of six niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) varieties ('GA-10', 'ONS-8', 'IGP-72', 'N-71', 'NB-9' and 'UN-4') were treated with 0.5, 0.75 and 1% ethyl methanesulphonate. After four generations of selection, 29 mutant lines were developed and those were evaluated from 1990-92 during Kharif (July to October) and Rabi (December to March) seasons. Average plant characteristics and yield data of four high yielding mutants along with 'IGP-76' (National Check), GA-10 (Zonal Check) and 'Semiliguda Local' (Local Check) are presented

  9. Experience with WASP and MAED among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The report includes the proceedings and papers presented during the workshop on the experience with WASP/MAED computer programs among IAEA Member States participating in the regional co-operative agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region, organized by the IAEA and held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) between 5-9 December 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. The Text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Latest Status. Extension of Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, t he 1987 RCA , is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [es

  11. The Text of the Fifth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Text of the Fifth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status [es

  12. The Text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [es

  13. The Text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  14. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  15. Bacterio-opsin mutants of Halobacterium halobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlach, Mary; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Friedman, James; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1983-01-01

    The bacterio-opsin (bop) gene of Halobacterium halobium R1 has been cloned with about 40 kilobases of flanking genomic sequence. The 40-kilobase segment is derived from the (G+C)-rich fraction of the chromosome and is not homologous to the major (pHH1) or minor endogenous covalently closed circular DNA species of H. halobium. A 5.1-kilobase Pst I fragment containing the bop gene was subcloned in pBR322 and a partial restriction map was determined. Defined restriction fragments of this clone were used as probes to analyze the defects associated with the bop gene in 12 bacterio-opsin mutants. Eleven out of 12 of the mutants examined had inserts ranging from 350 to 3,000 base pairs either in the bop gene or up to 1,400 base pairs upstream. The positions of the inserts were localized to four regions in the 5.1-kilobase genomic fragment: within the gene (one mutant), in a region that overlaps the 5′ end of the gene (seven mutants), and in two different upstream regions (three mutants). Two revertants of the mutant with the most distal insert had an additional insert in the same region. The polar effects of these inserts are discussed in terms of inactivation of a regulatory gene or disruption of part of a coordinately expressed operon. Given the defined nature of the bop mRNA—i.e., it has a 5′ leader sequence of three ribonucleotides—these observations indicate that the bop mRNA might be processed from a large mRNA transcript. Images PMID:16593291

  16. Identification of a novel ga-related bush mutant in pumpkin (cucurbita moschata duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Cao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) bush mutant plants were characterized by short stems. The sensitivity of pumpkin bush mutant plants to exogenous hormones was identified in this study. Results revealed that internode elongation of bush mutant plants could respond to gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), but not to indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroids (BR); by contrast, the mutant phenotype of bush mutant plants could not be fully rescued by GA4+7 and GA3. The internode of bush mutant plants yielded a lower KS expression level than that of vine plants. Therefore, pumpkin bush mutant plants were designated as GA-related mutant plants eliciting a partial response to GAs; the action of IAA and BR might not be involved in the internode growth of pumpkin bush mutant plants, specifically Cucurbita moschata Duch. (author)

  17. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yee, J.; Mitchell, D.L.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  18. Construindo Marcas Mutantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete De Azevedo Kreutz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é o resultado de estudos realizados desde 2000 e busca instrumentalizar os proñssionals para a construção de Marcas Mutantes, que é   uma tendência contemporânea nas estratégias comunicacionais e de branding. Embora esta estratégia ainda não esteja consolidada, observamos que a mesma tem obtido um crescimento constante e tem sido adotadas pelas mais diferentes categorias de marcas e não apenas por aquelas direcionadas aos jovens, ao esporte, ao entretenimento, como era no principia. Com base na Hermenêutica de Profundidade de Thompson (1995, alicerçada nas pesquisas bibliográficas, de intemet, entrevistas e análise semiótica, desenhamos um método de construção de Marcas Mutantes dividido em sete fases. Como resultado, esperamos que este estudo possa auxiliar na compreensão dos processos envolvidos, ao mesmo tempo que provoque a discussão sobreo mesmo e, por consequência, o seu aprimoramento.

  19. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  20. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  1. Purkinje Cell Compartmentation in the Cerebellum of the Lysosomal Acid Phosphatase 2 Mutant Mouse (Nax - Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Karen; Rahimi Balaei, Maryam; Mannan, Ashraf; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Marzban, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The Acp2 gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase, which is an isoenzyme that hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in Acp2 results in severe cerebellar defects. These include a reduced size, abnormal lobulation, and an apparent anterior cerebellar disorder with an absent or hypoplastic vermis. Based on differential gene expression in the cerebellum, the mouse cerebellar cortex can normally be compartmentalized anteroposteriorly into four transverse zones and mediolaterally into parasagittal stripes. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed using various Purkinje cell compartmentation markers to examine their expression patterns in the Acp2 mutant. Despite the abnormal lobulation and anterior cerebellar defects, zebrin II and PLCβ4 showed similar expression patterns in the nax mutant and wild type cerebellum. However, fewer stripes were found in the anterior zone of the nax mutant, which could be due to a lack of Purkinje cells or altered expression of the stripe markers. HSP25 expression was uniform in the central zone of the nax mutant cerebellum at around postnatal day (P) 18–19, suggesting that HSP25 immunonegative Purkinje cells are absent or delayed in stripe pattern expression compared to the wild type. HSP25 expression became heterogeneous around P22–23, with twice the number of parasagittal stripes in the nax mutant compared to the wild type. Aside from reduced size and cortical disorganization, both the posterior zone and nodular zone in the nax mutant appeared less abnormal than the rest of the cerebellum. From these results, it is evident that the anterior zone of the nax mutant cerebellum is the most severely affected, and this extends beyond the primary fissure into the rostral central zone/vermis. This suggests that ACP2 has critical roles in the development of the anterior cerebellum and it may regulate anterior and central zone compartmentation. PMID:24722417

  2. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  3. Studies of Genetic Differences between KDML 105 and its Photo period-insensitive Mutants using DNA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Klakhaeng, Kanchana; Phadvibulya, Valailak

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Photo period-insensitive mutants of KDML 105 could be planted for grains during and outside the regular cropping season. From genetic studies, the mutant characteristics appeared recessive. A DNA-fingerprinting technique was used to compare gene expression profiles in the leaves of mutants and KDML 105. Differences in the level of expression were found for several loci. Examination of the essential part of the gene for fragrance showed no differences between the mutants and the parental KDML 105

  4. A series of N-terminal epitope tagged Hdh knock-in alleles expressing normal and mutant huntingtin: their application to understanding the effect of increasing the length of normal huntingtin’s polyglutamine stretch on CAG140 mouse model pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shuqiu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington’s disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ stretch within Huntingtin (htt, the protein product of the HD gene. Although studies in vitro have suggested that the mutant htt can act in a potentially dominant negative fashion by sequestering wild-type htt into insoluble protein aggregates, the role of the length of the normal htt polyQ stretch, and the adjacent proline-rich region (PRR in modulating HD mouse model pathogenesis is currently unknown. Results We describe the generation and characterization of a series of knock-in HD mouse models that express versions of the mouse HD gene (Hdh encoding N-terminal hemaglutinin (HA or 3xFlag epitope tagged full-length htt with different polyQ lengths (HA7Q-, 3xFlag7Q-, 3xFlag20Q-, and 3xFlag140Q-htt and substitution of the adjacent mouse PRR with the human PRR (3xFlag20Q- and 3xFlag140Q-htt. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry analyses, we detect no significant interaction between soluble full-length normal 7Q- htt and mutant (140Q htt, but we do observe N-terminal fragments of epitope-tagged normal htt in mutant htt aggregates. When the sequences encoding normal mouse htt’s polyQ stretch and PRR are replaced with non-pathogenic human sequence in mice also expressing 140Q-htt, aggregation foci within the striatum, and the mean size of htt inclusions are increased, along with an increase in striatal lipofuscin and gliosis. Conclusion In mice, soluble full-length normal and mutant htt are predominantly monomeric. In heterozygous knock-in HD mouse models, substituting the normal mouse polyQ and PRR with normal human sequence can exacerbate some neuropathological phenotypes.

  5. PENGURANGAN DEFECT PADA PRODUK SEPATU DENGAN MENGINTEGRASIKAN STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC DAN ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS (RCA STUDI KASUS PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Teguh Fajrin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available PT. XYZ is a foreign capital investment companies are located in one area of town of Sidoarjo which has more than 7000 employees in it and of course want to have a high quality product . PT footwear products. XYZ is the world quality products that promote the quality and comfort of the wearer. Problems that occur in the production process of PT . XYZ of 7 -injection engine that has the most number of engine defect is 5.6 and 7. Quality products at heavily influence the shoe production to consumers. If damaged, then the product can not be distributed to consumers .Therefore , the quality of the shoes must be maintained for the successful marketing of the product. From our previous improvements made in reducing the defect in the production process , but the result is less than optimal , so do research that aims to make improvements again with another method . The method used in this research is to apply the methods of Statistical Processing Control (SPC and Root Cause Analysis (RCA. The results of the check sheet analysis and Pareto diagram can be seen the frequency of product defects (defects over roughing most occurred in March 2016 as many as 345 shoes (62% of the total production of 489 products. Then the second frequency in February 2016 as many as 214 shoes (38% of the total production of 357 products. And from the image Control Chart P can be concluded that the data are in a state of uncontrolled. Because of all these 50 data, there is one data point that is outside the control limits (out of control, on the 4th point the data has a value of the proportion of 1, beyond the limits Upper Control Limit (UCL is equal to 0.938. During the dots located within the boundaries of a controller, a process is under controlled conditions, and no action required. However, one point that lies outside the control limit is interpreted as the fact that the quality control in the production process (injection PT. XYZ uncontrolled or still experiencing

  6. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  7. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  8. L'amélioration des techniques de transformation du manioc en cossettes en RCA : rouissage en vase clos et séchage en encage thermique

    OpenAIRE

    Rasoanantoandro-Gothard , Marie Céline

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Le manioc constitue l'aliment de base en République centrafricaine (RCA). La population le consomme sous diverses formes: tubercule sans préparation (consommé cuit), chickouangue, bouillie, soupe, grillé ou braisé (roui ou non roui), sous forme de pâte cuite préparée à partir de la farine de cossettes. Plus de 80% de la population centrafricaine consomme le manioc sous forme de pâte cuite préparée à partir de la farine de cossette et plus de 50% des besoins énergétique...

  9. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  10. Human liver cell trafficking mutants: characterization and whole exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    Full Text Available The HuH7 liver cell mutant Trf1 is defective in membrane trafficking and is complemented by the casein kinase 2α subunit CK2α''. Here we identify characteristic morphologies, trafficking and mutational changes in six additional HuH7 mutants Trf2-Trf7. Trf1 cells were previously shown to be severely defective in gap junction functions. Using a Lucifer yellow transfer assay, remarkable attenuation of gap junction communication was revealed in each of the mutants Trf2-Trf7. Electron microscopy and light microscopy of thiamine pyrophosphatase showed that several mutants exhibited fragmented Golgi apparatus cisternae compared to parental HuH7 cells. Intracellular trafficking was investigated using assays of transferrin endocytosis and recycling and VSV G secretion. Surface binding of transferrin was reduced in all six Trf2-Trf7 mutants, which generally correlated with the degree of reduced expression of the transferrin receptor at the cell surface. The mutants displayed the same transferrin influx rates as HuH7, and for efflux rate, only Trf6 differed, having a slower transferrin efflux rate than HuH7. The kinetics of VSV G transport along the exocytic pathway were altered in Trf2 and Trf5 mutants. Genetic changes unique to particular Trf mutants were identified by exome sequencing, and one was investigated in depth. The novel mutation Ile34Phe in the GTPase RAB22A was identified in Trf4. RNA interference knockdown of RAB22A or overexpression of RAB22AI34F in HuH7 cells caused phenotypic changes characteristic of the Trf4 mutant. In addition, the Ile34Phe mutation reduced both guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of RAB22A. Thus, the RAB22A Ile34Phe mutation appears to contribute to the Trf4 mutant phenotype.

  11. X-ray-induced mutants resistant to 8-azaguanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, J.H.; Dewey, W.C.; Hopwood, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Asynchronous Chinese hamster ovary cells were irradiated and colony survival in Alpha MEM medium with dialyzed serum was determined with or without 15 μg/ml 8-Azaguanine (AG). Data indicated that a reproducible assay for the system was dependent upon controlling cell density at least two days prior to induction as well as throughout the expression period. Generally, spontaneous and radiation-induced mutant frequencies decreased when cell densities exceeded a critical density of 3-6 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 . Infrequently, the critical density was exceeded by a factor of two with no observed decrease, possibly correlated with a longer cell doubling time. Drug depletion artifacts can occur because of drug degradation, or because wild-type cells utilize the drug or produce conditions which reduce uptake of the drug. Thus, as the effective drug concentration is lowered, the observed mutant frequency increases because a spectrum of mutants resistant to only low concentrations can now survive. In fact, refeeding with AG at intervals during the incubation period lowered spontaneous and radiation-induced frequencies approx. 5-fold. Therefore, to standardize conditions, cells were trypsinized at the end of the expression time and replated at a constant cell number for mutant selection by AG. Over two generations of growth during the expression period were required for optimal manifestation of induced mutants, and when densities were kept below 4 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 at all times, observed mutant frequencies did not change significantly over a period between 80 and 140 h post-induction (over 4 generations for irradiated cells and over 6 generations for controls). Previous reports of observed mutant frequencies decreasing beyond three generations may be due to cell interaction prior to mutant selection

  12. Aplicación de la tribología y el análisis de la causa raíz (RCA en motores de combustión interna. // Application of tribology and root cause analysis (RCA on diesel engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Pérez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo, se hace empleo de la herramienta de trabajo Análisis de la Causa Raíz (RCA para llegar a unas primerasconclusiones acerca de fallos producidos en el nudo tribológico válvula – guía de válvula en un motor de combustióninterna, y así pasar a hallar la causa final y dar solución al problema. El método permite arribar a conclusiones en cuanto ala causa del problema.Palabras claves: Tribología, Análisis causa raíz, RCA, desgaste, motor de combustión interna.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract:It is used the process root cause in the analysis of a problem in the tribological pair valve- valve guide of an internalcombustion engine. Using this process was possible to have the first conclusions in the problem and finally to arriveto a final conclusion about the cause of the problem.Key words: Tribology, RCA, wear, engine.

  13. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  14. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  15. Estudo de Caso: Análise de um Relatório de Controle Ambiental (RCA Referente à Atividade de Levantamento Sísmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Leonardo Morais Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda a análise de um Relatório de Controle Ambiental (RCA, da atividade de sísmica, submetido à obtenção de licenciamento ambiental junto ao Instituto de Defesa do Meio Ambiente – IDEMA. Realiza uma comparação dos itens exigidos no Termo de Referência (TR do IDEMA com o Estudo ambiental citado, a fim de identificar se todos os itens exigidos legalmente foram contemplados no RCA e se os mesmos estão em conformidade com o Termo. Utiliza a técnica de estudo de impacto ambiental baseado em um contexto legal que estabelece requisitos a serem observados e procedimentos a serem cumpridos, tal técnica é a análise formal da qualidade de um estudo ambiental. Verifica, também, a repetição ou não das principais deficiências apontadas no elemento Mitigação e compensação de impactos com base no estudo do Ministério Público Federal - MPF, a partir da técnica de análise de conteúdo de estudo ambiental.

  16. Indy mutants: live long and prosper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eFrankel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indy encodes the fly homologue of a mammalian transporter of di and tricarboxylatecomponents of the Krebs cycle. Reduced expression of fly Indy or two of the C. elegansIndy homologs leads to an increase in life span. Fly and worm tissues that play key roles inintermediary metabolism are also the places where Indy genes are expressed. One of themouse homologs of Indy (mIndy is mainly expressed in the liver. It has been hypothesizedthat decreased INDY activity creates a state similar to caloric restriction (CR. Thishypothesis is supported by the physiological similarities between Indy mutant flies on highcalorie food and control flies on CR, such as increased physical activity and decreases inweight, egg production, triglyceride levels, starvation resistance, and insulin signaling. Inaddition, Indy mutant flies undergo changes in mitochondrial biogenesis also observed inCR animals. Recent findings with mIndy knockout mice support and extend the findingsfrom flies. mIndy-/- mice display an increase in hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis, lipidoxidation and decreased hepatic lipogenesis. When mIndy-/- mice are fed high calorie foodthey are protected from adiposity and insulin resistance. These findings point to INDY as apotential drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  17. Is auxin involved in the induction of genetic instability in barley homeotic double mutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2018-02-01

    The triggers of genetic instability in barley homeotic double mutants are tweaky spike -type mutations associated with an auxin imbalance in separate spike phytomeres. Barley homeotic tweaky spike;Hooded (tw;Hd) double mutants are characterized by an inherited instability of spike and flower development, which is absent in the single parental constituents. The aim of the present study was to show that the trigger of genetic instability in the double mutants is the tw mutations, which are associated with an auxin imbalance in the developing spikes. Their pleiotropic effects on genes related to spike/flower development may cause the genetic instability of double mutants. The study of four double-mutant groups composed of different mutant alleles showed that the instability arose only if the mutant allele tw was a constituent of the double mutants. Application of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) demonstrated the relationship of the instability of the double mutants and the phenotype of the tw mutants to auxin imbalance. 2,4-D induced phenocopies of the tw mutation in wild-type plants and rescued the phenotypes of three allelic tw mutants. The differential display (dd-PCR) method allowed the identification of several putative candidate genes in tw that may be responsible for the initiation of instability in the double mutants by pleiotropic variations of their expression in the tw mutant associated with auxin imbalance in the developing spikes. The results of the present study linked the genetic instability of homeotic double mutants with an auxin imbalance caused by one of the constituents (tw). The genetic instability of the double mutants in relation to auxin imbalance was studied for the first time. A matrocliny on instability expression was also observed.

  18. Direct detection of RNA in vitro and in situ by target-primed RCA: The impact of E. coli RNase III on the detection efficiency of RNA sequences distanced far from the 3'-end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiene, Egle; Gaidamaviciute, Edita; Riauba, Laurynas; Janulaitis, Arvydas; Lagunavicius, Arunas

    2010-08-01

    We improved the target RNA-primed RCA technique for direct detection and analysis of RNA in vitro and in situ. Previously we showed that the 3' --> 5' single-stranded RNA exonucleolytic activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase converts the target RNA into a primer and uses it for RCA initiation. However, in some cases, the single-stranded RNA exoribonucleolytic activity of the polymerase is hindered by strong double-stranded structures at the 3'-end of target RNAs. We demonstrate that in such hampered cases, the double-stranded RNA-specific Escherichia coli RNase III efficiently assists Phi29 DNA polymerase in converting the target RNA into a primer. These observations extend the target RNA-primed RCA possibilities to test RNA sequences distanced far from the 3'-end and customize this technique for the inner RNA sequence analysis.

  19. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  20. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  1. Mutants induced in winter rye (Secale cereale L.): Short straw-mutant No. 2714 and late-senescence mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, S; Darlewska, M [Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutants were induced by treating dormant seeds with ionizing radiation (fast neutrons) or chemicals (N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea or sodium azide). Among several mutants obtained, of special value is the short-straw mutant No. 2714 and a late senescent mutant. (author)

  2. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  3. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast. Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  4. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491-511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process.

  5. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491–511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process. (paper)

  6. Human GLTP and mutant forms of ACD11 suppress cell death in the Arabidopsis acd11 mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nikolaj H T; McKinney, Lea V; Pike, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis acd11 mutant exhibits runaway, programmed cell death due to the loss of a putative sphingosine transfer protein (ACD11) with homology to mammalian GLTP. We demonstrate that transgenic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of human GLTP partially suppressed the phenotype of the acd11...

  7. Alterations in biochemical and physiological characters in radiation-induced mutants of grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    Selected examples from different grain legumes are studied. The biochemically and physiologically detectable alterations in distintc characters as caused by the action of mutant genes are presented comparatively. The interactions between different mutant genes in order to evaluated the influence of the genotypic constitution on the expression of mutated genes are emphasized. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Mutant matrix metalloproteinase-9 reduces postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Hussein; El-Rehany, Mahmoud; Roeb, Elke; Abdel-Ghany, Hend; Ramzy, Maggie; Gaber, Shereen

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesions continue to be a major source of morbidity and occasional mortality. Studies have shown that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels are decreased postoperatively which may limits matrix degradation and participate in the development of peritoneal adhesions. In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the effect of gene therapy with catalytically inactive mutant MMP-9 on postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats. Adenovirus encoding mutant MMP-9 (Ad-mMMP-9) or saline was instilled in the peritoneal cavity after cecal and parietal peritoneal injury in rats. Expression of mutant MMP-9 transcript was verified by sequencing. Adenovirus E4 gene expression, adhesion scores, MMP-9, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression were evaluated at sacrifice one week after treatment. Both mutant MMP-9 transcripts and adenovirus E4 gene were expressed in Ad-mMMP-9 treated adhesions. Adhesions severity decreased significantly (p = 0.036) in the Ad-mMMP-9-treated compared with saline-treated adhesions. Expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein were elevated (p = 0.001 and p = 0.029, respectively) in the Ad-mMMP-9-treated adhesions compared with saline-treated adhesions. While tPA levels were increased (p = 0.02) in Ad-mMMP-9 treated adhesions compared with saline-treated adhesions, TGF-β1 and PAI-1 levels were decreased (p = 0.017 and p = 0.042, respectively). No difference in mortality were found between groups (p = 0.64). Mutant MMP-9 gene therapy effectively transduced peritoneal adhesions resulting in reduction of severity of primary peritoneal adhesions. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  10. Detection of DNA polymorphisms in Dendrobium Sonia White mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Putri Noor Faizah Megat Mohd Tahir; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2006-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia white mutant lines were obtained through gamma ray induced mutation of purple flower Dendrobium Sonia at dosage 35 Gy. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to compare genomic variations in these mutant lines with the control. Our objectives were to detect polymorphic fragments from these mutants to provide useful information on genes involving in flower colour expression. AFLP is a PCR based DNA fingerprinting technique. It involves digestion of DNA with restriction enzymes, ligation of adapter and selective amplification using primer with one (pre-amplification) and three (selective amplification) arbitrary nucleotides. A total number of 20 primer combinations have been tested and 7 produced clear fingerprint patterns. Of these, 13 polymorphic bands have been successfully isolate and cloned. (Author)

  11. Mutant power: using mutant allele collections for yeast functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kaitlyn L; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    The budding yeast has long served as a model eukaryote for the functional genomic analysis of highly conserved signaling pathways, cellular processes and mechanisms underlying human disease. The collection of reagents available for genomics in yeast is extensive, encompassing a growing diversity of mutant collections beyond gene deletion sets in the standard wild-type S288C genetic background. We review here three main types of mutant allele collections: transposon mutagen collections, essential gene collections and overexpression libraries. Each collection provides unique and identifiable alleles that can be utilized in genome-wide, high-throughput studies. These genomic reagents are particularly informative in identifying synthetic phenotypes and functions associated with essential genes, including those modeled most effectively in complex genetic backgrounds. Several examples of genomic studies in filamentous/pseudohyphal backgrounds are provided here to illustrate this point. Additionally, the limitations of each approach are examined. Collectively, these mutant allele collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans promise insights toward an advanced understanding of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Andrographolide induces degradation of mutant p53 via activation of Hsp70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirofumi; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Namba, Takushi; Egawa, Noriyuki; Baba, Koichi; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2018-05-22

    The tumor suppressor gene p53 encodes a transcription factor that regulates various cellular functions, including DNA repair, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Approximately half of all human cancers carry mutations in p53 that lead to loss of tumor suppressor function or gain of functions that promote the cancer phenotype. Thus, targeting mutant p53 as an anticancer therapy has attracted considerable attention. In the current study, a small-molecule screen identified andrographlide (ANDRO) as a mutant p53 suppressor. The effects of ANDRO, a small molecule isolated from the Chinese herb Andrographis paniculata, on tumor cells carrying wild-type or mutant p53 were examined. ANDRO suppressed expression of mutant p53, induced expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins genes, and inhibited the growth of cancer cells harboring mutant p53. ANDRO also induced expression of the heat-shock protein (Hsp70) and increased binding between Hsp70 and mutant p53 protein, thus promoting proteasomal degradation of p53. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms regulating the function of mutant p53 and suggest that activation of Hsp70 may be a new strategy for the treatment of cancers harboring mutant p53.

  13. Mutation induction and evaluation of high yield rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Sobri Husein; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The successful use of plant breeding for improving crops requires the existence of genetic variation of useful traits. Unfortunately, the desired variation is often lacking. However, radiation has been used to induce mutations and thereby generate genetic variation from which desired mutants may be selected. Mutation induction has become a proven way of creating variation within a crop variety. It offers the possibility of inducing desired attributes that either cannot be expressed in nature or have been lost during evolution. Rice is security food crop in Malaysia. Efforts were undertaken to enhance rice yield from 4.0 tones per hectare in 1995 to 5.5 tones per hectare in 2010. Proper management and good varieties are two factors that require for enhancing yield of rice. In this research, purified seeds of MR211 and MR219 were gamma irradiated at 100 to 400 Gray and sown for planting as M1 generation at MARDI experimental plot. The M2 population was sown in bulk with population size around 15,000 to 20,000 plants. Individual plant selection was carried out at maturity and each selected plant became a mutant line of M3 generation. Agronomic trial of M3 mutants lines were conducted in Mardi, Tanjung Karang, Selangor. About 115 of selected mutant lines were evaluated. Each row of those mutant lines were planted in two rows at planting distance of 25cm within and between rows. These mutant lines were visually observed and data were recorded in each of every mutant line. (Author)

  14. Defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in zebrafish motility mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hirata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs.

  15. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  16. Nanoformulated cell-penetrating survivin mutant and its dual actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriramoju B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bhasker Sriramoju, Rupinder K Kanwar, Jagat R Kanwar Nanomedicine Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research (NLIMBR, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia Abstract: In this study, we investigated the differential actions of a dominant-negative survivin mutant (SurR9-C84A against cancerous SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell lines and differentiated SK-N-SH neurons. In both the cases, the mutant protein displayed dual actions, where its effects were cytotoxic toward cancerous cells and proliferative toward the differentiated neurons. This can be explained by the fact that tumorous (undifferentiated SK-N-SH cells have a high endogenous survivin pool and upon treatment with mutant SuR9-C84A causes forceful survivin expression. These events significantly lowered the microtubule dynamics and stability, eventually leading to apoptosis. In the case of differentiated SK-N-SH neurons that express negligible levels of wild-type survivin, the mutant indistinguishably behaved in a wild-type fashion. It also favored cell-cycle progression, forming the chromosome-passenger complex, and stabilized the microtubule-organizing center. Therefore, mutant SurR9-C84A represents a novel therapeutic with its dual actions (cytotoxic toward tumor cells and protective and proliferative toward neuronal cells, and hence finds potential applications against a variety of neurological disorders. In this study, we also developed a novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticulate formulation to surmount the hurdles associated with the delivery of SurR9-C84A, thus enhancing its effective therapeutic outcome. Keywords: survivin mutant, neurological disorders, protein therapeutics, inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid

  17. Normal aging modulates the neurotoxicity of mutant huntingtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Diguet

    Full Text Available Aging likely plays a role in neurodegenerative disorders. In Huntington's disease (HD, a disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin (Htt, the role of aging is unclear. For a given tract length, the probability of disease onset increases with age. There are mainly two hypotheses that could explain adult onset in HD: Either mutant Htt progressively produces cumulative defects over time or "normal" aging renders neurons more vulnerable to mutant Htt toxicity. In the present study, we directly explored whether aging affected the toxicity of mutant Htt in vivo. We studied the impact of aging on the effects produced by overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of mutant Htt, of wild-type Htt or of a beta-Galactosidase (beta-Gal reporter gene in the rat striatum. Stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors were performed simultaneously in young (3 week and old (15 month rats. Histological evaluation at different time points after infection demonstrated that the expression of mutant Htt led to pathological changes that were more severe in old rats, including an increase in the number of small Htt-containing aggregates in the neuropil, a greater loss of DARPP-32 immunoreactivity and striatal neurons as assessed by unbiased stereological counts.The present results support the hypothesis that "normal" aging is involved in HD pathogenesis, and suggest that age-related cellular defects might constitute potential therapeutic targets for HD.

  18. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  19. An extra early mutant of pigeonpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikesavan, R.; Kalaimagal, T.; Rathnaswamy, R.

    2001-01-01

    The redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth) variety 'Prabhat DT' was gamma irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses. Several mutants have been identified viz., extra early mutants, monostem mutants, obcordifoliate mutants and bi-stigmatic mutants. The extra early mutant was obtained when treated with 100 Gy dose. The mutant was selfed and forwarded from M 2 to M 4 generation. In the M 4 generation the mutant line was raised along with the parental variety. Normal cultural practices were followed and the biometrical observations were recorded. It was observed that for the characters viz., total number of branches per plant, number of pods per plants, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant there was no difference between the mutant and parent variety. Whereas, regarding the days to flowering and maturity the mutants were earlier than the parents. The observation was recorded from two hundred plants each. The mutant gives the same yield in 90 days as that of the parent variety in 107 days, which make it an economic mutant

  20. Identification of a Gravitropism-Deficient Mutant in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A gravitropism-deficient mutant M96 was isolated from a mutant bank, generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS mutagenesis of indica rice accession ZJ100. The mutant was characterized as prostrate growth at the beginning of germination, and the prostrate growth phenotype ran through the whole life duration. Tiller angle and tiller number of M96 increased significantly in comparison with the wild type. Tissue section observation analysis indicated that asymmetric stem growth around the second node occurred in M96. Genetic analysis and gene mapping showed that M96 was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, tentatively termed as gravitropism-deficient M96 (gdM96, which was mapped to a region of 506 kb flanked by markers RM5960 and InDel8 on the long arm of chromosome 11. Sequencing analysis of the open reading frames in this region revealed a nucleotide substitution from G to T in the third exon of LOC_Os11g29840. Additionally, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression level of LOC_Os11g29840 in the stems was much higher than in the roots and leaves in M96. Furthermore, the expression level was more than four times in M96 stem than in the wild type stem. Our results suggested that the mutant gene was likely a new allele to the reported gene LAZY1. Isolation of this new allele would facilitate the further characterization of LAZY1.

  1. Dwarf mutant of rice variety Seratus Malam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono, P. S.; Soemanggono, A.M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'Seratus Malam', a local tall upland variety with long panicles and high yield potential were irradiated with 10-50 krad gamma rays in 1983. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. The dwarf mutant M-362 was obtained from the 10 krad treatment. The mutant shows about 50% reduction in plant height, but also in number of productive tillers. Thus the yield per plant is also significantly less. However, the mutant gene is not allelic to DGWG and therefore may be useful in cross breeding. (author)

  2. Polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3) mediates the clearance of the accumulated PrP mutants transiently expressed in cultured cells and pathogenic PrP(Sc) in prion infected cell line via protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Tian, Chan; Fan, Xue-Yu; Chen, Li-Na; Lv, Yan; Sun, Jing; Zhao, Yang-Jing; Zhang, Lu-bin; Wang, Jing; Shi, Qi; Gao, Chen; Chen, Cao; Shao, Qi-Xiang; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Polo-like kinases (PLKs) family has long been known to be critical for cell cycle and recent studies have pointed to new dimensions of PLKs function in the nervous system. Our previous study has verified that the levels of PLK3 in the brain are severely downregulated in prion-related diseases. However, the associations of PLKs with prion protein remain unclear. In the present study, we confirmed that PrP protein constitutively interacts with PLK3 as determined by both in vitro and in vivo assays. Both the kinase domain and polo-box domain of PLK3 were proved to bind PrP proteins expressed in mammalian cell lines. Overexpression of PLK3 did not affect the level of wild-type PrP, but significantly decreased the levels of the mutated PrPs in cultured cells. The kinase domain appeared to be responsible for the clearance of abnormally aggregated PrPs, but this function seemed to be independent of its kinase activity. RNA-mediated knockdown of PLK3 obviously aggravated the accumulation of cytosolic PrPs. Moreover, PLK3 overexpression in a scrapie infected cell line caused notable reduce of PrP(Sc) level in a dose-dependent manner, but had minimal effect on the expression of PrP(C) in its normal partner cell line. Our findings here confirmed the molecular interaction between PLK3 and PrP and outlined the regulatory activity of PLK3 on the degradation of abnormal PrPs, even its pathogenic isoform PrP(Sc). We, therefore, assume that the recovery of PLK3 in the early stage of prion infection may be helpful to prevent the toxic accumulation of PrP(Sc) in the brain tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic background of Prop1(df) mutants provides remarkable protection against hypothyroidism-induced hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Giordimaina, Alicia M; Dolan, David F; Camper, Sally A; Mustapha, Mirna

    2012-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is a cause of genetic and environmentally induced deafness. The sensitivity of cochlear development and function to thyroid hormone (TH) mandates understanding TH action in this sensory organ. Prop1(df) and Pou1f1(dw) mutant mice carry mutations in different pituitary transcription factors, each resulting in pituitary thyrotropin deficiency. Despite the same lack of detectable serum TH, these mutants have very different hearing abilities: Prop1(df) mutants are mildly affected, while Pou1f1(dw) mutants are completely deaf. Genetic studies show that this difference is attributable to the genetic backgrounds. Using embryo transfer, we discovered that factors intrinsic to the fetus are the major contributor to this difference, not maternal effects. We analyzed Prop1(df) mutants to identify processes in cochlear development that are disrupted in other hypothyroid animal models but protected in Prop1(df) mutants by the genetic background. The development of outer hair cell (OHC) function is delayed, but Prestin and KCNQ4 immunostaining appear normal in mature Prop1(df) mutants. The endocochlear potential and KCNJ10 immunostaining in the stria vascularis are indistinguishable from wild type, and no differences in neurofilament or synaptophysin staining are evident in Prop1(df) mutants. The synaptic vesicle protein otoferlin normally shifts expression from OHC to IHC as temporary afferent fibers beneath the OHC regress postnatally. Prop1(df) mutants exhibit persistent, abnormal expression of otoferlin in apical OHC, suggesting delayed maturation of synaptic function. Thus, the genetic background of Prop1(df) mutants is remarkably protective for most functions affected in other hypothyroid mice. The Prop1(df) mutant is an attractive model for identifying the genes that protect against deafness.

  4. The text of the third agreement to extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Pursuant to Article 1 of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement, the 1987 RCA shall continue in force for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 2002, i.e., through 11 June 2007. As of 15 May 2002, notifications of acceptance had been received by the Director General from the Governments of Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam. The latest status list is attached

  5. Antisense downregulation of mutant huntingtin in a cell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, L.; Abell, K.; Norremolle, A.

    2003-01-01

    or by addition to the culture medium. Results Expression of the fusion protein containing the mutant huntingtin fragment resulted in diffuse green fluorescence in the cytoplasm and formation of aggregates in some of the NT2 cells and NT2-N neurons. We obtained antisense sequence-specific inhibition of expression...... of the fusion protein and/or suppression of the aggregate formation in both cell types. In the NT2 cells the antisense effect was dependent on the way of administration of the oligo. Conclusions The PS-antisense oligo is effective in downregulation of mutant huntingtin, and the reduction of aggregate formation...... is a sensitive biological marker. The findings suggest that antisense knockdown of huntingtin could be a useful strategy for treatment of HD, and could also be suitable for studies of the normal and pathological function of huntingtin in different cellular model systems....

  6. EMS mutant spectra generated by multi-parameter flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keysar, Stephen B. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fox, Michael H., E-mail: michael.fox@colostate.edu [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The CHO A{sub L} cell line contains a single copy of human chromosome 11 that encodes several cell surface proteins including glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linked CD59 and CD90, as well as CD98, CD44 and CD151 which are not GPI-linked. The flow cytometry mutation assay (FCMA) measures mutations of the CD59 gene by the absence of fluorescence when stained with antibodies against the CD59 cell surface protein. We have measured simultaneous mutations in CD59, CD44, CD90, CD98 and CD151 to generate a mutant spectrum for ionizing radiation. After treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) many cells have an intermediate level of CD59 staining. Single cells were sorted from CD59{sup -} regions with varying levels of fluorescence and the resulting clonal populations had a stable phenotype for CD59 expression. Mutant spectra were generated by flow cytometry using the isolated clones and nearly all clones were mutated in CD59 only. Interestingly, about 60% of the CD59 negative clones were actually GPI mutants determined by staining with the GPI specific fluorescently labeled bacterial toxin aerolysin (FLAER). The GPI negative cells are most likely caused by mutations in the X-linked pigA gene important in GPI biosynthesis. Small mutations of pigA and CD59 were expected for the alkylating agent EMS and the resulting spectra are significantly different than the large deletions found when analyzing radiation mutants. After analyzing the CD59{sup -} clonal populations we have adjusted the FCMA mutant regions from 1% to 10% of the mean of the CD59 positive peak to include the majority of CD59 mutants.

  7. Adenoviral vector-mediated gene expression in the nervous system of immunocompetent Wistar and T cell-deficient nude rats : preferential survival of transduced astroglial cells in nude rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, W.T.J.M.C.; Verhaagen, J

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper, we examined the effect of the adenoviral vector dosage, the role of T cells, and the influence of the presence of replication-competent adenovirus (RCA) in adenoviral vector stocks, on the efficacy of adenoviral vector-directed transgene expression in the facial nucleus of

  8. Transgenic mice display hair loss and regrowth overexpressing mutant Hr gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kuicheng; Xu, Cunshuan; Zhang, Jintao; Chen, Yingying; Liu, Mengduan

    2017-10-30

    Mutations in the hairless (Hr) gene in both mice and humans have been implicated in the development of congenital atrichia, but the role of Hr in skin and hair follicle (HF) biology remains unknown. Here, we established transgenic mice (TG) overexpressing mutant Hr to investigate its specific role in the development of HF. Three transgenic lines were successfully constructed, and two of them (TG3 and TG8) displayed a pattern of hair loss and regrowth with alternation in the expression of HR protein. The mutant Hr gene inhibited the expression of the endogenous gene in transgenic individuals, which led to the development of alopecia. Interestingly, the hair regrew with the increase in the endogenous expression levels resulting from decreased mutant Hr expression. The findings of our study indicate that the changes in the expression of Hr result in hair loss or regrowth.

  9. Potent inhibition of HIV-1 replication by a Tat mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke W Meredith

    Full Text Available Herein we describe a mutant of the two-exon HIV-1 Tat protein, termed Nullbasic, that potently inhibits multiple steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle. Nullbasic was created by replacing the entire arginine-rich basic domain of wild type Tat with glycine/alanine residues. Like similarly mutated one-exon Tat mutants, Nullbasic exhibited transdominant negative effects on Tat-dependent transactivation. However, unlike previously reported mutants, we discovered that Nullbasic also strongly suppressed the expression of unspliced and singly-spliced viral mRNA, an activity likely caused by redistribution and thus functional inhibition of HIV-1 Rev. Furthermore, HIV-1 virion particles produced by cells expressing Nullbasic had severely reduced infectivity, a defect attributable to a reduced ability of the virions to undergo reverse transcription. Combination of these inhibitory effects on transactivation, Rev-dependent mRNA transport and reverse transcription meant that permissive cells constitutively expressing Nullbasic were highly resistant to a spreading infection by HIV-1. Nullbasic and its activities thus provide potential insights into the development of potent antiviral therapeutics that target multiple stages of HIV-1 infection.

  10. PNRI mutant variety: Cordyline 'Afable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2012-01-01

    Cordyline 'Afable', registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2009 Or-83, is an induced mutant developed from Cordyline 'Kiwi' by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical to Cordyline 'Kiwi' in growth habit but differs in foliage color, and exhibits field resistance to Phytophthora sp., a fungus that causes leaf blight and rot in Ti plants. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color was altered by gamma irradiation and resistance to fungal diseases was improved. It also demonstrated how mutations that occur in nature may be generated artificially. Propagation of cordyline 'Afable' is true-to-type by vegetative propagation methods, such as separation of suckers and offshoots, shoot tip cutting, and top cutting. Aside from landscaping material, terrarium or dish-garden plant, it is ideal as containerized plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves or shoots may be harvested as cut foliage for flower arrangements. (author)

  11. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M 1 V 1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m 2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  12. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, K; Jos, J S [Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    1988-07-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m{sup 2} area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing.

  13. Sharing mutants and experimental information prepublication using FgMutantDb (https://scabusa.org/FgMutantDb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas T; Basenko, Evelina; Harb, Omar; Brown, Neil A; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Bregitzer, Phil P

    2018-06-01

    There is no comprehensive storage for generated mutants of Fusarium graminearum or data associated with these mutants. Instead, researchers relied on several independent and non-integrated databases. FgMutantDb was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web that will function as a centralized source of information on F. graminearum mutants. FgMutantDb aids in the maintenance and sharing of mutants within a research community. It will serve also as a platform for disseminating prepublication results as well as negative results that often go unreported. Additionally, the highly curated information on mutants in FgMutantDb will be shared with other databases (FungiDB, Ensembl, PhytoPath, and PHI-base) through updating reports. Here we describe the creation and potential usefulness of FgMutantDb to the F. graminearum research community, and provide a tutorial on its use. This type of database could be easily emulated for other fungal species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Molecular Determinants of Mutant Phenotypes, Inferred from Saturation Mutagenesis Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Arti; Gupta, Kritika; Khare, Shruti; Jain, Pankaj C; Patel, Siddharth; Kumar, Prasanth; Pulianmackal, Ajai J; Aghera, Nilesh; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-11-01

    Understanding how mutations affect protein activity and organismal fitness is a major challenge. We used saturation mutagenesis combined with deep sequencing to determine mutational sensitivity scores for 1,664 single-site mutants of the 101 residue Escherichia coli cytotoxin, CcdB at seven different expression levels. Active-site residues could be distinguished from buried ones, based on their differential tolerance to aliphatic and charged amino acid substitutions. At nonactive-site positions, the average mutational tolerance correlated better with depth from the protein surface than with accessibility. Remarkably, similar results were observed for two other small proteins, PDZ domain (PSD95 pdz3 ) and IgG-binding domain of protein G (GB1). Mutational sensitivity data obtained with CcdB were used to derive a procedure for predicting functional effects of mutations. Results compared favorably with those of two widely used computational predictors. In vitro characterization of 80 single, nonactive-site mutants of CcdB showed that activity in vivo correlates moderately with thermal stability and solubility. The inability to refold reversibly, as well as a decreased folding rate in vitro, is associated with decreased activity in vivo. Upon probing the effect of modulating expression of various proteases and chaperones on mutant phenotypes, most deleterious mutants showed an increased in vivo activity and solubility only upon over-expression of either Trigger factor or SecB ATP-independent chaperones. Collectively, these data suggest that folding kinetics rather than protein stability is the primary determinant of activity in vivo This study enhances our understanding of how mutations affect phenotype, as well as the ability to predict fitness effects of point mutations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ohuchi, Kazuki; Ito, Junko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia. GPNMB aggregates were localized in the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2)-positive neuron and neurofilament H non-phosphorylated (SMI-32)-positive neuron, and these were co-localized with TDP-43 aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Mock or TDP-43 (WT, M337V, and A315T) plasmids were transfected into mouse motor neuron cells (NSC34). The expression level of GPNMB was increased by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids. Recombinant GPNMB ameliorated motor neuron cell death induced by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids and serum-free stress. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated Akt were decreased by this stress, and these expressions were increased by recombinant GPNMB. These results indicate that GPNMB has protective effects against mutant TDP-43 stress via activating the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and GPNMB may be a therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy in familial and sporadic ALS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rubisco Activase Is Required for Optimal Photosynthesis in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in a Low-CO2 Atmosphere1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Steve V.; Colombo, Sergio L.; Prout, Davey L.; Godfrey, Ashley C.; Moroney, James V.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks Rubisco activase (Rca). Using the BleR (bleomycin resistance) gene as a positive selectable marker for nuclear transformation, an insertional mutagenesis screen was performed to select for cells that required a high-CO2 atmosphere for optimal growth. The DNA flanking the BleR insert of one of the high-CO2-requiring strains was cloned using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction and inverse polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The flanking sequence matched the C. reinhardtii Rca cDNA sequence previously deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The loss of a functional Rca in the strain was confirmed by the absence of Rca mRNA and protein. The open reading frame for Rca was cloned and expressed in pSL18, a C. reinhardtii expression vector conferring paromomycin resistance. This construct partially complemented the mutant phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that the loss of Rca was the reason the mutant grew poorly in a low-CO2 atmosphere. Sequencing of the C. reinhardtii Rca gene revealed that it contains 10 exons ranging in size from 18 to 470 bp. Low-CO2-grown rca1 cultures had a growth rate and maximum rate of photosynthesis 60% of wild-type cells. Results obtained from experiments on a cia5 rca1 double mutant also suggest that the CO2-concentrating mechanism partially compensates for the absence of an active Rca in the green alga C. reinhardtii. PMID:14605215

  17. Rubisco activase is required for optimal photosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in a low-CO(2) atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Steve V; Colombo, Sergio L; Prout, Davey L; Godfrey, Ashley C; Moroney, James V

    2003-12-01

    This report describes a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks Rubisco activase (Rca). Using the BleR (bleomycin resistance) gene as a positive selectable marker for nuclear transformation, an insertional mutagenesis screen was performed to select for cells that required a high-CO2 atmosphere for optimal growth. The DNA flanking the BleR insert of one of the high-CO2-requiring strains was cloned using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction and inverse polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The flanking sequence matched the C. reinhardtii Rca cDNA sequence previously deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The loss of a functional Rca in the strain was confirmed by the absence of Rca mRNA and protein. The open reading frame for Rca was cloned and expressed in pSL18, a C. reinhardtii expression vector conferring paromomycin resistance. This construct partially complemented the mutant phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that the loss of Rca was the reason the mutant grew poorly in a low-CO2 atmosphere. Sequencing of the C. reinhardtii Rca gene revealed that it contains 10 exons ranging in size from 18 to 470 bp. Low-CO2-grown rca1 cultures had a growth rate and maximum rate of photosynthesis 60% of wild-type cells. Results obtained from experiments on a cia5 rca1 double mutant also suggest that the CO2-concentrating mechanism partially compensates for the absence of an active Rca in the green alga C. reinhardtii.

  18. Overexpression of SOS genes in ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad Jaktaji, Razieh; Pasand, Shirin

    2016-01-15

    Fluoroquinolones are important antibiotics for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli. Mutational studies have shown that ciprofloxacin, a member of fluoroquinolones induces SOS response and mutagenesis in pathogenic bacteria which in turn develop antibiotic resistance. However, inhibition of SOS response can increase recombination activity which in turn leads to genetic variation. The aim of this study was to measure 5 SOS genes expressions in nine E. coli mutants with different MICs for ciprofloxacin following exposure to ciprofloxacin. Gene expression was assessed by quantitative real time PCR. Gene alteration assessment was conducted by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Results showed that the expression of recA was increased in 5 mutants. This overexpression is not related to gene alteration, and enhances the expression of polB and umuCD genes encoding nonmutagenic and mutagenic polymerases, respectively. The direct relationship between the level of SOS expression and the level of resistance to ciprofloxacin was also indicated. It was concluded that novel therapeutic strategy that inhibits RecA activity would enhance the efficiency of common antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on reduced height mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahari, P.; Bhagwat, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two cross-bred derivatives of the mutant TR5xTR17 and TR21 continued to show promise and were advanced to wider scale testing. TR5 was found to carry a semi-dwarfing gene different from that in IR8. New semi-dwarf mutants were screened from M 2 through M 4 from two separate radiation experiments. The gibberellin response of seedlings of mutant and tester strains was evaluated and crosses of tester stocks and mutant semi-dwarfs were made for genetic analyses. (author)

  20. Phenotypic characterization of adenovirus type 12 temperature-sensitive mutants in productive infection and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, S; Kimura, G

    1980-01-01

    Eleven temperature-sensitive mutants of adenovirus type 12, capable of forming plaques in human cells at 33 C but not at 39.5 C, were isolated from a stock of a wild-type strain after treatment with either nitrous acid or hydroxylamine. Complementation tests in doubly infected human cells permitted a tentative assignment of eight of these mutants to six complementation groups. Temperature-shift experiments revealed that one mutant is affected early and most of the other mutants are affected late. Only the early mutant, H12ts505, was temperature sensitive in viral DNA replication. Infectious virions of all the mutants except H12ts505 and two of the late mutants produced at 33 C, appeared to be more heat labile than those of the wild type. Only H12ts505 was temperature sensitive for the establishment of transformation of rat 3Y1 cells. One of the late mutants (H12ts504) had an increased transforming ability at the permissive temperature. Results of temperature-shift transformation experiments suggest that a viral function affected in H12ts505 is required for "initiation" of transformation. Some of the growth properties of H12ts505-transformed cells were also temperature dependent, suggesting that a functional expression of a gene mutation in H12ts505 is required to maintain at least some aspects of the transformed state.

  1. Comparison between medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mutant proteins overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Bross, P; Andresen, B S

    1995-01-01

    ." Upon expression in E. coli, these mutant proteins produce activity levels in the range of the wild-type enzyme only if the chaperonins GroESL are co-overproduced. When overexpressed in COS cells, the pure folding mutants display enzyme activities comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The results suggest...

  2. The Arabidopsis mutant cev1 links cell wall signaling to jasmonate and ethylene responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Christine; Karafyllidis, Ioannis; Wasternack, Claus; Turner, John G

    2002-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses stimulate the synthesis of jasmonates and ethylene, which, in turn, induce the expression of genes involved in stress response and enhance defense responses. The cev1 mutant has constitutive expression of stress response genes and has enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens. Here, we show that cev1 plants have increased production of jasmonate and ethylene and that its phenotype is suppressed by mutations that interrupt jasmonate and ethylene signaling. Genetic mapping, complementation analysis, and sequence analysis revealed that CEV1 is the cellulose synthase CeSA3. CEV1 was expressed predominantly in root tissues, and cev1 roots contained less cellulose than wild-type roots. Significantly, the cev1 mutant phenotype could be reproduced by treating wild-type plants with cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors, and the cellulose synthase mutant rsw1 also had constitutive expression of VSP. We propose that the cell wall can signal stress responses in plants.

  3. Induction of diphtheria toxin-resistant mutants in human cells by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, P.; Ferreri, A.M.; Capucci, A.; Prodi, G.

    1981-01-01

    Stable spontaneous mutants resistant to the protein synthesis inhibitor diphtheria toxin (DT) have been selected in human cell line EUE at a very low frequency (less than 8 x 10(-6)). U.v.-induced mutation has been quantitatively measured: treatment of cells with u.v. light increased the frequencies of diphtheria toxin resistant (DTr) mutants up to 1000-fold. The maximum recovery of DTr mutants was observed after a short expression period, for all u.v. doses tested, and was followed by a decrease in mutation frequency on subsequent passages

  4. Induction of diphtheria toxin-resistant mutants in human cells by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, P.; Ferreri, A.M.; Capucci, A.; Prodi, G.

    1981-01-01

    Stable spontaneous mutants resistant to the protein synthesis inhibitor diphtheria toxin (DT) have been selected in human cell line EUE at a very low frequency ( -6 ). U.v.-induced mutation has been quantitatively measured: treatment of cells with u.v. light increased the frequencies of diphtheria toxin resistant (DTsup(r)) mutants up to 1000-fold. The maximum recovery of DTsup(r) mutants was observed after a short expression period, for all u.v. doses tested, and was followed by a decrease in mutation frequency on subsequent passages. (author)

  5. Expression of Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockridge, Oksana

    1997-01-01

    .... The G117H enzyme has the potential to be useful for decontamination of skin and eye. To determine how many amino acids could be deleted from butyrylcholinesterase without loss of activity, deletion mutants were expressed...

  6. Histological Characterization of the Dicer1 Mutant Zebrafish Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DICER1, a multidomain RNase III endoribonuclease, plays a critical role in microRNA (miRNA and RNA-interference (RNAi functional pathways. Loss of Dicer1 affects different developmental processes. Dicer1 is essential for retinal development and maintenance. DICER1 was recently shown to have another function of silencing the toxicity of Alu RNAs in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration. In this study, we characterized a Dicer1 mutant fish line, which carries a nonsense mutation (W1457Ter induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis. Zebrafish DICER1 protein is highly conserved in the evolution. Zebrafish Dicer1 is expressed at the earliest stages of zebrafish development and persists into late developmental stages; it is widely expressed in adult tissues. Homozygous Dicer1 mutant fish (DICER1W1457Ter/W1457Ter have an arrest in early growth with significantly smaller eyes and are dead at 14–18 dpf. Heterozygous Dicer1 mutant fish have similar retinal structure to that of control fish; the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells are normal with no sign of degeneration at the age of 20 months.

  7. Genetic fingerprinting of mutant rose cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, K V; Singh, K P; Singh, A.P. [Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: kvprasad66@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Six rose mutants evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from four parent cultivars were characterized based on RAPD markers. Contrary to the earlier findings our effort has conclusively proven that the RAPD markers are indeed robust tools to discern the mutants from their parents. Among 40 primers screened, 7 primers produced inconsistent banding pattern. The number of polymorphic bands varied between 4 (OPA 14) and 10 (OPA1) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 62.5 (OPM 9) to 100 percent (OPA 1). Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands between parent and mutant rose cultivars. When primer OPA 2 was used a specific band of 2.5 kb was noticed in mutant cv. Pusa Urmil and cv. Pusa Abhishek but was absent in parent cv. Jantar Mantar. A polymorphic band of 750 bp was noticed in the parent Kiss of Fire and helped in differentiating the parent from its mutant when amplified with OPK 3. Primer OPS 16 produced discriminatory band of 800 bp in mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma while it was absent in its parent cv. Montezuma. Another specific band of 650 bp was present in parent cv. Montezuma and absent in its mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma signifying the uniqueness of the mutant. Primer OPM 5 brought out distinct polymorphism among the parent Jantar Mantar and its three mutants with absence of a specific band of 1.5 kb in the parent. The four parents and 6 mutants were divided into four distinct groups in the Dendogram constructed by UPGMA method. The most genetically similar cultivar among the 10 cultivars analyzed are Montezuma and its pink sport of Montezuma whereas Abhisarika a mutant of cv. Kiss of Fire was distinctly different and formed a separate cluster. (author)

  8. E2-EPF UCP regulates stability and functions of missense mutant pVHL via ubiquitin mediated proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeong-Su; Kim, Ju Hee; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Im, Dong-Soo; Lim, Jung Hwa; Jung, Cho-Rok

    2015-10-26

    Missense mutation of VHL gene is frequently detected in type 2 VHL diseases and linked to a wide range of pVHL functions and stability. Certain mutant pVHLs retain ability to regulate HIFs but lose their function by instability. In this case, regulating of degradation of mutant pVHLs, can be postulated as therapeutic method. The stability and cellular function of missense mutant pVHLs were determine in HEK293T transient expressing cell and 786-O stable cell line. Ubiquitination assay of mutant VHL proteins was performed in vitro system. Anticancer effect of adenovirus mediated shUCP expressing was evaluated using ex vivo mouse xenograft assay. Three VHL missense mutants (V155A, L158Q, and Q164R) are directly ubiquitinated by E2-EPF UCP (UCP) in vitro. Mutant pVHLs are more unstable than wild type in cell. Missense mutant pVHLs interact with UCP directly in both in vitro and cellular systems. Lacking all of lysine residues of pVHL result in resistance to ubiquitination thereby increase its stability. Missense mutant pVHLs maintained the function of E3 ligase to ubiquitinate HIF-1α in vitro. In cells expressing mutant pVHLs, Glut-1 and VEGF were relatively upregulated compared to their levels in cells expressing wild-type. Depletion of UCP restored missense mutant pVHLs levels and inhibited cell growth. Adenovirus-mediated shUCP RNA delivery inhibited tumor growth in ex vivo mouse xenograft model. These data suggest that targeting of UCP can be one of therapeutic method in type 2 VHL disease caused by unstable but functional missense mutant pVHL.

  9. Mutant TDP-43 within motor neurons drives disease onset but not progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsworth, Dara; Maldonado, Marcus; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Sun, Shuying; Seelman, Amanda; Drenner, Kevin; Arnold, Eveline; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Pizzo, Donald; Ravits, John; Cleveland, Don W; Da Cruz, Sandrine

    2017-06-01

    Mutations in TDP-43 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal paralytic disease characterized by degeneration and premature death of motor neurons. The contribution of mutant TDP-43-mediated damage within motor neurons was evaluated using mice expressing a conditional allele of an ALS-causing TDP-43 mutant (Q331K) whose broad expression throughout the central nervous system mimics endogenous TDP-43. TDP-43 Q331K mice develop age- and mutant-dependent motor deficits from degeneration and death of motor neurons. Cre-recombinase-mediated excision of the TDP-43 Q331K gene from motor neurons is shown to delay onset of motor symptoms and appearance of TDP-43-mediated aberrant nuclear morphology, and abrogate subsequent death of motor neurons. However, reduction of mutant TDP-43 selectively in motor neurons did not prevent age-dependent degeneration of axons and neuromuscular junction loss, nor did it attenuate astrogliosis or microgliosis. Thus, disease mechanism is non-cell autonomous with mutant TDP-43 expressed in motor neurons determining disease onset but progression defined by mutant acting within other cell types.

  10. Hierarchical mutational events compensate for glutamate auxotrophy of a Bacillus subtilis gltC mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormeyer, Miriam; Lübke, Anastasia L; Müller, Peter; Lentes, Sabine; Reuß, Daniel R; Thürmer, Andrea; Stülke, Jörg; Daniel, Rolf; Brantl, Sabine; Commichau, Fabian M

    2017-06-01

    Glutamate is the major donor of nitrogen for anabolic reactions. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis either utilizes exogenously provided glutamate or synthesizes it using the gltAB-encoded glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In the absence of glutamate, the transcription factor GltC activates expression of the GOGAT genes for glutamate production. Consequently, a gltC mutant strain is auxotrophic for glutamate. Using a genetic selection and screening system, we could isolate and differentiate between gltC suppressor mutants in one step. All mutants had acquired the ability to synthesize glutamate, independent of GltC. We identified (i) gain-of-function mutations in the gltR gene, encoding the transcription factor GltR, (ii) mutations in the promoter of the gltAB operon and (iii) massive amplification of the genomic locus containing the gltAB operon. The mutants belonging to the first two classes constitutively expressed the gltAB genes and produced sufficient glutamate for growth. By contrast, mutants that belong to the third class appeared most frequently and solved glutamate limitation by increasing the copy number of the poorly expressed gltAB genes. Thus, glutamate auxotrophy of a B. subtilis gltC mutant can be relieved in multiple ways. Moreover, recombination-dependent amplification of the gltAB genes is the predominant mutational event indicating a hierarchy of mutations. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  12. Gain-of-function mutant p53 activates small GTPase Rac1 through SUMOylation to promote tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xuetian; Zhang, Cen; Zhao, Yuhan; Liu, Juan; Lin, Alan W; Tan, Victor M; Drake, Justin M; Liu, Lianxin; Boateng, Michael N; Li, Jun; Feng, Zhaohui; Hu, Wenwei

    2017-08-15

    Tumor suppressor p53 is frequently mutated in human cancer. Mutant p53 often promotes tumor progression through gain-of-function (GOF) mechanisms. However, the mechanisms underlying mutant p53 GOF are not well understood. In this study, we found that mutant p53 activates small GTPase Rac1 as a critical mechanism for mutant p53 GOF to promote tumor progression. Mechanistically, mutant p53 interacts with Rac1 and inhibits its interaction with SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1), which in turn inhibits SENP1-mediated de-SUMOylation of Rac1 to activate Rac1. Targeting Rac1 signaling by RNAi, expression of the dominant-negative Rac1 (Rac1 DN), or the specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 greatly inhibits mutant p53 GOF in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Furthermore, mutant p53 expression is associated with enhanced Rac1 activity in clinical tumor samples. These results uncover a new mechanism for Rac1 activation in tumors and, most importantly, reveal that activation of Rac1 is an unidentified and critical mechanism for mutant p53 GOF in tumorigenesis, which could be targeted for therapy in tumors containing mutant p53. © 2017 Yue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. A mutant of a mutant of a mutant of a ...: Irradiation of progressive radiation-induced mutants in a mutation-breeding programme with Chrysanthenum morifolium RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.; Koene, P.; Veen, J.W.H. van.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation-induced sports in Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM. have been reported for several years. It has become an everyday practice to produce flower-colour mutants from outstanding cross-breeding products, even before they are distributed for the commercial production of cut flowers. One of the most successful and recent examples is that of cv. Horim, of which hundreds of mutants were produced by successive use of radiation-induced mutants in the mutation-breeding programme. Over about 4 years a variety of flower-colour mutants was obtained, not only largely including the outstanding characteristics of the original cultivar but sometimes even with an appreciable improvement in quality and yield. It is expected that the latter types, the Miros group, will soon completely supersede the spontaneous or raditation-induced Horim sports and mutants and take over the leading position of the Horim group in the production of all-year-round (AYR) cut-flowers. (orig.)

  14. RCA annual report 1996. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    In accordance with Article VII.4 of the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology 1987 and extended in 1992, a draft report of activities for the calendar year 1996 is submitted

  15. Mutants with Enhanced Nitrogenase Activity in Hydroponic Azospirillum brasilense-Wheat Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg Gerk, Lily; Gilchrist, Kate; Kennedy, Ivan R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a mutation affecting flocculation, differentiation into cyst-like forms, and root colonization on nitrogenase expression by Azospirillum brasilense is described. The gene flcA of strain Sp7 restored these phenotypes in spontaneous mutants of both strains Sp7 and Sp245. Employing both constitutive pLA-lacZ and nifH-lacZ reporter fusions expressed in situ, the colony morphology, colonization pattern, and potential for nitrogenase activity of spontaneous mutants and flcA Tn5-induced mutants were established. The results of this study show that the ability of Sp7 and Sp245 mutant strains to remain in a vegetative form improved their ability to express nitrogenase activity in association with wheat in a hydroponic system. Restoring the cyst formation and colonization pattern to the spontaneous mutant Sp7-S reduced nitrogenase activity rates in association with plants to that of the wild-type Sp7. Although Tn5-induced flcA mutants showed higher potentials for nitrogenase expression than Sp7, their potentials were lower than that of Sp7-S, indicating that other factors in this strain contribute to its exceptional nitrogenase activity rates on plants. The lack of lateral flagella is not one of these factors, as Sp7-PM23, a spontaneous mutant impaired in swarming and lateral-flagellum production but not in flocculation, showed wild-type nitrogenase activity and expression. The results also suggest factors of importance in evolving an effective symbiosis between Azospirillum and wheat, such as increasing the availability of microaerobic niches along the root, increased supply of carbon sources by the plant, and the retention of the bacterial cells in vegetative form for faster metabolism. PMID:10788397

  16. Calreticulin mutants in mice induce an MPL-dependent thrombocytosis with frequent progression to myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Caroline; Pecquet, Christian; Nivarthi, Harini; El-Khoury, Mira; Chachoua, Ilyas; Tulliez, Micheline; Villeval, Jean-Luc; Raslova, Hana; Kralovics, Robert; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Plo, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William

    2016-03-10

    Frameshift mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene are seen in about 30% of essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis patients. To address the contribution of the CALR mutants to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, we engrafted lethally irradiated recipient mice with bone marrow cells transduced with retroviruses expressing these mutants. In contrast to wild-type CALR, CALRdel52 (type I) and, to a lesser extent, CALRins5 (type II) induced thrombocytosis due to a megakaryocyte (MK) hyperplasia. Disease was transplantable into secondary recipients. After 6 months, CALRdel52-, in contrast to rare CALRins5-, transduced mice developed a myelofibrosis associated with a splenomegaly and a marked osteosclerosis. Monitoring of virus-transduced populations indicated that CALRdel52 leads to expansion at earlier stages of hematopoiesis than CALRins5. However, both mutants still specifically amplified the MK lineage and platelet production. Moreover, a mutant deleted of the entire exon 9 (CALRdelex9) did not induce a disease, suggesting that the oncogenic property of CALR mutants was related to the new C-terminus peptide. To understand how the CALR mutants target the MK lineage, we used a cell-line model and demonstrated that the CALR mutants, but not CALRdelex9, specifically activate the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor (MPL) to induce constitutive activation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5/3/1. We confirmed in c-mpl- and tpo-deficient mice that expression of Mpl, but not of Tpo, was essential for the CALR mutants to induce thrombocytosis in vivo, although Tpo contributes to disease penetrance. Thus, CALR mutants are sufficient to induce thrombocytosis through MPL activation. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Los mutantes de la escuela

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    Diego Armando Jaramillo-Ocampo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados parciales del estudio “Juegos en el recreo escolar: un escenario para la formación ciudadana”, cuya pretensión fue comprender los imaginarios sociales de juego en el recreo escolar y su relación con la convivencia social desde la proximidad del enfoque de complementariedad y el diseño de investigación emergente, planteado por Murcia y Jaramillo (2008. Se presentan los desarrollos logrados en dos categorías centrales del estudio: el patio y el cuerpo; dos categorías que mutan constantemente como entidades vivas en la escuela, hacia la configuración de sujetos que reconocen en el otro y lo otro su posibilidad. La escuela viva, donde es posible “ser en relación con”… se reduce a un espacio temporal y físico, limitado por la campana, “el recreo”. El texto muestra, desde la voz de los actores, esa vida que se da y se quita en la escuela y que se posiciona como una más de las imposiciones normalizadas para controlar. Reconoce, finalmente, una propuesta desde la posibilidad que estos dos mutantes propician para una escuela libre y dinámica.

  18. Isolation and characterization of xylitol-assimilating mutants of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Tatsunori; Taguchi, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E; Sahara, Takehiko; Ohgiya, Satoru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Akamatsu, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of xylitol utilization, three xylitol-assimilating mutants were isolated from recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains showing highly efficient xylose-utilization. The nucleotide sequences of the mutant genomes were analyzed and compared with those of the wild-type strains and the mutation sites were identified. gal80 mutations were common to all the mutants, and recessive to the wild-type allele. Hence we constructed a gal80Δ mutant and confirmed that the gal80Δ mutant showed a xylitol-assimilation phenotype. When the constructed gal80Δ mutant was crossed with the three isolated mutants, all diploid hybrids showed xylitol assimilation, indicating that the mutations were all located in the GAL80. We analyzed the role of the galactose permease Gal2, controlled by the regulatory protein Gal80, in assimilating xylitol. A gal2Δ gal80Δ double mutant did not show xylitol assimilation, whereas expression of GAL2 under the control of the TDH3 promoter in the GAL80 strain did result in assimilation. These data indicate that Gal2 was needed for xylitol assimilation in the wild-type strain. When the gal80 mutant with an initial cell concentration of A660 = 20 was used for batch fermentation in a complex medium containing 20 g/L xylose or 20 g/L xylitol at pH 5.0 and 30°C under oxygen limitation, the gal80 mutant consumed 100% of the xylose within 12 h, but xylitol within 100 h, indicating that xylose reductase is required for xylitol consumption in oxygen-limited conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The levels of mutant K-RAS and mutant N-RAS are rapidly reduced in a Beclin1 / ATG5 -dependent fashion by the irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L.; Poklepovic, Andrew; Kirkwood, John; Sander, Cindy; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler Jr, Richard E.; Lalani, Alshad S.; Dent, Paul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The FDA approved irreversible inhibitor of ERBB1/2/4, neratinib, was recently shown to rapidly down-regulate the expression of ERBB1/2/4 as well as the levels of c-MET and mutant K-RAS via autophagic degradation. In the present studies, in a dose-dependent fashion, neratinib reduced the expression levels of mutant K-RAS or of mutant N-RAS, which was augmented in an additive to greater than additive fashion by the HDAC inhibitors sodium valproate and AR42. Neratinib could reduce PDGFR...

  20. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Ubaidi, M.; Ibrahim, I.; AL-Hadithi, A.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M 2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M 2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Reduced anti-oxidative stress activities of DJ-1 mutants found in Parkinson's disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Niki, Takeshi; Taira, Takahiro; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M.M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2004-01-01

    DJ-1 is a multi-functional protein that plays roles in transcriptional regulation and anti-oxidative stress, and loss of its function is thought to result in onset of Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that L166P, a mutant DJ-1 found in Parkinson's disease patients, had no activity to prevent hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cell death. In this study, we analyzed other mutants of DJ-1 found in Parkinson's disease patients, including M26I, R98Q, and D149A, as well as L166P. We first found that all of the mutants made heterodimers with wild-type DJ-1, while all of the mutants except for L166P made homodimers. We then found that M26I and L166P, both of which are derived from homozygous mutations of the DJ-1 gene, were unstable and that their stabilities were recovered, in part, in the presence of proteasome inhibitor, MG132. NIH3T3 cell lines stably expressing these mutants of DJ-1 showed that cell lines of L166P and C106S, a mutant for protease activity (-) of DJ-1, had no activity to scavenge even endogenously producing reactive oxygen species. These cell lines also showed that all of the mutants had reduced activities to eliminate exogenously added H 2 O 2 and that these activities, except for that of D149A, were parallel to those preventing H 2 O 2 -induced cell death

  2. Studies on induced partially resistant mutants of barley against powdery mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebbelen, G.; Abdel-Hafez, A.G.; Reinhold, M.; Kwon, H.J.; Neuhaus-Steinmetz, J.P.; Heun, M.

    1983-01-01

    After mutagenic seed treatment of three partially resistant cultivars of spring barley with EMS and NaN 3 , 45 mutants in a first and 16 in a second experiment were selected in the M 2 -M 4 generations. The screening was done alternatively under natural infection in the field or controlled infection with a single pathotype in the greenhouse. These mutants exhibited a higher resistance and a higher susceptibility, respectively, than the initial cultivars Asse, Bomi and Vada. Some mutants expressed their altered resistance behaviour particularly during certain stages of development. High-level resistance was conditioned by mutation in the ml-o locus in three cases. For several Bomi mutants pathotype specificity with and without reversed ranking was proven as well as pathotype non-specificity in comparison with the reaction of the original cultivar. In 14 cases studied the inheritance of the involved mutants was monogenic recessive. The laevigatum locus responsible for the intermediate mildew resistance of Bomi was not affected by the mutations. Detection of groups of allelic mutants showed that there are at least two regions in the barley genome in which mutations for mildew resistance can occur rather frequently. In total, the past ten years of this mutation research have given convincing evidence that the strategies of mutant screening applied have yielded promising new material both for breeding and for progress in basic understanding of host-pathogen interactions. (author)

  3. Mutant DnaAs of Escherichia coli that are refractory to negative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodavarapu, Sundari; Felczak, Magdalena M; Simmons, Lyle A; Murillo, Alec; Kaguni, Jon M

    2013-12-01

    DnaA is the initiator of DNA replication in bacteria. A mutant DnaA named DnaAcos is unusual because it is refractory to negative regulation. We developed a genetic method to isolate other mutant DnaAs that circumvent regulation to extend our understanding of mechanisms that control replication initiation. Like DnaAcos, one mutant bearing a tyrosine substitution for histidine 202 (H202Y) withstands the regulation exerted by datA, hda and dnaN (β clamp), and both DnaAcos and H202Y resist inhibition by the Hda-β clamp complex in vitro. Other mutant DnaAs carrying G79D, E244K, V303M or E445K substitutions are either only partially sensitive or refractory to inhibition by the Hda-β clamp complex in vitro but are responsive to hda expression in vivo. All mutant DnaAs remain able to interact directly with Hda. Of interest, both DnaAcos and DnaAE244K bind more avidly to Hda. These mutants, by sequestrating Hda, may limit its availability to regulate other DnaA molecules, which remain active to induce extra rounds of DNA replication. Other evidence suggests that a mutant bearing a V292M substitution hyperinitiates by escaping the effect of an unknown regulatory factor. Together, our results provide new insight into the mechanisms that regulate replication initiation in Escherichia coli.

  4. The yeast complex I equivalent NADH dehydrogenase rescues pink1 mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vilain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink1 is a mitochondrial kinase involved in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery. Pink1 loss also affects the enzymatic activity of isolated Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC; however, the primary defect in pink1 mutants is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ETC deficiency is upstream of other pink1-associated phenotypes. We expressed Saccaromyces cerevisiae Ndi1p, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex I, or sea squirt Ciona intestinalis AOX, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex III and IV, in pink1 mutant Drosophila and find that expression of Ndi1p, but not of AOX, rescues pink1-associated defects. Likewise, loss of function of subunits that encode for Complex I-associated proteins displays many of the pink1-associated phenotypes, and these defects are rescued by Ndi1p expression. Conversely, expression of Ndi1p fails to rescue any of the parkin mutant phenotypes. Additionally, unlike pink1 mutants, fly parkin mutants do not show reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that Ndi1p acts downstream or parallel to Pink1, but upstream or independent of Parkin. Furthermore, while increasing mitochondrial fission or decreasing mitochondrial fusion rescues mitochondrial morphological defects in pink1 mutants, these manipulations fail to significantly rescue the reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that functional defects observed at the level of Complex I enzymatic activity in pink1 mutant mitochondria do not arise from morphological defects. Our data indicate a central role for Complex I dysfunction in pink1-associated defects, and our genetic analyses with heterologous ETC enzymes suggest that Ndi1p-dependent NADH dehydrogenase activity largely acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Pink1 but upstream of Parkin and mitochondrial remodeling.

  5. Antibodies with higher bactericidal activity induced by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Rmp deletion mutant strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guocai Li

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein reduction modifiable protein (Rmp has strong immunogenicity. However, anti-Rmp antibodies block rather than preserve the antibacterial effects of protective antibodies, which hampers the development of vaccines for gonococcal infections. We herein constructed an Rmp deletion mutant strain of N. gonorrhoeae by gene homologous recombination. The 261-460 nucleotide residues of Rmp gene amplified from N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain were replaced with a kanamycin-resistant Kan gene amplified from pET-28a. The resultant hybridized DNA was transformed into N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain. PCR was used to screen the colonies in which wild-type Rmp gene was replaced with a mutant gene fragment. Western blotting revealed that the Rmp deletion mutant strain did not express Rmp protein. Rmp deletion did not alter the morphological and Gram staining properties of the mutant strain that grew slightly more slowly than the wild-type one. Rmp gene mutated stably throughout 25 generations of passage. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay indicated that the antibodies induced by the mutant strain had evidently higher bactericidal activities than those induced by the wild-type strain. Further modification of the Rmp deletion mutant strain is still required in the development of novel live attenuated vaccines for gonorrhea by Opa genes deletion or screening of phenotypic variant strains that do not express Opa proteins.

  6. Rescue of the apoptotic-inducing function of mutant p53 by small molecule RITA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Carolyn Y; Grinkevich, Vera V; Nikulenkov, Fedor; Bao, Wenjie; Selivanova, Galina

    2010-05-01

    Expression of mutant p53 correlates with poor prognosis in many tumors, therefore strategies aimed at reactivation of mutant p53 are likely to provide important benefits for treatment of tumors that are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We have previously identified and characterized a small molecule RITA which binds p53 and induces a conformational change which prevents the binding of p53 to several inhibitors, including its own destructor MDM2. In this way, RITA rescues the tumor suppression function of wild type p53. Here, we demonstrate that RITA suppressed the growth and induced apoptosis in human tumor cell lines of a diverse origin carrying mutant p53 proteins. RITA restored transcriptional transactivation and transrepression function of several hot spot p53 mutants. The ability of RITA to rescue the activity of different p53 mutants suggests its generic mechanism of action. Thus, RITA is a promising lead for the development of anti-cancer drugs that reactivate the tumor suppressor function of p53 in cancer cells irrespective whether they express mutant or wild type p53.

  7. Functional verification of a porcine myostatin propeptide mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dezun; Jiang, Shengwang; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Xiao, Gaojun; Yang, Jinzeng; Cui, Wentao

    2015-10-01

    Myostatin is a member of TGF-β superfamily that acts as a key negative regulator in development and growth of embryonic and postnatal muscles. In this study, the inhibitory activities of recombinant porcine myostatin propeptide and its mutated form (at the cleavage site of metalloproteinases of BMP-1/TLD family) against murine myostatin was evaluated in vivo by intraperitoneal injection into mice. Results showed that both wild type and mutated form of porcine propeptide significantly inhibited myostatin activity in vivo. The average body weight of mice receiving wild type propeptide or its mutated form increased by 12.5 % and 24.14%, respectively, compared to mice injected with PBS, implying that the in vivo efficacy of porcine propeptide mutant is greater than its wild type propeptide. Transgenic mice expressing porcine myostatin propeptide mutant were generated to further verify the results obtained from mice injected with recombinant porcine propeptide mutant. Compared with wild type (non-transgenic) mice, relative weight of gastrocnemius, rectusfemoris, and tibialis anterior increased by 22.14 %, 34.13 %, 25.37%, respectively, in transgenic male mice, and by 19.90 %, 42.47 %, 45.61%, respectively, in transgenic female mice. Our data also demonstrated that the mechanism by which muscle growth enhancement is achieved by these propeptides is due to an increase in fiber sizes, not by an increase in number of fiber cells.

  8. Recombination Phenotypes of Escherichia coli greA Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poteete Anthony R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elongation factor GreA binds to RNA polymerase and modulates transcriptional pausing. Some recent research suggests that the primary role of GreA may not be to regulate gene expression, but rather, to promote the progression of replication forks which collide with RNA polymerase, and which might otherwise collapse. Replication fork collapse is known to generate dsDNA breaks, which can be recombinogenic. It follows that GreA malfunction could have consequences affecting homologous recombination. Results Escherichia coli mutants bearing substitutions of the active site acidic residues of the transcription elongation factor GreA, D41N and E44K, were isolated as suppressors of growth inhibition by a toxic variant of the bacteriophage lambda Red-beta recombination protein. These mutants, as well as a D41A greA mutant and a greA deletion, were tested for proficiency in recombination events. The mutations were found to increase the efficiency of RecA-RecBCD-mediated and RecA-Red-mediated recombination, which are replication-independent, and to decrease the efficiency of replication-dependent Red-mediated recombination. Conclusion These observations provide new evidence for a role of GreA in resolving conflicts between replication and transcription.

  9. Impaired cholesterol esterification in primary brain cultures of the lysosomal cholesterol storage disorder (LCSD) mouse mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.C.; Suresh, S.; Weintroub, H.; Brady, R.O.; Pentchev, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Esterification of cholesterol was investigated in primary neuroglial cultures obtained from newborn lysosomal cholesterol storage disorder (LCSD) mouse mutants. An impairment in 3 H-oleic acid incorporation into cholesteryl esters was demonstrated in cultures of homozygous LCSD brain. Primary cultures derived from other phenotypically normal pups of the carrier breeders esterified cholesterol at normal levels or at levels which were intermediary between normal and deficient indicating a phenotypic expression of the LCSD heterozygote genotype. These observations on LCSD mutant brain cells indicate that the defect in cholesterol esterification is closely related to the primary genetic defect and is expressed in neuroglial cells in culture

  10. A detailed study of gerJ mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburg, R J; Buchanan, C E; Parent, K; Halvorson, H O

    1986-08-01

    A total of nine gerJ mutants have now been isolated in Bacillus subtilis. All are defective in their spore germination properties, being blocked at an intermediate (phase grey) stage. The dormant spores are sensitive to heating at 90 degrees C and two of the mutants (generated by transposon insertion) produce spores sensitive at 80 degrees C. The spores of these two more extreme mutants had a visibly defective cortex when studied by electron microscopy, as did some of the other mutants. During sporulation, the acquisition of spore resistance properties and the appearance of the sporulation-specific penicillin-binding protein PBP5* were delayed. A strain probably carrying a lacZ fusion to the gerJ promoter demonstrated increased expression between t2 and t4. We propose that the gerJ locus is involved in the control of one or more sporulation-specific genes.

  11. Accumulation of infectious mutants in stocks during the propagation of fiber-modified recombinant adenoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugai, Hideyo; Inabe, Kumiko; Yamasaki, Takahito; Murata, Takehide; Obata, Yuichi; Hamada, Hirofumi; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.

    2005-01-01

    In infected cells, replication errors during viral proliferation generate mutations in adenoviruses (Ads), and the mutant Ads proliferate and evolve in the intracellular environment. Genetically fiber-modified recombinant Ads (rAd variants) were generated, by modification of the fiber gene, for therapeutic applications in host cells that lack or express reduced levels of the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor. To assess the genetic modifications of rAd variants that might induce the instability of Ad virions, we examined the frequencies of mutants that accumulated in propagated stocks. Seven of 41 lines of Ad variants generated mutants in the stocks and all mutants were infectious. Moreover, all the mutations occurred in the modified region that had been added at the 3' end of the fiber gene. Our results show that some genetic modifications at the carboxyl terminus of Ad fiber protein lead to the instability of Ad virions

  12. Mig6 Puts the Brakes on Mutant EGFR-Driven Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. These cancers are often induced by mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), resulting in constitutive activation of the protein’s tyrosine kinase domain. Lung cancers expressing these EGFR mutants are initially sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib, but often become resistant by developing compensatory mutations in EGFR or other growth-promoting pathways. To better understand how mutant EGFR initiates and maintains tumor growth in the hopes of identifying novel targets for drug development, Udayan Guha, M.D., Ph.D., of CCR’s Thoracic and Gastrointestinal Oncology Branch, and his colleagues examined the landscape of proteins phosphorylated in EGFR wild type and mutant cells. One protein hyper-phosphorylated in mutant EGFR cells was Mig6, a putative tumor suppressor.

  13. Isolation and characterization of acyclovir-resistant mutants of herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, H J; Darby, G; Wildy, P

    1980-07-01

    Mutants of HSV which are resistant to acyclovir (acycloguanosine) have been isolated following serial passages of several herpes simplex virus (HSV) strains in the presence of the drug. The majority of the mutants isolated are defective in induction of thymidine kinase (TK) and this is consistent with the observation that independently isolated TK- viruses are naturally resistant to ACV. One mutant is described (SC16 R9C2) which is resistant in biochemically transformed cells which express HSV TK. This suggests that its resistance resides at a level other than TK. It is also resistant to phosphonoacetic acid, suggesting that the DNA polymerase locus may be involved. A further mutant is described [Cl (101) P2C5] which induces normal levels of TK, although the nature of resistance of this virus is not yet elucidated.

  14. Purification of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase mutants by a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yujun; Chen, Jianhua; Jia, Ruibo; Wang, Min; Wu, Wutong

    2008-07-01

    The antigenicity of L-asaparaginase (L-ASP) has been problematic for the treatment of leukemia for many years. In order to establish a relationship between the antigenic epitope of L-asparaginase and its antigenicity, several L-asparaginase mutants (mL-ASPs) are constructed and expressed. To effectively purify these enzyme mutants for further investigation, a native preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is developed. The simplicity and reproducibility of this approach permits the purification of different mutants from the crude enzyme extracts, with a sufficient activity to perform immunological and biological studies. Furthermore, the newly developed method is efficient and cost-effective compared with other methods, such as column chromatography and affinity chromatography. As a result, the enzyme mutants with specific activity of 300 approximately 400 U/mg are obtained by the single-step purification with a high degree of purity.

  15. Selection and agronomic evaluation of induced mutant lines of sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoballah, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Station yield trial: Three high yielding mutants (8, 48, and EFM92) with better and stable performance were developed in our breeding programme and submitted for registration to the Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. Multi-location yield trials indicated that mutant line EFM92 ranked first in all locations; significant yield increases recorded for it ranged from 14.7 to 74.0% over the check variety. Moreover, it was 15-20 days earlier than the check and/or other mutants. Mutant lines 8 and 48 produced higher seed yields than the check at two different locations. These mutants can probably be grown and produce more yield than the check variety at the low yielding environments. Seed quality assay: During 1996 and 1997, 15 promising lines of sesame including mutants and hybrid populations as well as the local variety were evaluated for seed protein, oil content and fatty acid composition. The protein content varied from 20.6 to 26.7%; hybrid population EXM90 gave the highest value. About 85% of the total fatty acids in the oil are unsaturated (oleic and linoleic) and 15% saturated, mainly palmitic and stearic. Linoleic acid ranged from 41.8 to 47.9%. Mutant lines 6, 9, and EFM92, which gave high oil content (54-55.5%) together with high linoleic acid values (45.2-47.8%), are recommended for breeding for seed oil quality. Heterosis, combining ability and type of gene action in sesame: A half diallel set of crosses involving seven parents was used to study heterosis and combining ability in the F 1 generation as well as the nature of gene action controlling seed yield and its contributing traits in both F 1 and F 2 in order to identify the most efficient breeding methods leading to rapid genetic improvement. The expressions of heterosis varied with the crosses and characters investigated. The maximal significant positive useful heterosis was observed for branches/plant (52.9%) followed by seed yield/plant (38

  16. Mapping pathological phenotypes in Reelin mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina eMichetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neurodevelopmental disorders with multifactorial origin characterized by social communication and behavioural perseveration deficits. Several studies showed an association between the reelin gene mutation and increased risk of ASD and a reduced reelin expression in some brain regions of ASD subjects, suggesting a role for reelin deficiency in ASD etiology. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing important roles during development of the central nervous system. To deeply investigate the role of reelin dysfunction as vulnerability factor in ASD, we investigated the behavioural, neurochemical and brain morphological features of reeler male mice. We recently reported a genotype-dependent deviation in ultrasonic vocal repertoire and a general delay in motor development in reeler pups. We now report that adult male heterozygous reeler mice did not show social behaviour and communication deficits during male-female social interactions. Wildtype and heterozygous mice also showed a typical light/dark locomotor activity profile, with a peak during the central interval of the dark phase. However, when faced with a mild stressful stimulus (a saline injection only heterozygous mice showed an over response to stress. At the end of the behavioural studies, we conducted high performance liquid chromatography and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to investigate whether reelin mutation influences brain monoamine and metabolites levels in regions involved in ASD. Low levels of dopamine in cortex and high levels of glutamate and taurine in hippocampus were detected in heterozygous mice, in line with clinical data collected on ASD children. Altogether, our data detected subtle but relevant neurochemical abnormalities in reeler mice supporting this mutant line, particularly male subjects, as a valid experimental model to estimate the contribution played by reelin deficiency in the global ASD

  17. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  18. X-rays sensitive mammalian cell mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A phenomenon that in x-ray-sensitive mammalian-cell mutants, cellular death due to x-ray radiation was not increased by caffeine, but on the contrary, the dead cells were resuscitated by it was discussed. The survival rate of mutant cells increased by caffein in a low concentration. This suggested that caffeine may have induced some mechanism to produce x-ray resistant mutant cells. Postirradiation treatment with caffeine increased considerably the survival rate of the mutant cells, and this suggested the existence of latent caffeine-sensitive potentially lethal damage repair system. This system, after a few hours, is thought to be substituted by caffeine-resistant repair system which is induced by caffeine, and this may be further substituted by x-ray-resistant repair system. The repair system was also induced by adenine. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... aquatic ecosystems were studied. In the present ... logy and photosynthesis research (Stolbov, 1995;. Pedersen ... Microalgal strain and cultivation conditions ..... evaluated for their ecotoxicological effects using 124y-1 mutant.

  20. Methylammonium-resistant mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia are affected in nitrate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, C; Krapp, A; Leydecker, M T; Daniel-Vedele, F; Caboche, M

    1996-02-25

    This work reports the isolation and preliminary characterization of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia mutants resistant to methylammonium. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants cannot grow on low levels of nitrate in the presence of methylammonium. Methylammonium is not used as a nitrogen source, although it can be efficiently taken up by Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells and converted into methylglutamine, an analog of glutamine. Glutamine is known to repress the expression of the enzymes that mediate the first two steps in the nitrate assimilatory pathway, nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR). Methylammonium has therefore been used, in combination with low concentrations of nitrate, as a selective agent in order to screen for mutants in which the nitrate pathway is de-repressed. Eleven semi-dominant mutants, all belonging to the same complementation group, were identified. The mutant showing the highest resistance to methylammonium was not affected either in the utilization of ammonium, accumulation of methylammonium or in glutamine synthase activity. A series of experiments showed that utilization of nitrite by the wild-type and the mutant was comparable, in the presence or the absence of methylammonium, thus suggesting that the mutation specifically affected nitrate transport or reduction. Although NR mRNA levels were less repressed by methylammonium treatment of the wild-type than the mutant, NR activities of the mutant remained comparable with or without methylammonium, leading to the hypothesis that modified expression of NR is probably not responsible for resistance to methylammonium. Methylammonium inhibited nitrate uptake in the wild-type but had only a limited effect in the mutant. The implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Molecular analysis of waxy mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatou, O.; Amano, E.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The 'waxy' gene is a structural gene coding a glycosyl transferase which synthesises amylose in the endosperm tissue. 'Non-waxy' rice cultivars have an active gene and their amylose content is 18-25% depending upon gene performance and modifier genes. In 'waxy' rice, no amylose is found because the enzyme is absent. In mutants induced by gamma rays, neutrons, EI or EMS, amylose content ranged from 0 to 20%, i.e. there are intermediate phenotypes as well. Some of them had the same amount of the enzyme as a 'non-waxy' cultivar, even fully 'waxy' mutants showed a certain amount of the enzyme. This suggests that in mutants there may be no structural change in the enzyme gene but the enzyme produced might be less active. By molecular analysis of the mutants' genes it was found that only two mutants induced by thermal neutrons show structural alterations, the changes in other mutants are either too small to be detected by Southern analysis or are outside the structural gene in question. (author)

  2. Commercialization Of Orchid Mutants For Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Orchids are the main contributors to cut flower industry in Malaysia with an existing good market and a huge business potential. Orchid industry has been established in Malaysia since 1960s but only started to develop and expand since 1980s. Continuous development of new orchid varieties is essential to meet customers' demands. Orchid mutagenesis research using gamma irradiation at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has successfully generated a number of new orchid varieties with commercial potentials. Therefore, Nuclear Malaysia has collaborated with an industrial partner, Hexagon Green Sdn Bhd (HGSB), to carry out commercialization research on these mutants under a Technofund project entitled 'Pre-Commercialization of Mutant Orchids for Cut Flowers Industry' from July 2011 to July 2014. Through this collaboration, Dendrobium orchid mutant plants developed by Nuclear Malaysia were transferred to HGSB's commercial orchid nursery at Bukit Changgang Agrotechnology Park, Banting, Selangor, for mass-propagation. The activities include evaluations on plant growth performance, flower quality, post harvest and market potential of these mutants. Mutants with good field performance have been identified and filed for Plant Variety Protection (PVP) with Department of Agriculture Malaysia. This paper describes outputs from this collaboration and activities undertaken in commercializing these mutants. (author)

  3. Aplicación de la tribología y el análisis de la causa raíz (RCA en motores de combustión interna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Pérez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo, se hace empleo de la herramienta de trabajo Análisis de la Causa Raíz (RCA para llegar a unas primeras conclusiones acerca de fallos producidos en el nudo tribológico válvula – guía de válvula en un motor de combustión interna, y así pasar a hallar la causa final y dar solución al problema. El método permite arribar a conclusiones en cuanto a la causa del problema.Application of tribology and root cause analysis (RCA on diesel engine.It is used the process root cause in the analysis of a problem in the tribological pair valve- valve guide of an internal combustion engine. Using this process was possible to have the first conclusions in the problem and finally to arrive to a final conclusion about the cause of the problem.

  4. Functional analysis of the rice rubisco activase promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Chen, Fan [Key Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, Congming, E-mail: lucm@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice rubisco activase promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Region conferring tissue specific and light inducible expression of Rca was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer -58 to +43 bp region mediates tissue-specific expression of rice Rca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light inducible expression of rice Rca is mediated by -297 to -58 bp region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the light inducible region. -- Abstract: To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a 340 bp fragment spanning from -297 to +43 bp relative to the transcription initiation site is enough to promote tissue-specific and light-inducible expression of the rice Rca gene as done by the full-length promoter (-1428 to +43 bp). Further deletion analysis indicated that the region conferring tissue-specificity of Rca expression is localized within a 105 bp fragment from -58 to +43 bp, while light-inducible expression of Rca is mediated by the region from -297 to -58 bp. Gel shift assays and competition experiments demonstrated that rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the fragment conferring light responsiveness at more than one binding site. This implies that multiple cis-elements may be involved in light-induced expression of the rice Rca gene. These works provide a useful reference for understanding transcriptional regulation mechanism of the rice Rca gene, and lay a strong foundation for further detection of related cis-elements and trans-factors.

  5. Functional analysis of the rice rubisco activase promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Chen, Fan; Lu, Congming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rice rubisco activase promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis system. ► Region conferring tissue specific and light inducible expression of Rca was identified. ► −58 to +43 bp region mediates tissue-specific expression of rice Rca. ► Light inducible expression of rice Rca is mediated by −297 to −58 bp region. ► Rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the light inducible region. -- Abstract: To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a 340 bp fragment spanning from −297 to +43 bp relative to the transcription initiation site is enough to promote tissue-specific and light-inducible expression of the rice Rca gene as done by the full-length promoter (−1428 to +43 bp). Further deletion analysis indicated that the region conferring tissue-specificity of Rca expression is localized within a 105 bp fragment from −58 to +43 bp, while light-inducible expression of Rca is mediated by the region from −297 to −58 bp. Gel shift assays and competition experiments demonstrated that rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the fragment conferring light responsiveness at more than one binding site. This implies that multiple cis-elements may be involved in light-induced expression of the rice Rca gene. These works provide a useful reference for understanding transcriptional regulation mechanism of the rice Rca gene, and lay a strong foundation for further detection of related cis-elements and trans-factors.

  6. Fine Mapping of a Degenerated Abdominal Legs Mutant (Edl in Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Wang

    Full Text Available In insects, abdominal appendages, also called prolegs, vary due to adaptive evolution. Mutations on prolegs within species provide insights to better understand the mechanisms underlying appendage development and diversity. In silkworm Bombyx mori, extra-crescents and degenerated abdominal legs (Edl mutant, belonging to the E pseudoallele group, is a spontaneous mutation that adds crescents and degenerates prolegs on the third abdominal segment (A3. This mutation may be a homeotic transformation of A3 to A2. In this study, the Edl locus was mapped within approximately a 211 Kb region that is 10 Kb upstream of Bmabdominal-A (Bmabd-A. RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis of Bmabd-A expression showed a slight but significant decrease, while the expression of BmUltrabithorax (BmUbx was up-regulated in the Edl mutant compared to wildtype (Dazao. Moreover, we also found that BmDistal-less (BmDll, which regulated the development of distal proleg structures, was missing at the tips of the A3 prolegs in the Edl mutant compared to BmDll expression in normally developed prolegs in both the wildtype and mutant. Collectively, we identified approximately a 211 Kb region in the Edl locus that regulates BmUbx and Bmabd-A expression and found that changes in BmUbx and Bmabd-A expression may lead to the loss of distal proleg structures in B. mori.

  7. Isolation and characterisation of a dwarf rice mutant exhibiting defective gibberellins biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S H; Gururani, M A; Lee, J W; Ahn, B-O; Chun, S-C

    2014-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf mutant derived from a Ds (Dissociation) insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa var. japonica c.v. Dongjin). This severe dwarf phenotype, has short and dark green leaves, reduced shoot growth early in the seedling stage, and later severe dwarfism with failure to initiate flowering. When treated with bioactive GA3 , mutants are restored to the normal wild-type phenotype. Reverse transcription PCR analyses of 22 candidate genes related to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway revealed that among 22 candidate genes tested, a dwarf mutant transcript was not expressed only in one OsKS2 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that the severe dwarf phenotype was controlled by recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. The putative OsKS2 gene was a chromosome 4-located ent-kaurene synthase (KS), encoding the enzyme that catalyses an early step of the GA biosynthesis pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that osks2 carried a 1-bp deletion in the ORF region of OsKS2, which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The expression pattern of OsKS2 in wild-type cv Dongjin, showed that it is expressed in all organs, most prominently in the stem and floral organs. Morphological characteristics of the dwarf mutant showed dramatic modifications in internal structure and external morphology. We propose that dwarfism in this mutant is caused by a point mutation in OsKS2, which plays a significant role in growth and development of higher plants. Further investigation on OsKS2 and other OsKS-like proteins is underway and may yield better understanding of the putative role of OsKS in severe dwarf mutants. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. From one body mutant to one cell mutant. A progress of radiation breeding in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1996-01-01

    An effective method was established to obtain non-chimeral mutants with wide spectrum of flower colors, regenerated from floral organs on which mutated sectors were come out on chronic irradiated plants. By this way, six mutant varieties of flower colors have been selected from one pink flower of chrysanthemum, and cultivated for cut-flower production. By the same method, 3 mutant varieties with small and spray type flowers were selected in Eustoma. Mutant varieties such as a rust disease resistant in sugarcane, 6 dwarfs in Cytisus and pure-white mushroom in velvet shank have been selected successively for short period. (J.P.N.)

  9. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 2. Comparison of Various Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchiuniene, L.

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability was compared in two groups of genetically unstable barley ear structure mutants - tweaky spike (tw) and branched ear (be). Instability in different loci causes different levels of spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability. A high spontaneous level of chlorophyll mutations is peculiar to be-ust mutants. It is suggested that the high level of induced chlorophyll mutations in allelic tw mutants is a result of better surviving of chlorophyll mutation carriers in the genotypical-physiological environment created by mutant tw alleles. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Carbon allocation and element composition in four Chlamydomonas mutants defective in genes related to the CO2 concentrating mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmola, Francesco; Mukherjee, Bratati; Moroney, James V; Giordano, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Four mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with defects in different components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) or in Rubisco activase were grown autotrophically at high pCO2 and then transferred to low pCO2, in order to study the role of different components of the CCM on carbon allocation and elemental composition. To study carbon allocation, we measured the relative size of the main organic pools by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to analyze the elemental composition of algal cells. Our data show that although the organic pools increased their size at high CO2 in all strains, their stoichiometry was highly homeostatic, i.e., the ratios between carbohydrates and proteins, lipid and proteins, and carbohydrates and lipids, did not change significantly. The only exception was the wild-type 137c, in which proteins decreased relative to carbohydrates and lipids, when the cells were transferred to low CO2. It is noticeable that the two wild types used in this study responded differently to the transition from high to low CO2. Malfunctions of the CCM influenced the concentration of several elements, somewhat altering cell elemental stoichiometry: especially the C/P and N/P ratios changed appreciably in almost all strains as a function of the growth CO2 concentration, except in 137c and the Rubisco activase mutant rca1. In strain cia3, defective in the lumenal carbonic anhydrase (CA), the cell quotas of P, S, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were about 5-fold higher at low CO2 than at high CO2. A Principle Components Analysis showed that, mostly because of its elemental composition, cia3 behaved in a substantially different way from all other strains, at low CO2. The lumenal CA thus plays a crucial role, not only for the correct functioning of the CCM, but also for element utilization. Not surprisingly, growth at high CO2 attenuated differences among strains.

  11. Heterozygous inactivation of tsc2 enhances tumorigenesis in p53 mutant zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyung Kim

    2013-07-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a multi-organ disorder caused by mutations of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. A key function of these genes is to inhibit mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 kinase signaling. Cells deficient for TSC1 or TSC2 have increased mTORC1 signaling and give rise to benign tumors, although, as a rule, true malignancies are rarely seen. In contrast, other disorders with increased mTOR signaling typically have overt malignancies. A better understanding of genetic mechanisms that govern the transformation of benign cells to malignant ones is crucial to understand cancer pathogenesis. We generated a zebrafish model of TSC and cancer progression by placing a heterozygous mutation of the tsc2 gene in a p53 mutant background. Unlike tsc2 heterozygous mutant zebrafish, which never exhibited cancers, compound tsc2;p53 mutants had malignant tumors in multiple organs. Tumorigenesis was enhanced compared with p53 mutant zebrafish. p53 mutants also had increased mTORC1 signaling that was further enhanced in tsc2;p53 compound mutants. We found increased expression of Hif1-α, Hif2-α and Vegf-c in tsc2;p53 compound mutant zebrafish compared with p53 mutant zebrafish. Expression of these proteins probably underlies the increased angiogenesis seen in compound mutant zebrafish compared with p53 mutants and might further drive cancer progression. Treatment of p53 and compound mutant zebrafish with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin caused rapid shrinkage of tumor size and decreased caliber of tumor-associated blood vessels. This is the first report using an animal model to show interactions between tsc2, mTORC1 and p53 during tumorigenesis. These results might explain why individuals with TSC rarely have malignant tumors, but also suggest that cancer arising in individuals without TSC might be influenced by the status of TSC1 and/or TSC2 mutations and be potentially treatable with mTORC1 inhibitors.

  12. A γA-Crystallin Mouse Mutant Secc with Small Eye, Cataract and Closed Eyelid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hei Cheng

    Full Text Available Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in humans. A spontaneously occurred, autosomal dominant mouse mutant Secc, which displayed combined features of small eye, cataract and closed eyelid was discovered in our laboratory. In this study, we identified the mutation and characterized the cataract phenotype of this novel Secc mutant. The Secc mutant mice have eyelids that remain half-closed throughout their life. The mutant lens has a significant reduction in size and with opaque spots clustered in the centre. Histological analysis showed that in the core region of the mutant lens, the fiber cells were disorganized and clefts and vacuoles were observed. The cataract phenotype was evident from new born stage. We identified the Secc mutation by linkage analysis using whole genome microsatellite markers and SNP markers. The Secc locus was mapped at chromosome 1 flanked by SNPs rs3158129 and rs13475900. Based on the chromosomal position, the candidate cataract locus γ-crystallin gene cluster (Cryg was investigated by sequencing. A single base deletion (299delG in exon 3 of Cryga which led to a frame-shift of amino acid sequence from position 91 was identified. As a result of this mutation, the sequences of the 3rd and 4th Greek-key motifs of the γA-crystallin are replaced with an unrelated C-terminal peptide of 75 residues long. Coincidentally, the point mutation generated a HindIII restriction site, allowing the identification of the CrygaSecc mutant allele by RFLP. Western blot analysis of 3-week old lenses showed that the expression of γ-crystallins was reduced in the CrygaSecc mutant. Furthermore, in cell transfection assays using CrygaSecc mutant cDNA expression constructs in 293T, COS-7 and human lens epithelial B3 cell lines, the mutant γA-crystallins were enriched in the insoluble fractions and appeared as insoluble aggregates in the transfected cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the Secc mutation leads to the

  13. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Ocular Apoptosis in Zebrafish gdf6a Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Sameer D.; March, Lindsey D.; Famulski, Jakub K.

    2013-01-01

    intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic mechanisms were involved, morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting baxa, baxb, and p53 were employed. Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to assay apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibition (using SB203580) and IHC were used to investigate the role of p38...... occurs 28 hours post fertilization (hpf) in gdf6a(-/-) mutants that is mediated independently of p53 by intrinsic mechanisms involving Bax proteins. Also, gdf6a(-/-) mutants exhibit markedly increased p38 MAP kinase activation that can be inhibited to significantly reduce retinal apoptosis. A reduction...... in retinal smad1 expression was also noted in gdf6a(-/-) mutants. CONCLUSIONS. gdf6a(-/-)-induced apoptosis is characterized by the involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathways, p38 MAP kinases, and dysregulated smad expression. Modulation of key mediators can inhibit retinal apoptosis offering potential...

  14. Officially released mutant varieties in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Van Zanten, L.; Shu, Q.Y.; Maluszynski, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of mutation techniques for crop improvement in China has a long and well-established tradition of more than 50 years. As the result of intensive research in many institutes dealing with application of nuclear technologies more than 620 cultivars of 44 crop species have been released. Numerous mutant varieties have been grown on a large scale bringing significant economic impact, sustaining crop production and greatly contributing to increase of food production also in stress prone areas of the country. However, there is still missing information not only on the number of mutant varieties released in particular crop species but also on mutagens applied, selection approaches and on the use of mutants in cross breeding. Numerous Chinese scientists collected and systematized this information. Results of their work were often published in local scientific journals in the Chinese language and as such were unavailable to breeders from other countries. Having this in mind, we requested Dr. Liu Luxiang, the Director of the Department of Plant Mutation Breeding and Genetics, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing to help us in finding as much information as possible on mutant varieties officially released in China. The data has been collected in close collaboration with his colleagues from various institutions all over the country and then evaluated, edited and prepared for publication by our team responsible for the FAO/IAEA Database of Officially Released Mutant Varieties. We would like to thank all Chinese colleagues who contributed to this list of Chinese mutant varieties. We hope that this publication will stimulate plant breeders in China to collect more information on released mutant varieties and especially on the use of mutated genes in cross breeding. (author)

  15. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  16. The levels of mutant K-RAS and mutant N-RAS are rapidly reduced in a Beclin1 / ATG5 -dependent fashion by the irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Poklepovic, Andrew; Kirkwood, John; Sander, Cindy; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler, Richard E; Lalani, Alshad S; Dent, Paul

    2018-02-01

    The FDA approved irreversible inhibitor of ERBB1/2/4, neratinib, was recently shown to rapidly down-regulate the expression of ERBB1/2/4 as well as the levels of c-MET and mutant K-RAS via autophagic degradation. In the present studies, in a dose-dependent fashion, neratinib reduced the expression levels of mutant K-RAS or of mutant N-RAS, which was augmented in an additive to greater than additive fashion by the HDAC inhibitors sodium valproate and AR42. Neratinib could reduce PDGFRα levels in GBM cells, that was enhanced by sodium valproate. Knock down of Beclin1 or of ATG5 prevented neratinib and neratinib combined with sodium valproate / AR42 from reducing the expression of mutant N-RAS in established PDX and fresh PDX models of ovarian cancer and melanoma, respectively. Neratinib and the drug combinations caused the co-localization of mutant RAS proteins and ERBB2 with Beclin1 and cathepsin B. The drug combination activated the AMP-dependent protein kinase that was causal in enhancing HMG Co A reductase phosphorylation. Collectively, our data reinforce the concept that the irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib has the potential for use in the treatment of tumors expressing mutant RAS proteins.

  17. Functional rescue of mutant ABCA1 proteins by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenson, Brie; Suetani, Rachel J; Williams, Michael J A; Bickley, Vivienne M; George, Peter M; Jones, Gregory T; McCormick, Sally P A

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) are a major cause of decreased HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), which infers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many ABCA1 mutants show impaired localization to the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chemical chaperone, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) could improve cellular localization and function of ABCA1 mutants. Nine different ABCA1 mutants (p.A594T, p.I659V, p.R1068H, p.T1512M, p.Y1767D, p.N1800H, p.R2004K, p.A2028V, p.Q2239N) expressed in HEK293 cells, displaying different degrees of mislocalization to the plasma membrane and discrete impacts on cholesterol efflux, were subject to treatment with 4-PBA. Treatment restored localization to the plasma membrane and increased cholesterol efflux function for the majority of mutants. Treatment with 4-PBA also increased ABCA1 protein expression in all transfected cell lines. In fibroblast cells obtained from low HDL-C subjects expressing two of the ABCA1 mutants (p.R1068H and p.N1800H), 4-PBA increased cholesterol efflux without any increase in ABCA1 expression. Our study is the first to investigate the effect of the chemical chaperone, 4-PBA on ABCA1 and shows that it is capable of restoring plasma membrane localization and enhancing the cholesterol efflux function of mutant ABCA1s both in vitro and ex vivo. These results suggest 4-PBA may warrant further investigation as a potential therapy for increasing cholesterol efflux and HDL-C levels.

  18. The research progress on plant mutant germplasm resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Cexi; Ji Linzhen; Zhao Shirong

    1991-07-01

    Mutants induced by nuclear radiation or other mutagens are new artificial germplasm resources. Some mutants have been applied in plant breeding and great achievements have been reached. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in China are introduced. A proposal for developing mutant germplasm resources with good agronomic characters is suggested

  19. Radiation-induced mutagenicity in repair deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesmer, J.G.; Saunders, E.H.; Chen, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    To determine if there is a relationship between DNA double-strand break repair and mutagenicity the authors utilized two x-ray sensitive mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells along with the parental line K1. The two mutant lines xrs-5 and xrs-6, which have different DSB repair capabilities, were used to determine cell killing and 6-thioguanine resistance (6TG/sup r/) mutation frequencies induced by either x-rays of α-particles, x-ray survival data indicated the two mutant lines have similar sensitivity and are 5-7 fold more sensitive than the parental line K1. The mutant lines are also sensitive to α-particles but to a lesser extent. The authors' 6TG mutation data indicated that the two mutant lines are hypermutable. When mutation frequencies were plotted against the log of survival, mutation frequency at a given survival level was greater in mutant cell population than in parental K1 cells. Their results support the notion that repair of DSB play an important role in the expression of radiation-induced cell killing and mutagenicity

  20. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  1. Respiratory-deficient mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Thalia; Larosa, Véronique; Cardol, Pierre; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Remacle, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Genetic manipulation of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is straightforward. Nuclear genes can be interrupted by insertional mutagenesis or targeted by RNA interference whereas random or site-directed mutagenesis allows the introduction of mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This, combined with a screen that easily allows discriminating respiratory-deficient mutants, makes Chlamydomonas a model system of choice to study mitochondria biology in photosynthetic organisms. Since the first description of Chlamydomonas respiratory-deficient mutants in 1977 by random mutagenesis, many other mutants affected in mitochondrial components have been characterized. These respiratory-deficient mutants increased our knowledge on function and assembly of the respiratory enzyme complexes. More recently some of these mutants allowed the study of mitochondrial gene expression processes poorly understood in Chlamydomonas. In this review, we update the data concerning the respiratory components with a special focus on the assembly factors identified on other organisms. In addition, we make an inventory of different mitochondrial respiratory mutants that are inactivated either on mitochondrial or nuclear genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Data on quantification of signaling pathways activated by KIT and PDGFRA mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Bahlawane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present data are related to the article entitled “Insights into ligand stimulation effects on gastro-intestinal stromal tumors signaling” (C. Bahlawane, M. Schmitz, E. Letellier, K. Arumugam, N. Nicot, P.V. Nazarov, S. Haan, 2016 [1]. Constitutive and ligand-derived signaling pathways mediated by KIT and PDGFRA mutated proteins found in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST were compared. Expression of mutant proteins was induced by doxycycline in an isogenic background (Hek293 cells. Kit was identified by FACS at the cell surface and found to be quickly degraded or internalized upon SCF stimulation for both Kit Wild type and Kit mutant counterparts. Investigation of the main activated pathways in GIST unraveled a new feature specific for oncogenic KIT mutants, namely their ability to be further activated by Kit ligand, the stem cell factor (scf. We were also able to identify the MAPK pathway as the most prominent target for a common inhibition of PDGFRA and KIT oncogenic signaling. Western blotting and micro-array analysis were applied to analyze the capacities of the mutant to induce an effective STATs response. Among all Kit mutants, only Kit Ex11 deletion mutant was able to elicit an effective STATs response whereas all PDGFRA were able to do so.

  3. Morphological Characterization and Assessment of Genetic Variability, Character Association, and Divergence in Soybean Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important for crop improvement. An experiment was conducted during 2011 to study genetic variability, character association, and genetic diversity among 27 soybean mutants and four mother genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the mutants and mothers for nine morphological traits. Eighteen mutants performed superiorly to their mothers in respect to seed yield and some morphological traits including yield attributes. Narrow differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV and GCV for most of the characters revealed less environmental influence on their expression. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high GCV for branch number, plant height, pod number, and seed weight can be considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement through phenotypic selection and high expected genetic gain can be achieved. Pod and seed number and maturity period appeared to be the first order traits for higher yield and priority should be given in selection due to their strong associations and high magnitudes of direct effects on yield. Cluster analysis grouped 31 genotypes into five groups at the coefficient value of 235. The mutants/genotypes from cluster I and cluster II could be used for hybridization program with the mutants of clusters IV and V in order to develop high yielding mutant-derived soybean varieties for further improvement.

  4. Mutant Mice Lacking the p53 C-Terminal Domain Model Telomere Syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeonova, I.; Jaber, S.; Draskovic, I.; Bardot, B.; Fang, M.; Bouarich-Bourimi, R.; Lejour, V.; Charbonnier, L.; Soudais, C.; Bourdon, J.C.; Huerre, M.; Londono-Vallejo, A.; Toledo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in p53, although frequent in human cancers, have not been implicated in telomere-related syndromes. Here, we show that homozygous mutant mice expressing p53(Delta31), a p53 lacking the C-terminal domain, exhibit increased p53 activity and suffer from aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis,

  5. Frequency of nuclear mutant huntingtin inclusion formation in neurons and glia is cell-type-specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Anne H. P.; van Hal, Maurik; Op den Kelder, Ilse C.; Meier, Romy T.; de Ruiter, Anna-Aster; Schut, Menno H.; Smith, Donna L.; Grit, Corien; Brouwer, Nieske; Kamphuis, Willem; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; van Roon, Willeke M. C.; Bates, Gillian P.; Hol, Elly M.; Reits, Eric A.

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a CAG expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene, leading to HTT inclusion formation in the brain. The mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) is ubiquitously expressed and therefore nuclear inclusions

  6. Frequency of Nuclear Mutant Huntingtin Inclusion Formation in Neurons and Glia is Cell-Type-Specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Anne H P; van Hal, Maurik; op den Kelder, Ilse C.; Meier, Romy T.; de Ruiter, Anna-Aster; Schut, Menno H.; Smith, Donna L.; Grit, Corien; Brouwer, Nieske; Kamphuis, Willem; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; van Roon, Willeke M. C.; Bates, Gillian P.; Hol, Elly M.; Reits, Eric A.

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a CAG expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene, leading to HTT inclusion formation in the brain. The mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) is ubiquitously expressed and therefore nuclear inclusions

  7. Matching NLR Immune Receptors to Autoimmunity in camta3 Mutants Using Antimorphic NLR Alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Signe; Greeff, Christiaan; Petersen, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    result from inappropriate NLR activation because mutations in plant guardees could trigger corresponding NLR guards. To explore these hypotheses, we expressed 108 dominant-negative (DN) Arabidopsis NLRs in various lesion mimic mutants, including camta3, which exhibits autoimmunity. CAMTA3 was previously...

  8. Intracellular localization and movement phenotypes of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, M.; Jongejan, L.; Zheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Bol, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen mutations were introduced in the movement protein (MP) gene of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and the mutant MP-GFP fusions were expressed transiently in tobacco protoplasts, tobacco suspension cells, and epidermal cells of tobacco leaves. In

  9. Potency of carbapenems for the prevention of carbapenem-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the high potency of a new carbapenem doripenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakyo, Shihomi; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Tanimoto, Koichi; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Ike, Yasuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    The potencies of the carbapenems; doripenem (DRPM), meropenem (MEPM) and imipenem (IPM) in preventing the emergence of carbapenem-resistant mutants were examined in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The carbapenems predominantly selected carbapenem-resistant mutants or carbapenem mutants with reduced susceptibilities that were specifically resistant to carbapenems and had arisen as a result of the reduced level of expression of the outer membrane protein with a molecular weight of about 48,000 (OprD). The potency of carbapenems in preventing the growth of the mutants differed for DRPM, MEPM and IPM. The isolation frequency of the mutant was examined on agar plates containing each of the carbapenems at a concentration of 1/2 or 1/4 MIC of each carbapenem for that mutant. Mutants were not selected on agar containing DRPM at a frequency of greater than 10(-9) per cell per generation, whereas mutants of each strain were selected on agar containing MEPM or IPM at frequencies of 10(-7) to 10(-9) per cell per generation. The drug concentrations and the drug concentration range for the selective increase of carbapenem resistant mutants in the broth culture containing each carbapenem differed for each carbapenem. DRPM exhibited both the lowest drug concentration and the narrowest range of drug concentration for selection of the carbapenem-resistant mutants. The results shown in this report indicated that DRPM exhibited the greatest ability to prevent the emergence of the mutant.

  10. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Cholangiocarcinoma Identifies Distinct IDH-Mutant Molecular Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Farshidfar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is an aggressive malignancy of the bile ducts, with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Here, we describe the integrated analysis of somatic mutations, RNA expression, copy number, and DNA methylation by The Cancer Genome Atlas of a set of predominantly intrahepatic CCA cases and propose a molecular classification scheme. We identified an IDH mutant-enriched subtype with distinct molecular features including low expression of chromatin modifiers, elevated expression of mitochondrial genes, and increased mitochondrial DNA copy number. Leveraging the multi-platform data, we observed that ARID1A exhibited DNA hypermethylation and decreased expression in the IDH mutant subtype. More broadly, we found that IDH mutations are associated with an expanded histological spectrum of liver tumors with molecular features that stratify with CCA. Our studies reveal insights into the molecular pathogenesis and heterogeneity of cholangiocarcinoma and provide classification information of potential therapeutic significance.

  11. Susceptibility of glucokinase-MODY mutants to inactivation by oxidative stress in pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kirsty S; Matschinsky, Franz M; Agius, Loranne; Arden, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    The posttranslational regulation of glucokinase (GK) differs in hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. We tested the hypothesis that GK mutants that cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GK-MODY) show compromised activity and posttranslational regulation in β-cells. Activity and protein expression of GK-MODY and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) mutants were studied in β-cell (MIN6) and non-β-cell (H4IIE) models. Binding of GK to phosphofructo-2-kinase, fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK2/FBPase2) was studied by bimolecular fluorescence complementation in cell-based models. Nine of 11 GK-MODY mutants that have minimal effect on enzyme kinetics in vitro showed decreased specific activity relative to wild type when expressed in β-cells. A subset of these were stable in non-β-cells but showed increased inactivation in conditions of oxidative stress and partial reversal of inactivation by dithiothreitol. Unlike the GK-MODY mutants, four of five GK-PHHI mutants had similar specific activity to wild type and Y214C had higher activity than wild type. The GK-binding protein PFK2/FBPase2 protected wild-type GK from oxidative inactivation and the decreased stability of GK-MODY mutants correlated with decreased interaction with PFK2/FBPase2. Several GK-MODY mutants show posttranslational defects in β-cells characterized by increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and/or protein instability. Regulation of GK activity through modulation of thiol status may be a physiological regulatory mechanism for the control of GK activity in β-cells.

  12. Meiotic UV-sensitive mutant that causes deletion of duplications in neurospora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmeyer, D.; Galeazzi, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    The meiotic-3 (mei-3) mutant of Neurospora crassa has several effects: (1) when homozygous, it almost completely blocks meiosis and ascospore formation, (2) it is sensitive to uv, (3) its growth is inhibited by histidine, and (4) it increases the instability of nontandem duplications. This was shown for duplications produced by five different rearrangements and was demonstrated by two different criteria. The effects on meiosis and duplication instability are expressed strongly at 25 0 ; the effects on sensitivity to uv and to histidine are expressed strongly at 38.5 0 but only slightly at 25 0 . Nevertheless, all four effects were shown to be due to a single gene. Mei-3 is not allelic with previously reported uv-sensitive mutants. Two other results were obtained that are not necessarily due to mei-3: (1) a cross involving mei-3 produced a new unlinked meiotic mutant, mei-4, which is not sensitive to uv or histidine, and (2) a burst of several new mutants occurred in a different mei-3 stock, including a partial revertant to mei-3. Mei-3 has previously been shown to cause frequent complete loss of a terminal duplicate segment, beginning exactly at the original rearrangement breakpoint. Possible mechanisms are discussed by which a uv-sensitive mutant could cause such precise deletions

  13. The Drosophila Neurally Altered Carbohydrate Mutant Has a Defective Golgi GDP-fucose Transporter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Christoph; Kotu, Varshika; Sharrow, Mary; Rendić, Dubravko; Pöltl, Gerald; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Studying genetic disorders in model organisms can provide insights into heritable human diseases. The Drosophila neurally altered carbohydrate (nac) mutant is deficient for neural expression of the HRP epitope, which consists of N-glycans with core α1,3-linked fucose residues. Here, we show that a conserved serine residue in the Golgi GDP-fucose transporter (GFR) is substituted by leucine in nac1 flies, which abolishes GDP-fucose transport in vivo and in vitro. This loss of function is due to a biochemical defect, not to destabilization or mistargeting of the mutant GFR protein. Mass spectrometry and HPLC analysis showed that nac1 mutants lack not only core α1,3-linked, but also core α1,6-linked fucose residues on their N-glycans. Thus, the nac1 Gfr mutation produces a previously unrecognized general defect in N-glycan core fucosylation. Transgenic expression of a wild-type Gfr gene restored the HRP epitope in neural tissues, directly demonstrating that the Gfr mutation is solely responsible for the neural HRP epitope deficiency in the nac1 mutant. These results validate the Drosophila nac1 mutant as a model for the human congenital disorder of glycosylation, CDG-IIc (also known as LAD-II), which is also the result of a GFR deficiency. PMID:22745127

  14. Chlorophyll mutants in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) Savi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetleva, D.; Petkova, S.

    1991-01-01

    Three-year investigations were conducted on chlorophyll mutants of three type: viridissima, claroviridis, flavoviridis, viridocostata and xanthomarginata produced post gamma irradiation ( 60 Co, 8 krad, 280 rad/min). Cell division rate in spectrum and in quantity of induced aberrations was found to have no significant differences with the control. Chlorophyll mutations compared to the control are less developed and their productive characters are less manifested. Cell division rate and the quantity of induced aberrations have no relation to the elements of productivity in the mutants investigated. 3 tabs., 12 refs

  15. Construction and functional analysis of Trichoderma harzianum mutants that modulate maize resistance to the pathogen Curvularia lunata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lili; Fu, Kehe; Yu, Chuanjin; Ma, Jia; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used to generate an insertional mutant library of the mycelial fungus Trichoderma harzianum. From a total of 450 mutants, six mutants that showed significant influence on maize resistance to C. lunata were analyzed in detail. Maize coated with these mutants was more susceptible to C. lunata compared with those coated with a wild-type (WT) strain. Similar to other fungal ATMT libraries, all six mutants were single copy integrations, which occurred preferentially in noncoding regions (except two mutants) and were frequently accompanied by the loss of border sequences. Two mutants (T66 and T312) that were linked to resistance were characterized further. Maize seeds coated with T66 and T312 were more susceptible to C. lunata than those treated with WT. Moreover, the mutants affected the resistance of maize to C. lunata by enhancing jasmonate-responsive gene expression. T66 and T312 induced maize resistance to C. lunata infection through a jasmonic acid-dependent pathway.

  16. A preliminary study on induction and identification of chlorophyll mutants of indica type temperature sensitive genie male-sterile rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yingwu; Liu Guifu; Shu Qingyao; Jiang Ronghua; Xie Jiahua

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll mutants of different type were obtained from indica type temperature sensitive genie male-sterile rice (cv. 2177s) by using 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. The total chlorophyll mutation frequency reached to 0.26% in M 2 generation. However only about 4.50% of these mutants could survived. Among them, 33 heritable chlorophyll mutant lines were easily distinguished, and were screened and studied. The mutants either showed chlorosis or yellowing or expressed only at seedling period or persisted all growth cycle. The expression of mutant character was stable under different environment. It is suggested that they are useful as the marker traits in two-line hybrid rice. Moreover, the agronomic traits of most of these lines changed in different levels compared with the parent line 2177S. Every mutation line seemed to be controlled by one recessive gene as the F 1 plants of reciprocal crosses between mutant and 2177S showed normal leaf color. And the ratio of green plants/mutant plants was 3:1 in the segregated F 2 population

  17. Statin use is not associated with improved progression free survival in cetuximab treated KRAS mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients: results from the CAIRO2 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krens, Lisanne L.; Simkens, Lieke H. J.; Baas, Jara M.; Koomen, Els R.; Gelderblom, Hans; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Statins may inhibit the expression of the mutant KRAS phenotype by preventing the prenylation and thus the activation of the KRAS protein. This study was aimed at retrospectively evaluating the effect of statin use on outcome in KRAS mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients (mCRC) treated with

  18. Analysis of Distinct Roles of CaMKK Isoforms Using STO-609-Resistant Mutants in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuya; Hiraoka, Yuri; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naoki; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2015-06-30

    To assess the isoform specificity of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK)-mediated signaling pathway using a CaMKK inhibitor (STO-609) in living cells, we have established A549 cell lines expressing STO-609-resistant mutants of CaMKK isoforms. Following serial mutagenesis studies, we have succeeded in obtaining an STO-609-resistant CaMKKα mutant (Ala292Thr/Leu233Phe) and a CaMKKβ mutant (Ala328Thr/Val269Phe), which showed sensitivity to STO-609 that was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower without an appreciable effect on kinase activity or CaM requirement. These results are consistent with the results obtained for CaMKK activities in the extracts of A549 cells stably expressing the mutants of CaMKK isoforms. Ionomycin-induced 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr172 in A549 cells expressing either the wild-type or the STO-609-resistant mutant of CaMKKα was completely suppressed by STO-609 treatment but resistant to the inhibitor in the presence of the CaMKKβ mutant (Ala328Thr/Val269Phe). This result strongly suggested that CaMKKβ is responsible for ionomycin-induced AMPK activation, which supported previous reports. In contrast, ionomycin-induced CaMKIV phosphorylation at Thr196 was resistant to STO-609 treatment in A549 cells expressing STO-609-resistant mutants of both CaMKK isoforms, indicating that both CaMKK isoforms are capable of phosphorylating and activating CaMKIV in living cells. Considering these results together, STO-609-resistant CaMKK mutants developed in this study may be useful for distinguishing CaMKK isoform-mediated signaling pathways in combination with the use of an inhibitor compound.

  19. Calreticulin-mutant proteins induce megakaryocytic signaling to transform hematopoietic cells and undergo accelerated degradation and Golgi-mediated secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Han

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic calreticulin (CALR, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2, and thrombopoietin receptor (MPL mutations essentially show mutual exclusion in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN, suggesting that they activate common oncogenic pathways. Recent data have shown that MPL function is essential for CALR mutant-driven MPN. However, the exact role and the mechanisms of action of CALR mutants have not been fully elucidated. Methods The murine myeloid cell line 32D and human HL60 cells overexpressing the most frequent CALR type 1 and type 2 frameshift mutants were generated to analyze the first steps of cellular transformation, in the presence and absence of MPL expression. Furthermore, mutant CALR protein stability and secretion were examined using brefeldin A, MG132, spautin-1, and tunicamycin treatment. Results The present study demonstrates that the expression of endogenous Mpl, CD41, and the key megakaryocytic transcription factor NF-E2 is stimulated by type 1 and type 2 CALR mutants, even in the absence of exogenous MPL. Mutant CALR expressing 32D cells spontaneously acquired cytokine independence, and this was associated with increased Mpl mRNA expression, CD41, and NF-E2 protein as well as constitutive activation of downstream signaling and response to JAK inhibitor treatment. Exogenous expression of MPL led to constitutive activation of STAT3 and 5, ERK1/2, and AKT, cytokine-independent growth, and reduction of apoptosis similar to the effects seen in the spontaneously outgrown cells. We observed low CALR-mutant protein amounts in cellular lysates of stably transduced cells, and this was due to accelerated protein degradation that occurred independently from the ubiquitin-proteasome system as well as autophagy. CALR-mutant degradation was attenuated by MPL expression. Interestingly, we found high levels of mutated CALR and loss of downstream signaling after blockage of the secretory pathway and protein glycosylation. Conclusions These

  20. Rubisco mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enhance photosynthetic hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, T S; Malcata, F X; Arrabaça, J D; Silva, J M; Spreitzer, R J; Esquível, M G

    2013-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an ideal fuel characterized by high enthalpy change and lack of greenhouse effects. This biofuel can be released by microalgae via reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen catalyzed by hydrogenases. The main competitor for the reducing power required by the hydrogenases is the Calvin cycle, and rubisco plays a key role therein. Engineered Chlamydomonas with reduced rubisco levels, activity and stability was used as the basis of this research effort aimed at increasing hydrogen production. Biochemical monitoring in such metabolically engineered mutant cells proceeded in Tris/acetate/phosphate culture medium with S-depletion or repletion, both under hypoxia. Photosynthetic activity, maximum photochemical efficiency, chlorophyll and protein levels were all measured. In addition, expression of rubisco, hydrogenase, D1 and Lhcb were investigated, and H2 was quantified. At the beginning of the experiments, rubisco increased followed by intense degradation. Lhcb proteins exhibited monomeric isoforms during the first 24 to 48 h, and D1 displayed sensitivity under S-depletion. Rubisco mutants exhibited a significant decrease in O2 evolution compared with the control. Although the S-depleted medium was much more suitable than its complete counterpart for H2 production, hydrogen release was observed also in sealed S-repleted cultures of rubisco mutated cells under low-moderate light conditions. In particular, the rubisco mutant Y67A accounted for 10-15-fold higher hydrogen production than the wild type under the same conditions and also displayed divergent metabolic parameters. These results indicate that rubisco is a promising target for improving hydrogen production rates in engineered microalgae.

  1. Mutant IDH1 Promotes Glioma Formation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Philip

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1 is the most commonly mutated gene in grade II–III glioma and secondary glioblastoma (GBM. A causal role for IDH1R132H in gliomagenesis has been proposed, but functional validation in vivo has not been demonstrated. In this study, we assessed the role of IDH1R132H in glioma development in the context of clinically relevant cooperating genetic alterations in vitro and in vivo. Immortal astrocytes expressing IDH1R132H exhibited elevated (R-2-hydroxyglutarate levels, reduced NADPH, increased proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth. Although not sufficient on its own, IDH1R132H cooperated with PDGFA and loss of Cdkn2a, Atrx, and Pten to promote glioma development in vivo. These tumors resembled proneural human mutant IDH1 GBM genetically, histologically, and functionally. Our findings support the hypothesis that IDH1R132H promotes glioma development. This model enhances our understanding of the biology of IDH1R132H-driven gliomas and facilitates testing of therapeutic strategies designed to combat this deadly disease. : Philip et al. show that mutant IDH1 cooperates with PDGFA and loss of Cdkn2a, Atrx, and Pten to promote gliomagenesis in vivo in a mouse model of glioma. These tumors resemble proneural human mutant IDH1 glioblastoma and exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PARP inhibition in combination with chemotherapy. Keywords: IDH1, Cdkn2a, Atrx, Pten, glioma, mouse model, RCAS/TVA

  2. Masking responses to light in period mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-10-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1(-/-) and Per2(-/-) mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator.

  3. Adaptively evolved yeast mutants on galactose show trade-offs in carbon utilization on glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from...... the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants...

  4. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  5. Molecular Genetic Identification Of Some Flax Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMER, I.M.; MOUSTAFA, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Five flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) i.e., commercial cultivar Sakha 2, the mother variety Giza 4 and three mutant types induced by gamma rays, were screened for their salinity tolerance in field experiments (salinity concentration was 8600 and 8300 ppm for soil and irrigation water, respectively). Mutation 6 was the most salt tolerant as compared to the other four genotypes.RAPD technique was used to detect some molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in flax (Mut 6), RAPD-PCR results using 12 random primers exhibited 149 amplified fragments; 91.9% of them were polymorphic and twelve molecular markers (8.1%) for salt tolerant (mutant 6) were identified with molecular size ranged from 191 to 4159 bp and only eight primers successes to amplify these specific markers. Concerning the other mutants, Mut 15 and Mut 25 exhibited 4.3% and 16.2% specific markers, respectively. The induced mutants exhibited genetic similarity to the parent variety were about 51%, 58.3% and 61.1% for Mut 25, Mut 6 and Mut 15, respectively. These specific markers (SM) are used for identification of the induced mutations and it is important for new variety registration.

  6. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  7. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  8. Diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in E2F1/E2F2 double-mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ainhoa; Murga, Matilde; Laresgoiti, Usua; Skoudy, Anouchka; Bernales, Irantzu; Fullaondo, Asier; Moreno, Bernardino; Lloreta, José; Field, Seth J; Real, Francisco X; Zubiaga, Ana M

    2004-05-01

    E2F transcription factors are thought to be key regulators of cell growth control. Here we use mutant mouse strains to investigate the function of E2F1 and E2F2 in vivo. E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant mice develop nonautoimmune insulin-deficient diabetes and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction characterized by endocrine and exocrine cell dysplasia, a reduction in the number and size of acini and islets, and their replacement by ductal structures and adipose tissue. Mutant pancreatic cells exhibit increased rates of DNA replication but also of apoptosis, resulting in severe pancreatic atrophy. The expression of genes involved in DNA replication and cell cycle control was upregulated in the E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant pancreas, suggesting that their expression is repressed by E2F1/E2F2 activities and that the inappropriate cell cycle found in the mutant pancreas is likely the result of the deregulated expression of these genes. Interestingly, the expression of ductal cell and adipocyte differentiation marker genes was also upregulated, whereas expression of pancreatic cell marker genes were downregulated. These results suggest that E2F1/E2F2 activity negatively controls growth of mature pancreatic cells and is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated pancreatic phenotypes in the adult.

  9. Overexpression of mutant ataxin-3 in mouse cerebellum induces ataxia and cerebellar neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Clévio; Nascimento-Ferreira, Isabel; Onofre, Isabel; Albuquerque, David; Conceição, Mariana; Déglon, Nicole; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), is a fatal, dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the polyglutamine-expanded protein ataxin-3. Clinical manifestations include cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs culminating in severe neuronal degeneration. Currently, there is no therapy able to modify disease progression. In the present study, we aimed at investigating one of the most severely affected brain regions in the disorder--the cerebellum--and the behavioral defects associated with the neuropathology in this region. For this purpose, we injected lentiviral vectors encoding full-length human mutant ataxin-3 in the mouse cerebellum of 3-week-old C57/BL6 mice. We show that circumscribed expression of human mutant ataxin-3 in the cerebellum mediates within a short time frame--6 weeks, the development of a behavioral phenotype including reduced motor coordination, wide-based ataxic gait, and hyperactivity. Furthermore, the expression of mutant ataxin-3 resulted in the accumulation of intranuclear inclusions, neuropathological abnormalities, and neuronal death. These data show that lentiviral-based expression of mutant ataxin-3 in the mouse cerebellum induces localized neuropathology, which is sufficient to generate a behavioral ataxic phenotype. Moreover, this approach provides a physiologically relevant, cost-effective and time-effective animal model to gain further insights into the pathogenesis of MJD and for the evaluation of experimental therapeutics of MJD.

  10. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  11. Computational identification of adaptive mutants using the VERT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler James

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Evolutionary dynamics of microbial organisms can now be visualized using the Visualizing Evolution in Real Time (VERT system, in which several isogenic strains expressing different fluorescent proteins compete during adaptive evolution and are tracked using fluorescent cell sorting to construct a population history over time. Mutations conferring enhanced growth rates can be detected by observing changes in the fluorescent population proportions. Results Using data obtained from several VERT experiments, we construct a hidden Markov-derived model to detect these adaptive events in VERT experiments without external intervention beyond initial training. Analysis of annotated data revealed that the model achieves consensus with human annotation for 85-93% of the data points when detecting adaptive events. A method to determine the optimal time point to isolate adaptive mutants is also introduced. Conclusions The developed model offers a new way to monitor adaptive evolution experiments without the need for external intervention, thereby simplifying adaptive evolution efforts relying on population tracking. Future efforts to construct a fully automated system to isolate adaptive mutants may find the algorithm a useful tool.

  12. Nonselective enrichment for yeast adenine mutants by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, C. V.; Chuba, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of certain adenine biosynthetic mutations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a red colony color. This phenomenon has historically provided an ideal genetic marker for the study of mutation, recombination, and aneuploidy in lower eukaryotes by classical genetic analysis. In this paper, it is reported that cells carrying ade1 and/or ade2 mutations exhibit primary fluorescence. Based on this observation, the nonselective enrichment of yeast cultures for viable adenine mutants by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter has been achieved. The advantages of this approach over conventional genetic analysis of mutation, recombination, and mitotic chromosomal stability include speed and accuracy in acquiring data for large numbers of clones. By using appropriate strains, the cell sorter has been used for the isolation of both forward mutations and chromosomal loss events in S. cerevisiae. The resolving power of this system and its noninvasiveness can easily be extended to more complex organisms, including mammalian cells, in which analogous metabolic mutants are available.

  13. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Cohen-Hadad, Yaara; Aharoni, Shira; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Zeligson, Sharon; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX) human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA) from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19), monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19) and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC) line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve.

  14. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Epsztejn-Litman

    Full Text Available We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX human embryonic stem cell (HESC line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19, monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19 and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve.

  15. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in flavonoid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, B.W.; Kubasek, W.L.; Storz, G.; Bruggemann, E.; Koornneef, M.; Ausubel, F.M.; Goodman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Eleven loci that play a role in the synthesis of flavonoids in Arabidopsis are described. Mutations at these loci, collectively named transparent testa (tt), disrupt the synthesis of brown pigments in the seed coat (testa). Several of these loci (tt3, tt4, tt5 and ttg) are also required for the accumulation of purple anthocyanins in leaves and stems and one locus (ttg) plays additional roles in trichome and root hair development. Specific functions were previously assigned to tt1-7 and ttg. Here, the results of additional genetic, biochemical and molecular analyses of these mutants are described. Genetic map positions were determined for tt8, tt9 and tt10. Thin-layer chromatography identified tissue- and locus-specific differences in the flavonols and anthocyanidins synthesized by mutant and wild-type plants. It was found that UV light reveals distinct differences in the floral tissues of tt3, tt4, tt5, tt6 and ttg, even though these tissues are indistinguishable under visible light. Evidence was also uncovered that tt8 and ttg specifically affect dihydroflavonol reductase gene expression. A summary of these and previously published results are incorporated into an overview of the genetics of flavonoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

  16. Anatomia foliar de microtomateiros fitocromo-mutantes e ultra-estrutura de cloroplastos Leaf anatomy of micro-tomato phytochrome-mutants and chloroplast ultra-structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyrandir Cabral de Melo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plantas fitocromo-mutantes têm sido utilizadas com o intuito de caracterizar isoladamente, dentre os demais fotorreceptores, a ação dos fitocromos sobre eventos ligados à fotomorfogênese. Raros são os estudos que relatam a ação dos fitocromos sobre aspectos estruturais, embora sejam fundamentais à compreensão do desenvolvimento das plantas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar características ultraestruturais de cloroplastos e aspectos anatômicos foliares dos microtomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom fitocromo-mutantes aurea (subexpressa fitocromos, hp1 e atroviolacea (ambos supra-responsivos a eventos mediados por fitocromo em plantas em estágio de floração. Observou-se que os fitocromos são responsáveis pela expressão de muitas características anatômicas da epiderme foliar, assim como do mesofilo e da ultraestrutura dos cloroplastos.Phytochrome-mutant plants have been used for phytochrome action characterization among all photoreceptors, in events of photomorphogenesis. Studies relating the phytochrome action on structural aspects, which are fundamental to the comprehension of plant development, are rare. The objective of this work was to analyze chloroplast ultra structure and leaf anatomical characteristics of micro-tomatos (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom phytochrome-mutants aurea (sub express phytochrome, hp1 and atroviolacea (both super express phytochrome events-mediated in plants in the flowering stage. The results show that phytochromes are responsible for the expression of many characteristics of leaf epidermis, mesophyll and chloroplast ultra-structure.

  17. Reversion of autocrine transformation by a dominant negative platelet-derived growth factor mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Andersson, M; Westermark, B; Heldin, C H; Ostman, A

    1993-07-01

    A non-receptor-binding mutant of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A chain, PDGF-0, was generated by exchanging 7 amino acids in the sequence. The mutant chains formed dimers that were similar to wild-type PDGF-AA with regard to stability and rate of processing to the mature 30-kDa secreted forms. Moreover, the mutant chains formed disulfide-bonded heterodimers with the PDGF B chain in NIH 3T3 cells heterodimer underwent the same processing and secretion as PDGF-AB. Transfection of c-sis-expressing 3T3 cells with PDGF-0 significantly inhibited the transformed phenotype of these cells, as determined by the following criteria. (i) Compared with PDGF-0-negative clones, PDGF-0-producing clones showed a reverted morphology. (ii) Clones producing PDGF-0 grew more slowly than PDGF-0-negative clones, with a fivefold difference in cell number after 14 days in culture. (iii) The expression of PDGF-0 completely inhibited the ability of the c-sis-expressing 3T3 cells to form colonies in soft agar; this inhibition was overcome by the addition of recombinant PDGF-BB to the culture medium, showing that the lack of colony formation of these cells was not due to a general unresponsiveness to PDGF. The specific expression of a PDGF-0/PDGF wild-type heterodimer in COS cells revealed that the affinity of the mutant heterodimer for the PDGF alpha receptor was decreased by approximately 50-fold compared with that of PDGF-AA. Thus, we show that a non-receptor-binding PDGF A-chain mutant neutralizes in a trans-dominant manner the autocrine transforming potential of the c-sis/PDGF B chain by forming low-affinity heterodimers with wild-type PDGF chains. This method of specifically antagonizing the effect of PDGF may be useful in investigations of the role of PDGF in normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Construction of an Unmarked Zymomonas mobilis Mutant Using a Site-Specific FLP Recombinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Lan Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flippase expression was carried out in Zymomonas mobilis strain ZM4. The FRT-flanked selection marker gene was first integrated into the ZM4 chromosome by homologous recombination. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flp gene was then introduced under the control of the ZM4 gap gene promoter (Pgap, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase or the λ bacteriophage cI857-pR contained in the broad-host-range cloning vector pBBR1-MCS-2. This study demonstrated that flp was expressed and that the deletion frequency of the FRT-flanked marker gene was very high (approx. 100 %. In addition, the flp gene expression vector could be conveniently removed from the resulting unmarked Z. mobilis mutants by serially transferring the cells three times into antibiotic-free medium, thereby establishing an efficient method for constructing unmarked Z. mobilis mutants.

  19. A thermo-sensitive purple leaf rice mutant--PLM12 and its genetical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guanting; Wang Xianyu; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    PLM12 was a thermo-sensitive purple leaf mutant selected from Indica rice variety Luqingzao 1 treated with pingyangmycin in combination with γ-rays, and for display of its mutant character, a relatively high temperature was required. Compared with its original parent, many major agronomic traits of PLM12 changed to varied extents. Based on spikelet cutting experiment, it was believed that significant decreases in number of filled grains per panicle, fertility, and 1000-grain weight in PLM12 resulted mainly from a great decline in photosynthetic capacity and serious lack of photosynthate in purple leaves. It was indicated by genetic analysis that expression of the mutant phenotype in PLM12 was conditioned by a single recessive major nuclear gene and modified by several minor genes

  20. Traits and meiosis in mutant of impatiens balsamina induced by space treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zesheng; Yang Jun; Zhao Yan; Yuan Haiyun

    2004-01-01

    A mutant of Impatiens balsamina was obtained after space induction, and its traits and meiosis were investigated. Characters such as color and form of the mutant expressed great variation. Observation of meiosis showed that most of pollen mother cells were normal in meiosis phase I, except the disproportion of chromosomal segregation, lagging chromosome and dispersal chromosome in anaphase I. Most pollen mother cells developed into microspores tetrad after meiosis, but paraspores also appeared. The number of chromosome in microspore varied from 1 to 21, even more than 30. The shape and size of the microspores fluctuated apparently, and the size of the microspores was in positive correlation to chromosome number. When staining with iodic solution, most of the pollens showed sterility, which was in consistence with the low setting percentage of the mutant plant. It was thought that space induction caused the variation of size, fertility and the abnormal meiosis

  1. Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase I Catalytic Mutants Reveal an Alternative Nucleophile That Can Catalyze Substrate Cleavage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Evan Q.; Cuya, Selma M.; Kojima, Kyoko; Jafari, Nauzanene; Wanzeck, Keith C.; Mobley, James A.; Bjornsti, Mary-Ann; van Waardenburg, Robert C. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I (Tdp1) catalyzes the repair of 3′-DNA adducts, such as the 3′-phosphotyrosyl linkage of DNA topoisomerase I to DNA. Tdp1 contains two conserved catalytic histidines: a nucleophilic His (Hisnuc) that attacks DNA adducts to form a covalent 3′-phosphohistidyl intermediate and a general acid/base His (Hisgab), which resolves the Tdp1-DNA linkage. A Hisnuc to Ala mutant protein is reportedly inactive, whereas the autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease SCAN1 has been attributed to the enhanced stability of the Tdp1-DNA intermediate induced by mutation of Hisgab to Arg. However, here we report that expression of the yeast HisnucAla (H182A) mutant actually induced topoisomerase I-dependent cytotoxicity and further enhanced the cytotoxicity of Tdp1 Hisgab mutants, including H432N and the SCAN1-related H432R. Moreover, the HisnucAla mutant was catalytically active in vitro, albeit at levels 85-fold less than that observed with wild type Tdp1. In contrast, the HisnucPhe mutant was catalytically inactive and suppressed Hisgab mutant-induced toxicity. These data suggest that the activity of another nucleophile when Hisnuc is replaced with residues containing a small side chain (Ala, Asn, and Gln), but not with a bulky side chain. Indeed, genetic, biochemical, and mass spectrometry analyses show that a highly conserved His, immediately N-terminal to Hisnuc, can act as a nucleophile to catalyze the formation of a covalent Tdp1-DNA intermediate. These findings suggest that the flexibility of Tdp1 active site residues may impair the resolution of mutant Tdp1 covalent phosphohistidyl intermediates and provide the rationale for developing chemotherapeutics that stabilize the covalent Tdp1-DNA intermediate. PMID:25609251

  2. Rescue of glaucoma-causing mutant myocilin thermal stability by chemical chaperones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. Nicole; Orwig, Susan D.; Harris, Julia L.; Watkins, J. Derrick; Vollrath, Douglas; Lieberman, Raquel L.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in myocilin cause an inherited form of open angle glaucoma, a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder associated with increased intraocular pressure. Myocilin forms part of the trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix presumed to regulate intraocular pressure. Missense mutations, clustered in the olfactomedin (OLF) domain of myocilin, render the protein prone to aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum of trabecular meshwork cells, causing cell dysfunction and death. Cellular studies have demonstrated temperature-sensitive secretion of myocilin mutants, but difficulties in expression and purification have precluded biophysical characterization of wild-type (wt) myocilin and disease-causing mutants in vitro. We have overcome these limitations by purifying wt and select glaucoma-causing mutant (D380A, I477N, I477S, K423E) forms of the OLF domain (228–504) fused to maltose binding protein (MBP) from E. coli. Monomeric fusion proteins can be isolated in solution. To determine the relative stability of wt and mutant OLF domains, we developed a fluorescence thermal stability assay without removal of MBP, and provide the first direct evidence that mutated OLF is folded but less thermally stable than wt. We tested the ability of seven chemical chaperones to stabilize mutant myocilin. Only sarcosine and trimethylamine N-oxide were capable of shifting the melting temperature of all mutants tested to near that of wt OLF. Our work lays the foundation for the identification of tailored small molecules capable of stabilizing mutant myocilin and promoting secretion to the extracellular matrix, to better control intraocular pressure and ultimately delay the onset of myocilin glaucoma. PMID:20334347

  3. Characterization and fine mapping of a light-dependent leaf lesion mimic mutant 1 in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ye, Bangquan; Yin, Junjie; Yuan, Can; Zhou, Xiaogang; Li, Weitao; He, Min; Wang, Jichun; Chen, Weilan; Qin, Peng; Ma, Bintian; Wang, Yuping; Li, Shigui; Chen, Xuewei

    2015-12-01

    Plants that spontaneously produce lesion mimics or spots, without any signs of obvious adversity, such as pesticide and mechanical damage, or pathogen infection, are so-called lesion mimic mutants (lmms). In rice, many lmms exhibit enhanced resistance to pathogens, which provides a unique opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying lmms. We isolated a rice light-dependent leaf lesion mimic mutant 1 (llm1). Lesion spots appeared in the leaves of the llm1 mutant at the tillering stage. Furthermore, the mutant llm1 had similar agronomic traits to wild type rice. Trypan blue and diamiobenzidine staining analyses revealed that the lesion spot formation on the llm1 mutant was due to programmed cell death and reactive oxygen species. The chloroplasts were severely damaged in the llm1 mutant, suggesting that chloroplast damage was associated with the formation of lesion spots in llm1. More importantly, llm1 exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial blight pathogens within increased expression of pathogenesis related genes (PRs). Using a map-based cloning approach, we delimited the LLM1 locus to a 121-kb interval between two simple sequence repeat markers, RM17470 and RM17473, on chromosome 4. We sequenced the candidate genes on the interval and found that a base mutation had substituted adenine phosphate for thymine in the last exon of LOC_Os04g52130, which led to an amino acid change (Asp(388) to Val) in the llm1 mutant. Our investigation showed that the putative coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPOX) encoded by LOC_Os04g52130 was produced by LLM1 and that amino acid Asp(388) was essential for CPOX function. Our study provides the basis for further investigations into the mechanism underlying lesion mimic initiation associated with LLM1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid identification of lettuce seed germination mutants by bulked segregant analysis and whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Heqiang; Henry, Isabelle M; Coppoolse, Eric R; Verhoef-Post, Miriam; Schut, Johan W; de Rooij, Han; Vogelaar, Aat; Joosen, Ronny V L; Woudenberg, Leo; Comai, Luca; Bradford, Kent J

    2016-11-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds exhibit thermoinhibition, or failure to complete germination when imbibed at warm temperatures. Chemical mutagenesis was employed to develop lettuce lines that exhibit germination thermotolerance. Two independent thermotolerant lettuce seed mutant lines, TG01 and TG10, were generated through ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. Genetic and physiological analyses indicated that these two mutations were allelic and recessive. To identify the causal gene(s), we applied bulked segregant analysis by whole genome sequencing. For each mutant, bulked DNA samples of segregating thermotolerant (mutant) seeds were sequenced and analyzed for homozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two independent candidate mutations were identified at different physical positions in the zeaxanthin epoxidase gene (ABSCISIC ACID DEFICIENT 1/ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE, or ABA1/ZEP) in TG01 and TG10. The mutation in TG01 caused an amino acid replacement, whereas the mutation in TG10 resulted in alternative mRNA splicing. Endogenous abscisic acid contents were reduced in both mutants, and expression of the ABA1 gene from wild-type lettuce under its own promoter fully complemented the TG01 mutant. Conventional genetic mapping confirmed that the causal mutations were located near the ZEP/ABA1 gene, but the bulked segregant whole genome sequencing approach more efficiently identified the specific gene responsible for the phenotype. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Novel Escherichia coli umuD′ Mutants: Structure-Function Insights into SOS Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLenigan, Mary; Peat, Thomas S.; Frank, Ekaterina G.; McDonald, John P.; Gonzalez, Martín; Levine, Arthur S.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Woodgate, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Although it has been 10 years since the discovery that the Escherichia coli UmuD protein undergoes a RecA-mediated cleavage reaction to generate mutagenically active UmuD′, the function of UmuD′ has yet to be determined. In an attempt to elucidate the role of UmuD′ in SOS mutagenesis, we have utilized a colorimetric papillation assay to screen for mutants of a hydroxylamine-treated, low-copy-number umuD′ plasmid that are unable to promote SOS-dependent spontaneous mutagenesis. Using such an approach, we have identified 14 independent umuD′ mutants. Analysis of these mutants revealed that two resulted from promoter changes which reduced the expression of wild-type UmuD′, three were nonsense mutations that resulted in a truncated UmuD′ protein, and the remaining nine were missense alterations. In addition to the hydroxylamine-generated mutants, we have subcloned the mutations found in three chromosomal umuD1, umuD44, and umuD77 alleles into umuD′. All 17 umuD′ mutants resulted in lower levels of SOS-dependent spontaneous mutagenesis but varied in the extent to which they promoted methyl methanesulfonate-induced mutagenesis. We have attempted to correlate these phenotypes with the potential effect of each mutation on the recently described structure of UmuD′. PMID:9721309

  6. Identification of Mutant Genes and Introgressed Tiger Salamander DNA in the Laboratory Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, M Ryan; Vaughn-Wolfe, Jennifer; Elias, Alexandra; Kump, D Kevin; Kendall, Katharina Denise; Timoshevskaya, Nataliya; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir; Perry, Dustin W; Smith, Jeramiah J; Spiewak, Jessica E; Parichy, David M; Voss, S Randal

    2017-01-31

    The molecular genetic toolkit of the Mexican axolotl, a classic model organism, has matured to the point where it is now possible to identify genes for mutant phenotypes. We used a positional cloning-candidate gene approach to identify molecular bases for two historic axolotl pigment phenotypes: white and albino. White (d/d) mutants have defects in pigment cell morphogenesis and differentiation, whereas albino (a/a) mutants lack melanin. We identified in white mutants a transcriptional defect in endothelin 3 (edn3), encoding a peptide factor that promotes pigment cell migration and differentiation in other vertebrates. Transgenic restoration of Edn3 expression rescued the homozygous white mutant phenotype. We mapped the albino locus to tyrosinase (tyr) and identified polymorphisms shared between the albino allele (tyr a ) and tyr alleles in a Minnesota population of tiger salamanders from which the albino trait was introgressed. tyr a has a 142 bp deletion and similar engineered alleles recapitulated the albino phenotype. Finally, we show that historical introgression of tyr a significantly altered genomic composition of the laboratory axolotl, yielding a distinct, hybrid strain of ambystomatid salamander. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying genes for traits in the laboratory Mexican axolotl.

  7. Hypermutability of a UV-sensitive aphidicolin-resistant mutant of Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.K.; Chang, C.; Trosko, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ultraviolet light (UV)-sensitive thymidine auxotroph of Chinese hamster V79 cells that exhibits pleiotropic effects such as a high level of deoxycytidine triphosphate, slow growth, sensitivity to cytidine, and high frequencies of site-specific bromodeoxyuridine-dependent chromosomal aberrations was selected by its resistance to aphidicolin. The UV-induced mutability of this mutant and one of its revertants, which retains some of the phenotypes listed above, was studied in 3 mutation assay systems. The results showed that the mutant was hypermutable for ouabain and diphtheria-toxin-resistant mutations compared to wild-type V79 cells at the same UV dose or the same survival level. The mutant exhibits a delayed expression of maximal frequency of induced 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants. When maximal frequencies are compared at the same UV dose, the mutant also has higher mutation frequencies at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus. The revertant was similar to the wild-type in UV sensitivity and mutability. (orig./AJ)

  8. Reduced heme levels underlie the exponential growth defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Brennan

    Full Text Available The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step.

  9. PNRI mutant variety: sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2011-01-01

    Sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe,' registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2008 Or-66, is a chlorophyll mutant of Sansevieria trifasciata 'Moonshine' developed by treating its suckers or shoots arising from a rhizome with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical in growth habit and vigor to Sansevieria 'Moonshine,' also known as Moonglow. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color and flowering were altered by gamma irradiation without changing the other characteristics of the plant. Propagation is true-to-type by separation of sucker and top cutting. The plant is recommended for use as landscaping material and as pot plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves may be harvested as cut foliage for Japanese flower arrangements. (author)

  10. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  11. The application of shortened upper leaf mutant in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua

    2004-01-01

    The shortened upper leaf mutant was induced from Fuji Nigo by γ-ray irradiation. Fuji Nigo, the mutant, cross-cut F 1 , F 2 and back-cross F 1 , F 2 were used to analyze mutant heredity by comparative study. The yield, chlorophyll content, light intensity, dry matter of mutant were investigated. The results showed that (1) the mutant character was controlled by a couple of nuclear genes which were partial dominance; (2) the transmittance of the mutant colony was better than that of Fuji Nigo and bottom dry matter was much more than that of Fuji Nigo; (3) under the condition of high fertilizer and high plant population , the yield of mutant was higher than that of Fuji Nigo; (4) the content of chlorophyll a in the mutant was higher than that in Fuji Nigo

  12. ''Fushi'' - excellent mutant germplasm for peanut improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhou, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The mutant line ''Fushi'' was selected following seed treatment of the variety ''Shi Xuan 64'' in 1960 with 32 P. Many good peanut varieties were developed using ''Fushi'' in cross-breeding (ref. Mutation Breeding Newsletter No. 30 (July 1987) p. 2-3). In the past 10 years, planting areas of these varieties added up to 3,3 million ha in South China, peanut production was increased by more than 500 000 t valued 500 million Yuan. (author)

  13. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  14. Grain product of 34 soya mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Valencia E, F.; Diaz V, G. E.; Cervantes S, T.; De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T.; Gatica T, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This work was development with the objective of obtaining information of the agronomic behavior of 34 soya mutant lines (R 4 M 18 ) for human consumption and this way to select the 2 better lines. The genetic materials were obtained starting from the variety ISAAEG-B M2 by means of the application of recurrent radiation with Co 60 gammas, to a dose of 350 Gray for the first two generations and both later to 200 Gray and selection during 17 cycles, being obtained the 34 better lines mutants with agronomic characteristic wanted and good flavor. The obtained results were that the mutant lines L 25 and L 32 produced the major quantity in branches/plant number with 7.5 and 7.25, pods/plant number with 171.25 and 167, grains/plant number with 350.89 and 333.07 and grain product (ton/ha) to 15% of humidity 5.15 and 4.68 ton/ha, respectively. (Author)

  15. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  16. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus plantarum mutant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Pasquale; Gallone, Anna; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Albenzio, Marzia; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum wild-type and derivative mutant strains was investigated. Bacterial survival was evaluated in an in vitro system, simulating the transit along the human oro-gastro-intestinal tract. Interaction with human gut epithelial cells was studied by assessing bacterial adhesive ability to Caco-2 cells and induction of genes involved in innate immunity. L. plantarum strains were resistant to the combined stress at the various steps of the simulated gastrointestinal tract. Major decreases in the viability of L. plantarum cells were observed mainly under drastic acidic conditions (pH ≤ 2.0) of the gastric compartment. Abiotic stresses associated to small intestine poorly affected bacterial viability. All the bacterial strains significantly adhered to Caco-2 cells, with the ΔctsR mutant strain exhibiting the highest adhesion. Induction of immune-related genes resulted higher upon incubation with heat-inactivated bacteria rather than with live ones. For specific genes, a differential transcriptional pattern was observed upon stimulation with different L. plantarum strains, evidencing a possible role of the knocked out bacterial genes in the modulation of host cell response. In particular, cells from Δhsp18.55 and ΔftsH mutants strongly triggered immune defence genes. Our study highlights the relevance of microbial genetic background in host-probiotic interaction and might contribute to identify candidate bacterial genes and molecules involved in probiosis.

  17. Mitochondrial Calcium Dysregulation Contributes to Dendrite Degeneration Mediated by PD/LBD-Associated LRRK2 Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manish; Callio, Jason; Otero, P Anthony; Sekler, Israel; Wills, Zachary P; Chu, Charleen T

    2017-11-15

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to development of late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD), with clinical features of motor and cognitive dysfunction indistinguishable from sporadic PD. Calcium dysregulation plays an important role in PD pathogenesis, but the mechanisms of neurodegeneration remain unclear. Recent reports indicate enhanced excitatory neurotransmission in cortical neurons expressing mutant LRRK2, which occurs before the well-characterized phenotype of dendritic shortening. As mitochondria play a major role in the rapid buffering of cytosolic calcium, we hypothesized that altered mitochondrial calcium handling contributes to dendritic retraction elicited by the LRRK2-G2019S and -R1441C mutations. In primary mouse cortical neurons, we observed increased depolarization-induced mitochondrial calcium uptake. We found that expression of mutant LRRK2 elicited transcriptional upregulation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and the mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 protein (MICU1) with no change in levels of the mitochondrial calcium antiporter NCLX. Elevated MCU and MICU1 were also observed in LRRK2-mutated patient fibroblasts, along with increased mitochondrial calcium uptake, and in postmortem brains of sporadic PD/PDD patients of both sexes. Transcriptional upregulation of MCU and MICU1 was caused by activation of the ERK1/2 (MAPK3/1) pathway. Inhibiting ERK1/2 conferred protection against mutant LRRK2-induced neurite shortening. Pharmacological inhibitors or RNAi knockdown of MCU attenuated mitochondrial calcium uptake and dendritic/neuritic shortening elicited by mutant LRRK2, whereas expression of a constitutively active mutant of NCLX that enhances calcium export from mitochondria was neuroprotective. These data suggest that an increased susceptibility to mitochondrial calcium dysregulation contributes to dendritic injury in mutant LRRK2 pathogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cognitive dysfunction and dementia are

  18. Isolation and characterization of Candida albicans morphological mutants derepressed for the formation of filamentous hypha-type structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, C.; Pomes, R.; Nombela, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several Candida albicans morphological mutants were obtained by a procedure based on a combined treatment with nitrous acid plus UV irradiation and a double-enrichment step to increase the proportion of mutants growing as long filamentous structures. Altered cell morphogenesis in these mutants correlated with an altered colonial phenotype. Two of these mutants, C. albicans NEL102 and NEL103, were selected and characterized. Mutant blastoconidia initiated budding but eventually gave rise to filamentous hypha-type formations. These filaments were long and septate, and they branched very regularly at positions near septa. Calcofluor white (which is known to bind chitin-rich areas) stained septa, branching zones, and filament tips very intensely, as observed under the fluorescence microscope. Wild-type hybrids were obtained by fusing protoplasts of strain NEL102 with B14, another morphological mutant previously described as being permanently pseudomycelial, indicating that genetic determinants responsible for the two altered phenotypes are different. The mutants characterized in this work seemed to sequentially express the morphogenic characteristics of C. albicans, from blastoconidia to hyphae, in the absence of any inducer. Further characterization of these strains could be relevant to gain understanding of the genetic control of dimorphism in this species

  19. A method for the production and expedient screening of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longzheng; Li, Wei; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Ding, Jing; Gu, Xianbin; Li, Yanjun; Gu, Tingting; Wang, Ren; Lin, Xinchun; Deng, Ziniu; McAvoy, Richard J; Gmitter, Frederick G; Deng, Zhanao; Zhao, Yunde; Li, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase ( PDS ) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants. We produced pds mutant shoots at a rate of 47.5% from tobacco leaf explants, without the use of antibiotic selection. Among these pds plants, 17.2% were confirmed to be non-transgenic, for an overall non-transgenic mutation rate of 8.2%. Our method is reliable and effective in creating non-transgenic mutant plants without the need to segregate out transgenes through sexual reproduction. This method should be applicable to many economically important, heterozygous, perennial crop species that are more difficult to regenerate.

  20. Radiation studies in Cajanus cajan: meiotic behaviour in some M/sub 2/ mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.S.N.; Akhaury, S.B. (Ranchi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative study of the mutants produced in M/sub 2/ generation has been made. The mutants were classified as: (1) chlorophyll mutant, (2) morphological mutant, (3) pollen mutant, (4) semi-sterile and (5) sterile mutant. Cytological investigations of pollen mutants, sterile and semi-sterile mutants have revealed that these mutants generally arise at higher dose levels (20 Kr and 25 Kr).

  1. Allele-specific Gene Silencing of Mutant mRNA Restores Cellular Function in Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD is an inherited muscle disorder characterized clinically by muscle weakness, distal joint hyperlaxity, and proximal joint contractures. Sporadic and recessive mutations in the three collagen VI genes, COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3, are reported to be causative. In the sporadic forms, a heterozygous point mutation causing glycine substitution in the triple helical domain has been identified in higher rate. In this study, we examined the efficacy of siRNAs, which target point mutation site, on specific knockdown toward transcripts from mutant allele and evaluated consequent cellular phenotype of UCMD fibroblasts. We evaluated the effect of siRNAs targeted to silence-specific COL6A1 alleles in UCMD fibroblasts, where simultaneous expression of both wild-type and mutant collagen VI resulted in defective collagen localization. Addition of mutant-specific siRNAs allowed normal extracellular localization of collagen VI surrounding fibroblasts, suggesting selective inhibition of mutant collagen VI. Targeting the single-nucleotide COL6A1 c.850G>A (p.G284R mutation responsible a sporadic autosomal dominant form of UCMD can potently and selectively block expression of mutant collagen VI. These results suggest that allele-specific knockdown of the mutant mRNA can potentially be considered as a therapeutic procedure in UCMD due to COL6A1 point mutations.

  2. Transcriptome profiling identifies genes and pathways deregulated upon floxuridine treatment in colorectal cancer cells harboring GOF mutant p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Datta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutation in TP53 is a common genetic alteration in human cancers. Certain tumor associated p53 missense mutants acquire gain-of-function (GOF properties and confer oncogenic phenotypes including enhanced chemoresistance. The colorectal cancers (CRC harboring mutant p53 are generally aggressive in nature and difficult to treat. To identify a potential gene expression signature of GOF mutant p53-driven acquired chemoresistance in CRC, we performed transcriptome profiling of floxuridine (FUdR treated SW480 cells expressing mutant p53R273H (GEO#: GSE77533. We obtained several genes differentially regulated between FUdR treated and untreated cells. Further, functional characterization and pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of crucial biological processes and pathways upon FUdR treatment in SW480 cells. Our data suggest that in response to chemotherapeutics treatment, cancer cells with GOF mutant p53 can modulate key cellular pathways to withstand the cytotoxic effect of the drugs. The genes and pathways identified in the present study can be further validated and targeted for better chemotherapy response in colorectal cancer patients harboring mutant p53.

  3. MASTR: A Technique for Mosaic Mutant Analysis with Spatial and Temporal Control of Recombination Using Conditional Floxed Alleles in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Lao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic mutant analysis, the study of cellular defects in scattered mutant cells in a wild-type environment, is a powerful approach for identifying critical functions of genes and has been applied extensively to invertebrate model organisms. A highly versatile technique has been developed in mouse: MASTR (mosaic mutant analysis with spatial and temporal control of recombination, which utilizes the increasing number of floxed alleles and simultaneously combines conditional gene mutagenesis and cell marking for fate analysis. A targeted allele (R26MASTR was engineered; the allele expresses a GFPcre fusion protein following FLP-mediated recombination, which serves the dual function of deleting floxed alleles and marking mutant cells with GFP. Within 24 hr of tamoxifen administration to R26MASTR mice carrying an inducible FlpoER transgene and a floxed allele, nearly all GFP-expressing cells have a mutant allele. The fate of single cells lacking FGF8 or SHH signaling in the developing hindbrain was analyzed using MASTR, and it was revealed that there is only a short time window when neural progenitors require FGFR1 for viability and that granule cell precursors differentiate rapidly when SMO is lost. MASTR is a powerful tool that provides cell-type-specific (spatial and temporal marking of mosaic mutant cells and is broadly applicable to developmental, cancer, and adult stem cell studies.

  4. Molecular analysis of mutants of the Neurospora adenylosuccinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-07

    Aug 7, 2012 ... and mutants induced with X-ray, UV or chemical mutagens. ... We have sequenced the ad-8 locus from 13 of these mutants and identified the molecular nature ..... mutants in yeast by selection for constitutive behavior in pig-.

  5. Biological changes in Barley mutants resistant to powdery mildew disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I. M.; Fahim, M. M.; Moustafa, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    physiological studies showed that all kinds of chlorophyll (a), (b) and (a + b) content in infected plant were decreased while, the carotenes pigment were increased. Infection generally reduced total sugars content of all resistant mutants. Infected resistant mutant showed more phenols content and peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase activities than healthy ones of the mutants. (Author)

  6. Sex reversal in zebrafish fancl mutants is caused by Tp53-mediated germ cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodríguez-Marí

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular genetic mechanisms of sex determination are not known for most vertebrates, including zebrafish. We identified a mutation in the zebrafish fancl gene that causes homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. Fancl is a member of the Fanconi Anemia/BRCA DNA repair pathway. Experiments showed that zebrafish fancl was expressed in developing germ cells in bipotential gonads at the critical time of sexual fate determination. Caspase-3 immunoassays revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in fancl mutants that compromised oocyte survival. In the absence of oocytes surviving through meiosis, somatic cells of mutant gonads did not maintain expression of the ovary gene cyp19a1a and did not down-regulate expression of the early testis gene amh; consequently, gonads masculinized and became testes. Remarkably, results showed that the introduction of a tp53 (p53 mutation into fancl mutants rescued the sex-reversal phenotype by reducing germ cell apoptosis and, thus, allowed fancl mutants to become fertile females. Our results show that Fancl function is not essential for spermatogonia and oogonia to become sperm or mature oocytes, but instead suggest that Fancl function is involved in the survival of developing oocytes through meiosis. This work reveals that Tp53-mediated germ cell apoptosis induces sex reversal after the mutation of a DNA-repair pathway gene by compromising the survival of oocytes and suggests the existence of an oocyte-derived signal that biases gonad fate towards the female developmental pathway and thereby controls zebrafish sex determination.

  7. Inhibition of cell division in hupA hupB mutant bacteria lacking HU protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dri, A M; Rouviere-Yaniv, J; Moreau, P L

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli hupA hypB double mutants that lack HU protein have severe cellular defects in cell division, DNA folding, and DNA partitioning. Here we show that the sfiA11 mutation, which alters the SfiA cell division inhibitor, reduces filamentation and production of anucleate cells in AB1157 hupA hupB strains. However, lexA3(Ind-) and sfiB(ftsZ)114 mutations, which normally counteract the effect of the SfiA inhibitor, could not restore a normal morphology to hupA hupB mutant bacteria. The LexA repressor, which controls the expression of the sfiA gene, was present in hupA hupB mutant bacteria in concentrations half of those of the parent bacteria, but this decrease was independent of the specific cleavage of the LexA repressor by activated RecA protein. One possibility to account for the filamentous morphology of hupA hupB mutant bacteria is that the lack of HU protein alters the expression of specific genes, such as lexA and fts cell division genes. Images PMID:2019558

  8. Primary Cilia in the Murine Cerebellum and in Mutant Models of Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Chiara; Marazziti, Daniela; La Sala, Gina; Abbaszadeh, Zeinab; Golini, Elisabetta; Matteoni, Rafaele; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P

    2017-01-01

    Cellular primary cilia crucially sense and transduce extracellular physicochemical stimuli. Cilium-mediated developmental signaling is tissue and cell type specific. Primary cilia are required for cerebellar differentiation and sonic hedgehog (Shh)-dependent proliferation of neuronal granule precursors. The mammalian G-protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 is specifically expressed in cerebellar Bergmann glia astrocytes and participates in regulating postnatal cerebellar granule neuron proliferation/differentiation and Bergmann glia and Purkinje neuron maturation. The mouse receptor protein interacts with the patched 1 component of the cilium-associated Shh receptor complex. Mice heterozygous for patched homolog 1 mutations, like heterozygous patched 1 humans, have a higher incidence of Shh subgroup medulloblastoma (MB) and other tumors. Cerebellar cells bearing primary cilia were identified during postnatal development and in adulthood in two mouse strains with altered Shh signaling: a G-protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 null mutant and an MB-susceptible, heterozygous patched homolog 1 mutant. In addition to granule and Purkinje neurons, primary cilia were also expressed by Bergmann glia astrocytes in both wild-type and mutant animals, from birth to adulthood. Variations in ciliary number and length were related to the different levels of neuronal and glial cell proliferation and maturation, during postnatal cerebellar development. Primary cilia were also detected in pre-neoplastic MB lesions in heterozygous patched homolog 1 mutant mice and they could represent specific markers for the development and analysis of novel cerebellar oncogenic models.

  9. Metabolic characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant and IDH wildtype gliomaspheres uncovers cell type-specific vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Matthew; Sperry, Jantzen; Braas, Daniel; Yan, Weihong; Le, Thuc M; Mottahedeh, Jack; Ludwig, Kirsten; Eskin, Ascia; Qin, Yue; Levy, Rachelle; Breunig, Joshua J; Pajonk, Frank; Graeber, Thomas G; Radu, Caius G; Christofk, Heather; Prins, Robert M; Lai, Albert; Liau, Linda M; Coppola, Giovanni; Kornblum, Harley I

    2018-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining the metabolic abnormalities of IDH mutant tumors to exploit for therapy. While most studies have attempted to discern function by using cell lines transduced with exogenous IDH mutant enzyme, in this study, we perform unbiased metabolomics to discover metabolic differences between a cohort of patient-derived IDH1 mutant and IDH wildtype gliomaspheres. Using both our own microarray and the TCGA datasets, we performed KEGG analysis to define pathways differentially enriched in IDH1 mutant and IDH wildtype cells and tumors. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis with labeled glucose and deoxycytidine tracers was used to determine differences in overall cellular metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Radiation-induced DNA damage and repair capacity was assessed using a comet assay. Differences between endogenous IDH1 mutant metabolism and that of IDH wildtype cells transduced with the IDH1 (R132H) mutation were also investigated. Our KEGG analysis revealed that IDH wildtype cells were enriched for pathways involved in de novo nucleotide synthesis, while IDH1 mutant cells were enriched for pathways involved in DNA repair. LC-MS analysis with fully labeled 13 C-glucose revealed distinct labeling patterns between IDH1 mutant and wildtype cells. Additional LC-MS tracing experiments confirmed increased de novo nucleotide synthesis in IDH wildtype cells relative to IDH1 mutant cells. Endogenous IDH1 mutant cultures incurred less DNA damage than IDH wildtype cultures and sustained better overall growth following X-ray radiation. Overexpression of mutant IDH1 in a wildtype line did not reproduce the range of metabolic differences observed in lines expressing endogenous mutations, but resulted in depletion of glutamine and TCA cycle intermediates, an increase in DNA damage following radiation, and a rise in intracellular ROS. These results demonstrate that IDH1 mutant and IDH wildtype cells are easily distinguishable

  10. Cell Transformation by PTP1B Truncated Mutants Found in Human Colon and Thyroid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wenhan; Wang, Kemin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    Expression of wild-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B may act either as a tumor suppressor by dysregulation of protein tyrosine kinases or a tumor promoter through Src dephosphorylation at Y527 in human breast cancer cells. To explore whether mutated PTP1B is involved in human carcinogenesis, we have sequenced PTP1B cDNAs from human tumors and found splice mutations in ~20% of colon and thyroid tumors. The PTP1BΔE6 mutant expressed in these two tumor types and another PTP1BΔE5 mutant expressed in colon tumor were studied in more detail. Although PTP1BΔE6 revealed no phosphatase activity compared with wild-type PTP1B and the PTP1BΔE5 mutant, its expression induced oncogenic transformation of rat fibroblasts without Src activation, indicating that it involved signaling pathways independent of Src. The transformed cells were tumourigenic in nude mice, suggesting that the PTP1BΔE6 affected other molecule(s) in the human tumors. These observations may provide a novel therapeutic target for colon and thyroid cancer.

  11. Molecular Basis Underlying Leaf Variegation of a Moth Orchid Mutant (Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chu Tsai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf variegation is often the focus of plant breeding. Here, we studied a variegated mutant of Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana, which is usually used as a parent of horticultural breeding, to understand its anatomic and genetic regulatory mechanisms in variegation. Chloroplasts with well-organized thylakoids and starch grains were found only in the mesophyll cells of green sectors but not of yellow sectors, confirming that the variegation belongs to the chlorophyll type. The two-dimensional electrophoresis and LC/MS/MS also reveal differential expressions of PsbP and PsbO between the green and yellow leaf sectors. Full-length cDNA sequencing revealed that mutant transcripts were caused by intron retention. When conditioning on the total RNA expression, we found that the functional transcript of PsbO and mutant transcript of PsbP are higher expressed in the yellow sector than in the green sector, suggesting that the post-transcriptional regulation of PsbO and PsbP differentiates the performance between green and yellow sectors. Because PsbP plays an important role in the stability of thylakoid folding, we suggest that the negative regulation of PsbP may inhibit thylakoid development in the yellow sectors. This causes chlorophyll deficiency in the yellow sectors and results in leaf variegation. We also provide evidence of the link of virus CymMV and the formation of variegation according to the differential expression of CymMV between green and yellow sectors.

  12. Genetic study of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants with changed shape and/or dentation of leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the morphological differences between normal plants and mutants (due to irradiation) with different shape and/or dentation of leaflets and to evaluate their productivity and genetic potential. Dry seeds have been submitted to gamma irradiation with doses 100 Gy, 150 Gy and 200 Gy.The mutants studies in this research introduce an important source for further investigation of genetics of the mutant traits - dentation of leaflets, shape and especially flowering time that is controlled by genetically determined responses to photo period and temperature. Due to the clear phenotypic expression of the shape and leaves in some plants it is considered that the development of the leaves mutants is and important finding for pea genetics making tham valuable morphological markers for genetic investigations

  13. Specific TP53 Mutants Overrepresented in Ovarian Cancer Impact CNV, TP53 Activity, Responses to Nutlin-3a, and Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Mullany

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Action analyses of The Cancer Gene Atlas data sets show that many specific p53 missense and gain-of-function mutations are selectively overrepresented and functional in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC. As homozygous alleles, p53 mutants are differentially associated with specific loss of heterozygosity (R273; chromosome 17; copy number variation (R175H; chromosome 9; and up-stream, cancer-related regulatory pathways. The expression of immune-related cytokines was selectively related to p53 status, showing for the first time that specific p53 mutants impact, and are related to, the immune subtype of ovarian cancer. Although the majority (31% of HGSCs exhibit loss of heterozygosity, a significant number (24% maintain a wild-type (WT allele and represent another HGSC subtype that is not well defined. Using human and mouse cell lines, we show that specific p53 mutants differentially alter endogenous WT p53 activity; target gene expression; and responses to nutlin-3a, a small molecular that activates WT p53 leading to apoptosis, providing “proof of principle” that ovarian cancer cells expressing WT and mutant alleles represent a distinct ovarian cancer subtype. We also show that siRNA knock down of endogenous p53 in cells expressing homozygous mutant alleles causes apoptosis, whereas cells expressing WT p53 (or are heterozygous for WT and mutant p53 alleles are highly resistant. Therefore, despite different gene regulatory pathways associated with specific p53 mutants, silencing mutant p53 might be a suitable, powerful, global strategy for blocking ovarian cancer growth in those tumors that rely on mutant p53 functions for survival. Knowing p53 mutational status in HGSC should permit new strategies tailored to control this disease.

  14. Tumor suppressor PTEN affects tau phosphorylation: deficiency in the phosphatase activity of PTEN increases aggregation of an FTDP-17 mutant Tau

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    Zhang Xue

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant hyperphosphorylation of tau protein has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Although a number of protein kinases have been shown to phosphorylate tau in vitro and in vivo, the molecular mechanisms by which tau phosphorylation is regulated pathophysiologically are largely unknown. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests a link between tau phosphorylation and PI3K signaling. In this study, phosphorylation, aggregation and binding to the microtubule of a mutant frontal temporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17 tau in the presence of tumor suppressor PTEN, a major regulatory component in PI3K signaling, were investigated. Results Phosphorylation of the human mutant FTDP-17 tau, T40RW, was evaluated using different phospho-tau specific antibodies in the presence of human wild-type or phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN. Among the evaluated phosphorylation sites, the levels of Ser214 and Thr212 phospho-tau proteins were significantly decreased in the presence of wild-type PTEN, and significantly increased when the phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN was ectopically expressed. Fractionation of the mutant tau transfected cells revealed a significantly increased level of soluble tau in cytosol when wild-type PTEN was expressed, and an elevated level of SDS-soluble tau aggregates in the presence of the mutant PTEN. In addition, the filter/trap assays detected more SDS-insoluble mutant tau aggregates in the cells overexpressing the mutant PTEN compared to those in the cells overexpressing wild-type PTEN and control DNA. This notion was confirmed by the immunocytochemical experiment which demonstrated that the overexpression of the phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN caused the mutant tau to form aggregates in the COS-7 cells. Conclusion Tumor suppressor PTEN can alleviate the phosporylation of the mutant FTDP-17 tau at specific sites, and the phosphatase activity

  15. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 1. Chlorophyll Mutations in Allelic tw Mutants and Their Revertants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaitkuniene, V.

    1995-01-01

    Genotypical environment is an essential factor determining the mutability of mutants of the same type. Decreased chlorophyll mutant frequency was a common characteristic of all tested tw type (tw, tw 1 , tw 2 ) mutants induced in barley c. 'Auksiniai II'. The mutability of all the tested revertants was close to that of the initial c. 'Auksiniai II'. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  16. The Arabidopsis thiamin-deficient mutant pale green1 lacks thiamin monophosphate phosphatase of the vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wei-Yu; Liao, Jo-Chien; Wang, Hsin-Tzu; Hung, Tzu-Huan; Tseng, Ching-Chih; Chung, Tsui-Yun; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2017-07-01

    Thiamin diphosphate (TPP, vitamin B 1 ) is an essential coenzyme present in all organisms. Animals obtain TPP from their diets, but plants synthesize TPPde novo. We isolated and characterized an Arabidopsis pale green1 (pale1) mutant that contained higher concentrations of thiamin monophosphate (TMP) and less thiamin and TPP than the wild type. Supplementation with thiamin, but not the thiazole and pyrimidine precursors, rescued the mutant phenotype, indicating that the pale1 mutant is a thiamin-deficient mutant. Map-based cloning and whole-genome sequencing revealed that the pale1 mutant has a mutation in At5g32470 encoding a TMP phosphatase of the TPP biosynthesis pathway. We further confirmed that the mutation of At5g32470 is responsible for the mutant phenotypes by complementing the pale1 mutant with constructs overexpressing full-length At5g32470. Most plant TPP biosynthetic enzymes are located in the chloroplasts and cytosol, but At5g32470-GFP localized to the mitochondrion of the root, hypocotyl, mesophyll and guard cells of the 35S:At5g32470-GFP complemented plants. The subcellular localization of a functional TMP phosphatase suggests that the complete vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway may involve the chloroplasts, mitochondria and cytosol in plants. Analysis of PALE1 promoter-uidA activity revealed that PALE1 is mainly expressed in vascular tissues of Arabidopsis seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of TPP biosynthesis genes and genes encoding the TPP-dependent enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase revealed that the transcript levels of these genes were upregulated in the pale1 mutant. These results suggest that endogenous levels of TPP may affect the expression of genes involved in TPP biosynthesis and TPP-dependent enzymes. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. High yielding mutants of blackgram variety 'PH-25'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.; Mohapatra, B.D.; Panda, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety 'PH-5' were treated with chemical mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG), maleic hydrazide (MH) and sodium azide (NaN 3 ), each at 3 different concentrations. Thirty six mutant lines developed from mutagenic treatments along with parent varieties were tested in M 4 generation. The mutants showed wide variation in most of the traits and multivariante D 2 analysis showed genetic divergence among themselves. Twenty of the thirty mutants showed genetic divergence from parent. Ten selected high yielding mutants were tested in M 5 . Yield and other productive traits of five high yielding mutants in M 4 and M 5 are presented

  18. Genomic data reveal Toxoplasma gondii differentiation mutants are also impaired with respect to switching into a novel extracellular tachyzoite state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J Lescault

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii pathogenesis includes the invasion of host cells by extracellular parasites, replication of intracellular tachyzoites, and differentiation to a latent bradyzoite stage. We present the analysis of seven novel T. gondii insertional mutants that do not undergo normal differentiation to bradyzoites. Microarray quantification of the variation in genome-wide RNA levels for each parasite line and times after induction allowed us to describe states in the normal differentiation process, to analyze mutant lines in the context of these states, and to identify genes that may have roles in initiating the transition from tachyzoite to bradyzoite. Gene expression patterns in wild-type parasites undergoing differentiation suggest a novel extracellular state within the tachyzoite stage. All mutant lines exhibit aberrant regulation of bradyzoite gene expression and notably some of the mutant lines appear to exhibit high proportions of the intracellular tachyzoite state regardless of whether they are intracellular or extracellular. In addition to the genes identified by the insertional mutagenesis screen, mixture model analysis allowed us to identify a small number of genes, in mutants, for which expression patterns could not be accounted for using the three parasite states--genes that may play a mechanistic role in switching from the tachyzoite to bradyzoite stage.

  19. Sustracted library obtained from mutant sugarcane variety B 4362 resistant to rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Oloriz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The hypersensitive response is one of the most powerful mechanisms for which the plants resist pathogen attack. Mutations carried out previously on the variety B4362, of sugarcane, originated five mutants that express this mechanism towards the attack of rust (Puccinia melanocephala Syd.. By means of a subtractive hybridization among the cDNA obtained starting from the resistant clone inoculated with rust and a pool of cDNA of the susceptible variety (B4362 inoculated and of the resistant clone not inoculated, it was possible to reduce the number of genes expressed during the infection with the fungus. A subtractive library was carried out where we hope that most of the genes are involved in the hypersens