Sample records for rc4 content scale

  1. High supersonic stability and control characteristics of a 0.015-scale (remotely controlled elevon) model 44-0 space shuttle orbiter tested in the NASA/LaRC 4-foot UPWT (LEG 2) (LA75), volume 1 (United States)

    Ball, J. W.


    Wind tunnel tests are reported on a 0.015-scale SSV orbiter model with remote independently operated left and right elevon surfaces. Special attention was directed to definition of nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics by taking data at small increments. Six component aerodynamic force and moment and elevon position data were recorded for the space shuttle orbiter with various elevon, aileron rudder and speed brake deflection combinations over an angle of attack range from -4 deg to 32 deg at angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 3 deg. Additional tests were made over an angle of sideslip range from -6 deg to 8 deg at selected angles of attack. Test Mach numbers were 2.86, 2.90, 3.90 and 4.60 with Reynolds numbers held at a constant 2.0 x 1 million per foot.

  2. Some security results of the RC4+ stream cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Jha, Sonu


    to any even 8-bit constant other than 0xAA. Therefore, the question that naturally arises is whether the design of RC4+ can be protected by fixing the pad parameter to some constant odd value. In this paper, we try to answer this very question. We show that the design is still vulnerable by mounting...... in terms of number of faults required and the computational complexity. In fact, we reduce the number of faults by around 11264 on average, and our algorithm is around 26 times faster....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Ariyanto


    Full Text Available In this research will be worked through about how cryptography RC4's algorithm implementation in protection to query result and of query, security by encryption and descryption up to both is in network. Implementation of this research which is build software in client that function access databases that is placed by the side of server. Software that building to have facility for encryption and descryption query result and of query that is sent from client goes to server and. transmission query result and of query can secure its security. Well guaranted transmission security him of query result and of query can be told to succeed if success software can encryption query result and of query which transmission so that in the event of scanning to both, scanning will not understand data content. Conclusion of this research that is woke up software succeed encryption query and result of query which transmission between application of client and of server databases. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Pada penelitian ini dibahas mengenai bagaimana mengimplementasikan algoritma kriptografi RC4 dalam proteksi terhadap query dan hasil query, pengamanan dilakukan dengan cara melakukan enkripsi dan dekripsi selama keduanya berada di dalam jaringan. Pengimplementasian dari penelitian ini yaitu membangun sebuah software yang akan diletakkan di sisi client yang berfungsi mengakses database yang diletakkan di sisi server. Software yang dibangun memiliki fasilitas untuk mengenkripsi dan mendektipsi query dan hasil query yang dikirimkan dari client ke server dan juga sebaliknya. Dengan demikian tramsmisi query dan hasil query dapat terjamin keamanannya.Terjaminnya keamanan transmisi query dan hasil query dapat dikatakan berhasil jika software berhasil mengenkripsi query dan hasil query yang ditransmisikan sehingga apabila terjadi penyadapan terhadap keduanya, penyadap tidak akan mengerti isi data tersebut. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini yaitu software yang dibangun


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Widarma


    Full Text Available Pengiriman atau pertukaran data adalah hal yang sering terjadi dalam dunia teknologi informasi. Data yang dikirim kadang sering berisi data informasi yang penting bahkan sangat rahasia dan harus dijaga keamanannya. Untuk menjaga keamanan data, dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik kriptografi. Algoritma AES dan RC4 adalah salah satu dari algoritma simetri. Kelemahan dari algoritma simetri adalah proses enkripsi dan dekripsi menggunakan kunci yang sama. Untuk mengatasi tersebut dilakukan dengan menggunakan algoritma Elgamal. Algoritma Elgamal adalah termasuk algoritma asimetri. Algoritma Elgamal digunakan untuk mengamankan kunci dari algoritma AES dan RC4. Peningkatan keamanan pesan dan kunci dilakukan dengan algoritma hybrid. Algoritma hybrid dengan mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma baik algoritma simetri maupun algortima asimetri akan menambah keamanan sehingga menjadi lebih aman dan powerful (Jain & Agrawal 2014. Penelitian ini akan dilakukan metode hybrid yaitu mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma kriptografi dengan menggunakan algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan RC4 untuk kerahasiaan data serta algoritma Elgamal digunakan untuk enkripsi dan dekripsi kunci.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Widarma


    Full Text Available Abstrak — Pengiriman atau pertukaran data adalah hal yang sering terjadi dalam dunia teknologi informasi. Data yang dikirim kadang sering berisi data informasi yang penting bahkan sangat rahasia dan harus dijaga keamanannya. Untuk menjaga keamanan data, dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik kriptografi. Algoritma AES dan RC4 adalah salah satu dari algoritma simetri. Kelemahan dari algoritma simetri adalah proses enkripsi dan dekripsi menggunakan kunci yang sama. Untuk mengatasi tersebut dilakukan dengan menggunakan algoritma Elgamal. Algoritma Elgamal adalah termasuk algoritma asimetri. Algoritma Elgamal  digunakan untuk mengamankan kunci dari algoritma AES dan RC4. Peningkatan keamanan pesan dan kunci dilakukan dengan algoritma hybrid. Algoritma hybrid dengan mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma baik algoritma simetri maupun algortima asimetri akan menambah keamanan sehingga menjadi lebih aman dan powerful (Jain & Agrawal 2014. Penelitian ini akan dilakukan metode hybrid yaitu mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma kriptografi dengan menggunakan algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan RC4 untuk kerahasiaan data serta algoritma Elgamal digunakan untuk enkripsi dan dekripsi kunci. Kata Kunci :  kriptograpi, algoritma AES, RC4, Elgamal, hybrid

  6. Perbandingan Algoritma Enkripsi GGHN(8,8 dan RC4 Untuk Video Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriyo Satriyo


    Full Text Available Encryption is a solutions to secure the information transmitted through the medium of communication that can not be intercepted by unauthorized parties. This study implemented two algorithms i.e. RC4 and GGHN (8.8 in video conference. This study compared the speed  of  both  encryption  and  decryption  of  the  encryption  algorithm,  and  perform  measurements  of  bandwidth .  From  the  results  of measurements of the speed can be concluded that the RC4 algorithm is 1.53 times and 1.34 times faster than GGHN(8,8 for encryption and  decryption  audio  data.  The  encryption  and  decryption  video  data  RC4  are  1.44  times  and  1.09  times  faster  than  GHN(8,8. Bandwidth  usage  for  video  conferencing  without  encryption  and  bandwidth  usage  on  a  video  conference  with  RC4  encryption  and GGHN (8.8 is the same.Keywords: Video Conference; RC4; GGHN(8,8; Real Time Protocol.

  7. A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Intertwining Chaotic Maps and RC4 Stream Cipher (United States)

    Kumari, Manju; Gupta, Shailender


    As the systems are enabling us to transmit large chunks of data, both in the form of texts and images, there is a need to explore algorithms which can provide a higher security without increasing the time complexity significantly. This paper proposes an image encryption scheme which uses intertwining chaotic maps and RC4 stream cipher to encrypt/decrypt the images. The scheme employs chaotic map for the confusion stage and for generation of key for the RC4 cipher. The RC4 cipher uses this key to generate random sequences which are used to implement an efficient diffusion process. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB-2016b and various performance metrics are used to evaluate its efficacy. The proposed scheme provides highly scrambled encrypted images and can resist statistical, differential and brute-force search attacks. The peak signal-to-noise ratio values are quite similar to other schemes, the entropy values are close to ideal. In addition, the scheme is very much practical since having lowest time complexity then its counterparts.

  8. An implementation of super-encryption using RC4A and MDTM cipher algorithms for securing PDF Files on android (United States)

    Budiman, M. A.; Rachmawati, D.; Parlindungan, M. R.


    MDTM is a classical symmetric cryptographic algorithm. As with other classical algorithms, the MDTM Cipher algorithm is easy to implement but it is less secure compared to modern symmetric algorithms. In order to make it more secure, a stream cipher RC4A is added and thus the cryptosystem becomes super encryption. In this process, plaintexts derived from PDFs are firstly encrypted with the MDTM Cipher algorithm and are encrypted once more with the RC4A algorithm. The test results show that the value of complexity is Θ(n2) and the running time is linearly directly proportional to the length of plaintext characters and the keys entered.

  9. Water content estimated from point scale to plot scale (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Binley, A. M.; Demir, G.; Abgarmi, B.


    Soil moisture controls the portioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff. Here we investigate measurements of soil moisture using a range of techniques spanning different spatial scales. In order to understand soil water content in a test basin, 512 km2 in area, in the south of Turkey, a Cosmic Ray CRS200B soil moisture probe was installed at elevation of 1459 m and an ML3 ThetaProbe (CS 616) soil moisture sensor was established at 5cm depth used to get continuous soil moisture. Neutron count measurements were corrected for the changes in atmospheric pressure, atmospheric water vapour and intensity of incoming neutron flux. The calibration of the volumetric soil moisture was performed, from the laboratory analysis, the bulk density varies between 1.719 (g/cm3) -1.390 (g/cm3), and the dominant soil texture is silty clay loam and silt loamThe water content reflectometer was calibrated for soil-specific conditions and soil moisture estimates were also corrected with respect to soil temperature. In order to characterize the subsurface, soil electrical resistivity tomography was used. Wenner and Schlumberger array geometries were used with electrode spacing varied from 1m- 5 m along 40 m and 200 m profiles. From the inversions of ERT data it is apparent that within 50 m distance from the CRS200B, the soil is moderately resistive to a depth of 2m and more conductive at greater depths. At greater distances from the CRS200B, the ERT results indicate more resistive soils. In addition to the ERT surveys, ground penetrating radar surveys using a common mid-point configuration was used with 200MHz antennas. The volumetric soil moisture obtained from GPR appears to overestimate those based on TDR observations. The values obtained from CS616 (at a point scale) and CRS200B (at a mesoscale) are compared with the values obtained at a plot scale. For the field study dates (20-22.06.2017) the volumetric moisture content obtained from CS616 were 25.14%, 25.22% and 25

  10. An Implementation of RC4+ Algorithm and Zig-zag Algorithm in a Super Encryption Scheme for Text Security (United States)

    Budiman, M. A.; Amalia; Chayanie, N. I.


    Cryptography is the art and science of using mathematical methods to preserve message security. There are two types of cryptography, namely classical and modern cryptography. Nowadays, most people would rather use modern cryptography than classical cryptography because it is harder to break than the classical one. One of classical algorithm is the Zig-zag algorithm that uses the transposition technique: the original message is unreadable unless the person has the key to decrypt the message. To improve the security, the Zig-zag Cipher is combined with RC4+ Cipher which is one of the symmetric key algorithms in the form of stream cipher. The two algorithms are combined to make a super-encryption. By combining these two algorithms, the message will be harder to break by a cryptanalyst. The result showed that complexity of the combined algorithm is θ(n2 ), while the complexity of Zig-zag Cipher and RC4+ Cipher are θ(n2 ) and θ(n), respectively.

  11. A Network Contention Model for the Extreme-scale Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL


    The Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) is a performance investigation toolkit for high-performance computing (HPC) hardware/software co-design. It permits running a HPC application with millions of concurrent execution threads, while observing its performance in a simulated extreme-scale system. This paper details a newly developed network modeling feature for xSim, eliminating the shortcomings of the existing network modeling capabilities. The approach takes a different path for implementing network contention and bandwidth capacity modeling using a less synchronous and accurate enough model design. With the new network modeling feature, xSim is able to simulate on-chip and on-node networks with reasonable accuracy and overheads.

  12. Developing a Scale to Measure Content Knowledge and Pedagogy Content Knowledge of In-Service Elementary Teachers on Fractions (United States)

    Kazemi, Farhad; Rafiepour, Abolfazl


    The main purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measuring content knowledge (CK) and pedagogy content knowledge (PCK) of in-service elementary teachers on mathematical fractions. Another aim of this study was to consider whether CK and PCK are separate from each other, or are in a single body. Therefore, a scale containing 22 items about…

  13. Effect of the scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination (United States)

    Gao, Yuhua; Liu, Zhenfa; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Haihua


    A scale inhibitor was synthesized from polysuccinimide with 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid and aspartic acid. The effect of scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination was studied. The results showed that the ion content of permeate water is lower with the scale inhibitor added in RO system for seawater desalination than without scale inhibitor. On the contrary, the ion content of concentrate water is higher when with scale inhibitor in RO system.

  14. Localization of Low Copy Number Plasmid pRC4 in Replicating Rod and Non-Replicating Cocci Cells of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Singhi

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus are gram-positive bacteria, which can exist in two different shapes rod and cocci. A number of studies have been done in the past on replication and stability of small plasmids in this bacterium; however, there are no reports on spatial localization and segregation of these plasmids. In the present study, a low copy number plasmid pDS3 containing pRC4 replicon was visualized in growing cells of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 (NBRC100887 using P1 parS-ParB-GFP system. Cells were initially cocci and then became rod shaped in exponential phase. Cocci cells were found to be non-replicating as evident by the presence of single fluorescence focus corresponding to the plasmid and diffuse fluorescence of DnaB-GFP. Rod shaped cells contained plasmid either present as one fluorescent focus observed at the cell center or two foci localized at quarter positions. The results suggest that the plasmid is replicated at the cell center and then it goes to quarter position. In order to observe the localization of plasmid with respect to nucleoid, plasmid segregation was also studied in filaments where it was found to be replicated at the cell center in a nucleoid free region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on segregation of small plasmids in R. erythropolis.

  15. External Correlates of the MMPI-2 Content Component Scales in Mental Health Inpatients (United States)

    Green, Bradley A.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.


    External correlates of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Content Component Scales were identified using an inpatient sample of 544 adults. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) produced correlates of the Content Component Scales, demonstrating external validity with…

  16. Content Validation of the Scale of Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Classrooms (STATIC) (United States)

    Nishimura, Trisha Sugita; Busse, R. T.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the content validity of the Scale of Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Classrooms (STATIC). An expert panel of 20 special education teachers and five university faculty members provided individual item ratings on a five-point scale regarding wording and content, along with comments. Item and comment…

  17. Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications (United States)

    Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav


    Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

  18. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn


    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  19. Validity of contents of a paediatric critical comfort scale using mixed methodology. (United States)

    Bosch-Alcaraz, A; Jordan-Garcia, I; Alcolea-Monge, S; Fernández-Lorenzo, R; Carrasquer-Feixa, E; Ferrer-Orona, M; Falcó-Pegueroles, A

    Critical illness in paediatric patients includes acute conditions in a healthy child as well as exacerbations of chronic disease, and therefore these situations must be clinically managed in Critical Care Units. The role of the paediatric nurse is to ensure the comfort of these critically ill patients. To that end, instruments are required that correctly assess critical comfort. To describe the process for validating the content of a paediatric critical comfort scale using mixed-method research. Initially, a cross-cultural adaptation of the Comfort Behavior Scale from English to Spanish using the translation and back-translation method was made. After that, its content was evaluated using mixed method research. This second step was divided into a quantitative stage in which an ad hoc questionnaire was used in order to assess each scale's item relevance and wording and a qualitative stage with two meetings with health professionals, patients and a family member following the Delphi Method recommendations. All scale items obtained a content validity index >0.80, except physical movement in its relevance, which obtained 0.76. Global content scale validity was 0.87 (high). During the qualitative stage, items from each of the scale domains were reformulated or eliminated in order to make the scale more comprehensible and applicable. The use of a mixed-method research methodology during the scale content validity phase allows the design of a richer and more assessment-sensitive instrument. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. A Scale for E-Content Preparation Skills: Development, Validity and Reliability (United States)

    Tekin, Ahmet; Polat, Ebru


    Problem Statement: For an effective teaching and learning process it is critical to provide support for teachers in the development of e-content, and teachers should play an active role in this development. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable Likert-type scale that will determine pre-service teachers'…

  1. Susceptibility of the MMPI-2 Clinical, Restructured Clinical (RC), and Content Scales to Overreporting and Underreporting (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Graham, John R.; Arbisi, Paul A.; Bagby, R. Michael


    The authors examined and compared the susceptibility of three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale sets (Clinical, Restructured Clinical [RC], and Content) to over- and underreporting using five analog samples. Two samples of 85 and 191 undergraduate students, respectively, took the MMPI-2 under underreporting versus…

  2. Giving the Self a Voice in MMPI Self-Report: Jerry Wiggins and the Content Scales (United States)

    Nichols, David S.


    This article places one of Jerry Wiggins' contributions to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), his content scales, in the twin contexts of past and recent research, and of Wiggins' own preoccupations growing out of the interpersonal point of view. It highlights Wiggins' perspective on the position of the person in the process…

  3. Accumulation of Content Validation Evidence for the Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale. (United States)

    Nair, Girija Gopinathan; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg


    Critical thinking skills (CTS) are essential for nurses; assessing students' acquisition of these skills is a mandate of nursing curricula. This study aimed to develop a self-assessment instrument of critical thinking skills (Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale [CTSAS]) for students' self-monitoring. An initial pool of 196 items across 6 core cognitive skills and 16 subskills were generated using the American Philosophical Association definition of CTS. Experts' content review of the items and their ratings provided evidence of content relevance using the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and Aiken's content validity coefficient (VIk). 115 items were retained (range of I-CVI values = .70 to .94 and range of VIk values = .69-.95; significant at pself-assessment purposes.

  4. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  5. MMPI-2 validity, clinical and content scales, and the Fake Bad Scale for personal injury litigants claiming idiopathic environmental intolerance. (United States)

    Staudenmayer, Herman; Phillips, Scott


    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a descriptor for nonspecific complaints that are attributed to environmental exposure. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) was administered to 50 female and 20 male personal injury litigants alleging IEI. The validity scales indicated no overreporting of psychopathology. Half of the cases had elevated scores on validity scales suggesting defensiveness, and a large number had elevations on Fake Bad Scale (FBS) suggesting overreporting of unauthenticated symptoms. The average T-score profile for females was defined by the two-point code type 3-1 (Hysteria-Hypochondriasis), and the average T-score profile for males was defined by the three-point code type 3-1-2 (Hysteria, Hypochondriasis-Depression). On the content scales, Health Concerns (HEA) scale was significantly elevated. Idiopathic environmental intolerance litigants (a) are more defensive about expressing psychopathology, (b) express distress through somatization, (c) use a self-serving misrepresentation of exaggerated health concerns, and (d) may exaggerate unauthenticated symptoms suggesting malingering.

  6. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity. (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K


    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory.

  7. Correlation Lengths for Estimating the Large-Scale Carbon and Heat Content of the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Gille, S. T.; Verdy, A.


    The spatial correlation scales of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon, heat content, and carbon and heat exchanges with the atmosphere are estimated from a realistic numerical simulation of the Southern Ocean. Biases in the model are assessed by comparing the simulated sea surface height and temperature scales to those derived from optimally interpolated satellite measurements. While these products do not resolve all ocean scales, they are representative of the climate scale variability we aim to estimate. Results show that constraining the carbon and heat inventory between 35°S and 70°S on time-scales longer than 90 days requires approximately 100 optimally spaced measurement platforms: approximately one platform every 20° longitude by 6° latitude. Carbon flux has slightly longer zonal scales, and requires a coverage of approximately 30° by 6°. Heat flux has much longer scales, and thus a platform distribution of approximately 90° by 10° would be sufficient. Fluxes, however, have significant subseasonal variability. For all fields, and especially fluxes, sustained measurements in time are required to prevent aliasing of the eddy signals into the longer climate scale signals. Our results imply a minimum of 100 biogeochemical-Argo floats are required to monitor the Southern Ocean carbon and heat content and air-sea exchanges on time-scales longer than 90 days. However, an estimate of formal mapping error using the current Argo array implies that in practice even an array of 600 floats (a nominal float density of about 1 every 7° longitude by 3° latitude) will result in nonnegligible uncertainty in estimating climate signals.

  8. Mineral and water content of A. gigas scales determine local micromechanical properties and energy dissipation mechanisms (United States)

    Troncoso, Omar P.; Gigos, Florian; Torres, Fernando G.


    Arapaima gigas scales are natural laminated composite materials made of individual layers with different degrees of mineralization, accompanied of varying mechanical properties. This natural design provides scales with hardness and flexibility, and can serve as a source of inspiration for the development of new layered composites with a hard surface and flexible base. In this paper, we have carried out cyclic micro-indentation tests on both; the internal and the highly mineralized external surface of air dried and wet scales, in order to assess the variation of their local micromechanical properties with regard to the mineral and water content. The load-penetration (P-h) curves showed that creep takes place throughout the application of a constant force during the micro-indentation tests, confirming the time dependent response of A. gigas scales. A model that accounted for the elastic, plastic and viscous responses of the samples was used to fit the experimental results. The penetration depth during loading and creep, as well as the energy dissipated are dependent on the water content. The used model suggests that the viscous response of the internal layer increases with the water content.

  9. Validation of the MMPI-2 Low Self-Esteem Content Scale. (United States)

    Brems, C; Lloyd, P


    We explored the concurrent validity of the MMPI-2 Low Self-Esteem (LSE) Content scale by asking 216 undergraduate students to complete the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1991), Harter Adult Self-Perception Profile (Harter, 1986a) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Results suggest the LSE renders a good assessment of global self-esteem as well as being a measure of three distinct components of self-esteem. These specific subscales, identified by factor analysis, were labeled Ineptitude, Negative Self-Value, and Negative Comparison with Others. The LSE and its subscales produced good internal consistency (alpha and Gutman Split Half) coefficients.

  10. Scale for Assessment of Giftedness - teacher's version: evidence of validity content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cassia Nakano


    Full Text Available The assessment of high abilities is of great importance in psychology, despite scarce studies in literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify, through content validity, the appropriateness of the items of the High Assessment Scale Skills - Teacher Version. The judges were six post-graduate students in the psychological assessment area who rated the 41 items of the instrument in six factors (academic intellectual ability, specific academic skills, leadership, creativity, artistic talent. The results demonstrated the suitability of the items, most of them with concordance rates above 80% (n = 29 and between 60 and 80% (n = 8. Only four items showed agreement at or below 50%, suggesting the need for reformulation. The analysis of the Kappa coefficients showed indices between 0.69 and 0.81. In general, the results indicated the suitability of the scale to the contents of the pretended model.

  11. The measurement of the total electron content applied to the observation of medium scale gravity wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, L.; Bertin, F.; Testud, J.


    The interpretation of the measurements of the integrated electron content in terms of gravity wave requires (1) a gravity wave model at thermospheric altitudes; (2) a gravity wave-ionization interaction model in the F-region of the ionosphere; and (3) a computing program for the resulting perturbation on the integrated electron content between the satellite and the earth station used. The gravity wave model considered in this paper takes into account the dissipative effects (viscosity, thermal conduction) which become very importanr above 250 km altitude and the effect of the base wind which is capable of affecting deeply the propagation of the waves of medium scale. Starting with this model, the domains of frequencies and the wavelength of atmospheric waves which may exist in the upper atmosphere are considered. The interaction of such waves and the ionization is examined. The theoretical results give information particularly on the selectivity of the ionospheric response to the wave passage. The deduced selectivity of the models appears to be smaller than that given by other authors who used simplified gravity wave models. The method for computing the perturbation of the of the integrated electron content introduced by the wave passage is given for a geostationary satellite. Computational results are presented for application to the case of medium scale gravity waves. (author)

  12. Design of a small scale boiler package for testing high moisture content biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, Andrew


    This report presents the results of a project to design a prototype, small-scale boiler (0.88 MWth output) to enable clean and efficient combustion of high moisture content (>30%) biomass fuels. The boiler was based on an open bottom smoke tube design, modified to incorporate water tubes in the combustion chamber running from front to back. These were added to support refractory bricks to create an extra pass in the boiler combustion chamber such that the reflected heat from the refractory increased the rate of evaporation of moisture from the fuel. A chain grate stoker was employed. The combustion tests involved three biofuels: wood pellets with a low moisture content (8-10%) (to provide combustion rates for a commercially proven biofuel); wood chips from forestry waste with a 30-40% moisture content; and spent mushroom compost with 70-75% moisture. The tests on the wood chips required a number of modifications to the fuel feeding system and to the boiler in order to achieve limited success and the tests with the mushroom compost were unsuccessful due to the combination of the high moisture content and the fuel's low calorific value. Experience gained with the wood chips suggested a number of improvements for a future boiler design. As well as describing the experimental work and test results, the report offers an economic analysis (capital costs, fuel costs, running costs) of the scheme.

  13. Developing the content of a locomotor disability scale for adults in Bangladesh: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Mahmud, Ilias; Clarke, Lynda; Ploubidis, George B


    Bangladesh has an estimated 17 million adults with disabilities. A significant proportion of them are believed to have locomotor disabilities. There are over 300 non-governmental organizations providing different types of rehabilitation services to them. However, there is no locally developed and validated locomotor disability measurement scale in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to develop a locomotor disability scale with disability indicators suitable for adults in Bangladesh. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities to generate scale items. At the second stage, cognitive interviews were conducted with 12 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities in order to refine the measurement questions and response categories. Data were analysed using the framework technique- identifying, abstracting, charting and matching themes across the interviews. For a locomotor disability scale, 70 activities (disability indicators) were identified: 37 mobility activities, 9 activities of daily living, 17 work/productivity activities and 7 leisure activities. Cognitive interviews revealed that when asking the respondents to rate their difficulty in performing the activities, instead of just mentioning the activity name, such as taking a bath or shower, a detailed description of the activity and response options were necessary to ensure consistent interpretation of the disability indicators and response options across all respondents. Identifying suitable disability indicators was the first step in developing a locomotor disability scale for adults in Bangladesh. Interviewing adults with locomotor disabilities in Bangladesh ensured that the locomotor disability scale is of relevance to them and consequently it has excellent content validity. Further research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale.

  14. Translation, cultural adaptation, and content validity index of the Juvenile Love Scale to the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayne Stephane Soares

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passionate love involves physiological, emotional, and cognitive features that greatly changes behavior. This phenomenon seems universal or near universal. Even other animal species choose partners. An intense state of passionate love is associated with activity in dopamine pathways of the brain ‘reward system’, and recently has been regarded as a ‘natural addiction’. Instruments or tools to evaluate romantic love during childhood is still scarce. Objective To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Juvenile Love Scale (JLS for use in the Brazilian context targeted for adolescents between 14 and 18 years old. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of JLS followed international recommendations, and its content validity was analyzed by a panel of experts in different areas of knowledge. Results The final version of the JLS for use in the Brazilian context showed high content validity (> 90%. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first scale for measuring romantic or passionate love in adolescents adapted to the Brazilian context. This instrument is a significant contribution to the study of the dimensions of love, as well as to understand the impact of love on the psychiatric phenomena that pervade life in this stage of development.

  15. Content Validity and Reliability of Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS Translated into Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Saeidi


    Full Text Available This study aimed to translate MIDAS questionnaire from English into Persian and determine its content validity and reliability. MIDAS was translated and validated on a sample (N = 110 of Iranian adult population. The participants were both male and female with the age range of 17-57. They were at different educational levels and from different ethnic groups in Iran. A translating team, consisting of five members, bilingual in English and Persian and familiar with multiple intelligences (MI theory and practice, were involved in translating and determining content validity, which included the processes of forward translation, back-translation, review, final proof-reading, and testing. The statistical analyses of inter-scale correlation were performed using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. In an intra-class correlation, the Cronbach's alpha was high for all of the questions. Translation and content validity of MIDAS questionnaire was completed by a proper process leading to high reliability and validity. The results suggest that Persian MIDAS (P-MIDAS could serve as a valid and reliable instrument for measuring Iranian adults MIs.

  16. Injection Drug User Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL: Findings from a content validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palepu Anita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life studies among injection drug users have primarily focused on health-related measures. The chaotic life-style of many injection drug users (IDUs, however, extends far beyond their health, and impacts upon social relationships, employment opportunities, housing, and day to day survival. Most current quality of life instruments do not capture the realities of people living with addictions. The Injection Drug Users' Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL was developed to reflect the life areas of relevance to IDUs. The present study examined the content validity of the IDUQOL using judgmental methods based on subject matter experts' (SMEs ratings of various elements of this measure (e.g., appropriateness of life areas or items, names and descriptions of life areas, instructions for administration and scoring. Methods Six SMEs were provided with a copy of the IDUQOL and its administration and scoring manual and a detailed content validation questionnaire. Two commonly used judgmental measures of inter-rater agreement, the Content Validity Index (CVI and the Average Deviation Mean Index (ADM, were used to evaluate SMEs' agreement on ratings of IDUQOL elements. Results A total of 75 elements of the IDUQOL were examined. The CVI results showed that all elements were endorsed by the required number of SMEs or more. The ADM results showed that acceptable agreement (i.e., practical significance was obtained for all elements but statistically significant agreement was missed for nine elements. For these elements, SMEs' feedback was examined for ways to improve the elements. Open-ended feedback also provided suggestions for other revisions to the IDUQOL. Conclusion The results of the study provided strong evidence in support of the content validity of the IDUQOL and direction for the revision of some IDUQOL elements.

  17. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED


    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  18. Farm scale application of EMI and FDR sensors to measuring and mapping soil water content (United States)

    Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe


    Soil water content (SWC) controls most water exchange processes within and between the soil-plants-atmosphere continuum and can therefore be considered as a practical variable for irrigation farmer choices. A better knowledge of spatial SWC patterns could improve farmer's awareness about critical crop water status conditions and enhance their capacity to characterize their behavior at the field or farm scale. However, accurate soil moisture measurement across spatial and temporal scales is still a challenging task and, specifically at intermediate spatial (0.1-100 ha) and temporal (minutes to days) scales, a data gap remains that limits our understanding over reliability of the SWC spatial measurements and its practical applicability in irrigation scheduling. In this work we compare the integrated EM38 (Geonics Ltd. Canada) response, collected at different sensor positions above ground to that obtained by integrating the depth profile of volumetric SWC measured with Diviner 2000 (Sentek) in conjunction with the depth response function of the EM38 when operated in both horizontal and vertical dipole configurations. On a 1.0-ha Olive grove site in Sicliy (Italy), 200 data points were collected before and after irrigation or precipitation events following a systematic sampling grid with focused measurements around the tree. Inside two different zone of the field, characterized from different soil physical properties, two Diviner 2000 access tube (1.2 m) were installed and used for the EM38 calibration. After calibration, the work aimed to propose the combined use of the FDR and EMI sensors to measuring and mapping root zone soil water content. We found strong correlations (R2 = 0.66) between Diviner 2000 SWC averaged to a depth of 1.2 m and ECa from an EM38 held in the vertical mode above the soil surface. The site-specific relationship between FDR-based SWC and ECa was linear for the purposes of estimating SWC over the explored range of ECa monitored at field levels

  19. Stereotype content model explains prejudice for an envied outgroup: Scale of anti-Asian American Stereotypes. (United States)

    Lin, Monica H; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Cheung, Anna; Fiske, Susan T


    The Stereotype Content Model hypothesizes anti-Asian American stereotypes differentiating two dimensions: (excessive) competence and (deficient) sociability. The Scale of Anti-Asian American Stereotypes (SAAAS) shows this envious mixed prejudice in six studies. Study 1 began with 131 racial attitude items. Studies 2 and 3 tested 684 respondents on a focused 25-item version. Studies 4 and 5 tested the final 25-item SAAAS on 222 respondents at three campuses; scores predicted outgroup friendships, cultural experiences, and (over)estimated campus presence. Study 6 showed that allegedly low sociability, rather than excessively high competence, drives rejection of Asian Americans, consistent with system justification theory. The SAAAS demonstrates mixed, envious anti-Asian American prejudice, contrasting with more-often-studied contemptuous racial prejudices (i.e., against Blacks).

  20. Content and cultural validity in the development of the Indigenous Play Partner Scale. (United States)

    Dender, Alma M; Stagnitti, Karen E


    Culturally relevant assessments of Australian Indigenous children's social pretend play do not exist. This study investigated the content validity and cultural validity of the Indigenous Play Partner Scale (I-PPS). Six pairs of children (i.e. 12 children) aged four-six years from a remote Australian town were videoed playing in pairs, and 14 community elders and mothers participated across three focus groups. The social interactions between the children were transcribed from the videos. Nineteen verbs, grouped into five categories of social interaction, described the social interactions between the pairs of children. The descriptions of the social interaction verbs were presented to the community elders and mothers in a focus group. The themes from the focus groups were 'background of Indigenous understanding of play' and 'proposed social interaction verbs'. The first theme reflected community collaboration, children playing in multi-aged groups and the role of older children within the play. Guided by the focus group discussion, the videos were re-analysed and 20 social interaction verbs were described that reflected the cultural context of play. The content and cultural validity of the I-PPS was established through community consultation. Twenty social interaction verbs, which form the basis of the items of the I-PPS, reflected Indigenous cultural values of being non-judgemental of Indigenous children's social interactions during pretend play. Culturally relevant assessments for Australian Indigenous children do not disadvantage this population group and are essential for practice in occupational therapy. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  1. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.


    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  2. Spatio-temporal variability of soil water content on the local scale in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, North Eastern Spain). How different spatio-temporal scales reflect mean soil water content (United States)

    Molina, Antonio J.; Latron, Jérôme; Rubio, Carles M.; Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar


    As a result of complex human-land interactions and topographic variability, many Mediterranean mountain catchments are covered by agricultural terraces that have locally modified the soil water content dynamic. Understanding these local-scale dynamics helps us grasp better how hydrology behaves on the catchment scale. Thus, this study examined soil water content variability in the upper 30 cm of the soil on a Mediterranean abandoned terrace in north-east Spain. Using a dataset of high spatial (regular grid of 128 automatic TDR probes at 2.5 m intervals) and temporal (20-min time step) resolution, gathered throughout a 84-day period, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water content at the local scale and the way that different spatio-temporal scales reflect the mean soil water content were investigated. Soil water content spatial variability and its relation to wetness conditions were examined, along with the spatial structuring of the soil water content within the terrace. Then, the ability of single probes and of different combinations of spatial measurements (transects and grids) to provide a good estimate of mean soil water content on the terrace scale was explored by means of temporal stability analyses. Finally, the effect of monitoring frequency on the magnitude of detectable daily soil water content variations was studied. Results showed that soil water content spatial variability followed a bimodal pattern of increasing absolute variability with increasing soil water content. In addition, a linear trend of decreasing soil water content as the distance from the inner part of the terrace increased was identified. Once this trend was subtracted, resulting semi-variograms suggested that the spatial resolution examined was too high to appreciate spatial structuring in the data. Thus, the spatial pattern should be considered as random. Of all the spatial designs tested, the 10 × 10 m mesh grid (9 probes) was considered the most suitable option for a good

  3. Non-Invasive Electrical Impedance Tomography for Multi-Scale Detection of Liver Fat Content (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Abiri, Parinaz; Zhang, Shell; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Kaboodrangi, Amir H.; Li, Rongsong; Sahib, Ashish K.; Bui, Alex; Kumar, Rajesh; Woo, Mary; Li, Zhaoping; Packard, René R. Sevag; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K.


    Introduction: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive gold standard to detect fatty liver, we demonstrate a low-cost and portable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) approach with circumferential abdominal electrodes for liver conductivity measurements. Methods and Results: A finite element model (FEM) was established to simulate decremental liver conductivity in response to incremental liver lipid content. To validate the FEM simulation, we performed EIT imaging on an ex vivo porcine liver in a non-conductive tank with 32 circumferentially-embedded electrodes, demonstrating a high-resolution output given a priori information on location and geometry. To further examine EIT capacity in fatty liver detection, we performed EIT measurements in age- and gender-matched New Zealand White rabbits (3 on normal, 3 on high-fat diets). Liver conductivity values were significantly distinct following the high-fat diet (p = 0.003 vs. normal diet, n=3), accompanied by histopathological evidence of hepatic fat accumulation. We further assessed EIT imaging in human subjects with MRI quantification for fat volume fraction based on Dixon procedures, demonstrating average liver conductivity of 0.331 S/m for subjects with low Body-Mass Index (BMI 25 kg/m²). Conclusion: We provide both the theoretical and experimental framework for a multi-scale EIT strategy to detect liver lipid content. Our preliminary studies pave the way to enhance the spatial resolution of EIT as a marker for fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. PMID:29556346

  4. Landscape-scale variation in canopy water content of giant sequoias during drought (United States)

    Paz-Kagan, Tarin; Vaughn, Nicolas R.; Martin, Roberta E.; Brodrick, Philip G.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian; Nydick, Koren R.; Asner, Gregory P.


    Recent drought (2012–2016) caused unprecedented foliage dieback in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum), a species endemic to the western slope of the southern Sierra Nevada in central California. As part of an effort to understand and map sequoia response to droughts, we studied the patterns of remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC), both within and among sequoia groves in two successive years during the drought period (2015 and 2016). Our aims were: (1) to quantify giant sequoia responses to severe drought stress at a landscape scale using CWC as an indicator of crown foliage status, and (2) to estimate the effect of environmental correlates that mediate CWC change within and among giant sequoia groves. We utilized airborne high fidelity imaging spectroscopy (HiFIS) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to assess giant sequoia foliage status during 2015 and 2016 of the 2012–2016 droughts. A series of statistical models were generated to classify giant sequoias and to map their location in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) and vicinity. We explored the environmental correlates and the spatial patterns of CWC change at the landscape scale. The mapped CWC was highly variable throughout the landscape during the two observation years, and proved to be most closely related to geological substrates, topography, and site-specific water balance. While there was an overall net gain in sequoia CWC between 2015 and 2016, certain locations (lower elevations, steeper slopes, areas more distant from surface water sources, and areas with greater climate water deficit) showed CWC losses. In addition, we found greater CWC loss in shorter sequoias and those growing in areas with lower sequoia stem densities. Our results suggest that CWC change indicates sequoia response to droughts across landscapes. Long-term monitoring of giant sequoia CWC will likely be useful for modeling and predicting their population

  5. Monitoring Landscape Scale Soil Water Content with Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors: Validation and Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahbi, Ammar; Avery, William A.; Dercon, Gerd; Heng, Lee; Weltin, Georg; Franz, Trenton E.; Strauss, Peter; Oismueller, Markus; Desilets, Darin


    Increasing populations growth combined with climate change are putting pressure on water resources and agricultural systems around the world. The need for effective water management strategies designed to maximize water use efficiency has made access to soil water content (SWC) information crucial to the global community. This work builds upon ongoing research that began in December 2013 in which a stationary Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) was used to monitor SWC within an agricultural system located in north central Austria. Past work at this study site at Petzenkirchen, Austria (100 km west of Vienna) has focused on the calibration and validation of the CRNS technology, and has shown the CRNS to reliably estimate SWC on a large scale (circle with radius of cca. 250 m) when compared to other methods of estimating SWC. This was determined via comparisons of insitu soil sampling, time domain reflectometry (TDR), and time domain transmissivity (TDT) of SWC with estimates of SWC determined from the CRNS. However, questions remain regarding the effective use of the CRNS technology.

  6. Revealing the structure and dust content of debris disks on solar systems scales with GPI (United States)

    Duchene, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Arriaga, Pauline; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Chen, Christine; Dawson, Rebekah Ilene; Dong, Ruobing; Draper, Zachary; Esposito, Thomas; Follette, Katherine; Hung, Li-Wei; Lawler, Samantha; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Perrin, Marshall D.; Rameau, Julien; Wang, Jason; Wolff, Schuyler; Macintosh, Bruce; GPIES Team


    High contrast scattered light images offer the best prospect to assess the detailed geometry and structure of dusty debris disks. In turn, such images can yield profound insight on the architecture of the underlying planetary system as dust grains respond to the gravitational pull of planetary bodies. A new generation of extreme adaptive optics systems now enables an unprecedented exploration of circumstellar disks on solar system scales. Here we review the new science derived from over a dozen debris disks imaged with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) as part of the GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES). In addition to its exquisite imaging capability, GPI's polarimetric mode provides invaluable insight on the dust content of each disk, in most cases for the very first time. These early results typically reveal narrow belts of material with evacuated regions roughly 50-100 AU in radius, subtle asymmetries in structure and high degree of linear polarization. We will provide an overview of the disk observations made during the GPIES campaign to date and will discuss in more detail some of the most remarkable systems.This work is supported by grants NSF AST-0909188, -1411868, -1413718; NASA NNX-15AD95G, -14AJ80G, -11AD21G; and the NExSS research network.

  7. Results of investigations conducted in the LaRC 4-foot unitary plan wind tunnel leg no. 1 using the 0.010-scale 72-OTS model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle (IA94A) (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.


    Aero-loads investigations were conducted on the updated configuration-5 space shuttle launch vehicle at Mach numbers 2.50, 3.50, and 4.50. Six-component vehicle forces and moments, base and sting-cavity pressures, elevon hinge moments, wing-root bending and torsion moments, and normal shear force data were obtained. Full simulation of updated vehicle protuberances and attach hardware was employed. Various elevon deflection angles were tested, with two different forward orbiter-to-external-tank attach-strut configurations. The entire vehicle model 72-OTS was supported by means of a balance mounted in the orbiter through its base and suspended from an appropriate sting for the specific tunnel.

  8. Consensuses and discrepancies of basin-scale ocean heat content changes in different ocean analyses (United States)

    Wang, Gongjie; Cheng, Lijing; Abraham, John; Li, Chongyin


    Inconsistent global/basin ocean heat content (OHC) changes were found in different ocean subsurface temperature analyses, especially in recent studies related to the slowdown in global surface temperature rise. This finding challenges the reliability of the ocean subsurface temperature analyses and motivates a more comprehensive inter-comparison between the analyses. Here we compare the OHC changes in three ocean analyses (Ishii, EN4 and IAP) to investigate the uncertainty in OHC in four major ocean basins from decadal to multi-decadal scales. First, all products show an increase of OHC since 1970 in each ocean basin revealing a robust warming, although the warming rates are not identical. The geographical patterns, the key modes and the vertical structure of OHC changes are consistent among the three datasets, implying that the main OHC variabilities can be robustly represented. However, large discrepancies are found in the percentage of basinal ocean heating related to the global ocean, with the largest differences in the Pacific and Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, we find a large discrepancy of ocean heat storage in different layers, especially within 300-700 m in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. Furthermore, the near surface analysis of Ishii and IAP are consistent with sea surface temperature (SST) products, but EN4 is found to underestimate the long-term trend. Compared with ocean heat storage derived from the atmospheric budget equation, all products show consistent seasonal cycles of OHC in the upper 1500 m especially during 2008 to 2012. Overall, our analyses further the understanding of the observed OHC variations, and we recommend a careful quantification of errors in the ocean analyses.

  9. A multi-scale convolutional neural network for phenotyping high-content cellular images. (United States)

    Godinez, William J; Hossain, Imtiaz; Lazic, Stanley E; Davies, John W; Zhang, Xian


    Identifying phenotypes based on high-content cellular images is challenging. Conventional image analysis pipelines for phenotype identification comprise multiple independent steps, with each step requiring method customization and adjustment of multiple parameters. Here, we present an approach based on a multi-scale convolutional neural network (M-CNN) that classifies, in a single cohesive step, cellular images into phenotypes by using directly and solely the images' pixel intensity values. The only parameters in the approach are the weights of the neural network, which are automatically optimized based on training images. The approach requires no a priori knowledge or manual customization, and is applicable to single- or multi-channel images displaying single or multiple cells. We evaluated the classification performance of the approach on eight diverse benchmark datasets. The approach yielded overall a higher classification accuracy compared with state-of-the-art results, including those of other deep CNN architectures. In addition to using the network to simply obtain a yes-or-no prediction for a given phenotype, we use the probability outputs calculated by the network to quantitatively describe the phenotypes. This study shows that these probability values correlate with chemical treatment concentrations. This finding validates further our approach and enables chemical treatment potency estimation via CNNs. The network specifications and solver definitions are provided in Supplementary Software 1. or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Robust spatialization of soil water content at the scale of an agricultural field using geophysical and geostatistical methods (United States)

    Henine, Hocine; Tournebize, Julien; Laurent, Gourdol; Christophe, Hissler; Cournede, Paul-Henry; Clement, Remi


    Research on the Critical Zone (CZ) is a prerequisite for undertaking issues related to ecosystemic services that human societies rely on (nutrient cycles, water supply and quality). However, while the upper part of CZ (vegetation, soil, surface water) is readily accessible, knowledge of the subsurface remains limited, due to the point-scale character of conventional direct observations. While the potential for geophysical methods to overcome this limitation is recognized, the translation of the geophysical information into physical properties or states of interest remains a challenge (e.g. the translation of soil electrical resistivity into soil water content). In this study, we propose a geostatistical framework using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) approach to assimilate geophysical and point-scale data. We especially focus on the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil water content using (1) TDR point-scale measurements of soil water content, which are considered as accurate data, and (2) soil water content data derived from electrical resistivity measurements, which are uncertain data but spatially dense. We used a synthetic dataset obtained with a vertical 2D domain to evaluate the performance of this geostatistical approach. Spatio-temporal simulations of soil water content were carried out using Hydrus-software for different scenarios: homogeneous or heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution, and continuous or punctual infiltration pattern. From the simulations of soil water content, conceptual soil resistivity models were built using a forward modeling approach and point sampling of water content values, vertically ranged, were done. These two datasets are similar to field measurements of soil electrical resistivity (using electrical resistivity tomography, ERT) and soil water content (using TDR probes) obtained at the Boissy-le-Chatel site, in Orgeval catchment (East of Paris, France). We then integrated them into a specialization

  11. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold


    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  12. A Qualitative Study on the Content Validity of the Social Capital Scales in the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Berthelsen


    Full Text Available The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II includes scales for measuring 'workplace social capital'. The overall aim of this article is to evaluate the content validity of the following scales: horizontal trust, vertical trust and justice based on data from cognitive interviews using a think-aloud procedure. Informants were selected to achieve variation in gender, age, region of residence, and occupation. A predetermined coding scheme was used to identify: 1 Perspective (reflection on behalf of oneself only or abstraction to a broader perspective, 2 Use of response options, 3 Contexts challenging the process of answering, and 4 Overall reflections included in the retrieval and judgement processes leading to an answer for each item. The results showed that 1 the intended shift from individual to a broader perspective worked for eight out of eleven items. 2 The response option balancing in the middle covered different meanings. Retrieval of information needed to answer constituted a problem in four out of eleven items. 3 Three contextually challenging situations were identified. 4 For most items the reflections corresponded well with the intention of the scales, though the items asking about withheld information caused more problems in answering and lower content validity compared to the other items of the scales. In general, the findings supported the content validity of the COPSOQ II measurement of workplace social capital as a group construct. The study opens for new insight into how concepts and questions are understood and answered among people coming from different occupations and organizational settings.

  13. Evaluating the interpersonal content of the MMPI-2-RF Interpersonal Scales. (United States)

    Ayearst, Lindsay E; Sellbom, Martin; Trobst, Krista K; Bagby, R Michael


    Convergence between the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) interpersonal scales and 2 interpersonal circumplex (IPC) measures was examined. University students (N = 405) completed the MMPI-2 and 2 IPC measures, the Interpersonal Adjectives Scales Revised Big Five Version (IASR-B5; Trapnell & Wiggins, 1990) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex (IIP-C; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Internal consistency was adequate for 3 of the 6 scales investigated. The majority of scales were located in their hypothesized locations, although magnitude of correlations was somewhat weaker than anticipated, partly owing to restricted range from using a healthy sample. The expected pattern of correlations that defines a circular matrix was demonstrated, lending support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the MMPI-2-RF interpersonal scales with respect to the assessment of interpersonal traits and problems.

  14. Intraspecific differences in lipid content of calanoid copepods across fine-scale depth ranges within the photic layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zarubin

    Full Text Available Copepods are among the most abundant and diverse groups of mesozooplankton in the world's oceans. Each species has a certain depth range within which different individuals (of the same life stage and sex are found. Lipids are accumulated in many calanoid copepods for energy storage and reproduction. Lipid content in some species increases with depth, however studies so far focused mostly on temperate and high-latitude seasonal vertically migrating copepods and compared lipid contents among individuals either from coarse layers or between diapausing, deep-dwelling copepods and individuals found in the photic, near-surface layer. Here we examined whether lipid contents of individual calanoid copepods of the same species, life stage/sex differ between finer depth layers within the upper water column of subtropical and Arctic seas. A total of 6 calanoid species were collected from samples taken at precise depths within the photic layer in both cold eutrophic and warm oligotrophic environments using SCUBA diving, MOCNESS and Multinet. Measurements of lipid content were obtained from digitized photographs of the collected individuals. The results revealed significant differences in lipid content across depth differences as small as 12-15 meters for Mecynocera clausi C5 and Ctenocalanus vanus C5 (Red Sea, Clausocalanus furcatus males and two clausocalanid C5s (Mediterranean Sea, and Calanus glacialis C5 (Arctic. We suggest two possible explanations for the differences in lipid content with depth on such a fine scale: predator avoidance and buoyancy.

  15. Mercury content in wetland rice soil and water of two different seasons at small-scale gold mine processing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sugianti


    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify the impact of small-scale gold processing activities on mercury content in wetland rice soil and water during the rainy and first dry seasons in Central Lombok and West Lombok Districts. The method used for this study was survey method. Measurement of mercury levels in water samples was conducted at Agro Bogor Centre using SNI 6989.77: 2011 methods. The data was collected and processed in a simple statistic presented descriptively, in order to obtain information. Results of the study showed that mercury content soils in the rainy season exceeded the threshold of 0.005 ppm, while in the first dry season the mercury content in soil decreased, but it was still above the threshold value permitted. The contents of mercury in water samples in the rainy season and the first dry season were still at a safe point that was less than 0.05 ppm. The wetland rice soil and water had been polluted with mercury, although the mercury content in the water was still below the threshold, but the accumulation of mercury that could have been absorbed by the plants are of particular concerns. The decrease of mercury content in soil in dry season was due to lack of gold processing activities.

  16. Determining the Feasibility, Content Validity, and Internal Consistency of a Newly Developed Care Coordination Scale for People with Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Johnson


    Full Text Available Background: With the increasing complexity of care, people with disabilities and supportive significant others (SSO must often coordinate key aspects of their own care, but no validated scale currently exists to comprehensively characterize the activities done to manage and coordinate their care. Method: This study aimed to improve the feasibility, acceptability, and content validity of the Care and Service Coordination and Management (CASCAM scale and to test its internal consistency. Questionnaire items were administered to 23 individuals with acquired brain injury and 17 SSO. Results: Respondents confirmed content validity and that the instrument addresses important care coordination and management issues. The internal consistency of care coordination domains for medical/ rehabilitative and independent living needs for people with brain injury and their SSO ranged from α = .774 to .945. Conclusion: Care coordination activities by persons with disabilities, including brain injury, and their SSO are multifaceted but feasibly measurable and should be assessed to improve care.

  17. The Authoritarian Personality in Emerging Adulthood: Longitudinal Analysis Using Standardized Scales, Observer Ratings, and Content Coding of the Life Story. (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Pratt, Michael W; Olsen, Janelle R; Alisat, Susan


    Three different methods (a standardized scale, an observer-based Q-sort, and content coding of narratives) were used to study the continuity of authoritarianism longitudinally in emerging and young adults. Authoritarianism was assessed in a Canadian sample (N = 92) of men and women at ages 19 and 32 with Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale. In addition, components of the authoritarian personality were assessed at age 26 through Q-sort observer methods (Block, 2008) and at age 32 through content coding of life stories. Age 19 authoritarianism predicted the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism. Two hierarchical regression analyses showed that the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism also predicted the RWA scale at age 32 beyond educational level and parental status, and even after the inclusion of age 19 RWA. Differences and similarities in the pattern of correlates for the Q-sort and life story measures are discussed, including the overall lack of results for authoritarian aggression. Content in narratives may be the result of emerging adult authoritarianism and may serve to maintain levels of authoritarianism in young adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Fundamental Scale of Descriptions for Analyzing Information Content of Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Febres


    Full Text Available The complexity of the description of a system is a function of the entropy of its symbolic description. Prior to computing the entropy of the system’s description, an observation scale has to be assumed. In texts written in artificial and natural languages, typical scales are binary, characters, and words. However, considering languages as structures built around certain preconceived set of symbols, like words or characters, limits the level of complexity that can be revealed analytically. This study introduces the notion of the fundamental description scale to analyze the essence of the structure of a language. The concept of Fundamental Scale is tested for English and musical instrument digital interface (MIDI music texts using an algorithm developed to split a text in a collection of sets of symbols that minimizes the observed entropy of the system. This Fundamental Scale reflects more details of the complexity of the language than using bits, characters or words. Results show that this Fundamental Scale allows to compare completely different languages, such as English and MIDI coded music regarding its structural entropy. This comparative power facilitates the study of the complexity of the structure of different communication systems.

  19. A New Method for Analyzing Content Validity Data Using Multidimensional Scaling (United States)

    Li, Xueming; Sireci, Stephen G.


    Validity evidence based on test content is of essential importance in educational testing. One source for such evidence is an alignment study, which helps evaluate the congruence between tested objectives and those specified in the curriculum. However, the results of an alignment study do not always sufficiently capture the degree to which a test…

  20. Source of Global Scale Variations in the Midday Vertical Content of Ionospheric Metal Ions (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Pesnell, W. D.; Aikin, A. C.; Goldberg, Richard A.


    An analysis of long baseline NIMBUS 7 SBUV (Solar Backscatter UV Spectrometer) observations of the latitudinal variation of the noontime vertical Mg' content above approx. 70 km have revealed seasonal, solar activity and magnetic activity dependencies in the Mg+ content. The distributions were categorized in terms of magnetic coordinates partially because transport processes lifting metallic ions from the main meteor ionization layer below 100 km up into the F- region and down again are controlled by electrodynamical processes. Alternatively, the Nimbus Mg+ distributions may simply be a result of ion/neutral chemistry changes resulting from atmospheric changes and not dynamics. In such a case magnetic control would not dominate the distributions. Using in situ satellite measurements of metal ions from the Atmosphere Explorer satellites in the region above the main meteor layer and published sounding rocket measurements of the main metallic ion layers, the effects of the dynamics on the vertical content are delineated. The consequences of atmospheric changes on the vertical content are explored by separating the Nimbus measurements in a geodetic frame of reference.

  1. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.


    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  2. Tuning of fluorine content in graphene: towards large-scale production of stoichiometric fluorographene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánek, V.; Jankovský, O.; Luxa, J.; Sedmidubský, D.; Janoušek, Zbyněk; Šembera, Filip; Mikulics, M.; Sofer, Z.


    Roč. 7, č. 32 (2015), s. 13646-13655 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09001S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : graphite oxide * doped graphene * reduction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.760, year: 2015

  3. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo


    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  4. Construct and content validity of the Turkish Birth Satisfaction Scale - Revised (T-BSS-R). (United States)

    Göncü Serhatlıoğlu, Seda; Karahan, Nazan; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Martin, Colin R


    The Birth Satisfaction Scale - Revised (BSS-R) is a valid and reliable scale designed to assess women's experiences of labour and childbirth. To assess factor structure, validity, and reliability of the Turkish Birth Satisfaction Scale - Revised (T-BSS-R) using data collected from a Turkish population. Istanbul Ministry of Health Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Training and Research Hospital. A convenience sample of healthy child-bearing women (n = 120) who had experienced a spontaneous vertex delivery at full term. A survey was conducted post backtranslating the T-BSS-R, with survey data analysed using confirmatory factor analysis. Factor modelling found three subscales embedded in the T-BSS-R, which indicated a good model fit, χ 2 = 44.67, CFI = .94; RMSEA = .057; SRMR = .075. A Chi-square value of 1.33 also indicated a good fit. Means for the T-BSS-R subdimensions (1) Stress Experienced (T-BSS-SE-R) = 6.86 ± 3.10, (2) Women's Attributes (T-BSS-WA-R) = 2.84 ± 1.89, (3) Quality of Care (T-BSS-QC-R) = 10.69 ± 3.19 and total scale = 20.39 ± 5.98. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for total scale = 0.71 and for subdimensions T-BSS-SE-R = 0.55, T-BSS-WA-R = 0.44 and T-BSS-QC-R = -0.74. Data analysis determined that the T-BSS-R is a valid and reliable instrument to measure birth satisfaction in a population of Turkish women. The T-BSS-R is available for use from .

  5. AudioPairBank: Towards A Large-Scale Tag-Pair-Based Audio Content Analysis


    Sager, Sebastian; Elizalde, Benjamin; Borth, Damian; Schulze, Christian; Raj, Bhiksha; Lane, Ian


    Recently, sound recognition has been used to identify sounds, such as car and river. However, sounds have nuances that may be better described by adjective-noun pairs such as slow car, and verb-noun pairs such as flying insects, which are under explored. Therefore, in this work we investigate the relation between audio content and both adjective-noun pairs and verb-noun pairs. Due to the lack of datasets with these kinds of annotations, we collected and processed the AudioPairBank corpus cons...

  6. A city scale study on the effects of intensive groundwater heat pump systems on heavy metal contents in groundwater. (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Lázaro, Jesús Mateo; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; Huggenberger, P; Calvo, Miguel Ángel Marazuela


    As a result of the increasing use of shallow geothermal resources, hydraulic, thermal and chemical impacts affecting groundwater quality can be observed with ever increasing frequency (Possemiers et al., 2014). To overcome the uncertainty associated with chemical impacts, a city scale study on the effects of intensive geothermal resource use by groundwater heat pump systems on groundwater quality, with special emphasis on heavy metal contents was performed. Statistical analysis of geochemical data obtained from several field campaigns has allowed studying the spatiotemporal relationship between temperature anomalies in the aquifer and trace element composition of groundwater. The relationship between temperature and the concentrations of trace elements resulted in weak correlations, indicating that temperature changes are not the driving factor in enhancing heavy metal contaminations. Regression models established for these correlations showed a very low reactivity or response of heavy metal contents to temperature changes. The change rates of heavy metal contents with respect to temperature changes obtained indicate a low risk of exceeding quality threshold values by means of the exploitation regimes used, neither producing nor enhancing contamination significantly. However, modification of pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity correlated with the concentrations of heavy metals. In this case, the change rates of heavy metal contents are higher, with a greater risk of exceeding threshold values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Content Validity of the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD


    Full Text Available The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV; parent report and Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS; self-report are validated instruments for measuring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objectives of this study were to elicit descriptions of phenylketonuria (PKU symptoms and assess content validity of these instruments in PKU. Parents (N = 15 of children with PKU (≥8 years old and adults with PKU (N=13 described PKU-related symptoms and commented on the scale’s clarity, comprehensiveness, and relevance to their experience with PKU. Most of the adults (84.6% and all of the children were on a phenylalanine-restricted diet, according to respondent report. The inattentiveness symptoms reported by participants mapped to the inattentive items of the questionnaires. Most participants felt the inattentive items were clear and relevant to their experience. Despite study design limitations, these results demonstrate the relevance of assessing inattentiveness in PKU, and both instruments achieved content validity for inattentive subscale items.

  8. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vicentini

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome.

  9. Corrosivities in a pilot-scale combustor of a British and two Illinois coals with varying chlorine contents (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lytle, J.M.; Kung, S.C.; Ho, K.K.


    Many US boiler manufacturers have recommended limits on the chlorine (Cl) content (< 0.25% or < 0.3%) of coals to be used in their boilers. These limits were based primarily on extrapolation of British coal data to predict the probable corrosion behavior of US coals. Even though Cl-related boiler corrosion has not been reported by US utilities burning high-Cl Illinois coals, the manufacturer's limits affect the marketability of high-Cl Illinois coals. This study measured the relative rates of corrosion caused by two high-Cl coals (British and Illinois) and one low-Cl Illinois baseline coal under identical pilot-scale combustion conditions for about 1000 h which gave reliable comparisons. Temperatures used reflected conditions in boiler superheaters. The corrosion probes were fabricated from commercial alloy 304SS frequently used at the hottest superheater section of utility boilers. The results showed no evidence of direct correlation between the coal chlorine content and rate of corrosion. A correlation between the rate of corrosion and the metal temperature was obvious. The results suggested that the different field histories of corrosivity from burning high-Cl Illinois coal and high-Cl British coal occurred because of different metal temperatures operated in US and UK utility boilers. The results of this study can be combined into a database, which could be used for lifting the limits on chlorine contents of coals burned in utility boilers in the US.

  10. Prediction of SOC content by Vis-NIR spectroscopy at European scale using a modified local PLS algorithm (United States)

    Nocita, M.; Stevens, A.; Toth, G.; van Wesemael, B.; Montanarella, L.


    In the context of global environmental change, the estimation of carbon fluxes between soils and the atmosphere has been the object of a growing number of studies. This has been motivated notably by the possibility to sequester CO2 into soils by increasing the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and by the role of SOC in maintaining soil quality. Spatial variability of SOC masks its slow accumulation or depletion, and the sampling density required to detect a change in SOC content is often very high and thus very expensive and labour intensive. Visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR DRS) has been shown to be a fast, cheap and efficient tool for the prediction of SOC at fine scales. However, when applied to regional or country scales, Vis-NIR DRS did not provide sufficient accuracy as an alternative to standard laboratory soil analysis for SOC monitoring. Under the framework of Land Use/Cover Area Frame Statistical Survey (LUCAS) project of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), about 20,000 samples were collected all over European Union. Soil samples were analyzed for several physical and chemical parameters, and scanned with a Vis-NIR spectrometer in the same laboratory. The scope of our research was to predict SOC content at European scale using LUCAS spectral library. We implemented a modified local partial least square regression (l-PLS) including, in addition to spectral distance, other potentially useful covariates (geography, texture, etc.) to select for each unknown sample a group of predicting neighbours. The dataset was split in mineral soils under cropland, mineral soils under grassland, mineral soils under woodland, and organic soils due to the extremely diverse spectral response of the four classes. Four every class training (70%) and test (30%) sets were created to calibrate and validate the SOC prediction models. The results showed very good prediction ability for mineral soils under cropland and mineral soils


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.

  12. Hunger and thirst numeric rating scales are not valid estimates for gastric content volumes: a prospective investigation in healthy children. (United States)

    Buehrer, Sabin; Hanke, Ursula; Klaghofer, Richard; Fruehauf, Melanie; Weiss, Markus; Schmitz, Achim


    A rating scale for thirst and hunger was evaluated as a noninvasive, simple and commonly available tool to estimate preanesthetic gastric volume, a surrogate parameter for the risk of perioperative pulmonary aspiration, in healthy volunteer school age children. Numeric scales with scores from 0 to 10 combined with smileys to rate thirst and hunger were analyzed and compared with residual gastric volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and fasting times in three settings: before and for 2 h after drinking clear fluid (group A, 7 ml/kg), before and for 4 vs 6 h after a light breakfast followed by clear fluid (7 ml/kg) after 2 vs 4 h (crossover, group B), and before and for 1 h after drinking clear fluid (crossover, group C, 7 vs 3 ml/kg). In 30 children aged 6.4-12.8 (median 9.8) years, participating on 1-5 (median two) study days, 496 sets of scores and gastric volumes were determined. Large inter- and intra-individual variations were seen at baseline and in response to fluid and food intake. Significant correlations were found between hunger and thirst ratings in all groups, with children generally being more hungry than thirsty. Correlations between scores and duration of fasting or gastric residual volumes were poor to moderate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that thirst and hunger rating scales cannot predict gastric content. Hunger and thirst scores vary considerably inter- and intra-individually and cannot predict gastric volume, nor do they correlate with fasting times in school age children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for Measurement of Integral Soil Water Content at the Small Catchment Scale (United States)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.


    Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. One largest initiative to cover the measuring gap of soil moisture between point scale and remote sensing observations is the COSMOS network (Zreda et al., 2012). Here, cosmic-ray neutron sensing, which may be more precisely named ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS), is applied. The measuring principle is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. Soil water content contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters is inversely correlated to the neutron flux at the air-ground interface. This approach is now implemented, e.g. in USA (Zreda et al., 2012) and Germany (Rivera Villarreyes et al., 2011), based on its simple installation and integral measurement of soil moisture at the small catchment scale. The present study performed Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing on farmland at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam and Berlin cropped with corn in 2010, sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. In order to test this methodology, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, several calibration approaches, role of vegetation cover and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations were also evaluated. Observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil moisture from GANS compared quantitatively with mean values derived from a network of classical devices under vegetated and non- vegetated conditions. The GANS approach responded well

  14. Measurement of activity limitations and participation restrictions: examination of ICF-linked content and scale properties of the FIM and PC-PART instruments. (United States)

    Darzins, Susan W; Imms, Christine; Di Stefano, Marilyn


    To explore the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs through comparison of item phrasing, item response categories and scoring (scale properties) for two separate instruments targeting activities of daily living. Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC-PART) item content was linked to ICF categories using established linking rules. Previously reported ICF-linked FIM content categories and ICF-linked PC-PART content categories were compared to identify common ICF categories between the instruments. Scale properties of both instruments were compared using a patient scenario to explore the instruments' separate measurement constructs. The PC-PART and FIM shared 15 of the 53 level two ICF-linked categories identified across both instruments. Examination of the instruments' scale properties for items with overlapping ICF content, and exploration through a patient scenario, provided supportive evidence that the instruments measure different constructs. While the PC-PART and FIM share common ICF-linked content, they measure separate constructs. Measurement construct was influenced by the instruments' scale properties. The FIM was observed to measure activity limitations and the PC-PART measured participation restrictions. Scrutiny of instruments' scale properties in addition to item content is critical in the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs. Implications for Rehabilitation When selecting outcome measures for use in rehabilitation it is necessary to examine both the content of the instruments' items and item phrasing, response categories and scoring, to clarify the construct being measured. Measurement of activity limitations as well as participation restrictions in activities of daily living required for community life provides a more comprehensive measurement of rehabilitation outcomes than measurement of either construct alone. To measure the effects of

  15. Informational and emotional elements in online support groups: a Bayesian approach to large-scale content analysis. (United States)

    Deetjen, Ulrike; Powell, John A


    This research examines the extent to which informational and emotional elements are employed in online support forums for 14 purposively sampled chronic medical conditions and the factors that influence whether posts are of a more informational or emotional nature. Large-scale qualitative data were obtained from Based on a hand-coded training dataset, all posts were classified into informational or emotional using a Bayesian classification algorithm to generalize the findings. Posts that could not be classified with a probability of at least 75% were excluded. The overall tendency toward emotional posts differs by condition: mental health (depression, schizophrenia) and Alzheimer's disease consist of more emotional posts, while informational posts relate more to nonterminal physical conditions (irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, asthma). There is no gender difference across conditions, although prostate cancer forums are oriented toward informational support, whereas breast cancer forums rather feature emotional support. Across diseases, the best predictors for emotional content are lower age and a higher number of overall posts by the support group member. The results are in line with previous empirical research and unify empirical findings from single/2-condition research. Limitations include the analytical restriction to predefined categories (informational, emotional) through the chosen machine-learning approach. Our findings provide an empirical foundation for building theory on informational versus emotional support across conditions, give insights for practitioners to better understand the role of online support groups for different patients, and show the usefulness of machine-learning approaches to analyze large-scale qualitative health data from online settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Environmental impacts of a large-scale incinerator with mixed MSW of high water content from a LCA perspective. (United States)

    Lou, Ziyang; Bilitewski, Bernd; Zhu, Nanwen; Chai, Xiaoli; Li, Bing; Zhao, Youcai


    Large-scale incinerators are applied widely as a result of the heavy burden of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated, while strong opposition is arising from the public living nearby. A large-scale working incineration plant of 1500 ton/day was chosen for evaluation using life cycle assessment. It was found that the corresponding human toxicity impacts via soil (HTs), human toxicity impacts via water (HTw) and human toxicity impacts via air (HTa) categories are 0.213, 2.171, and 0.012 personal equivalents (PE), and global warming (GW100) and nutrient enrichment (NE) impacts are 0.002 and 0.001 PE per ton of waste burned for this plant. Heavy metals in flue gas, such as Hg and Pb, are the two dominant contributors to the toxicity impact categories, and energy recovery could reduce the GW100 and NE greatly. The corresponding HTs, HTw and HTa decrease to 0.087, 0.911 and 0.008 PE, and GW100 turns into savings of -0.007 PE due to the increase of the heating value from 3935 to 5811 kJ/kg, if a trommel screener of 40 mm mesh size is used to pre-separate MSW. MSW sorting and the reduction of water content by physical pressure might be two promising pre-treatment methods to improve the combustion performance, and the application of stricter standards for leachate discharge and the flue gas purification process are two critical factors for improvement of the environmental profile identified in this work. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen


    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Down scaled Kjeldahl digestion and flow injection conductometric system for determination of protein content in some traditional northern Thai foods. (United States)

    Yanu, Pattama; Jakmunee, Jaroon


    A flow injection conductometric (FIC) system for determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was developed for estimating total protein content in food. A small scale Kjeldahl digestion was performed with a short digestion time of only 20min. The digested solution was injected into the FIC system, and TKN was converted to ammonia gas in an alkaline donor stream of the system. The gas diffused through a membrane and dissolved into an acceptor stream causing an increase in conductivity as detected by a detector and recorded as a peak. Under the optimum condition, a linear calibration graph in the range of 4.00-100.00mgL -1 was obtained with LOD of 0.05mgL -1 . A good precision (0.04% RSD, n=11, 30.00mgNL -1 ) and high sample throughput of 72h -1 was achieved. The method was applied for determination of protein in some traditional northern Thai foods, revealing that they are good sources of proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in the contents of strontium, barium, and lead in scales of bream Abramis brama from the Mozhaisk Reservoir over a quarter century. (United States)

    Saltykova, E A; Pelgunova, L A; Sokolova, E L; Skomorokhov, M O; Demidova, T B; Golubtsov, A S


    The heavy metal contents in the scales of bream (Abramis brama) from the Mozhaisk Reservoir collected in the second half of the 1980s were compared to the current values. The concentrations of three out of the seven elements studied in the bream scales have changed severalfold during the past quarter century: that of strontium has decreased, and those of barium and lead have increased. Short-term variations of heavy metal contents have proved to be smaller than the observed long-term differences. There is grounds to believe that these long-term differences adequately reflect the changes that have occurred in the water body.

  20. Scales (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  1. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab


    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  2. Electrical resistivity tomography to quantify in situ liquid content in a full-scale dry anaerobic digestion reactor. (United States)

    André, L; Lamy, E; Lutz, P; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T


    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method is a non-intrusive method widely used in landfills to detect and locate liquid content. An experimental set-up was performed on a dry batch anaerobic digestion reactor to investigate liquid repartition in process and to map spatial distribution of inoculum. Two array electrodes were used: pole-dipole and gradient arrays. A technical adaptation of ERT method was necessary. Measured resistivity data were inverted and modeled by RES2DINV software to get resistivity sections. Continuous calibration along resistivity section was necessary to understand data involving sampling and physicochemical analysis. Samples were analyzed performing both biochemical methane potential and fiber quantification. Correlations were established between the protocol of reactor preparation, resistivity values, liquid content, methane potential and fiber content representing liquid repartition, high methane potential zones and degradations zones. ERT method showed a strong relevance to monitor and to optimize the dry batch anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling (United States)

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R.; Glück, Judith


    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis. PMID:28270777

  4. Validity of the clinical and content scales of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory Minnesota 2 for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. (United States)

    del Barrio, A; Jiménez-Huete, A; Toledano, R; García-Morales, I; Gil-Nagel, A


    The use of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory Minnesota 2 (MMPI-2) for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is controversial. This study examines the validity of the clinical scales and, unlike previous works, the content scales. Cross-sectional study of 209 patients treated in the epilepsy unit. We performed a logistic regression analysis, taking video-electroencephalography as the reference test, and as predictor variables age, sex, IQ and clinical (model A) or content scales (model B) of the MMPI-2. The models were selected according to the Aikake index and compared using the DeLong test. We analyzed 37 patients with PNES alone, or combined with seizures, and 172 patients with seizures only. The model consisting of sex, Hs (hypochondriasis) and Pa (paranoia) showed a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 76.8%, a percentage of correct classification of 76.8%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.836 for diagnosing CNEP. Model B, consisting of sex, HEA (health concerns) and FRS (fears), showed a sensitivity of 65.7%, a specificity of 78.0%, a percentage of correct classification of 75.9% and an AUC of 0.840. DeLong's test did not detect significant differences. The MMPI-2 has a moderate validity for the diagnosis of PNES in patients referred to an epilepsy unit. Using content scales does not significantly improve results from the clinical scales. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Content and Context in PISA Interest Scales: A study of the embedded interest items in the PISA 2006 science assessment (United States)

    Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus; Prenzel, Manfred


    This paper focuses interest in science as one of the attitudinal aspects of scientific literacy. Large-scale data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 are analysed in order to describe student interest more precisely. So far the analyses have provided a general indicator of interest, aggregated over all contexts and contents in the science test. With its innovative approach PISA embeds interest items within the cognitive test unit and its contents and contexts. The main difference from conventional interest measures is that in most questionnaires, a relatively small number of interest items cover broad fields of contents and contexts. The science units represent a number of systematically differentiated scientific contexts and contents. The units' stimulus texts allow for concrete descriptions of relevant content aspects, applications, and contexts. In the analyses, multidimensional item response models are applied in order to disentangle student interest. The results indicate that multidimensional models fit the data. A two-dimensional model separating interest into two different knowledge of science dimensions described in the PISA science framework is further analysed with respect to gender, performance differences, and country. The findings give a comprehensive description of students' interest in science. The paper deals with methodological problems and describes requirements of the test construction for further assessments. The results are discussed with regard to their significance for science education.

  6. Composting of high moisture content swine manure with corncob in a pilot-scale aerated static bin system. (United States)

    Zhu, Nengwu


    Pilot composting experiments of swine manure with corncob were conducted to evaluate the performance of the aerated static bin composting system. Effects of temperature control (60 and 70 degrees C) and moisture content (70% and 80%) were monitored on the composting by measuring physical and chemical indexes. The results showed that (1) the composting system could destroy pathogens, converted nitrogen from unstable ammonia to stable organic forms, and reduced the volume of waste; (2) significant difference of NH(4)(+)-N (P(12) = 0.074), and (NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-))-N (P(12) = 0.085) was found between the temperature control treatments; (3) anaerobic reaction in the treatment with 80% moisture content resulted in significant difference of pH (P(23) = 0.006), total organic matter (P(23) = 0.003), and germination index (P(23) = 0.040) between 70% and 80%. Therefore, the optimum initial moisture content was less than 80% with the composting of swine manure and corncob by using the composting system.

  7. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell heavy metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, S.; Morales, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Moreno, J.; Mateo, R.; Belskii, E.; Bushuev, A.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Krams, I.; Morosinotto, C.; Mand, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnstrom, A.; Slater, F.M.; Siitari, H.; Tilgar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Eeva, T.


    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in

  8. Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in upper Midwest, USA: A model for large-scale monitoring (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher


    Our development of lichen elemental bioindicators for a United States of America (USA) national monitoring program is a useful model for other large-scale programs. Concentrations of 20 elements were measured, validated, and analyzed for 203 samples of five common lichen species. Collections were made by trained non-specialists near 75 permanent plots and an expert...

  9. Using Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probes to Monitor Landscape Scale Soil Water Content in Mixed Land Use Agricultural Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Trenton E.; Wahbi, Ammar; Weltin, Georg; Heng, Lee; Dercon, Gerd; Vreugdenhi, Mariette; Oismueller, Markus; Strauss, Peter; Desilets, Darin


    With an ever-increasing demand for natural resources and the societal need to understand and predict natural disasters such as flood, soil water content (SWC) observations remain a critical variable to monitor in order to optimally allocate resources, establish early warning systems, and improve weather forecasts. However, routine agricultural production practices of soil cultivation, planting, and harvest make the operation and maintenance of direct contact point sensors for long-term monitoring a challenging task. In this work, we used Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) to monitor landscape average SWC in a mixed agricultural land use system in northeast Austria since December 2013.

  10. Content Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT: Application to Coaches, Parents and Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Prieto-Ayuso


    Full Text Available The identification of football talent is a critical issue both for clubs and the families of players. However, despite its importance in a sporting, economic and social sense, there appears to be a lack of instruments that can reliably measure talent performance. The aim of this study was to design and validate the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT, with the aim of optimising the processes for identifying said talent. The scale was first validated through expert judgment, and then statistically, by means of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal reliability and convergent validity. The results reveal the presence of three factors in the scale’s factor matrix, with these results being confirmed by the CFA. The scale revealed suitable internal reliability and homogeneity indices. Convergent validity showed that it is teammates who are best able to identify football talent, followed by coaches and parents. It can be concluded that the NSIFT is suitable for use in the football world. Future studies should seek to confirm these results in different contexts by means of further CFAs.

  11. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca). (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Laaksonen, Toni; Morales, Judith; Moreno, Juan; Mateo, Rafael; Belskii, Eugen; Bushuev, Andrey; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Slate, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Eeva, Tapio


    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in metal pollution across a species' breeding range. We studied large-scale geographic variation in metal levels in the eggs of a small passerine, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), sampled from 15 populations across Europe. We measured 10 eggshell elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Se, Sr, and Ca) and several shell characteristics (mass, thickness, porosity, and color). We found significant variation among populations in eggshell metal levels for all metals except copper. Eggshell lead, zinc, and chromium levels decreased from central Europe to the north, in line with the gradient in pollution levels over Europe, thus suggesting that eggshell can be used as an indicator of pollution levels. Eggshell lead levels were also correlated with soil lead levels and pH. Most of the metals were not correlated with eggshell characteristics, with the exception of shell mass, or with breeding success, which may suggest that birds can cope well with the current background exposure levels across Europe.

  12. On the use of AMSU-based products for the description of soil water content at basin scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manfreda


    Full Text Available Characterizing the dynamics of soil moisture fields is a key issue in hydrology, offering a strategy to improve our understanding of complex climate-soil-vegetation interactions. Besides in-situ measurements and hydrological models, soil moisture dynamics can be inferred by analyzing data acquired by sensors on board of airborne and/or satellite platforms. In this work, we investigated the use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (NOAA-AMSU-A radiometer for the remote characterization of soil water content. To this aim, a field measurement campaign, lasted about three months (3 March 2010–18 May 2010, was carried out using a portable time-domain reflectometer (TDR to get soil water content measures over five different locations within an experimental basin of 32.5 km2, located in the South of Italy. In detail, soil moisture measurements were carried out systematically at the times of satellite overpasses, over two square areas of 400 m2, a triangular area of 200 m2 and two transects of 60 and 170 m, respectively. Each monitored site is characterized by different land covers and soil textures, to account for spatial heterogeneity of land surface. Afterwards, a more extensive comparison (i.e. analyzing a 5 yr data time series was made using soil moisture simulated by a hydrological model. Measured and modeled soil moisture data were compared with two AMSU-based indices: the Surface Wetness Index (SWI and the Soil Wetness Variation Index (SWVI. Both time series of indices have been filtered by means of an exponential filter to account for the fact that microwave sensors only provide information at the skin surface. This allowed to understand the ability of each satellite-based index to account for soil moisture dynamics and to understand its performances under different conditions. As a general remark, the comparison shows a higher ability of the filtered

  13. Non-invasive detection of soil water content at intermediate field scale using natural neutrons from cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswald, Sascha; Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fuer Erd und Umweltwissenschaften (Germany)


    The amount of water in the subsurface is a key factor influencing soil hydrology, run-off, evapotranspiration and plant development. A new measurement method is the so called cosmic ray method, recently introduced for soil moisture measurements by Zreda and coworkers. Secondary neutron fluxes, product of the interaction of primary cosmic-rays at the land surface, are strongly moderated by the presence of water in or above soil (soil moisture, snow and biomass water). Neutron counts at the ground/air interface represent a valuable observation at intermediate spatial scale which can be used to quantify stored water while distinguishing different water holding compartments at the land surface. We have performed such measurements in an agricultural field, in comparison with classical soil moisture measurement at a number of point locations. We discuss how to extract soil moisture values from the neutron counts, drawbacks of the method, but also that the results show a temporal development supported by the accompanying data.

  14. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage. (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J


    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Supersonic stability and control characteristics of a 0.015 scale model 69-0 of the space shuttle orbiter with forebody RSI modifications in the NASA/LaRC 4-foot UPWT (legs 1 and 2) (LA71A/B) (United States)


    Investigations are reported for the determination of aerodynamic effects of reducing the thickness of the reusable surface insulation located along the sides of the shuttle orbiter in order to allow weight reduction in the nose region. Six-component aerodynamic force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers from 1.5 to 4.6 over an angle of attack range from about -1 deg to 28 deg. Additional tests were made over an angle of sideslip range from -6 deg to 6 deg at selected angles of attack. Test results are presented in graph and tables.

  16. Content validity and electronic PRO (ePRO) usability of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale-Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) in mesothelioma patients. (United States)

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Skalicky, Anne M; Balantac, Zaneta; Eremenco, Sonya; Cimms, Tricia; Halling, Katarina; Hollen, Patricia J; Gralla, Richard J; Mahoney, Martin C; Sexton, Chris


    Obtaining qualitative data directly from the patient perspective enhances the content validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. The objective of this qualitative study was to evaluate the content validity of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale for Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) and its usability on an electronic device. A cross-sectional methodological study, using a qualitative approach, was conducted among patients recruited from four clinical sites. The primary target population included patients with pleural mesothelioma; data were also collected from patients with peritoneal mesothelioma on an exploratory basis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted consisting of concept elicitation, cognitive interviewing, and evaluation of electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) usability. Participants (n = 21) were interviewed in person (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 12); 71% were male with a mean age of 69 years (SD = 14). The most common signs and symptoms experienced by participants with pleural mesothelioma (n = 18) were shortness of breath, fluid build-up, pain, fatigue, coughing, and appetite loss. The most commonly described symptoms for those with peritoneal mesothelioma (n = 4) were bloating, changes in appetite, fatigue, fluid build-up, shortness of breath, and pain. Participants with pleural mesothelioma commonly described symptoms assessed by the LCSS-Meso in language consistent with the questionnaire and a majority understood and easily completed each of the items. The ePRO version was easy to use, and there was no evidence that the electronic formatting changed the way participants responded to the questions. Results support the content validity of the LCSS-Meso and the usability of the electronic format for use in assessing symptoms among patients with pleural mesothelioma.

  17. Finding Multi-scale Connectivity in Our Geospace Observational System: A New Perspective for Total Electron Content Data Through Network Analysis (United States)

    McGranaghan, R. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Malik, N.


    How do we evolve beyond current traditional methods in order to innovate into the future? In what disruptive innovations will the next frontier of space physics and aeronomy (SPA) be grounded? We believe the answer to these compelling, yet equally challenging, questions lies in a shift of focus: from a narrow, field-specific view to a radically inclusive, interdisciplinary new modus operandi at the intersection of SPA and the information and data sciences. Concretely addressing these broader themes, we present results from a novel technique for knowledge discovery in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) system: complex network analysis (NA). We share findings from the first NA of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data, including hemispheric and interplanetary magnetic field clock angle dependencies [1]. Our work shows that NA complements more traditional approaches for the investigation of TEC structure and dynamics, by both reaffirming well-established understanding, giving credence to the method, and identifying new connections, illustrating the exciting potential. We contextualize these new results through a discussion of the potential of data-driven discovery in the MIT system when innovative data science techniques are embraced. We address implications and potentially disruptive data analysis approaches for SPA in terms of: 1) the future of the geospace observational system; 2) understanding multi-scale phenomena; and 3) machine learning. [1] McGranaghan, R. M., A. J. Mannucci, O. Verkhoglyadova, and N. Malik (2017), Finding multiscale connectivity in our geospace observational system: Network analysis of total electron content, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, doi:10.1002/2017JA024202.

  18. The large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline: a method to rapidly compare genetic content between bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Sahl


    Full Text Available Background. As whole genome sequence data from bacterial isolates becomes cheaper to generate, computational methods are needed to correlate sequence data with biological observations. Here we present the large-scale BLAST score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline, which rapidly compares the genetic content of hundreds to thousands of bacterial genomes, and returns a matrix that describes the relatedness of all coding sequences (CDSs in all genomes surveyed. This matrix can be easily parsed in order to identify genetic relationships between bacterial genomes. Although pipelines have been published that group peptides by sequence similarity, no other software performs the rapid, large-scale, full-genome comparative analyses carried out by LS-BSR.Results. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the LS-BSR pipeline was tested on 96 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes; the pipeline ran in 163 min using 16 processors, which is a greater than 7-fold speedup compared to using a single processor. The BSR values for each CDS, which indicate a relative level of relatedness, were then mapped to each genome on an independent core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based phylogeny. Comparisons were then used to identify clade specific CDS markers and validate the LS-BSR pipeline based on molecular markers that delineate between classical E. coli pathogenic variant (pathovar designations. Scalability tests demonstrated that the LS-BSR pipeline can process 1,000 E. coli genomes in 27–57 h, depending upon the alignment method, using 16 processors.Conclusions. LS-BSR is an open-source, parallel implementation of the BSR algorithm, enabling rapid comparison of the genetic content of large numbers of genomes. The results of the pipeline can be used to identify specific markers between user-defined phylogenetic groups, and to identify the loss and/or acquisition of genetic information between bacterial isolates. Taxa-specific genetic markers can then be translated

  19. Dairy farmers' use and non-use values in animal welfare: Determining the empirical content and structure with anchored best-worst scaling. (United States)

    Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J


    In this study, we sought to identify empirically the types of use and non-use values that motivate dairy farmers in their work relating to animal welfare of dairy cows. We also sought to identify how they prioritize between these use and non-use values. Use values are derived from productivity considerations; non-use values are derived from the wellbeing of the animals, independent of the present or future use the farmer may make of the animal. In particular, we examined the empirical content and structure of the economic value dairy farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows. Based on a best-worst scaling approach and data from 123 Swedish dairy farmers, we suggest that the economic value those farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows covers aspects of both use and non-use type, with non-use values appearing more important. Using principal component factor analysis, we were able to check unidimensionality of the economic value construct. These findings are useful for understanding why dairy farmers may be interested in considering dairy cow welfare. Such understanding is essential for improving agricultural policy and advice aimed at encouraging dairy farmers to improve animal welfare; communicating to consumers the values under which dairy products are produced; and providing a basis for more realistic assumptions when developing economic models about dairy farmers' behavior. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content MSW landfill: Liquid-gas interactions observed from a large-scale experiment. (United States)

    Zhan, Liang-Tong; Xu, Hui; Chen, Yun-Min; Lan, Ji-Wu; Lin, Wei-An; Xu, Xiao-Bing; He, Pin-Jing


    The high food waste content (HFWC) MSW at a landfill has the characteristics of rapid hydrolysis process, large leachate production rate and fast gas generation. The liquid-gas interactions at HFWC-MSW landfills are prominent and complex, and still remain significant challenges. This paper focuses on the liquid-gas interactions of HFWC-MSW observed from a large-scale bioreactor landfill experiment (5m×5m×7.5m). Based on the connected and quantitative analyses on the experimental observations, the following findings were obtained: (1) The high leachate level observed at Chinese landfills was attributed to the combined contribution from the great quantity of self-released leachate, waste compression and gas entrapped underwater. The contribution from gas entrapped underwater was estimated to be 21-28% of the total leachate level. (2) The gas entrapped underwater resulted in a reduction of hydraulic conductivity, decreasing by one order with an increase in gas content from 13% to 21%. (3) The "breakthrough value" in the gas accumulation zone was up to 11kPa greater than the pore liquid pressure. The increase of the breakthrough value was associated with the decrease of void porosity induced by surcharge loading. (4) The self-released leachate from HFWC-MSW was estimated to contribute to over 30% of the leachate production at landfills in Southern China. The drainage of leachate with a high organic loading in the rapid hydrolysis stage would lead to a loss of landfill gas (LFG) potential of 13%. Based on the above findings, an improved method considering the quantity of self-released leachate was proposed for the prediction of leachate production at HFWC-MSW landfills. In addition, a three-dimensional drainage system was proposed to drawdown the high leachate level and hence to improve the slope stability of a landfill, reduce the hydraulic head on a bottom liner and increase the collection efficiency for LFG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Kose, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Mafumi; Takigami, Hidetaka


    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m −3 and < 0.5–68 μg kg −1 . Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of OPFRs and

  2. Full-scale agricultural biogas plant metal content and process parameters in relation to bacterial and archaeal microbial communities over 2.5 year span. (United States)

    Repinc, Sabina Kolbl; Šket, Robert; Zavec, Domen; Mikuš, Katarina Vogel; Fermoso, Fernando G; Stres, Blaž


    A start-up of 4 MW agricultural biogas plant in Vučja vas, Slovenia, was monitored from 2011 to 2014. The start-up was carried out in 3 weeks with the intake of biomass from three operating full-scale 1-2 MW donor agricultural biogas plants. The samples were taken from donor digesters and from two serial digesters during the start-up over the course of 2.5 years. Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities progressively diverged from the composition of donor digesters during the start-up phase. The rate of change of Bacterial community decreased exponentially over the first 2.5 years as dynamics within the first 70 days was comparable to that of the next 1.5 years, whereas approximately constant rate was observed for Archaea. Despite rearrangements, the microbial communities remained functionally stable and produced biogas throughout the whole 2.5 years of observation. All systems parameters measured were ordered according to their Kernel density (Gaussian function) ranging from the most dispersed (substrate categories used as cosubstrates, quantities of each cosubstrate, substate dry and volatile matter, process parameters) towards progressively least dispersed (trace metal and ion profiles, aromatic-polyphenolic compounds, biogas plant functional output (energy)). No deficiency was detected in trace metal content as the distribution of metals and elements fluctuated within the suggested limits for biogas over 2.5 year observation. In contrast to the recorded process variables, Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities exhibited directed changes oriented in time. Variation partitioning showed that a large fraction of variability in the Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities (55% and 61%, respectively) remained unexplained despite numerous measured variables (n = 44) and stable biogas production. Our results show that the observed reorganization of microbial communities was not directly associated with impact on the full-scale biogas reactor

  3. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)


    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m{sup −3} and < 0.5–68 μg kg{sup −1}. Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of

  4. Automatically assessing properties of dynamic cameras for camera selection and rapid deployment of video content analysis tasks in large-scale ad-hoc networks (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; ter Haar, Frank B.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.


    Video analytics is essential for managing large quantities of raw data that are produced by video surveillance systems (VSS) for the prevention, repression and investigation of crime and terrorism. Analytics is highly sensitive to changes in the scene, and for changes in the optical chain so a VSS with analytics needs careful configuration and prompt maintenance to avoid false alarms. However, there is a trend from static VSS consisting of fixed CCTV cameras towards more dynamic VSS deployments over public/private multi-organization networks, consisting of a wider variety of visual sensors, including pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, body-worn cameras and cameras on moving platforms. This trend will lead to more dynamic scenes and more frequent changes in the optical chain, creating structural problems for analytics. If these problems are not adequately addressed, analytics will not be able to continue to meet end users' developing needs. In this paper, we present a three-part solution for managing the performance of complex analytics deployments. The first part is a register containing meta data describing relevant properties of the optical chain, such as intrinsic and extrinsic calibration, and parameters of the scene such as lighting conditions or measures for scene complexity (e.g. number of people). A second part frequently assesses these parameters in the deployed VSS, stores changes in the register, and signals relevant changes in the setup to the VSS administrator. A third part uses the information in the register to dynamically configure analytics tasks based on VSS operator input. In order to support the feasibility of this solution, we give an overview of related state-of-the-art technologies for autocalibration (self-calibration), scene recognition and lighting estimation in relation to person detection. The presented solution allows for rapid and robust deployment of Video Content Analysis (VCA) tasks in large scale ad-hoc networks.

  5. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs. (United States)

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Kose, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Mafumi; Takigami, Hidetaka


    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of OPFRs and unintentional POPs. Incineration is regarded as a best available technology (BAT) for waste management systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of carotenoid content at the canopy scale using the carotenoid triangle ratio index from in situ and simulated hyperspectral data (United States)

    Kong, Weiping; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhou, Xianfeng; Song, Xiaoyu; Casa, Raffaele


    Precise estimation of carotenoids (Car) content in plants, from remotely sensed data, is challenging due to their small proportion in the overall total pigment content and to the overlapping of spectral absorption features with chlorophyll (Chl) in the blue region of the spectrum. The use of narrow band vegetation indices (VIs) obtained from hyperspectral data has been considered an effective way to estimate Car content. However, VIs have proved to lack sensitivity to low or high Car content in a number of studies. In this study, the carotenoid triangle ratio index (CTRI), derived from the existing modified triangular vegetation index and a single band reflectance at 531 nm, was proposed and employed to estimate Car canopy content. We tested the potential of three categories of hyperspectral indices earlier proposed for Car, Chl, Car/Chl ratio estimation, and the new CTRI index, for Car canopy content assessment in winter wheat and corn. Spectral reflectance representing plant canopies were simulated using the PROSPECT and SAIL radiative transfer model, with the aim of analyzing saturation effects of these indices, as well as Chl effects on the relationship between spectral indices and Car content. The result showed that the majority of the spectral indices tested, saturated with the increase of Car canopy content above 28 to 64 μg/cm2. Conversely, the CTRI index was more robust and was linearly and highly sensitive to Car content in winter wheat and corn datasets, with coefficients of determination of 0.92 and 0.75, respectively. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction were 6.01 and 9.70 μg/cm2, respectively. Furthermore, the CTRI index did not show a saturation effect and was not greatly influenced by changes of Chl values, outperforming all the other indices tested. Estimation of Car canopy content using the CTRI index provides an insight into diagnosing plant physiological status and environmental stress.

  7. The detection of content-based invalid responding: a meta-analysis of the MMPI-2-Restructured Form's (MMPI-2-RF) over-reporting validity scales. (United States)

    Ingram, Paul B; Ternes, Michael S


    This study synthesized research evaluation of the effectiveness of the over-reporting validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) for detecting intentionally feigned over-endorsements of symptoms using a moderated meta-analysis. After identifying experimental and quasi-experimental studies for inclusion (k = 25) in which the validity scales of the MMPI-2-RF were compared between groups of respondents, moderated meta-analyses were conducted for each of its five over-reporting scales. These meta-analyses explored the general effectiveness of each scale across studies, as well as the impact that several moderators had on scale performance, including comparison group, study type (i.e. real versus simulation), age, education, sex, and diagnosis. The over-reporting scales of the MMPI-2-RF act as effective general measures for the detection of malingering and over endorsement of symptoms with individual scales ranging in effectiveness from an effect size of 1.08 (Symptom Validity; FBS-r) to 1.43 (Infrequent Pathology; Fp-r), each with different patterns of moderating influence. The MMPI-2-RF validity scales effectively discriminate between groups of respondents presenting in either an honest manner or with patterned exaggeration and over-endorsement of symptoms. The magnitude of difference observed between honest and malingering groups was substantially narrower than might be expected using traditional cut-scores for the validity scales, making interpretation within the evaluation context particularly important. While all over-reporting scales are effective, the FBS-r and RBS scales are those least influenced by common and context specific moderating influences, such as respondent or comparison grouping.

  8. Cross-cultural differences in the conceptualisation of patients' satisfaction with psychiatric services--content validity of the English version of the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale. (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; Hales, Heidi; Ruggeri, Mirella


    The VSSS is a multi-dimensional questionnaire developed to address methodological concerns about measurement of satisfaction with services on the part of psychiatric patients. The acceptability, sensitivity, content validity and test-retest reliability of the original version of the VSSS, in Italian, have already been demonstrated [1, 2]. The internal consistency [3] and test-retest reliability [4] of the English translation have been shown to be within acceptable ranges. The content validity of the original 82-item and the 54-item English version has not yet been assessed. The aims of this study were to assess the content validity of the English translation of the VSSS and to compare it with that of the original version in Italian. We used data collected as part of the first wave (T1) of the PRiSM Psychosis Study [5] and repeated the methods used to assess the content validity of the original Italian version of the VSSS [1, 2]. Content elements derived from answers to four open questions were rated independently by CH and HH in terms of their equivalence to VSSS items or dimensions. were compared to those from the content validity study of the Italian version. Results Inter-rater agreement was very high. The largest proportion of the content elements of the answers were rated as equivalent or related to a questionnaire item or a dimension of the VSSS. The dimension 'Professionals' Skills and Behaviour' appears the most significant contributor to satisfaction, as it was most often related to content elements in answers to all four key questions (39.1 %). The second most frequently mentioned dimension was that of 'Types of Intervention' for three out of four open questions, while 'Access' was second most frequent for the fourth. Of the content elements, 17.2 % did not include items or dimensions covered by the VSSS; the three most frequently mentioned were other patients, food and security. The 82-item English version of the VSSS captures sharply most contents

  9. Wide-scale utilization of MSWI fly ashes in cement production and its impact on average heavy metal contents in cements: The case of Austria. (United States)

    Lederer, Jakob; Trinkel, Verena; Fellner, Johann


    A number of studies present the utilization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in cement production as a recycling alternative to landfilling. While there is a lot of research on the impact of MSWI fly ashes utilization in cement production on the quality of concrete or the leaching of heavy metals, only a few studies have determined the resulting heavy metal content in cements caused by this MSWI fly ashes utilization. Making use of the case of Austria, this study (1) determines the total content of selected heavy metals in cements currently produced in the country, (2) designs a scenario and calculates the resulting heavy metal contents in cements assuming that all MSWI fly ashes from Austrian grate incinerators were used as secondary raw materials for Portland cement clinker production and (3) evaluates the legal recyclability of demolished concretes produced from MSWI fly ash amended cements based on their total heavy metal contents. To do so, data from literature and statistics are combined in a material flow analysis model to calculate the average total contents of heavy metals in cements and in the resulting concretes according to the above scenario. The resulting heavy metal contents are then compared (i) to their respective limit values for cements as defined in a new technical guideline in Austria (BMLFUW, 2016), and (ii) to their respective limit values for recycling materials from demolished concrete. Results show that MSWI fly ashes utilization increases the raw material input in cement production by only +0.9%, but the total contents of Cd by +310%, and Hg, Pb, and Zn by +70% to +170%. However these and other heavy metal contents are still below their respective limit values for Austrian cements. The same legal conformity counts for recycling material derived from concretes produced from the MSWI fly ash cements. However, if the MSWI fly ash ratio in all raw materials used for cement production were increased from 0.9% to 22

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in an Israeli Sample. (United States)

    Shkalim, Eleanor


    The current study cross-culturally evaluated the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)/MMPI-2-Restructured Form Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in psychiatric settings in Israel with a sample of 100 men and 133 women. Participants were administered the MMPI-2 and were rated by their therapists on a 188-item Patient Description Form. Results indicated that in most instances the RC Scales demonstrated equivalent or better internal consistencies and improved intercorrelation patterns relative to their clinical counterparts. Furthermore, external analyses revealed comparable or improved convergent validity (with the exceptions of Antisocial Behavior [RC4] and Ideas of Persecution [RC6] among men), and mostly greater discriminant validity. Overall, the findings indicate that consistent with previous findings, the RC Scales generally exhibit comparable to improved psychometric properties over the Clinical Scales. Implications of the results, limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A Field-Scale Sensor Network Data Set for Monitoring and Modeling the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Water Content in a Dryland Agricultural Field (United States)

    Gasch, C. K.; Brown, D. J.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.; Brooks, E. S.; Chahal, M.; Poggio, M.


    We describe a soil water content monitoring data set and auxiliary data collected at a 37 ha experimental no-till farm in the Northwestern United States. Water content measurements have been compiled hourly since 2007 by ECH2O-TE and 5TE sensors installed at 42 locations and five depths (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 m, 210 sensors total) across the R.J. Cook Agronomy Farm, a Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research Site stationed on complex terrain in a Mediterranean climate. In addition to soil water content readings, the data set includes hourly and daily soil temperature readings, annual crop histories, a digital elevation model, Bt horizon maps, seasonal apparent electrical conductivity, soil texture, and soil bulk density. Meteorological records are also available for this location. We discuss the unique challenges of maintaining the network on an operating farm and demonstrate the nature and complexity of the soil water content data. This data set is accessible online through the National Agriculture Library, has been assigned a DOI, and will be maintained for the long term.

  12. The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database: Computational Version 3.00 with Updated Content and the Introduction of Multiple Scaling Factors (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Ricca, A.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.


    Version 3.00 of the library of computed spectra in the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (PAHdb) is described. Version 3.00 introduces the use of multiple scale factors, instead of the single scaling factor used previously, to align the theoretical harmonic frequencies with the experimental fundamentals. The use of multiple scale factors permits the use of a variety of basis sets; this allows new PAH species to be included in the database, such as those containing oxygen, and yields an improved treatment of strained species and those containing nitrogen. In addition, the computed spectra of 2439 new PAH species have been added. The impact of these changes on the analysis of an astronomical spectrum through database-fitting is considered and compared with a fit using Version 2.00 of the library of computed spectra. Finally, astronomical constraints are defined for the PAH spectral libraries in PAHdb.

  13. A Comparison of MMPI--2 measures of Psychopathic Deviance in a Forensic Setting (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stafford, Kathleen P.


    We examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (MMPI--2) measures of psychopathy, including the Clinical Scale 4, Restructured Clinical Scale 4 (RC4), Content Scale Antisocial Practices (ASP), and Personality Psychopathology Five Scale Disconstraint (DISC). Comparisons of the empirical…

  14. Simulation of the mineral dust content over Western Africa from the event to the annual scale with the CHIMERE-DUST model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schmechtig


    Full Text Available The chemistry and transport model CHIMERE-DUST have been used to simulate the mineral dust cycle over the Sahara in 2006. Surface measurements deployed during the AMMA field campaign allow to test the capability of the model to correctly reproduce the atmospheric dust load and surface concentrations from the daily to the seasonal time-scale. The simulated monthly mean Aerosol Optical Depths (AOD and surface concentrations are significantly correlated with the measured ones. The simulated daily concentrations and hourly AOD are in the same range of magnitude than the observed ones despite relatively high simulated dust emissions. The level of agreement between the simulations and the observations has been quantified at different time scales using statistical parameters classically used to evaluate air quality models. The capability of the model to reproduce the altitude of the dust transport was tested for two contrasted cases of low and high altitude transport. These results highlight the sensitivity of the simulations to the surface winds used as external forcing and the necessity to further constrain the dust mass budget at the regional scale.

  15. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy


    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  16. Content validity and its estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmale F


    Full Text Available Background: Measuring content validity of instruments are important. This type of validity can help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instruments. content validity refers to the degree that the instrument covers the content that it is supposed to measure. For content validity two judgments are necessary: the measurable extent of each item for defining the traits and the set of items that represents all aspects of the traits. Purpose: To develop a content valid scale for assessing experience with computer usage. Methods: First a review of 2 volumes of International Journal of Nursing Studies, was conducted with onlyI article out of 13 which documented content validity did so by a 4-point content validity index (CV! and the judgment of 3 experts. Then a scale with 38 items was developed. The experts were asked to rate each item based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on the four-point scale. Content Validity Index (CVI for each item was determined. Result: Of 38 items, those with CVIover 0.75 remained and the rest were discarded reSulting to 25-item scale. Conclusion: Although documenting content validity of an instrument may seem expensive in terms of time and human resources, its importance warrants greater attention when a valid assessment instrument is to be developed. Keywords: Content Validity, Measuring Content Validity

  17. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy) (United States)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo


    Crustal processes such as deformations or faulting are strictly related to the petrophysical properties of involved rocks. These properties depend on mineral composition, fabric, pores and any secondary features such as cracks or infilling material that may have been introduced during the whole diagenetic and tectonic history of the rock. In this work we investigate the role of hydrocarbons (HC) in changing the petrophysical properties of rock by merging laboratory experiments, well data and static models focusing on the carbonate-bearing Majella reservoir. This reservoir represent an interesting analogue for the several oil fields discovered in the subsurface in the region, allowing a comparison of a wide range of geological and geophysical data at different scale. The investigated lithology is made of high porosity ramp calcarenites, structurally slightly affected by a superimposed fracture system and displaced by few major normal faults, with some minor strike-slip movements. Sets of rock specimens were selected in the field and in particular two groups were investigated: 1. clean rocks (without oil) and 2. HC bearing rocks (with different saturations). For both groups, density, porosity, P and S wave velocity, permeability and elastic moduli measurements at increasing confining pressure were conducted on cylindrical specimens at the HP-HT Laboratory of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. For clean samples at ambient pressure, laboratory porosity varies from 10 % up to 26 % and P wave velocity (Vp) spans from 4,1 km/s to 4,9 km/s and a very good correlation between Vp, Vs and porosity is observed. The P wave velocity at 100 MPa of confining pressure, ranges between 4,5 km/s and 5,2 km/s with a pressure independent Vp/Vs ratio of about 1,9. The presence of HC within the samples affects both Vp and Vs. In particular velocities increase with the presence of hydrocarbons proportionally respect to the amount of the filled

  18. A full-scale UASB reactor for treatment of pig and cattle slaughterhouse wastewater with a high oil and grease content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. S. Miranda


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of an 800m³ full-scale UASB reactor in treating meat-packing plant and slaughterhouse effluents containing high concentrations of oil and grease (O&G (413-645 mg/L, resulting in a COD/O&G ratio of 26-32%. Those macromolecules were considered responsible for the unbalance of the system resulting in a total washout of the biomass. The removal of O&G from the influent using a physicochemical system (coagulation-flocculation improved the physical characteristics of the anaerobic sludge, controlling the biomass washout. Reactor performance was significantly improved when the COD/O&G ratio influent was maintained in the 10%. The COD and O&G removal rates obtained after implantation of the physicochemical system were 70-92% and 27-58%, respectively. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA of the biomass shows towards a tendency stabilisation and adaptation to the substrate influent. Pretreatment of the influent allowed the maximum organic load to be increased (1.46 to 2.43 Kg COD/m³.d and improved the quality of the effluent.

  19. Perancangan Dan Pembuatan Pengamanan Video Chat Dengan Menggunakan Metode Enkripsi RC4


    Putra, Stevie Suwanto; Budhi, Gregorius Satia; Andjarwirawan, Justinus


    Technological development at this time has been growing rapidly with the internet. Along with the development the more the usefulness of the Internet. Not only used for browsing, now the Internet is also used for communication. Such as email, chat, and etc. The increasing development of communication technology, then people start to think about the secure of the communication technology. As in a video chat, only the person entitled to know the information in the video chat. But the encryption...

  20. Geophagy practices and the content of chemical elements in the soil eaten by pregnant women in artisanal and small scale gold mining communities in Tanzania. (United States)

    Nyanza, Elias C; Joseph, Mary; Premji, Shahirose S; Thomas, Deborah Sk; Mannion, Cynthia


    Geophagy, a form of pica, is the deliberate consumption of soil and is relatively common across Sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, pregnant women commonly eat soil sticks sold in the market (pemba), soil from walls of houses, termite mounds, and ground soil (kichuguu). The present study examined geophagy practices of pregnant women in a gold mining area of Geita District in northwestern Tanzania, and also examined the potential for exposure to chemical elements by testing soil samples. We conducted a cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 340 pregnant women, ranging in age from 15-49 years, who attended six government antenatal clinics in the Geita District, Tanzania. Structured interviews were conducted in June-August, 2012, to understand geophagy practices. In addition, soil samples taken from sources identified by pregnant women practicing geophagy were analysed for mineral element content. Geophagy was reported by 155 (45.6%) pregnant women with 85 (54.8%) initiating the practice in the first trimester. A total of 101 (65%) pregnant women reported eating soil 2 to 3 times per day while 20 (13%) ate soil more than 3 times per day. Of 155 pregnant women 107 (69%) bought pemba from local shops, while 48 (31%) consumed ground soil kichuguu. The estimated mean quantity of soil consumed from pemba was 62.5 grams/day. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc levels were found in both pemba and kichuguu samples. Cadmium and mercury were found only in the kichuguu samples. Based on daily intake estimates, arsenic, copper and manganese for kichuguu and copper and manganese for pemba samples exceed the oral Minimum Risk Levels designated by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Almost 50% of participants practiced geophagy in Geita District consistent with other reports from Africa. Both pemba and kichuguu contained chemical elements at varying concentration, mostly above MRLs. As such, pregnant women who eat soil in Geita

  1. Consumer Mobile Apps for Potential Drug-Drug Interaction Check: Systematic Review and Content Analysis Using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). (United States)

    Kim, Ben Yb; Sharafoddini, Anis; Tran, Nam; Wen, Emily Y; Lee, Joon


    General consumers can now easily access drug information and quickly check for potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) through mobile health (mHealth) apps. With aging population in Canada, more people have chronic diseases and comorbidities leading to increasing numbers of medications. The use of mHealth apps for checking PDDIs can be helpful in ensuring patient safety and empowerment. The aim of this study was to review the characteristics and quality of publicly available mHealth apps that check for PDDIs. Apple App Store and Google Play were searched to identify apps with PDDI functionality. The apps' general and feature characteristics were extracted. The Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) was used to assess the quality. A total of 23 apps were included for the review-12 from Apple App Store and 11 from Google Play. Only 5 of these were paid apps, with an average price of $7.19 CAD. The mean MARS score was 3.23 out of 5 (interquartile range 1.34). The mean MARS scores for the apps from Google Play and Apple App Store were not statistically different (P=.84). The information dimension was associated with the highest score (3.63), whereas the engagement dimension resulted in the lowest score (2.75). The total number of features per app, average rating, and price were significantly associated with the total MARS score. Some apps provided accurate and comprehensive information about potential adverse drug effects from PDDIs. Given the potentially severe consequences of incorrect drug information, there is a need for oversight to eliminate low quality and potentially harmful apps. Because managing PDDIs is complex in the absence of complete information, secondary features such as medication reminder, refill reminder, medication history tracking, and pill identification could help enhance the effectiveness of PDDI apps. ©Ben YB Kim, Anis Sharafoddini, Nam Tran, Emily Y Wen, Joon Lee. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (, 28.03.2018.

  2. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  3. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants; Efecto del proceso de purificacion de agua en el contenido radiactivo: analisis en plantas purificadoras a pequena escala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000, Zacatecas (Mexico)], e-mail:


    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  4. Advertising Content


    Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault


    Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...

  5. Webizing mobile augmented reality content (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun


    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  6. Standards-based Content Resources: A Prerequisite for Content Integration and Content Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galinski


    Full Text Available Objective: to show how standards-based approaches for content standardization, content management, content related services and tools as well as the respective certification systems not only guarantee reliable content integration and content interoperability, but also are of particular benefit to people with special needs in eAccessibility/eInclusion. Method: document MoU/MG/05 N0221 ''Semantic Interoperability and the need for a coherent policy for a framework of distributed, possibly federated repositories for all kinds of content items on a world-wide scale''2, which was adopted in 2005, was a first step towards the formulation of global interoperability requirements for structured content. These requirements -based on advanced terminological principles- were taken up in EU-projects such as IN-SAFETY (INfrastructure and SAFETY and OASIS (Open architecture for Accessible Services Integration and Standardization. Results: Content integration and content interoperability are key concepts in connection with the emergence of state-of-the-art distributed and federated databases/repositories of structured content. Given the fact that linguistic content items are increasingly combined with or embedded in non-linguistic content items (and vice versa, a systemic and generic approach to data modelling and content management has become the order of the day. Fulfilling the requirements of capability for multilinguality and multimodality, based on open standards makes software and database design fit for eAccessibility/eInclusion from the outset. It also makes structured content capable for global content integration and content interoperability, because it enhances its potential for being re-used and re-purposed in totally different eApplications. Such content as well as the methods, tools and services applied can be subject to new kinds of certification schemes which also should be based on standards. Conclusions: Content must be totally reliable in some

  7. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation


    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.


    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  8. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation


    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.


    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  9. Microwave remote sensing of temporal variations of brightness temperature and near-surface soil water content during a watershed-scale field experiment, and its application to the estimation of soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattikalli, N.M.; Engman, E.T.; Jackson, T.J.; Ahuja, L.R.


    Passive microwave airborne remote sensing was employed to collect daily brightness temperature (T(B)) and near-surface (0-5 cm depth) soil water content (referred to as 'soil water content') data during June 10-18, 1992, in the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma. A comparison of multitemporal data with the soils data revealed a direct correlation between changes in T(B) and soil water content, and soil texture. Regression relationships were developed for the ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC) and effective saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)) in terms of T(B) and soil water content change. Validation of results indicated that both RSC and K(sat) can be estimated with adequate accuracy. The relationships are valid for the region with small variation of soil organic matter content, soils with fewer macropores, and limiting experimental conditions. However, the findings have potential to employ microwave remote sensing for obtaining quick estimates of soil properties over large areas

  10. Digital Content Strategies


    Halbheer, Daniel; Stahl, Florian; Koenigsberg, Oded; Lehmann, Donald R


    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  11. Mapping the MMPI-2-RF Substantive Scales Onto Internalizing, Externalizing, and Thought Dysfunction Dimensions in a Forensic Inpatient Setting. (United States)

    Romero, Isabella E; Toorabally, Nasreen; Burchett, Danielle; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Glassmire, David M


    Contemporary models of psychopathology-encompassing internalizing, externalizing, and thought dysfunction factors-have gained significant support. Although research indicates the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) measures these domains of psychopathology, this study addresses extant limitations in MMPI-2-RF diagnostic validity research by examining associations between all MMPI-2-RF substantive scales and broad dichotomous indicators of internalizing, externalizing, and thought dysfunction diagnoses in a sample of 1,110 forensic inpatients. Comparing those with and without internalizing diagnoses, notable effects were observed for Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism-Revised (NEGE-r), Emotional/Internalizing Dysfunction (EID), Dysfunctional Negative Emotions (RC7), Demoralization (RCd), and several other internalizing and somatic/cognitive scales. Comparing those with and without thought dysfunction diagnoses, the largest hypothesized differences occurred for Thought Dysfunction (THD), Aberrant Experiences (RC8), and Psychoticism-Revised (PSYC-r), although unanticipated differences were observed on internalizing and interpersonal scales, likely reflecting the high prevalence of internalizing dysfunction in forensic inpatients not experiencing thought dysfunction. Comparing those with and without externalizing diagnoses, the largest effects were for Substance Abuse (SUB), Antisocial Behavior (RC4), Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction (BXD), Juvenile Conduct Problems (JCP), and Disconstraint-Revised (DISC-r). Multivariate models evidenced similar results. Findings support the construct validity of MMPI-2-RF scales as measures of internalizing, thought, and externalizing dysfunction.

  12. Publishing and Revising Content (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  13. Plasmaspheric electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.K.


    Measurements of the plasmaspheric electron content are reviewed with particular reference to the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment. From the review, it appears likely that measurement of the plasmaspheric electron content is the only one capable of monitoring electron fluxes continuously between L 1 and L 2. Some recent important results deduced from plasmaspheric electron content measurements are discussed

  14. Naturalising Representational Content (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas


    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  15. Educating restaurant owners and cooks to lower their own sodium intake is a potential strategy for reducing the sodium contents of restaurant foods: a small-scale pilot study in South Korea. (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Heeseung; Seo, Dong-Il; Oh, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Taik Gun; Choi, Bo Youl


    This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel. Forty-eight restaurant owners and cooks completed the baseline survey and participated in the intervention. Forty participants completed the post-intervention survey. The overweight and obesity prevalences were 25.6% and 39.5%, respectively, and 74.4% of participants had elevated blood pressure. After health examination, counseling, and nutrition education, several nutrition behaviors related to sodium intake showed improvement. In addition, those who consumed less salt in their baseline diet (measured with urine dipsticks) were more likely to agree that providing healthy foods to their customers is necessary. This study demonstrated the potential to reduce the sodium contents of restaurant foods by improving restaurant owners' and cooks' psychological factors and their own health behaviors. This small pilot study demonstrated that working with restaurant owners and cooks to improve their own health and sodium intake may have an effect on participation in restaurant-based sodium reduction initiatives. Future intervention studies with a larger sample size and comparison group can focus on improving the health and perceptions of restaurant personnel in order to increase the feasibility and efficacy of restaurant-based sodium reduction programs and policies.

  16. Qualitative Content Analysis


    Philipp Mayring


    The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of ca...

  17. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon


    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  18. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.


    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  19. Branded content infantil




    Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  20. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  1. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.


    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  2. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  3. Qualitative Content Analysis


    Satu Elo; Maria Kääriäinen; Outi Kanste; Tarja Pölkki; Kati Utriainen; Helvi Kyngäs


    Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studie...

  4. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu


    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  5. Scale Pretesting (United States)

    Howard, Matt C.


    Scale pretests analyze the suitability of individual scale items for further analysis, whether through judging their face validity, wording concerns, and/or other aspects. The current article reviews scale pretests, separated by qualitative and quantitative methods, in order to identify the differences, similarities, and even existence of the…

  6. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED


    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  7. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  8. Building and Contents Insurance. (United States)

    Freese, William C.

    Insurance coverage of school buildings and contents is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and increases of 50 percent or more in the premium are not uncommon. Methods of reducing premium increases are outlined in this speech. (MLF)

  9. Selenium content of mushrooms. (United States)

    Stijve, T


    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kukharenko


    Full Text Available Content curated - a new activity (started in 2008 qualified network users with process large amounts of information to represent her social network users. To prepare content curators developed 7 weeks distance course, which examines the functions, methods and tools curator. Courses showed a significant relationship success learning on the availability of advanced personal learning environment and the ability to process and analyze information.

  11. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Elo


    Full Text Available Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studies, our own experiences, and methodological textbooks. Trustworthiness was described for the main qualitative content analysis phases from data collection to reporting of the results. We concluded that it is important to scrutinize the trustworthiness of every phase of the analysis process, including the preparation, organization, and reporting of results. Together, these phases should give a reader a clear indication of the overall trustworthiness of the study. Based on our findings, we compiled a checklist for researchers attempting to improve the trustworthiness of a content analysis study. The discussion in this article helps to clarify how content analysis should be reported in a valid and understandable manner, which would be of particular benefit to reviewers of scientific articles. Furthermore, we discuss that it is often difficult to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies because of defective data collection method description and/or analysis description.

  12. The Information Content of Anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Scale Measurements


    Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Manera, Marc


    Anisotropic measurements of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature within a galaxy survey enable joint inference about the Hubble parameter $H(z)$ and angular diameter distance $D_A(z)$. These measurements are typically obtained from moments of the measured 2-point clustering statistics, with respect to the cosine of the angle to the line of sight $\\mu$. The position of the BAO features in each moment depends on a combination of $D_A(z)$ and $H(z)$, and measuring the positions in two o...

  13. Maslowian Scale. (United States)

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  14. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.


    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  15. Elders Health Empowerment Scale (United States)


    Introduction: Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Objective: Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. Methods: The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. Results: The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions: HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs. PMID:25767307

  16. Contents of Stereotypes toward Woman Subgroups: An Investigation in the Framework of Stereotype Content Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timucin Aktan


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the stereotype contents toward woman subgroups and relate these contents to social-structural predictors and sexism. In this respect, 119 university students were recruited for the first study and they were asked to rate 10 woman subgroups in terms of their competence and warmth, and their status and competitiveness. Participants' level of sexism was also measured using ambivalent sexism scale. The findings of the first study revealed that competence and warmth were the two fundamental dimensions of the stereotype contents, these stereotypes could be depicted in three clusters, the content of many women stereotypes were mixed, and status was linked to competence and competition was related to lack of warmth. Besides replicating the main hypotheses of stereotype content model, the findings supported its two basic assumptions, i.e. negative stereotypes are not necessary to reveal stereotype clusters and personal stereotypes are more open to motivational concerns. Finally, sexism was related only with competition, but not with stereotype contents. Since, high competent / high warm cluster was not observed in the first study, the number of woman subgroups was increased in the second study. Thus, 86 university students were asked to rate 18 women subgroups on the scales used in the first study. Results replicated the findings of the first study, supporting the main hypothesis of stereotype content model. The findings of the studies were discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  17. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, K.


    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  18. Trustworthy content push


    Kuntze, Nicolai; Schmidt, Andreas U.


    Delivery of content to mobile devices gains increasing importance in industrial environments to support employees in the field. An important application are e-mail push services like the fashionable Blackberry. These systems are facing security challenges regarding data transport to, and storage of the data on the end user equipment. The emerging Trusted Computing technology offers new answers to these open questions.

  19. LCS Content Document Application (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake


    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  20. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria


    study of social media sites and destination brands, relying on qualitative research methods, content analysis and field research. Findings – Tourists are largely contributing to destination image formation, while avoiding the use of the formal elements of the brands. The most popular strategies used...

  1. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk


    In this article [ 1 ] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post–Marxists. What we have witnessed, however...

  2. Unsupervised Segmentation Methods of TV Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie El-Khoury


    Full Text Available We present a generic algorithm to address various temporal segmentation topics of audiovisual contents such as speaker diarization, shot, or program segmentation. Based on a GLR approach, involving the ΔBIC criterion, this algorithm requires the value of only a few parameters to produce segmentation results at a desired scale and on most typical low-level features used in the field of content-based indexing. Results obtained on various corpora are of the same quality level than the ones obtained by other dedicated and state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Content Maps: A Teaching and Assessment Tool for Content Knowledge (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo


    Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…

  4. 规模化养猪场处理废水对水稻中微量及重金属元素含量的影响%Effects of Pig Slurry from Large-scale Pig Farm on Medium, Micro-and Heavy Elements Contents of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高威; 王远玲; 陶晓婷; 施金琦; 徐杏; 陆建飞; 庄恒扬


    以迟熟中粳“淮稻5号”和经过无害化处理的规模化养猪场处理废水为供试材料,在减施N肥和不施入P、K肥的条件下,研究施入不同量废水对常规粳稻植株及籽粒中5种重金属元素和6种主要中微量元素含量的影响.结果表明:Pb、As、Ca、Mg和Fe元素含量均以基肥施入处理废水90 m3·hm-2、穗期施入处理废水120 m3·hm-2配施187.5 kg·hm-2 N肥处理为最高;Cd、Hg、Cr和Mn元素含量均以常规施肥处理为最高;Cu除籽粒外,以纯废水处理(基肥施入处理废水90 m3·hm-2、穗期施入处理废水120 m3·hm-2,不施入肥料)为最高;Zn除拔节期外,基肥施入处理废水90 m3·hm-2,穗期施入处理废水120 m3·hm-2配施187.5 kg·hm-2处理最高.As、Pb、Mg、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn和Cu于各生育期在基施处理废水量相同的情况下,均随着穗期处理废水施用量的增加而增加,但是Hg、Cd和Cr与此相反.各处理中水稻籽粒Pb、Cd、Cr、As和Hg的含量均低于相应的污染物限量标准,而水稻植株和籽粒中Zn、Fe、Mn、Ca和Mg营养得到提高,特别是Fe和Ca的含量得到了强化.因此,与常规施肥处理相比,处理废水替代化肥能够提高水稻籽粒中的有益元素含量,同时并未引起重金属元素含量的显著上升,且使Hg、Cd和Cr含量下降.%With the rapid development of China's large-scale pig farms,increasing pig slurry is causing serious environmental pollution that in turn threatens the sustainable development of large-scale pig farming.The utilization of pig slurry,a kind source of nutrients,combined by pig farming with cropping is one of the best solutions to this problem.As the utilization of pig slurry in farmlands lacked systematic research,a field experiment was conducted to study the effect of pig slurry on the contents of medium,micro elements and heavy metals elements in rice.The results of the study could provide the scientific basis for efficient rice production

  5. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger


    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  6. Content Documents Management (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.


    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  7. KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.; )


    A correct version of the KNO scaling of multiplicity distributions is discussed in detail. Some assertions on KNO-scaling violation based on the misinterpretation of experimental data behavior are analyzed. An accurate comparison with experiment is presented for the distributions of negative particles in e + e - annihilation at √S = 3 - 161 GeV, in inelastic pp interactions at √S = 2.4 - 62 GeV and in nucleus-nucleus interactions at p lab = 4.5 - 520 GeV/c per nucleon. The p-bar p data at √S 546 GeV are considered [ru

  8. Scaling satan. (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L


    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  9. Content Marketing Practices in Finland


    Suuronen, Toni


    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  10. Angular momentum content of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaya, E.J.; Tully, R.B.


    A schema of galaxy formation is developed in which the environmental influence of large-scale structure plays a dominant role. This schema was motivated by the observation that the fraction of E and S0 galaxies is much higher in clusters than in low-density regions and by an inference that those spirals that are found in clusters probably have fallen in relatively recently from the low-density regions. It is proposed that the tidal field of the Local Supercluster acts to determine the morphology of galaxies through two complementary mechanisms. In the first place, the supercluster can apply torques to protogalaxies. Galaxies which collapsed while expanding away from the central cluster decoupled from the external tidal field and conserved the angular momentum that they acquired before collapse. Galaxies which formed in the cluster while the cluster collapsed continued to feel the tidal field. In the latter case, the spin of outer collapsing layers can be halted and reversed, and tends to cancel the spin of inner layers. The result is a reduction of the total angular momentum content of the galaxy. In addition, the supercluster tidal field can regulate accretion of fresh material onto the galaxies since the field creates a Roche limit about galaxies and material beyond this limit is lost. Any material that has not collapsed onto a galaxy by the time the galaxy falls into a cluster will be tidally stripped. The angular momentum content of that part of the protogalactic cloud which has not yet collapsed . continues to grow linearly with time due to the continued torquing by the supercluster and neighbors. Galaxies at large distances from the cluster core can continue to accrete this high angular momentum material until the present, but galaxies that enter the cluster are cut off from replenishing material

  11. Determining gold content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.


    A method for determining the gold content of a material, comprises irradiating a body of the material with neutrons and determining the intensity of γ-rays having an energy of 279 keV arising from the reaction 179 Au(nn') 179 Au → 279 keV. The apparatus has means for conveying the materials past an assembly, which has a neutron source, which does not produce neutrons having sufficient energy to excite fast neutron reactions in non-auriferous constituents. (author)

  12. Personalized professional content recommendation (United States)

    Xu, Songhua


    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  13. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.


    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  14. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.


    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  15. Construção e validação de conteúdo de uma escala de percepção, por professores, dos comportamentos agressivos de crianças na escola Construction and content's validation of the teacher's perception scale of school children aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Saraiva de Macedo Lisboa


    Full Text Available Este estudo visa descrever a construção e a validação do conteúdo de uma escala de percepção, por professores, dos comportamentos agressivos de crianças na escola. Aspectos relacionados à direção da emissão dos comportamentos agressivos foram considerados, focalizando agressão dirigida para o(a professor(a, para os(as colegas ou para um âmbito geral. Vinte e oito itens foram elaborados, com base na literatura recente sobre agressividade e desenvolvimento infantil, e avaliados por quarenta juízes (vinte professores de Ensino Fundamental e vinte psicólogos especialistas em desenvolvimento humano. Os juízes indicaram a pertinência do item ao constructo teórico e à direção da agressão. A versão final da escala apresenta 41 itens, sendo 22 mantidos da primeira versão, quatro (4 itens novos, acrescidos segundo a sugestão dos juízes durante a validação de conteúdo, e quinze (15 novos itens, que abordam comportamentos positivos de crianças na escola. A escala pode ser utilizada com o objetivo de pesquisa científica, para avaliar a percepção de professores de Ensino Fundamental sobre o comportamento agressivo de crianças na escola. Novos estudos devem ser realizados para acumular outras evidências sobre a escala.The process of construction and content´s validation of the Teacher's Perception Scale of School Children Aggressive Behavior is described. The agressive behavior direction (toward teachers, peers, or in general is considered. Twenty-eight items were built based on literature, and evaluated by 40 judges, who indicated the adequacy of each item. The final version presents 41 items, 22 items about aggressive behavior, 15 items about positive, four new items suggested. The scale may be used for scientific research purpose, to evaluate the perception of elementary school teachers about school children aggressive behaviors. Other validation procedures are suggested.

  16. The role of content marketing in social media content communities


    Charmaine du Plessis


    Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely bee...

  17. Free Flowing Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cass, Andrew Knox; Kravchenko, Mariia


    Higher education institutions are moving to exploit information andcommunication technologies by increasing the use of videos both online and inclass. This is led, by definition, by ‘early adopters’ and most of the research intothis process reflects this. Increasingly, institutions are making...... strategic decisionsto move courses online however, some teachers involved are not well equippedto transition. The barriers are reported to be time constraints and a lack offamiliarity with the technology to make video. Also, there is a fear of the‘presented self’ where teachers may initially resent the idea...... do not secure theintegrity of the learning. This paper sets out the methods used to assist teacherstake the maximum benefit of their existing content as presentation style lecturesand utilize them for video recording suitable for both flipped and online classes.A central theme is removing the fear...

  18. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions. (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay


    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  19. Radioactivity content of books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.


    The natural and fallout radioactivity was measured in a large number of books produced in various countries after 1955. Results of these measurements showed that the books contained radioactivity due to fallout 137 Cs and 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radioisotopes of primordial origin. Books printed in the U.S.A. had low radioactivity of 40K and 226 Ra origin compared to books printed in the European subcontinent. Books printed during high fallout rate (1962-64) or thereafter did not exhibit any significantly higher 137 Cs levels. The maximum radiation dose to the eyes calculated for the radioactivity content of the books was 0.8 μR/hr and the minimum was 0.07 μR/hr; most of the books were in the range 0.3-0.5 μR/hr. (U.K.)

  20. Multimedia content analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens


    This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .

  1. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine du Plessis


    Full Text Available Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely been overlooked. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate content marketing’s role in social media content communities to engage with the target audience in an innate manner. Method: This study made use of a directed, inductive content analysis of 51 practitioner documents relating to business-to-consumer content marketing practices to add another perspective to existing research on communities in social media. The content analysis was facilitated by using QDA Miner, a widely adopted and reliable qualitative data analysis software programme. Results: Three categories emerged from the data namely building content communities, platform-specific content and understanding channels. These categories provide sufficient evidence of how brands make use of social media content communities to connect with the target audience in an unobtrusive manner, in addition to being present in virtual brand communities. Conclusion: The findings make several contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, it provides a clearer distinction between brand and social media content communities. Secondly, it extends conceptions about social media communities to include content communities and, thirdly, it provides sufficient evidence of how content marketing could benefit a brand by naturally becoming part of social media conversations.

  2. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per


    Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water...... within a RH range from 3 to 93%. The clay contents, which ranged between 1 and 56%, were measured with a combination of sieving and sedimentation methods. Two regression models were developed for both adsorption and desorption at 10 RH levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%). While the first...

  3. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo


    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  4. Eating quality of UK-style sausages varying in price, meat content, fat level and salt content. (United States)

    Sheard, P R; Hope, E; Hughes, S I; Baker, A; Nute, G R


    Thirty-six brands of pork sausage were purchased from a total of 10 retailers over a 4 months period and assessed for eating quality. The brands included 5 of the 10 most popular sausages in the UK, 4 basic, 14 standard, 10 premium and 8 healthy eating brands. The average price, meat content, fat content and salt content was 3.31 pounds/kg, 62%, 17% and 1.6%, respectively, but there were wide differences in price (1.08 pound/kg-5.23 pounds/kg), meat content (32-97%), fat content (2.1-29.1%) and salt content (0.5-2.5%). Sausages were assessed by a trained sensory panel using 100mm unstructured line scales and 14 descriptors (skin toughness, firmness, juiciness, pork flavour, fattiness, meatiness, particle size, cohesiveness, saltiness, sweet, acidic, bitter and metallic) including overall liking. The declared meat content was positively correlated with price, skin toughness, firmness, pork flavour, meatiness, particle size and perceived saltiness (r=0.5 or better). The declared fat content was positively correlated with fattiness and sweetness (r=0.42 or better) but not juiciness. There was no significant correlation between declared salt content and perceived saltiness. A principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components accounted for 51% of the variability in the data. Products could be separated into four quadrants according to their price, meat content, fat content and their associated eating quality attributes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing a News Media Literacy Scale (United States)

    Ashley, Seth; Maksl, Adam; Craft, Stephanie


    Using a framework previously applied to other areas of media literacy, this study developed and assessed a measurement scale focused specifically on critical news media literacy. Our scale appears to successfully measure news media literacy as we have conceptualized it based on previous research, demonstrated through assessments of content,…

  6. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJRED Editorial


    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPassive Design of Buildings for Extreme Weather EnvironmentS.N. Al-Zubaidy, S. Tokbolat, R. Tokpatayeva 1-11 Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource SubstitutionK.J. Sreekanth, S. Jayaraj, N. Sudarsan 13-18 Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi KenyaMary Njenga, A Yonemitsu, N Karanjaa, M Iiyama, J Kithinji, M Dubbeling C Sundberge, R R Jamnadass 19-29 A Novel Design of Multi-Chambered Biomass BatteryK. Sudhakar, R. Ananthakrishnan, A. Goyal, H.K. Darji 31-34 Power Quality Improvement Wind Energy System Using Cascaded Multilevel InverterJ.S. Sathiyanarayanan, A. S. Kumar 35-43 Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural GhanaGeorge Y. Obeng 45-51 Innovative Green Technology for Sustainable Industrial Estate DevelopmentR. Hadiwijoyo, P Purwanto, Sudharto P Hadi 53-58 Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy For Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security And Equitability Of Rural CommunitiesN.A. Ahmad, H. Byrd 59-68

  7. Technical note - the incorporation of ash content into gas content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creech, M.; Mahoney, M. [Powercoal Pty. Ltd., Budgewoi, NSW (Australia)


    For gas content analysis in recent years, it has been standard procedure to report results on a `dry ash free` (daf) basis, under the assumption that gas only adsorbs onto coaly material. In order to test the relationship between ash and gas content, samples of various rock types were taken from two drillholes in the Newcastle Coalfield. The results of this study confirmed the correlation between gas content and ash, providing an accurate means of relating gas contents for all carbonaceous rock types. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Scale development for pre-service mathematics teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine pre-service mathematics teachers' perceptions related to their pedagogical content knowledge. Firstly, a preliminary perception scale of pedagogical content knowledge was constructed and then administered to 112 pre-service mathematics teachers who were ...

  9. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section


    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  10. Molecular scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Childers


    Full Text Available This manuscript demonstrates the molecular scale cure rate dependence of di-functional epoxide based thermoset polymers cured with amines. A series of cure heating ramp rates were used to determine the influence of ramp rate on the glass transition temperature (Tg and sub-Tg transitions and the average free volume hole size in these systems. The networks were comprised of 3,3′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (33DDS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF and were cured at ramp rates ranging from 0.5 to 20 °C/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and NIR spectroscopy were used to explore the cure ramp rate dependence of the polymer network growth, whereas broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS and free volume hole size measurements were used to interrogate networks’ molecular level structural variations upon curing at variable heating ramp rates. It was found that although the Tg of the polymer matrices was similar, the NIR and DSC measurements revealed a strong correlation for how these networks grow in relation to the cure heating ramp rate. The free volume analysis and BDS results for the cured samples suggest differences in the molecular architecture of the matrix polymers due to cure heating rate dependence.

  11. Status of xi-scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politzer, H.D.


    The logic of the xi-scaling analysis of inclusive lepton-hadron scattering is reviewed with the emphasis on clarifying what is assumed and what is predicted. The physics content of several recent papers, which purport to criticize this analysis, in fact confirm its validity and utility. For clarity, concentration is placed on the orthodox operator product analysis of electroproduction, local duality and precocious scaling. Other physics discussed includes the successes of QCD in the rate of charm production in muon inelastic scattering and in the energy--momentum sum rule. Gluons

  12. Fast crawling methods of exploring content distributed over large graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Pinghui


    Despite recent effort to estimate topology characteristics of large graphs (e.g., online social networks and peer-to-peer networks), little attention has been given to develop a formal crawling methodology to characterize the vast amount of content distributed over these networks. Due to the large-scale nature of these networks and a limited query rate imposed by network service providers, exhaustively crawling and enumerating content maintained by each vertex is computationally prohibitive. In this paper, we show how one can obtain content properties by crawling only a small fraction of vertices and collecting their content. We first show that when sampling is naively applied, this can produce a huge bias in content statistics (i.e., average number of content replicas). To remove this bias, one may use maximum likelihood estimation to estimate content characteristics. However, our experimental results show that this straightforward method requires to sample most vertices to obtain accurate estimates. To address this challenge, we propose two efficient estimators: special copy estimator (SCE) and weighted copy estimator (WCE) to estimate content characteristics using available information in sampled content. SCE uses the special content copy indicator to compute the estimate, while WCE derives the estimate based on meta-information in sampled vertices. We conduct experiments on a variety of real-word and synthetic datasets, and the results show that WCE and SCE are cost effective and also “asymptotically unbiased”. Our methodology provides a new tool for researchers to efficiently query content distributed in large-scale networks.

  13. Burgers vector content of an interfacial ledge (United States)

    Bonnet, R.; Loubradou, M.; Pénisson, J. M.


    A new way of investigating the elastic field around a ledge of a faceted interface is proposed for crystalline materials. The length and/or angular misfits along two adjacent facets are accommodated by slightly deforming the atomic structural units with an appropriate distribution of translation dislocations. The Burgers vector content of the ledge is not defined as usual from a circuit crossing the interface twice, a method which proves to be sometimes misleading. An example treats, at the atomic scale, an unusual ledge of the interface TiAl/Ti3Al.

  14. An intelligent content discovery technique for health portal content management. (United States)

    De Silva, Daswin; Burstein, Frada


    Continuous content management of health information portals is a feature vital for its sustainability and widespread acceptance. Knowledge and experience of a domain expert is essential for content management in the health domain. The rate of generation of online health resources is exponential and thereby manual examination for relevance to a specific topic and audience is a formidable challenge for domain experts. Intelligent content discovery for effective content management is a less researched topic. An existing expert-endorsed content repository can provide the necessary leverage to automatically identify relevant resources and evaluate qualitative metrics. This paper reports on the design research towards an intelligent technique for automated content discovery and ranking for health information portals. The proposed technique aims to improve efficiency of the current mostly manual process of portal content management by utilising an existing expert-endorsed content repository as a supporting base and a benchmark to evaluate the suitability of new content A model for content management was established based on a field study of potential users. The proposed technique is integral to this content management model and executes in several phases (ie, query construction, content search, text analytics and fuzzy multi-criteria ranking). The construction of multi-dimensional search queries with input from Wordnet, the use of multi-word and single-word terms as representative semantics for text analytics and the use of fuzzy multi-criteria ranking for subjective evaluation of quality metrics are original contributions reported in this paper. The feasibility of the proposed technique was examined with experiments conducted on an actual health information portal, the BCKOnline portal. Both intermediary and final results generated by the technique are presented in the paper and these help to establish benefits of the technique and its contribution towards effective

  15. Content analysis in information flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grusho, Alexander A. [Institute of Informatics Problems of Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grusho, Nick A.; Timonina, Elena E. [Institute of Informatics Problems of Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The paper deals with architecture of content recognition system. To analyze the problem the stochastic model of content recognition in information flows was built. We proved that under certain conditions it is possible to solve correctly a part of the problem with probability 1, viewing a finite section of the information flow. That means that good architecture consists of two steps. The first step determines correctly certain subsets of contents, while the second step may demand much more time for true decision.

  16. Content-Based Image Retrial Based on Hadoop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongSheng Yin


    Full Text Available Generally, time complexity of algorithms for content-based image retrial is extremely high. In order to retrieve images on large-scale databases efficiently, a new way for retrieving based on Hadoop distributed framework is proposed. Firstly, a database of images features is built by using Speeded Up Robust Features algorithm and Locality-Sensitive Hashing and then perform the search on Hadoop platform in a parallel way specially designed. Considerable experimental results show that it is able to retrieve images based on content on large-scale cluster and image sets effectively.

  17. Stochastic simulations of calcium contents in sugarcane area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener T. Pereira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to quantify and to map the spatial distribution and uncertainty of soil calcium (Ca content in a sugarcane area by sequential Gaussian and simulated-annealing simulation methods. The study was conducted in the municipality of Guariba, northeast of the São Paulo state. A sampling grid with 206 points separated by a distance of 50 m was established, totaling approximately 42 ha. The calcium contents were evaluated in layer of 0-0.20 m. Techniques of geostatistical estimation, ordinary kriging and stochastic simulations were used. The technique of ordinary kriging does not reproduce satisfactorily the global statistics of the Ca contents. The use of simulation techniques allows reproducing the spatial variability pattern of Ca contents. The techniques of sequential Gaussian simulation and simulated annealing showed significant variations in the contents of Ca in the small scale.

  18. Understanding Content-and-Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Marx, M.J.; de Rijke, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Trotman, A.; Lalmas, M.; Fuhr, N.


    Document-centric XML is a mixture of text and structure. +With the increased availability of document-centric XML content comes a need for query facilities in which both structural constraints and constraints on the content of the documents can be expressed. This has generated considerable interest

  19. Uranium content of Philippine coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.S.; Bulos, A.M.; Bucoy, B.M.; De la Cruz, M.


    Uranium content of coal samples from seven areas in the Philippines, i.e. Cebu, Semirara, Bislig, Albay, Samar, Malangas and Polilio Is. was found to contain trace quantities of uranium. The mean value of 0.401 ppm U is lower than reported mean uranium contents for coal from other countries. (ELC)

  20. Content-adaptive pyramid representation for 3D object classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios


    In this paper we introduce a novel representation for the classification of 3D images. Unlike most current approaches, our representation is not based on a fixed pyramid but adapts to image content and uses image regions instead of rectangular pyramid scales. Image characteristics, such as depth...... and color, are used for defining regions within images. Multiple region scales are formed in order to construct the proposed pyramid image representation. The proposed method achieves excellent results in comparison to conventional representations....

  1. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland


    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  2. Moisture content measurement in paddy (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.


    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  3. Content-based intermedia synchronization (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Young; Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Rangan, P. Venkat


    Inter-media synchronization methods developed until now have been based on syntactic timestamping of video frames and audio samples. These methods are not fully appropriate for the synchronization of multimedia objects which may have to be accessed individually by their contents, e.g. content-base data retrieval. We propose a content-based multimedia synchronization scheme in which a media stream is viewed as hierarchial composition of smaller objects which are logically structured based on the contents, and the synchronization is achieved by deriving temporal relations among logical units of media object. content-based synchronization offers several advantages such as, elimination of the need for time stamping, freedom from limitations of jitter, synchronization of independently captured media objects in video editing, and compensation for inherent asynchronies in capture times of video and audio.

  4. Influence of Zn{sup 2+} content on morphological and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites synthesized on a large scale by combustion reaction; Influencia do teor de Zn{sup 2+} nas caracteristicas morfologicas e magneticas de ferritas Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sintetizados em grande escala por reacao de combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, V.C.S.; Silveira Junior, J.E.R.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Cornejo, D.R., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Kiminami, R.H.G.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais


    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Zn{sup 2+} in the morphological and magnetic characteristics of ferrites Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x} Fe{sub 2} O{sub 4} (where x= 0.0, 0.35, 0.5 and 0.65 mol of Zn) synthesized by combustion reaction in a pilot scale with batches of 200 g/reaction. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The results indicated that all compositions were single phase of ferrite; morphologically the addition of Zn to MnFe{sub 2} O{sub 4} system caused a slight reduction in size of the agglomerates, and reduced the particle size, but this behavior was not linear with the Zn{sup 2+} content. The samples had characteristic magnetic behavior of soft magnetic materials, maximum saturation magnetization of 62 emu/g for the sample with lower zinc content in its composition. (author)

  5. Interrelationships of locus of control content dimensions and hopelessness. (United States)

    Ward, L C; Thomas, L L


    Items from three locus of control (LOC) tests and the Beck Hopelessness Scale were administered to 197 college students. Factor analyses produced multiple factors for each LOC test, but the Beck scale proved to be unidimensional. Factor scales were constructed for each test, and scores were factor analyzed to discover common content. Each LOC test contained a salient dimension that described belief in luck, chance, or fate, and corresponding scales were well correlated. Internal control was the second common theme, with variations according to whether control was attributed to oneself or to people in general. The third common component expressed a personal helplessness or powerlessness. Each common factor was loaded by the Hopelessness Scale, which also correlated with all but one LOC factor scale.

  6. Tourist maps – definition, types and contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jancewicz Kacper


    Full Text Available Tourist maps are one of the most common groups of cartographic documents. Their variety in terms of content, subject matter and publication titles is a result of growing popularity of diverse forms of tourism activity. The aim of the authors of this article is to demonstrate issues related to tourist maps, including their variety in relation to contemporary forms of tourism. As tourist maps are constantly developing, the authors decided to propose a classification of tourist maps which is adequate from the point of view of the types of maps we currently distinguish. Taking into consideration the aim and type of tourism, the maps were divided into the following sub-groups: maps for sightseeing tourism, qualified tourism, and other tourism, as well as tourist city maps, and maps prepared for promotion and advertising of tourism. The first there categories were further divided into more detailed sub-categories and each of them was described briefly in terms of its content. The classification of maps based on their scales and form of content presentation was also included.

  7. Development and Validation of Academic Dishonesty Scale (ADS): Presenting a Multidimensional Scale (United States)

    Bashir, Hilal; Bala, Ranjan


    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale measuring academic dishonesty of undergraduate students. The sample of the study constitutes nine hundred undergraduate students selected via random sampling technique. After receiving expert's opinions for the face and content validity of the scale, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and…

  8. Content and affect in persecutory delusions. (United States)

    Green, Catherine; Garety, Philippa A; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Kuipers, Elizabeth


    The study aimed to explore the content of persecutory delusions and its potential links with levels of affective disturbance. Detailed examinations of the phenomenology of delusional beliefs have been rare, but are important for furthering theoretical and clinical understanding. A cross-sectional investigation of 70 individuals with current persecutory delusions was conducted. Taped semi-structured clinical interviews were transcribed for each participant. Using a coding frame devised for the current study, a detailed description of persecutory content was made. Scores on the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales were used as indicators of emotional distress. Data were gathered on the identity and type of persecutor, pervasiveness of threat and the power of the persecutor. Reliability was good. Beliefs involving multiple persecutors, human in nature and identifiable to the individual were common. For the majority threat was severe, ongoing and enduring and coupled with frequent feelings of vulnerability. Specific aspects of delusional content were found to be associated with emotional distress. For example, if participants felt more power in the face of persecution this was coupled with lower depression and higher self-esteem. Persecutory delusions are beliefs concerning severe threat, particularly of physical harm including death, which is personally significant, frequently involving multiple persecutors known to the individual. Depression is higher in those who felt less powerful than their persecutors. Associations, such as this, with emotional distress support a direct role for emotion in delusion formation and maintenance. It is consistent with cognitive models of delusions which emphasize the importance of considering emotional distress in the context of belief appraisal, although interpretation of the results is limited by the cross-sectional study design. Recognizing these links may

  9. Socially responsible marketing decisions - scale development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lončarić


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a measurement scale for evaluating the implementation level of the concept of social responsibility in taking marketing decisions, in accordance with a paradigm of the quality-of-life marketing. A new scale of "socially responsible marketing decisions" has been formed and its content validity, reliability and dimensionality have been analyzed. The scale has been tested on a sample of the most successful Croatian firms. The research results lead us to conclude that the scale has satisfactory psychometric characteristics but that it is necessary to improve it by generating new items and by testing it on a greater number of samples.

  10. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.


    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  11. Web content a writer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mizrahi, Janet


    The explosion of electronic sources, whether in the form of news, commentary, sales and marketing, or information, has created boundless opportunities for producing content. Whether you're an entrepreneur with a start-up business who needs a website, an executive who uses social media to connect with various stakeholders, or a content provider blogging about topical issues, you'll need to know how to write for the web and address the unique environment of the digital world. This book will help you produce web content that generates results. Writing for the screen differs from writing for a pri

  12. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise. (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H


    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda


    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  14. 76 FR 70975 - Petition Requesting Exception From Lead Content Limits (United States)


    ... information provided, to . Do not submit confidential business information, trade... of divisions: Scale Models and Dyersville Die Cast (``petitioner''), submitted a petition requesting an exception from the lead content limit of 100 ppm under section 101(b) of the CPSIA for its die...

  15. Does content knowledge matter for new teachers? (United States)

    Reeves, Todd D.

    reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.

  16. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging]. (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu


    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  17. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  18. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available Data content standards tend to be more accessible. Easier to understand. Used directly by many end users. Immediately applicable to Africa. More susceptible to culture and language – Hence, more important to have local standards...

  19. Concrete workability and fibre content


    Vikan, Hedda


    Research report Parameters influencing the workability of fibre concrete and maximum fibre content are given in this state of the art report along with the range of fibre types available on today’s market. The study reveales that new placing techniques and production methods are crucial in order to increase fibre content and concrete strength. Achieving the same mechanical properties as traditionally reinforced concrete will probably also demand changes of the matrix. Finally, reco...

  20. Marketing engagement through visual content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC


    Full Text Available Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels. The decreasing costs and huge variety of types are premises for an easy and effective marketing investment, with strong benefits for any company and its brands. Loyal customers are achieved and kept through visual content; the lack of it in the general marketing

  1. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T H; Lin, C S; Wu, C; Liao, C E; Lin, H Y


    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  2. Contents


    BAHAR, Mehmet; KİLMEN, Sevilay; Editörleri, Dil; Türkçe, Salih Kürşad DOLUNAY; İngilizce, Selmin SÖYLEMEZ; YAVUZALP, Nuh; ALPAGUT, Uğur; ALTUN, Murat; AYDOĞAN, Yasemin; AVCI, Cemal; DURMUŞ, Soner; KALYONCU, Nesrin; ORBAY, Metin; ÖZBAY, Murat; TAŞPINAR, Mehmet


    Yayın Kurulu: Prof.Dr. Uğur ALPAGUT Prof.Dr. Murat ALTUN Prof.Dr. Yasemin AYDOĞAN Prof.Dr. Cemal AVCI Prof.Dr. Soner DURMUŞ Prof.Dr. Nesrin KALYONCU Prof.Dr. Metin ORBAY Prof.Dr. Murat ÖZBAY Prof.Dr. Mehmet TAŞPINAR Doç.Dr. Türkan ARGON Doç.Dr. Zeki ARSAL Doç.Dr. Bayram BIÇAK Doç.Dr. Bahri AYDIN Doç.Dr. Mehmet CANBULAT Doç.Dr. Eyüp COŞKUN Doç.Dr. Nihal DOĞAN Doç.Dr. Tolga ERDOĞAN Doç.Dr. Halit KARATAY Doç.Dr. Kemalettin KUZUCU Doç.Dr. Salih Paşa MEMİŞOĞLU Doç.Dr. Şenay Se...

  3. Content Validity of a Tool Measuring Medication Errors. (United States)

    Tabassum, Nishat; Allana, Saleema; Saeed, Tanveer; Dias, Jacqueline Maria


    The objective of this study was to determine content and face validity of a tool measuring medication errors among nursing students in baccalaureate nursing education. Data was collected from the Aga Khan University School of Nursing and Midwifery (AKUSoNaM), Karachi, from March to August 2014. The tool was developed utilizing literature and the expertise of the team members, expert in different areas. The developed tool was then sent to five experts from all over Karachi for ensuring the content validity of the tool, which was measured on relevance and clarity of the questions. The Scale Content Validity Index (S-CVI) for clarity and relevance of the questions was found to be 0.94 and 0.98, respectively. The tool measuring medication errors has an excellent content validity. This tool should be used for future studies on medication errors, with different study populations such as medical students, doctors, and nurses.

  4. Terahertz Measurement of the Water Content Distribution in Wood Materials (United States)

    Bensalem, M.; Sommier, A.; Mindeguia, J. C.; Batsale, J. C.; Pradere, C.


    Recently, THz waves have been shown to be an effective technique for investigating the water diffusion within porous media, such as biomaterial or insulation materials. This applicability is due to the sufficient resolution for such applications and the safe levels of radiation. This study aims to achieve contactless absolute water content measurements at a steady state case in semi-transparent solids (wood) using a transmittance THz wave range setup. First, a calibration method is developed to validate an analytical model based on the Beer-Lambert law, linking the absorption coefficient, the density of the solid, and its water content. Then, an estimation of the water content on a local scale in a transient-state case (drying) is performed. This study shows that THz waves are an effective contactless, safe, and low-cost technique for the measurement of water content in a porous medium, such as wood.

  5. Interest in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Scale. (United States)

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Atari, Mohammad


    Interest in cosmetic surgery is increasing, with rhinoplasty being one of the most popular surgical procedures. It is essential that surgeons identify patients with existing psychological conditions before any procedure. This study aimed to develop and validate the Interest in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Scale (IARS). Four studies were conducted to develop the IARS and to evaluate different indices of validity (face, content, construct, criterion, and concurrent validities) and reliability (internal consistency, split-half coefficient, and temporal stability) of the scale. The four study samples included a total of 463 participants. Statistical analysis revealed satisfactory psychometric properties in all samples. Scores on the IARS were negatively correlated with self-esteem scores ( r  = -0.296; p  social dysfunction ( r  = 0.268; p  < 0.01), and depression ( r  = 0.308; p  < 0.01). The internal and test-retest coefficients of consistency were found to be high (α = 0.93; intraclass coefficient = 0.94). Rhinoplasty patients were found to have significantly higher IARS scores than nonpatients ( p  < 0.001). Findings of the present studies provided evidence for face, content, construct, criterion, and concurrent validities and internal and test-retest reliability of the IARS. This evidence supports the use of the scale in clinical and research settings. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Pre-service teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pre-service teachers' content and pedagogical knowledge in teaching geometric transformation. Eighty-two pre-service teachers from two Colleges of Education in the Ashanti region of Ghana consisted the sample size. The study was a quantitative study which employed survey as a strategy of ...

  7. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah


    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... significance of the node towards overall content provided by the document. Once significance of the nodes is determined, the formatting characteristics like fonts, styles and the position of the nodes are evaluated to identify the nodes with similar formatting as compared to the significant nodes. The proposed...

  8. The Natural Origins of Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutto, Daniel; Satne, Glenda Lucila


    to be reconceived in terms of explaining the natural origins of content. Second, the pivotal assumption that intentionality is always and everywhere contentful must be abandoned. Reviving and updating Haugeland’s baseball analogy in the light of these changes, we propose ways of redirecting the efforts of players...... on each base of his intentionality All-Star team, enabling them to start functioning effectively as a team. Only then is it likely that they will finally get their innings and maybe, just maybe, even win the game....

  9. Interpreting the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) achievement scales using scale anchoring (United States)

    Kelly, Dana L.


    The scale anchoring method was used to analyze and describe the TIMSS primary and middle school (Populations 1 and 2) mathematics and science achievement scales. Scale anchoring is a way of attaching meaning to a scale by describing what students know and can do at specific points on the scale. Student achievement was scrutinized at four points on the TIMSS primary and middle school achievement scales---the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th international percentiles for fourth and eighth grades. The scale anchoring method was adapted for the TIMSS data and items that students scoring at each of the four scale points were likely to answer correctly (with a 65 percent probability) were identified. The items were assembled in binders organized by anchor level and content area. Two ten-member panels of subject-matter specialists were convened to scrutinize the items, draft descriptions of student proficiency at the four scale points, and identify example TIMSS items to illustrate performance at each level. Following the panel meetings, the descriptions were refined through an iterative review process. The result is a content-referenced interpretation of the TIMSS scales through which TIMSS achievement results can be better communicated and understood.

  10. Journalism and Explaining News Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albæk, E.; Skovsgaard, M.; de Vreese, C.H.; Nussbaum, J.F.

    Three models are presented to explain variation in news content. In the first model the explanation is based on the individual journalist, in the second model on the professional journalist, and in the third model on the organized journalist. The individual journalist model focuses on how the

  11. Quality Content in Distance Education (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin


    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  12. Content dependent information flow control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming


    Information flow control extends access control by not only regulating who is allowed to access what data but also the subsequent use of the data. Applications within communications systems require such information flow control to be dependent on the actual contents of the data. We develop...

  13. Open Content in Open Context (United States)

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.


    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  14. Home media server content management (United States)

    Tokmakoff, Andrew A.; van Vliet, Harry


    With the advent of set-top boxes, the convergence of TV (broadcasting) and PC (Internet) is set to enter the home environment. Currently, a great deal of activity is occurring in developing standards (TV-Anytime Forum) and devices (TiVo) for local storage on Home Media Servers (HMS). These devices lie at the heart of convergence of the triad: communications/networks - content/media - computing/software. Besides massive storage capacity and being a communications 'gateway', the home media server is characterised by the ability to handle metadata and software that provides an easy to use on-screen interface and intelligent search/content handling facilities. In this paper, we describe a research prototype HMS that is being developed within the GigaCE project at the Telematica Instituut . Our prototype demonstrates advanced search and retrieval (video browsing), adaptive user profiling and an innovative 3D component of the Electronic Program Guide (EPG) which represents online presence. We discuss the use of MPEG-7 for representing metadata, the use of MPEG-21 working draft standards for content identification, description and rights expression, and the use of HMS peer-to-peer content distribution approaches. Finally, we outline explorative user behaviour experiments that aim to investigate the effectiveness of the prototype HMS during development.

  15. Digital Content: Making Learning Relevant (United States)

    Levin, Douglas A.


    Approximately 15 states are changing their policies to give school districts more flexibility in acquiring content. They have changed laws or policies or have bills pending in state legislatures to redefine "textbooks". Most of those changes are similar to the approach Indiana took in its new law: a "textbook" is not only a…

  16. Place prioritization for biodiversity content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the ...

  17. Variation in seasonal moisture content (United States)

    John E. Phelps


    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  18. Durability of pellets made from different wood fuel assortments - The effect of moisture content, particle size and temperature development during storage. A laboratory-scale study; Haallfasthet hos braenslepellets tillverkade av olika traedbraenslesortiment - betydelsen av fukthalt, fraktionsstorlek och temperaturutveckling under lagringen. En laboratoriestudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtikangas, Paeivi [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products


    Durability of fuel pellets is one of the most important quality variables. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and particle size distribution on the durability of pellets made out of sawdust, logging residues and bark from Norway spruce and Scots pine. Moreover, the durability of pellets made out of logging residues which were exposed to high temperature development was investigated. Pellets were manufactured using a laboratory press CPM Europe. The determined quality parameters were moisture content, percentage of accept-pellets (percentage of pellets of the total amount of raw material), temperature and density of individual pellets. The pelleting process was controlled by monitoring the raw material input to the press, vibration and power consumption. From the results of this study the following preliminary conclusions can be drawn: * Increase moisture content and temperature during pelleting had a positive correlation with the percentage of the accept-pellets, especially concerning the bark assortments, and * Pellets made out of particles smaller than 1 mm resulted in a significantly (Student's t-test) higher percentage of accept-pellets than pellets made out of particles of 1-2 mm. Moreover, the process temperature was probably too low (max. 86 deg C) to activate softening of the lignin. A lower press temperature was sufficient to produce the same percentage of accept-pellets of fresh bark than with other raw materials. A possible reason for that is the presence of high amounts of extractives in bark, which could develop an adhesive nature during thermal treatment.

  19. Scaling up Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Nigeria is scaling up prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV interventions to primary health care ... Of 10,289 women who had antenatal HIV test, 74 had positive results. ..... counselling and lack of reinforcement of contents.

  20. The baryon content of the Cosmic Web (United States)

    Eckert, Dominique; Jauzac, Mathilde; Shan, HuanYuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Erben, Thomas; Israel, Holger; Jullo, Eric; Klein, Matthias; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan; Tchernin, Céline


    Big-Bang nucleosynthesis indicates that baryons account for 5% of the Universe’s total energy content[1]. In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of this estimate by a factor of two[2,3]. Cosmological simulations indicate that the missing baryons have not yet condensed into virialised halos, but reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web: a low-density plasma at temperature 105–107 K known as the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM)[3,4,5,6]. There have been previous claims of the detection of warm baryons along the line of sight to distant blazars[7,8,9,10] and hot gas between interacting clusters[11,12,13,14]. These observations were however unable to trace the large-scale filamentary structure, or to estimate the total amount of warm baryons in a representative volume of the Universe. Here we report X-ray observations of filamentary structures of ten-million-degree gas associated with the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. Previous observations of this cluster[15] were unable to resolve and remove coincidental X-ray point sources. After subtracting these, we reveal hot gas structures that are coherent over 8 Mpc scales. The filaments coincide with over-densities of galaxies and dark matter, with 5-10% of their mass in baryonic gas. This gas has been heated up by the cluster's gravitational pull and is now feeding its core. PMID:26632589

  1. High content screening in microfluidic devices (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre


    Importance of the field Miniaturization is key to advancing the state-of-the-art in high content screening (HCS), in order to enable dramatic cost savings through reduced usage of expensive biochemical reagents and to enable large-scale screening on primary cells. Microfluidic technology offers the potential to enable HCS to be performed with an unprecedented degree of miniaturization. Areas covered in this review This perspective highlights a real-world example from the authors’ work of HCS assays implemented in a highly miniaturized microfluidic format. Advantages of this technology are discussed, including cost savings, high throughput screening on primary cells, improved accuracy, the ability to study complex time-varying stimuli, and ease of automation, integration, and scaling. What the reader will gain The reader will understand the capabilities of a new microfluidics-based platform for HCS, and the advantages it provides over conventional plate-based HCS. Take home message Microfluidics technology will drive significant advancements and broader usage and applicability of HCS in drug discovery. PMID:21852997

  2. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.


    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  3. Determination of Technopedagogical Content Knowledge Competencies of Preservice Physical Education Teachers: A Turkish Sample (United States)

    Arslan, Yunus


    This study examined preservice physical education teachers' (PPETs') technopedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) competencies. The participants were 1028 PPETs from 26 major universities representing all seven geographical regions of Turkey. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Deep-Scale developed by Kabakci Yurdakul et al. (2012) was…

  4. Development and Standardization of the Gratitude Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Anas


    Full Text Available The Gratitude Scale (GS developed by the authors was administered to 456 adults to determine the psychometric characteristics i.e. reliability and validity. Cronbach’s Alpha of the scale was found 0.91. Content validity of the scale was verified by some experts, academicians, and professionals. For testing multicollinearity and singularity ‘Determinant’ of the R-matrix was estimated and it was greater than 0.00001. The items having factor loading greater than or equal to 0.40 were selected. Total 26 items with five dimensions emerged through Exploratory Factor Analysis explaining 58.14% of the variance, which provided the evidence of factorial/construct validity of the scale. The scale can be used for research and human resource development programs in school/university and organizations.

  5. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier


    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  6. Content validation of an interprofessional learning video peer assessment tool. (United States)

    Nisbet, Gillian; Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Gordon, Christopher J; Chen, Timothy F


    Large scale models of interprofessional learning (IPL) where outcomes are assessed are rare within health professional curricula. To date, there is sparse research describing robust assessment strategies to support such activities. We describe the development of an IPL assessment task based on peer rating of a student generated video evidencing collaborative interprofessional practice. We provide content validation evidence of an assessment rubric in the context of large scale IPL. Two established approaches to scale development in an educational setting were combined. A literature review was undertaken to develop a conceptual model of the relevant domains and issues pertaining to assessment of student generated videos within IPL. Starting with a prototype rubric developed from the literature, a series of staff and student workshops were undertaken to integrate expert opinion and user perspectives. Participants assessed five-minute videos produced in a prior pilot IPL activity. Outcomes from each workshop informed the next version of the rubric until agreement was reached on anchoring statements and criteria. At this point the rubric was declared fit to be used in the upcoming mandatory large scale IPL activity. The assessment rubric consisted of four domains: patient issues, interprofessional negotiation; interprofessional management plan in action; and effective use of video medium to engage audience. The first three domains reflected topic content relevant to the underlying construct of interprofessional collaborative practice. The fourth domain was consistent with the broader video assessment literature calling for greater emphasis on creativity in education. We have provided evidence for the content validity of a video-based peer assessment task portraying interprofessional collaborative practice in the context of large-scale IPL activities for healthcare professional students. Further research is needed to establish the reliability of such a scale.

  7. Event detection in athletics for personalized sports content delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarakis, N.; Pnevmatikakis, A.


    Broadcasting of athletics is nowadays biased towards running (sprint and longer distances) sports. Personalized content delivery can change that for users that wish to focus on different content. Using a combination of video signal processing algorithms and live information that accompanies the v...... algorithms needed for the extraction of the events that trigger both between and within sport camera selection, and describes a system that handles user preferences, live information andvideo-generated events to offer personalized content to the users.......Broadcasting of athletics is nowadays biased towards running (sprint and longer distances) sports. Personalized content delivery can change that for users that wish to focus on different content. Using a combination of video signal processing algorithms and live information that accompanies...... the video of large-scale sports like the Olympics, a system can attend to the preferences of users by selecting the most suitable camera view for them.There are two types of camera selection for personalized content delivery. According to the between sport camera selection, the view is changed between two...

  8. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  9. The SCALE-UP Project (United States)

    Beichner, Robert


    The Student Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) project was developed nearly 20 years ago as an economical way to provide collaborative, interactive instruction even for large enrollment classes. Nearly all research-based pedagogies have been designed with fairly high faculty-student ratios. The economics of introductory courses at large universities often precludes that situation, so SCALE-UP was created as a way to facilitate highly collaborative active learning with large numbers of students served by only a few faculty and assistants. It enables those students to learn and succeed not only in acquiring content, but also to practice important 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and teamsmanship. The approach was initially targeted at undergraduate science and engineering students taking introductory physics courses in large enrollment sections. It has since expanded to multiple content areas, including chemistry, math, engineering, biology, business, nursing, and even the humanities. Class sizes range from 24 to over 600. Data collected from multiple sites around the world indicates highly successful implementation at more than 250 institutions. NSF support was critical for initial development and dissemination efforts. Generously supported by NSF (9752313, 9981107) and FIPSE (P116B971905, P116B000659).

  10. Content, Context & Connectivity Persuasive Interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian Grund


    -supported research project under EACEA). In the development of this project several categories of content have been implemented in technology enhanced learning tools. These have been designed to support learning in different contexts and eventually the role of the connectivity of these learning objects and tools......The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between content, context and connectivity and suggesting a model of Dynamic Interplay. This is done in relation to a specific learning environment concerning cultural mediation, in casu the Kaj Munk Case of the EuroPLOT-project (an EU...... is discussed. Focus is here on The Kaj Munk Study Edition, The Conceptual Pond, Immersive Layers Design, and Generative Learning Objects (GLOs) which are applications affiliated with the Munk case. This paper explores the persuasive potential of the interplay between the different applications for the benefit...

  11. To scale or not to scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Steffensen, John Fleng


    Conventionally, dynamic energy budget (DEB) models operate with animals that have maintenance rates scaling with their body volume, and assimilation rates scaling with body surface area. However, when applying such criteria for the individual in a population level model, the emergent behaviour...

  12. The information content of options


    Navon, Yonatan


    The objective of this thesis is to examine the information content of stock options in financial markets. A key question in financial economics is how information diffuses across markets and how quickly it is reflected in security prices. This thesis aims at exploring this question by investigating the informational role that options play in financial markets. This is achieved by exploring the joint cross section of option and bond prices, the informational role of options in seasoned equity ...

  13. Water content of aged aerosol


    G. J. Engelhart; L. Hildebrandt; E. Kostenidou; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis


    The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008). A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS) was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH) as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during mo...

  14. Content, Cost, Chance, and Collection


    Lorenzen, Mark


    This Working Paper argues that the film industry is a paradigmatic example of how the organization of the cultural economy is shaped by balancing creativity with contextual issues. In the film industry, organization is far from determined only by creative concerns for content production: Issues of cost, chance and collection also play important roles. Through analyzing creativity and its context in the film industry, the paper explains the industry’s organization, and opens up for understandi...

  15. Detecting Malicious Content on Facebook


    Dewan, Prateek; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam


    Online Social Networks (OSNs) witness a rise in user activity whenever an event takes place. Malicious entities exploit this spur in user-engagement levels to spread malicious content that compromises system reputation and degrades user experience. It also generates revenue from advertisements, clicks, etc. for the malicious entities. Facebook, the world's biggest social network, is no exception and has recently been reported to face much abuse through scams and other type of malicious conten...

  16. Plutonium content in uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon Ruiperez, L.


    Starting from a ore model constituted by a uniformily dispersed UO 2 into a granite matrix, the Pu/U ratio as a function of UO 2 concentration in the ore have been deduced. The calculated values are roughly one or two orders of magnitude less than the experimental ones carried out in several types of ores. However, taking into account the H content in the matrix (as a water component) the obtained values agree satisfactorili with the experimental ones. (author) [es

  17. Material obligations: Forms and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.


    This paper includes a detailed legal framework of the IAEA safeguards agreements, namely basic articles of the IAEA Statute, Treaty and Supply Agreement obligations and basic documents concerning decisions and practices of the Board of Governors. It describes as well the initiation process of the negotiation of safeguards agreements, contents comparison and implementation of the safeguards agreements, protocols to safeguards agreements, subsidiary arrangements, amendments and renegotiation documents

  18. The measurement of instrumental ADL: content validity and construct validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Schultz-Larsen, K; Kreiner, S


    do not depend on help. It is also possible to add the items in a valid way. However, to obtain valid IADL-scales, we omitted items that were highly relevant to especially elderly women, such as house-work items. We conclude that the criteria employed for this IADL-measure are somewhat contradictory....... showed that 14 items could be combined into two qualitatively different additive scales. The IADL-measure complies with demands for content validity, distinguishes between what the elderly actually do, and what they are capable of doing, and is a good discriminator among the group of elderly persons who...

  19. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques


    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  20. Water content of aged aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Engelhart


    Full Text Available The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008. A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during most of the measurement campaign, which likely contributed to the water uptake at low RH. The water content observations were compared to the thermodynamic model E-AIM, neglecting any contribution of the organics to aerosol water content. There was good agreement between the water measurements and the model predictions. Adding the small amount of water associated with the organic aerosol based on monoterpene water absorption did not change the quality of the agreement. These results strongly suggest that the water uptake by aged organic aerosol is relatively small (a few percent of the total water for the conditions during FAME-08 and generally consistent with what has been observed in laboratory experiments. The water concentration measured by a Q-AMS was well correlated with the DAASS measurements and in good agreement with the predicted values for the RH of the Q-AMS inlet. This suggests that, at least for the conditions of the study, the Q-AMS can provide valuable information about the aerosol water concentrations if the sample is not dried.

  1. Content Based Searching for INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Jain, R.K.


    Full text: Whatever a user wants is available on the internet, but to retrieve the information efficiently, a multilingual and most-relevant document search engine is a must. Most current search engines are word based or pattern based. They do not consider the meaning of the query posed to them; purely based on the keywords of the query; no support of multilingual query and and dismissal of nonrelevant results. Current information-retrieval techniques either rely on an encoding process, using a certain perspective or classification scheme, to describe a given item, or perform a full-text analysis, searching for user-specified words. Neither case guarantees content matching because an encoded description might reflect only part of the content and the mere occurrence of a word does not necessarily reflect the document’s content. For general documents, there doesn’t yet seem to be a much better option than lazy full-text analysis, by manually going through those endless results pages. In contrast to this, new search engine should extract the meaning of the query and then perform the search based on this extracted meaning. New search engine should also employ Interlingua based machine translation technology to present information in the language of choice of the user. (author

  2. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    support the view that they are sometimes influenced by climate operating at a global scale. Changes of the gyre- ...... other fish species in the world (Doucet and Einarsson. 1967). ...... equatorial Pacific, associated with decreasing cloud coverage and ..... sparse data using physical-based models are improving, and targeted ...

  3. Facilitating personal content management in smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaltonen, Antti


    Smart phones, which combine, e.g., communication and mobile multimedia features, store increasing amount of media content and so they face content management challenges similar to what desktop computers are experiencing. Content management refers to actions performed on content (e.g., capture image,

  4. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga. (United States)

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter


    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.

  5. Refining and validating the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale. (United States)

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G; McCabe, Randi E; Rowa, Karen; Antony, Martin M


    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale are companion measures for assessing symptoms of social anxiety and social phobia. The scales have good reliability and validity across several samples, however, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have yielded solutions comprising substantially different item content and factor structures. These discrepancies are likely the result of analyzing items from each scale separately or simultaneously. The current investigation sets out to assess items from those scales, both simultaneously and separately, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in an effort to resolve the factor structure. Participants consisted of a clinical sample (n 5353; 54% women) and an undergraduate sample (n 5317; 75% women) who completed the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale, along with additional fear-related measures to assess convergent and discriminant validity. A three-factor solution with a reduced set of items was found to be most stable, irrespective of whether the items from each scale are assessed together or separately. Items from the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale represented one factor, whereas items from the Social Phobia Scale represented two other factors. Initial support for scale and factor validity, along with implications and recommendations for future research, is provided. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Construction and content validation of the scale of predisposition to the occurrence of adverse events Construcción y validación de contenido de la escala de la predisposición a eventos adversos Construção e validação de conteúdo da escala de predisposição à ocorrência de eventos adversos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mendes Lobão


    Full Text Available This study aimed to present the results of the construction and content validation of the Scale of Predisposition for the Occurrence of Adverse Events (EPEA. A descriptive research with a qualitative approach was carried out. To study the quality of nursing care and design the scale, we performed a literature review that resulted in a preliminary instrument, composed of 90 items, divided into two dimensions to assess the quality of health care (structure and process. Expert analysis and semantic analysis were applied as techniques to study the content validity of the instrument. The findings indicate that the operational version of the EPEA was composed of 64 items, grouped into two dimensions: structure (18 items and process (46 items. The EPEA is the first Brazilian measure constructed to assess the nurses' attitudes towards the factors that may predispose to the occurrence of adverse events in ICU.Este estudio objetivó presentar los resultados de la construcción y validación de contenido de la Escala de Predisposición a Eventos Adversos (EPEA. Se trata de una investigación descriptiva, bajo enfoque cualitativo. Para estudiar la calidad del cuidado y preparación del instrumento, se realizó una revisión de la literatura, que resultó en un instrumento preliminar que contiene 90 ítems, divididos en dos dimensiones para evaluar la calidad del cuidado de salud (estructura y proceso. Se realizó la validación del contenido del instrumento por medio de las técnicas de análisis de los jueces y semántico. A partir de este análisis, la EPEA se compone de 64 ítems, agrupados en dos dimensiones: la estructura (18 ítems y el proceso (46 ítems. La EPEA es la primera medida nacional, construida para evaluar las actitudes de los enfermeros a los factores que pueden predisponer a la aparición de efectos adversos en la UTI.Neste estudo o objetivo foi apresentar os resultados da construção e validação de conteúdo da Escala de Predisposi

  7. Proactive and Reactive Composite Scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.


    The purpose of this study was to construct composite scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) from the PICTS thinking style, factor, and content scales designed to provide general estimates of criminal thinking. The Entitlement thinking style scale, Self-Assertion/Deception factor scale, and Historical content…

  8. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee. (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J


    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  9. Measuring ash content of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.


    An apparatus for measuring the ash content of coal is claimed. It comprises a means for irradiating a known quantity of coal in a transport container with a known dose of neutrons, a means for detecting γ-rays having a predetermined energy emitted by the irradiated coal, the γ-rays being indicative of the presence of an ash-forming element in the coal, a means for producing a signal related to the intensity of the γ-ray emission and a means responsive to the signal to provide an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming element in the coal

  10. System of HPC content archiving (United States)

    Bogdanov, A.; Ivashchenko, A.


    This work is aimed to develop a system, that will effectively solve the problem of storing and analyzing files containing text data, by using modern software development tools, techniques and approaches. The main challenge of storing a large number of text documents defined at the problem formulation stage, have to be resolved with such functionality as full text search and document clustering depends on their contents. Main system features could be described with notions of distributed multilevel architecture, flexibility and interchangeability of components, achieved through the standard functionality incapsulation in independent executable modules.

  11. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties (United States)

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret


    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  12. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product (United States)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.


    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  13. Development of emotional stability scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi


    Full Text Available Background: Emotional stability remains the central theme in personality studies. The concept of stable emotional behavior at any level is that which reflects the fruits of normal emotional development. The study aims at development of an emotional stability scale. Materials and Methods: Based on available literature the components of emotional stability were identified and 250 items were developed, covering each component. Two-stage elimination of items was carried out, i.e. through judges′ opinions and item analysis. Results: Fifty items with highest ′t′ values covering 5 dimensions of emotional stability viz pessimism vs. optimism, anxiety vs. calm, aggression vs. tolerance., dependence vs. autonomy., apathy vs. empathy were retained in the final scale. Reliability as checked by Cronbach′s alpha was .81 and by split half method it was .79. Content validity and construct validity were checked. Norms are given in the form of cumulative percentages. Conclusion: Based on the psychometric principles a 50 item, self-administered 5 point Lickert type rating scale was developed for measurement of emotional stability.

  14. Multiscale Bayesian neural networks for soil water content estimation (United States)

    Jana, Raghavendra B.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Springer, Everett P.


    Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been used for some time now to estimate soil hydraulic parameters from other available or more easily measurable soil properties. However, most such uses of ANNs as pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been at matching spatial scales (1:1) of inputs and outputs. This approach assumes that the outputs are only required at the same scale as the input data. Unfortunately, this is rarely true. Different hydrologic, hydroclimatic, and contaminant transport models require soil hydraulic parameter data at different spatial scales, depending upon their grid sizes. While conventional (deterministic) ANNs have been traditionally used in these studies, the use of Bayesian training of ANNs is a more recent development. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian framework to derive soil water retention function including its uncertainty at the point or local scale using PTFs trained with coarser-scale Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO)-based soil data. The approach includes an ANN trained with Bayesian techniques as a PTF tool with training and validation data collected across spatial extents (scales) in two different regions in the United States. The two study areas include the Las Cruces Trench site in the Rio Grande basin of New Mexico, and the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) hydrology experimental region in Oklahoma. Each region-specific Bayesian ANN is trained using soil texture and bulk density data from the SSURGO database (scale 1:24,000), and predictions of the soil water contents at different pressure heads with point scale data (1:1) inputs are made. The resulting outputs are corrected for bias using both linear and nonlinear correction techniques. The results show good agreement between the soil water content values measured at the point scale and those predicted by the Bayesian ANN-based PTFs for both the study sites. Overall, Bayesian ANNs coupled with nonlinear bias correction are found to be very suitable tools for deriving soil

  15. Content-Aware Scalability-Type Selection for Rate Adaptation of Scalable Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekalp A Murat


    Full Text Available Scalable video coders provide different scaling options, such as temporal, spatial, and SNR scalabilities, where rate reduction by discarding enhancement layers of different scalability-type results in different kinds and/or levels of visual distortion depend on the content and bitrate. This dependency between scalability type, video content, and bitrate is not well investigated in the literature. To this effect, we first propose an objective function that quantifies flatness, blockiness, blurriness, and temporal jerkiness artifacts caused by rate reduction by spatial size, frame rate, and quantization parameter scaling. Next, the weights of this objective function are determined for different content (shot types and different bitrates using a training procedure with subjective evaluation. Finally, a method is proposed for choosing the best scaling type for each temporal segment that results in minimum visual distortion according to this objective function given the content type of temporal segments. Two subjective tests have been performed to validate the proposed procedure for content-aware selection of the best scalability type on soccer videos. Soccer videos scaled from 600 kbps to 100 kbps by the proposed content-aware selection of scalability type have been found visually superior to those that are scaled using a single scalability option over the whole sequence.

  16. Atlantic Salmon Scale Measurements (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scales are collected annually from smolt trapping operations in Maine as wellas other sampling opportunities (e.g. marine surveys, fishery sampling etc.). Scale...

  17. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  18. Content of system design descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all the attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective

  19. Concepts of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padt, F.J.G.; Arts, B.J.M.


    This chapter provides some clarity to the scale debate. It bridges a variety of approaches, definitions and jargons used in various disciplines in order to provide common ground for a concept of scale as a basis for scale-sensitive governance of the environment. The chapter introduces the concept of

  20. Relationship between atmospheric ammonia concentration and nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Strandberg, Morten Tune


    From April 2006 to April 2007, the geographical and seasonal variation in nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa) and atmospheric ammonia concentrations were measured at five heathland sites. The seasonal variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was small, even though...... there was a large seasonal variation in the air concentration of ammonia. A sizable local variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was found even at the scale of a few kilometres. The nitrogen content in the lichen showed a high correlation to the yearly mean value of the measured ammonia concentration...

  1. Content provision and multi-homing


    Pires, Armando J. Garcia


    We analyze the effects of multi-homing consumers on content provision by media firms. We develop a model where media firms compete on content provision and advertising revenues, and consumers enjoy network effects from consuming content that other consumers also consume. Media firms have to choose if they are single-content or multi-content, and in the latter case how much content to offer. Competition for advertising revenues gives a two-sided market nature to our model, since advertisers pr...

  2. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of a...

  3. Optimal renormalization scales and commensurate scale relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lu, H.J.


    Commensurate scale relations relate observables to observables and thus are independent of theoretical conventions, such as the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme. The physical quantities are related at commensurate scales which satisfy a transitivity rule which ensures that predictions are independent of the choice of an intermediate renormalization scheme. QCD can thus be tested in a new and precise way by checking that the observables track both in their relative normalization and in their commensurate scale dependence. For example, the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule at a given momentum transfer Q can be predicted from measurements of the e+e - annihilation cross section at a corresponding commensurate energy scale √s ∝ Q, thus generalizing Crewther's relation to non-conformal QCD. The coefficients that appear in this perturbative expansion take the form of a simple geometric series and thus have no renormalon divergent behavior. The authors also discuss scale-fixed relations between the threshold corrections to the heavy quark production cross section in e+e - annihilation and the heavy quark coupling α V which is measurable in lattice gauge theory

  4. Tie Content in Professional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarzecka, Olga

    in resource exchanges and the effect of these differences on the number of, and extent to which, resources are provided by a network tie. Chapter 3 explores how firm underperfomance and social identity with corporate elite alter types of resources a network tie provides. Chapter 4 focuses on a tie’s internal......Professional networks of senior managers have indisputable value for them as well as for their organizations. In recent years, much attention has been given to the structure of these networks as it reflects senior managers’ opportunity to access valuable resources. Surprisingly, the actual...... resources that senior managers acquire through their network ties, i.e. the tie content, remain heavily understudied. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation is to answer the following question: What resources flow through informal ties in senior managers’ professional networks, and why? The first chapter...

  5. Information content of poisson images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, J.


    One major problem when producing images with the aid of Poisson distributed quanta is how best to compromise between spatial and contrast resolution. Increasing the number of image elements improves spatial resolution, but at the cost of fewer quanta per image element, which reduces contrast resolution. Information theory arguments are used to analyse this problem. It is argued that information capacity is a useful concept to describe an important property of the imaging device, but that in order to compute the information content of an image produced by this device some statistical properties (such as the a priori probability of the densities) of the object to be depicted must be taken into account. If these statistical properties are not known one cannot make a correct choice between spatial and contrast resolution. (author)

  6. Characteristics and contents of dreams. (United States)

    Schredl, Michael


    Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. After presenting the definition of dreaming and the methodological tools of dream research, the major findings regarding the phenomenology of dreaming and the factors influencing dream content are briefly reviewed. The so-called continuity hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams. Dreams also have an effect on subsequent waking life, e.g., on daytime mood and creativity. The question about the functions of dreaming is still unanswered and open to future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R


    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  8. Psychoactive drug advertising: content analysis. (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Vaz, Amanda Cristina R; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F


    The goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content analysis for 86 new pieces of printed advertisements released in 2005 was carried out. Fisher exact test was used to analyze the association between categories. There was a preponderance of women (62.8%) who were four times more present in advertisements for antidepressants and anxyolitics than men. Most of the people shown were Caucasian (98.8%) young adults (72%). These people were pictured in leisure activities (46.5%), at home (29%), or in contact with nature (16.2%). The message conveyed was that the drugs treat routinely felt subjective symptoms of discomfort, inducing in an irrational appeal that may affect drug prescription.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kushnir


    Full Text Available The tasks of integrative content requires the use of knowledge and skills on various themes both one discipline and different disciplines. Mostly in the classroom (or in homework the tasks on the properties absorption of different concepts using different theories are considered. Thus knowledge within only one discipline is formed, knowledge of the narrow sense (one subject. Such knowledge is "prescriptional", we call it idealized. After all, it is far from models of the real professional problems and problems of life in general, in order to solve them it is necessary to apply knowledge and skills acquired in different themes of the same objects,life experience. Practical formation of integrative knowledge requires statement of the educational problems before the subjects of studying, the problems within the "narrow objectivity" can not be resolved at all, or such kind of solving is too difficult to solve, for example, the nature and the context of solving problems (scientific approaches to solving problems, creating mathematical models, methods for solving such models, means of solving, application of methods, analysis of the models solution and the right choice, the inspection of solutions, etc. will sink in the conglomeration of technical operations. The problems with integrative content are usually more complicated than the problems of "narrow objectivity." In our problems the index of such difficulty is the essence of educational content, which is disclosed in the previous paragraph. The problems solution proposed in this article requires knowledge of the structural geometry (circle construction, touching two or three laps: with analytic geometry (method of coordinates on the plane; the distance between two points on the coordinate plane; algebra (system drawing irrational equations, method for solving such system, the solution of the system, analysis of the results and the right choose of the desired solution for found criterion, testing

  10. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker


    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  11. Scaling of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter


    The book serves both as a reference for various scaled models with corresponding dimensionless numbers, and as a resource for learning the art of scaling. A special feature of the book is the emphasis on how to create software for scaled models, based on existing software for unscaled models. Scaling (or non-dimensionalization) is a mathematical technique that greatly simplifies the setting of input parameters in numerical simulations. Moreover, scaling enhances the understanding of how different physical processes interact in a differential equation model. Compared to the existing literature, where the topic of scaling is frequently encountered, but very often in only a brief and shallow setting, the present book gives much more thorough explanations of how to reason about finding the right scales. This process is highly problem dependent, and therefore the book features a lot of worked examples, from very simple ODEs to systems of PDEs, especially from fluid mechanics. The text is easily accessible and exam...

  12. Small scale models equal large scale savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Segroves, R.


    A physical scale model of a reactor is a tool which can be used to reduce the time spent by workers in the containment during an outage and thus to reduce the radiation dose and save money. The model can be used for worker orientation, and for planning maintenance, modifications, manpower deployment and outage activities. Examples of the use of models are presented. These were for the La Salle 2 and Dresden 1 and 2 BWRs. In each case cost-effectiveness and exposure reduction due to the use of a scale model is demonstrated. (UK)

  13. Ash content of lignites - radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Thuemmel, H.W.


    The quality of lignites is governed by the ash content varying in dependence upon the geologic conditions. Setup and function of the radiometric devices being used for ash content analysis in the GDR are briefly described

  14. Variations and determinants of carbon content in plants: a global synthesis (United States)

    Ma, Suhui; He, Feng; Tian, Di; Zou, Dongting; Yan, Zhengbing; Yang, Yulong; Zhou, Tiancheng; Huang, Kaiyue; Shen, Haihua; Fang, Jingyun


    Plant carbon (C) content is one of the most important plant traits and is critical to the assessment of global C cycle and ecological stoichiometry; however, the global variations in plant C content remain poorly understood. In this study, we conducted a global analysis of the plant C content by synthesizing data from 4318 species to document specific values and their variation of the C content across plant organs and life forms. Plant organ C contents ranged from 45.0 % in reproductive organs to 47.9 % in stems at global scales, which were significantly lower than the widely employed canonical value of 50 %. Plant C content in leaves (global mean of 46.9 %) was higher than that in roots (45.6 %). Across life forms, woody plants exhibited higher C content than herbaceous plants. Conifers, relative to broad-leaved woody species, had higher C content in roots, leaves, and stems. Plant C content tended to show a decrease with increasing latitude. The life form explained more variation of the C content than climate. Our findings suggest that specific C content values of different organs and life forms developed in our study should be incorporated into the estimations of regional and global vegetation biomass C stocks.

  15. Variations and determinants of carbon content in plants: a global synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ma


    Full Text Available Plant carbon (C content is one of the most important plant traits and is critical to the assessment of global C cycle and ecological stoichiometry; however, the global variations in plant C content remain poorly understood. In this study, we conducted a global analysis of the plant C content by synthesizing data from 4318 species to document specific values and their variation of the C content across plant organs and life forms. Plant organ C contents ranged from 45.0 % in reproductive organs to 47.9 % in stems at global scales, which were significantly lower than the widely employed canonical value of 50 %. Plant C content in leaves (global mean of 46.9 % was higher than that in roots (45.6 %. Across life forms, woody plants exhibited higher C content than herbaceous plants. Conifers, relative to broad-leaved woody species, had higher C content in roots, leaves, and stems. Plant C content tended to show a decrease with increasing latitude. The life form explained more variation of the C content than climate. Our findings suggest that specific C content values of different organs and life forms developed in our study should be incorporated into the estimations of regional and global vegetation biomass C stocks.

  16. Digital piracy management in creative content industry


    Akulavičius, Marius


    The present habits of digital content consumption and a rather easy access to illegal creative content reduce the opportunities to limit digital piracy by banning or invoking legislation. such a context of the creative content industry results in the need to search for new business models that would encourage users to voluntarily switch from illegal to legal products of the creative content industry, rather than simply banning them from using the illegal ones. iIn order to determine which bus...

  17. Image Retargeting by Content-Aware Synthesis


    Dong, Weiming; Wu, Fuzhang; Kong, Yan; Mei, Xing; Lee, Tong-Yee; Zhang, Xiaopeng


    Real-world images usually contain vivid contents and rich textural details, which will complicate the manipulation on them. In this paper, we design a new framework based on content-aware synthesis to enhance content-aware image retargeting. By detecting the textural regions in an image, the textural image content can be synthesized rather than simply distorted or cropped. This method enables the manipulation of textural & non-textural regions with different strategy since they have different...

  18. Pilot-scale gasification of woody biomass (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom


    The gasification of pine and mixed-hardwood chips has been carried out in a pilot-scale system at a range of gas flow rates. Consuming ~17-30 kgh-1 of feedstock, the producer gas was composed of ~200 dm3 m-3 carbon monoxide, 12 dm3 m-3 carbon dioxide, 30 dm3 m-3 methane and 190 dm3 m-3 hydrogen, with an energy content of ~6 MJ m-3 for both feedstocks. It was found that...

  19. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences (United States)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  20. [Contents of total flavonoids in Rhizoma Arisaematis]. (United States)

    Du, S S; Lin, H Y; Zhou, Y X; Wei, L X


    Comparing the contents of total flavonoides of Rhizoma Arisaematis, which collected in different time, regions, different varieties and processed. Determining the contents by ultraviolet spectro-photometry. The contents were found in the following sequence: 1. the end of July, the begin of July, August, September; 2. Beijing, Shanxi, Sichuan, Anhui; 3. Arisaema erubenscens, A. heterophyllum, A. amurense; 4. unprocessed product, processed product.

  1. Enterprise Content Buying--The New Landscape (United States)

    Noorlander, Bill


    Content is both a key ingredient for business and a major expense. Market research shows that the investment in content and data is generally one of the top expense items within a firm. For some firms, within the financial industry, for example, content costs are the second or third level of expense behind the cost of employees. While there has…

  2. Content Area Literacy in the Mathematics Classroom (United States)

    Armstrong, Abbigail; Ming, Kavin; Helf, Shawnna


    Content area literacy has an important role in helping students understand content in specific disciplines, such as mathematics. Although the strategies are not unique to each individual content area, they are often adapted for use in a specific discipline. For example, mathematicians use mathematical language to make sense of new ideas and…

  3. Enabling DRM-preserving Digital content Redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan Nair, S.; Popescu, B.C.; Gamage, C.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.


    Traditionally, the process of online digital content distribution has involved a limited number of centralised distributors selling protected contents and licenses authorising the use of the se contents, to consumers. In this paper, we extend this model by introducing a security scheme that enables

  4. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.


    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  5. On the analysis of human mobility model for content broadcasting in 5G networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong


    Today\\'s mobile service providers aim at ensuring end-to-end performance guarantees. Hence, ensuring an efficient content delivery to end users is highly required. Currently, transmitting popular contents in modern mobile networks rely on unicast transmission. This result into a huge underutilization of the wireless bandwidth. The urban scale mobility of users is beneficial for mobile networks to allocate radio resources spatially and temporally for broadcasting contents. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive analysis on a human activity/mobility model and the content broadcasting system in 5G mobile networks. The objective of this work is to describe how human daily activities could improve the content broadcasting efficiency. We achieve the objective by analyzing the transition probabilities of a user traveling over several places according to the change of states of daily human activities. Using a reallife simulation, we demonstrate the relationship between the human mobility and the optimization objective of the content broadcasting system.

  6. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii]. (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao


    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  7. Using wound care algorithms: a content validation study. (United States)

    Beitz, J M; van Rijswijk, L


    Valid and reliable heuristic devices facilitating optimal wound care are lacking. The objectives of this study were to establish content validation data for a set of wound care algorithms, to identify their associated strengths and weaknesses, and to gain insight into the wound care decision-making process. Forty-four registered nurse wound care experts were surveyed and interviewed at national and regional educational meetings. Using a cross-sectional study design and an 83-item, 4-point Likert-type scale, this purposive sample was asked to quantify the degree of validity of the algorithms' decisions and components. Participants' comments were tape-recorded, transcribed, and themes were derived. On a scale of 1 to 4, the mean score of the entire instrument was 3.47 (SD +/- 0.87), the instrument's Content Validity Index was 0.86, and the individual Content Validity Index of 34 of 44 participants was > 0.8. Item scores were lower for those related to packing deep wounds (P valid and reliable definitions. The wound care algorithms studied proved valid. However, the lack of valid and reliable wound assessment and care definitions hinders optimal use of these instruments. Further research documenting their clinical use is warranted. Research-based practice recommendations should direct the development of future valid and reliable algorithms designed to help nurses provide optimal wound care.

  8. Chiral symmetry breaking and the spin content of hadrons (United States)

    Glozman, L. Ya.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, M.


    From the parton distributions in the infinite momentum frame, one finds that only about 30% of the nucleon spin is carried by spins of the valence quarks, which gave rise to the term “spin crisis”. Similar results hold for the lowest mesons, as it follows from the lattice simulations. We define the spin content of a meson in the rest frame and use a complete and orthogonal q¯q chiral basis and a unitary transformation from the chiral basis to the 2LJ basis. Then, given a mixture of different allowed chiral representations in the meson wave function at a given resolution scale, one can obtain its spin content at this scale. To obtain the mixture of the chiral representations in the meson, we measure in dynamical lattice simulations a ratio of couplings of interpolators with different chiral structure. For the ρ meson, we obtain practically the 3S1 state with no trace of the spin crisis. Then a natural question arises: which definition does reflect the spin content of a hadron?

  9. Scale of Critical Thinking


    Semerci, Nuriye


    The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90.

  10. Retail Executives’ Professional Learning Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aquino Lucena


    Full Text Available The research question that is addressed in this article is the following: what do the executives from small retailing firms learn in their work environment? The theoretical framework of the study is based on texts from the field of learning. This is a qualitative investigation. Ten interviews with clothing retail executives were carried out. Later, these interviews were transcribed and analyzed. In the data analysis stage, two categories were established in response to the research question. Regarding the first, respondents perceived difficulties (problems in their work environments and obtained specific information and knowledge in order to deal with these situations. So as to overcome different professional difficulties, respondents learned about colors and types of fabric and about certain manufacturing process aspects referring to the clothing sold by their companies. They also declared to have learned about their companies’ suppliers and about certain issues referring to sales, and to the accounting and the financial management of their companies. The second category refers to a change in some of the respondents’ habits. This learning content refers to predispositions to respond and/ or act in situations at their work environments. Respondents reported having changed the way they related to other people. They emphasized that they had learned how to interact with the employees at their stores and how to carry out supervision. Differently from other studies, we found that the retailers’ learning (individual learning affected their companies’ learning (organizational learning through changes in certain aspects of the analyzed companies’ organizational structures.

  11. The content of compound conditioning. (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Andrew, Benjamin J; Livesey, Evan J


    In three experiments using Pavlovian conditioning of magazine approach, rats were trained with a compound stimulus, AB, and were concurrently trained with stimulus B on its own. The reinforcement rate of B, rB, was either 1/2, 2/3, or 2/5 of rAB. After extended training, the conditioning strength of A was assessed using probe trials in which A was presented alone. Responding during A was compared with that during AB, B, and a third stimulus, C, for which rC = rAB - rB. In each experiment, the rats' response rate during A was almost identical to that during C (and during B, when rB = 1/2rAB). This suggests that, during AB conditioning, the rats had learned about rA as being equal to [rAB - rB], and implies that the content of their learning was a linear function of r. The findings provide strong support for rate-based models of conditioning (e.g., Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000). They are also consistent with the associative account of learning defined in the Rescorla and Wagner (1972) model, but only if the learning rate during reinforcement equals that during nonreinforcement. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Development and psychometric evaluation of supportive leadership scales. (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S


    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of 2 supportive leadership scales, the Charge Nurse Support Scale and the Unit Manager Support Scale, designed for long-term-care environments. These 6-item self-report scales were administered to 70 nursing staff and their internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity, factor structure, and construct validity investigated. Content validity was established with the assistance of experts. Both scales were deemed reliable. As hypothesized, a significant relationship was found between the measure of how nursing staff related to residents and measures of charge nurses' supportive behaviours (r = .42, p = .05). Reliable and valid measures of supportive leadership could be developed for use in identifying the quality of support provided to staff in long-term-care environments.

  13. An emerging role: the nurse content curator. (United States)

    Brooks, Beth A


    A new phenomenon, the inverted or "flipped" classroom, assumes that students are no longer acquiring knowledge exclusively through textbooks or lectures. Instead, they are seeking out the vast amount of free information available to them online (the very essence of open source) to supplement learning gleaned in textbooks and lectures. With so much open-source content available to nursing faculty, it benefits the faculty to use readily available, technologically advanced content. The nurse content curator supports nursing faculty in its use of such content. Even more importantly, the highly paid, time-strapped faculty is not spending an inordinate amount of effort surfing for and evaluating content. The nurse content curator does that work, while the faculty uses its time more effectively to help students vet the truth, make meaning of the content, and learn to problem-solve. Brooks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Plasma catecholamine content using radioenzymatic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Masaru; Togashi, Hiroko; Koike, Yuichi; Shimamura, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Noriko


    Catecholamine (CA) contents in blood plasma of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and human blood plasma were measured by radioenzymatic assay (REA) and trihydroxyindol (THI) fluorescent method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and both measurement methods were compared. The standard curve of REA showed a good linear relationship between total CA contents and separated CA contents. Though there was a danger of exposure to β-ray when REA was performed, this method was useful for measurement of CA contents in blood of small animals and small quantity of blood because CA content of only 50 μg of blood plasma could be measured by this method. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) contents in men with normal blood pressure measured by REA was 250 +- 61 pg/ml and 37 +- 22 pg/ml, respectively. NE and E contents in patients with mild hypertension were 460 +- 128 pg/ml and 50 +- 20 pg/ml, respectively. There was not a significant difference between NE and E contents in men with normal blood pressure and those in patients with mild hypertension. Total CA content in blood plasma of SHR killed by decapitation was 5,000 +- 1,131 pg/ml, which was 5 times NE and E contents in blood plasma obtained from femoral vein of anesthetized SHR (816 +- 215 pg/ml and 209 +- 44 pg/ml). Total CA content in the same sample was measured by REA and HPLC. As a result, total CA content measured by REA was higher than that measured by HPLC, but there was a good relationship between total CA content measured by REA and that measured by HPLC. NE content in men with normal blood pressure measured by HPLC was elevated significantly according to an increase in their age, but this tendency was not observed in patients with hypertension. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Procedural Content Generation for Real-Time Strategy Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Lara-Cabrera


    Full Text Available Videogames are one of the most important and profitable sectors in the industry of entertainment. Nowadays, the creation of a videogame is often a large-scale endeavor and bears many similarities with, e.g., movie production. On the central tasks in the development of a videogame is content generation, namely the definition of maps, terrains, non-player characters (NPCs and other graphical, musical and AI-related components of the game. Such generation is costly due to its complexity, the great amount of work required and the need of specialized manpower. Hence the relevance of optimizing the process and alleviating costs. In this sense, procedural content generation (PCG comes in handy as a means of reducing costs by using algorithmic techniques to automatically generate some game contents. PCG also provides advantages in terms of player experience since the contents generated are typically not fixed but can vary in different playing sessions, and can even adapt to the player herself. For this purpose, the underlying algorithmic technique used for PCG must be also flexible and adaptable. This is the case of computational intelligence in general and evolutionary algorithms in particular. In this work we shall provide an overview of the use of evolutionary intelligence for PCG, with special emphasis on its use within the context of real-time strategy games. We shall show how these techniques can address both playability and aesthetics, as well as improving the game AI.

  16. Mercury content in fish from newly impounded reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, K.


    During the seventies elevated mercury content in fish was observed in newly created reservoirs although background levels were normal. The initial rise of reservoir mercury levels is probably caused by the dramatically increased amount of organic matter originating from flooded top-soil and vegetation. Mercury is introduced in the food-chain by methylating bacteria that utilize the surplus of organic matter. This microbial methylation is probably also favoured by reductions in oxygen content and pH that accompanies the decomposition of organic material. It is difficult to make reliable estimates of the duration and maximum levels of the elevated mercury levels since the end result is affected by several biological and chemical processes in combination. Variations may occur on the basis of the type and amount of flooded organic and inorganic material, water chemistry, specific combination of fish and residence time of reservoir water. All available preventive and ameliorating measures are untried in reservoir water bodies, at least in large scale experiments. Vegetation and top-soil stripping could be efficient but also very costly. Liming is a possible method in cases of ongoing or expected acidification. Addition of selenium is a potentially powerful way of lowering the mercury content in fish and this method is well suited to neutral water bodies. Large reductions in fish mercury content have been documented, but since selenium also has been shown to have strong negative effects on biota this method is not yet recommended. (57 refs.)

  17. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show......This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...

  18. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo


    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  19. Pre-Kindergarten Scale. (United States)

    Flynn, Tim

    This 25-item scale for rating prekindergarten children concerns personal and cognitive skills. Directions for using the scale are provided. Personal skills include personal hygiene, communication skills, eating habits, relationships with the teacher, peer relations, and personal behavior. Cognitive skills rated are verbal skills, object…

  20. Scales of Progress (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann


    What is Goal Attainment Scaling? In this article, Lee Ann Jung defines it as a way to measure a student's progress toward an individualized goal. Instead of measuring a skill at a set time (for instance, on a test or other assignment), Goal Attainment Scaling tracks the steps a student takes over the course of a year in a targeted skill. Together,…

  1. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.


    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  2. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  3. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  4. Scales and erosion (United States)

    There is a need to develop scale explicit understanding of erosion to overcome existing conceptual and methodological flaws in our modelling methods currently applied to understand the process of erosion, transport and deposition at the catchment scale. These models need to be based on a sound under...

  5. A Comparison of Selected Supervisory Skills of Content Specialist and Non-Content Specialist University Supervisors (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin; Mitchell, Murray; Maina, Michael; Griffin, Lisa


    The purpose of this study was to describe and contrast selected approaches to the supervision of student teachers between Content Specialist and Non-Content Specialist university supervisors. Content Specialist supervisors were identified as trained university supervisors with a background in physical education. Non-Content Specialist supervisors…

  6. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.


    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  7. Adolescent judgment of sexual content on television: implications for future content analysis research. (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A; Henderson, Vani R; Jordan, Amy; Trentacoste, Nicole; Martin, Suzanne; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin


    Many studies of sexual messages in media utilize content analysis methods. At times, this research assumes that researchers and trained coders using content analysis methods and the intended audience view and interpret media content similarly. This article compares adolescents' perceptions of the presence or absence of sexual content on television to those of researchers using three different coding schemes. Results from this formative research study suggest that participants and researchers are most likely to agree with content categories assessing manifest content, and that differences exist among adolescents who view sexual messages on television. Researchers using content analysis methods to examine sexual content in media and media effects on sexual behavior should consider identifying how audience characteristics may affect interpretation of content and account for audience perspectives in content analysis study protocols when appropriate for study goals.

  8. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, Mark D.; Williams, Mark L.; Bowman, Stephen M.


    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  9. The effects of moisture content, particle size and binding agent content on oil palm shell pellet quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arzola


    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy represents a challenge for the oil palm industry worldwide. Bio-pellet production is an alternative way of adding value to oil palm biomass. This would mean that a product having major energy density becomes more mechanically stable and achieves better performance during combustion. This paper deals with oil palm shell pelleting; using binding agents having up to 25% mass keeping average particle size less than 1mm and moisture content up to 18.7% (d.b. were evaluated. An experimental factorial design used binding agent mass percentage, milled shell particle size and moisture content as factors. Pellet density response surfaces and durability index were obtained. Pellet performance during thermal-chemical transformation was also evaluated by using thermogravimetry equipment. The results led to technical evaluation of scale-up at industrial production level.

  10. Radiation absorption, water content and contrast medium impregnation of gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.G.H.


    Gallstones extracted by surgery were examined for CT density, which was compared with the X-ray film, floating performance and chemical analysis of the stones. So far, the water content of the biliary concrements - 14% on the average - has not been given much attention. Drying will considerably reduce the density; examination of the dried gallstones yields a false picture of direct ray absorption. Pure cholesterol stones do not float in water, and they show positive values on Hounsfield's scale (+30 - +60). The article discusses the question whether CT is suitable for effecting a better selection of gallstone patients who can be treated by drug therapy. (orig.) [de

  11. BioModels: Content, Features, Functionality, and Use (United States)

    Juty, N; Ali, R; Glont, M; Keating, S; Rodriguez, N; Swat, MJ; Wimalaratne, SM; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N; Laibe, C; Chelliah, V


    BioModels is a reference repository hosting mathematical models that describe the dynamic interactions of biological components at various scales. The resource provides access to over 1,200 models described in literature and over 140,000 models automatically generated from pathway resources. Most model components are cross-linked with external resources to facilitate interoperability. A large proportion of models are manually curated to ensure reproducibility of simulation results. This tutorial presents BioModels' content, features, functionality, and usage. PMID:26225232

  12. Analytical solution of a stochastic content-based network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungan, Muhittin; Kabakoglu, Alkan; Balcan, Duygu; Erzan, Ayse


    We define and completely solve a content-based directed network whose nodes consist of random words and an adjacency rule involving perfect or approximate matches for an alphabet with an arbitrary number of letters. The analytic expression for the out-degree distribution shows a crossover from a leading power law behaviour to a log-periodic regime bounded by a different power law decay. The leading exponents in the two regions have a weak dependence on the mean word length, and an even weaker dependence on the alphabet size. The in-degree distribution, on the other hand, is much narrower and does not show any scaling behaviour

  13. What Makes a Message Stick? The Role of Content and Context in Social Media Epidemics (United States)


    First, we propose visual memes , or frequently re-posted short video segments, for detecting and monitoring latent video interactions at scale. Content...interactions (such as quoting, or remixing, parts of a video). Visual memes are extracted by scalable detection algorithms that we develop, with...high accuracy. We further augment visual memes with text, via a statistical model of latent topics. We model content interactions on YouTube with

  14. Allometric Scaling in Biology (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth


    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  15. Monitoring water content in Opalinus Clay within the FE-Experiment: Test application of dielectric water content sensors (United States)

    Sakaki, T.; Vogt, T.; Komatsu, M.; Müller, H. R.


    The spatiotemporal variation of water content in the near field rock around repository tunnels for radioactive waste in clay formations is one of the essential quantities to be monitored for safety assessment in many waste disposal programs. Reliable measurements of water content are important not only for the understanding and prediction of coupled hydraulic-mechanic processes that occur during tunnel construction and ventilation phase, but also for the understanding of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes that take place in the host rock during the post closure phase of a repository tunnel for spent fuel and high level radioactive waste (SF/HLW). The host rock of the Swiss disposal concept for SF/HLW is the Opalinus Clay formation (age of approx. 175 Million years). To better understand the THM effects in a full-scale heater-engineered barrier-rock system in Opalinus Clay, a full-scale heater test, namely the Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) experiment, was initiated in 2010 at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in north-western Switzerland. The experiment is designed to simulate the THM evolution of a SF/HLW repository tunnel based on the Swiss disposal concept in a realistic manner during the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure phases. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors. The sensors will be distributed in the host rock, the tunnel lining, the engineered barrier, which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks, and on the heaters. The excavation is completed and the tunnel is currently being ventilated. Measuring water content in partially saturated clay-rich high-salinity rock with a deformable grain skeleton is challenging. Therefore, we use the ventilation phase (before backfilling and heating) to examine the applicability of commercial water content sensors and to

  16. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis


    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  17. Launching platforms for user-generated content


    Batista, Guilherme Luís Caroço


    Field lab: Entrepreneurial and innovative ventures This paper intends to discuss and absorb the Best Practices employed by successful User- Generated Content (UGC)1 platforms and constitute a guide on how to launch a platform without having a cyclical lack of content and users. Research shows that companies have resorted to integration with mature UGC platforms, and providing content by themselves, in an initial state. I conclude that integration possibilities should be explore...

  18. Quantification of Fluorine Content in AFFF Concentrates (United States)


    for MilSpec compliance. Fluorocarbon surfactants are the most active components in these concentrates, and analysis of the fluorine content in the... physical requirements for AFFF concentrates includes a total fluorine content determination and a requirement for subsequent evaluations of this AFFF...the standard for fluorine content as well as the reference for chemical shift. For preparation of an NMR solution, it is important that the TFE

  19. Automated microscopy for high-content RNAi screening (United States)


    Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most powerful tools to investigate complex cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, or intracellular trafficking. The availability of RNA interference (RNAi) technology and automated microscopy has opened the possibility to perform cellular imaging in functional genomics and other large-scale applications. Although imaging often dramatically increases the content of a screening assay, it poses new challenges to achieve accurate quantitative annotation and therefore needs to be carefully adjusted to the specific needs of individual screening applications. In this review, we discuss principles of assay design, large-scale RNAi, microscope automation, and computational data analysis. We highlight strategies for imaging-based RNAi screening adapted to different library and assay designs. PMID:20176920

  20. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha


    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  1. Scale-relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottale, Laurent


    The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the

  2. Nursing-care dependency : Development of an assessment scale for demented and mentally handicapped patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Buist, Girbe; Dassen, T


    This article describing the first phase in the development of an assessment scale of nursing-care dependency (NCD) for Dutch demented and mentally handicapped patients focuses on the background to the study and the content validation of the nursing-care dependency scale. The scale aims to

  3. The transformation of science and mathematics content knowledge into teaching content by university faculty (United States)

    Flynn, Natalie P.

    This study developed a survey from the existing literature in an attempt to illuminate the processes, tools, insights, and events that allow university science and mathematics content experts (Ph.D.'s) unpack their expertise in order to teach develop and teach undergraduate students. A pilot study was conducted at an urban university in order to refine the survey. The study consisted of 72 science or mathematics Ph.D. faculty members that teach at a research-based urban university. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 21 volunteer faculty to further explore their methods and tools for developing and implementing teaching within their discipline. Statistical analysis of the data revealed: faculty that taught while obtaining their Ph.D. were less confident in their ability to teach successful and faculty that received training in teaching believed that students have difficult to change misconceptions and do not commit enough time to their course. Student centered textbooks ranked the highest among tools used to gain teaching strategies followed by grading of exams and assignments for gaining insights into student knowledge and difficulties. Science and mathematics education literature and university provided education session ranked the lowest in rating scale for providing strategies for teaching. The open-ended survey questions were sub-divided and analyzed by the number of years of experience to identify the development of teaching knowledge over time and revealed that teaching became more interactive, less lecture based, and more engaging. As faculty matured and gained experience they became more aware of student misconceptions and difficulties often changing their teaching to eliminate such issues. As confidence levels increase their teaching included more technology-based tools, became more interactive, incorporated problem based activities, and became more flexible. This change occurred when and if faculty members altered their thinking about their

  4. Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of whole plant extract of Micromeria fruticosa (L) Druce ssp Serpyllifolia F Lamiaceae against Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  5. Effect of irradiation on carbohydrates content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantharasakul, S.


    Effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C and total acidity contents of Hom Tong banana was described. There was a slight decrease in vitamin C contents in both irradiated and non-irradiated banana during storage. No difference was detected in term of vitamin C contents between irradiated and non-irradiated banana at any storage time. The total acidity of the banana increased with increasing time of storage owing to the ripening effect of the fruit. Higher total acidity content of non-irradiated banana during storage indicated the faster rate of ripening of the fruit

  6. Content-Based Personalization Services Integrating Folksonomies (United States)

    Musto, Cataldo; Narducci, Fedelucio; Lops, Pasquale; de Gemmis, Marco; Semeraro, Giovanni

    Basic content-based personalization consists in matching up the attributes of a user profile, in which preferences and interests are stored, with the attributes of a content object. The Web 2.0 (r)evolution has changed the game for personalization, from ‘elitary’ Web 1.0, written by few and read by many, to web content generated by everyone (user-generated content - UGC), since the role of people has evolved from passive consumers of information to that of active contributors.

  7. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  8. Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.


    This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…

  9. Beyond KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, S.


    A generalization of the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling law of the multiplicity distributions P(n) is presented. It consists of a change in the normalization point of P(n) compensated by a suitable change in the renormalized parameters and a rescaling. The iterative repetition of the transformation yields the sequence of higher-order moment distributions of P(n). Each member of this sequence may exhibit data collapsing behavior in case of violation of the original KNO scaling hypothesis. It is shown that the iterative procedure can be viewed as varying the collision energy, i.e. the moment distributions of P(n) can represent the pattern of pre-asymptotic KNO scaling violation. The fixed points of the iteration will be determined and a consistency test based on Feynman scaling is to be given. (author)

  10. Understanding scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.


    Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model

  11. Scale-Dependent Grasp


    Kaneko, Makoto; Shirai, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Toshio


    This paper discusses the scale-dependent grasp.Suppose that a human approaches an object initially placed on atable and finally achieves an enveloping grasp. Under such initialand final conditions, he (or she) unconsciously changes the graspstrategy according to the size of objects, even though they havesimilar geometry. We call the grasp planning the scale-dependentgrasp. We find that grasp patterns are also changed according tothe surface friction and the geometry of cross section in additi...

  12. A Determination of the Charm Content of the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Bonvini, Marco; Carrazza, Stefano; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Hartland, Nathan P.; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca


    We present an unbiased determination of the charm content of the proton, in which the charm parton distribution function (PDF) is parametrized on the same footing as the light quarks and the gluon in a global PDF analysis. This determination relies on the calculation of deep-inelastic structure functions in the FONLL scheme, generalized to account for massive charm-initiated contributions. In contrast to the usual situation in which the charm PDF is assumed to be generated perturbatively by pair radiation off gluons and light quarks, vanishing at a scale set by the value of the charm mass m_c, we find that the fitted charm PDF vanishes within uncertainties at a scale Q~1.5 GeV for all x~0.1 and low scales does not vanish, but rather has an "intrinsic" component, very weakly scale dependent and almost independent of the value of m_c, carrying about 1% of the total momentum of the proton. The uncertainties in all other PDFs are only slightly increased by the inclusion of fitted charm, while the dependence of th...

  13. Content of Orthopedic Patient Education Provided by Nurses in Seven European Countries. (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas; Papastavrou, E; Valkeapää, K; Zabalegui, A; Ingadóttir, B; Lemonidou, C; Fatkulina, N; Jouko, K; Leino-Kilpi, H


    Patients' and their significant others' education during the perioperative phase is an important and challenging aspect of care. This study explored the content of education provided by nurses to arthroplasty patients and their significant others. Data were collected with the Education of Patients-NURSE content (EPNURSE-Content), Received Knowledge of Hospital Patient (RKhp), and Received Knowledge of Significant Other (RKso) scales. The results showed that the content of education emphasized biophysiological and functional needs, differed between countries, and was related to how physically demanding nurses found their job to be and the amount of education provided. There is congruence between the received knowledge of patients and their significant others in relation to the content of education provided by nurses. The findings can support nurses in developing aid material for patients and significant others explaining the nature of education and advising them what to expect and how to optimize their participation in the process.

  14. Interfaces between Model Co-W-C Alloys with Various Carbon Contents and Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Konyashin


    Full Text Available Interfaces between alloys simulating binders in WC-Co cemented carbides and tungsten carbide were examined on the micro-, nano-, and atomic-scale. The precipitation of fine WC grains and η-phase occurs at the interface of the alloy with the low carbon content. The precipitation of such grains almost does not occur in the alloy with the medium-low carbon content and does not take place in the alloy with the high carbon content. The formation of Co nanoparticles in the binder alloy with the medium-low carbon content was established. Interfaces in the alloy with the medium-low carbon content characterized by complete wetting with respect to WC and with the high carbon content characterized by incomplete wetting were examined at an atomic scale. The absence of any additional phases or carbon segregations at both of the interfaces was established. Thus, the phenomenon of incomplete wetting of WC by liquid binders with high carbon contents is presumably related to special features of the Co-based binder alloys oversaturated with carbon at sintering temperatures.

  15. Content validation of the Self-perception of Family Health Status scale using the Delphi technique Validación de contenido de la escala de autopercepción del estado de salud familiar usando la técnica Delphi Validação de conteúdo da escala de auto-percepção do estado da saúde familiar utilizando a técnica Delphi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Salvador Lima-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the content validity of the Self-perception of Family Health Status scale. METHOD: A validation study of an instrument with an online Delphi panel using the consensus technique. Eighteen experts in the subject were intentionally selected, with a multidisciplinary origin and representing different professional fields. Each of the proposed items was assessed using a five-point scale, and open-ended questions, to modify or propose items. Descriptive analysis was performed of the sample and the items, applying criteria of validation/elimination. RESULTS: The first round had a response rate of 83.3% and validated 75 of the 96 proposed items; the second had a response rate of 80%, and validated the 21 newly created items, concluding the panel of experts. CONCLUSIONS: We present an instrument to measure self-perception of family health status, from a nursing perspective. This may be an advance in scientific knowledge, to facilitate the assessment of the state of health of the family unit, enabling detection of alterations, and to facilitate interventions to prevent consequences to the family unit and its members. It can be used in clinical care, research or teaching. OBJETIVO: Comprobar la validez de contenido de la escala de Autopercepción del Estado de Salud Familiar. MÉTODO: Estudio de validación de instrumento con panel Delphi on-line como técnica de consenso. Se seleccionaron intencionalmente 18 expertos/as en el tema, de origen multidisciplinar y de diferentes ámbitos profesionales. Cada uno de los ítems propuestos fue valorado mediante una escala de cinco puntos, y mediante preguntas abiertas, para modificar o proponer ítems. Se realizó análisis descriptivo de la muestra y de los ítems, aplicando criterios de estimación/desestimación. RESULTADOS: La primera ronda tuvo una tasa de respuesta del 83,3% y se estimaron 75 ítems de los 96 propuestos; la segunda tuvo una tasa de respuesta de 80%, y se estimaron los

  16. Content Propagation in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenn, N.


    This thesis presents methods and techniques to analyze content propagation within online social networks (OSNs) using a graph theoretical approach. Important factors and different techniques to analyze and describe content propagation, starting from the smallest entity in a network, representing a

  17. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content. (United States)


    ... label may also state the alcohol content in degrees of proof if this information appears in direct... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  18. Polyphenols content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25 wild plants were collected from the south of Tunisia. The dried aerial parts were extracted under a continuous reflux set-up in a Soxhlet extractor with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The extracts were screened for total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Total phenolic contents were ...

  19. Determining fissile content of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P.; Grossman, L.N.; Schoenig, F.C.


    This invention relates to the determination of the fissile fuel content of fuel for nuclear reactors. A nondestructive method is described for determining rapidly, accurately and simultaneously the fissile content, enrichment and location of fuel material which may also contain amounts of burnable poison, by detecting the γ-rays emitted from the fuel material due to natural radioactive decay. (U.K.)

  20. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies (United States)

    Hillis, David J.


    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  1. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and ...

  2. Teaching Content Analysis through "Harry Potter" (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.


    Content analysis is a valuable research tool for social scientists that unfortunately can prove challenging to teach to undergraduate students. Published classroom exercises designed to teach content analysis have thus far been predominantly envisioned as lengthy projects for upper-level courses. A brief and engaging exercise may be more…

  3. 36 CFR 294.14 - Petition contents. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petition contents. 294.14... State Petitions for Inventoried Roadless Area Management § 294.14 Petition contents. (a) Any petition... particular lands for which the petition is being made, including maps and other appropriate resources in...

  4. Stopping Web Plagiarists from Stealing Your Content (United States)

    Goldsborough, Reid


    This article gives tips on how to avoid having content stolen by plagiarists. Suggestions include: using a Web search service such as Google to search for unique strings of text at the individuals site to uncover other sites with the same content; buying a infringement-detection program; or hiring a public relations firm to do the work. There are…

  5. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Yartsev, E.I.


    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  6. Familiarity with Content and Syllogistic Reasoning. (United States)

    Mast, Terrill A.; And Others

    Forty-four education and 44 dental students were administered a 30-item syllogism test containing five syllogic forms six times repeated in three different content forms--technical dental terms, common dental terms, and content-free (letters). Data were analyzed using a two-factor with repeated measures on one factor design. It was found that…

  7. 49 CFR 37.139 - Plan contents. (United States)


    ..., absence of restrictions or priorities based on trip purpose, response time, fares, hours and days of... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plan contents. 37.139 Section 37.139... DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.139 Plan contents. Each plan shall...

  8. Type B Package Radioactive Material Contents Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Implementation of packaging and transportation requirements can be subdivided into three categories; contents compliance, packaging closure, and transportation or logistical compliance. This paper addresses the area of contents compliance within the context of regulations, DOE Orders, and appropriate standards. Common practices and current pitfalls are also discussed

  9. Content in Context Improves Deception Detection Accuracy (United States)

    Blair, J. Pete; Levine, Timothy R.; Shaw, Allison S.


    Past research has shown that people are only slightly better than chance at distinguishing truths from lies. Higher accuracy rates, however, are possible when contextual knowledge is used to judge the veracity of situated message content. The utility of content in context was shown in a series of experiments with students (N = 26, 45, 51, 25, 127)…

  10. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  11. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction is increa...

  12. Construct Validation of Content Standards for Teaching (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.


    Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…

  13. The relationship of spiritual wellbeing, loneliness, and relationship satisfaction, to life contentment


    Leeth, Elizabeth M.


    There is an identified need for spirituality to be taught in mental health therapy programs. Spirituality is about the connectedness we feel and the relationships we establish with self, others, and the universe. This study examined the relationship of spiritual well being, loneliness, and relationship satisfaction to life contentment. Each of the eighty-one respondents enrolled at VPI completed the "Spiritual Well being Scale" and "Abbreviated Loneliness Scale" (Paloutzian & E...

  14. Translation, cultural adaptation, and content validity index of the Juvenile Love Scale to the Brazilian context


    Soares, Lorrayne Stephane; Paula, Jonas Jardim De; Malloy-diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Miranda, Débora Marques De; Costa, Danielle De Souza


    Abstract Background Passionate love involves physiological, emotional, and cognitive features that greatly changes behavior. This phenomenon seems universal or near universal. Even other animal species choose partners. An intense state of passionate love is associated with activity in dopamine pathways of the brain ‘reward system’, and recently has been regarded as a ‘natural addiction’. Instruments or tools to evaluate romantic love during childhood is still scarce. Objective To perform ...

  15. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation. (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza


    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  16. Reducing the Language Content in ToM Tests: A Developmental Scale (United States)

    Burnel, Morgane; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Reboul, Anne; Baciu, Monica; Durrleman, Stephanie


    The goal of the current study was to statistically evaluate the reliable scalability of a set of tasks designed to assess Theory of Mind (ToM) without language as a confounding variable. This tool might be useful to study ToM in populations where language is impaired or to study links between language and ToM. Low verbal versions of the ToM tasks…

  17. Large Scale Data Analytics of User Behavior for Improving Content Delivery (United States)


    supplanting TV and physical media as the primary method of distributing larger files to ever-increasing numbers of users at the fastest possible speeds ...protocol innovations include optical technology for very high speed connectivity at the physical level [26], high- speed variants of IEEE 802.3, the models will need to be re-learned with the adoption of new technologies such as LTE and 5G . For maintaining up-to-date models for data from a

  18. China’s Foreign Aid and Government-Sponsored Investment Activities: Scale, Content, Destinations, and Implications (United States)


    this document Browse Reports & Bookstore Make a charitable contribution Limited Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s...sponsors. Support RAND—make a tax-deductible charitable contribution at R® is a registered trademark © Copyright 2013...cooperation organizations such as the xvi China’s Foreign Aid and Government-Sponsored Investment Activities Shanghai Cooperation Organisation have

  19. 238U content in soils of Byelorussia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagalova, Eh.D.


    Results of detection in Byelorussian soils of a heavy natural radionuclide 238 U and its content in humus horizons of the soils on map-schemes are presented. 238 U content is determined by complete decomposition of soils by acids, isolation from thorium using EhDEh-10 P anionite and subsequent solution colorimetry. It is shown that the content of uranium-238 in soils decreases from the North to the South. Its maximum amount (>2x10 -4 %) is detected in turfy-podsolic soils in lake-glacier loams; the minimum one ( -4 %)- in peatymarshy soils. The map-scheme of 238 U content is a background base. Using the background base it is possible to trace the change in uranium content in soils under conditions of technogenic effect and to substantiate the efficiency of environment protection measures

  20. Changes in Hydrogen Content During Steelmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbek K.


    Full Text Available Štore Steel produces steel grades for spring, forging and engineering industry applications. Steelmaking technology consists of scrap melting in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF, secondary metallurgy in Ladle Furnace (LF and continuous casting of billets (CC. Hydrogen content during steelmaking of various steel grades and steelmaking technologies was measured. Samples of steel melt from EAF, LF and CC were collected and investigated. Sampling from Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace was carried out using vacuum pin tubes. Regular measurements of hydrogen content in steel melt were made using Hydris device. Hydrogen content results measured in tundish by Hydris device were compared with results from pin tube samples. Based on the measurement results it was established that hydrogen content during steelmaking increases. The highest values were determined in tundish during casting. Factors that influence the hydrogen content in liquid steel the most were steelmaking technology and alloying elements.

  1. Scales tell a story on the stress history of fish. (United States)

    Aerts, Johan; Metz, Juriaan Rogier; Ampe, Bart; Decostere, Annemie; Flik, Gert; De Saeger, Sarah


    Fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI-) axis to release cortisol into the blood. Scientifically validated biomarkers to capture systemic cortisol exposure over longer periods of time are of utmost importance to assess chronic stress in governmental, wildlife, aquaculture and scientific settings. Here we demonstrate that cortisol in scales of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the long-sought biomarker for chronic stress. Undisturbed (CTR) and daily stressed (STRESS) carp were compared. Dexamethasone (DEX) or cortisol (CORT) fed fish served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Scale cortisol was quantified with a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. An increase in scale cortisol content was found in STRESS and CORT but not in CTR and DEX fish. Scale cortisol content reflects its accumulation in a stressor and time dependent manner and validates the scale cortisol content as biomarker for chronic stress. Plasma analyses confirmed that (i) CTR, DEX and CORT treatments were effective, (ii) plasma cortisol of STRESS fish showed no signs of chronic HPI-axis activation, and (iii) plasma cortisol is a poor predictor for chronic stress. The expression of HPI key genes crf, pomc, and star were up-regulated in STRESS fish in the absence of a plasma cortisol response, as was the target gene of cortisol encoding subunit α1 of the Na+/K+-ATPase in gills. When lost, scales of fish regenerate fast. Regenerated scales corroborate our findings, offering (i) unsurpassed time resolution for cortisol incorporation and as such for stressful events, and (ii) the possibility to investigate stress in a well defined and controlled environment and time frame creating novel opportunities for bone physiological research. We conclude that the cortisol content in ontogenetic and regenerated scales is an innovative biomarker for chronic

  2. Emotional intelligence scale for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Srivastava


    Full Text Available Background: Emotional Intelligence has been associated with positive outcome process in varied professions. There is paucity of Indian literature on the subject; especially involving medical undergraduates; and presently there is no scale available to measure the same in the Indian scenario. Objective: To develop a scale to measure Emotional Intelligence among medical undergraduates. Materials and Methods: Four domains of Emotional intelligence were selected, viz. Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social-Awareness & Social-Skills and these were included for the purpose of domains of the scale. On the basis of focused group discussions and in-depth deliberations with experts, undergraduate and postgraduate medical students a pool of 50 items was generated. The items were reduced to 27 based on expert consensus and on the basis of frequency of endorsement by expert reviews. It was followed by a pilot study of 50 undergraduates. This completed the preparation of the preliminary draft based on content analysis. The questionnaire was then administered in 480 students and the data was analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. For the purpose of concurrent validity, emotional intelligence scale developed by Dr. Ekta was used. Results: The Cronbach′s Alpha for Internal Consistency Reliability was 0.68. The EIS had a significant correlation with social awareness domain of Emotional Intelligence Test (EIT establishing Concurrent Validity. Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence Scale for medical undergraduates was constructed. Reliability and concurrent validity were also established for the same.

  3. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota


    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  4. Multidisciplinary Delphi Development of a Scale to Evaluate Team Function in Obstetric Emergencies: The PETRA Scale. (United States)

    Balki, Mrinalini; Hoppe, David; Monks, David; Cooke, Mary Ellen; Sharples, Lynn; Windrim, Rory


    The objective of this study was to develop a new interdisciplinary teamwork scale, the Perinatal Emergency: Team Response Assessment (PETRA), for the management of obstetric crises, through consensus agreement of obstetric caregivers. This prospective study was performed using expert consensus, based on a Delphi method. The study investigators developed a new PETRA tool, specifically related to obstetric crisis management, based on the existing literature and discussions among themselves. The scale was distributed to a selected panel of experts in the field for the Delphi process. After each round of Delphi, every component of the scale was analyzed quantitatively by the percentage of agreement ratings and each comment reviewed by the blinded investigators. The assessment scale was then modified, with components of less than 80% agreement removed from the scale. The process was repeated on three occasions to reach a consensus and final PETRA scale. Fourteen of 24 invited experts participated in the Delphi process. The original PETRA scale included six categories and 48 items, one global scale item, and a 3-point rubric for rating. The overall percentage agreement by experts in the first, second, and third rounds was 95.0%, 93.2%, and 98.5%, respectively. The final scale after the third round of Delphi consisted of the following seven categories: shared mental model, communication, situational awareness, leadership, followership, workload management, and positive/effective behaviours and attitudes. There were 34 individual items within these categories, each with a 5-point rating rubric (1 = unacceptable to 5 = perfect). Using a structured Delphi method, we established the face and content validity of this assessment scale that focuses on important aspects of interdisciplinary teamwork in the management of obstetric crises. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada

  5. Fast ignition breakeven scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan


    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E T = 7.5(ρ/100) -1.87 kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E UT = 15.3(ρ/100) -1.5 kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even

  6. Scales of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory


    We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework

  7. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  8. Universities scale like cities. (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J


    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  9. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale. (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  10. The INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document presents the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) which has been created to classify nuclear and radiological events in terms of severity. This scale comprises eight levels from 0 to 7, from a slight but noticeable shift with respect to nominal operation to a major accident. Criteria used for incident and accident classification are indicated; they are based on consequences outside the site, consequences within the site, degradation of in-depth defence. The benefit and weaknesses of this scale are briefly indicated. The major concerned actors are the IAEA, the NEA and the ASN. Some key figures are given (number of declared events and incidents), and a ranking of the main nuclear events is proposed with a brief description of the event: Chernobyl, Fukushima, Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Sellafield, Tokaimura, Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux. Countries which have adopted INES are indicated, as well as the number of incidents reports in France to the ASN

  11. Wavelets, vibrations and scalings

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Yves


    Physicists and mathematicians are intensely studying fractal sets of fractal curves. Mandelbrot advocated modeling of real-life signals by fractal or multifractal functions. One example is fractional Brownian motion, where large-scale behavior is related to a corresponding infrared divergence. Self-similarities and scaling laws play a key role in this new area. There is a widely accepted belief that wavelet analysis should provide the best available tool to unveil such scaling laws. And orthonormal wavelet bases are the only existing bases which are structurally invariant through dyadic dilations. This book discusses the relevance of wavelet analysis to problems in which self-similarities are important. Among the conclusions drawn are the following: 1) A weak form of self-similarity can be given a simple characterization through size estimates on wavelet coefficients, and 2) Wavelet bases can be tuned in order to provide a sharper characterization of this self-similarity. A pioneer of the wavelet "saga", Meye...

  12. No-Scale Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.


    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on $R + R^2$ gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: $n_s \\sim 0.96$, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r < 0.1$, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  13. No-scale inflation (United States)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.


    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  14. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane


    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  15. Finite size scaling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, V.


    Fischer's finite-size scaling describes the cross over from the singular behaviour of thermodynamic quantities at the critical point to the analytic behaviour of the finite system. Recent extensions of the method--transfer matrix technique, and the Hamiltonian formalism--are discussed in this paper. The method is presented, with equations deriving scaling function, critical temperature, and exponent v. As an application of the method, a 3-states Hamiltonian with Z 3 global symmetry is studied. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for finite chains allows one to estimate the critical exponents, and also to discover new phase transitions at lower temperatures. The critical points lambda, and indices v estimated for finite-scaling are given

  16. Spatial ecology across scales. (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew


    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  17. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E.


    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  18. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)


    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  19. Influence of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Photosynthesis and Plant Growth (United States)

    Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula


    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…

  20. What's More Important--Literacy or Content? Confronting the Literacy-Content Dualism (United States)

    Draper, Roni Jo; Smith, Leigh K.; Hall, Kendra M.; Siebert, Daniel


    The literacy-content dualism, which suggests that teachers must decide whether to provide literacy or content instruction, is a false dualism and adherence to it is detrimental to student participation in content-area reasoning, learning, and communicating. This article describes the experiences that prompted the teacher educators who authored…

  1. X and Y scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.


    Although much of the intuition for interpreting the high energy data as scattering from structureless constituents came from nuclear physics (and to a lesser extent atomic physics) virtually no data existed for nuclear targets in the non-relativistic regime until relatively recently. It is therefore not so surprising that,in site of the fact that the basic nuclear physics has been well understood for a very long time, the corresponding non-relativistic scaling law was not written down until after the relativistic one,relevant to particle physics, had been explored. Of course, to the extent that these scaling laws simply reflect quasi-elastic scattering of the probe from the constituents, they contain little new physics once the nature of the constitutents is known and understood. On the other hand, deviations from scaling represent corrections to the impulse approximation and can reflect important dynamical and coherent features of the system. Furthermore, as will be discussed in detail here, the scaling curve itself represents the single particle momentum distribution of constituents inside the target. It is therefore prudent to plot the data in terms of a suitable scaling variable since this immediately focuses attention on the dominant physics. Extraneous physics, such as Rutherford scattering in the case of electrons, or magnetic scattering in the case of thermal neutrons is factored out and the use of a scaling variable (such as y) automatically takes into account the fact that the target is a bound state of well-defined constituents. In this talk I shall concentrate almost entirely on non-relativistic systems. Although the formalism applies equally well to both electron scattering from nuclei and thermal neutron scattering from liquids, I shall, because of my background, usually be thinking of the former. On the other hand I shall completely ignore spin considerations so, ironically, the results actually apply more to the latter case!

  2. Observation of radon content in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mino, Kazuo; Nishimura, Susumu


    For earthquake prediction, precursory phenomena before the large earthquakes have been investigated in many countries. In China and some other places, they made a success of predictions of the large earthquakes by catching precursory phenomena. Variation of Radon content of underground gas and water is also one of those phenomena. In our country, the decrease of Radon content was observed several days before the large earthquake which occured near Izu Peninsula on January, 14, 1978. We also begin to observe variation of Radon content of underground gas. The purpose of our observation is a study on the Radon gas content before and after earthquakes. According to the results of the test investigation, the change of atmospheric pressure is mutually related with variation of Radon content in soil gas. Effect of atmospheric pressure is about one Eman, which is significant value comparison with the change, before the large earthquake, a few or several Emans. But, when correction of atmospheric pressure's effect was done, the change of Radon content maybe decrease 5/100 Emans. Above result tells the possibility of detecting the precursor of large earthquake, if Radon content change was over a few Emans. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the impact behavior of the contents of reprocessing radioactive waste shipping cask subjected to drop impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, K.; Ito, C.; Funahashi, M.


    In this study, to investigate the impact response characteristics of the contents in the cask precisely, we performed the laboratory-scale drop tests, and on the basis of the test results, we proposed the construction of the spring-mass model and confirmed the accuracy of the proposed drop analysis method by comparison with drop test using a full-scale cask for high level wastes. Following the results of the drop tests and analysis, the outline of the contents and results is summarized below. 1) The drop tests onto the unyielding surface using a scale model containing several contents were performed and the effect of the interaction between the contents and the cask body on the impact response experimentally. 2) The above interaction can be characterized by the gap between the contents and the cask body caused by the release of the gravitational force at the moment the drop started. So, we proposed the analysis method for considering gap using spring-mass model by comparing the laboratory-scale drop test results. 3) We applied the proposed analysis method to a drop test using a full-scale cask for high level wastes, and it was found that this method seems to be good and convenient enough to evaluate the impact behavior of the contents in a transport cask subjected to drop impact. (J.P.N.)

  4. Scaling law systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Duechs, D.F.


    A number of statistical implications of empirical scaling laws in form of power products obtained by linear regression are analysed. The sensitivity of the error against a change of exponents is described by a sensitivity factor and the uncertainty of predictions by a ''range of predictions factor''. Inner relations in the statistical material is discussed, as well as the consequences of discarding variables.A recipe is given for the computations to be done. The whole is exemplified by considering scaling laws for the electron energy confinement time of ohmically heated tokamak plasmas. (author)

  5. Tokamak confinement scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.


    The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)

  6. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.


    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  7. Scaling up Telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jannie Kristine Bang; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Gustafsson, Jeppe

    through negotiating, mobilizing coalitions, and legitimacy building. To illustrate and further develop this conceptualization, we build on insights from a longitudinal case study (2008-2014) and provide a rich empirical account of how a Danish telemedicine pilot was transformed into a large......-scale telemedicine project through simultaneous translation and theorization efforts in a cross-sectorial, politicized social context. Although we focus on upscaling as a bottom up process (from pilot to large scale), we argue that translation and theorization, and associated political behavior occurs in a broader...

  8. Procedural Content Generation: Concepts and Related Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIÑO, J. R. H.


    Full Text Available The digital games market is growing every year and game development is becoming increasingly complex. Thus, scalability in content generation may require the work of a team with hundreds of people. Procedural Content Generation (PCG comes as an alternative to decrease costs and accelerate the process of game production by creating content automatically or semi-automatically. This article presents some concepts and reviews works developed in PCG, aiming to provide a starting point for those interested in learning and going deeper in the subject of PCG for digital games.

  9. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian


    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved by realizing the fact that players’ perception of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and culture background....... While one player might find the game immersive, others may quit playing as a result of encountering a seemingly insoluble problem. One promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players is to tailor player experience in real-time via automatic game content generation......-driven content generation....

  10. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document represents the development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specific identification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance with waste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The content code gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability of the waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the 72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on the manner in which a payload can be assembled. The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7 of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON, RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. Each content code uniquely

  11. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A


    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  12. Framework for Enabling User-Generated Content


    Nilsson, Karin H


    User-generated content, UGC, is a modern topic today and refers to media and creative works created by Internet users and posted on the Internet. More and more application developers wants to offer sharing functionalities in their applications and on their websites. The alternatives of doing so today are to use UGC platforms API, like Facebook and Twitter, to upload the content to that specific platform or to implement the framework ShareKit that enables the user to share their content on mul...

  13. Contents of /sup 210/Pb in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X; Song, H


    The contents of /sup 210/Pb in 30 kinds of commonly used foods are given in the paper. After the radioactive equilibrium between /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Pb was nearly established in samples, the concentration of /sup 210/Pb was determined by the method of spontaneous deposition on silver disc. The contents of /sup 210/Pb then were calculated from that of /sup 210/Po. The average contents of /sup 210/Pb in corn, vegetable and meat were 0.14, 15.08 and 1.26 x 10/sup -14/ Ci/g respectively.

  14. Beyond clay: Towards an improved set of variables for predicting soil organic matter content (United States)

    Rasmussen, Craig; Heckman, Katherine; Wieder, William R.; Keiluweit, Marco; Lawrence, Corey R.; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Blankinship, Joseph C.; Crow, Susan E.; Druhan, Jennifer; Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Plante, Alain F.; Schadel, Christina; Schmiel, Joshua P.; Sierra, Carlos A.; Thompson, Aaron; Wagai, Rota


    Improved quantification of the factors controlling soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization at continental to global scales is needed to inform projections of the largest actively cycling terrestrial carbon pool on Earth, and its response to environmental change. Biogeochemical models rely almost exclusively on clay content to modify rates of SOM turnover and fluxes of climate-active CO2 to the atmosphere. Emerging conceptual understanding, however, suggests other soil physicochemical properties may predict SOM stabilization better than clay content. We addressed this discrepancy by synthesizing data from over 5,500 soil profiles spanning continental scale environmental gradients. Here, we demonstrate that other physicochemical parameters are much stronger predictors of SOM content, with clay content having relatively little explanatory power. We show that exchangeable calcium strongly predicted SOM content in water-limited, alkaline soils, whereas with increasing moisture availability and acidity, iron- and aluminum-oxyhydroxides emerged as better predictors, demonstrating that the relative importance of SOM stabilization mechanisms scales with climate and acidity. These results highlight the urgent need to modify biogeochemical models to better reflect the role of soil physicochemical properties in SOM cycling.

  15. HON label and DISCERN as content quality indicators of health-related websites. (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz


    Content quality indicators are warranted in order to help patients and consumers to judge the content quality of health-related on-line information. The aim of the present study is to evaluate web-based information on health topics and to assess particular content quality indicators like HON (Health on the Net) and DISCERN. The present study is based on the analysis of data issued from six previous studies which assessed with a standardized tool the general and content quality (evidence-based health information) of health-related websites. Keywords related to Social phobia, bipolar disorders, pathological gambling as well as cannabis, alcohol and cocaine addiction were entered into popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability and content quality (evidence-based information). "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of 874 websites identified, 388 were included. Despite an observed association with higher content quality scores, the HON label fails to predict good content quality websites when used in a multiple regression. Sensibility and specificity of a DISCERN score >40 in the detection of good content quality websites were, respectively, 0.45 and 0.96. The DISCERN is a potential quality indicator with a relatively high specificity. Further developments in this domain are warranted in order to facilitate the identification of high-quality information on the web by patients.

  16. Measuring water content in soil using TDR: A state-of-the-art in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, G.C.; Ferre, P.A.


    Over the past decade or so, the development and continuing refinement of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for in-situ, nondestructive measurement of water content has revolutionized the study and management of the transfer and storage of water within the soil profile. The principles for the application of TDR to water content are now well accepted and straight forward. For many mineral soils, the calibration for water content has a linear relationship with the square root of the relative permittivity measured by TDR. This allows a two-point calibration. TDR-measured water content has been applied successfully to water balance studies ranging from the km scale of small watersheds to the nun scale of the root-soil interface. Soil probes can be designed to meet many and varied requirements. The performance of a number of probe geometries is presented, including some of their strengths and weaknesses. Although coated soil probes allow measurement in more conductive soils, the probe coatings alter the water-content calibration both in sensitivity and linearity. Three general options are available for determining profiles of soil water content from the soil surface to a depth of 1 m. Soil probes of differing total depths extending to the surface are the most accessible. Soil probes buried at selected depths provide easily repeatable values. The vertically installed single probe, Aith depth segments separated by diodes, allows repeated measurement in a single vertical slice. The portability of TDR instrumentation coupled with the simplicity and flexibility of probes has allowed the mapping of spatial patterns of water content and field-based spatial and temporal soil water content distributions. The usefulness and power of the TDR technique for characterizing soil water content is increasing rapidly through continuing improvements in instrument operating range, probe design, multiplexing and automated data collection. (author)

  17. Strengthening the Conceptualization of Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge for International Studies: A Taiwanese Perspective (United States)

    Hsieh, Feng-Jui


    This paper discusses different conceptual frameworks for measuring mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) in international comparison studies. Two large-scale international comparative studies, "Mathematics Teaching in the Twenty-First Century" (MT21; Schmidt et al., 2011) and the "Teacher Education and Development Study…

  18. Dough and hearth bread characteristics influenced by protein composition, protein content, DATEM, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Hollung, K.; Uhlen, A.K.; Færgestad, E.M.


    The effects of protein composition, protein content, diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), and their interaction on dough and bread characteristics were studied by small- and pilot-scale hearth bread baking, dough rheological testing using the Kieffer extensibility rig, and size

  19. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) : an instrument for internationally comparative assessments of psychosocial job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karasek, R.; Brisson, C.; Kawakami, N; Houtman, I.; Bongers, P.; Amick, B


    This article consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), designed to measure scales assessing psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, physical demands, and job insecurity. Part 2 reports the cross-national validity, for men and women, of the JCQ

  20. Thai EFL Learners' Attitudes and Motivation towards Learning English through Content-Based Instruction (United States)

    Lai Yuanxing; Aksornjarung, Prachamon


    This study examined EFL learners' attitudes and motivation towards learning English through content-based instruction (CBI) at a university in Thailand. Seventy-one (71) university students, the majority sophomores, answered a 6-point Likert scale questionnaire on attitudes and motivation together with six open-ended questions regarding learning…

  1. Language and Content in the Modern Foreign Languages Degree: A Students' Perspective (United States)

    Gieve, Simon; Cunico, Sonia


    This paper reports on a small-scale qualitative study of students' experience of their Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) degrees with particular regard to the relationship between language and content learning. It is framed by the identification in the recent Worton Report on MFL studies in UK higher education and elsewhere of a dualism between…

  2. The Effects of Appeal on Children's Comprehension and Recall of Content in Educational Television Programs (United States)

    Gabrelian, Natalie; Blumberg, Fran C.; Hogan, Tracy M.


    This exploratory study investigated the effects of audience appeal on fourth-graders' (n = 25) and fifth-graders' (n = 24) comprehension of and selective attention to narrative and academic content in educational program segments. Students were shown two program segments that focused on one of two math concepts, perimeter or scale, and that were…

  3. Time-lapse monitoring of soil water content using electromagnetic conductivity imaging (United States)

    The volumetric soil water content (VWC) is fundamental to agriculture. Unfortunately, the universally accepted thermogravimetric method is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have proven to be useful in mapping the spatio-...

  4. SCALE system driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.


    The SCALE driver was designed to allow implementation of a modular code system consisting of control modules, which determine the calculation path, and functional modules, which perform the basic calculations. The user can either select a control module and have that module determine the execution path, or the user can select functional modules directly by input

  5. Scaling violation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furmanski, W.


    The effects of scaling violation in QCD are discussed in the perturbative scheme, based on the factorization of mass singularities in the light-like gauge. Some recent applications including the next-to-leading corrections are presented (large psub(T) scattering, numerical analysis of the leptoproduction data). A proposal is made for extending the method on the higher twist sector. (author)

  6. Method of complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendas, E.


    The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented

  7. Civic Engagement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Doolittle


    Full Text Available This study reports on the development and validation of the Civic Engagement Scale (CES. This scale is developed to be easily administered and useful to educators who are seeking to measure the attitudes and behaviors that have been affected by a service-learning experience. This instrument was administered as a validation study in a purposive sample of social work and education majors at three universities (N = 513 with a return of 354 (69%. After the reliability and validity analysis was completed, the Attitude subscale was left with eight items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .91. The Behavior subscale was left with six items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .85. Principal component analysis indicated a two-dimensional scale with high loadings on both factors (mean factor loading for the attitude factor = .79, and mean factor loading for the behavior factor = .77. These results indicate that the CES is strong enough to recommend its use in educational settings. Preliminary use has demonstrated that this scale will be useful to researchers seeking to better understand the relationship of attitudes and behaviors with civic engagement in the service-learning setting. The primary limitations of this research are that the sample was limited to social work and education majors who were primarily White (n = 312, 88.1% and female (n = 294, 83.1%. Therefore, further research would be needed to generalize this research to other populations.

  8. Difficulty scaling through incongruity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, van G.; Spronck, P.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Mateas, M.; Darken, C.


    In this paper we discuss our work on using the incongruity measure from psychological literature to scale the difficulty level of a game online to the capabilities of the human player. Our approach has been implemented in a small game called Glove.

  9. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here,

  10. Cardinal scales for health evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave


    Policy studies often evaluate health for an individual or for a population by using measurement scales that are ordinal scales or expected-utility scales. This paper develops scales of a different type, commonly called cardinal scales, that measure changes in health. Also, we argue that cardinal...... scales provide a meaningful and useful means of evaluating health policies. Thus, we develop a means of using the perspective of early neoclassical welfare economics as an alternative to ordinalist and expected-utility perspectives....

  11. SCALE Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL


    The SCALE Code System is a widely-used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor and lattice physics, radiation shielding, spent fuel and radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results.SCALE 6.2 provides many new capabilities and significant improvements of existing features.New capabilities include:• ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries CE and MG with enhanced group structures,• Neutron covariance data based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and supplemented with ORNL data,• Covariance data for fission product yields and decay constants,• Stochastic uncertainty and correlation quantification for any SCALE sequence with Sampler,• Parallel calculations with KENO,• Problem-dependent temperature corrections for CE calculations,• CE shielding and criticality accident alarm system analysis with MAVRIC,• CE

  12. Construction of the Examination Stress Scale for Adolescent Students (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chao, Tzu-Yang


    The tools used for measuring examination stress have three main limitations: sample selected, sample sizes, and measurement contents. In this study, we constructed the Examination Stress Scale (ExamSS), and 4,717 high school students participated in this research. The results indicate that ExamSS has satisfactory reliability, construct validity,…

  13. Spanish Translation and Validation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale. (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A; Fouad, Nadya


    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) was translated into Spanish, and 32 preschool and primary age bilingual children were assessed in a counter-balanced format with the English and newly translated Spanish forms to assess the adequacy of the translation. Preliminary content validity of the Spanish BBCS was demonstrated. (Author/JAZ)

  14. Optimization of laboratory scale production and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcystin content is however highly variable and optimised culture conditions are essential to produce viable yields of microcystin for purification. We describe the optimization of culture conditions and evaluation of various purification methods to enhance the yield of microcystin from laboratory scale culture.

  15. Spatial data content standards for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available , they selected 14 standards containing data dictionaries or feature catalogues, and compared their feature types. They have also provided some advice and recommendations on data content standards (particularly for data dictionaries and feature catalogues...

  16. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.


    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  17. Multimedia content management in MPEG-21 framework (United States)

    Smith, John R.


    MPEG-21 is an emerging standard from MPEG that specifies a framework for transactions of multimedia content. MPEG-21 defines the fundamental concept known as a digital item, which is the unit of transaction in the multimedia framework. A digital item can be used to package content for such as a digital photograph, a video clip or movie, a musical recording with graphics and liner notes, a photo album, and so on. The packaging of the media resources, corresponding identifiers, and associated metadata is provided in the declaration of the digital item. The digital item declaration allows for more effective transaction, distribution, and management of multimedia content and corresponding metadata, rights expressions, variations of media resources. In this paper, we describe various challenges for multimedia content management in the MPEG-21 framework.

  18. Learning content and the creative cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus


    Specht, M. (2012, 18 April). Learning content and the creative cloud. Presentation given at the workshop for creative cloud CLICK workshop Faculteit Bouwkunde & Architectuur TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands.

  19. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  20. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved taken into account that players’ perceptions of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and cultural background. One...... promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players - and thereby attempt to close the affective loop in games - is to automatically tailor the game content in real-time. To realize player-driven procedural content generation one needs to specify the aspects of the game...... that have a key influence on the gameplay experience, identify the relationship between these aspects and player experience and define a mechanism for tailoring the game content to each individual needs. In this dissertation we attempt to address the following research questions towards the aim...

  1. 39 CFR 3030.10 - Complaint contents. (United States)


    ... Initial Pleadings § 3030.10 Complaint contents. (a) A complaint must: (1) Set forth the facts and... to be similarly affected by the issues involved in the complaint, if applicable; (5) State the nature...

  2. Swordfish Stomach Content Data, 1989-2000 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents were tabulated for 734 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the central North Pacific from 1989 to 2000 (most from 1994-1998). The swordfish were...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ


    Full Text Available Financial and internal auditors must cope with the challenge of performing their mission in technology enhanced environment. In this article we match the information technology description found in the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA curricula against the Model Curriculum issued by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA. By reviewing these three curricula, we matched the content in the ISACA Model Curriculum with the IFAC International Education Practice Statement 2 and the IIAs’ Global Model Internal Audit Curriculum. In the IFAC and IIA Curriculum there are 16 content elements, out of 19 possible, which match, in their description, the ISACA Model Curriculum’s content. We noticed that a candidate who graduates an IFAC or IIA compliant program acquire IS auditing competences similar to the specific content of the ISACA model curriculum but less than the requirements for a professional information systems auditor.

  4. The CODESRIA Bulletin: A Content Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the major question that guides this essay is the following: What do articles in the. CODESRIA ... A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the contents of the articles can ..... and elections, child and youth, race, gender, and academic freedom.

  5. Soundtrack contents and depicted sexual violence. (United States)

    Pfaus, J G; Myronuk, L D; Jacobs, W J


    Male undergraduates were exposed to a videotaped depiction of heterosexual rape accompanied by one of three soundtracks: the original soundtrack (featuring dialogue and background rock music), relaxing music, or no sound. Subjective reports of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, perceived erotic content, and perceived pornographic content of the sequence were then provided by each subject. Results indicated that males exposed to the videotape accompanied by the original soundtrack found the sequence significantly more pornographic than males exposed to the sequence accompanied by either relaxing background music or no sound. Ratings of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, and the perceived erotic content, however, did not differ significantly across soundtrack conditions. These results are compatible with the assertion that the content of a video soundtrack may influence the impact of depicted sexual violence.

  6. Validity evidence based on test content. (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen; Faulkner-Bond, Molly


    Validity evidence based on test content is one of the five forms of validity evidence stipulated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing developed by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. In this paper, we describe the logic and theory underlying such evidence and describe traditional and modern methods for gathering and analyzing content validity data. A comprehensive review of the literature and of the aforementioned Standards is presented. For educational tests and other assessments targeting knowledge and skill possessed by examinees, validity evidence based on test content is necessary for building a validity argument to support the use of a test for a particular purpose. By following the methods described in this article, practitioners have a wide arsenal of tools available for determining how well the content of an assessment is congruent with and appropriate for the specific testing purposes.

  7. Deploying Content Management System to enhance State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 2013 ... Abstract. Governments across developing countries worldwide have the ... KEYWORDS: Content Management, E-governance, Model, Search engine, ICT. ..... Benchmarking E-government (2002): A Global Perspective, United.

  8. Analysis, Retrieval and Delivery of Multimedia Content

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallaro, Andrea; Leonardi, Riccardo; Migliorati, Pierangelo


    Covering some of the most cutting-edge research on the delivery and retrieval of interactive multimedia content, this volume of specially chosen contributions provides the most updated perspective on one of the hottest contemporary topics. The material represents extended versions of papers presented at the 11th International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, a vital international forum on this fast-moving field. Logically organized in discrete sections that approach the subject from its various angles, the content deals in turn with content analysis, motion and activity analysis, high-level descriptors and video retrieval, 3-D and multi-view, and multimedia delivery. The chapters cover the finest detail of emerging techniques such as the use of high-level audio information in improving scene segmentation and the use of subjective logic for forensic visual surveillance. On content delivery, the book examines both images and video, focusing on key subjects including an efficient p...

  9. Application of the technological, pedagogical, and content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge framework in a positivist study on the use of ICT in pedagogy by teachers of mathematical disciplines at Makerere University: a conceptual paper.

  10. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  11. Modification of grey scale in computer tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.


    Optimum perception of minute but relevant attenuation differences in CT images often requires display window settings so narrow that a considerable fraction of the image appears completely black or white and consequently without structure. In order to improve the display characteristics two principles of grey scale modification are presented. In one method the pixel contents are displayed unchanged within a selectable attenuation band but moved towards the limits of the band for pixels that are outside it. In the other the grey scale is arranged to a constant number of pixels per grey scale interval. (Auth.)

  12. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair


    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds. (United States)

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo


    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  14. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Navarro


    Full Text Available Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  15. Advertising effectiveness: the role of content


    Becker , Maren


    Despite its long-standing history and many strong findings, research on advertising effectiveness still ranks high on the academic and practitioner agenda. With respect to the influence of advertising on sales, existing econometric response models mostly focus on the impact of advertising spending and scheduling. Comparatively less attention has been devoted to the specific advertising content. Even though, choosing appropriate content cues that grab consumers’ attention and persuade them bec...

  16. Copper content in blood of Uzbek population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhol'skaya, I.N.; Agzamova, S.S.; Kutyakova, T.Yu.; Osinskaya, N.S.


    The content of copper in blood of Uzbekistan population, depending on place of residence, sex and age was studied to solve certain medicobiological problems. The method of neutron activation with radiochemcial isolation was employed for the analysis. According to the data obtained average content of copper for the points in the republic selected for men and women of different age groups were calculated. 5 refs



    ALİKILIÇ, Dr. Özlem


    This article is based on the idea that user generated content is of fundamental importance in tourism and travel industry to understand the role of consumer generated messages. This paper also describes interpersonal influences mean for user generated content and also word of mouth (WOM) which reflect cost effective for tourism and travel industry but as well as the real crisis lead by the customer and discusses the new technological and ethical considerations facing tourism and travel industry

  18. An Equilibrium Model of User Generated Content


    Dae-Yong Ahn; Jason A. Duan; Carl F. Mela


    This paper considers the joint creation and consumption of content on user generated content platforms (e.g., reviews or articles, chat, videos, etc.). On these platforms, users' utilities depend upon the participation of others; hence, users' expectations regarding the participation of others on the site becomes germane to their own involvement levels. Yet these beliefs are often assumed to be fixed. Accordingly, we develop a dynamic rational expectations equilibrium model of joint consumpti...

  19. Are delusional contents replayed during dreams? (United States)

    D'Agostino, Armando; Aletti, Giacomo; Carboni, Martina; Cavallotti, Simone; Limosani, Ivan; Manzone, Marialaura; Scarone, Silvio


    The relationship between dream content and waking life experiences remains difficult to decipher. However, some neurobiological findings suggest that dreaming can, at least in part, be considered epiphenomenal to ongoing memory consolidation processes in sleep. Both abnormalities in sleep architecture and impairment in memory consolidation mechanisms are thought to be involved in the development of psychosis. The objective of this study was to assess the continuity between delusional contents and dreams in acutely psychotic patients. Ten patients with a single fixed and recurring delusional content were asked to report their dreams during an acute psychotic break. Sixteen judges with four different levels of acquaintance to the specific content of the patients' delusions were asked to group the dreams, expecting that fragments of the delusional thought would guide the task. A mathematical index (f,t) was developed in order to compare correct groupings between the four groups of judges. Most judges grouped the dreams slightly above chance level and no relevant differences could be found between the four groups [F(3,12)=1.297; p=n.s.]. Scoring of dreams for specific delusional themes suggested a continuity in terms of dream and waking mentation for two contents (Grandiosity and Religion). These findings seem to suggest that at least some delusional contents recur within patients' dreams. Future studies will need to determine whether such continuity reflects ongoing consolidation processes that are relevant to current theories of delusion formation and stabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Summarizing Audiovisual Contents of a Video Program (United States)

    Gong, Yihong


    In this paper, we focus on video programs that are intended to disseminate information and knowledge such as news, documentaries, seminars, etc, and present an audiovisual summarization system that summarizes the audio and visual contents of the given video separately, and then integrating the two summaries with a partial alignment. The audio summary is created by selecting spoken sentences that best present the main content of the audio speech while the visual summary is created by eliminating duplicates/redundancies and preserving visually rich contents in the image stream. The alignment operation aims to synchronize each spoken sentence in the audio summary with its corresponding speaker's face and to preserve the rich content in the visual summary. A Bipartite Graph-based audiovisual alignment algorithm is developed to efficiently find the best alignment solution that satisfies these alignment requirements. With the proposed system, we strive to produce a video summary that: (1) provides a natural visual and audio content overview, and (2) maximizes the coverage for both audio and visual contents of the original video without having to sacrifice either of them.

  1. Using the DOM Tree for Content Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Insa


    Full Text Available The main information of a webpage is usually mixed between menus, advertisements, panels, and other not necessarily related information; and it is often difficult to automatically isolate this information. This is precisely the objective of content extraction, a research area of widely interest due to its many applications. Content extraction is useful not only for the final human user, but it is also frequently used as a preprocessing stage of different systems that need to extract the main content in a web document to avoid the treatment and processing of other useless information. Other interesting application where content extraction is particularly used is displaying webpages in small screens such as mobile phones or PDAs. In this work we present a new technique for content extraction that uses the DOM tree of the webpage to analyze the hierarchical relations of the elements in the webpage. Thanks to this information, the technique achieves a considerable recall and precision. Using the DOM structure for content extraction gives us the benefits of other approaches based on the syntax of the webpage (such as characters, words and tags, but it also gives us a very precise information regarding the related components in a block, thus, producing very cohesive blocks.

  2. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee


    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  3. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample : Psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, E.L.; Bögels, S.M.

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure

  4. [Development of meaning in life scale II]. (United States)

    Choi, Soon-Ock; Kim, Sook-Nam; Shin, Kyung-Il; Lee, Jong-Ji


    The purpose of this study was to develop a meaning of life scale with high validity and reliability. A conceptual framework composed of 4 phases of meanings of life was identified. And 49 preliminary items on a 4-points scale were developed through content validity. A reliability and validity test of the 49 items was conducted on 564 adults. By means of internal consistency of the 49 items, 1 item was deleted. To verify the 48 items, factor analysis, reliability test, and LISEREL were done. Through exploratory factor analysis of the 48 items, 8 factors were extracted. These factors were labeled as 'self- awareness and self-acceptance', 'hope', 'responsibility awareness', 'love experience', 'self transcendence', 'relation experience', 'self contentedness', and 'Commitment'. Through LISEREL of the 48 items, 2 items were excluded and finally 46 items remained. Cronbach's Alpha of the 46 items was .94. The correlation coefficient of the Self-esteem scale was .79. By the above results, the researchers recommend the following: An exploratory study on the variables related to the meaning of life are needed for criterion validity of this scale. Studies on meaning of life of different group, and subjects are needed for reverification.

  5. A study of real-time content marketing : formulating real-time content marketing based on content, search and social media


    Nguyen, Thi Kim Duyen


    The primary objective of this research is to understand profoundly the new concept of content marketing – real-time content marketing on the aspect of the digital marketing experts. Particularly, the research will focus on the real-time content marketing theories and how to build real-time content marketing strategy based on content, search and social media. It also finds out how marketers measure and keep track of conversion rates of their real-time content marketing plan. Practically, th...

  6. Measuring the level and content of consciousness during epileptic seizures: the Ictal Consciousness Inventory. (United States)

    Cavanna, A E; Mula, M; Servo, S; Strigaro, G; Tota, G; Barbagli, D; Collimedaglia, L; Viana, M; Cantello, R; Monaco, F


    Ictal alterations of the level of general awareness and subjective content of consciousness play a pivotal role in the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy, and reflect the pathological involvement of different neurobiological substrates. However, no self-reported measures have been proposed for patients experiencing altered conscious states during seizures. This study describes the development and validation of a new scale for the quantitative assessment of the level and content of ictal consciousness, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory (ICI). The ICI is a 20-item questionnaire generated on the basis of interviews with patients, literature review, and consultation with experts. It was tested on a sample of 110 patients attending three different epilepsy clinics in Northern Italy, who also completed standardized clinical scales. Standard psychometric methods were used to demonstrate that this scale satisfies criteria for acceptability, reliability, and validity. The ICI is proposed as a user-friendly and clinically sound instrument for the measurement of ictal alterations of consciousness in patients with epilepsy.

  7. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  8. Multiple time scale dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian


    This book provides an introduction to dynamical systems with multiple time scales. The approach it takes is to provide an overview of key areas, particularly topics that are less available in the introductory form.  The broad range of topics included makes it accessible for students and researchers new to the field to gain a quick and thorough overview. The first of its kind, this book merges a wide variety of different mathematical techniques into a more unified framework. The book is highly illustrated with many examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography. The target audience of this  book are senior undergraduates, graduate students as well as researchers interested in using the multiple time scale dynamics theory in nonlinear science, either from a theoretical or a mathematical modeling perspective. 

  9. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio


    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  10. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.


    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  11. Density scaling for multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, A


    Generalized Kohn-Sham equations are presented for lowest-lying multiplets. The way of treating non-integer particle numbers is coupled with an earlier method of the author. The fundamental quantity of the theory is the subspace density. The Kohn-Sham equations are similar to the conventional Kohn-Sham equations. The difference is that the subspace density is used instead of the density and the Kohn-Sham potential is different for different subspaces. The exchange-correlation functional is studied using density scaling. It is shown that there exists a value of the scaling factor ζ for which the correlation energy disappears. Generalized OPM and Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) methods incorporating correlation are presented. The ζKLI method, being as simple as the original KLI method, is proposed for multiplets.

  12. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.


    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.


    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  14. Urban Scaling in Europe (United States)


    the structural funds for regional development and cohesion . Until recently, several systems of territorial units have coexisted in European...for European MAs versus population. See text and figures 1–7, electronic supplementary material, figures S1–S8 for additional details and electronic...scale as expected, although with wide confidence intervals (table 1). The urbanized area of Spanish cities appears superlinear, contrary to theory

  15. Scaling up Copy Detection


    Li, Xian; Dong, Xin Luna; Lyons, Kenneth B.; Meng, Weiyi; Srivastava, Divesh


    Recent research shows that copying is prevalent for Deep-Web data and considering copying can significantly improve truth finding from conflicting values. However, existing copy detection techniques do not scale for large sizes and numbers of data sources, so truth finding can be slowed down by one to two orders of magnitude compared with the corresponding techniques that do not consider copying. In this paper, we study {\\em how to improve scalability of copy detection on structured data}. Ou...

  16. Beyond the Planck Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.


    I outline motivations for believing that important quantum gravity effects lie beyond the Planck scale at both higher energies and longer distances and times. These motivations arise in part from the study of ultra-high energy scattering, and also from considerations in cosmology. I briefly summarize some inferences about such ultra-planckian physics, and clues we might pursue towards the principles of a more fundamental theory addressing the known puzzles and paradoxes of quantum gravity.

  17. Accurate scaling on multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.


    The commonly used formula of KNO scaling P n =Ψ(n/ ) for descrete distributions (multiplicity distributions) is shown to contradict mathematically the condition ΣP n =1. The effect is essential even at ISR energies. A consistent generalization of the concept of similarity for multiplicity distributions is obtained. The multiplicity distributions of negative particles in PP and also e + e - inelastic interactions are similar over the whole studied energy range. Collider data are discussed. 14 refs.; 8 figs

  18. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  19. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon


    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  20. Content Analysis by the Crowd: Assessing the Usability of Crowdsourcing for Coding Latent Constructs (United States)

    Lind, Fabienne; Gruber, Maria; Boomgaarden, Hajo G.


    ABSTRACT Crowdsourcing platforms are commonly used for research in the humanities, social sciences and informatics, including the use of crowdworkers to annotate textual material or visuals. Utilizing two empirical studies, this article systematically assesses the potential of crowdcoding for less manifest contents of news texts, here focusing on political actor evaluations. Specifically, Study 1 compares the reliability and validity of crowdcoded data to that of manual content analyses; Study 2 proceeds to investigate the effects of material presentation, different types of coding instructions and answer option formats on data quality. We find that the performance of the crowd recommends crowdcoded data as a reliable and valid alternative to manually coded data, also for less manifest contents. While scale manipulations affected the results, minor modifications of the coding instructions or material presentation did not significantly influence data quality. In sum, crowdcoding appears a robust instrument to collect quantitative content data. PMID:29118893

  1. Effects of preparation method and active metal content on of Ni/kieselguhr catalyst activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galuh Widiyarti; Wuryaningsih Sri Rahayu


    The preparation and the active metal content influence the activity of catalyst. Study has been conducted to see the activity of Ni/kieselguhr based on preparation method and Nickel (Ni) contents in the catalyst in the laboratory scale. The Ni/kieselguhr catalyst were prepared by impregnation and precipitation methods, with Ni active contents of 10, 20, and 30 % by weight. The catalysts characterization was analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Catalysts activities were analyzed based on decreasing of iodine number from hydrogenation of crude palm oil for 2 hours. The activity tests results show that precipitation catalysts are more active than impregnation catalysts. The decreasing in iodine number of fatty acid after 2 hours of hydrogenation process using precipitation catalysts and impregnation catalysts are 51.53 and 21.85 %, respectively. In addition, the catalysts are more active with increasing Ni contents. (author)

  2. Gravo-Aeroelastic Scaling for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingersh, Lee J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Loth, Eric [University of Virginia; Kaminski, Meghan [University of Virginia; Qin, Chao [University of Virginia; Griffith, D. Todd [Sandia National Laboratories


    A scaling methodology is described in the present paper for extreme-scale wind turbines (rated at 10 MW or more) that allow their sub-scale turbines to capture their key blade dynamics and aeroelastic deflections. For extreme-scale turbines, such deflections and dynamics can be substantial and are primarily driven by centrifugal, thrust and gravity forces as well as the net torque. Each of these are in turn a function of various wind conditions, including turbulence levels that cause shear, veer, and gust loads. The 13.2 MW rated SNL100-03 rotor design, having a blade length of 100-meters, is herein scaled to the CART3 wind turbine at NREL using 25% geometric scaling and blade mass and wind speed scaled by gravo-aeroelastic constraints. In order to mimic the ultralight structure on the advanced concept extreme-scale design the scaling results indicate that the gravo-aeroelastically scaled blades for the CART3 are be three times lighter and 25% longer than the current CART3 blades. A benefit of this scaling approach is that the scaled wind speeds needed for testing are reduced (in this case by a factor of two), allowing testing under extreme gust conditions to be much more easily achieved. Most importantly, this scaling approach can investigate extreme-scale concepts including dynamic behaviors and aeroelastic deflections (including flutter) at an extremely small fraction of the full-scale cost.

  3. The ''invisible'' radioactive scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Ramsoey, T.


    Production and up-concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the petroleum industry has attracted steadily increasing attention during the last 15 years. Most production engineers today associate this radioactivity with precipitates (scales) and sludges in production tubing, pumps, valves, separators, settling tanks etc., wherever water is being transported or treated. 226 Ra and 228 Ra are the most well known radioactive constituents in scale. Surprisingly little known is the radioactive contamination by 210 Pb and progeny 210 Bi and 210 Po. These are found in combination with 226 Ra in ordinary scale, often in layer of non-radioactive metallic lead in water transportation systems, but also in pure gas and condensate handling systems ''unsupported'' by 226 Ra, but due to transportation and decay of the noble gas 222 Rn in NG/LNG. This latter contamination may be rather thin, in some cases virtually invisible. When, in addition, the radiation energies are low enough for not being detectable on the equipment outer surface, its existence has for most people in the industry been a secret. The report discusses transportation and deposition mechanisms, detection methods and provides some examples of measured results from the North Sea on equipment sent for maintenance. It is concluded that a regular measurement program for this type of contamination should be mandatory under all dismantling processes of transportation and fluid handling equipment for fluids and gases offshore and onshore

  4. Micro-Scale Thermoacoustics (United States)

    Offner, Avshalom; Ramon, Guy Z.


    Thermoacoustic phenomena - conversion of heat to acoustic oscillations - may be harnessed for construction of reliable, practically maintenance-free engines and heat pumps. Specifically, miniaturization of thermoacoustic devices holds great promise for cooling of micro-electronic components. However, as devices size is pushed down to micro-meter scale it is expected that non-negligible slip effects will exist at the solid-fluid interface. Accordingly, new theoretical models for thermoacoustic engines and heat pumps were derived, accounting for a slip boundary condition. These models are essential for the design process of micro-scale thermoacoustic devices that will operate under ultrasonic frequencies. Stability curves for engines - representing the onset of self-sustained oscillations - were calculated with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions, revealing improvement in the performance of engines with slip at the resonance frequency range applicable for micro-scale devices. Maximum achievable temperature differences curves for thermoacoustic heat pumps were calculated, revealing the negative effect of slip on the ability to pump heat up a temperature gradient. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  5. H2@Scale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark


    'H2@Scale' is a concept based on the opportunity for hydrogen to act as an intermediate between energy sources and uses. Hydrogen has the potential to be used like the primary intermediate in use today, electricity, because it too is fungible. This presentation summarizes the H2@Scale analysis efforts performed during the first third of 2017. Results of technical potential uses and supply options are summarized and show that the technical potential demand for hydrogen is 60 million metric tons per year and that the U.S. has sufficient domestic resources to meet that demand. A high level infrastructure analysis is also presented that shows an 85% increase in energy on the grid if all hydrogen is produced from grid electricity. However, a preliminary spatial assessment shows that supply is sufficient in most counties across the U.S. The presentation also shows plans for analysis of the economic potential for the H2@Scale concept. Those plans involve developing supply and demand curves for potential hydrogen generation options and as compared to other options for use of that hydrogen.

  6. Developing scale for colleague solidarity among nurses in Turkey. (United States)

    Uslusoy, Esin Cetinkaya; Alpar, Sule Ecevit


    There is a need for an appropriate instrument to measure colleague solidarity among nurses. This study was carried out to develop a Colleague Solidarity of Nurses' Scale (CSNS). This study was planned to be descriptive and methodological. The CSNS examined content validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability. The trial form of the CSNS, which was composed of 44 items, was given to 200 nurses, followed by validity and reliability analyses. Following the analyses, 21 items were excluded from the scale, leaving an attitude scale made up of 23 items. Factor analysis of the data showed that the scale has a three sub-factor structure: emotional solidarity, academic solidarity and negative opinions about solidarity. The Cronbach's alpha reliability of the whole scale was 0.80. This study provides evidence that the CSNS possesses robust solidarity among nurses. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Predicting risk behaviors: development and validation of a diagnostic scale. (United States)

    Witte, K; Cameron, K A; McKeon, J K; Berkowitz, J M


    The goal of this study was to develop and validate the Risk Behavior Diagnosis (RBD) Scale for use by health care providers and practitioners interested in promoting healthy behaviors. Theoretically guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM; a fear appeal theory), the RBD scale was designed to work in conjunction with an easy-to-use formula to determine which types of health risk messages would be most appropriate for a given individual or audience. Because some health risk messages promote behavior change and others backfire, this type of scale offers guidance to practitioners on how to develop the best persuasive message possible to motivate healthy behaviors. The results of the study demonstrate the RBD scale to have a high degree of content, construct, and predictive validity. Specific examples and practical suggestions are offered to facilitate use of the scale for health practitioners.

  8. Scaling the EOS namespace

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Andreas J; Bitzes, Georgios


    EOS is the distributed storage system being developed at CERN with the aim of fulfilling a wide range of data storage needs, ranging from physics data to user home directories. Being in production since 2011, EOS currently manages around 224 petabytes of disk space and 1.4 billion files across several instances. Even though individual EOS instances routinely manage hundreds of disk servers, users access the contents through a single, unified namespace which is exposed by the head node (MGM), and contains the metadata of all files stored on that instance. The legacy implementation keeps the entire namespace in-memory. Modifications are appended to a persistent, on-disk changelog; this way, the in-memory contents can be reconstructed after every reboot by replaying the changelog. While this solution has proven reliable and effective, we are quickly approaching the limits of its scalability. In this paper, we present our new implementation which is currently in testing. We have designed and implemented QuarkD...

  9. Validation of Collett-Lester's Fear of Death Scale in a sample of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Espinoza Venegas

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of Collett-Lester's Fear of Death Scale. A sample of 349 nursing students answered Fear of Death and Attitude toward death scales. Content validity was checked by expert review; reliability was proven using Cronbach's alpha; statistical analysis of the items, correlation between items and construct validity were checked by the correlation of the Scale with the Attitude toward death Scale. The multidimensionality of the scale was reviewed through factor analysis with varimax rotation. The Fear of Death Scale possesses good internal consistency and construct validity, confirmed by the significant correlation with the Attitude toward death Scale. Factor analysis partially supports content validity of the subscale items, but presented a modified multidimensional structure that points towards the reconceptualization of the subscales in this sample.

  10. Information Theoretical Analysis of Identification based on Active Content Fingerprinting


    Farhadzadeh, Farzad; Willems, Frans M. J.; Voloshinovskiy, Sviatoslav


    Content fingerprinting and digital watermarking are techniques that are used for content protection and distribution monitoring. Over the past few years, both techniques have been well studied and their shortcomings understood. Recently, a new content fingerprinting scheme called {\\em active content fingerprinting} was introduced to overcome these shortcomings. Active content fingerprinting aims to modify a content to extract robuster fingerprints than the conventional content fingerprinting....

  11. Is halogen content the most important factor in the removal of halogenated trace organics by MBR treatment? (United States)

    Hai, Faisal I; Tadkaew, Nichanan; McDonald, James A; Khan, Stuart J; Nghiem, Long D


    This study investigated the relationship between physicochemical properties (namely halogen content and hydrophobicity) of halogenated trace organics and their removal efficiencies by a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) under stable operating conditions. The reported results demonstrated a combined effect of halogen content and hydrophobicity on the removal. Compounds with high halogen content (>0.3) were well removed (>85%) when they possessed high hydrophobicity (Log D>3.2), while those with lower Log D values were also well removed if they had low halogen content (BIOWIN index (which is based on only biodegradation) or a more specific index such as the halogen content (which captures a chemical aspect) appeared insufficient to predict the removal efficiency of halogenated compounds in MBR. Experimental data confirmed that the ratio of halogen content and Log D, which incorporates two important physico-chemical properties, is comparatively more suitable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions


    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  13. Description of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge on Muhammadiyah Semarang University's preservice teacher (United States)

    Astuti, Andari Puji; Wijayatiningsih, Testiana Deni; Azis, Abdul; Sumarti, Sri Susilogati; Barati, Dwi Anggani Linggar


    One of the competencies of teachers to be mastered under the constitution is pedagogic competence. This study aims to provide an overview of the pedagogic competence of Preservice teachers through the mastery of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and Content knowledge (CK). The research method used is descriptive qualitative, with data retrieval technique through essay tests, questionnaire and interview. The results showed that of the five PCK indicators, only knowledge of learning strategies to teach chemistry already in high category. For Content Knowledge of preservice teachers are in the middle category for indicators of knowledge of disciplinary content, whereas knowledge that alternative frameworks for thinking about the content exist and the knowledge of the relationship between big ideas and the supporting ideas in a content area is in the fair category.

  14. Development of the Chinese version of Meaning in Life Scale for cancer patients and psychometric evaluation. (United States)

    Xia, Hao-Zhi; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Song, Hui; Shi, Bao-Xin


    To develop a Meaning in Life Scale for cancer patients in Chinese version and to test the validity and reliability. Meaning in life is a protective factor of psychological well-being and is negatively related to depression and demoralisation among cancer patients. The existing scales measuring meaning in life are mostly designed in English and there is no scale designed for Chinese cancer patients based on Chinese cultural background. Process of instrument development and psychometric evaluation were used. Items were generated from literature review and a focus group interview. Delphi technique was used to test the content validity. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed with data from 251 cancer patients. The internal consistency of the scale was tested by Cronbach's alpha. A 25-item Meaning in Life Scale in Chinese version with five domains was developed. The five factors explained 62·686% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0·897. The Meaning in Life Scale in Chinese version has acceptable internal consistency reliability and good content validity and acceptable construct validity. The content of the scale reflected the attitudes of cancer patients towards meaning in life based on Chinese cultural background. The Chinese version of Meaning in Life Scale for Cancer Patients appears to be a new scale to assess meaning in life among Chinese cancer patients exactly and the concept of meaning in life presented in this scale provides new ideas of meaning intervention in routine clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01] - study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics (United States)


    Background Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common reason for inappropriate antibiotic use. Most prior efforts to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs (e.g., educational or informational interventions) have relied on the implicit assumption that clinicians inappropriately prescribe antibiotics because they are unaware of guideline recommendations for ARIs. If lack of guideline awareness is not the reason for inappropriate prescribing, educational interventions may have limited impact on prescribing rates. Instead, interventions that apply social psychological and behavioral economic principles may be more effective in deterring inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs by well-informed clinicians. Methods/design The Application of Behavioral Economics to Improve the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections (BEARI) Trial is a multisite, cluster-randomized controlled trial with practice as the unit of randomization. The primary aim is to test the ability of three interventions based on behavioral economic principles to reduce the rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. We randomized practices in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design to receive up to three interventions for non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses: 1) Accountable Justifications: When prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI, clinicians are prompted to record an explicit justification that appears in the patient electronic health record; 2) Suggested Alternatives: Through computerized clinical decision support, clinicians prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI receive a list of non-antibiotic treatment choices (including prescription options) prior to completing the antibiotic prescription; and 3) Peer Comparison: Each provider’s rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing relative to top-performing peers is reported back to the provider periodically by email. We enrolled 269 clinicians (practicing attending physicians or advanced practice nurses) in 49 participating clinic sites and collected baseline data. The primary outcome is the antibiotic prescribing rate for office visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate ARI diagnoses. Secondary outcomes will examine antibiotic prescribing more broadly. The 18-month intervention period will be followed by a one year follow-up period to measure persistence of effects after interventions cease. Discussion The ongoing BEARI Trial will evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral economic strategies in reducing inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics. Trials registration NCT01454947 PMID:23806017

  16. Determination of soluble protein contents from RVNRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Nurulhuda Othman


    This project was carried out to determine the soluble protein contents on RVNRL film vulcanisates, with respect to the RVNRL storage time, gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the latex and the effect of different leaching time and leaching conditions. These three factors are important in the hope to determine the best possible mean of minimizing the soluble protein contents in products made from RVNRL. Within the nine months storage period employed in the study, the results show that, the longer the storage period the less the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. Gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the samples, between 5.3 kGy to 25.2 kGy seems to influence the soluble protein contents of the RVNRL films vulcanisates. The higher the dose the more was the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. At an absorbed dose of 5.3 kGy and 25.2 kGy, the soluble contents were 0. 198 mg/ml and 0.247 mg/ml respectively. At a fixed leaching temperature, the soluble proteins increases with leaching time and at a fixed leaching time, the soluble proteins increases with leaching temperature. ne highest extractable protein contents was determined at a leaching time of 10 minutes and leaching temperature of 90'C The protein analysis were done by using Modified Lowry Method

  17. Retrospective analysis for detecting seismic precursors in groundwater argon content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi


    Full Text Available We examined the groundwater Argon content data sampled from 1988 to 2001 at two wells in Kamchatka (Russia and anomalous increases appeared clearly during June-July 1996. On 21 June, a shallow (1km earthquake with M=7.1 occurred at a distance less than 250km from the wells and so the previous increases could be related to this earthquake and, in particular, could be considered premonitory anomalies. In order to support this raw interpretation, we analysed the data collected in details. At first we smoothed out the high frequency fluctuations arising from the errors in a single measurement. Next we considered the known external effects on the water of a well that are the slow tectonic re-adjustment processes, the meteorology and the gravity tides and we separated these effects applying band-pass filters to the Argon content raw trends. Then we identified the largest fluctuations in these trends applying the 3 σ criterion and we found three anomalies in a case and two anomalies in other case. Comparing the time occurrence of the anomalies at the two wells we found out that a coincidence exists only in the case of the premonitory anomalies we are studying. The simultaneous appearance of well definite anomalies in the residual trends of the same parameter at two different sites supports their meaning and the possibility that they are related to some large scale effect, as the occurrence of a strong earthquake. But, other earthquakes similar to the June 1996 event took place during the Argon content measurements time and no anomaly appeared in this content. In the past, some of the authors of this paper studied the Helium content data collected in three natural springs of the Caucasus during seven years. A very similar result, that is the simultaneous appearance of clear premonitory anomalies only on the occasion of a strong (M=7.0 but shallow (2–4km earthquake, was obtained. The correspondence with the case of the Caucasus validates the

  18. Specificity of cognitive structure in depression and social phobia: a comparison of interpersonal and achievement content. (United States)

    Dozois, David J A; Frewen, Paul A


    The comorbidity between the mood and anxiety is extensive and it is probable that individuals with these disorders share a number of cognitive characteristics. However, comorbidity rates with depression are not uniform among the various anxiety disorders. This study examined the common and distinguishing features of self-schematic structure in major depressive disorder and social anxiety compared to other anxiety disorders in general and to no psychiatric disturbance. Participants completed the Psychological Distance Scaling Task, which provided an index of the cognitive organization of positively and negatively valenced interpersonal and achievement self-referent content. The depression and social phobia groups were statistically equivalent on all indices of cognitive organization, and showed greater interconnectedness among interpersonal negative content than both control groups, and less interconnectedness among both positive interpersonal and achievement content than did nonpsychiatric controls. Psychiatric groups were equivalent on negative achievement content but showed greater interconnectedness than controls. This study had a modest sample size and the findings are constrained to females. Negative interpersonal content is more densely interconnected in individuals with social phobia and depression compared with both other anxiety disorder and nonpsychiatric controls. In addition, both social phobia and depression were associated with less interconnected positive content. These findings are indicative of similarities in the way self-schematic content may be organized in individuals with depression and social phobia. Theoretical explanations of these results and future research directions are discussed.

  19. Identifying the Gender Dimension in Research Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.; Lalonde, B.St.L.; Tippett, C.; Archambault, E.; Callaert, J.; Mantouvalou, K.; Arora, L.


    Globally, there is an increasing interest in integrating the gender dimension in research content (GDRC). As a first step towards monitoring progress in this area, a new indicator measuring the proportion of a country’s scientific publications integrating a gender dimension in their subject matter was developed for the European Commission’s She Figures 2015 publication. This indicator is based on a keyword-based query covering both sex-related terms (biological characteristics of both women and men) and gender-related terms (social/cultural factors of both women and men). The final GDRC dataset consisted of some 212,600 distinct publications including a gender dimension in their research content. Findings suggest that integrating a gender dimension into research content is relatively rare. Unsurprisingly, it was less common for scientific articles in the fields of agricultural sciences, engineering and technology, and natural sciences to do so, and more common in the social sciences. (Author)

  20. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test ( adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.