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Sample records for rc time constant

  1. A monolithic constant-fraction discriminator using distributed R-C delay-line shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R.; Xu, M.

    1995-01-01

    A monolithic, CMOS, constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) was fabricated in the Orbit Semiconductor, 1.2 μ N-well process. This circuit uses an on-chip, distributed, R-C delay-line to realize the constant-fraction shaping. The delay-line is constructed from a narrow, 500-μ serpentine layer of polysilicon above a wide, grounded, second layer of polysilicon. This R-C delay-line generates about 1.1 ns of delay for 5 ns risetime signals with a slope degradation of only ≅ 15% and an amplitude reduction of about 6.1%. The CFD also features an automatic walk adjustment. The entire circuit, including the delay line, has a 200 μ pitch and is 950 μ long. The walk for a 5 ns risetime signal was measured as ± 100 ps over the 100:1 dynamic range from -15 mV to -1.5 mV. to -1.5 V. The CFD consumes 15 mW

  2. Tomographic reconstruction of storm time RC ion distribution from ENA images on board multiple spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ying; Yan, Wei-Nan; Xu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    A quantitative retrieval of 3-D distribution of energetic ions as energetic neutral atoms (ENA) sources is a challenging task. In this paper the voxel computerized tomography (CT) method is initially applied to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of energetic ions in the magnetospheric ring current (RC) region from ENA emission images on board multiple spacecraft. To weaken the influence of low-altitude emission (LAE) on the reconstruction, the LAE-associated ENA intensities are corrected by invoking the thick-target approximation. To overcome the divergence in iteration due to discordant instrument biases, a differential ENA voxel CT method is developed. The method is proved reliable and advantageous by numerical simulation for the case of constant bias independent of viewing angle. Then this method is implemented with ENA data measured by the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers mission which performs stereoscopic ENA imaging. The 3-D spatial distributions and energy spectra of RC ion flux intensity are reconstructed for energies of 4-50 keV during the main phase of a major magnetic storm. The retrieved ion flux distributions seem to correspond to an asymmetric partial RC, located mainly around midnight favoring the postmidnight with L = 3.5-7.0 in the equatorial plane. The RC ion distributions with magnetic local time depend on energy, with major equatorial flux peak for lower energy located east of that for higher energy. In comparison with the ion energy spectra measured by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms-D satellite flying in the RC region, the retrieved spectrum from remotely sensed ENA images are well matched with the in situ measurements.

  3. Cryptography in constant parallel time

    CERN Document Server

    Applebaum, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Locally computable (NC0) functions are 'simple' functions for which every bit of the output can be computed by reading a small number of bits of their input. The study of locally computable cryptography attempts to construct cryptographic functions that achieve this strong notion of simplicity and simultaneously provide a high level of security. Such constructions are highly parallelizable and they can be realized by Boolean circuits of constant depth.This book establishes, for the first time, the possibility of local implementations for many basic cryptographic primitives such as one-way func

  4. The time constant of the somatogravic illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Grácio, B J; de Winkel, K N; Groen, E L; Wentink, M; Bos, J E

    2013-02-01

    Without visual feedback, humans perceive tilt when experiencing a sustained linear acceleration. This tilt illusion is commonly referred to as the somatogravic illusion. Although the physiological basis of the illusion seems to be well understood, the dynamic behavior is still subject to discussion. In this study, the dynamic behavior of the illusion was measured experimentally for three motion profiles with different frequency content. Subjects were exposed to pure centripetal accelerations in the lateral direction and were asked to indicate their tilt percept by means of a joystick. Variable-radius centrifugation during constant angular rotation was used to generate these motion profiles. Two self-motion perception models were fitted to the experimental data and were used to obtain the time constant of the somatogravic illusion. Results showed that the time constant of the somatogravic illusion was on the order of two seconds, in contrast to the higher time constant found in fixed-radius centrifugation studies. Furthermore, the time constant was significantly affected by the frequency content of the motion profiles. Motion profiles with higher frequency content revealed shorter time constants which cannot be explained by self-motion perception models that assume a fixed time constant. Therefore, these models need to be improved with a mechanism that deals with this variable time constant. Apart from the fundamental importance, these results also have practical consequences for the simulation of sustained accelerations in motion simulators.

  5. Dynamics model for real time diagnostics of Triga RC-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, A.M.; Nanni, V.; Meo, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents dynamics model of TRIGA RC-1 reactor system. The model is dedicated to the real-time early fault detection during a reactor operation in one week exploitation cycle. The algorithms are specially suited for real-time, long time and also accelerated simulations with assumed diagnostic oriented accuracy. The approximations, modular structure, numerical methods and validation are discussed. The elaborated model will be build in the TRIGA Supervisor System and TRIGA Diagnostic Simulator

  6. Dynamics model for real time diagnostics of TRIGA RC-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, A.M.; Nanni, V.; Meo, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents dynamics model of TRIGA RC-1 reactor system. The model is dedicated to the real-time early fault detection during a reactor operation in one week exploitation cycle. The algorithms are specially suited for real-time, long time and also accelerated simulations with assumed diagnostic oriented accuracy. The approximations, modular structure, numerical methods and validation are discussed. The elaborated model will be build in the TRIGA Supervisory System and TRIGA Diagnostic Simulator. (author)

  7. A Digitally Programmable Differential Integrator with Enlarged Time Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Debroy

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Operational Amplifier (OA-RC integrator network is described. The novelties of the design are used of single grounded capacitor, ideal integration function realization with dual-input capability and design flexibility for extremely large time constant involving an enlargement factor (K using product of resistor ratios. The aspect of the digital control of K through a programmable resistor array (PRA controlled by a microprocessor has also been implemented. The effect of the OA-poles has been analyzed which indicates degradation of the integrator-Q at higher frequencies. An appropriate Q-compensation design scheme exhibiting 1 : |A|2 order of Q-improvement has been proposed with supporting experimental observations.

  8. Time constant of logarithmic creep and relaxation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2001-07-15

    Full Text Available length and hardness which vary logarithmically with time. For dimensional reasons, a logarithmic variation must involve a time constant tau characteristic of the process, so that the deformation is proportional to ln(t/tau). Two distinct mechanisms...

  9. Ventricular fibrillation time constant for swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiun-Yan; Sun, Hongyu; Nimunkar, Amit J; Webster, John G; O'Rourke, Ann; Huebner, Shane; Will, James A

    2008-01-01

    The strength–duration curve for cardiac excitation can be modeled by a parallel resistor–capacitor circuit that has a time constant. Experiments on six pigs were performed by delivering current from the X26 Taser dart at a distance from the heart to cause ventricular fibrillation (VF). The X26 Taser is an electromuscular incapacitation device (EMD), which generates about 50 kV and delivers a pulse train of about 15–19 pulses s −1 with a pulse duration of about 150 µs and peak current about 2 A. Similarly a continuous 60 Hz alternating current of the amplitude required to cause VF was delivered from the same distance. The average current and duration of the current pulse were estimated in both sets of experiments. The strength–duration equation was solved to yield an average time constant of 2.87 ms ± 1.90 (SD). Results obtained may help in the development of safety standards for future electromuscular incapacitation devices (EMDs) without requiring additional animal tests

  10. Time-variant flexural reliability of RC beams with externally bonded CFRP under combined fatigue-corrosion actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaud, David; Ali, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Time-variant reliability analysis of RC highway bridges strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer CFRP laminates under four possible competing damage modes (concrete crushing, steel rupture after yielding, CFRP rupture and FRP plate debonding) and three degradation factors is analyzed in terms of reliability index β using FORM. The first degradation factor is chloride-attack corrosion which induces reduction in steel area and concrete cover cracking at characteristic key times (corrosion initiation, severe surface cover cracking). The second degradation factor considered is fatigue which leads to damage in concrete and steel rebar. Interaction between corrosion and fatigue crack growth in steel reinforcing bars is implemented. The third degradation phenomenon is the CFRP properties deterioration due to aging. Considering these three degradation factors, the time-dependent flexural reliability profile of a typical simple 15 m-span intermediate girder of a RC highway bridge is constructed under various traffic volumes and under different corrosion environments. The bridge design options follow AASHTO-LRFD specifications. Results of the study have shown that the reliability is very sensitive to factors governing the corrosion. Concrete damage due to fatigue slightly affects reliability profile of non-strengthened section, while service life after strengthening is strongly related to fatigue damage in concrete. - Highlights: • We propose a method to follow the time-variant reliability of strengthened RC beams. • We consider multiple competing failure modes of CFRP strengthened RC beams. • We consider combined degradation mechanisms (corrosion, fatigue, ageing of CFRP)

  11. Union-Find with Constant Time Deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Thorup, Mikkel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    operations performed, and α_M/N_(n) is a functional inverse of Ackermann’s function. They left open the question whether delete operations can be implemented more efficiently than find operations, for example, in o(log n) worst-case time. We resolve this open problem by presenting a relatively simple...

  12. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  13. Constant scalar curvature hypersurfaces in extended Schwarzschild space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, M. J.; Frauendiener, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of spherically symmetric hypersurfaces in the Kruskal extension of the Schwarzschild space-time. The hypersurfaces have constant negative scalar curvature, so they are hyperboloidal in the regions of space-time which are asymptotically flat

  14. Fundamental Constants in Physics and their Time Dependence

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    In the Standard Model of Particle Physics we are dealing with 28 fundamental constants. In the experiments these constants can be measured, but theoretically they are not understood. I will discuss these constants, which are mostly mass parameters. Astrophysical measurements indicate that the finestructure constant is not a real constant, but depends on time. Grand unification then implies also a time variation of the QCD scale. Thus the masses of the atomic nuclei and the magnetic moments of the nuclei will depend on time. I proposed an experiment, which is currently done by Prof. Haensch in Munich and his group. The first results indicate a time dependence of the QCD scale. I will discuss the theoretical implications.

  15. Time variable cosmological constants from the age of universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lixin; Lu Jianbo; Li Wenbo

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, time variable cosmological constant, dubbed age cosmological constant, is investigated motivated by the fact: any cosmological length scale and time scale can introduce a cosmological constant or vacuum energy density into Einstein's theory. The age cosmological constant takes the form ρ Λ =3c 2 M P 2 /t Λ 2 , where t Λ is the age or conformal age of our universe. The effective equation of state (EoS) of age cosmological constant are w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c and w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c (1+z) when the age and conformal age of universe are taken as the role of cosmological time scales respectively. The EoS are the same as the so-called agegraphic dark energy models. However, the evolution histories are different from the agegraphic ones for their different evolution equations.

  16. Long Pulse Integrator of Variable Integral Time Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Ji Zhenshan; Du Xiaoying; Wu Yichun; Li Shi; Luo Jiarong

    2010-01-01

    A kind of new long pulse integrator was designed based on the method of variable integral time constant and deducting integral drift by drift slope. The integral time constant can be changed by choosing different integral resistors, in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and avoid output saturation; the slope of integral drift of a certain period of time can be calculated by digital signal processing, which can be used to deduct the drift of original integral signal in real time to reduce the integral drift. The tests show that this kind of long pulse integrator is good at reducing integral drift, which also can eliminate the effects of changing integral time constant. According to experiments, the integral time constant can be changed by remote control and manual adjustment of integral drift is avoided, which can improve the experiment efficiency greatly and can be used for electromagnetic measurement in Tokamak experiment. (authors)

  17. Sensitivity of Variables with Time for Degraded RC Shear Wall with Low Steel Ratio under Seismic Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Hee; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil

    2011-01-01

    Various factors lead to the degradation of reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall over time. The steel section loss, concrete spalling and strength of material have been considered for the structural analysis of degraded shear wall. When all variables with respect to degradation are considered for probabilistic evaluation of degraded shear wall, many of time and effort were demanded. Therefore, it is required to define important variables related to structural behavior for effectively conducting probabilistic seismic analysis of structures with age-related degradation. In this study, variables were defined by applying the function of time to consider degradation with time. Importance of variables with time on the seismic response was investigated by conducting sensitivity analysis

  18. On time variation of fundamental constants in superstring theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, K.I.

    1988-01-01

    Assuming the action from the string theory and taking into account the dynamical freedom of a dilaton and its coupling to matter fluid, the authors show that fundamental 'constants' in string theories are independent of the 'radius' of the internal space. Since the scalar related to the 'constants' is coupled to the 4-dimensional gravity and matter fluid in the same way as in the Jordan-Brans Dicke theory with ω = -1, it must be massive and can get a mass easily through some symmetry breaking mechanism (e.g. the SUSY breaking due to a gluino condensation). Consequently, time variation of fundamental constants is too small to be observed

  19. Simple Model with Time-Varying Fine-Structure ``Constant''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, M. S.

    2009-10-01

    Extending the original version written in colaboration with L.A. Trevisan, we study the generalisation of Dirac's LNH, so that time-variation of the fine-structure constant, due to varying electrical and magnetic permittivities is included along with other variations (cosmological and gravitational ``constants''), etc. We consider the present Universe, and also an inflationary scenario. Rotation of the Universe is a given possibility in this model.

  20. Numerical counting ratemeter with variable time constant and integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.; Fuan, J.

    1967-01-01

    We present here the prototype of a numerical counting ratemeter which is a special version of variable time-constant frequency meter (1). The originality of this work lies in the fact that the change in the time constant is carried out automatically. Since the criterion for this change is the accuracy in the annunciated result, the integration time is varied as a function of the frequency. For the prototype described in this report, the time constant varies from 1 sec to 1 millisec. for frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 10 MHz. This prototype is built entirely of MECL-type integrated circuits from Motorola and is thus contained in two relatively small boxes. (authors) [fr

  1. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownstein John S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. Results We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p Conclusion Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  2. Fuzzy logic estimator of rotor time constant in induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alminoja, J. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Control Engineering Laboratory; Koivo, H. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Control Engineering Laboratory

    1997-12-31

    Vector control of AC machines is a well-known and widely used technique in induction machine control. It offers an exact method for speed control of induction motors, but it is also sensitive to the changes in machine parameters. E.g. rotor time constant has a strong dependence on temperature. In this paper a fuzzy logic estimator is developed, with which the rotor time constant can be estimated when the machine has a load. It is more simple than the estimators proposed in the literature. The fuzzy estimator is tested by simulation when step-wise abrupt changes and slow drifting occurs. (orig.) 7 refs.

  3. Generating k-independent variables in constant time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, Tobias Lybecker; Pagh, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    The generation of pseudorandom elements over finite fields is fundamental to the time, space and randomness complexity of randomized algorithms and data structures. We consider the problem of generating k-independent random values over a finite field F in a word RAM model equipped with constant...

  4. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Shannon C; Brownstein, John S; Berger, Bonnie; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2007-06-13

    For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p accounting for not only the expected number of visits, but also the variance of the number of visits. The expectation-variance model achieves constant specificity on all three time scales, as well as earlier detection and improved sensitivity compared to traditional methods in most circumstances. Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  5. Modal Identification of a Time-Invariant 6-Storey Model Test RC-Frame from Free Decay Tests using Multi-Variate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    in the comparison. The data investigated are sampled from a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay RC-frame. The laboratory model is excited at the top storey where two different types of excitation where considered. In the first case the structure was excited in the first mode and in the second case......The scope of the paper is to apply multi-variate time-domain models for identification of eginfrequencies and mode shapes of a time- invariant model test Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame from measured decays. The frequencies and mode shapes of interest are the two lowest ones since they are normally...

  6. Modal Identification of a Time-Invariant 6-Storey Model Test RC-Frame from Free Decay Tests using Multi-Variate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    in the comparison. The data investigated are sampled from a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay RC-frame. The laboratory model is excited at the top storey where two different types of excitation where considered. In the first case the structure was excited in the first mode and in the second case......The scope of the paper is to apply multi-variate time-domain models for identification of eginfrequencies and mode shapes of a time- invariant model test Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame from measured decays. The frequencies and mode shapes of interest are the two lowest ones since they are normally...

  7. A Parallel Priority Queue with Constant Time Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Träff, Jesper Larsson; Zaroliagis, Christos D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a parallel priority queue that supports the following operations in constant time:parallel insertionof a sequence of elements ordered according to key,parallel decrease keyfor a sequence of elements ordered according to key,deletion of the minimum key element, anddeletion of an arbitrary...... application is a parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm for the single-source shortest path problem, which runs inO(n) time andO(mlogn) work on a CREW PRAM on graphs withnvertices andmedges. This is a logarithmic factor improvement in the running time compared with previous approaches....

  8. A Better Criterion for the Discharging Time in an RC Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Fabio M. S.

    2015-01-01

    When all parts of an electric circuit are at the same potential, no electric current flows and it is said to be in equilibrium. Otherwise, a current will flow from the higher potential parts to the lower ones, as when we make contact between the plates of a charged capacitor. The resulting discharging process towards equilibrium is a common phenomenon in electricity labs, as well as a topic covered in introductory physics, but some questions are not answered, e.g., could we establish a good criterion for the "end" of the charge transfer process? If so, typically how long does it take for electric equilibrium to be reached? The absence of these questions in textbooks and lab manuals has bothered me since my own undergraduate studies because, as the usual theory, in which charge is treated as a continuous, rather than discrete, parameter, predicts an exponential decay for the charge stored in the capacitor, rigorously speaking we should wait an infinitely long time for finding a complete equilibrium.1 Fortunately, when teaching experimental physics last year, I was asked about these very questions, which motivated me to search for a simple answer that could be adopted universally for measuring the "lifetime" of any physical quantity that decays exponentially in time.

  9. A time-to-amplitude converter with constant fraction timing discriminators for short time interval measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostamovaara, J.; Myllylae, R.

    1985-01-01

    The construction and the performance of a time-to-amplitude converter equipped with constant fraction discriminators is described. The TAC consists of digital and analog parts which are constructed on two printed circuit boards, both of which are located in a single width NIM module. The dead time of the TAC for a start pulse which is not followed by a stop pulse within the time range of the device (proportional100 ns) is only proportional100 ns, which enables one to avoid counting rate saturation even with a high random input signal rate. The differential and integral nonlinearities of the TAC are better than +-1.5% and 0.05%, respectively. The resolution for input timing pulses of constant shape is 20 ps (fwhm), and less than 10 ps (fwhm) with a modification in the digital part. The walk error of the constant fraction timing discriminators is presented and various parameters affecting it are discussed. The effect of the various disturbances in linearity caused by the fast ECL logic and their minimization are also discussed. The time-to-amplitude converter has been used in positron lifetime studies and for laser range finding. (orig.)

  10. Newtonian cosmology with a time-varying constant of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVittie, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    Newtonian cosmology is based on the Eulerian equations of fluid mechanics combined with Poisson's equation modified by the introduction of a time-varying G. Spherically symmetric model universes are worked out with instantaneously uniform densities. They are indeterminate unless instantaneous uniformity of the pressure is imposed. When G varies as an inverse power of the time, the models can in some cases be shown to depend on the solution of a second-order differential equation which also occurs in the Friedmann models of general relativity. In Section 3, a method for 'passing through' a singularity of this equation is proposed which entails making four arbitrary mathematical assumptions. When G varies as (time) -1 , models with initially cycloidal motion are possible, each cycle becoming longer as time progresses. Finally, gravitation becomes so weak that the model expands to infinity. Kinetic and potential energies for the whole model are derived from the basic equations; their sum is not constant. (author)

  11. Analytical model for time to cover cracking in RC structures due to rebar corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, Kapilesh; Ghosh, A.K.; Mori, Yasuhiro; Ramanujam, S.

    2006-01-01

    The structural degradation of concrete structures due to reinforcement corrosion is a major worldwide problem. Reinforcement corrosion causes a volume increase due to the oxidation of metallic iron, which is mainly responsible for exerting the expansive radial pressure at the steel-concrete interface and development of hoop tensile stresses in the surrounding concrete. Cracking occurs, once the maximum hoop tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete. The cracking begins at the steel-concrete interface and propagates outwards and eventually results in the thorough cracking of the cover concrete and this would indicate the loss of service life for the corrosion affected structures. An analytical model is proposed to predict the time required for cover cracking and the weight loss of reinforcing bar in corrosion affected reinforced concrete structures. The modelling aspects of the residual strength of cracked concrete and the stiffness contribution from the combination of reinforcement and expansive corrosion products have also been incorporated in the model. The problem is modeled as a boundary value problem and the governing equations are expressed in terms of the radial displacement. The analytical solutions are presented considering a simple two-zone model for the cover concrete, viz. cracked or uncracked. Reasonable estimation of the various parameters in the model related to the composition and properties of expansive corrosion products based on the available published experimental data has also been discussed. The performance of the proposed corrosion cracking model is then investigated through its ability to reproduce available experimental trends. Reasonably good agreement between experimental results and the analytical predictions has been obtained. It has also been found that tensile strength and initial tangent modulus of cover concrete, annual mean corrosion rate and modulus of elasticity of reinforcement plus corrosion products combined

  12. Isothermal titration calorimetry in nanoliter droplets with subsecond time constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Brad; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2011-10-15

    We reduced the reaction volume in microfabricated suspended-membrane titration calorimeters to nanoliter droplets and improved the sensitivities to below a nanowatt with time constants of around 100 ms. The device performance was characterized using exothermic acid-base neutralizations and a detailed numerical model. The finite element based numerical model allowed us to determine the sensitivities within 1% and the temporal dynamics of the temperature rise in neutralization reactions as a function of droplet size. The model was used to determine the optimum calorimeter design (membrane size and thickness, junction area, and thermopile thickness) and sensitivities for sample volumes of 1 nL for silicon nitride and polymer membranes. We obtained a maximum sensitivity of 153 pW/(Hz)(1/2) for a 1 μm SiN membrane and 79 pW/(Hz)(1/2) for a 1 μm polymer membrane. The time constant of the calorimeter system was determined experimentally using a pulsed laser to increase the temperature of nanoliter sample volumes. For a 2.5 nanoliter sample volume, we experimentally determined a noise equivalent power of 500 pW/(Hz)(1/2) and a 1/e time constant of 110 ms for a modified commercially available infrared sensor with a thin-film thermopile. Furthermore, we demonstrated detection of 1.4 nJ reaction energies from injection of 25 pL of 1 mM HCl into a 2.5 nL droplet of 1 mM NaOH. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Identification of an Equivalent Linear Model for a Non-Linear Time-Variant RC-Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune

    are investigated and compared with ARMAX models used on a running window. The techniques are evaluated using simulated data generated by the non-linear finite element program SARCOF modeling a 10-storey 3-bay concrete structure subjected to amplitude modulated Gaussian white noise filtered through a Kanai......This paper considers estimation of the maximum softening for a RC-structure subjected to earthquake excitation. The so-called Maximum Softening damage indicator relates the global damage state of the RC-structure to the relative decrease of the fundamental eigenfrequency in an equivalent linear...

  14. An optimum design of R-C oscillatory De-Qing circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dezhang; Pan Linghe; Yang Tianlu

    1990-01-01

    An optimum design of R-C oscillatory De-Qing circuit has been developed for voltage regulation of the pulse modulator. When a new coefficient T 3 /T is introduced, the selection of De-Qing circuit parameters will become quite simple and the optimum parameters can be calculated directly. The De-Qing circuit parameters calculated will be effective in the whole range of the percentage regulation η from zero to maximum design value. The limit value of η is 0.36 or 0.29, theoretically, when the time constant of the De-Qing circuit is 3RC or 5RC respectively

  15. Certificateless Public Auditing Protocol with Constant Verification Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To provide the integrity of outsourced data in the cloud storage services, many public auditing schemes which allow a user to check the integrity of the outsourced data have been proposed. Since most of the schemes are constructed on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI, they suffer from several concerns like management of certificates. To resolve the problems, certificateless public auditing schemes also have been studied in recent years. In this paper, we propose a certificateless public auditing scheme which has the constant-time verification algorithm. Therefore, our scheme is more efficient than previous certificateless public auditing schemes. To prove the security of our certificateless public auditing scheme, we first define three formal security models and prove the security of our scheme under the three security models.

  16. On RC-spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  17. The Hubble constant estimation using 18 gravitational lensing time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaelani, Anton T.; Premadi, Premana W.

    2014-03-01

    Gravitational lens time delay method has been used to estimate the rate of cosmological expansion, called the Hubble constant, H0, independently of the standard candle method. This gravitational lensing method requires a good knowledge of the lens mass distribution, reconstructed using the lens image properties. The observed positions of the images, and the redshifts of the lens and the images serve as strong constraints to the lens equations, which are then solved as a set of simultaneous linear equations. Here we made use of a non-parametric technique to reconstruct the lens mass distribution, which is manifested in a linear equations solver named PixeLens. Input for the calculation is chosen based on prior known parameters obtained from analyzed result of the lens case observations, including time-delay, position angles of the images and the lens, and their redshifts. In this project, 18 fairly well studied lens cases are further grouped according to a number of common properties to examine how each property affects the character of the data, and therefore affects the calculation of H0. The considered lens case properties are lens morphology, number of image, completeness of time delays, and symmetry of lens mass distribution. Analysis of simulation shows that paucity of constraints on mass distribution of a lens yields wide range value of H0, which reflects the uniqueness of each lens system. Nonetheless, gravitational lens method still yields H0 within an acceptable range of value when compared to those determined by many other methods. Grouping the cases in the above manner allowed us to assess the robustness of PixeLens and thereby use it selectively. In addition, we use glafic, a parametric mass reconstruction solver, to refine the mass distribution of one lens case, as a comparison.

  18. Time variation of the fine structure constant driven by quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Goldberg, Haim

    2003-01-01

    There are indications from the study of quasar absorption spectra that the fine structure constant α may have been measurably smaller for redshifts z>2. Analyses of other data ( 149 Sm fission rate for the Oklo natural reactor, variation of 187 Re β-decay rate in meteorite studies, atomic clock measurements) which probe variations of α in the more recent past imply much smaller deviations from its present value. In this work we tie the variation of α to the evolution of the quintessence field proposed by Albrecht and Skordis, and show that agreement with all these data, as well as consistency with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations, can be achieved for a range of parameters. Some definite predictions follow for upcoming space missions searching for violations of the equivalence principle

  19. Some security results of the RC4+ stream cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Jha, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    to any even 8-bit constant other than 0xAA. Therefore, the question that naturally arises is whether the design of RC4+ can be protected by fixing the pad parameter to some constant odd value. In this paper, we try to answer this very question. We show that the design is still vulnerable by mounting...... in terms of number of faults required and the computational complexity. In fact, we reduce the number of faults by around 11264 on average, and our algorithm is around 26 times faster....

  20. A Mathematical Model of a Thermally Activated Roof (TAR Cooling System Using a Simplified RC-Thermal Model with Time Dependent Supply Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Ahmed Joudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer simulation model of a thermally activated roof (TAR to cool a room using cool water from a wet cooling tower. Modeling was achieved using a simplified 1-D resistance-capacitance thermal network (RC model for an infinite slab. Heat transfer from the cooling pipe network was treated as 2-D heat flow. Only a limited number of nodes were required to obtain reliable results. The use of 6th order RC-thermal model produced a set of ordinary differential equations that were solved using MATLAB - R2012a. The computer program was written to cover all possible initial conditions, material properties, TAR system geometry and hourly solar radiation. The cool water supply was considered time dependent with the variation of the ambient wet bulb temperature. Results from RC-thermal modeling were compared with experimental measurements for a second story room measuring 5.5 m x 4 m x 3 m at Amarah city/ Iraq (31.865 ˚N, 47.128 ˚E for 21 July, 2013. The roof was constructed of 200 mm concrete slab, 150 mm turf and 50 mm insulation. Galvanized 13 mm steel pipe coils were buried in the roof slab with a pipe occupation ratio of 0.12. The walls were constructed of 240 mm common brick with 10mm cement plaster on the inside and outside surfaces and 20 mm Styrofoam insulation on the inside surface and covered with PVC panel. Thermistors were used to measure the indoor and outdoor temperatures, TAR system water inlet and outlet temperatures and temperature distribution inside the concrete slab. The effect of pipe spacing and water mass flow rate were evaluated. Agreement was good between the experimental and RC-thermal model. Concrete core temperature reaches the supply water temperature faster for lower pipe spacing. Heat extracted from the space increased with water mass flow rate to an optimum of 0.0088 kg/s.m².

  1. Time resolution studies using digital constant fraction discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Tan, H.; Hennig, W.; Warburton, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Digital Pulse Processing (DPP) modules are being increasingly considered to replace modular analog electronics in medium-scale nuclear physics experiments (100-1000s of channels). One major area remains, however, where it has not been convincingly demonstrated that DPP modules are competitive with their analog predecessors-time-of-arrival measurement. While analog discriminators and time-to-amplitude converters can readily achieve coincidence time resolutions in the 300-500 ps range with suitably fast scintillators and Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs), this capability has not been widely demonstrated with DPPs. Some concern has been expressed, in fact, that such time resolutions are attainable with the 10 ns sampling times that are presently commonly available. In this work, we present time-coincidence measurements taken using a commercially available DPP (the Pixie-4 from XIA LLC) directly coupled to pairs of fast PMTs mated with either LSO or LaBr 3 scintillator crystals and excited by 22 Na γ-ray emissions. Our results, 886 ps for LSO and 576 ps for LaBr 3 , while not matching the best literature results using analog electronics, are already well below 1 ns and fully adequate for a wide variety of experiments. These results are shown not to be limited by the DPPs themselves, which achieved 57 ps time resolution using a pulser, but are degraded in part both by the somewhat limited number of photoelectrons we collected and by a sub-optimum choice of PMT. Analysis further suggests that increasing the sampling speed would further improve performance. We therefore conclude that DPP time-of-arrival resolution is already adequate to supplant analog processing in many applications and that further improvements could be achieved with only modest efforts

  2. AC loss time constant measurements on Nb3Al and NbTi multifilamentary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, T.A.

    1988-03-01

    The AC loss time constant is a previously univestigated property of Nb 3 Al, a superconductor which, with recent technological developments, shows some advantages over the more commonly used superconductors, NbTi and Nb 3 Sn. Four Nb 3 Al samples with varying twist pitches and one NbTi sample are inductively measured for their AC loss time constants. The measured time constants are compared to the theoretical time constant limits imposed by the limits of the transverse resistivity found by Carr [5] and to the theoretical time constants found using the Bean Model as well as to each other. The measured time constants of the Nb 3 Al samples fall approximately halfway between the theoretical time constant limits, and the measured time constants of the NbTi sample is close to the theoretical lower time constant limit. The Bean Model adequately accounts for the variance of the permeability of the Nb 3 Al superconductor in a background magnetic field. Finally, the measured time constant values of the Nb 3 Al samples vary approximately according to the square of their twist pitch. (author)

  3. Slab-diffusion approximation from time-constant-like calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.

    1976-12-01

    Two equations were derived which describe the quantity and any fluid diffused from a slab as a function of time. One equation is applicable to the initial stage of the process; the other to the final stage. Accuracy is 0.2 percent at the one point where both approximations apply and where accuracy of either approximation is the poorest. Characterizing other rate processes might be facilitated by the use of the concept of NOLOR (normal of the logarithm of the rate) and its time dependence

  4. Constant pressure and temperature discrete-time Langevin molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Farago, Oded [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2014-11-21

    We present a new and improved method for simultaneous control of temperature and pressure in molecular dynamics simulations with periodic boundary conditions. The thermostat-barostat equations are built on our previously developed stochastic thermostat, which has been shown to provide correct statistical configurational sampling for any time step that yields stable trajectories. Here, we extend the method and develop a set of discrete-time equations of motion for both particle dynamics and system volume in order to seek pressure control that is insensitive to the choice of the numerical time step. The resulting method is simple, practical, and efficient. The method is demonstrated through direct numerical simulations of two characteristic model systems—a one-dimensional particle chain for which exact statistical results can be obtained and used as benchmarks, and a three-dimensional system of Lennard-Jones interacting particles simulated in both solid and liquid phases. The results, which are compared against the method of Kolb and Dünweg [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4453 (1999)], show that the new method behaves according to the objective, namely that acquired statistical averages and fluctuations of configurational measures are accurate and robust against the chosen time step applied to the simulation.

  5. On Throughput Maximization in Constant Travel-Time Robotic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Milind Dawande; Chelliah Sriskandarajah; Suresh Sethi

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling operations in bufferless robotic cells that produce identical parts. The objective is to find a cyclic sequence of robot moves that minimizes the long-run average time to produce a part or, equivalently, maximizes the throughput rate. The robot can be moved in simple cycles that produce one unit or, in more complicated cycles, that produce multiple units. Because one-unit cycles are the easiest to understand, implement, and control, they are widely used i...

  6. Determination of time constants of reactor pressure and temperature sensors: the dynamic data system method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.M.; Hsu, M.C.; Chow, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    A new modeling technique is introduced for on-line sensor time constant identification, both for the resistance temperature detector (RTD) and for the pressure sensor using power plant operational data. The sensor's time constant is estimated from a real characteristic root of the fitted autoregressive moving average model. The RTD's time constant values were identified to be 8.4 s, with a standard deviation of 1.2 s. The pressure sensor time constant was identified to be 28.6 ms, with a standard deviation of 3.5 ms

  7. Dependence of the time-constant of a fuel rod on different design and operational parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenkov, D.; Lassmann, K.; Schubert, A.; Laar, J. van de

    2001-01-01

    The temperature response during a reactor shutdown has been measured for many years in the OECD-Halden Project. It has been shown that the complicated shutdown processes can be characterized by a time constant τ which depends on different fuel design and operational parameters, such as fuel geometry, gap size, fill gas pressure and composition, burnup and linear heat rate. In the paper the concept of a time constant is analyzed and the dependence of the time constant on various parameters is investigated analytically. Measured time constants for different designs and conditions are compared with those derived from calculations of the TRANSURANUS code. Employing standard models results in a systematic underprediction of the time constant, i.e. the heat transfer during shutdown is overestimated. (author)

  8. Delay of constant light-induced persistent vaginal estrus by 24-hour time cues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A L; Adler, N T

    1979-04-20

    The normal ovarian cycle of female rats is typically replaced by persistent estrus when these animals are housed under constant light. Evidence presented here shows that the maintenance of periodicity in the environment can at least delay (if not prevent) the photic induction of persistent vaginal estrus. Female rats in constant light were exposed to vaginal smearing at random times or at the same time every day. In another experiment, female rats were exposed to either constant bright light, constant dim light, or a 24-hour photic cycle of bright and dim light. The onset of persistent vaginal estrus was delayed in rats exposed to 24-hour time cues even though the light intensities were the same as or greater than those for the aperiodic control groups. The results suggest that the absence of 24-hour time cues in constant light contributes to the induction of persistent estrus.

  9. Radiolabelling of RC-160: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Balter Binsky, H.S.; Robles, A.M.; Rodriguez, G.; Souto, B.; Laiz, J.; Oliver, P.; Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    Vapreotide (RC-160) was labelled with 125 I using Chloramine-T and Iodogen methods and with 99m Tc by a direct method with sodium ditionite as reducing agent in the presence of ascorbic acid. Several methods of purification and quality control were evaluated. Yields of the reactions and of purification steps were calculated. The results obtained for the radioiodination reactions showed higher yields when limiting Chloramine-T method was used. Labelling of RC-160 with 99m Tc indicated better yields when high radioactivity concentration of the radionuclide was used. Stability of the products obtained was assessed at different post-labelling times by selected quality control methods: Sep-Pak cartridge as purification method and chromatography by RP-HPLC and ITLC-SG using saline solution as solvent. It was demonstrated that I-125-RC-160 and Tc-99m-RC-160 were stable during five weeks (at -20 deg. C) and 6 hours (at room temperature) respectively. Preliminary biodistribution of Tc-99m-RC-160 in normal rats and mice were done showing different biological behaviour compared with control animals injected with pertechnetate. In conclusion, RC-160 was successfully labelled with both radionuclides, with radiochemical purity higher than 95%. These results encourage further research work in animal models as well as to investigate the biochemical behaviour of radiolabelled peptide. (author)

  10. Time of flight and range of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Karkantzakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the classical problem of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field under the influenceof a retarding force proportional to the velocity. Specifically, we express the time of flight, the time of fall and the range ofthe motion as a function of the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile. We also prove that the time of fall isgreater than the time of rise with the exception of the case of zero constant of resistance where we have equality. Finally weprove a formula from which we can compute the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile from time of flight andrange of the motion when the acceleration due to gravity and the initial velocity of the projectile are known.

  11. The time dependence of rate constants of esub(aq)sup(-) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burcl, R.; Byakov, V.M.; Grafutin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    Published data about the time dependence of rate constants k(esub(aq)sup(-)+Ac) of esub(aq)sup(-) reactions with the acceptor Ac are analyzed, using the results of rate constant k(Ps+Ac) measurements for positronium reactions. It is shown that neither esub(aq)sup(-) nor Ps reaction rate constants depend on time in the observable range. Experimentally found concentration dependence of k(esub(aq)sup(-)+Ac) is due to other factors, connected with the existence of electric charge of esub(aq)sup(-), e.g. ionic strength, tunnelling effect etc. (author)

  12. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-01-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel

  13. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-09-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel

  14. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel. (author)

  15. Running vacuum in the Universe and the time variation of the fundamental constants of Nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Munich (Germany); Sola, Joan [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona (ICCUB), Institute of Cosmos Sciences, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Dept. de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    We compute the time variation of the fundamental constants (such as the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass, the strong coupling constant, the fine-structure constant and Newton's constant) within the context of the so-called running vacuum models (RVMs) of the cosmic evolution. Recently, compelling evidence has been provided that these models are able to fit the main cosmological data (SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB) significantly better than the concordance ΛCDM model. Specifically, the vacuum parameters of the RVM (i.e. those responsible for the dynamics of the vacuum energy) prove to be nonzero at a confidence level >or similar 3σ. Here we use such remarkable status of the RVMs to make definite predictions on the cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. It turns out that the predicted variations are close to the present observational limits. Furthermore, we find that the time evolution of the dark matter particle masses should be crucially involved in the total mass variation of our Universe. A positive measurement of this kind of effects could be interpreted as strong support to the ''micro-macro connection'' (viz. the dynamical feedback between the evolution of the cosmological parameters and the time variation of the fundamental constants of the microscopic world), previously proposed by two of us (HF and JS). (orig.)

  16. A new variable interval schedule with constant hazard rate and finite time range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugallo, Mehdi; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco

    2018-05-27

    We propose a new variable interval (VI) schedule that achieves constant probability of reinforcement in time while using a bounded range of intervals. By sampling each trial duration from a uniform distribution ranging from 0 to 2 T seconds, and then applying a reinforcement rule that depends linearly on trial duration, the schedule alternates reinforced and unreinforced trials, each less than 2 T seconds, while preserving a constant hazard function. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Constant resolution of time-dependent Hartree--Fock phase ambiguity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtner, P.C.; Griffin, J.J.; Schultheis, H.; Schultheis, R.; Volkov, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    The customary time-dependent Hartree--Fock problem is shown to be ambiguous up to an arbitrary function of time additive to H/sub HF/, and, consequently, up to an arbitrary time-dependent phase for the solution, PHI(t). The ''constant'' (H)'' phase is proposed as the best resolution of this ambiguity. It leads to the following attractive features: (a) the time-dependent Hartree--Fock (TDHF) Hamiltonian, H/sub HF/, becomes a quantity whose expectation value is equal to the average energy and, hence, constant in time; (b) eigenstates described exactly by determinants, have time-dependent Hartree--Fock solutions identical with the exact time-dependent solutions; (c) among all possible TDHF solutions this choice minimizes the norm of the quantity (H--i dirac constant delta/delta t) operating on the ket PHI, and guarantees optimal time evolution over an infinitesimal period; (d) this choice corresponds both to the stationary value of the absolute difference between (H) and (i dirac constant delta/delta t) and simultaneously to its absolute minimal value with respect to choice of the time-dependent phase. The source of the ambiguity is discussed. It lies in the time-dependent generalization of the freedom to transform unitarily among the single-particle states of a determinant at the (physically irrelevant for stationary states) cost of altering only a factor of unit magnitude

  18. Use of thermal time constant concept in the analysis of reactivity induced accidents with feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple heat transfer model based on the thermal time constant concept which leads to significant reduction in fuel temperature computing time and gives a physical insight of the phenomena is presented. The fuel temperatures can be used to estimate the reactivity feedback using the measured or calculated Doppler coefficients. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Queueing systems with constant service time and evaluation of M/D/1,k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    1997-01-01

    Systems with constant service times have the particular property that the customers leave the servers in the same order in which they areaccepted for service. Probabilitites of integral waiting times can be expressed by the state probabilities, and non-integral waiting timescan be expressed...

  20. Technique for determination of the time constant for relay radioisotope instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'din, M.L.; Shestialtynov, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for calculating time constant of a gamma relay used in radio isotope automatics is suggested. It is shown that the time constant of a radioisotope relay device (RRD) mainly depends on parameters of the intergrating circuit ratemeter. Considering the ratemeter as a real communication channel with a limited transmission band, the equation for the active front duration at a ratemeter outlet when applying abrupt voltage to its inlet is obtained. From the complex transmission function of a ratemeter the upper boundary cyclic transmission frequency the substitution of which in the equation of the active front durationg ives the RRD time constant is determined. On the example of calculating the ratemeter for the GR-6 gamma relay a satisfactory coincidence of calculational results with the certificate data is shown [ru

  1. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Gabanska, B.; Igielski, A.; Krynicka, E.; Woznicka, U. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a {sup 3}He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs.

  2. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Gabanska, B.; Igielski, A.; Krynicka, E.; Woznicka, U.

    1993-01-01

    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a 3 He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K; Gabanska, B; Igielski, A; Krynicka, E; Woznicka, U [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a {sup 3}He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs.

  4. Helicopter TEM parameters analysis and system optimization based on time constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pan; Wu, Xin; Shi, Zongyang; Li, Jutao; Liu, Lihua; Fang, Guangyou

    2018-03-01

    Helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) method is a kind of common geophysical prospecting method, widely used in mineral detection, underground water exploration and environment investigation. In order to develop an efficient helicopter TEM system, it is necessary to analyze and optimize the system parameters. In this paper, a simple and quantitative method is proposed to analyze the system parameters, such as waveform, power, base frequency, measured field and sampling time. A wire loop model is used to define a comprehensive 'time constant domain' that shows a range of time constant, analogous to a range of conductance, after which the characteristics of the system parameters in this domain is obtained. It is found that the distortion caused by the transmitting base frequency is less than 5% when the ratio of the transmitting period to the target time constant is greater than 6. When the sampling time window is less than the target time constant, the distortion caused by the sampling time window is less than 5%. According to this method, a helicopter TEM system, called CASHTEM, is designed, and flight test has been carried out in the known mining area. The test results show that the system has good detection performance, verifying the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Estimation of the Plant Time Constant of Current-Controlled Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Malvar, Jano

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the plant time constant is essential to perform a thorough analysis of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs). As the loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions, the effects associated to converter losses should be included...... in the model, through an equivalent series resistance. In a recent work, an algorithm to identify this parameter was developed, considering the inductance value as known and practically constant. Nevertheless, the plant inductance can also present important uncertainties with respect to the inductance...... of the VSC interface filter measured at rated conditions. This paper extends that method so that both parameters of the plant time constant (resistance and inductance) are estimated. Such enhancement is achieved through the evaluation of the closed-loop transient responses of both axes of the synchronous...

  6. The ruin probability of a discrete time risk model under constant interest rate with heavy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Q.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the ultimate ruin probability of a discrete time risk model with a positive constant interest rate. Under the assumption that the gross loss of the company within one year is subexponentially distributed, a simple asymptotic relation for the ruin probability is derived and

  7. Using a Constant Time Delay Procedure to Teach Foundational Swimming Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laura; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Wolery, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a constant time delay procedure to teach foundational swimming skills to three children with autism. The skills included flutter kick, front-crawl arm strokes, and head turns to the side. A multiple-probe design across behaviors and replicated across participants was used.…

  8. Testing the time-invariance of fundamental constants using microwave spectroscopy on cold diatomic radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlem, H.L.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The recently demonstrated methods to cool and manipulate neutral molecules offer new possibilities for precision tests of fundamental physics theories. We here discuss the possibility of testing the time-invariance of fundamental constants using near degeneracies between rotational levels in the

  9. A critical oscillation constant as a variable of time scales for half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2010), s. 237-256 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scale * half-linear equation * (non)oscillation criteria * Hille-Nehari criteria * Kneser criteria * critical constant * oscillation constant * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0009-7

  10. Acceleration-enlarged symmetries in nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant TH1"-->

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukierski, J.; Stichel, P. C.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2008-05-01

    By considering the nonrelativistic limit of de Sitter geometry one obtains the nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant and Newton Hooke (NH) symmetries. We show that the NH symmetry algebra can be enlarged by the addition of the constant acceleration generators and endowed with central extensions (one in any dimension (D) and three in D=(2+1)). We present a classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian framework for constructing models quasi-invariant under enlarged NH symmetries that depend on three parameters described by three nonvanishing central charges. The Hamiltonian dynamics then splits into external and internal sectors with new noncommutative structures of external and internal phase spaces. We show that in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant the system reduces to the one, which possesses acceleration-enlarged Galilean symmetries.

  11. Consideration of demand rate in overall equipment effetiveness (OEE on equipment with constant process time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Puvanasvaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper is primarily done on the purpose of introducing new concept in defining the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE with the consideration of both machine utilization and customer demand requested. Previous literature concerning the limitation and difficulty of OEE implementation has been investigated in order to track out the potential opportunities to be improved, since the OEE has been widely accepted by most of the industries regardless their manufacturing environment.Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conducting the study based on literature review and the computerized data collection. In details, the novel definition and method of processing the computerized data are all interpreted based on similar studies performed by others and supported by related journals in proving the validation of the output. Over the things, the computerized data are the product amount and total time elapsed on each production which is automatically recorded by the system at the manufacturing site.Findings: The finding of this paper is firstly the exposure and emphasis of limitation exists in current implementation of OEE, which showing that high utilization of the machine is encouraged regardless of the customer demand and is having conflict with the inventory handling cost. This is certainly obvious with overproduction issue especially during low customer demand period. The second limitation in general implementation of OEE is the difficulty in obtaining the ideal cycle time, especially those equipments with constant process time. The section of this paper afterward comes out with the proposed solution in fixing this problem through the definition of performance ratio and then usage of this definition in measuring the machine utilization from time to time. Before this, the time available for the production is calculated incorporating the availability of OEE, which is then used to get the Takt time.Research limitations/implications: Future

  12. Method for Determining the Time Constants Characterizing the Intensity of Steel Mixing in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieprzyca J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A common method used in identification of hydrodynamics phenomena occurring in Continuous Casting (CC device's tundish is to determine the RTD curves of time. These curves allows to determine the way of the liquid steel flowing and mixing in the tundish. These can be identified either as the result of numerical simulation or by the experiments - as the result of researching the physical models. Special problem is to objectify it while conducting physical research. It is necessary to precisely determine the time constants which characterize researched phenomena basing on the data acquired in the measured change of the concentration of the tracer in model liquid's volume. The mathematical description of determined curves is based on the approximate differential equations formulated in the theory of fluid mechanics. Solving these equations to calculate the time constants requires a special software and it is very time-consuming. To improve the process a method was created to calculate the time constants with use of automation elements. It allows to solve problems using algebraic method, which improves interpretation of the research results of physical modeling.

  13. Synaptic inhibition and excitation estimated via the time constant of membrane potential fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rune W.; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    When recording the membrane potential, V, of a neuron it is desirable to be able to extract the synaptic input. Critically, the synaptic input is stochastic and non-reproducible so one is therefore often restricted to single trial data. Here, we introduce means of estimating the inhibition and ex...... close to soma (recording site). Though our data is in current-clamp, the method also works in V-clamp recordings, with some minor adaptations. All custom made procedures are provided in Matlab....... and excitation and their confidence limits from single sweep trials. The estimates are based on the mean membrane potential, (V) , and the membrane time constant,τ. The time constant provides the total conductance (G = capacitance/τ) and is extracted from the autocorrelation of V. The synaptic conductances can....... The method gives best results if the synaptic input is large compared to other conductances, the intrinsic conductances have little or no time dependence or are comparably small, the ligand gated kinetics is faster than the membrane time constant, and the majority of synaptic contacts are electrotonically...

  14. Chemical exchange effects during refocusing pulses in constant-time CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint, Wazo; Ishima, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    In the analysis of the constant-time Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CT-CPMG) relaxation dispersion experiment, chemical exchange parameters, such as rate of exchange and population of the exchanging species, are typically optimized using equations that predict experimental relaxation rates recorded as a function of effective field strength. In this process, the effect of chemical exchange during the CPMG pulses is typically assumed to be the same as during the free-precession. This approximation may introduce systematic errors into the analysis of data because the number of CPMG pulses is incremented during the constant-time relaxation period, and the total pulse duration therefore varies as a function of the effective field strength. In order to estimate the size of such errors, we simulate the time-dependence of magnetization during the entire constant time period, explicitly taking into account the effect of the CPMG pulses on the spin relaxation rate. We show that in general the difference in the relaxation dispersion profile calculated using a practical pulse width from that calculated using an extremely short pulse width is small, but under certain circumstances can exceed 1 s -1 . The difference increases significantly when CPMG pulses are miscalibrated

  15. A constant travel time budget? In search for explanations for an increase in average travel time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Wee, van B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent research suggests that during the past decades the average travel time of the Dutch population has probably increased. However, different datasources show different levels of increase. Possible causes of the increase in average travel time are presented here. Increased incomes have

  16. On the thermal inertia and time constant of single-family houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedbrant, J.

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1970s, electricity has become a common heating source in Swedish single-family houses. About one million small houses can use electricity for heating, about 600.000 have electricity as the only heating source, A liberalised European electricity market would most likely raise the Swedish electricity prices during daytime on weekdays and lower it at other times. In the long run, electrical heating of houses would be replaced by fuels, but in the shorter perspective, other strategies may be considered. This report evaluates the use of electricity for heating a dwelling, or part of it, at night when both the demand and the price are low. The stored heat is utilised in the daytime some hours later, when the electricity price is high. Essential for heat storage is the thermal time constant. The report gives a simple theoretical framework for the calculation of the time constant for a single-family house with furniture. Furthermore the comfort time constant, that is, the time for a house to cool down from a maximum to a minimum acceptable temperature, is derived. Two theoretical model houses are calculated, and the results are compared to data from empirical studies in three inhabited test houses. The results show that it was possible to store about 8 kWh/K in a house from the seventies and about 5 kWh/K in a house from the eighties. The time constants were 34 h and 53 h, respectively. During winter conditions with 0 deg C outdoor, the 'comfort' time constants with maximum and minimum indoor temperatures of 23 and 20 deg C were 6 h and 10 h. The results indicate that the maximum load-shifting potential of an average single family house is about 1 kw during 16 daytime hours shifted into 2 kw during 8 night hours. Upscaled to the one million Swedish single-family houses that can use electricity as a heating source, the maximum potential is 1000 MW daytime time-shifted into 2000 MW at night.

  17. New constraints on time-dependent variations of fundamental constants using Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Luke; Chluba, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) today allow us to answer detailed questions about the properties of our Universe, targeting both standard and non-standard physics. In this paper, we study the effects of varying fundamental constants (i.e. the fine-structure constant, αEM, and electron rest mass, me) around last scattering using the recombination codes COSMOREC and RECFAST++. We approach the problem in a pedagogical manner, illustrating the importance of various effects on the free electron fraction, Thomson visibility function and CMB power spectra, highlighting various degeneracies. We demonstrate that the simpler RECFAST++ treatment (based on a three-level atom approach) can be used to accurately represent the full computation of COSMOREC. We also include explicit time-dependent variations using a phenomenological power-law description. We reproduce previous Planck 2013 results in our analysis. Assuming constant variations relative to the standard values, we find the improved constraints αEM/αEM, 0 = 0.9993 ± 0.0025 (CMB only) and me/me, 0 = 1.0039 ± 0.0074 (including BAO) using Planck 2015 data. For a redshift-dependent variation, αEM(z) = αEM(z0) [(1 + z)/1100]p with αEM(z0) ≡ αEM, 0 at z0 = 1100, we obtain p = 0.0008 ± 0.0025. Allowing simultaneous variations of αEM(z0) and p yields αEM(z0)/αEM, 0 = 0.9998 ± 0.0036 and p = 0.0006 ± 0.0036. We also discuss combined limits on αEM and me. Our analysis shows that existing data are not only sensitive to the value of the fundamental constants around recombination but also its first time derivative. This suggests that a wider class of varying fundamental constant models can be probed using the CMB.

  18. A simplified controller and detailed dynamics of constant off-time peak current control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Alex; Dimitrova, Ekaterina; Valchev, Vencislav; Feradov, Firgan

    2017-09-01

    A fast and reliable current control is often the base of power electronic converters. The traditional constant frequency peak control is unstable above 50 % duty ratio. In contrast, the constant off-time peak current control (COTCC) is unconditionally stable and fast, so it is worth analyzing it. Another feature of the COTCC is that one can combine a current control together with a current protection. The time dynamics show a zero-transient response, even when the inductor changes in a wide range. It can also be modeled as a special transfer function for all frequencies. The article shows also that it can be implemented in a simple analog circuit using a wide temperature range IC, such as the LM2903, which is compatible with PV conversion and automotive temperature range. Experiments are done using a 3 kW step-up converter. A drawback is still that the principle does not easily fit in usual digital controllers up to now.

  19. Most Probable Failures in LHC Magnets and Time Constants of their Effects on the Beam.

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez Alonso, Andres

    2006-01-01

    During the LHC operation, energies up to 360 MJ will be stored in each proton beam and over 10 GJ in the main electrical circuits. With such high energies, beam losses can quickly lead to important equipment damage. The Machine Protection Systems have been designed to provide reliable protection of the LHC through detection of the failures leading to beam losses and fast dumping of the beams. In order to determine the protection strategies, it is important to know the time constants of the failure effects on the beam. In this report, we give an estimation of the time constants of quenches and powering failures in LHC magnets. The most critical failures are powering failures in certain normal conducting circuits, leading to relevant effects on the beam in ~1 ms. The failures on super conducting magnets leading to fastest losses are quenches. In this case, the effects on the beam can be signficant ~10 ms after the quench occurs.

  20. Constant time distance queries in planar unweighted graphs with subquadratic preprocessing time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Let G be an n-vertex planar, undirected, and unweighted graph. It was stated as open problems whether the Wiener index, defined as the sum of all-pairs shortest path distances, and the diameter of G can be computed in o(n(2)) time. We show that both problems can be solved in O(n(2) log log n/log n......) time with O(n) space. The techniques that we apply allow us to build, within the same time bound, an oracle for exact distance queries in G. More generally, for any parameter S is an element of [(log n/log log n)(2), n(2/5)], distance queries can be answered in O (root S log S/log n) time per query...... with O(n(2)/root S) preprocessing time and space requirement. With respect to running time, this is better than previous algorithms when log S = o(log n). All algorithms have linear space requirement. Our results generalize to a larger class of graphs including those with a fixed excluded minor. (C) 2012...

  1. Thermal time constant: optimising the skin temperature predictive modelling in lower limb prostheses using Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Glesk, Ivan; Buis, Arjan

    2016-06-01

    Elevated skin temperature at the body/device interface of lower-limb prostheses is one of the major factors that affect tissue health. The heat dissipation in prosthetic sockets is greatly influenced by the thermal conductive properties of the hard socket and liner material employed. However, monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used which requires consistent positioning of sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets. To predict the residual limb temperature, a machine learning algorithm - Gaussian processes is employed, which utilizes the thermal time constant values of commonly used socket and liner materials. This Letter highlights the relevance of thermal time constant of prosthetic materials in Gaussian processes technique which would be useful in addressing the challenge of non-invasively monitoring the residual limb skin temperature. With the introduction of thermal time constant, the model can be optimised and generalised for a given prosthetic setup, thereby making the predictions more reliable.

  2. Near constant-time optimal piecewise LDR to HDR inverse tone mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Su, Guan-Ming; Yin, Peng

    2015-02-01

    In a backward compatible HDR image/video compression, it is a general approach to reconstruct HDR from compressed LDR as a prediction to original HDR, which is referred to as inverse tone mapping. Experimental results show that 2- piecewise 2nd order polynomial has the best mapping accuracy than 1 piece high order or 2-piecewise linear, but it is also the most time-consuming method because to find the optimal pivot point to split LDR range to 2 pieces requires exhaustive search. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm that completes optimal 2-piecewise 2nd order polynomial inverse tone mapping in near constant time without quality degradation. We observe that in least square solution, each entry in the intermediate matrix can be written as the sum of some basic terms, which can be pre-calculated into look-up tables. Since solving the matrix becomes looking up values in tables, computation time barely differs regardless of the number of points searched. Hence, we can carry out the most thorough pivot point search to find the optimal pivot that minimizes MSE in near constant time. Experiment shows that our proposed method achieves the same PSNR performance while saving 60 times computation time compared to the traditional exhaustive search in 2-piecewise 2nd order polynomial inverse tone mapping with continuous constraint.

  3. Time-dependent leak behavior of flawed Alloy 600 tube specimens at constant pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Chi Bum, E-mail: bahn@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Harris, Charles [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Leak rate testing has been performed using Alloy 600 tube specimens with throughwall flaws. Some specimens have shown time-dependent leak behavior at constant pressure conditions. Fractographic characterization was performed to identify the time-dependent crack growth mechanism. The fracture surface of the specimens showed the typical features of ductile fracture, as well as the distinct crystallographic facets, typical of fatigue crack growth at low {Delta}K level. Structural vibration appears to have been caused by the oscillation of pressure, induced by a high-pressure pump used in a test facility, and by the water jet/tube structure interaction. Analyses of the leak behaviors and crack growth indicated that both the high-pressure pump and the water jet could significantly contribute to fatigue crack growth. To determine whether the fatigue crack growth during the leak testing can occur solely by the water jet effect, leak rate tests at constant pressure without the high-pressure pump need to be performed. - Highlights: > Leak rate of flawed Alloy 600 tubing increased at constant pressure condition. > Fractography revealed two cases: ductile tearing and crystallographic facets. > Crystallographic facets are typical features of fatigue crack growth at low {Delta}K. > Fatigue source could be water jet-induced vibration and/or high-pressure pump pulsation.

  4. Exponential stability of fuzzy cellular neural networks with constant and time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanqing; Tang Wansheng

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, the global stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNN) with either constant delays or time varying delays is proposed. Firstly, we give the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium point by using the theory of topological degree and the properties of nonsingular M-matrix and the sufficient conditions for ascertaining the global exponential stability by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional. Secondly, the criteria for guaranteeing the global exponential stability of FCNN with time varying delays are given and the estimation of exponential convergence rate with regard to speed of vary of delays is presented by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional

  5. Nature of tracing dimension, imaginary order of freedom and our observed time passing at constant speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, S

    2009-01-01

    Nature of the time and requirements to work as a time dimension are investigated. A potential scenario of the development of the universe is conceptually investigated starting from energy as vibration in multiple dimensions. A model is proposed, in which the Big Bang is a phase transition of energy from vibration in 4-dimensional space to energy distribution in 3-D surface of a 4-D sphere. The Time which we observe passing at a constant speed is not such a reference frame which we unintentionally believe to be the time, but the radius dimension of the 4-D sphere. The feature of the Dark Matter and the mystery of the Dark Energy are naturally explained from the model.

  6. Nature of tracing dimension, imaginary order of freedom and our observed time passing at constant speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, S, E-mail: snagao@lilac.plala.or.j [Business Development and Licensing Department, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., ThinkPark Tower, 2-1-1, Osaki, Shinagawa, Tokyo 141-6017 (Japan)

    2009-06-01

    Nature of the time and requirements to work as a time dimension are investigated. A potential scenario of the development of the universe is conceptually investigated starting from energy as vibration in multiple dimensions. A model is proposed, in which the Big Bang is a phase transition of energy from vibration in 4-dimensional space to energy distribution in 3-D surface of a 4-D sphere. The Time which we observe passing at a constant speed is not such a reference frame which we unintentionally believe to be the time, but the radius dimension of the 4-D sphere. The feature of the Dark Matter and the mystery of the Dark Energy are naturally explained from the model.

  7. Influence of the Gilbert damping constant on the flux rise time of write head fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, Othmar; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter; Schabes, Manfred E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic recording at fast data rates requires write heads with rapid rise times of the magnetic flux during the write process. We present three-dimensional (3D) micromagnetic finite element calculations of an entire ring head including 3D coil geometry during the writing of magnetic bits in granular media. The simulations demonstrate how input current profiles translate into magnetization processes in the head and which in turn generate the write head field. The flux rise time significantly depends on the Gilbert damping constant of the head material. Low damping causes incoherent magnetization processes, leading to long rise times and low head fields. High damping leads to coherent reversal of the magnetization in the head. As a consequence, the gap region can be quickly saturated which causes high head fields with short rise times

  8. Time constants and transfer functions for a homogeneous 900 MWt metallic fueled LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal transfer functions are calculated for a 900 MWt U10Zr-fueled sodium cooled reactor. From the transfer functions the time constants, feedback reactivity transfer function coefficients, and power coefficients can be determined. These quantities are calculated for core fuel, upper and lower axial reflector steel, radial blanket fuel, radial reflector steel, and B 4 C rod shaft expansion effect. The quantities are compared to the analogous quantities of a 60 MWt metallic-fueled sodium cooled Experimental Breeder Reactor II configuration. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Developmental Times of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at Constant Temperatures and Applications in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Qiang; Li, Xue-Bo; Shao, Ru-Yue; Lyu, Zhou; Li, Hong-Wei; Li, Gen-Ping; Xu, Lyu-Zi; Wan, Li-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The characteristic life stages of infesting blowflies (Calliphoridae) such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) are powerful evidence for estimating the death time of a corpse, but an established reference of developmental times for local blowfly species is required. We determined the developmental rates of C. megacephala from southwest China at seven constant temperatures (16-34°C). Isomegalen and isomorphen diagrams were constructed based on the larval length and time for each developmental event (first ecdysis, second ecdysis, wandering, pupariation, and eclosion), at each temperature. A thermal summation model was constructed by estimating the developmental threshold temperature D0 and the thermal summation constant K. The thermal summation model indicated that, for complete development from egg hatching to eclosion, D0 = 9.07 ± 0.54°C and K = 3991.07 ± 187.26 h °C. This reference can increase the accuracy of estimations of postmortem intervals in China by predicting the growth of C. megacephala. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Fractional RC and LC Electrical Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Aguilar José Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation for the electrical RC and LC circuit in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 < ɣ ≤1. To keep the dimensionality of the physical parameters R, L, C the new parameter σ is introduced. This parameter characterizes the existence of fractional structures in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative ɣ and the new parameter σ is found. The numeric Laplace transform method was used for the simulation of the equations results. The results show that the fractional differential equations generalize the behavior of the charge, voltage and current depending of the values of ɣ. The classical cases are recovered by taking the limit when ɣ = 1. An analysis in the frequency domain of an RC circuit shows the application and use of fractional order differential equations.

  11. Comparison of Cole-Cole and Constant Phase Angle modeling in time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajaunie, Myriam; Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    The Cole-Cole model and the constant phase angle (CPA) model are two prevailing phenomenological descriptions of the induced polarization (IP), used for both frequency domain (FD) and time domain (TD) modeling. The former one is a 4-parameter description, while the latest one involves only two......, forward modeling of quadrupolar sequences on 1D and 2D heterogeneous CPA models shows that the CPA decays differ among each other only by a multiplication factor. Consequently, the inspection of field data in log-log plots gives insight on the modeling needed for fitting them: the CPA inversion cannot...... is reflected in TDIP data, and therefore, at identifying (1) if and when it is possible to distinguish, in time domain, between a Cole-Cole description and a CPA one, and (2) if features of time domain data exist in order to know, from a simple data inspection, which model will be the most adapted to the data...

  12. Analysis of discrete and continuous distributions of ventilatory time constants from dynamic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebrich, Marcus; Markstaller, Klaus; Karmrodt, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Eberle, Balthasar; Weiler, Norbert; Thelen, Manfred; Schreiber, Wolfgang G

    2005-01-01

    In this study, an algorithm was developed to measure the distribution of pulmonary time constants (TCs) from dynamic computed tomography (CT) data sets during a sudden airway pressure step up. Simulations with synthetic data were performed to test the methodology as well as the influence of experimental noise. Furthermore the algorithm was applied to in vivo data. In five pigs sudden changes in airway pressure were imposed during dynamic CT acquisition in healthy lungs and in a saline lavage ARDS model. The fractional gas content in the imaged slice (FGC) was calculated by density measurements for each CT image. Temporal variations of the FGC were analysed assuming a model with a continuous distribution of exponentially decaying time constants. The simulations proved the feasibility of the method. The influence of experimental noise could be well evaluated. Analysis of the in vivo data showed that in healthy lungs ventilation processes can be more likely characterized by discrete TCs whereas in ARDS lungs continuous distributions of TCs are observed. The temporal behaviour of lung inflation and deflation can be characterized objectively using the described new methodology. This study indicates that continuous distributions of TCs reflect lung ventilation mechanics more accurately compared to discrete TCs

  13. Procedural Adaptations for Use of Constant Time Delay to Teach Highly Motivating Words to Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Guerra, Jennifer A.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay is an evidence-based practice to teach sight word recognition to students with a variety of disabilities. To date, two studies have documented its effectiveness for teaching braille. Methods: Using a multiple-baseline design, we evaluated the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach highly motivating words to…

  14. Vestibular Compensation in Unilateral Patients Often Causes Both Gain and Time Constant Asymmetries in The VOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eRanjbaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR is essential in our daily life to stabilize retinal images during head movements. Balanced vestibular functionality secures optimal reflex performance which can be distorted in case of peripheral vestibular lesions. Luckily, vestibular compensation in different neuronal sites restores VOR function to some extent over time. Studying vestibular compensation gives insight into the possible mechanisms for plasticity in the brain.In this work, novel experimental analysis tools are employed to reevaluate the VOR characteristics following unilateral vestibular lesions and compensation. Our results suggest that following vestibular lesions, asymmetric performance of the VOR is not only limited to its gain. Vestibular compensation also causes asymmetric dynamics, i.e. different time constants for the VOR during leftward or rightward passive head rotation. Potential mechanisms for these experimental observations are provided using simulation studies.

  15. Fourth-order constants of motion for time independent classical and quantum systems in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, F.

    2010-01-01

    Exact fourth-order constants of motion are investigated for three-dimensional classical and quantum Hamiltonian systems. The rationalization method is utilized to obtain constants of motion for classical systems. Constants of motion for quantum systems are obtained by adding quantum correction terms, computed using Moyal's bracket, to the corresponding classical counterparts. (author)

  16. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and constant execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  17. Perspectives on Constraining a Cosmological Constant-Type Parameter with Pulsar Timing in the Galactic Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Independent tests aiming to constrain the value of the cosmological constant Λ are usually difficult because of its extreme smallness ( Λ ≃ 1 × 10 - 52 m - 2 , or 2 . 89 × 10 - 122 in Planck units . Bounds on it from Solar System orbital motions determined with spacecraft tracking are currently at the ≃ 10 - 43 – 10 - 44 m - 2 ( 5 – 1 × 10 - 113 in Planck units level, but they may turn out to be optimistic since Λ has not yet been explicitly modeled in the planetary data reductions. Accurate ( σ τ p ≃ 1 – 10 μ s timing of expected pulsars orbiting the Black Hole at the Galactic Center, preferably along highly eccentric and wide orbits, might, at least in principle, improve the planetary constraints by several orders of magnitude. By looking at the average time shift per orbit Δ δ τ ¯ p Λ , an S2-like orbital configuration with e = 0 . 8839 , P b = 16 yr would permit a preliminarily upper bound of the order of Λ ≲ 9 × 10 - 47 m - 2 ≲ 2 × 10 - 116 in Planck units if only σ τ p were to be considered. Our results can be easily extended to modified models of gravity using Λ -type parameters.

  18. Gauge theories, time-dependence of the gravitational constant and antigravity in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the interaction of the gravitational field with matter leads to a strong modification of the effective gravitational constant in the early universe. In certain cases this leads even to the change of sign of the gravitational constant, i.e. to antigravity in the early universe. (orig.)

  19. Ma-rc-h

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stone has been used in building construction in India since ancient times since it is durable and locally available. There are huge numbers of stone buildings in the country, ranging from rural houses to royal palaces and temples. In a typical rural stone house, there are thick stone masonry walls (thickness ranges from 600 ...

  20. New determination of the gravitational constant G with time-of-swing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Liangcheng; Li Qing; Wang Qinglan; Shao Chenggang; Yang Shanqing; Liu Linxia; Liu Qi; Luo Jun

    2010-01-01

    A new determination of the Newtonian gravitational constant G is presented by using a torsion pendulum with the time-of-swing method. Compared with our previous measurement with the same method, several improvements greatly reduced the uncertainties as follows: (i) two stainless steel spheres with more homogeneous density are used as the source masses instead of the cylinders used in the previous experiment, and the offset of the mass center from the geometric center is measured and found to be much smaller than that of the cylinders; (ii) a rectangular glass block is used as the main body of the pendulum, which has fewer vibration modes and hence improves the stability of the period and reduces the uncertainty of the moment of inertia; (iii) both the pendulum and source masses are placed in the same vacuum chamber to reduce the error of measuring the relative positions; (iv) changing the configurations between the ''near'' and ''far'' positions is remotely operated by using a stepper motor to lower the environmental disturbances; and (v) the anelastic effect of the torsion fiber is first measured directly by using two disk pendulums with the help of a high-Q quartz fiber. We have performed two independent G measurements, and the two G values differ by only 9 ppm. The combined value of G is (6.673 49±0.000 18)x10 -11 m 3 kg -1 s -2 with a relative uncertainty of 26 ppm.

  1. Bilateral control of master-slave manipulators with constant time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzantabar, A; Talebi, H A; Sedigh, A K

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel teleoperation controller for a nonlinear master-slave robotic system with constant time delay in communication channel. The proposed controller enables the teleoperation system to compensate human and environmental disturbances, while achieving master and slave position coordination in both free motion and contact situation. The current work basically extends the passivity based architecture upon the earlier work of Lee and Spong (2006) [14] to improve position tracking and consequently transparency in the face of disturbances and environmental contacts. The proposed controller employs a PID controller in each side to overcome some limitations of a PD controller and guarantee an improved performance. Moreover, by using Fourier transform and Parseval's identity in the frequency domain, we demonstrate that this new PID controller preserves the passivity of the system. Simulation and semi-experimental results show that the PID controller tracking performance is superior to that of the PD controller tracking performance in slave/environmental contacts. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Are fundamental constants really constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Reasons for suspecting that fundamental constants might change with time are reviewed. Possible consequences of such variations are examined. The present status of experimental tests of these ideas is discussed

  3. Altitmeter for RC aircraft models

    OpenAIRE

    Švec, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Předmětem mé bakalářské práce je návrh výškoměru, který využívá pro záznam letové polohy modelu RC letadla vyhodnocování aktuálního atmosferického tlaku. Údaje jsou po dobu letu ukládány do paměti, odkud je možné je po skončení záznamu přes rozhraní USB uložit v PC. Software na PC zajišťuje komunikaci se zařízením a přepočet zaznamenaného tlaku na nadmořskou výšku RC modelu. The aim of my bachelor thesis is to design a altimeter, who uses to record the attitude of the model "RC plane" eval...

  4. Constant versus variable response signal delays in speed accuracy trade-offs : Effects of advance preparation for processing time

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jeff; Sproesser, Gudrun; Ulrich, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used response signals (RSs) to control processing time and trace out speed accuracy trade-off (SAT) functions in a difficult perceptual discrimination task. Each experiment compared performance in blocks of trials with constant and, hence, temporally predictable RS lags against performance in blocks with variable, unpredictable RS lags. In both experiments, essentially equivalent SAT functions were observed with constant and variable RS lags. We conclude that there is l...

  5. OPTIMAL TIME FOR SUBSTITUTION OF Eucalyptus spp POPULATIONS – THE CASE OF CONSTANT TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Nogueira de Souza1;

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The few studies on renewal of Eucalyptus spp populations done in Brazil consider constant technology. This is done this way for facilitating the modeling of how variables affect this activity, such as income, costs, rates of discount and yield. The reason for not considering the gains earned through technological progress is the lack of a specific dynamic model. This study was carried out aiming to get to know the forest rotation with values from the sixties (beginning of tax exemption programme and current values (nineties aiming to obtain wood for cellulose and charcoal production; to determine the moment of substitution of a population which presents the same yield and the same cost structure through time as well as to determine how many cuttings should be done until the final cycle; to determine how many cuttings should be done until substitution (substitution chain; to verify the sensitivity of the substitution time to variations in the discount rates, wood prices, yield, land costs, harvesting costs and coppice yield. The results were tested in a case study, employing the Gompertz Function to determine the population yield. The Current Net Value Method was used as a crieterion of economic decision. It has been concluded that: The forest rotation to produce charcoal in the sixties was at 13 years of age; the current rotation is at 7 years of age; the final cycle allows up to 13 cuttings, but considering the possibility of land leasing, the best alternative is to conduce the sproutings up to the third cutting; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices and yield caused reduction of the cutting age; increase in land costs did not affect the cutting ages; increase in the logging cost increased the cutting ages; the substitution of population now a days happens after 3 cuttings, while in the sixties it happened after 2 cuttings due to the lesser loss; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices, logging costs and

  6. Detecting electroporation by assessing the time constants in the exponential response of human skin to voltage controlled impulse electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bîrlea, Sinziana I; Corley, Gavin J; Bîrlea, Nicolae M; Breen, Paul P; Quondamatteo, Fabio; OLaighin, Gearóid

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method for extracting the electrical properties of human skin based on the time constant analysis of its exponential response to impulse stimulation. As a result of this analysis an adjacent finding has arisen. We have found that stratum corneum electroporation can be detected using this analysis method. We have observed that a one time-constant model is appropriate for describing the electrical properties of human skin at low amplitude applied voltages (30V). Higher voltage amplitudes (>30V) have been proven to create pores in the skin's stratum corneum which offer a new, lower resistance, pathway for the passage of current through the skin. Our data shows that when pores are formed in the stratum corneum they can be detected, in-vivo, due to the fact that a second time constant describes current flow through them.

  7. Constant versus variable response signal delays in speed--accuracy trade-offs: effects of advance preparation for processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Sproesser, Gudrun; Ulrich, Rolf

    2008-07-01

    In two experiments, we used response signals (RSs) to control processing time and trace out speed--accuracy trade-off(SAT) functions in a difficult perceptual discrimination task. Each experiment compared performance in blocks of trials with constant and, hence, temporally predictable RS lags against performance in blocks with variable, unpredictable RS lags. In both experiments, essentially equivalent SAT functions were observed with constant and variable RS lags. We conclude that there is little effect of advance preparation for a given processing time, suggesting that the discrimination mechanisms underlying SAT functions are driven solely by bottom-up information processing in perceptual discrimination tasks.

  8. Asymptotic structure of space-time with a positive cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Aruna

    In general relativity a satisfactory framework for describing isolated systems exists when the cosmological constant Lambda is zero. The detailed analysis of the asymptotic structure of the gravitational field, which constitutes the framework of asymptotic flatness, lays the foundation for research in diverse areas in gravitational science. However, the framework is incomplete in two respects. First, asymptotic flatness provides well-defined expressions for physical observables such as energy and momentum as 'charges' of asymptotic symmetries at null infinity, [special character omitted] +. But the asymptotic symmetry group, called the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs group is infinite-dimensional and a tensorial expression for the 'charge' integral of an arbitrary BMS element is missing. We address this issue by providing a charge formula which is a 2-sphere integral over fields local to the 2-sphere and refers to no extraneous structure. The second, and more significant shortcoming is that observations have established that Lambda is not zero but positive in our universe. Can the framework describing isolated systems and their gravitational radiation be extended to incorporate this fact? In this dissertation we show that, unfortunately, the standard framework does not extend from the Lambda = 0 case to the Lambda > 0 case in a physically useful manner. In particular, we do not have an invariant notion of gravitational waves in the non-linear regime, nor an analog of the Bondi 'news tensor', nor positive energy theorems. In addition, we argue that the stronger boundary condition of conformal flatness of intrinsic metric on [special character omitted]+, which reduces the asymptotic symmetry group from Diff([special character omitted]) to the de Sitter group, is insufficient to characterize gravitational fluxes and is physically unreasonable. To obtain guidance for the full non-linear theory with Lambda > 0, linearized gravitational waves in de Sitter space-time are analyzed in

  9. An enhanced chaotic key-based RC5 block cipher adapted to image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragallah, Osama S.

    2012-07-01

    RC5 is a block cipher that has several salient features such as adaptability to process different word lengths with a variable block size, a variable number of rounds and a variable-length secret key. However, RC5 can be broken with various attacks such as correlation attack, timing attack, known plaintext correlation attack and differential attacks, revealing weak security. We aimed to enhance the RC5 block cipher to be more secure and efficient for real-time applications while preserving its advantages. For this purpose, this article introduces a new approach based on strengthening both the confusion and diffusion operations by combining chaos and cryptographic primitive operations to produce round keys with better pseudo-random sequences. Comparative security analysis and performance evaluation of the enhanced RC5 block cipher (ERC5) with RC5, RC6 and chaotic block cipher algorithm (CBCA) are addressed. Several test images are used for inspecting the validity of the encryption and decryption algorithms. The experimental results show the superiority of the suggested enhanced RC5 (ERC5) block cipher to image encryption algorithms such as RC5, RC6 and CBCA from the security analysis and performance evaluation points of view.

  10. Optical timing receiver for the NASA laser ranging system. Part I. Constant-fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA laser ranging system are essentially determined by time-resolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device, primarily a standard of microchannel-plate-type photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector, a timing discriminator, a high-precision time-interval digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the time-interval digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to their time-resolution capabilities, and to design a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-precision time digitizer which will be used in the laser ranging system receiver. (auth)

  11. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

  12. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Crustal Deformation Following a Megathrust Earthquake: Discrepancy Between the Apparent and Intrinsic Relaxation Time Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2018-02-01

    The viscoelastic deformation of an elastic-viscoelastic composite system is significantly different from that of a simple viscoelastic medium. Here, we show that complicated transient deformation due to viscoelastic stress relaxation after a megathrust earthquake can occur even in a very simple situation, in which an elastic surface layer (lithosphere) is underlain by a viscoelastic substratum (asthenosphere) under gravity. Although the overall decay rate of the system is controlled by the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere, the apparent decay time constant at each observation point is significantly different from place to place and generally much longer than the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere. It is also not rare that the sense of displacement rate is reversed during the viscoelastic relaxation. If we do not bear these points in mind, we may draw false conclusions from observed deformation data. Such complicated transient behavior can be explained mathematically from the characteristics of viscoelastic solution: for an elastic-viscoelastic layered half-space, the viscoelastic solution is expressed as superposition of three decaying components with different relaxation time constants that depend on wavelength.

  13. R$_{b}$ - R$_{c}$ crisis and new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, G; Hou Wei Shu; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Branco, Gustavo C; Hou, Wei Shu

    1996-01-01

    The experimental values of R_b and R_c are the only data which do not seem to agree with Standard Model predictions. Although it is still premature to draw any definite conclusions, it is timely to look for new physics which could explain the excess in R_b and deficit in R_c. We investigate this problem in a simple extension of the Standard Model, where a charge +2/3 isosinglet quark is added to the standard spectrum. Upon the further introduction of an extra scalar doublet, one finds a solution with interesting consequences.

  14. An automatic device for refilling liquid nitrogen traps at constant time intervals; Dispositif automatique assurant le remplissage de pieces en azote liquide a intervales de temps constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguillot, R; Lohez, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    We have been led to study the design of an automatic device for the filling of liquid nitrogen traps at constant time intervals in connection with the maintenance of a type MS 5 mass spectrometer; in the tube of this apparatus it is necessary to maintain a vacuum of about 10{sup -7} mm of mercury. The replenishing is done every four hours. The presence in the vacuum section of an electron multiplier has led us to provide a safety-device making it impossible for mercury vapour to come into contact with either the copper tube or the multiplier in the event of an incident leading to the warming up of the traps. In case of a breakdown, the vacuum section is therefore brought up to atmospheric pressure by the introduction of nitrogen. (author) [French] Nous avons ete conduits pour la maintenance d'un spectrometre de masse type MS 5, dans le tube duquel il faut entretenir un vide de quelques 10{sup -7} mm de mercure, a etudier un systeme de remplissage automatique a intervalle de temps fixe des pieges en azote liquide. Ce remplissage se fait toutes les quatre heures. La presence dans l'enceinte sous vide, d'un multiplicateur d'electrons, nous a amenes a prevoir un systeme de securite evitant de mettre le tube en cuivre et le multiplicateur en contact avec la vapeur de mercure en cas d'incident amenant le rechauffage des pieges. En cas de panne, l'enceinte sous vide est donc ramenee a la pression atmospherique par une introduction d'azote. (auteur)

  15. Search for time modulations in the decay constant of 40K and 226Ra at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, E.; Broggini, C.; Di Carlo, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Menegazzo, R.

    2018-05-01

    Time modulations at per mil level have been reported to take place in the decay constant of several nuclei with period of one year (most cases) but also of about one month or one day. On the other hand, experiments with similar or better sensitivity have been unable to detect any modulation. In this letter we give the results of the activity study of two different sources: 40K and 226Ra. The two gamma spectrometry experiments have been performed underground at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, this way suppressing the time dependent cosmic ray background. Briefly, our measurements reached the sensitivity of 3.4 and 3.5 parts over 106 for 40K and 226Ra, respectively (1 sigma) and they do not show any statistically significant evidence of time dependence in the decay constant. We also give the results of the activity measurement at the time of the two strong X-class solar flares which took place in September 2017. Our data do not show any unexpected time dependence in the decay rate of 40K in correspondence with the two flares. To the best of our knowledge, these are the most precise and accurate results on the stability of the decay constant as function of time.

  16. Electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Valeriu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two types of active configurations for realizing electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators. The type-1 network employs two grounded scaled resistances KR 1 and KR 2 , where K is scaling factor. The frequency of oscillation W 0 is controlled conveniently by adjusting K, since W 0 appears in the form W 0 =1/K √ R 1 C 1 R 2 C 2 . For realizing the scaled resistances, an active configuration is proposed, which realizes KR 1 =R 1 /(1+f(V B )), where f(V B ) denotes a function of a controlling voltage V B . Thus the frequency tuning can be effected by controlling a voltage V B . The type-2 oscillator uses two periodically switched conductances. It is shown that the tuning of oscillation frequency can be done by varying the pulse width-to-period ratio (t/T) of the periodically switched conductances. (author)

  17. A novel method for in-situ estimation of time constant for core temperature monitoring thermocouples of operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, J.I.; Chandar, S. Clement Ravi; Velusamy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Core temperature sensor was mathematically modeled. • Ramp signal generated during reactor operating condition is used. • Procedure and methodology has been demonstrated by applying it to FBTR. • Same technique will be implemented for all fast reactors. - Abstract: Core temperature monitoring system is an important component of reactor protection system in the current generation fast reactors. In this system, multiple thermocouples are housed inside a thermowell of fuel subassemblies. Response time of the thermocouple assembly forms an important input for safety analysis of fast reactor and hence frequent calibration/time constant estimation is essential. In fast reactors the central fuel subassembly is provided with bare fast response thermocouples to detect under cooling events in reactor and take proper safety action. On the other hand, thermocouples in thermowell are mainly used for blockage detection in individual fuel subassemblies. The time constant of thermocouples in thermowell can drift due to creep, vibration and thermal fatigue of the thermowell assembly. A novel method for in-situ estimation of time constant is proposed. This method uses the Safety Control Rod Accelerated Mechanism (SCRAM) or lowering of control Rod (LOR) signals of the reactor along with response of the central subassembly thermocouples as reference data. Validation of the procedure has been demonstrated by applying it to FBTR

  18. Succinct Dynamic Cardinal Trees with Constant Time Operations for Small Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    ) bits and performs the following operations in O(1) time: parent, child(i), label-child(alpha), degree, subtree-size, preorder, is-ancestor(x), insert-leaf (alpha), delete-leaf(alpha). The update times are amortized. The space is close to the information theoretic lower bound. The operations...

  19. One-machine job-scheduling with non-constant capacity - Minimizing weighted completion times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaddeo, H.F.; Amaddeo, H.F.; Nawijn, W.M.; van Harten, Aart

    1997-01-01

    In this paper an n-job one-machine scheduling problem is considered, in which the machine capacity is time-dependent and jobs are characterized by their work content. The objective is to minimize the sum of weighted completion times. A necessary optimality condition is presented and we discuss some

  20. Implementation of a two-qubit controlled-rotation gate based on unconventional geometric phase with a constant gating time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabu-uti, B.F.C.; Roversi, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an alternative scheme to implement a two-qubit controlled-R (rotation) gate in the hybrid atom-CCA (coupled cavities array) system. Our scheme results in a constant gating time and, with an adjustable qubit-bus coupling (atom-resonator), one can specify a particular rotation R on the target qubit. We believe that this proposal may open promising perspectives for networking quantum information processors and implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation. -- Highlights: → We propose an alternative two-qubit controlled-rotation gate implementation. → Our gate is realized in a constant gating time for any rotation. → A particular rotation on the target qubit can be specified by an adjustable qubit-bus coupling. → Our proposal may open promising perspectives for implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation.

  1. Development of an Improved Crack Propagation Model for Corrosion-Induced Cover Cracking in RC Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilyati, S.; Nizam, Z. M.; Zurisman, M. A. A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2017-06-01

    During the last two decades, reinforced concrete (RC) has been extensively used in most of the world as one of the common construction material due to its advantages and durability. However, RC structures exposed to marine environments are subjected to chloride attack. Chlorides from seawater penetrate into RC structures are not only causing severe corrosion problems but also affect the durability and serviceability of such structures. This paper investigates the influence of transverse reinforcement and spacing of reinforcing bars on concrete cover cracking of two-way RC slab specimens using accelerated corrosion tests. The experimental program involved the testing of four RC slab specimens and was generally designed to observe the crack width and the time of crack to propagate. An improved model for predicting the timing of crack propagation based on the experimental data was then developed.

  2. The effect of solvent relaxation time constants on free energy gap law for ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Valentina A; Malykhin, Roman E; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2018-05-16

    To elucidate the regularities inherent in the kinetics of ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation in donor-acceptor dyads in solutions, the simulations of the kinetics have been performed within the stochastic multichannel point-transition model. Increasing the solvent relaxation time scales has been shown to strongly vary the dependence of the charge recombination rate constant on the free energy gap. In slow relaxing solvents the non-equilibrium charge recombination occurring in parallel with solvent relaxation is very effective so that the charge recombination terminates at the non-equilibrium stage. This results in a crucial difference between the free energy gap laws for the ultrafast charge recombination and the thermal charge transfer. For the thermal reactions the well-known Marcus bell-shaped dependence of the rate constant on the free energy gap is realized while for the ultrafast charge recombination only a descending branch is predicted in the whole area of the free energy gap exceeding 0.2 eV. From the available experimental data on the population kinetics of the second and first excited states for a series of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads in toluene and tetrahydrofuran solutions, an effective rate constant of the charge recombination into the first excited state has been calculated. The obtained rate constant being very high is nearly invariable in the area of the charge recombination free energy gap from 0.2 to 0.6 eV that supports the theoretical prediction.

  3. Description of an identification method of thermocouple time constant based on application of recursive numerical filtering to temperature fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.; Le Guillou, G.; Parcy, JP.

    1981-04-01

    Usual spectral methods, based on temperature fluctuation analysis, aiming at thermocouple time constant identification are using an equipment too much sophisticated for on-line application. It is shown that numerical filtering is optimal for this application, the equipment is simpler than for spectral methods and less samples of signals are needed for the same accuracy. The method is described and a parametric study was performed using a temperature noise simulator [fr

  4. Conformally invariant amplitudes and field theory in a space-time of constant curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, I.T.

    1977-02-01

    The problem of calculating the ultra violet divergences of a field theory in a spherical space-time is reduced to analysing the pole structure of conformally invariant integrals which are analogous to amplitudes which occur in the theory of dual models. The calculations are illustrated with phi 3 -theory in six-dimensions. (author)

  5. How the constants in Hille-Nehari theorems depend on time scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, - (2006), s. 1-15 ISSN 1687-1839 R&D Pro jects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/0079; GA ČR(CZ) GP201/01/P041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scales * oscillation criteria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  6. McBits: fast constant-time code-based cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Chou, T.; Schwabe, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents extremely fast algorithms for code-based public-key cryptography, including full protection against timing attacks. For example, at a 2^128 security level, this paper achieves a reciprocal decryption throughput of just 60493 cycles (plus cipher cost etc.) on a single Ivy Bridge

  7. Off-line correction for excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk in neutron time-of-flight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, H.

    2003-01-01

    A method for reducing excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk that utilizes experimental data in the off-line analysis stage is introduced. Excessive walk is defined here as any walk that leads to an overall timing resolution that is much greater than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detection system. The method is able to reduce the contribution to the overall timing resolution from the walk that is equal to or less than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detectors. Although the method is explained in the context of a neutron time-of-flight experiment, it is applicable to any data set that satisfies two conditions. (1) A measure of the signal amplitude for each event must be recorded on an event-by-event basis; and (2) There must be a distinguishable class of events present where the timing information is known a priori

  8. Off-line correction for excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk in neutron time-of-flight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbronn, L.; Iwata, Y.; Iwase, H.

    2004-01-01

    A method for reducing excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk that utilizes experimental data in the off-line analysis stage is introduced. Excessive walk is defined here as any walk that leads to an overall timing resolution that is much greater than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detection system. The method is able to reduce the contribution to the overall timing resolution from the walk to a value that is equal to or less than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detectors. Although the method is explained in the context of a neutron time-of-flight experiment, it is applicable to any data set that satisfies two conditions: (1) a measure of the signal amplitude for each event must be recorded on an event-by-event basis; and (2) there must be a distinguishable class of events present where the timing information is known a priori

  9. Estimation methods of deformational behaviours of RC beams under the unrestrained condition at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanezu, Tsutomu; Nakano, Takehiro; Endo, Tatsumi

    1986-01-01

    The estimation methods of free deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) beams at elevated temperatures are investigated based on the concepts of ACI's and CEB/FIP's formulas, which are well used to estimate the flexural deformations of RC beams at normal temperature. Conclusions derived from the study are as follows. 1. Features of free deformations of RC beams. (i) The ratios of the average compressive strains on the top fiber of RC beams to the calculated ones at the cracked section show the inclinations that the ratios once drop after cracking and then remain constant according to temperature rises. (ii) Average compressive strains might be estimated by the average of the calculated strains at the perfect bond section and the cracked section of RC beam. (iii) The ratios of the average tensile strains on the level of reinforcements to the calculated ones at the cracked section are inclined to approach the value of 1.0 monotonically according to temperature rises. The changes of the average tensile strains are caused by the deterioration of bond strength and cracking due to the increase of the differences of expansive strains between reinforcement and concrete. 2. Estimation methods of free deformations of RC beams. (i) In order to estimate the free deformations of RC beams at elevated temperatures, the basic concepts of ACI's and CEB/FIP's formulas are adopted, which are well used to estimate the M-φ relations of RC beams at normal temperature. (ii) It was confirmed that the suggested formulas are able to estimate the free deformations of RC beams, that is, the longitudinal deformation and the curvature, at elevated temperatures. (author)

  10. A frequency-domain method for solving linear time delay systems with constant coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mengshi; Chen, Wei; Song, Hanwen; Xu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    In an active control system, time delay will occur due to processes such as signal acquisition and transmission, calculation, and actuation. Time delay systems are usually described by delay differential equations (DDEs). Since it is hard to obtain an analytical solution to a DDE, numerical solution is of necessity. This paper presents a frequency-domain method that uses a truncated transfer function to solve a class of DDEs. The theoretical transfer function is the sum of infinite items expressed in terms of poles and residues. The basic idea is to select the dominant poles and residues to truncate the transfer function, thus ensuring the validity of the solution while improving the efficiency of calculation. Meanwhile, the guideline of selecting these poles and residues is provided. Numerical simulations of both stable and unstable delayed systems are given to verify the proposed method, and the results are presented and analysed in detail.

  11. Research on the Fatigue Flexural Performance of RC Beams Attacked by Salt Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiang-hong; Xu, Fang-yuan; Jin, Wei-liang; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xi-xi; Chen, Cai-sheng

    2018-04-01

    The fatigue flexural performance of RC beams attacked by salt spray was studied. A testing method involving electro osmosis, electrical accelerated corrosion and salt spray was proposed. This corrosion process method effectively simulates real-world salt spray and fatigue loading exerted by RC components on sea bridges. Four RC beams that have different stress amplitudes were tested. It is found that deterioration by corrosion and fatigue loading reduces the fatigue life of the RC and decreases the ability of deformation. The fatigue life and deflection ability could be reduced by increasing the stress amplitude and the corrosion duration time. The test result demonstrates that this experimental method can couple corrosion deterioration and fatigue loading reasonably. This procedure may be applied to evaluate the fatigue life and concrete durability of RC components located in a natural salt spray environment.

  12. Dynamical Solution to the Problem of a Small Cosmological Constant and Late-Time Cosmic Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz-Picon, C.; Mukhanov, V.; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that most of the energy density of the universe consists of a dark energy component with negative pressure that causes the cosmic expansion to accelerate. We address why this component comes to dominate the universe only recently. We present a class of theories based on an evolving scalar field where the explanation is based entirely on internal dynamical properties of the solutions. In the theories we consider, the dynamics causes the scalar field to lock automatically into a negative pressure state at the onset of matter domination such that the present epoch is the earliest possible time consistent with nucleosynthesis restrictions when it can start to dominate

  13. Discretization of space and time: mass-energy relation, accelerating expansion of the Universe, Hubble constant

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the gravitational potential energy that at large distance coincides with the Newtonian. In very precise circumstances it coincides with the relativistic mass-energy relation: this shows that the Universe is a black hole in which all bodies are subjected to an acceleration toward the border of the Universe itself. Since the Universe is a black hole with a fixed radius, we can obtain the density of the Unive...

  14. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General Provisions § 95.201 (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? The R/C Service is a private...

  15. An Efficient Format for Nearly Constant-Time Access to Arbitrary Time Intervals in Large Trace Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Chan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful method to aid in understanding the performance of parallel applications uses log or trace files containing time-stamped events and states (pairs of events. These trace files can be very large, often hundreds or even thousands of megabytes. Because of the cost of accessing and displaying such files, other methods are often used that reduce the size of the tracefiles at the cost of sacrificing detail or other information. This paper describes a hierarchical trace file format that provides for display of an arbitrary time window in a time independent of the total size of the file and roughly proportional to the number of events within the time window. This format eliminates the need to sacrifice data to achieve a smaller trace file size (since storage is inexpensive, it is necessary only to make efficient use of bandwidth to that storage. The format can be used to organize a trace file or to create a separate file of annotations that may be used with conventional trace files. We present an analysis of the time to access all of the events relevant to an interval of time and we describe experiments demonstrating the performance of this file format.

  16. Path integration of head direction: updating a packet of neural activity at the correct speed using neuronal time constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D M; Stringer, S M

    2010-07-01

    A key question in understanding the neural basis of path integration is how individual, spatially responsive, neurons may self-organize into networks that can, through learning, integrate velocity signals to update a continuous representation of location within an environment. It is of vital importance that this internal representation of position is updated at the correct speed, and in real time, to accurately reflect the motion of the animal. In this article, we present a biologically plausible model of velocity path integration of head direction that can solve this problem using neuronal time constants to effect natural time delays, over which associations can be learned through associative Hebbian learning rules. The model comprises a linked continuous attractor network and competitive network. In simulation, we show that the same model is able to learn two different speeds of rotation when implemented with two different values for the time constant, and without the need to alter any other model parameters. The proposed model could be extended to path integration of place in the environment, and path integration of spatial view.

  17. Light deflection, lensing, and time delays from gravitational potentials and Fermat's principle in the presence of a cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha

    2008-01-01

    The contributions of the cosmological constant to the deflection angle and the time delays are derived from the integration of the gravitational potential as well as from Fermat's principle. The findings are in agreement with recent results using exact solutions to Einstein's equations and reproduce precisely the new Λ term in the bending angle and the lens equation. The consequences on time-delay expressions are explored. While it is known that Λ contributes to the gravitational time delay, it is shown here that a new Λ term appears in the geometrical time delay as well. Although these newly derived terms are perhaps small for current observations, they do not cancel out as previously claimed. Moreover, as shown before, at galaxy cluster scale, the Λ contribution can be larger than the second-order term in the Einstein deflection angle for several cluster lens systems.

  18. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  19. Is average daily travel time expenditure constant? In search of explanations for an increase in average travel time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wee, B.; Rietveld, P.; Meurs, H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the average time spent travelling by the Dutch population has increased over the past decades. However, different data sources show different levels of increase. This paper explores possible causes for this increase. They include a rise in incomes, which has probably

  20. Resimulation of noise: a precision estimator for least square error curve-fitting tested for axial strain time constant imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S. P.; Righetti, R.

    2015-05-01

    Recent elastography techniques focus on imaging information on properties of materials which can be modeled as viscoelastic or poroelastic. These techniques often require the fitting of temporal strain data, acquired from either a creep or stress-relaxation experiment to a mathematical model using least square error (LSE) parameter estimation. It is known that the strain versus time relationships for tissues undergoing creep compression have a non-linear relationship. In non-linear cases, devising a measure of estimate reliability can be challenging. In this article, we have developed and tested a method to provide non linear LSE parameter estimate reliability: which we called Resimulation of Noise (RoN). RoN provides a measure of reliability by estimating the spread of parameter estimates from a single experiment realization. We have tested RoN specifically for the case of axial strain time constant parameter estimation in poroelastic media. Our tests show that the RoN estimated precision has a linear relationship to the actual precision of the LSE estimator. We have also compared results from the RoN derived measure of reliability against a commonly used reliability measure: the correlation coefficient (CorrCoeff). Our results show that CorrCoeff is a poor measure of estimate reliability for non-linear LSE parameter estimation. While the RoN is specifically tested only for axial strain time constant imaging, a general algorithm is provided for use in all LSE parameter estimation.

  1. Analytical Solution for Time-drawdown Response to Constant Pumping from a Homogeneous, Confined Horizontal Aquifer with Unidirectional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, K. E.; Zhang, J.; Teasdale, E.

    2007-12-01

    An exact analytical solution to the ordinary one-dimensional partial differential equation is derived for transient groundwater flow in a homogeneous, confined, horizontal aquifer using Laplace transformation. The theoretical analysis is based on the assumption that the aquifer is homogeneous and one-dimensional (horizontal); confined between impermeable formations on top and bottom; and of infinite horizontal extent and constant thickness. It is also assumed that there is only a single pumping well penetrating the entire aquifer; flow is everywhere horizontal within the aquifer to the well; the well is pumping with a constant discharge rate; the well diameter is infinitesimally small; and the hydraulic head is uniform throughout the aquifer before pumping. Similar to the Theis solution, this solution is suited to determine transmissivity and storativity for a two- dimensional, vertically confined aquifer, such as a long vertically fractured zone of high permeability within low permeable rocks or a long, high-permeability trench inside a low-permeability porous media. In addition, it can be used to analyze time-drawdown responses to pumping and injection in similar settings. The solution can also be used to approximate the groundwater flow for unconfined conditions if (1) the variation of transmissivity is negligible (groundwater table variation is small in comparison to the saturated thickness); and (2) the unsaturated flow is negligible. The errors associated with the use of the solution to unconfined conditions depend on the accuracies of the above two assumptions. The solution can also be used to assess the impacts of recharge from a seasonal river or irrigation canal on the groundwater system by assuming uniform, time- constant recharge along the river or canal. This paper presents the details for derivation of the analytical solution. The analytical solution is compared to numerical simulation results with example cases. Its accuracy is also assessed and

  2. An optimal policy for deteriorating items with time-proportional deterioration rate and constant and time-dependent linear demand rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Trailokyanath; Mishra, Pandit Jagatananda; Pattanayak, Hadibandhu

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an economic order quantity (EOQ) inventory model for a deteriorating item is developed with the following characteristics: (i) The demand rate is deterministic and two-staged, i.e., it is constant in first part of the cycle and linear function of time in the second part. (ii) Deterioration rate is time-proportional. (iii) Shortages are not allowed to occur. The optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity have been derived by minimizing the total average cost. A simple solution procedure is provided to illustrate the proposed model. The article concludes with a numerical example and sensitivity analysis of various parameters as illustrations of the theoretical results.

  3. Equilibrium constants in aqueous lanthanide and actinide chemistry from time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy: The role of ground and excited state reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, I.; Luetzenkirchen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Equilibrium constants for aqueous reactions between lanthanide or actinide ions and (in-) organic ligands contain important information for various radiochemical problems, such as nuclear reprocessing or the migration of radioelements in the geosphere. We study the conditions required to determine equilibrium constants by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. Based on a simulation study it is shown that the possibility to determine equilibrium constants depends upon the reaction rates in the photoexcited states of the lanthanide or actinide ions. (orig.)

  4. A digital, constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for real-time, absolute ultrasonic phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldren, H. A.; Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Cramer, K. E.; Gupta, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    A digitally controlled instrument for conducting single-frequency and swept-frequency ultrasonic phase measurements has been developed based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) design. This instrument uses a pair of direct digital synthesizers to generate an ultrasonically transceived tone-burst and an internal reference wave for phase comparison. Real-time, constant-frequency phase tracking in an interrogated specimen is possible with a resolution of 0.000 38 rad (0.022°), and swept-frequency phase measurements can be obtained. Using phase measurements, an absolute thickness in borosilicate glass is presented to show the instrument's efficacy, and these results are compared to conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. The newly developed instrument predicted the thickness with a mean error of -0.04 μm and a standard deviation of error of 1.35 μm. Additionally, the CFPPLL instrument shows a lower measured phase error in the absence of changing temperature and couplant thickness than high-resolution cross-correlation ToF measurements at a similar signal-to-noise ratio. By showing higher accuracy and precision than conventional pulse-echo ToF measurements and lower phase errors than cross-correlation ToF measurements, the new digitally controlled CFPPLL instrument provides high-resolution absolute ultrasonic velocity or path-length measurements in solids or liquids, as well as tracking of material property changes with high sensitivity. The ability to obtain absolute phase measurements allows for many new applications than possible with previous ultrasonic pulsed phase-locked loop instruments. In addition to improved resolution, swept-frequency phase measurements add useful capability in measuring properties of layered structures, such as bonded joints, or materials which exhibit non-linear frequency-dependent behavior, such as dispersive media.

  5. Fractional-order RC and RL circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2012-05-30

    This paper is a step forward to generalize the fundamentals of the conventional RC and RL circuits in fractional-order sense. The effect of fractional orders is the key factor for extra freedom, more flexibility, and novelty. The conditions for RC and RL circuits to act as pure imaginary impedances are derived, which are unrealizable in the conventional case. In addition, the sensitivity analyses of the magnitude and phase response with respect to all parameters showing the locations of these critical values are discussed. A qualitative revision for the fractional RC and RL circuits in the frequency domain is provided. Numerical and PSpice simulations are included to validate this study. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  6. Quantum supremacy in constant-time measurement-based computation: A unified architecture for sampling and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob; Sanders, Stephen; Miyake, Akimasa

    2017-12-01

    While quantum speed-up in solving certain decision problems by a fault-tolerant universal quantum computer has been promised, a timely research interest includes how far one can reduce the resource requirement to demonstrate a provable advantage in quantum devices without demanding quantum error correction, which is crucial for prolonging the coherence time of qubits. We propose a model device made of locally interacting multiple qubits, designed such that simultaneous single-qubit measurements on it can output probability distributions whose average-case sampling is classically intractable, under similar assumptions as the sampling of noninteracting bosons and instantaneous quantum circuits. Notably, in contrast to these previous unitary-based realizations, our measurement-based implementation has two distinctive features. (i) Our implementation involves no adaptation of measurement bases, leading output probability distributions to be generated in constant time, independent of the system size. Thus, it could be implemented in principle without quantum error correction. (ii) Verifying the classical intractability of our sampling is done by changing the Pauli measurement bases only at certain output qubits. Our usage of random commuting quantum circuits in place of computationally universal circuits allows a unique unification of sampling and verification, so they require the same physical resource requirements in contrast to the more demanding verification protocols seen elsewhere in the literature.

  7. Calibration of the fine-structure constant of graphene by time-dependent density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindona, A.; Pisarra, M.; Vacacela Gomez, C.; Riccardi, P.; Falcone, G.; Bellucci, S.

    2017-11-01

    One of the amazing properties of graphene is the ultrarelativistic behavior of its loosely bound electrons, mimicking massless fermions that move with a constant velocity, inversely proportional to a fine-structure constant αg of the order of unity. The effective interaction between these quasiparticles is, however, better controlled by the coupling parameter αg*=αg/ɛ , which accounts for the dynamic screening due to the complex permittivity ɛ of the many-valence electron system. This concept was introduced in a couple of previous studies [Reed et al., Science 330, 805 (2010) and Gan et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 195150 (2016)], where inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on crystal graphite were converted into an experimentally derived form of αg* for graphene, over an energy-momentum region on the eV Å -1 scale. Here, an accurate theoretical framework is provided for αg*, using time-dependent density-functional theory in the random-phase approximation, with a cutoff in the interaction between excited electrons in graphene, which translates to an effective interlayer interaction in graphite. The predictions of the approach are in excellent agreement with the above-mentioned measurements, suggesting a calibration method to substantially improve the experimental derivation of αg*, which tends to a static limiting value of ˜0.14 . Thus, the ab initio calibration procedure outlined demonstrates the accuracy of perturbation expansion treatments for the two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene, in parallel with quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Investigation on the thermographic detection of corrosion in RC structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Kyriakides, Nicholas; Georgiou, Panagiota G.; Ioannou, Fotia G.

    2017-09-01

    Corrosion of the steel reinforcement is the main problem of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Over the past decades, several methods have been developed aiming to detect the corrosion process early in order to minimise the structural damage and consequently the repairing costs. Emphasis was given in developing methods and techniques of non-destructive nature providing fast on-the-spot detection and covering large areas rather that concentrating on single locations. This study, investigates a non-destructive corrosion detection technique for reinforced concrete, which is based on infrared thermography and the difference in thermal characteristics of corroded and non-corroded steel rebars. The technique is based on the principle that corrosion products have poor heat conductivity, and they inhibit the diffusion of heat that is generated in the reinforcing bar due to heating. For the investigation RC specimens, have been constructed in the laboratory using embedded steel bars of different corrosion states. Afterward, one surface of the specimens was heated using an electric device while thermal images were captured at predefined time instants on the opposite surface with an IR camera. The test results showed a clear difference between the thermal characteristics of the corroded and the non-corroded samples, which demonstrates the potential of using thermography in corrosion detection in RC structures.

  9. Effective conductivity, dielectric constant, and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media via first-passage-time equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, S.; Kim, I.C.; Cule, D.

    1999-01-01

    We generalize the Brownian motion simulation method of Kim and Torquato [J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3892 (1990)] to compute the effective conductivity, dielectric constant and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media. This is accomplished by first generalizing the first-passage-time equations to treat first-passage regions of arbitrary shape. We then develop the appropriate first-passage-time equations for digitized media: first-passage squares in two dimensions and first-passage cubes in three dimensions. A severe test case to prove the accuracy of the method is the two-phase periodic checkerboard in which conduction, for sufficiently large phase contrasts, is dominated by corners that join two conducting-phase pixels. Conventional numerical techniques (such as finite differences or elements) do not accurately capture the local fields here for reasonable grid resolution and hence lead to inaccurate estimates of the effective conductivity. By contrast, we show that our algorithm yields accurate estimates of the effective conductivity of the periodic checkerboard for widely different phase conductivities. Finally, we illustrate our method by computing the effective conductivity of the random checkerboard for a wide range of volume fractions and several phase contrast ratios. These results always lie within rigorous four-point bounds on the effective conductivity. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. SmB6 electron-phonon coupling constant from time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzi, A.; Crepaldi, A.; Cilento, F.; Manzoni, G.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Zacchigna, M.; van Heumen, E.; Huang, Y. K.; Golden, M. S.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-08-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo system resulting from the hybridization between localized f electrons and delocalized d electrons. We have investigated its out-of-equilibrium electron dynamics by means of time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The transient electronic population above the Fermi level can be described by a time-dependent Fermi-Dirac distribution. By solving a two-temperature model that well reproduces the relaxation dynamics of the effective electronic temperature, we estimate the electron-phonon coupling constant λ to range from 0.13 ±0.03 to 0.04 ±0.01 . These extremes are obtained assuming a coupling of the electrons with either a phonon mode at 10 or 19 meV. A realistic value of the average phonon energy will give an actual value of λ within this range. Our results provide an experimental report on the material electron-phonon coupling, contributing to both the electronic transport and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of SmB6.

  11. RC Circuits: Some Computer-Interfaced Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Pratibha; Verma, Mallika

    1994-01-01

    Describes a simple computer-interface experiment for recording the response of an RC network to an arbitrary input excitation. The setup is used to pose a variety of open-ended investigations in network modeling by varying the initial conditions, input signal waveform, and the circuit topology. (DDR)

  12. Comparison of dual-time-constant and fast-acting automatic gain control (AGC) systems in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick J; Büchner, Andreas; Stone, Michael A; Lenarz, Thomas; Moore, Brian C J

    2009-04-01

    Cochlear implants usually employ an automatic gain control (AGC) system as a first stage of processing. AGC1 was a fast-acting (syllabic) compressor. AGC2 was a dual-time-constant system; it usually performed as a slow-acting compressor, but incorporated an additional fast-acting system to provide protection from sudden increases in sound level. Six experienced cochlear-implant users were tested in a counterbalanced order, receiving one-month of experience with a given AGC type before switching to the other type. Performance was evaluated shortly after provision of a given AGC type and after one-month of experience with that AGC type. Questionnaires, mainly relating to listening in quiet situations, did not reveal significant differences between the two AGC types. However, fixed-level and roving-level tests of sentence identification in noise both revealed significantly better performance for AGC2. It is suggested that the poorer performance for AGC1 occurred because AGC1 introduced cross-modulation between the target speech and background noise, which made perceptual separation of the target and background more difficult.

  13. Study on Relationship between Dielectric Constant and Water Content of Rock-Soil Mixture by Time Domain Reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daosheng Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to test water content of rock-soil mixtures efficiently and accurately to ensure both the quality control of compaction and assessment of the geotechnical engineering properties. To overcome time and energy wastage and probe insertion problems when using the traditional calibration method, a TDR coaxial test tube calibration arrangement using an upward infiltration method was designed. This arrangement was then used to study the influence of dry density, pore fluid conductivity, and soil/rock ratio on the relationship between water content and the dielectric constant of rock-soil mixtures. The results show that the empirical calibration equation forms for rock-soil mixtures can be the same as for soil materials. The effect of dry density on the calibration equation has the most significance and the influence of pore fluid conductivity can be ignored. The impact of variation of the soil/rock ratio can be neutralized by considering the effect of dry density in the calibration equation for the same kind of soil and rock. The empirical equations proposed by Zhao et al. show a good accuracy for rock-soil mixtures, indicating that the TDR method can be used to test gravimetric water content conveniently and efficiently without calibration in the field.

  14. ESTIMATION OF CONSTANT AND TIME-VARYING DYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF HIV INFECTION IN A NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hua; Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin

    2010-03-01

    Modeling viral dynamics in HIV/AIDS studies has resulted in deep understanding of pathogenesis of HIV infection from which novel antiviral treatment guidance and strategies have been derived. Viral dynamics models based on nonlinear differential equations have been proposed and well developed over the past few decades. However, it is quite challenging to use experimental or clinical data to estimate the unknown parameters (both constant and time-varying parameters) in complex nonlinear differential equation models. Therefore, investigators usually fix some parameter values, from the literature or by experience, to obtain only parameter estimates of interest from clinical or experimental data. However, when such prior information is not available, it is desirable to determine all the parameter estimates from data. In this paper, we intend to combine the newly developed approaches, a multi-stage smoothing-based (MSSB) method and the spline-enhanced nonlinear least squares (SNLS) approach, to estimate all HIV viral dynamic parameters in a nonlinear differential equation model. In particular, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to propose a comparatively thorough procedure, accounting for both efficiency and accuracy, to rigorously estimate all key kinetic parameters in a nonlinear differential equation model of HIV dynamics from clinical data. These parameters include the proliferation rate and death rate of uninfected HIV-targeted cells, the average number of virions produced by an infected cell, and the infection rate which is related to the antiviral treatment effect and is time-varying. To validate the estimation methods, we verified the identifiability of the HIV viral dynamic model and performed simulation studies. We applied the proposed techniques to estimate the key HIV viral dynamic parameters for two individual AIDS patients treated with antiretroviral therapies. We demonstrate that HIV viral dynamics can be well characterized and

  15. Solute concentration at a well in non-Gaussian aquifers under constant and time-varying pumping schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libera, Arianna; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Riva, Monica; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Our study is keyed to the analysis of the interplay between engineering factors (i.e., transient pumping rates versus less realistic but commonly analyzed uniform extraction rates) and the heterogeneous structure of the aquifer (as expressed by the probability distribution characterizing transmissivity) on contaminant transport. We explore the joint influence of diverse (a) groundwater pumping schedules (constant and variable in time) and (b) representations of the stochastic heterogeneous transmissivity (T) field on temporal histories of solute concentrations observed at an extraction well. The stochastic nature of T is rendered by modeling its natural logarithm, Y = ln T, through a typical Gaussian representation and the recently introduced Generalized sub-Gaussian (GSG) model. The latter has the unique property to embed scale-dependent non-Gaussian features of the main statistics of Y and its (spatial) increments, which have been documented in a variety of studies. We rely on numerical Monte Carlo simulations and compute the temporal evolution at the well of low order moments of the solute concentration (C), as well as statistics of the peak concentration (Cp), identified as the environmental performance metric of interest in this study. We show that the pumping schedule strongly affects the pattern of the temporal evolution of the first two statistical moments of C, regardless the nature (Gaussian or non-Gaussian) of the underlying Y field, whereas the latter quantitatively influences their magnitude. Our results show that uncertainty associated with C and Cp estimates is larger when operating under a transient extraction scheme than under the action of a uniform withdrawal schedule. The probability density function (PDF) of Cp displays a long positive tail in the presence of time-varying pumping schedule. All these aspects are magnified in the presence of non-Gaussian Y fields. Additionally, the PDF of Cp displays a bimodal shape for all types of pumping

  16. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  18. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  20. Implementation of RC5 and RC6 block ciphers on digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaj Mohamed, A.; Zaibi, G.; Kachouri, A.

    2011-01-01

    With the fast evolution of the networks technology, the security becomes an important research axis. Many types of communication require the transmission of digital images. This transmission must be safe especially in applications that require a fairly high level of security such as military applications, spying, radars, and biometrics applications. Mechanisms for authentication, confidentiality, and integrity must be implemented within their community. For this reason, several cryptographic algorithms have been developed to ensure the safety and reliability of this transmission. In this paper, we investigate the encryption efficiency of RC5 and RC6 block cipher applied to digital images by including a statistical and differential analysis then, and also we investigate those two block ciphers against errors in ambient noise. The security analysis shows that RC6 algorithm is more secure than RC5. However, using RC6 to encrypt images in rough environment (low signal to noise ratio) leads to more errors (almost double of RC5) and may increase energy consumption by retransmitting erroneous packets. A compromise security/energy must be taken into account for the good choice of encryption algorithm.

  1. Investigation of Relative Time Constant Influence of Inertial Part of Superheater on Quality of Steam Temperature Control Behind Boiler in Broad Band of Loading Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to computational investigation of influence relative time constant of an object which changes in broad band on quality of steam temperature control behind a boiler with due account of value of regulating action in the system with PI- and PID- regulator. The simulation has been based on a single-loop automatic control system (ACS. It has been revealed that the less value of the relative time constant of an object leads to more integral control error in system with PID- regulator while operating external ACS perturbation. Decrease of numerical value of relative time constant of an object while operating external perturbation causes decrease of relative time concerning appearance of maximum dynamic control error from common relative control time.

  2. 47 CFR 95.221 - (R/C Rule 21) How do I have my R/C transmitter serviced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC certificated R/C transmitter (see R/C Rule 9) must be made in accord with the Technical... in order to: (1) Adjust a transmitter to an antenna; (2) Detect or measure radiation of energy other...

  3. Fatigue behavior of RC T-beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Farghal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the fatigue performance of reinforced concrete (RC T-beams strengthened in shear with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composite. Experiments were conducted on RC beams with and without CFRP sheets bonded on their web surfaces and subjected to static and cycling loading. The obtained results showed that the strengthened beams could survive one million cycles of cyclic loading (=50% of maximum static load with no apparent signs of damage (premature failure demonstrating the effectiveness of CFRP strengthening system on extending the fatigue life of structures. Also, for beams having the same geometry, the applied strengthening technique can significantly enhance the cycling load particularly, in case of beams provided with U-jacket sheets. Moreover, although the failure mode for the different beams was a brittle one, the strengthened beams provided with U-jacket sheets approved an acceptable enhancement in the structural ductility.

  4. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  5. Approximation for the Finite-Time Ruin Probability of a General Risk Model with Constant Interest Rate and Extended Negatively Dependent Heavy-Tailed Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a general continuous-time risk model with a constant interest rate. In this model, claims arrive according to an arbitrary counting process, while their sizes have dominantly varying tails and fulfill an extended negative dependence structure. We obtain an asymptotic formula for the finite-time ruin probability, which extends a corresponding result of Wang (2008.

  6. ELASTO-PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF RC FRAMES COMPOSED OF STEEL JACKETTED RC SHORT COLUMNS AND SPANDREL WALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study is a part of the investigation on the seismic design method for Double Tubes Hybrid System (DTHS) for buildings. This structural system consists of RC core walls as the interior tube, and the exterior frames composed of RC short columns and RC spandrel walls as the exterior tube. The RC core walls are designed as the Energy Dissipation Structural Walls (EDSW), which are composed of RC coupled shear walls linked by short steel H-shaped beams as the energy dissipation de...

  7. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  8. Appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system in 1/R control of the total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Sora; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Hara, Shintaro; Yurimoto, Terumi; Li, Xinyang; Murakami, Haruka; Ono, Toshiya; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yusuke

    2017-09-01

    1/R control is a physiological control method of the total artificial heart (TAH) with which long-term survival was obtained with animal experiments. However, 1/R control occasionally diverged in the undulation pump TAH (UPTAH) animal experiment. To improve the control stability of the 1/R control, appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system was investigated with frequency analysis and numerical simulation. In the frequency analysis, data of five goats in which the UPTAH was implanted were analyzed with first Fourier transform technique to examine the vasomotion frequency. The numerical simulation was carried out repeatedly changing baroreflex parameters and control time constant using the elements-expanded Windkessel model. Results of the frequency analysis showed that the 1/R control tended to diverge when very low frequency band that was an indication of the vasomotion frequency was relative high. In numerical simulation, divergence of the 1/R control could be reproduced and the boundary curves between the divergence and convergence of the 1/R control varied depending on the control time constant. These results suggested that the 1/R control tended to be unstable when the TAH recipient had high reflex speed in the baroreflex vascular system. Therefore, the control time constant should be adjusted appropriately with the individual vasomotion frequency.

  9. Upgrading the seismic capacity of existing RC buildings using buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abou-Elfath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many existing RC buildings do not meet the lateral strength requirements of current seismic codes and are vulnerable to significant damage or collapse in the event of future earthquakes. In the past few decades, buckling-restrained braces have become increasingly popular as a lateral force resisting system because of their capability of improving the strength, the stiffness and the energy absorbing capacity of structures. This study evaluates the seismic upgrading of a 6-story RC-building using single diagonal buckling restrained braces. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio, the brace ductility factors and the member strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained in this study indicate that strengthening of RC buildings with buckling restrained braces is an efficient technique as it significantly increases the PGA capacity of the RC buildings. The results also indicate the increase in the PGA capacity of the RC building with the increase in the amount of the braces.

  10. Strengthening of RC bridge slabs using CFRP sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy A. Fathelbab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many old structures became structurally insufficient to carry the new loading conditions requirements. Moreover, they suffer from structural degradation, reinforcement steel bars corrosion, bad weather conditions…etc. Many official authorities in several countries had recognized many old bridges and buildings as structurally deficient by today’s standards. Due to these reasons, structural strengthening became an essential requirement and different strengthening techniques appeared in market. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP strengthening techniques established a good position among all other techniques, giving excellent structural results, low time required and moderate cost compared with the other techniques. The main purpose of this research is to study analytically the strengthening of a reinforced concrete bridge slabs due to excessive loads, using externally bonded FRP sheets technique. A commercial finite element program ANSYS was used to perform a structural linear and non-linear analysis for strengthened slab models using several schemes of FRP sheets. A parametric study was performed to evaluate analytically the effect of changing both FRP stiffness and FRP schemes in strengthening RC slabs. Comparing the results with control slab (reinforced concrete slab without strengthening it is obvious that attaching FRP sheets to the RC slab increases its capacity and enhances the ductility/toughness.

  11. ECE diagnostics for RTO/RC ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayakis, G.; Bartlett, D.V.; Costley, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) diagnostic on the Reduced Technical Objectives/Reduced Cost International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It discusses the implications of the new machine design on the measurement requirements, the ability of the diagnostic technique to meet these, and the changes in the implementation imposed by the new layout. Finally, it outlines the physics studies, design and R and D work required prior to the detailed design and construction of the diagnostic. Key results are: (i) that the localisation of the measurement is similar to that in ITER-FDR (40-100 mm in X-mode, 60-200 mm in O-mode for the reference scenario), so that the relative spatial resolution degrades in this, smaller, machine, and (ii) the expected effect of transport barriers on the temperature profile in the high temperature region will be poorly resolved, because the effect of the temperature gradient on the outboard side is to degrade the resolution to (∼250 mm in X-mode, ∼350 mm in O-mode). Nevertheless ECE will be able to make a unique and useful contribution to the RTO/RC ITER measurement set

  12. Cosmological constants and variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D

    2005-01-01

    We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that is consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. We also discuss some of the consequences of varying 'constants' for oscillating universes and show by means of exact solutions that they appear to evolve monotonically in time even though the scale factor of the universe oscillates

  13. Modeling of R/C Servo Motor and Application to Underactuated Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masato; Kitayoshi, Ryohei; Wada, Takashi; Maruta, Ichiro; Sugie, Toshiharu

    An R/C servo motor is a compact package of a DC geard-motor associated with a position servo controller. They are widely used in small-sized robotics and mechatronics by virtue of their compactness, easiness-to-use and high/weight ratio. However, it is crucial to clarify their internal model (including the embedded position servo) in order to improve control performance of mechatronic systems using R/C servo motors, such as biped robots or underactuted sysyems. In this paper, we propose a simple and realistic internal model of the R/C servo motors including the embedded servo controller, and estimate their physical parameters using continuous-time system identification method. We also provide a model of reference-to-torque transfer function so that we can estimate the internal torque acting on the load.

  14. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber

  15. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber.

  16. Electronic setup for fluorescence emission measurements and long-time constant-temperature maintenance of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes in water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Matteo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research we have observed that the fluorescence emission from water solutions of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (SWCNT, excited by a laser with a wavelength of 830nm, diminishes with the time. We have already proved that such a fading is a function of the storage time and the storage temperature. In order to study the emission of the SWCNT as a function of these two parameters we have designed and realized a special measurement compartment with a cuvette holder where the SWCNT solutions can be measured and stored at a fixed constant temperature for periods of time as long as several weeks. To maintain the measurement setup under a constant temperature we have designed special experimental setup based on two Peltier cells with electronic temperature control.

  17. Experimental study on fatigue crack propagation rate of RC beam strengthened with carbon fiber laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiyan; Liu, Guangwan; Guo, Xinyan; Huang, Man

    2008-11-01

    The experimental research on fatigue crack propagation rate of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber laminate (CFL) is carried out by MTS system in this paper. The experimental results show that, the main crack propagation on strengthened beam can be summarized into three phases: 1) fast propagation phase; 2) steady propagation and rest phase; 3) unsteady propagation phase. The phase 2-i.e. steady propagation and rest stage makes up about 95% of fatigue life of the strengthened beam. The propagation rate of the main crack, da/dN, in phase 2 can be described by Paris formula, and the constant C and m can be confirmed by the fatigue crack propagation experiments of the RC beams strengthened with CFL under three-point bending loads.

  18. The determinants of response time in a repeated constant-sum game: A robust Bayesian hierarchical dual-process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Leonidas

    2018-03-01

    The investigation of response time and behavior has a long tradition in cognitive psychology, particularly for non-strategic decision-making. Recently, experimental economists have also studied response time in strategic interactions, but with an emphasis on either one-shot games or repeated social-dilemmas. I investigate the determinants of response time in a repeated (pure-conflict) game, admitting a unique mixed strategy Nash equilibrium, with fixed partner matching. Response times depend upon the interaction of two decision models embedded in a dual-process framework (Achtziger and Alós-Ferrer, 2014; Alós-Ferrer, 2016). The first decision model is the commonly used win-stay/lose-shift heuristic and the second the pattern-detecting reinforcement learning model in Spiliopoulos (2013b). The former is less complex and can be executed more quickly than the latter. As predicted, conflict between these two models (i.e., each one recommending a different course of action) led to longer response times than cases without conflict. The dual-process framework makes other qualitative response time predictions arising from the interaction between the existence (or not) of conflict and which one of the two decision models the chosen action is consistent with-these were broadly verified by the data. Other determinants of RT were hypothesized on the basis of existing theory and tested empirically. Response times were strongly dependent on the actions chosen by both players in the previous rounds and the resulting outcomes. Specifically, response time was shortest after a win in the previous round where the maximum possible payoff was obtained; response time after losses was significantly longer. Strongly auto-correlated behavior (regardless of its sign) was also associated with longer response times. I conclude that, similar to other tasks, there is a strong coupling in repeated games between behavior and RT, which can be exploited to further our understanding of decision

  19. Simultaneous measurement of the maximum oscillation amplitude and the transient decay time constant of the QCM reveals stiffness changes of the adlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxer, C Galli; Coen, M Collaud; Bissig, H; Greber, U F; Schlapbach, L

    2003-10-01

    Interpretation of adsorption kinetics measured with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can be difficult for adlayers undergoing modification of their mechanical properties. We have studied the behavior of the oscillation amplitude, A(0), and the decay time constant, tau, of quartz during adsorption of proteins and cells, by use of a home-made QCM. We are able to measure simultaneously the frequency, f, the dissipation factor, D, the maximum amplitude, A(0), and the transient decay time constant, tau, every 300 ms in liquid, gaseous, or vacuum environments. This analysis enables adsorption and modification of liquid/mass properties to be distinguished. Moreover the surface coverage and the stiffness of the adlayer can be estimated. These improvements promise to increase the appeal of QCM methodology for any applications measuring intimate contact of a dynamic material with a solid surface.

  20. Field and polarity dependence of time-to-resistance increase in Fe–O films studied by constant voltage stress method

    OpenAIRE

    Eriguchi, Koji; Wei, Zhiqiang; Takagi, Takeshi; Ohta, Hiroaki; Ono, Kouichi

    2009-01-01

    Constant voltage stress (CVS) was applied to Fe–O films prepared by a sputtering process to investigate a stress-induced resistance increase leading to a fundamental mechanism for switching behaviors. Under the CVS, an abrupt resistance increase was found for both stress polarities. A conduction mechanism after the resistance increase exhibited non-Ohmic transport. The time-to-resistance increase (tr) under the CVS was revealed to strongly depend on stress voltage as well as the polarity. Fro...

  1. SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION EFFECTS ON MULTISTOREY R/C STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muberra ESER AYDEMIR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the behavior of multistorey structures considering soil structure interaction under earthquake excitation. For this purpose, sample 3, 6, 9 storey RC frames are designed based on Turkish Seismic Design Code and analyzed in time domain with incremental dynamic analysis. Strength reduction factors are investigated for generated sample plane frames for 64 different earthquake motions recorded on different site conditions such as rock, stiff soil, soft soil and very soft soil. According to the analysis result, strength reduction factors of sample buildings considering soil structure interaction are found to be almost always smaller than design strength reduction factors given in current seismic design codes, which cause an unsafe design and nonconservative design forces.

  2. The time-walk of analog constant fraction discriminators using very fast scintillator detectors with linear and non-linear energy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis, J.-M., E-mail: regis@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Rudigier, M.; Jolie, J.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, C.; Pascovici, G.; Warr, N. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-08-21

    The electronic {gamma}-{gamma} fast timing technique allows for direct nuclear lifetime determination down to the few picoseconds region by measuring the time difference between two coincident {gamma}-ray transitions. Using high resolution ultra-fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors in combination with the recently developed mirror symmetric centroid difference method, nuclear lifetimes are measured with a time resolving power of around 5 ps. The essence of the method is to calibrate the energy dependent position (centroid) of the prompt response function of the setup which is obtained for simultaneously occurring events. This time-walk of the prompt response function induced by the analog constant fraction discriminator has been determined by systematic measurements using different photomultiplier tubes and timing adjustments of the constant fraction discriminator. We propose a universal calibration function which describes the time-walk or the combined {gamma}-{gamma} time-walk characteristics, respectively, for either a linear or a non-linear amplitude versus energy dependency of the scintillator detector output pulses.

  3. Dynamical Constants and Time Universals: A First Step toward a Metrical Definition of Ordered and Abnormal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; du Bois, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    From the point of view of the cognitive dynamicist the organization of brain circuitry into assemblies defined by their synchrony at particular (and precise) oscillation frequencies is important for the correct correlation of all independent cortical responses to the different aspects of a given complex thought or object. From the point of view of anyone operating complex mechanical systems, i.e., those comprising independent components that are required to interact precisely in time, it follows that the precise timing of such a system is essential - not only essential but measurable, and scalable. It must also be reliable over observations to bring about consistent behavior, whatever that behavior is. The catastrophic consequence of an absence of such precision, for instance that required to govern the interference engine in many automobiles, is indicative of how important timing is for the function of dynamical systems at all levels of operation. The dynamics and temporal considerations combined indicate that it is necessary to consider the operating characteristic of any dynamical, cognitive brain system in terms, superficially at least, of oscillation frequencies. These may, themselves, be forensic of an underlying time-related taxonomy. Currently there are only two sets of relevant and necessarily systematic observations in this field: one of these reports the precise dynamical structure of the perceptual systems engaged in dynamical binding across form and time; the second, derived both empirically from perceptual performance data, as well as obtained from theoretical models, demonstrates a timing taxonomy related to a fundamental operator referred to as the time quantum. In this contribution both sets of theory and observations are reviewed and compared for their predictive consistency. Conclusions about direct comparability are discussed for both theories of cognitive dynamics and time quantum models. Finally, a brief review of some experimental data

  4. CD45RC isoform expression identifies functionally distinct T cell subsets differentially distributed between healthy individuals and AAV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ordonez

    Full Text Available In animal models of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV, the proportion of CD45RC T cell subsets is important for disease susceptibility. Their human counterparts are, however, functionally ill defined. In this report, we studied their distribution in healthy controls (HC, AAV patients and in Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE patients as disease controls. We showed that CD45RC expression level on human CD4 and CD8 T cells identifies subsets that are highly variable among individuals. Interestingly, AAV patients exhibit an increased proportion of CD45RC(low CD4 T cells as compared to HC and SLE patients. This increase is stable over time and independent of AAV subtype, ANCA specificity, disease duration, or number of relapses. We also analyzed the cytokine profile of purified CD4 and CD8 CD45RC T cell subsets from HC, after stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs. The CD45RC subsets exhibit different cytokine profiles. Type-1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were produced by all CD45RC T cell subsets, while the production of IL-17, type-2 (IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory (IL-10 cytokines was restricted to the CD45RC(low subset. In conclusion, we have shown that CD45RC expression divides human T cells in functionally distinct subsets that are imbalanced in AAV. Since this imbalance is stable over time and independent of several disease parameters, we hypothesize that this is a pre-existing immune abnormality involved in the etiology of AAV.

  5. In vivo estimation of transverse relaxation time constant (T2 ) of 17 human brain metabolites at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Patrik O; Bianchini, Claudio; Scheidegger, Milan; Giapitzakis, Ioannis A; Hock, Andreas; Fuchs, Alexander; Henning, Anke

    2018-08-01

    The transverse relaxation times T 2 of 17 metabolites in vivo at 3T is reported and region specific differences are addressed. An echo-time series protocol was applied to one, two, or three volumes of interest with different fraction of white and gray matter including a total number of 106 healthy volunteers and acquiring a total number of 128 spectra. The data were fitted with the 2D fitting tool ProFit2, which included individual line shape modeling for all metabolites and allowed the T 2 calculation of 28 moieties of 17 metabolites. The T 2 of 10 metabolites and their moieties have been reported for the first time. Region specific T 2 differences in white and gray matter enriched tissue occur in 16 of 17 metabolites examined including single resonance lines and coupled spin systems. The relaxation time T 2 is regions specific and has to be considered when applying tissue composition correction for internal water referencing. Magn Reson Med 80:452-461, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Perbandingan Algoritma Enkripsi GGHN(8,8 dan RC4 Untuk Video Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriyo Satriyo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Encryption is a solutions to secure the information transmitted through the medium of communication that can not be intercepted by unauthorized parties. This study implemented two algorithms i.e. RC4 and GGHN (8.8 in video conference. This study compared the speed  of  both  encryption  and  decryption  of  the  encryption  algorithm,  and  perform  measurements  of  bandwidth .  From  the  results  of measurements of the speed can be concluded that the RC4 algorithm is 1.53 times and 1.34 times faster than GGHN(8,8 for encryption and  decryption  audio  data.  The  encryption  and  decryption  video  data  RC4  are  1.44  times  and  1.09  times  faster  than  GHN(8,8. Bandwidth  usage  for  video  conferencing  without  encryption  and  bandwidth  usage  on  a  video  conference  with  RC4  encryption  and GGHN (8.8 is the same.Keywords: Video Conference; RC4; GGHN(8,8; Real Time Protocol.

  7. Optimal planning of series resistor to control time constant of test circuit for high-voltage AC circuit-breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Ho Kim; Jung-Hyeon Ryu; Jin-Hwan Kim; Kern-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    The equivalent test circuit that can deliver both short-circuit current and recovery voltage is used to verify the performance of high-voltage circuit breakers. Most of the parameters in this circuit can be obtained by using a simple calculation or a simulation program. The ratings of the circuit breaker include rated short-circuit breaking current, rated short-circuit making current, rated operating sequence of the circuit breaker and rated short-time current. Among these ratings, the short-...

  8. INFLUENCE OF RESIDENCE-TIME DISTRIBUTION ON A SURFACE-RENEWAL MODEL OF CONSTANT-PRESSURE CROSS-FLOW MICROFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work examines the influence of the residence-time distribution (RTD of surface elements on a model of cross-flow microfiltration that has been proposed recently (Hasan et al., 2013. Along with the RTD from the previous work (Case 1, two other RTD functions (Cases 2 and 3 are used to develop theoretical expressions for the permeate-flux decline and cake buildup in the filter as a function of process time. The three different RTDs correspond to three different startup conditions of the filtration process. The analytical expressions for the permeate flux, each of which contains three basic parameters (membrane resistance, specific cake resistance and rate of surface renewal, are fitted to experimental permeate flow rate data in the microfiltration of fermentation broths in laboratory- and pilot-scale units. All three expressions for the permeate flux fit the experimental data fairly well with average root-mean-square errors of 4.6% for Cases 1 and 2, and 4.2% for Case 3, respectively, which points towards the constructive nature of the model - a common feature of theoretical models used in science and engineering.

  9. Design Optimization of Hybrid FRP/RC Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Vasileios S.; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Brown, Jeff; Kim, Daewon

    2018-04-01

    The hybrid bridge consists of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) slab supported by U-shaped Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) girders. Previous studies on similar hybrid bridges constructed in the United States and Europe seem to substantiate these hybrid designs for lightweight, high strength, and durable highway bridge construction. In the current study, computational and optimization analyses were carried out to investigate six composite material systems consisting of E-glass and carbon fibers. Optimization constraints are determined by stress, deflection and manufacturing requirements. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and optimization software were utilized, and a framework was developed to run the complete analyses in an automated fashion. Prior to that, FEA validation of previous studies on similar U-shaped FRP girders that were constructed in Poland and Texas is presented. A finer optimization analysis is performed for the case of the Texas hybrid bridge. The optimization outcome of the hybrid FRP/RC bridge shows the appropriate composite material selection and cross-section geometry that satisfies all the applicable Limit States (LS) and, at the same time, results in the lightest design. Critical limit states show that shear stress criteria determine the optimum design for bridge spans less than 15.24 m and deflection criteria controls for longer spans. Increased side wall thickness can reduce maximum observed shear stresses, but leads to a high weight penalty. A taller cross-section and a thicker girder base can efficiently lower the observed deflections and normal stresses. Finally, substantial weight savings can be achieved by the optimization framework if base and side-wall thickness are treated as independent variables.

  10. Pulsed Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry for Operando Tracking of Interfacial Processes in Small-Time-Constant Electrochemical Devices such as Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, Nicolas; Raymundo-Piñero, Encarnación

    2017-11-29

    A more detailed understanding of the electrode/electrolyte interface degradation during the charging cycle in supercapacitors is of great interest for exploring the voltage stability range and therefore the extractable energy. The evaluation of the gas evolution during the charging, discharging, and aging processes is a powerful tool toward determining the stability and energy capacity of supercapacitors. Here, we attempt to fit the gas analysis resolution to the time response of a low-gas-generation power device by adopting a modified pulsed electrochemical mass spectrometry (PEMS) method. The pertinence of the method is shown using a symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitor operating in different aqueous electrolytes. The differences observed in the gas levels and compositions as a function of the cell voltage correlate to the evolution of the physicochemical characteristics of the carbon electrodes and to the electrochemical performance, giving a complete picture of the processes taking place at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  11. Vapreotide: BMY 41606, RC 160, Sanvar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Vapreotide [Octastatin, Sanvar, RC 160, BMY 41606] is a somatostatin analogue developed at Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA, which holds patent rights for vapreotide. Vapreotide provides a much higher metabolic stability than its parent compound. Vapreotide was licensed to Debiopharm for development in Europe. Vapreotide is usually administered SC although a slow-release IM formulation is also available. Other sustained-release formulations are under development. H3 Pharma plans to sign agreements for all indications in the core markets of North America, Europe and in non-core geographic regions during 2003. H3 Pharma will also seek to obtain registration and early market entry in non-core countries with help from partners. Sanvar Immediate Release (IR) has been submitted for approval within the European Union for the treatment of acute oesophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). Sanvar IR has been awarded orphan drug status in the US for EVB. In July 2003, H3 Pharma received written confirmation from the US FDA that the dossier for Sanvar is fileable for registration in the United States for the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). The Sanvar IR (immediate-release) formulation is expected to enter the US market by late 2004. H3 Pharma expects to file for Latin American registration for this indication in the second half of 2003, with registrations in other regions to follow. Sanvar SR has been submitted for Orphan Drug designation.

  12. Seismic Performance of Precast Polystyrene RC Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Ari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast concrete structure such as precast wall is a concept that is growing rapidly these days. However, the earthquake resistance is believed to be one of its drawbacks. Additionally, the large weight of solid elements also increase the building weight significantly which consequently increase the earthquake base shear force as well. Therefore, investigation on the seismic performance of precast concrete wall has been carried out. Three RC wall specimens using wire mesh reinforcement and EPS (Extended Polystyrene System panel have been tested. This wall was designed as a structural wall that was capable in sustaining lateral loads (in-plane yet were lightweight to reduce the total weight of the building. Parameter observed was the ratio of height to width (aspect ratio of wall of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively with the aim to study the behaviour of brittle to ductile transition of the wall. Incremental static load tests were conducted until reaching peak load and then followed by displacement control until failure. Several data were measured at every stage of loading comprising lateral load-displacement behaviour, ultimate strength and collapse mechanism. The outcomes showed that precast concrete walls with a steel wire and EPS panel filler provided considerably good resistance against lateral load.

  13. Potential constants and centrifugal distortion constants of octahedral hexafluoride molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manivannan, G [Government Thirumagal Mill' s Coll., Gudiyattam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    1981-04-01

    The kinetic constants method outlined by Thirugnanasambandham (1964) based on Wilson's (1955) group theory has been adapted in evaluating the potential constants for SF/sub 6/, SeF/sub 6/, WF/sub 6/, IrF/sub 6/, UF/sub 6/, NpF/sub 6/, and PuF/sub 6/ using the experimentally observed vibrational frequency data. These constants are used to calculate the centrifugal distortion constants for the first time.

  14. Fit of experimental points to the sum of two (or one) exponentials with background. Program for ODRA 1305 computer. Part 2: for time analysers with constant dead time after each registered pulse (AC-256 type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.

    1979-01-01

    The LAMA program (in FORTRAN 1900 language), which fits the set of decaying experimental values to the sum of the two (or one) exponentials with background, is described. The method of calculation and its accuracy and the interpretation of the program results are given. The changes and the extensions of the calculation, referred to the dead time effect taken into account for time analysers having the constant dead time after each registered pulse, are described. (author)

  15. Quintessence and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, M.; Wetterich, C.

    2003-01-01

    Quintessence -- the energy density of a slowly evolving scalar field -- may constitute a dynamical form of the homogeneous dark energy in the universe. We review the basic idea in the light of the cosmological constant problem. Cosmological observations or a time variation of fundamental 'constants' can distinguish quintessence from a cosmological constant

  16. The Second ICASE/LaRC Industry Roundtable: Session Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girimaji, Sharath

    1997-01-01

    The second ICASE/LaRC Industry Roundtable was held October 7-9, 1996 at the Williamsburg Hospitality House, Williamsburg, Virginia. Like the first roundtable in 1994, this meeting had two objectives: (1) to expose ICASE and LaRC scientists to industrial research agendas; and (2) to acquaint industry with the capabilities and technology available at ICASE, LaRC and academic partners of ICASE. Nineteen sessions were held in three parallel tracks. Of the 170 participants, over one third were affiliated with various industries. Proceedings from the different sessions are summarized in this report.

  17. New definitions of pointing stability - ac and dc effects. [constant and time-dependent pointing error effects on image sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Sirlin, Samuel W.; San Martin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    For most imaging sensors, a constant (dc) pointing error is unimportant (unless large), but time-dependent (ac) errors degrade performance by either distorting or smearing the image. When properly quantified, the separation of the root-mean-square effects of random line-of-sight motions into dc and ac components can be used to obtain the minimum necessary line-of-sight stability specifications. The relation between stability requirements and sensor resolution is discussed, with a view to improving communication between the data analyst and the control systems engineer.

  18. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Constant-time solution to the global optimization problem using Brüschweiler's ensemble search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopescu, V.; D'Helon, C.; Barhen, J.

    2003-06-01

    A constant-time solution of the continuous global optimization problem (GOP) is obtained by using an ensemble algorithm. We show that under certain assumptions, the solution can be guaranteed by mapping the GOP onto a discrete unsorted search problem, whereupon Brüschweiler's ensemble search algorithm is applied. For adequate sensitivities of the measurement technique, the query complexity of the ensemble search algorithm depends linearly on the size of the function's domain. Advantages and limitations of an eventual NMR implementation are discussed.

  19. Digital Generation of Noise-Signals with Arbitrary Constant or Time-Varying Spectra (A noise generation software package and its application)

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Artificial creation of arbitrary noise signals is used in accelerator physics to reproduce a measured perturbation spectrum for simulations but also to generate real-time shaped noise spectra for controlled emittance blow-up giving tailored properties to the final bunch shape. It is demonstrated here how one can produce numerically what is, for all practical purposes, an unlimited quantity of non-periodic noise data having any predefined spectral density. This spectral density may be constant or varying with time. The noise output never repeats and has excellent statistical properties, important for very long-term applications. It is difficult to obtain such flexibility and spectral cleanliness using analogue techniques. This algorithm was applied both in computer simulations of bunch behaviour in the presence of RF noise in the PS, SPS and LHC and also to generate real-time noise, tracking the synchrotron frequency change during the energy ramp of the SPS and producing controlled longitudinal emittance blow-...

  20. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  1. Analysis of the dual phase lag bio-heat transfer equation with constant and time-dependent heat flux conditions on skin surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaei Poor Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on temperature response of skin tissue due to time-dependent surface heat fluxes. Analytical solution is constructed for DPL bio-heat transfer equation with constant, periodic and pulse train heat flux conditions on skin surface. Separation of variables and Duhamel’s theorem for a skin tissue as a finite domain are employed. The transient temperature responses for constant and time-dependent boundary conditions are obtained and discussed. The results show that there is major discrepancy between the predicted temperature of parabolic (Pennes bio-heat transfer, hyperbolic (thermal wave and DPL bio-heat transfer models when high heat flux accidents on the skin surface with a short duration or propagation speed of thermal wave is finite. The results illustrate that the DPL model reduces to the hyperbolic model when τT approaches zero and the classic Fourier model when both thermal relaxations approach zero. However for τq = τT the DPL model anticipates different temperature distribution with that predicted by the Pennes model. Such discrepancy is due to the blood perfusion term in energy equation. It is in contrast to results from the literature for pure conduction material, where the DPL model approaches the Fourier heat conduction model when τq = τT . The burn injury is also investigated.

  2. The Sun-Earth connect 2: Modelling patterns of a fractal Sun in time and space using the fine structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Self-similar matrices of the fine structure constant of solar electromagnetic force and its inverse, multiplied by the Carrington synodic rotation, have been previously shown to account for at least 98% of the top one hundred significant frequencies and periodicities observed in the ACRIM composite irradiance satellite measurement and the terrestrial 10.7cm Penticton Adjusted Daily Flux data sets. This self-similarity allows for the development of a time-space differential equation (DE) where the solutions define a solar model for transmissions through the core, radiative, tachocline, convective and coronal zones with some encouraging empirical and theoretical results. The DE assumes a fundamental complex oscillation in the solar core and that time at the tachocline is smeared with real and imaginary constructs. The resulting solutions simulate for tachocline transmission, the solar cycle where time-line trajectories either 'loop' as Hermite polynomials for an active Sun or 'tail' as complementary error functions for a passive Sun. Further, a mechanism that allows for the stable energy transmission through the tachocline is explored and the model predicts the initial exponential coronal heating from nanoflare supercharging. The twisting of the field at the tachocline is then described as a quaternion within which neutrinos can oscillate. The resulting fractal bubbles are simulated as a Julia Set which can then aggregate from nanoflares into solar flares and prominences. Empirical examples demonstrate that time and space fractals are important constructs in understanding the behaviour of the Sun, from the impact on climate and biological histories on Earth, to the fractal influence on the spatial distributions of the solar system. The research suggests that there is a fractal clock underpinning solar frequencies in packages defined by the fine structure constant, where magnetic flipping and irradiance fluctuations at phase changes, have periodically impacted on the

  3. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  4. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  5. Reviews Equipment: Time Trial R/C Race Track Timer Book: A Universe from Nothing Equipment: Locktronics Electronics, Magnestism and Materials Unit Report: Nuclear Physics and Technology Book: Particle Physics Booklet: Radiation and You Book: The Million Death Quake Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Locktronics Electronics, Magnestism and Materials Unit Robust, reliable and proven classroom kit The Million Death Quake: the Science of Predicting the Earth's Deadliest Natural Disaster Accessible and well-written book covers everything you might (and perhaps should) want to know about earthquakes WORTH A LOOK Time Trial R/C Race Track Timer Fun kit for use with toy cars but little flexibility for other uses A Universe From Nothing: Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing Up-to-date account of cosmology explains very well but becomes polemical and loses focus Nuclear physics and technology—inside the atom IOP report useful for students considering a career in physics Particle Physics: A Very Short Introduction Passages of good writing undermined by editing as the structure and illustrations disappoint Radiation and You Report is an interesting insight into radiation information from 25 years back, but some errors and a slow start let it down WEB WATCH App that aids star identification is highly recommended and videos for students and teachers also make the grade

  6. Field and polarity dependence of time-to-resistance increase in Fe-O films studied by constant voltage stress method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriguchi, Koji; Ohta, Hiroaki; Ono, Kouichi; Wei Zhiqiang; Takagi, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Constant voltage stress (CVS) was applied to Fe-O films prepared by a sputtering process to investigate a stress-induced resistance increase leading to a fundamental mechanism for switching behaviors. Under the CVS, an abrupt resistance increase was found for both stress polarities. A conduction mechanism after the resistance increase exhibited non-Ohmic transport. The time-to-resistance increase (t r ) under the CVS was revealed to strongly depend on stress voltage as well as the polarity. From a polarity-dependent resistance increase determined by a time-zero measurement, the voltage and polarity-dependent t r were discussed on the basis of field- and structure-enhanced thermochemical reaction mechanisms

  7. Analysis and optimization of RC delay in vertical nanoplate FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Changbeom; Ko, Kyul; Kim, Jongsu; Kim, Minsoo; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed short channel effects (SCEs) and RC delay with Vertical nanoplate FET (VNFET) using 3-D Technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. The device is based on International Technology Road-map for Semiconductor (ITRS) 2013 recommendations, and it has initially gate length (LG) of 12.2 nm, channel thickness (Tch) of 4 nm, and spacer length (LSD) of 6 nm. To obtain improved performance by reducing RC delay, each dimension is adjusted (LG = 12.2 nm, Tch = 6 nm, LSD = 11.9 nm). It has each characteristic in this dimension (Ion/Ioff = 1.64 × 105, Subthreshold swing (S.S.) = 73 mV/dec, Drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) = 60 mV/V, and RC delay = 0.214 ps). Furthermore, with long shallow trench isolation (STI) length and thick insulator thickness (Ti), we can reduce RC delay from 0.214 ps to 0.163 ps. It is about a 23.8% reduction. Without decreasing drain current, there is a reduction of RC delay as reducing outer fringing capacitance (Cof). Finally, when source/drain spacer length is set to be different, we have verified RC delay to be optimum.

  8. Time-Dependent Quantum Wave Packet Study of the Si + OH → SiO + H Reaction: Cross Sections and Rate Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero Santamaría, Alejandro; Dayou, Fabrice; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesus; Monnerville, Maurice

    2017-03-02

    The dynamics of the Si( 3 P) + OH(X 2 Π) → SiO(X 1 Σ + ) + H( 2 S) reaction is investigated by means of the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach using an ab initio potential energy surface recently developed by Dayou et al. ( J. Chem. Phys. 2013 , 139 , 204305 ) for the ground X 2 A' electronic state. Total reaction probabilities have been calculated for the first 15 rotational states j = 0-14 of OH(v=0,j) at a total angular momentum J = 0 up to a collision energy of 1 eV. Integral cross sections and state-selected rate constants for the temperature range 10-500 K were obtained within the J-shifting approximation. The reaction probabilities display highly oscillatory structures indicating the contribution of long-lived quasibound states supported by the deep SiOH/HSiO wells. The cross sections behave with collision energies as expected for a barrierless reaction and are slightly sensitive to the initial rotational excitation of OH. The thermal rate constants show a marked temperature dependence below 200 K with a maximum value around 15 K. The TDWP results globally agree with the results of earlier quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations carried out by Rivero-Santamaria et al. ( Chem. Phys. Lett. 2014 , 610-611 , 335 - 340 ) with the same potential energy surface. In particular, the thermal rate constants display a similar temperature dependence, with TDWP values smaller than the QCT ones over the whole temperature range.

  9. Is the sun constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.B.; Dearborn, D.S.P.

    1979-01-01

    Small fluctuations in the solar constant can occur on timescales much shorter than the Kelvin time. Changes in the ability of convection to transmit energy through the superadiabatic and transition regions of the convection zone cause structure adjustments which can occur on a time scale of days. The bulk of the convection zone reacts to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium (though not thermal equilibrium) and causes a luminosity change. While small radius variations will occur, most of the change will be seen in temperature

  10. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, M.; Cherubini, P.; Fravolini, G.; Ascher, J.; Schärer, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Bertoldi, D.; Camin, F.; Larcher, R.; Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the large size and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the time scales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests have been poorly investigated and are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the five-decay class system commonly employed for forest surveys, based on a macromorphological and visual assessment. For the decay classes 1 to 3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) and some others not having enough tree rings, radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model. In the decay classes 1 to 3, the ages of the CWD were similar varying between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative for deadwood age. We found, however, distinct tree species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were 0.012 to 0.018 yr-1 for spruce and 0.005 to 0.012 yr-1 for larch. Cellulose and lignin time trends half-lives (using a multiple-exponential model) could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 yr for spruce and 50 yr for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than 100 years in larch CWD.

  11. Effect of web openings on the structural behavior of RC beams subjected to pure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Taha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of modern buildings, the presence of openings became a necessity nowadays in order to accommodate the many pipes and ducts required for the different services. On the other hand, the presence of these openings in RC beams affects their structural behavior. One important behavior that needs further study would be torsion. Currently, there are no guide lines available to analyze or design RC beams with web openings under pure torsion. Thus, the main objective of this research is to investigate the behavior of simply supported RC beams with openings subjected to pure torsion. In the first part of this paper, an experimental study is conducted on seven beams subjected to pure torsion loading in order to investigate the effect of the number of openings, the spacing between stirrups, and beam depth. All beams have a constant clear span length of 1800 mm and a constant beam width of 150 mm. The beams have varying opening number and stirrups arrangement as well as varying beam depth in order to investigate the effect of these parameters on the behavior of the beams. Systematic measurements such as the cracking torque, the ultimate torque, the angle of rotation of the beam at cracking, and the angle of rotation of the beam at the ultimate load are conducted for further understanding of the beam behavior under torsion. In the second part of the paper, the experimental results are compared with the numerical results obtained using the non-linear finite element analysis program, ANSYS. Good agreement between the experimental and numerical results is found.

  12. Analysis of time resolution in a dual head LSO+PSPMT PET system using low pass filter interpolation and digital constant fraction discriminator techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzo, Jose M.; Lerche, Christoph W.; Martinez, Jorge D.; Esteve, Raul; Toledo, Jose; Gadea, Rafael; Colom, Ricardo J.; Herrero, Vicente; Ferrando, Nestor; Aliaga, Ramon J.; Mateo, Fernando; Sanchez, Filomeno; Mora, Francisco J.; Benlloch, Jose M.; Sebastia, Angel

    2009-01-01

    PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.

  13. Analysis of time resolution in a dual head LSO+PSPMT PET system using low pass filter interpolation and digital constant fraction discriminator techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, Jose M. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jmonfer@aaa.upv.es; Lerche, Christoph W.; Martinez, Jorge D.; Esteve, Raul; Toledo, Jose; Gadea, Rafael; Colom, Ricardo J.; Herrero, Vicente; Ferrando, Nestor; Aliaga, Ramon J.; Mateo, Fernando [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, Filomeno [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Mora, Francisco J. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Benlloch, Jose M. [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Sebastia, Angel [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.

  14. Relationship between the reactivity of the modified Zoe pile and the time constant of a power rise; Liaison de la reactivite de la pile Zoe modifiee avec la constante de temps d'une montee en puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipkin, H.

    1954-03-15

    The author reports the use of the Nordheim formula in the case of Zoe (a pile located in Chatillon), while considering the case bars in natural uranium (instead of UO{sub 2}), and while taking the effect of geometry on photo-neutron production into account. The Nordheim formula is calculated for two different experimental values of the constants of delayed neutrons. The author discusses the difference between the results obtained for reactivity with these new conditions and with the older ones. He reports the calculation of the geometrical factor.

  15. Connecting Fundamental Constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mario, D.

    2008-01-01

    A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension will appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a π√(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment

  16. Calibrating and validating a FE model for long-term behavior of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Nikola D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the research carried out in finding an optimal finite element (FE model for calculating the long-term behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams. A multi-purpose finite element software DIANA was used. A benchmark test in the form of a simply supported beam loaded in four point bending was selected for model calibration. The result was the choice of 3-node beam elements, a multi-directional fixed crack model with constant stress cut-off, nonlinear tension softening and constant shear retention and a creep and shrinkage model according to CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. The model was then validated on 14 simply supported beams and 6 continuous beams. Good agreement was found with experimental results (within ±15%.

  17. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, O.; Jara, J. M.; Jara, M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models.

  18. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, O; Jara, J M; Jara, M; Olmos, B A

    2015-01-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models. (paper)

  19. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Due to the large size (e.g. sections of tree trunks) and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the timescales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the chronosequence approach and the five-decay class system that is based on a macromorphological assessment. For the decay classes 1-3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose, and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model, a regression approach, and the stage-based matrix model. In the decay classes 1-3, the ages of the CWD were similar and varied between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch, with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative of deadwood age. This seems to be due to a time lag between the death of a standing tree and its contact with the soil. We found distinct tree-species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were estimated to be in the range 0.018 to 0.022 y-1 for spruce and to about 0.012 y-1 for larch. Snapshot sampling (chronosequences) may overestimate the age and mean residence time of CWD. No sampling bias was, however, detectable using the stage-based matrix model. Cellulose and lignin time trends could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 years for spruce and 50 years for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than

  20. Stabilized power constant alimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, L.

    1968-06-01

    The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [fr

  1. Learning Abstract Physical Concepts from Experience: Design and Use of an RC Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Alfredo; Ordenes, Jorge; de la Fuente, Milton

    2018-05-01

    Science learning for undergraduate students requires grasping a great number of theoretical concepts in a rather short time. In our experience, this is especially difficult when students are required to simultaneously use abstract concepts, mathematical reasoning, and graphical analysis, such as occurs when learning about RC circuits. We present a simple experimental model in this work that allows students to easily design, build, and analyze RC circuits, thus providing an opportunity to test personal ideas, build graphical descriptions, and explore the meaning of the respective mathematical models, ultimately gaining a better grasp of the concepts involved. The result suggests that the simple setup indeed helps untrained students to visualize the essential points of this kind of circuit.

  2. Understanding of self-terminating pulse generation using silicon controlled rectifier and RC load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chris, E-mail: chrischang81@gmail.com; Karunasiri, Gamani, E-mail: karunasiri@nps.edu [Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Alves, Fabio, E-mail: falves@alionscience.com [Alion Science and Technology at NPS, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Recently a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)-based circuit that generates self-terminating voltage pulses was employed for the detection of light and ionizing radiation in pulse mode. The circuit consisted of a SCR connected in series with a RC load and DC bias. In this paper, we report the investigation of the physics underlying the pulsing mechanism of the SCR-based. It was found that during the switching of SCR, the voltage across the capacitor increased beyond that of the DC bias, thus generating a reverse current in the circuit, which helped to turn the SCR off. The pulsing was found to be sustainable only for a specific range of RC values depending on the SCR’s intrinsic turn-on/off times. The findings of this work will help to design optimum SCR based circuits for pulse mode detection of light and ionizing radiation without external amplification circuitry.

  3. A 500-600 MHz GaN power amplifier with RC-LC stability network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyu; Duan, Baoxing; Yang, Yintang

    2017-08-01

    A 500-600 MHz high-efficiency, high-power GaN power amplifier is designed and realized on the basis of the push-pull structure. The RC-LC stability network is proposed and applied to the power amplifier circuit for the first time. The RC-LC stability network can significantly reduce the high gain out the band, which eliminates the instability of the power amplifier circuit. The developed power amplifier exhibits 58.5 dBm (700 W) output power with a 17 dB gain and 85% PAE at 500-600 MHz, 300 μs, 20% duty cycle. It has the highest PAE in P-band among the products at home and abroad. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB339901).

  4. A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Intertwining Chaotic Maps and RC4 Stream Cipher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Manju; Gupta, Shailender

    2018-03-01

    As the systems are enabling us to transmit large chunks of data, both in the form of texts and images, there is a need to explore algorithms which can provide a higher security without increasing the time complexity significantly. This paper proposes an image encryption scheme which uses intertwining chaotic maps and RC4 stream cipher to encrypt/decrypt the images. The scheme employs chaotic map for the confusion stage and for generation of key for the RC4 cipher. The RC4 cipher uses this key to generate random sequences which are used to implement an efficient diffusion process. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB-2016b and various performance metrics are used to evaluate its efficacy. The proposed scheme provides highly scrambled encrypted images and can resist statistical, differential and brute-force search attacks. The peak signal-to-noise ratio values are quite similar to other schemes, the entropy values are close to ideal. In addition, the scheme is very much practical since having lowest time complexity then its counterparts.

  5. Structure of nitrogen-converting communities induced by hydraulic retention time and COD/N ratio in constantly aerated granular sludge reactors treating digester supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Rusanowska, Paulina; Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated how hydraulic retention time (HRT) and COD/N ratio affect nitrogen-converting consortia in constantly aerated granules treating high-ammonium digester supernatant. Three HRTs (10, 13, 19 h) were tested at COD/N ratios of 4.5 and 2.3. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and relative real-time PCR were used to characterize the microbial communities. When changes in HRT and COD/N increased nitrogen loading, the ratio of the relative abundance of aerobic to anaerobic ammonium-oxidizers decreased. The COD/N ratio determined the species composition of the denitrifiers; however, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Pseudomonas denitrificans and Azoarcus sp. showed a high tolerance to the environmental conditions and occurred in the granules from all reactors. Denitrifier genera that support granule formation were identified, such as Pseudomonas, Shinella, and Flavobacterium. In aerated granules, nirK-possessing bacteria were more diverse than nirS-possessing bacteria. At a low COD/N ratio, N2O-reducer diversity increased because of the presence of bacteria known as aerobic denitrifiers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An implementation of super-encryption using RC4A and MDTM cipher algorithms for securing PDF Files on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, M. A.; Rachmawati, D.; Parlindungan, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    MDTM is a classical symmetric cryptographic algorithm. As with other classical algorithms, the MDTM Cipher algorithm is easy to implement but it is less secure compared to modern symmetric algorithms. In order to make it more secure, a stream cipher RC4A is added and thus the cryptosystem becomes super encryption. In this process, plaintexts derived from PDFs are firstly encrypted with the MDTM Cipher algorithm and are encrypted once more with the RC4A algorithm. The test results show that the value of complexity is Θ(n2) and the running time is linearly directly proportional to the length of plaintext characters and the keys entered.

  7. T1 relaxation time constants, influence of oxygen, and the oxygen transfer function of the human lung at 1.5 T—A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Olaf, E-mail: od@dtrx.net [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany); Gaass, Thomas [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany); Comprehensive Pneumology Center, German Center for Lung Research, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: To pool and summarize published data from magnetic resonance longitudinal relaxation measurements of the human lung at 1.5 T to provide a reliable basis of T{sub 1} relaxation time constants of healthy lung tissue both under respiration of room air and of pure oxygen. In particular, the oxygen-induced shortening of T{sub 1} was evaluated. Materials and methods: The PubMed database was comprehensively searched up to June 2016 for original publications in English containing quantitative T{sub 1} data (at least mean values and standard deviations) of the lung parenchyma of healthy subjects (minimum subject number: 3) at 1.5 T. From all included publications, T{sub 1} values of the lung of healthy subjects were extracted (inhaling room air and, if available, inhaling pure oxygen). Weighted mean values and standard deviations of all extracted data and the oxygen transfer function (OTF) were calculated. Results: 22 publications were included with a total number of 188 examined healthy subjects. 103 of these subjects (from 13 studies) were examined while breathing pure oxygen and room air; 85 subjects were examined only under room-air conditions. The weighted mean value (weighted sample standard deviation) of the room-air T{sub 1} values over all 22 studies was 1196 ms (152 ms). Based on studies with room-air and oxygen results, the mean T{sub 1} value at room-air conditions was 1172 ms (161 ms); breathing pure oxygen, the mean T{sub 1} value was reduced to 1054 ms (138 ms). This corresponds to a mean T{sub 1} reduction by 118 ms (35 ms) or 10.0 % (2.3 %) and to a mean OTF value of 1.22 (0.32) × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}/(%O{sub 2}). Conclusion: This meta-analysis with data from 188 subjects indicates that the average T{sub 1} relaxation time constant of healthy lung tissue at 1.5 T is distributed around 1200 ms with a standard deviation of about 150 ms; breathing pure oxygen reduces this value significantly by 10 % to about 1050 ms.

  8. Deformation Analysis of RC Ties Externally Strengthened with FRP Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribniak, V.; Arnautov, A. K.; Kaklauskas, G.; Jakstaite, R.; Tamulenas, V.; Gudonis, E.

    2014-11-01

    The current study has two objectives: to validate the ability of the Atena finite-element software to estimate the deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) elements strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and to assess the effect of FRP-to-concrete bond strength on the results of numerical simulation. It is shown that the bond strength has to be selected according to the overall stiffness of the composite element. The numerical results found are corroborated experimentally by tensile tests of RC elements strengthened with basalt FRP sheets.

  9. Sociální vztahy a postoje v ženském ragbyovém týmu RC Tatra Smíchov

    OpenAIRE

    Kadavá, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    Title: Social Relationships and Attitudes in Women's RC Tatra Smichov Rugby Team Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to analyze social relations and attitudes in the women's RC Tatra Smichov rugby team and to create the profiles of the players. The analysis should help the new coach to get to know the players well, focusing mainly on their career, ambition, motivation, and feelings during trainings and matches. At the same time, it should shed light on how they perceive themselve...

  10. Constant physics and characteristics of fundamental constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrach, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present some evidence which supports a surprising physical interpretation of the fundamental constants. First, we relate two of them through the renormalization group. This leaves as many fundamental constants as base units. Second, we introduce and a dimensional system of units without fundamental constants. Third, and most important, we find, while interpreting the units of the a dimensional system, that is all cases accessible to experimentation the fundamental constants indicate either discretization at small values or boundedness at large values of the corresponding physical quantity. (Author) 12 refs

  11. A proposal for seismic evaluation index of mid-rise existing RC buildings in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqi, Ahmad; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    Mid-rise RC buildings gradually rise in Kabul and entire Afghanistan since 2001 due to rapid increase of population. To protect the safety of resident, Afghan Structure Code was issued in 2012. But the building constructed before 2012 failed to conform the code requirements. In Japan, new sets of rules and law for seismic design of buildings had been issued in 1981 and severe earthquake damage was disclosed for the buildings designed before 1981. Hence, the Standard for Seismic Evaluation of RC Building published in 1977 has been widely used in Japan to evaluate the seismic capacity of existing buildings designed before 1981. Currently similar problem existed in Afghanistan, therefore, this research examined the seismic capacity of six RC buildings which were built before 2012 in Kabul by applying the seismic screening procedure presented by Japanese standard. Among three screening procedures with different capability, the less detailed screening procedure, the first level of screening, is applied. The study founds an average seismic index (IS-average=0.21) of target buildings. Then, the results were compared with those of more accurate seismic evaluation procedures of Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM) and Time History Analysis (THA). The results for CSM and THA show poor seismic performance of target buildings not able to satisfy the safety design limit (1/100) of the maximum story drift. The target buildings are then improved by installing RC shear walls. The seismic indices of these retrofitted buildings were recalculated and the maximum story drifts were analyzed by CSM and THA. The seismic indices and CSM and THA results are compared and found that building with seismic index larger than (IS-average =0.4) are able to satisfy the safety design limit. Finally, to screen and minimize the earthquake damage over the existing buildings, the judgement seismic index (IS-Judgment=0.5) for the first level of screening is proposed.

  12. Direct displacement-based design of special composite RC shear walls with steel boundary elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kazemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Special composite RC shear wall (CRCSW with steel boundary elements is a kind of lateral force resisting structural system which is used in earthquake-prone regions. Due to their high ductility and energy dissipation, CRCSWs have been widely used in recent years by structural engineers. However, there are few studies in the literature on the seismic design of such walls. Although there are many studies in the literature on the Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD of RC structures, however, no study can be found on DDBD of CRCSWs. Therefore, the aim of present study is to evaluate the ability of DDBD method for designing CRCSWs. In this study, four special composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel boundary elements of 4, 8, 12 and 16 story numbers were designed using the DDBD method for target drift of 2%. The seismic behavior of the four CRCSWs was studied using nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. Dynamic analyses were performed for the mentioned walls using 7 selected earthquake records. The seismic design parameters considered in this study includes: lateral displacement profile, inelastic dynamic inter-story drift demand, failure pattern and the composite RC shear walls overstrength factor. For each shear wall, the overall overstrength factor was calculated by dividing the ultimate dynamic base shear demand (Vu by the base shear demand (Vd as per the Direct Displacement Based-Design (DDBD method. The results show that the DDBD method can be used to design CRCSWs safely in seismic regions with predicted behavior.

  13. Effect of input data variability on estimations of the equivalent constant temperature time for microbial inactivation by HTST and retort thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Diana; Torres, J Antonio; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Velazquez, Gonzalo

    2011-08-01

    -processing and determine opportunities for improvement. This should include a systematic approach to consider variability in the parameters for the models used by food process engineers when designing a thermal process. The Monte Carlo procedure here presented is a tool to facilitate this task for the determination of process time at a constant lethal temperature. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Lv, Zuopeng; Liebetrau, Jan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) reduction at constant high organic loading rate on the activity of hydrogen-producing bacteria and methanogens were investigated in reactors digesting thin stillage. Stable isotope fingerprinting was additionally applied to assess methanogenic pathways. Based on hydA gene transcripts, Clostridiales was the most active hydrogen-producing order in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), fixed-bed reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention. Based on mcrA gene transcripts, Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the predominantly active in CSTR and ASBR, whereas Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum activity was more significant in stably performing FBR. Isotope values indicated the predominance of aceticlastic pathway in FBR. Interestingly, an increased activity of Methanosaeta was observed during shortening HRT in CSTR and ASBR despite high organic acids concentrations, what was supported by stable isotope data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Precision Timing of PSR J0437-4715: An Accurate Pulsar Distance, a High Pulsar Mass, and a Limit on the Variation of Newton's Gravitational Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbiest, J. P. W.; Bailes, M.; van Straten, W.; Hobbs, G. B.; Edwards, R. T.; Manchester, R. N.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Jacoby, B. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of 10 years of high-precision timing data on the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437-4715 has resulted in a model-independent kinematic distance based on an apparent orbital period derivative, dot Pb , determined at the 1.5% level of precision (Dk = 157.0 +/- 2.4 pc), making it one of the most accurate stellar distance estimates published to date. The discrepancy between this measurement and a previously published parallax distance estimate is attributed to errors in the DE200 solar system ephemerides. The precise measurement of dot Pb allows a limit on the variation of Newton's gravitational constant, |Ġ/G| <= 23 × 10-12 yr-1. We also constrain any anomalous acceleration along the line of sight to the pulsar to |a⊙/c| <= 1.5 × 10-18 s-1 at 95% confidence, and derive a pulsar mass, mpsr = 1.76 +/- 0.20 M⊙, one of the highest estimates so far obtained.

  17. Simplified unified analysis of switched-RC passive mixers, samplers, and N -Path filters using the adjoint network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, Shanthi; Klumperink, Eric A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent innovations in software defined CMOS radio transceiver architectures heavily rely on high linearity switched-RC sampler and passive-mixer circuits, driven by digitally programmable multiphase clocks. Although seemingly simple, the frequency domain analysis of these linear periodically time

  18. Nonlinear seismic analysis of continuous RC bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čokić Miloš M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear static analysis, known as a pushover method (NSPA is oftenly used to study the behaviour of a bridge structure under the seismic action. It is shown that the Equivalent Linearization Method - ELM, recommended in FEMA 440, is appropriate for the response analysis of the bridge columns, with different geometric characteristics, quantity and distribution of steel reinforcement. The subject of analysis is a bridge structure with a carriageway plate - a continuous beam with three spans, with the 24 + 40 + 24 m range. Main girder is made of prestressed concrete and it has a box cross section of a constant height. It is important to study the behaviour, not only in the transverse, but also in the longitudinal direction of the bridge axis, when analysing the bridge columns exposed to horizontal seismic actions. The columns were designed according to EN1992, parts 1 and 2. Seismic action analysis is conducted according to EN 1998: 2004 standard. Response spectrum type 1, for the ground type B, was applied and the analysis also includes 20% of traffic load. The analysis includes the values of columns displacement and ductility. To describe the behaviour of elements under the earthquake action in both - longitudinal and transverse direction, pushover curves were formed.

  19. Attenuation of nuclear orientation of .sup.127./sup.In in GD and the InGDKorringa spin-lattice relaxation time constant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stone, J.; Ohya, S.; Rikovska, J.; Woehr, A.; Betts, P.; Dupák, Jan; Fogelberg, B.; Jacobsson, L.

    č. 133 (2001), s. 111 - 115 ISSN 0304-3843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : nuclear orientation * Korringa constant Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2001

  20. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  1. Damage Localization and Quantification of Earthquake Excited RC-Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P.S.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the paper a recently proposed method for damage localization and quantification of RC-structures from response measurements is tested on experimental data. The method investigated requires at least one response measurement along the structure and the ground surface acceleration. Further, the t...

  2. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 11 November 2016 pp 1029-1042 ... But a lot of things, (including the complex impedanceitself, and some insight into complex analysis) can be understoodbetter if we use the FT approach to solve the differentialequations that come up in ...

  3. Interaction between corrosion crack width and steel loss in RC beams corroded under load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malumbela, Goitseone; Alexander, Mark; Moyo, Pilate

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results and discussions on an experimental study conducted to relate the rate of widening of corrosion cracks with the pattern of corrosion cracks as well as the level of steel corrosion for RC beams (153 x 254 x 3000 mm) that were corroded whilst subjected to varying levels of sustained loads. Steel corrosion was limited to the tensile reinforcement and to a length of 700 mm at the centre of the beams. The rate of widening of corrosion cracks as well as strains on uncracked faces of RC beams was constantly monitored during the corrosion process, along the corrosion region and along other potential cracking faces of beams using a demec gauge. The distribution of the gravimetric mass loss of steel along the corrosion region was measured at the end of the corrosion process. The results obtained showed that: the rate of widening of each corrosion crack is dependent on the overall pattern of the cracks whilst the rate of corrosion is independent of the pattern of corrosion cracks. A mass loss of steel of 1% was found to induce a corrosion crack width of about 0.04 mm.

  4. Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.

  5. A sum-over-paths algorithm for third-order impulse-response moment extraction within RC IC-interconnect networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, E. A.; Ni, D.; Lam, T. M.; Le Coz, Y. L.

    2015-07-01

    We have created the first stochastic SoP (Sum-over-Paths) algorithm to extract third-order impulse-response (IR) moment within RC IC interconnects. It employs a newly discovered Feynman SoP Postulate. Importantly, our algorithm maintains computational efficiency and full parallelism. Our approach begins with generation of s-domain nodal-voltage equations. We then perform a Taylor-series expansion of the circuit transfer function. These expansions yield transition diagrams involving mathematical coupling constants, or weight factors, in integral powers of complex frequency s. Our SoP Postulate enables stochastic evaluation of path sums within the circuit transition diagram to order s3-corresponding to the order of IR moment (m3) we seek here. We furnish, for the first time, an informal algebraic proof independently validating our SoP Postulate and algorithm. We list, as well, detailed procedural steps, suitable for coding, that define an efficient stochastic algorithm for m3 IR extraction. Origins of the algorithm's statistical "capacitor-number cubed" correction and "double-counting" weight factors are explained, for completeness. Our algorithm was coded and successfully tested against exact analytical solutions for 3-, 5-, and 10-stage RC lines. We achieved better than 0.65% 1-σ error convergence, after only 10K statistical samples, in less than 1 s of 2-GHz Pentium® execution time. These results continue to suggest that stochastic SoP algorithms may find useful application in circuit analysis of massively coupled networks, such as those encountered in high-end digital IC-interconnect CAD.

  6. Transport scattering time probed through rf admittance of a graphene capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Pallecchi, E.; Betz, A. C.; Chaste, J.; Fève, G.; Huard, B.; Kontos, T.; Berroir, J. -M.; Plaçais, B.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated electron dynamics in top gated graphene by measuring the gate admittance of a diffusive graphene capacitor in a broad frequency range as a function of carrier density. The density of states, conductivity and diffusion constant are deduced from the low frequency gate capacitance, its charging time and their ratio. The admittance evolves from an RC-like to a skin-effect response at GHz frequency with a crossover given by the Thouless energy. The scattering time is found to ...

  7. Cosmological Hubble constant and nuclear Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbuniev, Amelia; Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang and the evolution of the dense and highly excited nuclear matter formed by relativistic nuclear collisions are investigated and compared. Values of the Hubble constants for cosmological and nuclear processes are obtained. For nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies the nuclear Hubble constant is obtained in the frame of different models involving the hydrodynamic flow of the nuclear matter. Significant difference in the values of the two Hubble constant - cosmological and nuclear - is observed

  8. Retrieval of ion distributions in RC from TWINS ENA images by CT technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.; Yan, W.; Xu, L.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission is the first constellation to employ imagers on two separate spacecraft to measure energetic neutral atoms (ENA) produced by charge exchange between ring current energetic ions and cold exospheric neutral atoms. By applying the 3-D volumetric pixel (voxel) computed tomography (CT) inversion method to TWINS images, parent ion populations in the ring current (RC) and auroral regions are retrieved from their ENA signals. This methodology is implemented for data obtained during the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm on 11 October 2008. For this storm the two TWINS satellites were located in nearly the same meridian plane at vantage points widely separated in magnetic local time, and both more than 5 RE geocentric distance from the Earth. In the retrieval process, the energetic ion fluxes to be retrieved are assumed being isotropic with respect to pitch angle. The ENA data used in this study are differential fluxes averaged over 12 sweeps (corresponding to an interval of 16 min.) at different energy levels ranging throughout the full 1--100 keV energy range of TWINS. The ENA signals have two main components: (1) a low-latitude/ high-altitude signal from trapped RC ions and (2) a low-altitude signal from precipitating ions in the auroral/subauroral ionosphere. In the retrieved ion distributions, the main part of the RC component is located around midnight toward dawn sector with L from 3 to 7 or farther, while the subauroral low-altitude component is mainly at pre-midnight. It seems that the dominant energy of the RC ions for this storm is at the lowest energy level of 1-2 keV, with another important energy band centered about 44 keV. The low-altitude component is consistent with in situ observations by DMSP/SSJ4. The result of this study demonstrates that with satellite constellations such as TWINS, using all-sky ENA imagers deployed at multiple vantage points, 3-D distribution of RC ion

  9. Design of RC frames for pre-selected collapse mechanism and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, total energy of RC frames is calculated and .... curvature relations of RC beam and column members are required for both ..... Case study ..... Turkish Seismic Design Code 2007 Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara.

  10. Experimental investigations on a cascaded steam-/organic-Rankine-cycle (RC/ORC) system for waste heat recovery (WHR) from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guopeng; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Huo, Yongzhan; Zhu, Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel cascaded RC/ORC system was constructed for WHR of a heavy-duty diesel engine. • The RC/ORC system was experimentally investigated under engine operating conditions. • Good system stability and satisfying thermal states of working fluids were observed. • The power increment can reach up to 5.6% by equipping the novel cascaded RC/ORC system. - Abstract: A novel cascaded RC/ORC system that comprises a steam Rankine cycle as the high-temperature loop (H-RC) and an organic Rankine cycle as the low-temperature loop (L-ORC) was constructed and experimentally investigated to recover waste heat from exhaust gas of a heavy-duty diesel engine (DE). By monitoring key parameters of the RC/ORC system against time, good system stability and satisfying thermal states of working fluids were observed. Impacts that the engine operations have on this proposed waste-heat-recovery (WHR) system were studied, indicating that waste heat recovered from the gas increases gradually and greatly as the engine load increases, yet decreases slightly as the speed grows. At full loads at speeds lower than 2050 rpm, up to 101.5 kW of waste heat can be abstracted from the gas source, showing a promising heat transfer potential. Besides, observations of key exergy states as well as estimations and comparisons of potential output power were carried out stepwise. Results indicated that up to 12.7 kW of output power could be obtained by the novel RC/ORC system under practical estimations. Comparing to the basic diesel engine, the power increment reaches up to 5.6% by equipping the cascaded RC/ORC system.

  11. Simulation of subwavelength metallic gratings using a new implementation of the recursive convolution finite-difference time-domain algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saswatee; Hoshino, Tetsuya; Cole, James B

    2008-08-01

    We introduce a new implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with recursive convolution (RC) for first-order Drude metals. We implemented RC for both Maxwell's equations for light polarized in the plane of incidence (TM mode) and the wave equation for light polarized normal to the plane of incidence (TE mode). We computed the Drude parameters at each wavelength using the measured value of the dielectric constant as a function of the spatial and temporal discretization to ensure both the accuracy of the material model and algorithm stability. For the TE mode, where Maxwell's equations reduce to the wave equation (even in a region of nonuniform permittivity) we introduced a wave equation formulation of RC-FDTD. This greatly reduces the computational cost. We used our methods to compute the diffraction characteristics of metallic gratings in the visible wavelength band and compared our results with frequency-domain calculations.

  12. Ion distributions in RC at different energy levels retrieved from TWINS ENA images by voxel CT tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. Y.; McComas, David; Xu, Liang; Goldstein, Jerry; Yan, Wei-Nan

    2012-07-01

    Distributions of energetic ions in the RC regions in different energy levels are retrieved by using 3-D voxel CT inversion method from ENA measurements onboard TWINS constellation during the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm. It is assumed that the ion flux distribution in the RC is anisotropic in regard to pitch angle which complies with the adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment as ion moving in the dipole magnetic mirror field. A semi-empirical model of the RC ion distribution in the magnetic equator is quoted to form the ion flux distribution shape at off-equatorial latitudes by mapping. For the concerned time interval, the two satellites of the TWINS flying in double Molnia orbits were located in nearly the same meridian plane at vantage points widely separated in magnetic local time, and both more than 5 RE geocentric distance from the Earth. The ENA data used in this study are differential fluxes averaged over 12 sweeps (corresponding to an interval of 16 min.) at different energy levels ranging from about 1 to 100 keV. The retrieved ion distributions show that in total the main part of the RC is located in the region with L value larger than 4, tending to increase at larger L. It reveals that there are two distinct dominant energy bands at which the ion fluxes are significantly larger magnitude than at other energy levels, one is at lower level around 2 keV and the other at higher level of 30-100 keV. Furthermore, it is very interesting that the peak fluxes of the RC ions at the two energy bands occurred in different magnetic local time, low energy ions appear preferentially in after midnight, while the higher energy ions mainly distributed around midnight and pre-midnight. This new profile is worthy of further study and needs to be demonstrated by more cases.

  13. Evaluation method for corrosion level of rebar in RC with electrical impedance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Akira

    2018-04-01

    The author reported that the impedance measurement using the 4-terminal method on the RC surface for diagnosing corrosion of internal rebar. The difference between the maximum value at 0.01 Hz and the minimum value around 10 Hz indicates the corrosion level of rebar in that report. This is successive report on a signal processing method for estimating the corrosion level by the measured impedance data to obtain more high accuracy. In the dielectric, a graph of frequency and dielectric constant (Cole-Cole plot diagram by KS Cole and RH Cole article of 1941) draws a shape of circle if the dielectric is independent of frequency but it draws a shape of ellipse in reality due to frequency dependency. Havriliak and Negami have also presented Havriliak-Negami model which introduced parameter into dielectric constant equation which deforms Cole-Cole plot diagram and showed that acquired dielectric data of polymer materials fit to this model with proper parameters. In this report, we first consider electric model connected with resistance and capacitance as a rough model of RC concrete. If the capacitance in this model circuit has some loss of dielectric, it is stated that graph in impedance plot is expected to take as similar deformation in the dielectric Cole-Cole plot. Then a numerical optimization computer code for obtaining parameters in the Cole-Cole plot diagram and Havriliak-Negami model is constructed, and the correlation between the deformation parameter of each model and corrosion is shown by this code. These results are feasibility study for diagnosis of corrosion level of rebar by associated parameters to a shape of impedance graph.

  14. 75 FR 1356 - RC2 Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... primarily at toy stores and various retailers nationwide, and secondarily through RC2's e-commerce websites... various retailers nationwide, and secondarily through RC2's e-commerce Web sites or as `sub-components' of...(e). Published below is a provisionally-accepted Settlement Agreement with RC2 Corporation...

  15. The fundamental constants a mystery of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist

  16. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Metal complexes, Schiff base ligand, Formation constant, DFT calculation ... best values for the formation constants of the proposed equilibrium model by .... to its positive charge distribution and the ligand deformation geometry.

  17. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  18. Limit analysis on FRP-strengthened RC members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. De Domenico

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC members strengthened with externally bonded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP plates are numerically investigated by a plasticity-based limit analysis approach. The key-concept of the present approach is to adopt proper constitutive models for concrete, steel reinforcement bars (re-bars and FRP strengthening plates according to a multi-yield-criteria formulation. This allows the prediction of concrete crushing, steel bars yielding and FRP rupture that may occur at the ultimate limit state. To simulate such limitstate of the analysed elements, two iterative methods performing linear elastic analyses with adaptive elastic parameters and finite elements (FEs description are employed. The peak loads and collapse mechanisms predicted for FRP-plated RC beams are validated by comparison with the corresponding experimental findings.

  19. GR712RC- Dual-Core Processor- Product Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Fredrik; Habinc, Sandi; Gaisler, Jiri

    2012-08-01

    The GR712RC System-on-Chip (SoC) is a dual core LEON3FT system suitable for advanced high reliability space avionics. Fault tolerance features from Aeroflex Gaisler’s GRLIB IP library and an implementation using Ramon Chips RadSafe cell library enables superior radiation hardness.The GR712RC device has been designed to provide high processing power by including two LEON3FT 32- bit SPARC V8 processors, each with its own high- performance IEEE754 compliant floating-point-unit and SPARC reference memory management unit.This high processing power is combined with a large number of serial interfaces, ranging from high-speed links for data transfers to low-speed control buses for commanding and status acquisition.

  20. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltakci, M. Y.; Ozturk, M.; Arslan, M. H.

    2010-09-01

    The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls) in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools). This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application) and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam). Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  1. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Kaltakci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools. This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam. Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  2. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    the arrival of the first earthquake from non-destructive vibration tests or via structural analysis. The previous excitation and displacement response time series is employed for the identification of the instantaneous softening using an ARMA model. The hysteresis parameters are updated after each earthquake....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  3. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    the arrival of the first earthquake from non-destructive vibration tests or via structural analysis. The previous excitation and displacement response time series is employed for the identification of the instantaneous softening using an ARMA model. The hysteresis parameters are updated after each earthquake....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  4. Centrifuge modeling of rocking-isolated inelastic RC bridge piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, Marianna; Knappett, Jonathan A; Brown, Michael J; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; Gazetas, George

    2014-12-01

    Experimental proof is provided of an unconventional seismic design concept, which is based on deliberately underdesigning shallow foundations to promote intense rocking oscillations and thereby to dramatically improve the seismic resilience of structures. Termed rocking isolation , this new seismic design philosophy is investigated through a series of dynamic centrifuge experiments on properly scaled models of a modern reinforced concrete (RC) bridge pier. The experimental method reproduces the nonlinear and inelastic response of both the soil-footing interface and the structure. To this end, a novel scale model RC (1:50 scale) that simulates reasonably well the elastic response and the failure of prototype RC elements is utilized, along with realistic representation of the soil behavior in a geotechnical centrifuge. A variety of seismic ground motions are considered as excitations. They result in consistent demonstrably beneficial performance of the rocking-isolated pier in comparison with the one designed conventionally. Seismic demand is reduced in terms of both inertial load and deck drift. Furthermore, foundation uplifting has a self-centering potential, whereas soil yielding is shown to provide a particularly effective energy dissipation mechanism, exhibiting significant resistance to cumulative damage. Thanks to such mechanisms, the rocking pier survived, with no signs of structural distress, a deleterious sequence of seismic motions that caused collapse of the conventionally designed pier. © 2014 The Authors Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Investigation on Strengthening Approaches Adopted for Poorly Detailed RC Corbels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chandra Neupane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor detailing of the position of bearing pad over reinforced concrete (RC corbel may lead to premature failure, which is undesired and structurally vulnerable. An appropriate retrofitting solution is necessary to ensure the functionality of such RC corbels. Considering the growing popularity of external carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP in retrofitting, this research examines the effectiveness of an externally wrapped unidirectional CFRP sheet and compares its performance against traditional retrofitting methods. Moreover, it is intended to fulfill the lack of extensive research on external CFRP application for corbel strengthening. A total of eight medium-scale corbel specimens were tested on vertical load. Observed premature failure due to placing the bearing pad near the edge of corbel was verified and the effectiveness of the proposed structural strengthening solutions was studied. Experimental results show that although the loading capacity of the damaged corbel due to the poor detailing of bearing pad position could not be fully recovered, the external CFRP wrapping method demonstrated superior performance over RC jacketing and was able to prevent localized failure. Further study based on non-linear 3D finite element analysis (FEA was carried out to identify the governing parameters of each retrofitting solution. Numerical studies suggested important parameters of various retrofitting alternatives for higher capacity assurance.

  6. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Sheng; Hill, Allyson T; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2017-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds ( Ricinus communis ) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC's BTPC subunit's at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca 2+ -dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: ( i ) a pair of Ca 2+ binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, ( ii ) a Ca 2+ -dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and ( iii ) a marked Ca 2+ -independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca 2+ -dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca 2+ -dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) CPK4 and soybean ( Glycine max ) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca 2+ signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO 2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. © 2017 American Society of Plant

  7. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allyson T.; Anderson, Erin M.; She, Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC’s BTPC subunit’s at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca2+-dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: (i) a pair of Ca2+ binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, (ii) a Ca2+-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and (iii) a marked Ca2+-independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca2+-dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca2+-dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CPK4 and soybean (Glycine max) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca2+ signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. PMID:28363991

  8. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  9. Fuel cycle design evolution from FDR-ITER to RTO/RC-ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, D.K.; Glugla, M.; Kveton, O.

    2000-01-01

    Instantaneous fuelling and plasma exhaust flow rates for the reduced technical objective/reduced cost version of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (RTO/RC-ITER) are similar to those described in the Final Design Report (FDR) of ITER, despite the reduction in fusion power by a factor of about two. However, the reduced pulse length and the lower fraction of campaign time spent in burn mode, together with the lower integrated operating lifetime proposed, will generate cost savings in several systems of the fuel cycle. As the quantity of tritium handled per pulse is now smaller, this could be buffered, allowing systems in the tritium plant still to operate in steady state mode as in the FDR design, thereby increasing the potential for downsizing of system capacities. The lower operating time fraction will increase performance margins for some systems, for example, the Torus Exhaust Gas Processing System (TEGPS) which was designed to meet a specified daily release rate for the FDR design conditions which were more onerous than RTO/RC-ITER. As no break through of tritium into cooling water is now expected, the duties of the Water and Atmosphere Detritiation Systems are considerably reduced, and design concepts which are simpler, cheaper and more amenable to modular implementation can be adopted

  10. Overview and evolution of the LeRC PMAD DC test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.; Frye, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been developed electrical power system test beds to support the overall design effort. Through this time, the SSFP has changed the design baseline numerous times, however, the test bed effort has endeavored to track these changes. Beginning in August 1989 with the baseline and an all DC system, a test bed was developed to support the design baseline. The LeRC power measurement and distribution (PMAD) DC test bed and the changes in the restructure are described. The changes included the size reduction of primary power channel and various power processing elements. A substantial reduction was also made in the amount of flight software with the subsequent migration of these functions to ground control centers. The impact of these changes on the design of the power hardware, the controller algorithms, the control software, and a description of their current status is presented. An overview of the testing using the test bed is described, which includes investigation of stability and source impedance, primary and secondary fault protection, and performance of a rotary utility transfer device. Finally, information is presented on the evolution of the test bed to support the verification and operational phases of the SSFP in light of these restructure scrubs.

  11. Predicting the seismic performance of typical R/C healthcare facilities: emphasis on hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Huseyin; Frangu, Idlir

    2017-09-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) type of buildings constitutes an important part of the current building stock in earthquake prone countries such as Albania. Seismic response of structures during a severe earthquake plays a vital role in the extent of structural damage and resulting injuries and losses. In this context, this study evaluates the expected performance of a five-story RC healthcare facility, representative of common practice in Albania, designed according to older codes. The design was based on the code requirements used in this region during the mid-1980s. Non-linear static and dynamic time history analyses were conducted on the structural model using the Zeus NL computer program. The dynamic time history analysis was conducted with a set of ground motions from real earthquakes. The building responses were estimated in global levels. FEMA 356 criteria were used to predict the seismic performance of the building. The structural response measures such as capacity curve and inter-story drift under the set of ground motions and pushover analyses results were compared and detailed seismic performance assessment was done. The main aim of this study is considering the application and methodology for the earthquake performance assessment of existing buildings. The seismic performance of the structural model varied significantly under different ground motions. Results indicate that case study building exhibit inadequate seismic performance under different seismic excitations. In addition, reasons for the poor performance of the building is discussed.

  12. The gammaTuRC Nanomachine Mechanism and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehlman, Timothy D.

    The complexity and precision of the eukaryotic cell's cytoskeletal network is unrivaled by any man-made systems, perfected by billions of years of evolution, mastering elegant processes of self-assembly, error correction, and self-repair. Understanding the capabilities of these networks will have important and far reaching applications in human medicine by aiding our understanding of developmental processes, cellular division, and disease mechanisms, and through biomimicry will provide insights for biosynthetic manufacturing at the nanoscale and across scales. My research utilizes cross species techniques from Human to the model organism of Fission Yeast to investigate the structure and mechanisms of the g-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC). The gTuRC is a highly conserved eukaryotic multiprotein complex serving as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) responsible for microtubule nucleation through templating, regulation of dynamics, and establishment of microtubule polarity. Microtubules are 25 nm diameter dynamic flexible polymers of a/b-tubulin heterodimers that function as scaffolds, force generators, distributors, and intracellular highways. The microtubule cytoskeleton is essential for numerous fundamental cellular processes such as mitotic division of chromosomes and cell division, organelle distribution within the cell, cell signaling, and cell shape. This incredible diversity in functions is made possible in part due to molecular motor Kinesin-like proteins (Klps), which allow expansion into more specialized neural, immune, and ciliated cell functions. Combined, the MTOC, microtubules, and Klps represent ideal microtubule cytoskeleton protein (MCP) modular components for in vitro biomimicry towards generation of adaptable patterned networks for human designed applications. My research investigates the hypothesis that a mechanistic understanding of conserved MTOC gTuRC mechanisms will help us understand dynamic cellular nanomachines and their ability to self

  13. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  14. Enhanced sensitivity to the time variation of the fine-structure constant and mp/me in diatomic molecules: A closer examination of silicon monobromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloy, K.; Borschevsky, A.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    Recently it was pointed out that transition frequencies in certain diatomic molecules have an enhanced sensitivity to variations in the fine-structure constant α and the proton-to-electron mass ratio m p /m e due to a near cancellation between the fine structure and vibrational interval in a ground electronic multiplet [V. V. Flambaum and M. G. Kozlov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150801 (2007)]. One such molecule possessing this favorable quality is silicon monobromide. Here we take a closer examination of SiBr as a candidate for detecting variations in α and m p /m e . We analyze the rovibronic spectrum by employing the most accurate experimental data available in the literature and perform ab initio calculations to determine the precise dependence of the spectrum on variations in α. Furthermore, we calculate the natural linewidths of the rovibronic levels, which place a fundamental limit on the accuracy to which variations may be determined.

  15. Learning Read-constant Polynomials of Constant Degree modulo Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Gavaldá, Richard; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2011-01-01

    Boolean functions that have constant degree polynomial representation over a fixed finite ring form a natural and strict subclass of the complexity class \\textACC0ACC0. They are also precisely the functions computable efficiently by programs over fixed and finite nilpotent groups. This class...... is not known to be learnable in any reasonable learning model. In this paper, we provide a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for learning Boolean functions represented by polynomials of constant degree over arbitrary finite rings from membership queries, with the additional constraint that each variable...

  16. A review of the application Acoustic Emission (AE) incorporating mechanical approach to monitor Reinforced concrete (RC) strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) properties under fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Mazlan, S. M. S.; Abdullah, S. R.; Shahidan, S.; Noor, S. R. Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Concrete durability may be affected by so many factors such as chemical attack and weathering action that reduce the performance and the service life of concrete structures. Low durability Reinforced concrete (RC) can be greatly improved by using Fiber Reinforce Polymer (FRP). FRP is a commonly used composite material for repairing and strengthening RC structures. A review on application of Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques of real time monitoring for various mechanical tests for RC strengthened with FRP involving four-point bending, three-point bending and cyclic loading was carried out and discussed in this paper. Correlations between each AE analyses namely b-value, sentry and intensity analysis on damage characterization also been critically reviewed. From the review, AE monitoring involving RC strengthened with FRP using b-value, sentry and intensity analysis are proven to be successful and efficient method in determining damage characterization. However, application of AE analysis using sentry analysis is still limited compared to b-value and intensity analysis in characterizing damages especially for RC strengthened with FRP specimen.

  17. Quasistatic Seismic Damage Indicators for RC Structures from Dissipating Energies in Tangential Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried B. Krätzig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies recent research on structural damage description to earthquake-resistant design concepts. Based on the primary design aim of life safety, this work adopts the necessity of additional protection aims for property, installation, and equipment. This requires the definition of damage indicators, which are able to quantify the arising structural damage. As in present design, it applies nonlinear quasistatic (pushover concepts due to code provisions as simplified dynamic design tools. Substituting so nonlinear time-history analyses, seismic low-cycle fatigue of RC structures is approximated in similar manner. The treatment will be embedded into a finite element environment, and the tangential stiffness matrix KT in tangential subspaces then is identified as the most general entry for structural damage information. Its spectra of eigenvalues λi or natural frequencies ωi of the structure serve to derive damage indicators Di, applicable to quasistatic evaluation of seismic damage. Because det KT=0 denotes structural failure, such damage indicators range from virgin situation Di=0 to failure Di=1 and thus correspond with Fema proposals on performance-based seismic design. Finally, the developed concept is checked by reanalyses of two experimentally investigated RC frames.

  18. Stabilized power constant alimentation; Alimentation regulee a puissance constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [French] On decrit l'etude et la realisation d'une alimentation a puissance constante reglable dans une gamme de 5 a 100 watts. Prevue pour le drift a puissance constante des diodes compensees au lithium, l'etude a ete menee en vue d'obtenir une precision de regulation de 1 pour cent et un temps de reponse inferieur a la seconde. Des systemes recents tels que multiplicateurs a effet Hall et circuits integres ont permis d'atteindre ce but tout en facilitant l'emploi de modules interchangeables. (auteur)

  19. Ultimate capacity and influenced factors analysis of nuclear RC containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenning; Hou Gangling; Zhou Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Ultimate compressive bearing capacity, influenced factors and its rules of nuclear RC containment are key problems of safety assessment, accident treatment and structure design, etc. Ultimate compressive bearing capacity of nuclear RC containment is shown by concrete damaged plasticity model and steel double liner model of ABAQUS. The study shows that the concrete of nuclear RC containment cylinder wall becomes plastic when the internal pressure is up to 0.87 MPa, the maximum tensile strain of steel liner exceeds 3000 × 10 6 and nuclear RC containment reaches ultimate status when the internal pressure is up to 1.02 MPa. The result shows that nuclear RC containment is in elastic condition under the design internal pressure and the bearing capacity meets requirement. Prestress and steel liner play key parts in the ultimate internal pressure and failure mode of nuclear RC containment. The study results have value for the analysis of ultimate compressive bearing capacity, structure design and safety assessment. (authors)

  20. Numerical model of RC beam response to corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Magdalena; Pamin, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement used to be represented by Tuutti's model with initiation and propagation phases. During the initiation phase chlorides penetrate the concrete cover and accumulate around reinforcement bars. The chloride concentration in concrete increases until it reaches a chloride threshold value, causing deterioration of the passive layer of reinforcement. Then the propagation phase begins. During the propagation phase steel has no natural anti-corrosion protection, a corrosion current flows and this induces the production of rust. A growing volume of corrosion products generates stresses in concrete, which leads to cracking, splitting, delamination and loss of strength. The mechanical response of RC elements to reinforcement corrosion has mostly been examined on the basis of a 2D cross-section analysis. However, with this approach it is not possible to represent both corrosion and static loading. In the paper a 3D finite element model of an RC beam with the two actions applied is presented. Rust is represented as an interface between steel and concrete, considering the volumetric expansion of rust.

  1. Seismic performance of masonry-infilled RC frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Bârnaure

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The masonry infill of RC frames structures is generally considered as non-structural. The design of the concrete frames is often made by ignoring the influence of the masonry infill, which is only accounted for its mass. The experience on buildings submitted to earthquakes shows that masonry infill walls completely change the behaviour of bare frames due to increased initial stiffness and low deformability. The way in which masonry infills affect the RC frames members is difficult to predict, as different failure modes can occur either in the masonry or in the surrounding frame. In addition to local effects, the position of the masonry infills at different levels can lead to structural irregularity, with a strong influence on the global seismic response of the building. Less infilled stories, also called soft stories, have a particularly unfavourable behaviour under seismic loads, as frame members at these levels are more susceptible to failure. This paper analyses the differences in the behaviour of bare and infilled frames through numerical modelling. Nonlinear push-over analyses of infilled frames are carried out under in-plane vertical and lateral loading. The infill panels are modelled as equivalent single diagonal struts. Several force-displacements laws are considered for these diagonals.

  2. Multi-level nonlinear modeling verification scheme of RC high-rise wall buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Alwaeli, W.; Mwafy, A.; Pilakoutas, K.; Guadagnini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete (RC) high-rise wall buildings are designed and detailed to respond well beyond the elastic range under the expected earthquake ground motions. However, despite their considerable section depth, in terms of analysis, RC walls are still often treated as linear elements, ignoring the effect of deformation compatibility. Due to the limited number of available comprehensive experimental studies on RC structural wall systems subjected to cycling loading, few...

  3. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  4. Evolution of the solar constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate source of the energy utilized by life on Earth is the Sun, and the behavior of the Sun determines to a large extent the conditions under which life originated and continues to thrive. What can be said about the history of the Sun. Has the solar constant, the rate at which energy is received by the Earth from the Sun per unit area per unit time, been constant at its present level since Archean times. Three mechanisms by which it has been suggested that the solar energy output can vary with time are discussed, characterized by long (approx. 10 9 years), intermediate (approx. 10 8 years), and short (approx. years to decades) time scales

  5. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ONAD-2D3RC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1ONAD-2D3RC 1ONA 2D3R D C ADTIVAVELDTYPNTDIGDPSYPHIGIDIKSVRSKKTAK...WNMQNGKVGTAHIIYNSVDKRLSAVVSYPNADSATVSYDVDLDNVLPEWVRVGLSASTGLYKETNTILSWSFTSKLKT------NALHFMFNQFSKDQKDLILQGDAT... 1ONA D 1ONAD TRVSSN

  6. On the gravitational constant change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukov, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nowadays viewpoint on the problem of G gravitational constant invariability is presented in brief. The methods and results of checking of the G dependence on the nature of substance (checking of the equivalence principle), G dependepce on distance (checking of Newton gravity law) and time (cosmological experiments) are presented. It is pointed out that all performed experiments don't give any reasons to have doubts in G constancy in space and time and G independence on the nature of the substance

  7. A quadri-constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Gu Zhongdao

    1992-01-01

    A quad Constant Fraction (Amplitude and Rise Time Compensation) Discriminator Circuit is described, which is based on the ECL high-speed dual comparator AD 9687. The CFD (ARCD) is of the constant fraction timing type (the amplitude and rise time compensation timing type) employing a leading edge discriminator to eliminate error triggers caused by noises. A timing walk measurement indicates a timing walk of less than +- 150 ps from -50 mV to -5 V

  8. Active RC filter based implementation analysis part of two channel hybrid filter bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vidosav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a new design method for continuous-time powersymmetric active RC filters for Hybrid Filter Bank (HFB is proposed. Some theoretical properties of continious-time power-symmetric filters bank in a more general perspective are studied. This includes the derivation of a new general analytical form, and a study of poles and zeros locations in s-plane. In the proposed design method the analytic solution of filter coefficients is solved in sdomain using only one nonlinear equation Finally, the proposed approximation is compared to standard approximations. It was shown that attenuation and group delay characteristic of the proposed filter lie between Butterworth and elliptic characteristics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 32009TR

  9. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    about the distances to galaxies and thereby about the expansion rate of the Universe. A simple way to determine the distance to a remote galaxy is by measuring its redshift, calculate its velocity from the redshift and divide this by the Hubble constant, H0. For instance, the measured redshift of the parent galaxy of SN 1995K (0.478) yields a velocity of 116,000 km/sec, somewhat more than one-third of the speed of light (300,000 km/sec). From the universal expansion rate, described by the Hubble constant (H0 = 20 km/sec per million lightyears as found by some studies), this velocity would indicate a distance to the supernova and its parent galaxy of about 5,800 million lightyears. The explosion of the supernova would thus have taken place 5,800 million years ago, i.e. about 1,000 million years before the solar system was formed. However, such a simple calculation works only for relatively ``nearby'' objects, perhaps out to some hundred million lightyears. When we look much further into space, we also look far back in time and it is not excluded that the universal expansion rate, i.e. the Hubble constant, may have been different at earlier epochs. This means that unless we know the change of the Hubble constant with time, we cannot determine reliable distances of distant galaxies from their measured redshifts and velocities. At the same time, knowledge about such change or lack of the same will provide unique information about the time elapsed since the Universe began to expand (the ``Big Bang''), that is, the age of the Universe and also its ultimate fate. The Deceleration Parameter q0 Cosmologists are therefore eager to determine not only the current expansion rate (i.e., the Hubble constant, H0) but also its possible change with time (known as the deceleration parameter, q0). Although a highly accurate value of H0 has still not become available, increasing attention is now given to the observational determination of the second parameter, cf. also the Appendix at the

  10. Real-Time Enzyme Kinetics by Quantitative NMR Spectroscopy and Determination of the Michaelis-Menten Constant Using the Lambert-W Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Cheenou; Alonzo, Aaron P.; Vang, Justin Y.; Torres, Ernesto; Krishnan, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics is an essential part of a chemistry curriculum, especially for students interested in biomedical research or in health care fields. Though the concept is routinely performed in undergraduate chemistry/biochemistry classrooms using other spectroscopic methods, we provide an optimized approach that uses a real-time monitoring of the…

  11. Design of the RTO/RC ITER primary pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, P.; Ibbott, C; Janeschitz, G.; Martin, E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary pumping system is needed not only to exhaust helium ash resulting from the DT reaction but also excess fuelling gas injected during the fusion burn, which can extend for 100's to 1000's of seconds, and to perform a variety of other functions. The prevailing environmental conditions, principally nuclear radiation, tritium exposure, magnetic fields, and the need for containment, have a significant impact on the design and selection of equipment. This paper presents the design of the Reduced Technical Objectives/Reduced Cost (RTO/RC) ITER primary pumping system with particular emphasis on the nuclear aspects of the design. Component selection and equipment layout issues to meet established requirements for the system are reviewed together with the R and D that is being undertaken to support the design. In addition, serviceability and maintainability issues related to this system are also discussed

  12. Status of blanket design for RTO/RC ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Ioki, K.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Miki, N.

    2000-01-01

    Design has progressed on the FW/blanket for the RTO/RC (reduced technical objective/ reduced cost) ITER. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design. However, design and fabrication methods of the FW/blanket have been improved to achieve ∝ 50% reduction of the construction cost compared to that for the 1998 ITER design. Detailed blanket module designs with flat separable FW panels have been developed to reduce the fabrication cost and the future radioactive waste. Most of the R and D performed so far during the EDA (engineering design activity) is still applicable. Further cost reduction methods are also being investigated and additional R and D is being performed. (orig.)

  13. Present and future activities of TRIGA RC-1 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festinesi, A.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of reactor activities is presented and discussed. The RC-1 reactor is used by ENEA's laboratories, research institutes and national industries for different aims: research, analysis materials behaviour under neutron flux, etc. To satisfy the requests increase it is important to signalize: - the realization of a new radiochemical laboratory for radioisotopes production, to be used in a medical and/or diagnostic field in general; - the realization of a tritium handling laboratory, to study tritium solubility, release and diffusion in different material (particularly in ceramic breeder as lithium aluminate) to support Italian programs on fusion technology; - a research activity on the reactors computerized control by a console of advanced conception. The aim of this activity is the development of an ergonomic control room that could be a reference point for the planning of the power reactor control rooms

  14. EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING OF RC T-BEAMS WITH CFRP TENDONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennitz, Anders; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    FRPs is about to become common practice. Several guidelines on the subject have been presented during the last decade, e.g. [1-5]. Next step is to further utilize the excellent behaviour of the advanced material, in particular CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers). CFRPs have mechanical properties...... capacity could be increased, with a carefully applied compressive stress existing open cracks in concrete may be partly closed and it might also be possible to reduce large deflections. In that way the durability of the entire RC (Reinforced Concrete) -structure can be increased. Application of FRPs......As the acceptance for non-stressed FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymers) increase steadily in the construction industry, the industries susceptibility for new ideas in the material’s usage increase. Improving the performance of a bridge, a parking garage or a multistory building by the use of appropriate...

  15. The Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC): Showcasing Mathematical and Computational Physics in a Critical Atmospheric Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. B.; Cahalan, R. F.

    2001-05-01

    modelers that have used approximate methods in radiation transport. In this context, different, presumably simpler, equations (such as diffusion) are used in order to make a significant gain on the efficiency axis. We will describe in some detail the most promising approaches to approximate 3D radiative transfer in clouds. Somewhat paradoxically, and in spite of its importance in the above-mentioned applications, approximate radiative transfer modeling lags significantly behind its exact counterpart because the required mathematical and computational culture is essentially alien to the native atmospheric radiation community. I3RC is receiving enough funding from NASA/HQ and DOE/ARM for its essential operations out of NASA/GSFC. However, this does not cover the time and effort of any of the participants; so only existing models were entered. At present, none of inherently approximate methods are represented, only severe truncations of some exact methods. We therefore welcome the Math/Geo initiative at NSF which should enable the proper consortia of experts in atmospheric radiation and in applied mathematics to fill an important niche.

  16. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  17. MASH Test 3-11 on the T131RC Bridge Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) currently uses the TxDOT Type T101RC Bridge Rail, : a steel post and beam bridge rail anchored to the top of concrete curbs. The T101RC Bridge Rail is : 27 inches in height and can be anchored to the top of ...

  18. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms In this article ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. Mitrajyoti Ghosh. 83, Mitrapara 2nd Lane, Harinavi,. Kolkata 700148, West Bengal,. India. Email: mijospeakingnow@gmail.com. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. In this article we shall mathematically analyse the Resistor-. Capacitor (RC) circuit with the help of Fourier transforms. (FT).

  19. On the cosmical constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, R.

    1977-01-01

    On the grounds of the two correspondence limits, the Newtonian limit and the special theory limit of Einstein field equations, a modification of the cosmical constant has been proposed which gives realistic results in the case of a homogeneous universe. Also, according to this modification an explanation for the negative pressure in the steady-state model of the universe has been given. (author)

  20. Cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmological constant problem is discussed. History of the problem is briefly considered. Five different approaches to solution of the problem are described: supersymmetry, supergravity, superstring; anthropic approach; mechamism of lagrangian alignment; modification of gravitation theory and quantum cosmology. It is noted that approach, based on quantum cosmology is the most promising one

  1. The Yamabe constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Murchadha, N.

    1991-01-01

    The set of riemannian three-metrics with positive Yamabe constant defines the space of independent data for the gravitational field. The boundary of this set is investigated, and it is shown that metrics close to the boundary satisfy the positive-energy theorem. (Author) 18 refs

  2. BUTREN-RC an hybrid system for the recharges optimization of nuclear fuels in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Castillo M, J.A.; Valle G, E. del

    2004-01-01

    The obtained results with the hybrid system BUTREN-RC are presented that obtains recharges of nuclear fuel for a BWR type reactor. The system has implemented the methods of optimization heuristic taboo search and neural networks. The optimization it carried out with the technique of taboo search, and the neural networks, previously trained, were used to predict the behavior of the recharges of fuel, in substitution of commercial codes of reactor simulation. The obtained recharges of nuclear fuel correspond to 5 different operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, Veracruz in Mexico. The obtained results were compared with the designs of this cycles. The energy gain with the recharges of fuel proposals is of approximately 4.5% with respect to those of design. The time of compute consumed it was considerably smaller that when a commercial code for reactor simulation is used. (Author)

  3. Tachyon constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh.; Golanbari, T.

    2018-04-01

    The constant-roll inflation is studied where the inflaton is taken as a tachyon field. Based on this approach, the second slow-roll parameter is taken as a constant which leads to a differential equation for the Hubble parameter. Finding an exact solution for the Hubble parameter is difficult and leads us to a numerical solution for the Hubble parameter. On the other hand, since in this formalism the slow-roll parameter η is constant and could not be assumed to be necessarily small, the perturbation parameters should be reconsidered again which, in turn, results in new terms appearing in the amplitude of scalar perturbations and the scalar spectral index. Utilizing the numerical solution for the Hubble parameter, we estimate the perturbation parameter at the horizon exit time and compare it with observational data. The results show that, for specific values of the constant parameter η , we could have an almost scale-invariant amplitude of scalar perturbations. Finally, the attractor behavior for the solution of the model is presented, and we determine that the feature could be properly satisfied.

  4. Observation of damage process in RC beams under cucle bending by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsu, Masayasu; Tsuji, Nobuyuki; Yasuoka, Daisuke

    1997-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are generally applied to construction of buildings and bridges, and are imposed on cyclic loading incessantly. It is considered that detected acoustic emission (AE) waveforms are associated with the damage degree and the fracture mechanisms of RC structures. Therefor, the cyclic bending tests are applied to damaged RC beam specimens. To evaluate the interior of the damaged RC beams, the AE source kinematics are determined by 'SiGMA' procedure for AE moment tensor analysis. By using 'SiGMA' procedure, AE source kinematics, such as source locations, crack types, crack orientations and crack motions, can be identified. The results show the applicability to observation of the fracture process under cyclic bending load and evaluation the degree of damage of RC beam.

  5. X-ray irradiation of RC-MAP pre-stored for various numbers of days. Effect of X-ray irradiation on RC-MAP and reuse of RC-MAP after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naotomo; Nagumo, Fumio; Kawasaki, Seiji; Matsuzaki, Miwako; Tadano, Jutaro

    1995-01-01

    X-ray irradiation is currently in wide use as a means of preventing post-transfusion graft-versus-host disease (PT-GVHD). In this study, we evaluated the effects of X-ray irradiation on RC-MAP pre-stored for various numbers of days, and assessed how long irradiated RC-MAP can be stored. RC-MAP was irradiated at a dosage of 15 Gy at 1, 7, 14, 21 or 28 days after blood collection. These specimens were referred to as group I, II, III, IV and V (X-ray-irradiated groups), respectively. Non-irradiated RC-MAP was used as the control. Results showed that plasma K concentration increased after X-ray irradiation. It is therefore advisable that RC-MAPs be used immediately in infants and in renal failure. However, to maximize the efficiency of blood product use, it seemed possible that groups I and II could be used within two weeks after irradiation, and group III within one week. On the basis of this increase in K concentration, however, groups IV and V plasma should be used immediately after irradiation. (author)

  6. Production in constant evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant now has 25 years of operation behind it: a quarter century adding value and demonstrating the reasons why it is one of the most important energy producing facilities in the Spanish power market. Particularly noteworthy is the enterprising spirit of the plant, which has strived to continuously improve with the large number of modernization projects that it has undertaken over the past 25 years. The plant has constantly evolved thanks to the amount of investments made to improve safety and reliability and the perseverance to stay technologically up to date. Efficiency, training and teamwork have been key to the success of the plant over these 25 years of constant change and progress. (Author)

  7. Universe of constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  8. Stabilized power constant alimentation; Alimentation regulee a puissance constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [French] On decrit l'etude et la realisation d'une alimentation a puissance constante reglable dans une gamme de 5 a 100 watts. Prevue pour le drift a puissance constante des diodes compensees au lithium, l'etude a ete menee en vue d'obtenir une precision de regulation de 1 pour cent et un temps de reponse inferieur a la seconde. Des systemes recents tels que multiplicateurs a effet Hall et circuits integres ont permis d'atteindre ce but tout en facilitant l'emploi de modules interchangeables. (auteur)

  9. Probable Chemical Hypoxia Effects on Progress of CNV Through Induction of Promoter CpG Demethylation and Overexpression of IL17RC in Human RPE Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivand, Mohammad Reza; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila

    2016-09-01

    To survey the changes of promoter CpG methylation status and mRNA expression of IL17RC (interleukin 17 receptor C) gene in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells under chemical hypoxia condition for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) modeling in vitro. RPE cells were cultured in both untreated as a control group and treated by cobalt chloride media as a hypoxia group for various concentrations (100-150μM) and times (24-36 hrs.) To confirm chemical hypoxia condition, mRNA expression of HIF (Hypoxia Inducible Factor) -1α, -2α, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) was compared between two groups by Real-time PCR. Also, in normoxia and hypoxia conditions, IL17RC expression changes and promoter CpG methylation status were evaluated by Real-time PCR and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) techniques, respectively. Overexpression of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and VEGF was significant in hypoxia versus normoxia conditions. Our data showed overexpression of IL17RC (2.1- to 6.3-fold) and decreasing of its promoter methylation in comparison with hypoxia and normoxia conditions. It was found that there are significant association between promoter methylation status and expression of IL17RC in chemical hypoxia condition. Therefore, methylation of IL17RC could play as a marker in CNV and degeneration of RPE cells in vitro. Additionally, HIF-α and methylation phenomena may be considered as critical targets for blocking in angiogenesis of age-related degeneration in future studies.

  10. CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.

    2000-01-01

    A review is given of the latest Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) adjustment of the values of the fundamental constants. The new set of constants, referred to as the 1998 values, replaces the values recommended for international use by CODATA in 1986. The values of the constants, and particularly the Rydberg constant, are of relevance to the calculation of precise atomic spectra. The standard uncertainty (estimated standard deviation) of the new recommended value of the Rydberg constant, which is based on precision frequency metrology and a detailed analysis of the theory, is approximately 1/160 times the uncertainty of the 1986 value. The new set of recommended values as well as a searchable bibliographic database that gives citations to the relevant literature is available on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants and physics.nist.gov/constantsbib, respectively

  11. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  12. The role of relational capital (RC in green supply chain management (GSCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Viviane Viegas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM is an emergent issue in operations management. It is addressed to intra and inter-organizational practices adoption in order to promote sustainability in supply chains. Relational Capital (RC, also an emergent issue, plays a relevant role to resize views based solely in transactions costs and resources to a relationship view leaned on governance for information, trust and longevity in relationships, looking for positive results for all the chain’s participants. This article reviews and criticizes seminal literature on intangible assets in order to rescue RC features and link them to GSCM development. Through exploratory and descriptive methods, recent studies on RC and GSCM are identified with respect their descriptors – ways in which RC is understood and employed in GSCM; focus – goals and main use of RC; and directionality – if developments of RC in GSCM are addressed from producers to their suppliers and respective clients, or if suppliers and clients also address results of RC. It is concluded that, usually, there is unidirectionality in the application of such efforts: improvement initiatives go from the producer to the supplier or client development, but processes through which environmental practices of suppliers and clients influence the performance of GSCM are poor explored.

  13. Dynamic behavior and functional integrity tests on RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Kinji; Nasuda, Toshiaki; Shibata, Akenori.

    1991-01-01

    A project consisting of seven subprojects has been conducted to study the dynamic behavior and functional integrity of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls in reactor buildings. The objective of this project is to obtain the data to improve and prepare the seismic analysis code regarding the nonlinear structural behavior and integrity of reactor buildings during and after earthquakes. The project started in April, 1986, and will end in March, 1994. Seven subprojects are strain rate test, damping characteristic test, ultimate state response test and the verification test for the test of restoring force characteristics regarding dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance; the restoring force characteristic test on the shear walls with openings; and pull-out strength test and the test on air leakage through concrete cracks regarding the functional integrity. The objectives of respective subprojects, the test models and the interim results are reported. Three subprojects have been completed by March, 1990. The results of these projects will be used for the overall evaluation. The strain rate test showed that the ultimate strength of shear walls increased with strain rate. A formula for estimating air flow through the cracks in walls was given by the leakage test. (K.I.)

  14. Seismic performance of existing R.C. framed buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A. El-Betar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The earthquakes disasters basically occur due to buildings damage not because of the earth shaking. Therefore, the countries have being updated the seismic codes. The seismic loads for buildings design in Egyptian Code have been changed from (EC-1994 to (ECP-201, 2012. On the other hand, the need is raised to study the vulnerability of existing buildings, which can be divided into the buildings designed to resist the gravity loads only (GLD and the buildings designed according to Egyptian code (EC-1994. Comparison between forces due to Egyptian code for loads (EC-1994 and (ECP-201, 2012 is carried out on the multi-stories R.C. framed buildings which are the most common type of existing buildings in Egypt. To investigate the vulnerability of existing buildings, nonlinear static pushover analysis is conducted to evaluate the real strength of the existing buildings. Moreover, it is considered a useful and effective tool for the performance of three framed buildings: 3, 6 and 10 stories due to expected future earthquakes. Finally, it is found that the vulnerability of existing GLD buildings occurs at expected ground accelerations (ag greater than 0.125 g in Egyptian seismic map, while the EC-94 designed buildings behave elastically up to (ag equals to 0.2 g and above that a slight damage may occur.

  15. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-07-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame. To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme.

  16. Explicit expression for effective moment of inertia of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Patel

    Full Text Available AbstractDeflection is an important design parameter for structures subjected to service load. This paper provides an explicit expression for effective moment of inertia considering cracking, for uniformly distributed loaded reinforced concrete (RC beams. The proposed explicit expression can be used for rapid prediction of short-term deflection at service load. The explicit expression has been obtained from the trained neural network considering concrete cracking, tension stiffening and entire practical range of reinforcement. Three significant structural parameters have been identified that govern the change in effective moment of inertia and therefore deflection. These three parameters are chosen as inputs to train neural network. The training data sets for neural network are generated using finite element software ABAQUS. The explicit expression has been validated for a number of simply supported and continuous beams and it is shown that the predicted deflections have reasonable accuracy for practical purpose. A sensitivity analysis has been performed, which indicates substantial dependence of effective moment of inertia on the selected input parameters.

  17. Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.

  18. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-01-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame.To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme

  19. Prediction of Cracking Induced by Indirect Actions in RC Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anerdi, Costanza; Bertagnoli, Gabriele; Gino, Diego; Malavisi, Marzia; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Cracking of concrete plays a key role in reinforced concrete (RC) structures design, especially in serviceability conditions. A variety of reasons contribute to develop cracking and its presence in concrete structures is to be considered as almost unavoidable. Therefore, a good control of the phenomenon in order to provide durability is required. Cracking development is due to tensile stresses that arise in concrete structures as a result of the action of direct external loads or restrained endogenous deformations. This paper focuses on cracking induced by indirect actions. In fact, there is very limited literature regarding this particular phenomenon if compared to its high incidence in the construction practice. As a consequence, the correct prediction of the crack opening, width and position when structures are subjected to imposed deformations, such as massive castings or other highly restrained structures, becomes a compelling task, not so much for the structural capacity, as for their durability. However, this is only partially addressed by commonly used design methods, which are usually intended for direct actions. A set of non-linear analysis on simple tie models is performed using the Finite Element Method in order to study the cracking process under imposed deformations. Different concrete grades have been considered and analysed. The results of this study have been compared with the provisions of the most common codes.

  20. Model tests on dynamic performance of RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshio; Shibata, Akenori; Inoue, Norio; Muroi, Kazuo.

    1991-01-01

    For the inelastic dynamic response analysis of a reactor building subjected to earthquakes, it is essentially important to properly evaluate its restoring force characteristics under dynamic loading condition and its damping performance. Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main structural members of a reactor building, and dominate its seismic behavior. In order to obtain the basic information on the dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance of shear walls, the dynamic test using a large shaking table, static displacement control test and the pseudo-dynamic test on the models of a shear wall were conducted. In the dynamic test, four specimens were tested on a large shaking table. In the static test, four specimens were tested, and in the pseudo-dynamic test, three specimens were tested. These tests are outlined. The results of these tests were compared, placing emphasis on the restoring force characteristics and damping performance of the RC wall models. The strength was higher in the dynamic test models than in the static test models mainly due to the effect of loading rate. (K.I.)

  1. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  2. The inconstant solar constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, R.C.; Hudson, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) of the Solar Maximum Mission satellite measures the radiant power emitted by the sun in the direction of the earth and has worked flawlessly since 1980. The main motivation for ACRIM's use to measure the solar constant is the determination of the extent to which this quantity's variations affect earth weather and climate. Data from the solar minimum of 1986-1987 is eagerly anticipated, with a view to the possible presence of a solar cycle variation in addition to that caused directly by sunspots

  3. Formulation development of retrocyclin 1 analog RC-101 as an anti-HIV vaginal microbicide product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, A B; Cost, M R; Cole, A L; Cole, A M; Patton, D L; Gupta, P; Rohan, L C

    2011-05-01

    RC-101 is a synthetic microbicide analog of retrocyclin, which has shown in vitro activity against X4 and R5 HIV-1. In an effort to develop a safe and effective RC-101 vaginal microbicide product, we assessed safety in ex vivo macaque and human models and efficacy using in vitro and ex vivo models. A polyvinyl-alcohol vaginal film containing RC-101 (100 μg/film) was developed. Formulation assessment was conducted by evaluating disintegration, drug content, mechanical properties, and stability. Efficacy was evaluated by in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) assay and ex vivo human ectocervical tissue explant model. Ex vivo safety studies were conducted by exposing RC-101 to an excised monkey reproductive tract and excised human ectocervical tissue. RC-101 100 μg films were shown to be safe to human and monkey tissue and effective against HIV-1 in vitro and ex vivo in human ectocervical tissue. The 90% inhibitory concentration (IC90) for RC-101 films at 2,000 μg (IC90=57.5 μM) using an ex vivo model was 10-fold higher than the IC90 observed using an in vitro model (IC90=5.0 μM). RC-101 films were stable for 1 month at 25°C, with in vitro bioactivity maintained for up to 6 months. RC-101 was developed in a quick-dissolve film formulation that was shown to be safe in an ex vivo model and effective in in vitro and ex vivo models. RC-101 film formulations were shown to maintain bioactivity for a period of 6 months. Findings from the present study contribute to the development of a safe and effective topical microbicide product.

  4. Cracking and Deformation Modelling of Tensile RC Members Using Stress Transfer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldas Jakubovskis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modeling technique for bond, cracking and deformation analysis of RC members. The proposed mod-eling technique is not restricted by the geometrical dimensions of the analyzed member and may be applied for various load-ing conditions. Tensile as well as bending RC members may be analyzed using the proposed technique. Adequacy of the modeling strategy was evaluated by the developed numerical discrete crack algorithm, which allows modeling deformation and cracking behavior of tensile RC members. Comparison of experimental and numerical results proved the applicability of the proposed modeling strategy.

  5. Observations on out-of-plane behaviour of URM walls in buildings with RC slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Tondelli, Marco; Beyer, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In Switzerland many new residential buildings are constructed as unreinforced masonry (URM) structures or as mixed structures where URM walls are coupled with reinforced concrete (RC) walls by RC slabs. At present the boundary conditions of URM walls subjected to out-of-plane accelerations are still not well quantified. In the framework of a large research activity on RC-URM wall structures a shake-table test on a four-storey mixed structure was performed. The test specimen, which was built a...

  6. Case Study of Local Damage Indicators for a 2-Bay, 6-Storey RC-Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    A simulation study of a 2-bay, 6storey model test RC-frame(scale 1:5) subject to earthquakes is considered in this paper. Based on measured (simulated) storey accelerations and ground surface accelerations several indices for the storey damage, including interstorey drift, flexural damage ratios......, normalized cumulative dissipated energy, Park and Ang's indicator, a low-cycle fatigue damage index and a recently proposed local softening damage index estimated from time-varying eigenfrequencies are used to evaluate the damage state of the structure after the earthquake. Storey displacements are obtained...

  7. Case Study of Local Damage Indicators for a 2-Bay, 6-Storey RC-Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    A simulation study of a 2-bay, 6storey model test RC-frame(scale 1:5) subject to earthquakes is considered in this paper. Based on measured (simulated) storey accelerations and ground surface accelerations several indices for the storey damage, including interstorey drift, flexural damage ratios......, normalized cumulative dissipated energy, Park and Ang's indicator, a low-cycle fatigue damage index and a recently proposed local softening damage index estimated from time-varying eigenfrequencies are used to evaluate the damage state of the structure after the earthquake. Storey displacements are obtained...

  8. An under-designed RC frame: Seismic assessment through displacement based approach and possible refurbishment with FRP strips and RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Many existing reinforced concrete buildings in Southern Europe were built (and hence designed) before the introduction of displacement based design in national seismic codes. They are obviously highly vulnerable to seismic actions. In such a situation, simplified methodologies for the seismic assessment and retrofitting of existing structures are required. In this study, a displacement based procedure using non-linear static analyses is applied to a four-story existing RC frame. The aim is to obtain an estimation of its overall structural inadequacy as well as the effectiveness of a specific retrofitting intervention by means of GFRP laminates and RC jacketing. Accurate numerical models are developed within a displacement based approach to reproduce the seismic response of the RC frame in the original configuration and after strengthening.

  9. On the Action of the Radiation Field Generated by a Traveling-Wave Element and Its Connection to the Time Energy Uncertainty Principle, Elementary Charge and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we published two papers in this journal. One of the papers dealt with the action of the radiation fields generated by a traveling-wave element and the other dealt with the momentum transferred by the same radiation fields and their connection to the time energy uncertainty principle. The traveling-wave element is defined as a conductor through which a current pulse propagates with the speed of light in free space from one end of the conductor to the other without attenuation. The goal of this letter is to combine the information provided in these two papers together and make conclusive statements concerning the connection between the energy dissipated by the radiation fields, the time energy uncertainty principle and the elementary charge. As we will show here, the results presented in these two papers, when combined together, show that the time energy uncertainty principle can be applied to the classical radiation emitted by a traveling-wave element and it results in the prediction that the smallest charge associated with the current that can be detected using radiated energy as a vehicle is on the order of the elementary charge. Based on the results, an expression for the fine structure constant is obtained. This is the first time that an order of magnitude estimation of the elementary charge based on electromagnetic radiation fields is obtained. Even though the results obtained in this paper have to be considered as order of magnitude estimations, a strict interpretation of the derived equations shows that the fine structure constant or the elementary charge may change as the size or the age of the universe increases.

  10. Time-dependent 31P saturation transfer in the phosphoglucomutase reaction. Characterization of the spin system for the Cd(II) enzyme and evaluation of rate constants for the transfer process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, C.B.; Ray, W.J. Jr.; Gorenstein, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    Time-dependent 31 P saturation-transfer studies were conducted with the Cd 2+ -activated form of muscle phosphoglucomutase to probe the origin of the 100-fold difference between its catalytic efficiency (in terms of k cat ) and that of the more efficient Mg 2+ -activated enzyme. The present paper describes the equilibrium mixture of phosphoglucomutase and its substrate/product pair when the concentration of the Cd 2+ enzyme approaches that of the substrate and how the nine-spin 31 P NMR system provided by this mixture was treated. It shows that the presence of abortive complexes is not a significant factor in the reduced activity of the Cd 2+ enzyme since the complex of the dephosphoenzyme and glucose 1,6-bisphosphate, which accounts for a large majority of the enzyme present at equilibrium, is catalytically competent. It also shows that rate constants for saturation transfer obtained at three different ratios of enzyme to free substrate are mutually compatible. These constants, which were measured at chemical equilibrium, can be used to provide a quantitative kinetic rationale for the reduced steady-state activity elicited by Cd 2+ relative to Mg 2+ . They also provide minimal estimates of 350 and 150 s -1 for the rate constants describing (PO 3 - ) transfer from the Cd 2+ phosphoenzyme to the 6-position of bound glucose 1-phosphate and to the 1-position of bound glucose 6-phosphate, respectively. These minimal estimates are compared with analogous estimates for the Mg 2+ and Li + forms of the enzyme in the accompanying paper

  11. Relaxing a large cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Florian; Sola, Joan; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological constant (CC) problem is the biggest enigma of theoretical physics ever. In recent times, it has been rephrased as the dark energy (DE) problem in order to encompass a wider spectrum of possibilities. It is, in any case, a polyhedric puzzle with many faces, including the cosmic coincidence problem, i.e. why the density of matter ρ m is presently so close to the CC density ρ Λ . However, the oldest, toughest and most intriguing face of this polyhedron is the big CC problem, namely why the measured value of ρ Λ at present is so small as compared to any typical density scale existing in high energy physics, especially taking into account the many phase transitions that our Universe has undergone since the early times, including inflation. In this Letter, we propose to extend the field equations of General Relativity by including a class of invariant terms that automatically relax the value of the CC irrespective of the initial size of the vacuum energy in the early epochs. We show that, at late times, the Universe enters an eternal de Sitter stage mimicking a tiny positive cosmological constant. Thus, these models could be able to solve the big CC problem without fine-tuning and have also a bearing on the cosmic coincidence problem. Remarkably, they mimic the ΛCDM model to a large extent, but they still leave some characteristic imprints that should be testable in the next generation of experiments.

  12. Fine-structure constant: Is it really a constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    It is often claimed that the fine-structure ''constant'' α is shown to be strictly constant in time by a variety of astronomical and geophysical results. These constrain its fractional rate of change alpha-dot/α to at least some orders of magnitude below the Hubble rate H 0 . We argue that the conclusion is not as straightforward as claimed since there are good physical reasons to expect alpha-dot/α 0 . We propose to decide the issue by constructing a framework for a variability based on very general assumptions: covariance, gauge invariance, causality, and time-reversal invariance of electromagnetism, as well as the idea that the Planck-Wheeler length (10 -33 cm) is the shortest scale allowable in any theory. The framework endows α with well-defined dynamics, and entails a modification of Maxwell electrodynamics. It proves very difficult to rule it out with purely electromagnetic experiments. In a cosmological setting, the framework predicts an alpha-dot/α which can be compatible with the astronomical constraints; hence, these are too insensitive to rule out α variability. There is marginal conflict with the geophysical constraints: however, no firm decision is possible because of uncertainty about various cosmological parameters. By contrast the framework's predictions for spatial gradients of α are in fatal conflict with the results of the Eoetvoes-Dicke-Braginsky experiments. Hence these tests of the equivalence principle rule out with confidence spacetime variability of α at any level

  13. Experiment and simulation of double-layered RC plates under impact loadings. Part 1: Impact tests for double-layered RC plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Ueda, M.; Taniguchi, H.; Kambayashi, A.; Ohno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1993-01-01

    At a nuclear power plant facility, it should be of interest and important problem to ensure structures against impact loads induced by projectile impacts or plant-internal accidents. It has been well known that local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the impacted area and scabbing of concrete from the back face of the target together with projectile penetration into the target. There are several techniques for improving the impact resistance of RC slabs, that is, lining with a steel plate on the impacted and/or rear face of the slab, making the slab a double-layered composite slab with an elastic absorber and employing a fiber reinforced concrete or a high-strength concrete as the slab materials. Of the many measures available for withstanding impact loads, the use of a double-layered reinforced concrete (RC) slab with absorber is expected to have the higher resistance in reducing or preventing local damage. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates subjected to the impact of projectile. In the experiment, the effects of two parameters; the combination of two RC plates having different thicknesses and the existence of an absorber in the middle layer, are mainly investigated. And, the effects of the concrete thickness (7,9 and 11 cm) and the concrete strength (a normal-:35MPa, a lightweight-:40MPa and a high-strength:57MPa) of target were also examined. RC plates, 0.6m-square, were used for test specimens. The projectile has a mass of 0.43kg, made of steel with a flat nose. An average projectile velocity was about 170m/sec. A rubber plate shaped into a square with the same size of RC plate was used for a double-layered specimen as an absorber which was put between two RC plates. It could be concluded that double-layering and presence of an absorber had a considerable effect on the increase of impact resistance of RC plate. In order to reduce local damage, it is more effective to

  14. Asympotics with positive cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonga, Beatrice; Ashtekar, Abhay; Kesavan, Aruna

    2014-03-01

    Since observations to date imply that our universe has a positive cosmological constant, one needs an extension of the theory of isolated systems and gravitational radiation in full general relativity from the asymptotically flat to asymptotically de Sitter space-times. In current definitions, one mimics the boundary conditions used in asymptotically AdS context to conclude that the asymptotic symmetry group is the de Sitter group. However, these conditions severely restricts radiation and in fact rules out non-zero flux of energy, momentum and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves. Therefore, these formulations of asymptotically de Sitter space-times are uninteresting beyond non-radiative spacetimes. The situation is compared and contrasted with conserved charges and fluxes at null infinity in asymptotically flat space-times.

  15. Advanced field-solver techniques for RC extraction of integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Resistance and capacitance (RC) extraction is an essential step in modeling the interconnection wires and substrate coupling effect in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (IC). The field-solver techniques for RC extraction guarantee the accuracy of modeling, and are becoming increasingly important in meeting the demand for accurate modeling and simulation of VLSI designs. Advanced Field-Solver Techniques for RC Extraction of Integrated Circuits presents a systematic introduction to, and treatment of, the key field-solver methods for RC extraction of VLSI interconnects and substrate coupling in mixed-signal ICs. Various field-solver techniques are explained in detail, with real-world examples to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm. This book will benefit graduate students and researchers in the field of electrical and computer engineering, as well as engineers working in the IC design and design automation industries. Dr. Wenjian Yu is an Associate Professor at the Department of ...

  16. Direct Observation of Energy Detrapping in LH1-RC Complex by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hendrikx, Ruud; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2017-01-18

    The purple bacterial core light harvesting antenna-reaction center (LH1-RC) complex is the simplest system able to achieve the entire primary function of photosynthesis. During the past decade, a variety of photosynthetic proteins were studied by a powerful technique, two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). However, little attention has been paid to LH1-RC, although its reversible uphill energy transfer, trapping, and backward detrapping processes, represent a crucial step in the early photosynthetic reaction dynamics. Thus, in this work, we employed 2DES to study two LH1-RC complexes of Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum. By direct observation of detrapping, the complex reversible process was clearly identified and an overall scheme of the excitation evolution in LH1-RC was obtained.

  17. Noise analysis of gate electrode work function engineered recessed channel (GEWE-RC) MOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwala, Ajita; Chaujar, Rishu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the noise assessment, using ATLAS device simulation software, of a gate electrode work function engineered recessed channel (GEWE-RC) MOSFET involving an RC and GEWE design integrated onto a conventional MOSFET. Furthermore, the behaviour of GEWE-RC MOSFET is compared with that of a conventional MOSFET having the same device parameters. This paper thus optimizes and predicts the feasibility of a novel design, i.e., GEWE-RC MOSFET for high-performance applications where device and noise reduction is a major concern. The noise metrics taken into consideration are: minimum noise figure and optimum source impedance. The statistical tools auto correlation and cross correlation are also analysed owing to the random nature of noise.

  18. Building evolutionary architectures support constant change

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal; Kua, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The software development ecosystem is constantly changing, providing a constant stream of new tools, frameworks, techniques, and paradigms. Over the past few years, incremental developments in core engineering practices for software development have created the foundations for rethinking how architecture changes over time, along with ways to protect important architectural characteristics as it evolves. This practical guide ties those parts together with a new way to think about architecture and time.

  19. A study on shear behavior of R/C beams subjected to long-term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many structural members are subjected to long term heating. There are few experimental data available on the behavior especially in shear of reinforced concrete (R/C) members subjected to long term heating. This paper describes a study aimed at experimentally determining the shear behavior of R/C members in nuclear power plant facilities following sustained heating at high temperatures

  20. SEISMICALLY RETROFITTING AND UPGRADING RC-MRF BY USING EXPANDED METAL PANELS

    OpenAIRE

    Phung Ngoc, Dung

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete moment resisting frames (RC-MRFs) have been widely used as the main structural resisting systems for over 30 years based on their capacity in resisting both gravity loads and lateral forces like winds or earthquakes and on low cost of construction. However, there have been still many existing RC-MRFs not designed according to any modern seismic code. This may lead to some undesired failures under a rather low intensity earthquake. There are several existing retrofitting sy...

  1. Study on labelling methods of 125I-RC-160 and its biodistribution in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Wang Xiqing; Wang Liangang; Li Fujun; Deng Jinglan

    2002-01-01

    A method for the iodination of peptide RC-160 with high efficiency was developed. RC-160 was iodinated with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as oxidant, the conventional chloramine T (Ch-T) method was used as control. The labelling condition of NBS method was optimized and radiolabelled conjugate 125 I-RC-160 was assessed as follows: no further purification was needed, the measured labelling yield of 125 I-RC-160 was 92% and the specific activity was 1.95 x 10 12 Bq/m mol. The yield increased as the amount of NBS increased. The optimal ratio of RC-160 (μg): 125 I (MBq): NBS(μg) was 3:7.4:1. For Ch-T method, the labelling yield is 56% and specific activity was 0.65 x 10 12 Bq/m mol; but after purification by SepPak-C 18 , the labelling yield may reach as high as 92%. 1h after injection, radioactivity in blood decreased by 87.2%. No obvious concentration of 125 I-RC-160 in thyroid or kidney was observed

  2. Zero cosmological constant from normalized general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Aharon; Rubin, Shimon

    2009-01-01

    Normalizing the Einstein-Hilbert action by the volume functional makes the theory invariant under constant shifts in the Lagrangian. The associated field equations then resemble unimodular gravity whose otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant is now determined as a Machian universal average. We prove that an empty space-time is necessarily Ricci tensor flat, and demonstrate the vanishing of the cosmological constant within the scalar field paradigm. The cosmological analysis, carried out at the mini-superspace level, reveals a vanishing cosmological constant for a universe which cannot be closed as long as gravity is attractive. Finally, we give an example of a normalized theory of gravity which does give rise to a non-zero cosmological constant.

  3. Evaluation equivalent pulse of pulse-like ground motion to estimate the response of RC moment-resisting frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Rohollah Hosseini Vaez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ability of equivalent pulse extracted by a mathematical model from pulse-like ground motion is investigated in order to estimate the response of RC moment-resisting frames. By examining the mathematical model, it is obvious that the model-based elastic response spectra are compatible with the actual pulse-like record. Also, the model simulates the long-period portion of actual pulse-like records by a high level of precision. The results indicate that the model adequately simulates the components of time histories. In order to investigate the ability of equivalent pulse of pulse-like ground motion in estimating the response of RC moment-resisting frames, five frame models including 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 stories analyzed under actual record and simulated one. The results of the base shear demand, the maximum value of the inter-story drift and the distribution of inter-story drift along the height of the structures in three levels of design ductility is investigated. According to the results of this study, the equivalent pulses can predict accurately the response of regular RC moment-resisting frames when the fundamental period of the structure is equal to or greater than the equivalent pulse of the record. For the ground motion with high-frequency content the difference is high; but with increasing the number of stories and approaching pulse period to the fundamental period of the structure and increasing the level of design ductility of structure, more accurately predict the structural response.

  4. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-06

    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  5. Filament instability under constant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastra, A. G.; Carusela, M. F.; D’Angelo, M. V.; Bruno, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buckling of semi-flexible filaments appears in different systems and scales. Some examples are: fibers in geophysical applications, microtubules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and deformation of polymers freely suspended in a flow. In these examples, instabilities arise when a system’s parameter exceeds a critical value, being the Euler force the most known. However, the complete time evolution and wavelength of buckling processes are not fully understood. In this work we solve analytically the time evolution of a filament under a constant compressive force in the small amplitude approximation. This gives an insight into the variable force scenario in terms of normal modes. The evolution is highly sensitive to the initial configuration and to the magnitude of the compressive load. This model can be a suitable approach to many different real situations.

  6. Delayed release formulation of the somatostatin analog RC-160 inhibits the growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing factor-(1-29)NH2 and decreases elevated prolactin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Schally, A V

    1988-10-01

    Recently, we have developed a long-acting delivery system for our somatostatin (SS) analog RC-160 based on injectable microcapsules in poly-(D,L-lactide-coglycolide). We studied the capacity of this formulation to repeatedly block the GH secretion induced by administration of GRF-(1-29)NH2 (GRF) on different days. Male rats anesthetized with pentobarbital were injected iv with 2.5 micrograms/kg BW GRF-(1-29)NH2 or saline. Five minutes later, blood samples were taken for GH measurement, and the animals were injected im with RC-160 microcapsules at a dose calculated to release 25 micrograms/day of the analog for 7 days or with the vehicle. The GRF stimuli were repeated 48 h, 96 h, and 8 days after administration of SS analog in microcapsules. GRF administration increased GH levels at the four times tested (P less than 0.01) in the control group injected with vehicle, while RC-160 microcapsules inhibited the GH response for more than 96 h (P less than 0.01). The GH levels augmented by pentobarbital were also decreased by the RC-160 microcapsules (P less than 0.01). Animals treated with microcapsules showed smaller increases in their body weight than untreated rats (P less than 0.05). We also investigated the effect of RC-160 microcapsules on hyperprolactinemic female rats implanted with pituitary glands under the kidney capsules. High PRL levels in rats bearing pituitary grafts showed a significant decrease when measured 4 days after the administration of RC-160 microcapsules. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the long-acting delivery system of the SS analog RC-160 and suggest the possible clinical usefulness of this formulation for lowering GH and PRL levels.

  7. Experimental investigation of the seismic performance of the R/C frames with reinforced masonry infills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjung, Jafril; Maidiawati, Nugroho, Fajar

    2017-10-01

    Intensive studies regarding the investigation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (R/C) frames which are infilled with brick masonry walls have been carried out by several researchers within the last three-decades. According to authors' field and experimentally experiences conclude that the unreinforced brick masonry infills significantly contributes to increase the seismic performance of the R/C frame structure. Unfortunately, the presence of brick masonry infill walls causes several undesirable effects such as short column, soft-storey, torsion and out of plane collapse. In this study, a strengthening technique for the brick masonry infills were experimentally investigated to improve the seismic performance of the R/C frame structures. For this purpose, four experimental specimens have been prepared, i.e. one of bare R/C frame (BF), one of R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall (IFUM) and two of R/C frames were infilled with reinforced brick-masonry wall (IFRM-1 and IFRM-2). The bare frame and R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall represents the typical R/C buildings' construction in Indonesia assuming the brick-masonry wall as the non-structural elements. The brick-masonry wall infills in specimens IFRM-1 and IFRM-2 were strengthened by using embedded ϕ4 plain steel bar on their diagonal and center of brick-masonry wall, respectively. All specimens were laterally pushed-over. The lateral loading and its lateral displacement, failure mechanism and their crack pattern were recorded during experimental works. Comparison of the experimental results of these four specimens conclude that the strengthening of the brick-masonry infills wall gave the significantly increasing of the seismic performance of the R/C frame. The seismic performance was evaluated based on the lateral strength of the R/C specimen. The embedded plain steel bar on brick-masonry also reduces the diagonal crack on the brick-masonry wall. It seems that

  8. Recent improvements to RC-line encoded position-sensitive proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing research on the principles of position encoding with RC lines has advanced the design of position-sensitive proportional counters (PSPCs) to meet the requirements for high count rates (>10 5 counts/sec) and good spatial resolution (>10 4 spatial elements) in small-angle scattering experiments with x rays and neutrons. Low-noise preamplifiers were developed with pole-zero cancellation in the feedback circuit and modular linear amplifiers with passive RCL shaping which, compared to previous designs, reduce output saturation at high count rates approx.20 times and shorten the position signal processing time to 2 ) for low-energy ( 800 x 800 mm 2 ) for the measurement of small-angle scattering with neutrons. The method of electronic thickness discrimination was applied to change the effective thickness of an area PSPC from 12 to 2 cm whenever the molybdenum target of an x-ray generator was changed to a copper target. This thickness adjustment increased the signal-to-background ratio by a factor of approx.6 for the 8-keV photons from the copper target, while maintaining a >90% detection efficiency

  9. Association constants of telluronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs

  10. Anisotropic constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)

  11. Evolution of the solar 'constant'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M J

    1980-06-01

    Variations in solar luminosity over geological time are discussed in light of the effect of the solar constant on the evolution of life on earth. Consideration is given to long-term (5 - 7% in a billion years) increases in luminosity due to the conversion of hydrogen into helium in the solar interior, temporary enhancements to solar luminosity due to the accretion of matter from the interstellar medium at intervals on the order of 100 million years, and small-amplitude rapid fluctuations of luminosity due to the stochastic nature of convection on the solar surface. It is noted that encounters with dense interstellar clouds could have had serious consequences for life on earth due to the peaking of the accretion-induced luminosity variation at short wavelengths.

  12. Determination of the time to failure curve as a function of stress for a highly irradiated AISI 304 stainless steel after constant load tests in simulated PWR water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokor, C.; Massoud, J.P.; Wintergerst, M.; Toivonen, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Karlsen, W.

    2011-01-01

    The structures of Reactor Pressure Vessel Internals are subjected to an intense neutron flux. Under these operating conditions, the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the austenitic stainless steel components change. In addition, these components are subjected to stress of either manufacturing origin or generated under operation. Cases of baffle bolts cracking have occurred in CP0 Nuclear Power Plant units. The mechanism of degradation of these bolts is Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking. In order to obtain a better understanding of this mechanism and its principal parameters of influence, a set of stress corrosion tests (mainly constant load tests) were launched within the framework of the EDF project 'PWR Internals' using materials from a Chooz A baffle corner (SA 304). These tests aim to quantify the influence on IASCC of the applied stress, temperature and environment (primary water, higher lithium concentration, inert environment) for an irradiation dose close to 30 dpa. A curve showing time to failure as a function of the stress was determined. The shape of this curve is consistent with the few data that are available in the literature. A stress threshold of about 50 % of the yield strength value at the test temperature has been determined, below which cracking in that environment seems impossible. After irradiation this material is sensitive to intergranular fracture in a primary environment, but also in an inert environment (argon) at 340 C. The tests also showed a negative effect of increased lithium concentration on the time to failure and on the stress threshold. (authors)

  13. Statistical Analysis of the Random Telegraph Noise in a 1.1 μm Pixel, 8.3 MP CMOS Image Sensor Using On-Chip Time Constant Extraction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Calvin Yi-Ping; Tu, Honyih; Wu, Thomas Meng-Hsiu; Chou, Kuo-Yu; Yeh, Shang-Fu; Yin, Chin; Lee, Chih-Lin

    2017-11-23

    A study of the random telegraph noise (RTN) of a 1.1 μm pitch, 8.3 Mpixel CMOS image sensor (CIS) fabricated in a 45 nm backside-illumination (BSI) technology is presented in this paper. A noise decomposition scheme is used to pinpoint the noise source. The long tail of the random noise (RN) distribution is directly linked to the RTN from the pixel source follower (SF). The full 8.3 Mpixels are classified into four categories according to the observed RTN histogram peaks. A theoretical formula describing the RTN as a function of the time difference between the two phases of the correlated double sampling (CDS) is derived and validated by measured data. An on-chip time constant extraction method is developed and applied to the RTN analysis. The effects of readout circuit bandwidth on the settling ratios of the RTN histograms are investigated and successfully accounted for in a simulation using a RTN behavior model.

  14. RTO/RC ITER plasma performance: inductive and steady-state operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhovatov, V.; Boucher, D.; Fujisawa, N.; Shimada, M.; Vayakis, G.; Janeschitz, G.; Matsumoto, H.; Leonov, V.; Polevoy, A.

    2000-01-01

    The plasma performance in two design options of the reduced-technical objectives/reduced cost (RTO/RC) ITER, i.e. IAM (intermediate aspect ratio machine) and LAM (low aspect ratio machine) is analysed. It is shown that Q=P fus /P aux ∼10 can be obtained in both options at inductively driven ELMy H-mode operation. The operation domain in LAM is found to be marginally larger than that in IAM. The non-inductive operation with Q approx.= 5 will be possible in both machines, provided a large amount of power with a high current drive efficiency is applied, or substantial improvement of the energy confinement time relative to the ELMy H-mode (H H =1.2-1.4) is obtained. The required values of H H and β N are marginally smaller in IAM. The IAM-like machine, ITER-FEAT (fusion energy advanced tokamak), proposed for a detailed engineering design is discussed in brief. (author)

  15. Security devices and experiment facilities at ENEA TRIGA RC-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, P.; Festinesi, A.; Santoro, E.; Tardani, G.; Magli, M.; Reis, G.

    1990-01-01

    RC-1 TRIGA operating exercise staff has produced some auxiliary security devices. These are the neutron source automatic handling device, irradiated samples rabbit connection rotating rack, and auxiliary equipment for transferring hot fuel elements. The reactor electronic control instrumentation system includes various instrumentation channels, the operating capability of which must be verified by the licensee as per Italian regulations. In order to obtain automatic and repeatable operations, TEMAV designed and constructed a remotely-driven source transfer device, based on requirements, performance specifications and technical data supplied by ENEA-TIB. The pneumatic irradiating system for short lived materials allows extraction of radiated samples in a time no longer than 4 seconds. To optimize the system, both as to operability and health protection, a specific rotating rack for the connection of irradiated samples with pneumatic transfer (RABBIT) was produced. To permit 1 MW hot fuel element storage in pits it is necessary to remove hot 100 KW fuel elements and transfer them to a re-treatment plant. Feasibility studies showed the impossibility of using heavy trucks inside the reactor hall. To avoid problems trucks are left outside the reactor hall and only the PEGASO container is removed with a special device that runs on rails. Movement from Rail truck is assured by an electromotor driving pull device and security cable

  16. SEISMIC FRAGILITY ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED RC FRAMES USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMED HAMIDI JAMNANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of bracings to increase the lateral stiffness of building structures is a technique of seismic improvement that engineers frequently have recourse to. Accordingly, investigating the role of bracings in concrete structures along with the development of seismic fragility curves are of overriding concern to civil engineers. In this research, an ordinary RC building, designed according to the 1st edition of Iranian seismic code, was selected for examination. According to FEMA 356 code, this building is considered to be vulnerable. To improve the seismic performance of this building, 3 different types of bracings, which are Concentrically Braced Frames, Eccentrically Braced Frames and Buckling Restrained Frames were employed, and each bracing element was distributed in 3 different locations in the building. The researchers developed fragility curves and utilized 30 earthquake records on the Peak Ground Acceleration seismic intensity scale to carry out a time history analysis. Tow damage scale, including Inter-Story Drifts and Plastic Axial Deformation were also used. The numerical results obtained from this investigation confirm that Plastic Axial Deformation is more reliable than conventional approaches in developing fragility curves for retrofitted frames. In lieu of what is proposed, the researchers selected the suitable damage scale and developed and compared log-normal distribution of fragility curves first for the original and then for the retrofitted building.

  17. Evaluation of reuterin production in urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Peter; Wind, Anette; Sommer, Philip; Schaefer, Laura; Crowley, Kate; Britton, Robert A; Reid, Gregor

    2008-08-01

    Classified as a distinct species in 1980, Lactobacillus reuteri strains have been used in probiotic formulations for intestinal and urogenital applications. In the former, the primary mechanism of action of L. reuteri SD2112 (ATCC 55730) has been purported to be its ability to produce the antibiotic 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), also known as reuterin. In the vagina, it has been postulated that probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 does not require reuterin production but mediates a restoration of the normal microbiota via hydrogen peroxide, biosurfactant, lactic acid production, and immune modulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether strain RC-14 produced reuterin. Using PCR and DNA dot blot analyses, numerous Lactobacillus species, including RC-14, were screened for the presence of the gene encoding the large subunit of glycerol dehydratase (gldC), the enzyme responsible for reuterin production. In addition, lactobacilli were grown in glycerol-based media and both high-performance liquid chromatography and a colorimetric assay were used to test for the presence of reuterin. L. reuteri RC-14 was determined to be negative for gldC sequences, as well as for the production of reuterin when cultured in the presence of glycerol. These findings support that the probiotic effects of L. reuteri RC-14, repeatedly demonstrated during numerous studies of the intestine and vagina, are independent of reuterin production.

  18. Preformulation and stability in biological fluids of the retrocyclin RC-101, a potential anti-HIV topical microbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrads Thomas P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RC-101, a cationic peptide retrocyclin analog, has in vitro activity against HIV-1. Peptide drugs are commonly prone to conformational changes, oxidation and hydrolysis when exposed to excipients in a formulation or biological fluids in the body, this can affect product efficacy. We aimed to investigate RC-101 stability under several conditions including the presence of human vaginal fluids (HVF, enabling the efficient design of a safe and effective microbicide product. Stability studies (temperature, pH, and oxidation were performed by HPLC, Circular Dichroism, and Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Additionally, the effect of HVF on formulated RC-101 was evaluated with fluids collected from healthy volunteers, or from subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV. RC-101 was monitored by LC-MS/MS for up to 72 h. Results RC-101 was stable at pH 3, 4, and 7, at 25 and 37°C. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide resulted in less than 10% RC-101 reduction over 24 h. RC-101 was detected 48 h after incubation with normal HVF; however, not following incubation with HVF from BV subjects. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of preformulation evaluations and highlight the impact of HVF on microbicide product stability and efficacy. RC-101 was stable in normal HVF for at least 48 h, indicating that it is a promising candidate for microbicide product development. However, RC-101 stability appears compromised in individuals with BV, requiring more advanced formulation strategies for stabilization in this environment.

  19. Hypomethylation of the IL17RC Promoter Associates with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population worldwide. Although recent studies have demonstrated strong genetic associations between AMD and SNPs in a number of genes, other modes of regulation are also likely to play a role in the etiology of this disease. We identified a significantly decreased level of methylation on the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients. Furthermore, we showed that hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients led to an elevated expression of its protein and messenger RNA in peripheral blood as well as in the affected retina and choroid, suggesting that the DNA methylation pattern and expression of IL17RC may potentially serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of AMD and likely plays a role in disease pathogenesis.

  20. Hypomethylation of IL17RC Promoter Associates with Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Liu, Baoying; Tuo, Jingsheng; Shen, Defen; Chen, Ping; Li, Zhiyu; Liu, Xunxian; Ni, Jia; Dagur, Pradeep; Sen, H. Nida; Jawad, Shayma; Ling, Diamond; Park, Stanley; Chakrabarty, Sagarika; Meyerle, Catherine; Agron, Elvira; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.; McCoy, J. Philip; Blum, Emily; Francis, Peter J.; Klein, Michael L.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Baird, Paul N.; Chan, Chi-Chao; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population worldwide. While recent studies have demonstrated strong genetic associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms within a number of genes and AMD, other modes of regulation are also likely to play a role in its etiology. We identified a significantly decreased level of methylation on the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients. Further, we showed that hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients led to an elevated expression of its protein and mRNA in peripheral blood as well as in the affected retina and choroid, suggesting that the DNA methylation pattern and expression of IL17RC may potentially serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of AMD and likely plays a role in disease pathogenesis. PMID:23177625

  1. KOMBINASI ALGORITMA AES, RC4 DAN ELGAMAL DALAM SKEMA HYBRID UNTUK KEAMANAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Widarma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman atau pertukaran data adalah hal yang sering terjadi dalam dunia teknologi informasi. Data yang dikirim kadang sering berisi data informasi yang penting bahkan sangat rahasia dan harus dijaga keamanannya. Untuk menjaga keamanan data, dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik kriptografi. Algoritma AES dan RC4 adalah salah satu dari algoritma simetri. Kelemahan dari algoritma simetri adalah proses enkripsi dan dekripsi menggunakan kunci yang sama. Untuk mengatasi tersebut dilakukan dengan menggunakan algoritma Elgamal. Algoritma Elgamal adalah termasuk algoritma asimetri. Algoritma Elgamal digunakan untuk mengamankan kunci dari algoritma AES dan RC4. Peningkatan keamanan pesan dan kunci dilakukan dengan algoritma hybrid. Algoritma hybrid dengan mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma baik algoritma simetri maupun algortima asimetri akan menambah keamanan sehingga menjadi lebih aman dan powerful (Jain & Agrawal 2014. Penelitian ini akan dilakukan metode hybrid yaitu mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma kriptografi dengan menggunakan algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan RC4 untuk kerahasiaan data serta algoritma Elgamal digunakan untuk enkripsi dan dekripsi kunci.

  2. Nonlinear analysis of RC cylindrical tank and subsoil accounting for a low concrete strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński Paweł M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses deformational and incremental approaches to a nonlinear FE analysis of soil-structure interaction including the description of behaviour of the RC structure and the subsoil under short-term loading. Two kinds of constitutive models for ground and structure were adopted for a nonlinear interaction analysis of the RC cylindrical tank with subsoil. The constitutive laws for concrete and subsoil were developed in compliance with the deformational and flow theories of plasticity. Moreover, a non-linear elastic-brittle-plastic analysis of RC axi-symmetric structures using finite element iterative techniques is presented. The results of the two types of FE analysis of soil-structure interaction are compared taking into account a low concrete strength of tank structure.

  3. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  4. Out-of-plane ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nukui, Yasushi; Imamura, Akira; Terayama, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Kojima, Isao

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the out-of-plane shear in RC mat-slab foundations, and the reasonable method has been demanded to estimate ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations in the nuclear facilities. In the previous study, the out-of-plane loading tests on the 20 square slab specimens had been performed to collect the fundamental data. In this study, the test results were successfully predicted by 3D non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It has been confirmed that the ultimate shear stress in the slab specimen can be estimated by the Arakawa's formula, which is commonly used to estimate the shear strength of RC beams. (author)

  5. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  6. 3-D Image Encryption Based on Rubik's Cube and RC6 Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Mai; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M.; Eldokany, Ibrahim M.; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd

    2017-12-01

    A novel encryption algorithm based on the 3-D Rubik's cube is proposed in this paper to achieve 3D encryption of a group of images. This proposed encryption algorithm begins with RC6 as a first step for encrypting multiple images, separately. After that, the obtained encrypted images are further encrypted with the 3-D Rubik's cube. The RC6 encrypted images are used as the faces of the Rubik's cube. From the concepts of image encryption, the RC6 algorithm adds a degree of diffusion, while the Rubik's cube algorithm adds a degree of permutation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed encryption algorithm is efficient, and it exhibits strong robustness and security. The encrypted images are further transmitted over wireless Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system and decrypted at the receiver side. Evaluation of the quality of the decrypted images at the receiver side reveals good results.

  7. Immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. Transfer of immunity with primed CD45RC+ and CD45RC- CD4 T-cell subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P

    1996-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen CD4 T cells were separated by antibody......-induced increase in CD45RC+ cells is most likely due to generation of antigen-specific memory T cells....

  8. Energy transfer dynamics in an RC-LH1-PufX tubular photosynthetic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, J; Sener, M; Schulten, K [Department of Physics and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); Struempfer, J [Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); Qian, P; Hunter, C N, E-mail: kschulte@ks.uiuc.ed [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Light absorption and the subsequent transfer of excitation energy are the first two steps in the photosynthetic process, carried out by protein-bound pigments, mainly bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), in photosynthetic bacteria. BChls are anchored in light-harvesting (LH) complexes, such as light-harvesting complex I (LH1), which directly associates with the reaction center (RC), forming the RC-LH1 core complex. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, RC-LH1 core complexes contain an additional protein, PufX, and assemble into dimeric RC-LH1-PufX core complexes. In the absence of LH complex II (LH2), the former complexes can aggregate into a helically ordered tubular photosynthetic membrane. We have examined the excitation transfer dynamics in a single RC-LH1-PufX core complex dimer using the hierarchical equations of motion for dissipative quantum dynamics that accurately, yet in a computationally costly manner, treat the coupling between BChls and their protein environment. A widely employed description, the generalized Foerster (GF) theory, was also used to calculate the transfer rates of the same excitonic system in order to verify the accuracy of this computationally cheap method. Additionally, in light of the structural uncertainties in the Rba. sphaeroides RC-LH1-PufX core complex, geometrical alterations were introduced into the BChl organization. It is shown that the energy transfer dynamics are not affected by the considered changes in the BChl organization and that the GF theory provides accurate transfer rates. An all-atom model for a tubular photosynthetic membrane is then constructed on the basis of electron microscopy data, and the overall energy transfer properties of this membrane are computed.

  9. Energy transfer dynamics in an RC-LH1-PufX tubular photosynthetic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsin, J; Sener, M; Schulten, K; Struempfer, J; Qian, P; Hunter, C N

    2010-01-01

    Light absorption and the subsequent transfer of excitation energy are the first two steps in the photosynthetic process, carried out by protein-bound pigments, mainly bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), in photosynthetic bacteria. BChls are anchored in light-harvesting (LH) complexes, such as light-harvesting complex I (LH1), which directly associates with the reaction center (RC), forming the RC-LH1 core complex. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, RC-LH1 core complexes contain an additional protein, PufX, and assemble into dimeric RC-LH1-PufX core complexes. In the absence of LH complex II (LH2), the former complexes can aggregate into a helically ordered tubular photosynthetic membrane. We have examined the excitation transfer dynamics in a single RC-LH1-PufX core complex dimer using the hierarchical equations of motion for dissipative quantum dynamics that accurately, yet in a computationally costly manner, treat the coupling between BChls and their protein environment. A widely employed description, the generalized Foerster (GF) theory, was also used to calculate the transfer rates of the same excitonic system in order to verify the accuracy of this computationally cheap method. Additionally, in light of the structural uncertainties in the Rba. sphaeroides RC-LH1-PufX core complex, geometrical alterations were introduced into the BChl organization. It is shown that the energy transfer dynamics are not affected by the considered changes in the BChl organization and that the GF theory provides accurate transfer rates. An all-atom model for a tubular photosynthetic membrane is then constructed on the basis of electron microscopy data, and the overall energy transfer properties of this membrane are computed.

  10. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulations, EU Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to good manufacturing practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a cryopreserved blastocyst stage embryo voluntarily donated as surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe016-A (RC-12 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro. Karyology revealed a mixed male karyotype at early passage (P15, which resolved as normal 46XY by passage 33. Microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  11. Analysis of an Irregular RC Multi-storeyed Building Subjected to Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    AkashRaut; Pachpor, Prabodh; Dautkhani, Sanket

    2018-03-01

    Many buildings in the present scenario have irregular configurations both in plan and elevation. This in future may subject to devastating earthquakes. So it is necessary to analyze the structure. The present paper is made to study three type of irregularity wiz vertical, mass and plan irregularity as per clause 7.1 of IS 1893 (part1)2002 code. The paper discusses the analysis of RC (Reinforced Concrete) Buildings with vertical irregularity. The study as a whole makes an effort to evaluate the effect of vertical irregularity on RC buildings for which comparison of three parameters namely shear force, bending moment and deflection are taken into account.

  12. Virtual RC Damping of LCL-Filtered Voltage Source Converters with Extended Selective Harmonic Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Active damping and harmonic compensation are two common challenges faced by LCL-filtered voltage source converters. To manage them holistically, this paper begins by proposing a virtual RC damper in parallel with the passive filter capacitor. The virtual damper is actively inserted by feeding back...... the passive capacitor current through a high-pass filter, which indirectly, furnishes two superior features. They are the mitigation of phase lag experienced by a conventional damper and the avoidance of instability caused by the negative resistance inserted unintentionally. Moreover, with the virtual RC...

  13. The snap-back effect of an RC-IGBT and its simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenliang; Tian Xiaoli; Zhu Yangjun; Tan Jingfei

    2013-01-01

    The RC-IGBT (reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor) is a new kind of power semiconductor device which has many advantages such as smaller chip size, higher power density, lower manufacturing cost, softer turn off behavior, and better reliability. However, its performance has a number of drawbacks, such as the snap-back effect. In this paper, an introduction about the snap-back effect of the RC-IGBT is given firstly. Then the physical explanations are presented with two simplified models. After that, some numerical simulations are carried out to verify the correctness of the models. (semiconductor devices)

  14. NoRC Recruitment by H2A.X Deposition at rRNA Gene Promoter Limits Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Eleuteri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs display an abbreviated cell cycle, resulting in a short doubling time and rapid proliferation. The histone variant H2A.X is critical for proliferation of stem cells, although mechanistic insights have remained obscure. Here, we show that H2A.X defines the rate of mouse ESC proliferation independently of the DNA damage response pathway, and it associates with three major chromatin-modifying complexes. Our functional and biochemical analyses demonstrate that H2A.X-associated factors mediate the H2A.X-dependent effect on ESC proliferation and involve the nucleolar remodeling complex (NoRC. A specific H2A.X deposition at rDNA promoters determines the chromatin recruitment of the NoRC, histone modifications, the rRNA transcription, and the rate of proliferation. Collectively, our results suggest that NoRC assembly by H2A.X deposition at rRNA promoters silences transcription, and this represents an important regulatory component for ESC proliferation. : Histone variant H2A.X defines the rate of embryonic stem cell proliferation. Eleuteri et al. identify H2A.X-interacting proteins, and they show that H2A.X deposition at rDNA promoters assembles the NoRC, which represses rRNA transcription and determines the rate of self-renewal. Keywords: ribosomal biogenesis, rRNA, rDNA, stem cells, TIP5, SNF2H, SPT16, BRG1, H2A.X, G1, cell cycle, cell cycle arrest, proliferation

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...

  16. Experimental investigation on full scale RC beam-column joint of NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thandavamoorthy, T.S.; Lakshmanan, N.; Reddy, G.R.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) structures in India are constructed using reinforced concrete. The beam-column joint in these structures are critical sub-assemblages because they ensure continuity of a structure and transfer forces from one element to another. Under seismic excitation, the beam-column joint region is subjected to horizontal and vertical shear forces whose magnitudes are typically many times higher than those within the adjacent beams and columns. In view of the increased incidence of seismicity in the country, the safety of these structures against earthquake loading assumes greater significance. There is a growing need to look into the seismic safety aspect of existing RC frame type structures in NPPs, which have been designed as per codes prevalent at the time of their construction. Seismic performance of such joints has not been studied extensively in India. Therefore experimental testing of full scale joint identical to those available in the existing NPP structures, was carried out to study its behaviour and evaluate its capacity. The size of the beam of the joint was 2000 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm and column 2915 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm. The percentage reinforcement of the beam was 4.95 and column 1.5. Such full scale and heavily reinforced concrete joint was cast successfully in the laboratory and tested under monotonic loading. The paper presents a complete description of the experimental testing, observations made during testing as for cracking, deflection and rotation of joint, discussion of results obtained, etc. Conclusions drawn from the investigation are also presented. (author)

  17. BUTREN-RC an hybrid system for the recharges optimization of nuclear fuels in a BWR; BUTREN-RC un sistema hibrido para la optimizacion de recargas de combustible nuclear en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Castillo M, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The obtained results with the hybrid system BUTREN-RC are presented that obtains recharges of nuclear fuel for a BWR type reactor. The system has implemented the methods of optimization heuristic taboo search and neural networks. The optimization it carried out with the technique of taboo search, and the neural networks, previously trained, were used to predict the behavior of the recharges of fuel, in substitution of commercial codes of reactor simulation. The obtained recharges of nuclear fuel correspond to 5 different operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, Veracruz in Mexico. The obtained results were compared with the designs of this cycles. The energy gain with the recharges of fuel proposals is of approximately 4.5% with respect to those of design. The time of compute consumed it was considerably smaller that when a commercial code for reactor simulation is used. (Author)

  18. The Effects of Reinforcing Intermediate Elementary Students to Constructively Use Free Time for Vocational Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Thomas W.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of operant conditioning procedures in stimulating intermediate elementary students to constructively utilize free time for pursuing occupational information. (RC)

  19. Four-dimensional dose distributions of step-and-shoot IMRT delivered with real-time tumor tracking for patients with irregular breathing: Constant dose rate vs dose rate regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaocheng; Han-Oh, Sarah; Gui Minzhi; Niu Ying; Yu, Cedric X.; Yi Byongyong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dose-rate-regulated tracking (DRRT) is a tumor tracking strategy that programs the MLC to track the tumor under regular breathing and adapts to breathing irregularities during delivery using dose rate regulation. Constant-dose-rate tracking (CDRT) is a strategy that dynamically repositions the beam to account for intrafractional 3D target motion according to real-time information of target location obtained from an independent position monitoring system. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the differences in the effectiveness and delivery accuracy between these two tracking methods in the presence of breathing irregularities. Methods: Step-and-shoot IMRT plans optimized at a reference phase were extended to remaining phases to generate 10-phased 4D-IMRT plans using segment aperture morphing (SAM) algorithm, where both tumor displacement and deformation were considered. A SAM-based 4D plan has been demonstrated to provide better plan quality than plans not considering target deformation. However, delivering such a plan requires preprogramming of the MLC aperture sequence. Deliveries of the 4D plans using DRRT and CDRT tracking approaches were simulated assuming the breathing period is either shorter or longer than the planning day, for 4 IMRT cases: two lung and two pancreatic cases with maximum GTV centroid motion greater than 1 cm were selected. In DRRT, dose rate was regulated to speed up or slow down delivery as needed such that each planned segment is delivered at the planned breathing phase. In CDRT, MLC is separately controlled to follow the tumor motion, but dose rate was kept constant. In addition to breathing period change, effect of breathing amplitude variation on target and critical tissue dose distribution is also evaluated. Results: Delivery of preprogrammed 4D plans by the CDRT method resulted in an average of 5% increase in target dose and noticeable increase in organs at risk (OAR) dose when patient breathing is either 10% faster or

  20. Effects of the reduction of the hydraulic retention time to 1.5 days at constant organic loading in CSTR, ASBR, and fixed-bed reactors – Performance and methanogenic community composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Ziganshin, Ayrat M.; Nikolausz, Marcell; Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Pröter, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic retention time (HRT) is one of the key parameters in biogas processes and often it is postulated that a minimum HRT of 10–25 days is obligatory in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) to prevent a washout of slow growing methanogens. In this study the effects of the reduction of the HRT from 6 to 1.5 days on performance and methanogenic community composition in different systems with and without immobilization operated with simulated thin stillage (STS) at mesophilic conditions and constant organic loading rates (OLR) of 10 g L −1 d −1 of volatile solids were investigated. With the reduction of the HRT process instability was first observed in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) (at HRT of 3 days) followed by the CSTR (at HRT of 2 days). The fixed bed reactor (FBR) was stable until the end of the experiment, but the reduction of the HRT to 1.5 days caused a decrease of the specific biogas production to about 450 L kg −1 of VS compared to about 600 L kg −1 of VS at HRTs of 4–5 days. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera under stable process conditions in the CSTR and the ASBR and members of Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were only present at HRT of 4 days and lower. In the effluent of the FBR Methanosarcina spp. were not detected and Methanosaeta spp. were more abundant then in the other reactors. - Highlights: • A CSTR was operated at high OLR of 10 (g L −1  d −1  VS) and low HRT of 3 days. • Exceeding washout of methanogenic archaea did not take place. • pH and nutrient concentrations influenced the reproduction rate more than HRT. • Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera in the CSTR

  1. Generation of equivalent forms of operational trans-conductance amplifier-RC sinusoidal oscillators: the nullor approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Senani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown in two earlier papers published from this study that corresponding to a given single-operational trans-conductance amplifier (single-OTA-RC and dual-OTA-RC sinusoidal oscillators, there are three other structurally distinct equivalent forms having the same characteristic equation, one of which employs both grounded capacitors (GC. In this study, an earlier nullor-based theory of generating equivalent op-amp oscillator circuits, proposed by the first author, is extended to derive equivalent OTA-RC circuits which discloses the existence of an additional number of equivalent forms for the same given OTA-RC oscillators than those predicted by the quoted earlier works, and thereby considerably enlarging the set of equivalents of a given OTA-RC oscillator. Furthermore, the presented nullor-based theory of generating equivalent OTA-RC oscillators results in three additional interesting outcomes: (i the revelation that corresponding to any given OTA-RC oscillator there are two ‘both-GC’ oscillators (and not merely one, as derived in the quoted earlier works; (ii the availability of explicit current outputs in several of the derived equivalents and (iii the realisability explicit-current-output ‘quadrature oscillators’ in some of the generated equivalent oscillators. The workability of the generated equivalent OTA-RC oscillators has been verified by SPICE simulations, based on CMOS OTAs using 0.18 µm CMOS technology process parameters, and some sample results are given.

  2. Isolation and molecular characterization of RcSERK1: A Rosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase; SP, signal peptide; SPP, .... primers used for detecting RcSERK1 gene expression were: for- .... and mainly in the PLBs but weak in the callus and rhi- ... Transformed cells in the bright light (A and E), in the dark for cell nucleuses stained with DAPI (B and F),.

  3. Experimental study on behavior of RC panels covered with steel plates subjected to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Hashimoto; Katsuki Takiguchi; Koshiro Nishimura; Kazuyuki Matsuzawa; Mayuko Tsutsui; Yasuhiro Ohashi; Isao Kojima; Haruhiko Torita

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on the behavior of concrete panels with steel plate subjected to missile impact. Two tests were carried out, divided in accordance with the types of projectile, non-deformable and deformable. In all, 40 specimens of 750 mm square were prepared. The panel specimen was suspended vertically by two steel wire ropes to allow free movement after projectile impact, and was subjected to a projectile. As a result, it is confirmed that a RC panel with steel plate on its back side has higher impact resistance performance than a RC panel and that thickness of concrete panel, thickness of steel plate and the impact velocity of the projectile have a great effect on the failure modes of steel concrete panels. Moreover, based on the experimental results, the quantitative evaluation method for impact resistance performance of RC panels covered with steel plates is examined. The formula for perforation velocity of a half steel concrete panel, proposed in accordance with the bulging height, is effective to evaluate the impact resistance performance of RC panels with steel plates. (authors)

  4. Numerical study on shear resisting mechanism for corroded RC box culverts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Iwamori, Akiyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of reinforcing steel corrosion on the shear resisting mechanism of RC box culverts and the applicability of the material degradation model in a finite element method. First, in FEM analyses, loss of reinforcement section area and initial tension strain due to reinforcement corrosion, and deteriorated bond characteristics between reinforcement and concrete, were considered. Second, cyclic loading tests using full-scale corroded specimens were numerically analyzed. The analyzed crack patterns and load-displacement relationships up to the maximum load were observed to be in close agreement with the experiment results within the average corrosion ratio of 10% of primary reinforcement. The fact that corrosion cracks can importantly affect the progression of shear cracks and shear strength of RC beams was also found. On the other hand, we established that RC box culverts being statically indeterminate structures, sectional forces are redistributed after cracking damage, and local material deterioration has a minor effect on shear capacity. Furthermore, a parametric study was carried out for corroded RC box culverts using parameters such as size, steel corrosion location, and corrosion level. (author)

  5. Strut and tie modeling for RC short beams with corroded stirrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed K. El-Sayed

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is one of the major problems that shorten the service life of reinforced concrete (RC structures. Steel stirrups, due to their location as an outer reinforcement, are more susceptible to corrosion problems and damage. However, there is limited research work in the literature on the effects of stirrup corrosion on the shear strength of RC beams. This paper attempts to evaluate analytically the residual shear strength of RC short beams with corrosion-damaged stirrups. The shear strength of short or deep beams are generally determined using the strut and tie model. The corrosion effects were implemented in the model to make it capable of predicting the residual shear capacity of RC beams with corroded stirrups. The effect of corrosion is implemented considering the reduction in geometry of the concrete cross section due to spalling and reduction in effective compressive strength of concrete due to corrosion cracks. The proposed strut and tie model which accounts for the corrosion effects was verified using the experimental data available in the literature, and good agreement was found.

  6. Modelling loading and break-up of RC structure due to internal explosion of fragmenting shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Stolz, A.; Riedel, W.; Mediavilla Varas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Klotz Group (KG), an international group of experts on explosion safety, investigates the debris throw hazard associated with the accidental detonation of ammunition in reinforced concrete (RC-) structures. Experiments are combined with engineering models but also with results of advanced

  7. Modelling loading and break-up of RC structure due to internal explosion of fragmenting shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Stolz, A.; Riedel, W.; Mediavilla, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Klotz Group (KG), an mtemational group of experts on explosion safety, investigates the debris throw hazard associated with the accidental detonation of ammunition in reinforced concrete (RC-) structures. Experiments are combined with engineering models but also with results of advanced

  8. KOMBINASI ALGORITMA AES, RC4 DAN ELGAMAL DALAM SKEMA HYBRID UNTUK KEAMANAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Widarma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak — Pengiriman atau pertukaran data adalah hal yang sering terjadi dalam dunia teknologi informasi. Data yang dikirim kadang sering berisi data informasi yang penting bahkan sangat rahasia dan harus dijaga keamanannya. Untuk menjaga keamanan data, dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik kriptografi. Algoritma AES dan RC4 adalah salah satu dari algoritma simetri. Kelemahan dari algoritma simetri adalah proses enkripsi dan dekripsi menggunakan kunci yang sama. Untuk mengatasi tersebut dilakukan dengan menggunakan algoritma Elgamal. Algoritma Elgamal adalah termasuk algoritma asimetri. Algoritma Elgamal  digunakan untuk mengamankan kunci dari algoritma AES dan RC4. Peningkatan keamanan pesan dan kunci dilakukan dengan algoritma hybrid. Algoritma hybrid dengan mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma baik algoritma simetri maupun algortima asimetri akan menambah keamanan sehingga menjadi lebih aman dan powerful (Jain & Agrawal 2014. Penelitian ini akan dilakukan metode hybrid yaitu mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma kriptografi dengan menggunakan algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan RC4 untuk kerahasiaan data serta algoritma Elgamal digunakan untuk enkripsi dan dekripsi kunci. Kata Kunci :  kriptograpi, algoritma AES, RC4, Elgamal, hybrid

  9. The values of the parameters of some multilayer distributed RC null networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, L. P.; Raghunath, S.

    1974-01-01

    In this correspondence, the values of the parameters of some multilayer distributed RC notch networks are determined, and the usually accepted values are shown to be in error. The magnitude of the error is illustrated by graphs of the frequency response of the networks.

  10. GENERACIÓN DE POLINOMIOS DE SCHUBERT CON COCOA II: GRAFOS RC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Novoa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El polinomio de Schubert asociado a una permutación w es codificado por medio de la información contenida en ciertos grafos rc. Presentamos un programa para el cómputo de los polinomios de Schubert por medio de movimientos definidos sobre estos grafos.

  11. Pitting corrosion and structural reliability of corroding RC structures: Experimental data and probabilistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Mark G.; Al-Harthy, Ali

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic analysis is developed to assess the temporal and spatial variability of pitting corrosion on the reliability of corroding reinforced concrete (RC) structures. The structure considered herein is a singly reinforced RC beam with Y16 or Y27 reinforcing bars. Experimental data obtained from corrosion tests are used to characterise the probability distribution of pit depth. The RC beam is discretised into a series of small elements and maximum pit depths are generated for each reinforcing steel bar in each element. The loss of cross-sectional area, reduction in yield strength and reduction in flexural resistance are then inferred. The analysis considers various member spans, loading ratios, bar diameters and numbers of bars in a given cross-section, and moment diagrams. It was found that the maximum corrosion loss in a reinforcing bar conditional on beam collapse was no more than 16%. The probabilities of failure considering spatial variability of pitting corrosion were up to 200% higher than probabilities of failure obtained from a non-spatial analysis after 50 years of corrosion. This shows the importance of considering spatial variability in a structural reliability analysis for deteriorating structures, particularly for corroding RC beams in flexure

  12. Susceptibility of the MMPI-2 Clinical, Restructured Clinical (RC), and Content Scales to Overreporting and Underreporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Graham, John R.; Arbisi, Paul A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined and compared the susceptibility of three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale sets (Clinical, Restructured Clinical [RC], and Content) to over- and underreporting using five analog samples. Two samples of 85 and 191 undergraduate students, respectively, took the MMPI-2 under underreporting versus…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…

  14. RC Beams Strengthened with Mechanically Fastened Composites: Experimental Results and Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Martinelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanically-fastened fiber-reinforced polymer (MF-FRP systems has recently emerged as a competitive solution for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC beams and slabs. An overview of the experimental research has proven the effectiveness and the potentiality of the MF-FRP technique which is particularly suitable for emergency repairs or when the speed of installation and immediacy of use are imperative. A finite-element (FE model has been recently developed by the authors with the aim to simulate the behavior of RC beams strengthened in bending by MF-FRP laminates; such a model has also been validated by using a wide experimental database collected from the literature. By following the previous study, the FE model and the assembled database are considered herein with the aim of better exploring the influence of some specific aspects on the structural response of MF-FRP strengthened members, such as the bearing stress-slip relationship assumed for the FRP-concrete interface, the stress-strain law considered for reinforcing steel rebars and the cracking process in RC members resulting in the well-known tension stiffening effect. The considerations drawn from this study will be useful to researchers for the calibration of criteria and design rules for strengthening RC beams through MF-FRP laminates.

  15. Impact response of RC rock-shed girder with sand cushion under falling load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir; Kishi, Norimitsu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → An applicability of FE model of RC girders with sand cushion has been investigated. → Experimental and numerical results of Impact force, reaction force and displacement have been performed. → Cracks obtained from numerical models are in good agreement with the experimental ones. → Reaction force-displacement loops agree well between numerical and experimental results. → The configuration of the hysteretic loop at failure of RC girders can be approximated by a parallelogram. - Abstract: In order to establish a proper finite element model of prototype RC girder with sand element for impact response analysis, dynamic response analysis of RC girders with sand cushion subjected to impact force due to weight falling from the height of H = 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 m was performed to improve the state of the art of protective design for real scale rock-sheds by using LS-DYNA code. An applicability of proposed model was discussed comparing with experimental results (e.g. impact force, reaction force and displacement waves). From this study, dynamic characteristics of impact response can be better simulated by using the proposed model. As a result, when the sand cushion was set up, the impact force, reaction force, mid-span displacement waves, distribution of reaction force-displacement loops, and crack patterns obtained from the numerical analysis are in good agreement with those from the experimental results.

  16. Identification Report: Earthquake Test on 2-Bay, 6-Story Scale 1:5 RC-Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The aim of the present report is to supply the identification results from the tests performed with a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay scale 1:5 RC-frame at Aalborg University, Denmark during the autumn 1996. The tests were performed as a part of a Ph.D study considering evaluation of ...

  17. Power Efficient Gigabit Communication Over Capacitively Driven RC-Limited On-Chip Interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Schinkel, Daniel; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—This paper presents a set of circuit techniques to achieve high data rate point-to-point communication over long on-chip RC-limited wire-pairs. The ideal line termination impedances for a flat transfer function with linear phase (pure delay) are derived, using an s-parameter wire-pair

  18. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azim Shukri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels.

  19. Problems and their solutions in practical application of Eurocodes in seismic design of RC structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milev Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to present practical application of Eurocodes in the field of RC structures design. The selected examples represent the main problems in practical application of Eurocodes for seismic analysis and design of RC Structures in Bulgarian construction practice. The analysis is focused on some structural and economic problems as well as on some contradictions in Eurocode 8 itself. Special attention is paid to the practical solution of the following problems: recognition of torsionally flexible systems, stiffness reduction of RC elements for linear analysis dimensions and detailing of confined boundary areas of shear walls, detailing of wall structures, etc. Those problems appear during the practical design of some buildings in Bulgaria. Several proposals for solving some problems defined in the paper are presented through some practical examples. Some conclusions are made for further application of Eurocode 8 in the design and construction practice. The importance of some rules and procedures in Eurocode 8 is supported by the examples of damaged RC members during the past earthquakes. The problems of Eurocode 8 and their solutions are illustrated through the experience of Bulgarian construction practice.

  20. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  1. In RC buildings, the vertical and horizontal members (ie, the beams ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 4. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction - 18. How do Beams in RC Buildings Resist Earthquakes? C V R Murty. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 4 April 2005 pp 87-90 ...

  2. The negative differential resistance characteristics of an RC-IGBT and its equivalent circuit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenliang; Zhu Yangjun; Tian Xiaoli; Lu Shuojin

    2014-01-01

    A simple equivalent circuit model is proposed according to the device structure of reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistors (RC-IGBT). Mathematical derivation and circuit simulations indicate that this model can explain the snap-back effect (including primary snap-back effect, secondary snap-back effect, and reverse snap-back effect) and hysteresis effect perfectly. (semiconductor devices)

  3. Study on shear strengthening of RC continuous T-beams using different layers of CFRP strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alferjani, M. B. S.; Samad, A. A. Abdul; Mohamad, Noridah [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Elrawaff, Blkasem S.; Elzaroug, Omer [Faculty of Civil Engineering Omar Al Mukhtar University, Bayda, Libya, Africa (Libya)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are externally bonded to reinforced concrete (RC) members to provide additional strength such as flexural, shear, etc. However, this paper presents the results of an experimental investigation for enhancing the shear capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) continuous T- beams using different layers of CFRP wrapping schemes. A total of three concrete beams were tested and various sheet configurations and layouts were studied to determine their effects on ultimate shear strength and shear capacity of the beams. One beam was kept as control beams, while other beams were strengthened with externally bonded CFRP strips with three side bonding and one or two layers of CFRP strips. From the test results, it was found that all schemes were found to be effective in enhancing the shear strength of RC beams. It was observed that the strength increases with the number of sheet layers provided the most effective strengthening for RC continuous T- beam. Beam strengthened using this scheme showed 23.21% increase in shear capacity as compared to the control beam. Two prediction models available in literature were used for computing the contribution of CFRP strips and compared with the experimental results.

  4. Shear Strengthening of RC Beams Using Sprayed Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohamad Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of externally bonded sprayed glass fiber reinforced polymer (Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening of RC beams under quasi-static loading is investigated. Different techniques were utilized to enhance the bond between concrete and Sprayed GFRP, involving the use of through bolts and nuts paired with concrete surface preparation through sandblasting and through the use of a pneumatic chisel prior to Sprayed GFRP application. It was found that roughening the concrete surface using a pneumatic chisel and using through bolts and nuts were the most effective techniques. Also, Sprayed GFRP applied on 3 sides (U-shaped was found to be more effective than 2-sided Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening. Sprayed GFRP increased the shear load-carrying capacity and energy absorption capacities of RC beams. It was found that the load-carrying capacity of strengthened RC beams was related to an effective strain of applied Sprayed GFRP. This strain was related to Sprayed GFRP configuration and the technique used to enhance the concrete-FRP bond. Finally, an equation was proposed to calculate the contribution of Sprayed GFRP in the shear strength of an RC beam.

  5. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Ahmad Azim; Darain, Kh Mahfuz Ud; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2015-07-08

    Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM) technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels.

  6. Damage Localization of Severely Damaged RC-Structures Based on Measured Eigenperiods from a Single Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the estimation of the damage location of severely damaged Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures excited by earthquakes. It is assumed that the building is instrumented with a sensor measuring the earthquake acceleration signal at ground surface and a sensor measuring only...

  7. LaRC Modeling of Ozone Formation in San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, F.; Griffin, R. J.; Bui, A.; Schulze, B.; Wallace, H. W., IV; Flynn, J. H., III; Erickson, M.; Kotsakis, A.; Alvarez, S. L.; Usenko, S.; Sheesley, R. J.; Yoon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most important trace species within the troposphere and results from photochemistry involving emissions from a complex array of sources. Ground-level O3 is detrimental to ecosystems and causes a variety of human health problems including respiratory irritation, asthma and reduction in lung capacity. However, the O3 Design Value in San Antonio, Texas, was in violation of the federal threshold set by the EPA (70 ppb, 8-hr max) based on the average for the most recent three-year period (2014-2016). To understand the sources of high O3 concentrations in this nonattainment area, we assembled and deployed a mobile air quality laboratory and operated it in two locations in the southeast (Traveler's World RV Park) and northwest (University of Texas at San Antonio) of downtown San Antonio during summer 2017 to measure O3 and its precursors, including total nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Additional measurements included temperature, relative humidity, pressure, solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction, total reactive nitrogen (NOy), carbon monoxide (CO), and aerosol composition and concentration. We will use the campaign data and the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Zero-Dimensional Box Model (Crawford et al., 1999; Olson et al., 2006) to calculate O3 production rate, NOx and hydroxyl radical chain length, and NOx versus VOCs sensitivity at different times of a day with different photochemical and meteorological conditions. A key to our understanding is to combine model results with measurements of precursor gases, particle chemistry and particle size to support the identification of O3 sources, its major formation pathways, and how the ozone production efficiency (OPE) depends on various factors. The resulting understanding of the causes of high O3 concentrations in the San Antonio area will provide insight into future air quality protection.

  8. Study of RC method on reclamation project in the uranium mine (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Masaru; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Sato, Kazuhiko; Koga, Osamu

    2008-12-01

    To obtain public understanding on the uranium mining sites reclamation at Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, it is necessary to conduct appropriate Risk Communication (RC). In this study, to discuss the appropriate Risk communication method on the uranium mining sites reclamation, comparative investigation of risk communication cases which concern the siting of solid waste management facilities and nuclear facilities, and questionnaire survey on the risk perception of landfill were conducted. As a result of comparative investigation, information disclosure and the information supplement are important factor to obtain public trust on the siting plan and developer (government and company). However, it is necessary not only to offer information but also to foster information literacy at the same time. In the cases of best practice on consensus-building toward siting of facilities, there was suggestion that is importance to set up the public participation opportunity at an early planning stage to avoid adversary relationship between stakeholders. As assumption of the public participation, it is necessary the safety assurance of the siting plan and regional development plan cover a long period. As a result of questionnaire survey. It was shown that the almost people worried about health and the environmental impact of radioactive waste; moreover, there are a lot of ratios of the peoples who felt a dangerous and scary sensuously. Public trust on government was very low, Over 60 percent does not trust 'countermeasures at the accident' and nearly 70 percent does not trust the information disclosure at the accident'. 'Questions concern on public trust: countermeasures at the accident, information disclosure at the accident, environmental standard, and environmental technology show significant correlation with risk perception of landfill site. (author)

  9. Comparison of the rate constants for energy transfer in the light-harvesting protein, C-phycocyanin, calculated from Foerster`s theory and experimentally measured by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debreczeny, Martin Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    We have measured and assigned rate constants for energy transfer between chromophores in the light-harvesting protein C-phycocyanin (PC), in the monomeric and trimeric aggregation states, isolated from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. In order to compare the measured rate constants with those predicted by Fdrster`s theory of inductive resonance in the weak coupling limit, we have experimentally resolved several properties of the three chromophore types ({beta}{sub 155} {alpha}{sub 84}, {beta}{sub 84}) found in PC monomers, including absorption and fluorescence spectra, extinction coefficients, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore, was, useful in effecting the resolution of the chromophore properties and in assigning the experimentally observed rate constants for energy transfer to specific pathways.

  10. Shear Strengthening of RC Deep Beam Using Externally Bonded GFRP Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, A.; Patel, S. S.; Nayak, A. N.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the experimental investigation of RC deep beams wrapped with externally bonded Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) fabrics in order to study the Load versus deflection behavior, cracking pattern, failure modes and ultimate shear strength. A total number of five deep beams have been casted, which is designed with conventional steel reinforcement as per IS: 456 (Indian standard plain and reinforced concrete—code for practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2000). The spans to depth ratio for all RC deep beams have been kept less than 2 as per the above specification. Out of five RC deep beams, one without retrofitting serves as a reference beam and the rest four have been wrapped with GFRP fabrics in multiple layers and tested with two point loading condition. The first cracking load, ultimate load and the shear contribution of GFRP to the deep beams have been observed. A critical discussion is made with respect to the enhancement of the strength, behaviour and performance of retrofitted deep beams in comparison to the deep beam without GFRP in order to explore the potential use of GFRP for strengthening the RC deep beams. Test results have demonstrated that the deep beams retrofitted with GFRP shows a slower development of the diagonal cracks and improves shear carrying capacity of the RC deep beam. A comparative study of the experimental results with the theoretical ones predicted by various researchers available in the literatures has also been presented. It is observed that the ultimate load of the beams retrofitted with GFRP fabrics increases with increase of number of GFRP layers up to a specific number of layers, i.e. 3 layers, beyond which it decreases.

  11. Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ning; Bousso, Raphael; Jordan, Stephen; Lackey, Brad

    2017-11-01

    Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of a problem that is hard for the complexity class NP (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time). The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable Universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in some parameter regimes the average-case complexity is polynomial. We demonstrate this by explicitly finding a cosmological constant of order 10-120 in a randomly generated 1 09-dimensional Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Kachru landscape.

  12. The Nature of the Cosmological Constant Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M. D.; Capistrano, A. J. S.; Monte, E. M.

    General relativity postulates the Minkowski space-time as the standard (flat) geometry against which we compare all curved space-times and also as the gravitational ground state where particles, quantum fields and their vacua are defined. On the other hand, experimental evidences tell that there exists a non-zero cosmological constant, which implies in a deSitter ground state, which not compatible with the assumed Minkowski structure. Such inconsistency is an evidence of the missing standard of curvature in Riemann's geometry, which in general relativity manifests itself in the form of the cosmological constant problem. We show how the lack of a curvature standard in Riemann's geometry can be fixed by Nash's theorem on metric perturbations. The resulting higher dimensional gravitational theory is more general than general relativity, similar to brane-world gravity, but where the propagation of the gravitational field along the extra dimensions is a mathematical necessity, rather than a postulate. After a brief introduction to Nash's theorem, we show that the vacuum energy density must remain confined to four-dimensional space-times, but the cosmological constant resulting from the contracted Bianchi identity represents a gravitational term which is not confined. In this case, the comparison between the vacuum energy and the cosmological constant in general relativity does not make sense. Instead, the geometrical fix provided by Nash's theorem suggests that the vacuum energy density contributes to the perturbations of the gravitational field.

  13. Simulated annealing with constant thermodynamic speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, P.; Ruppeiner, G.; Liao, L.; Pedersen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Arguments are presented to the effect that the optimal annealing schedule for simulated annealing proceeds with constant thermodynamic speed, i.e., with dT/dt = -(v T)/(ε-√C), where T is the temperature, ε- is the relaxation time, C ist the heat capacity, t is the time, and v is the thermodynamic speed. Experimental results consistent with this conjecture are presented from simulated annealing on graph partitioning problems. (orig.)

  14. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nez, F.

    2005-06-01

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  15. Capillary transport of water through textile-reinforced concrete applied in repairing and/or strengthening cracked RC structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieboldt, M.; Mechtcherine, V.

    2013-01-01

    The use of textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) has great potential for innovative solutions in repairing, protecting, and strengthening concrete and RC structures. The article at hand reports on an investigation on composite concrete specimens made of cracked ordinary concrete as substrate and textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) as a cover layer for its strengthening and repair. The TRC cover layer was assessed with regard to its effectiveness as a protective layer against the ingress of water through capillary action. Since in real applications such TRC layers may be cracked or presumed to be so, thereby activating the load-carrying function of the textile reinforcement, the TRC layer was cracked for purposes of this study. The water transport in the cracked ordinary concrete specimens without the TRC layer was used as a reference. Gravimetric measurements and neutron radiography served as the testing techniques. In ordinary concrete quick and deep ingress of water through relatively wide macro-cracks of approximately 100 μm width, followed by transport through the capillary pore system, caused saturation of large areas in a rather short time. TRC applied to the RC surface reduced the ingress of water to a large extent. Its small crack widths of 15 to 20 μm changed suction behaviour fundamentally. In the cracked substrate of ordinary concrete, capillary suction was prevented, and transport through the pore system of the matrix became the prevailing transport mechanism of capillary action. Not only was the mechanism altered, but the transport of water deep into inner regions was markedly retarded as well

  16. Explanation of the Rb-Rc discrepancy using new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, G.; Branco, G.C.; Hou, W.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental values of R b and R c are the only data which do not seem to agree with standard model predictions. Although it is still premature to draw any definite conclusions, it is timely to look for new physics which could explain the excess in R b and deficit in R c . We investigate this problem in a simple extension of the standard model, where a charge +2/3 isosinglet quark is added to the standard spectrum. Upon the further introduction of an extra scalar doublet, one finds a solution with interesting consequences. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology; De la constante de Rydberg a la metrologie des constantes fondamentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez, F

    2005-06-15

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  18. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  19. Numerical prediction of fire resistance of RC beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serega, Szymon; Wosatko, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Fire resistance of different structural members is an important issue of their strength and durability. A simple but effective tool to investigate multi-span reinforced concrete beams exposed to fire is discussed in the paper. Assumptions and simplifications of the theory as well as numerical aspects are briefly reviewed. Two steps of nonlinear finite element analysis and two levels of observation are distinguished. The first step is the solution of transient heat transfer problem in representative two-dimensional reinforced concrete cross-section of a beam. The second part is a nonlinear mechanical analysis of the whole beam. All spans are uniformly loaded, but an additional time-dependent thermal load due to fire acts on selected ones. Global changes of curvature and bending moment functions induce deterioration of the stiffness. Benchmarks are shown to confirm the correctness of the model.

  20. Mouse RC/BTB2, a Member of the RCC1 Superfamily, Localizes to Spermatid Acrosomal Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuening; Nagarkatti-Gude, David R.; Hess, Rex A.; Henderson, Scott C.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Zhang, Zhibing

    2012-01-01

    Mouse RC/BTB2 is an unstudied protein of the RCC1 (Regulator of Chromosome Condensation) superfamily. Because of the significant remodeling of chromatin that occurs during spermiogenesis, we characterized the expression and localization of mouse RC/BTB2 in the testis and male germ cells. The Rc/btb2 gene yields two major transcripts: 2.3 kb Rc/btb2-s, present in most somatic tissues examined; and 2.5 kb Rc/btb2-t, which contains a unique non-translated exon in its 5′-UTR that is only detected in the testis. During the first wave of spermatogenesis, Rc/btb2-t mRNA is expressed from day 8 after birth, reaching highest levels of expression at day 30 after birth. The full-length protein contains three RCC1 domains in the N-terminus, and a BTB domain in the C-terminus. In the testis, the protein is detectable from day 12, but is progressively up-regulated to day 30 and day 42 after birth. In spermatids, some of the protein co-localizes with acrosomal markers sp56 and peanut lectin, indicating that it is an acrosomal protein. A GFP-tagged RCC1 domain is present throughout the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells. However, both GFP-tagged, full-length RC/BTB2 and a GFP-tagged BTB domain localize to vesicles in close proximity to the nuclear membrane, suggesting that the BTB domain might play a role in mediating full-length RC/BTB2 localization. Since RCC1 domains associate with Ran, a small GTPase that regulates molecular trafficking, it is possible that RC/BTB2 plays a role in transporting proteins during acrosome formation. PMID:22768142

  1. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  2. High resistance (up to 1014 ohms) measurement using RC networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Valeriu

    2008-01-01

    An application of dynamic measuring techniques of resistances from 10 6 to 10 14 ohms is described. The method has been analyzed with an eye to measuring accuracy, other influences of the actual measuring circuit also being considered. In conclusion, an automatic measuring method with A/D conversion, automatic range selection, and digital output in semilogarithmic form is outlined. It has been experimentally verified that the dynamic method of resistance measurement can be used for testing insulation resistance of materials and resistors. The great advantage of the automatic measuring circuit is that, apart from an easy automatic selection of the measuring range, digital output in semilogarithmic form ensures compatibility with digital computer systems and facilitates the grading in resistor manufacture. The time required for measuring resistances of the known order of magnitude does not exceed 1 s. Automatic selection of the order of magnitude speeds up the measurement of unknown resistances. For resistance measurement over the range of 10 6 to 10 14 ohms, the measuring accuracy of 1 to 2% is usually sufficient. The meter can be designed as an inexpensive attachment to a conventional counter. The principle of integration measurement avoids undesirable interference effects with which the conventional measuring methods are afflicted. Since the measuring voltage can be adjusted continuously, even the voltage dependence of resistance can be measured

  3. Flexural repair/strengthening of pre-damaged R.C. beams using embedded CFRP rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa M. Morsy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many reinforced concrete R.C. elements need either strengthening due to the need of increasing the service loads or repair due to overloading stress or environmental deterioration affecting these elements. In this paper an experimental program is presented to investigate the effect of using embedded CFRP rod as NSM reinforcement for strengthening/repairing R.C. beams pre-damaged by loading to different loading levels and comparing the results to those of non-preloaded beams. A total of five beams were cast and six beams were tested under four point loading. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of providing one 12 mm diameter CFRP rod in addition to the existing steel reinforcement. Three beams were tested to failure directly without any preloading, whereas the other three beams were firstly subjected to preloading to different load levels. Following that these three beams were strengthened and were tested up to failure.

  4. Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.B.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Venugopal, V.

    2011-01-01

    A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

  5. Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, M B; Ramakumar, K L; Venugopal, V [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-01

    A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

  6. Development of Shear Capacity Prediction Model for FRP-RC Beam without Web Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Arman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Available codes and models generally use partially modified shear design equation, developed earlier for steel reinforced concrete, for predicting the shear capacity of FRP-RC members. Consequently, calculated shear capacity shows under- or overestimation. Furthermore, in most models some affecting parameters of shear strength are overlooked. In this study, a new and simplified shear capacity prediction model is proposed considering all the parameters. A large database containing 157 experimental results of FRP-RC beams without shear reinforcement is assembled from the published literature. A parametric study is then performed to verify the accuracy of the proposed model. Again, a comprehensive review of 9 codes and 12 available models is done, published back from 1997 to date for comparison with the proposed model. Hence, it is observed that the proposed equation shows overall optimized performance compared to all the codes and models within the range of used experimental dataset.

  7. The response of an RC line MWPC to primary cosmic rays. [Multi-Wire Proportional Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. C.; Selig, W. J.; Austin, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simple 50 x 50 sq cm MWPC plane was arranged as an RC-line and flown on a balloon flight with the MSFC-UAH Cosmic Ray experiment. Positions of primary cosmic ray tracks in the RC-line were determined by the risetime method and compared with the expected position as indicated by a best line fitted through four planes of the conventional MWPC hodoscope. Mean errors were estimated for sea-level muons, and CNO group and iron group particles. It is believed that the delta-rays accompanying the primaries degraded the position resolution. Measured standard deviations allowing for uncertainty in the true track position are of the order of 1 cm or less in the primary charge region between 7 and 26.

  8. Behavior of Insulated Carbon-FRP-Strengthened RC Beams Exposed to Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, B.

    2014-09-01

    There are two main approaches to improving the fire resistance of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) systems. While the most common method is to protect or insulate the FRP system, an other way is to use fibers and resins with a better fire performance. This paper presents a numerical investigation into the five protection behavior of insulated carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP)-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The effects of external loading and thermal expansion of materials at elevated temperatures are taken into consideration in a finite-element model. The validity of the numerical model is demonstrated with results from an existing experimental study on insulated CFRP-strengthened RC beams. Conclusions of this investigation are employed to predict the structural behavior of CFRP-strengthened concrete structures.

  9. RC structures strengthened by metal shear panels: experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Matteis, G.; Formisano, A.; Mazzolani, F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Metal shear panels (MSPs) may be effectively used as a lateral load resisting system for framed structures. In the present paper, such a technique is applied for the seismic protection of existing RC buildings, by setting up a specific design procedure, which has been developed on the basis of preliminary full-scale experimental tests. The obtained results allowed the development of both simplified and advanced numerical models of both the upgraded structure and the applied shear panels. Also, the proposed design methodology, which is framed in the performance base design philosophy, has been implemented for the structural upgrading of a real Greek existing multi-storey RC building. The results of the numerical analysis confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed technique, also emphasising the efficiency of the implemented design methodology

  10. Flexural Behavior of RC Slabs Strengthened in Flexure with Basalt Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugyu Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both experimental and analytical research results for predicting the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with basalt fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM. A total of 13 specimens were fabricated to evaluate the flexural behavior of RC slabs strengthened with basalt FRCM composite and were tested under four-point loading. The fiber type, tensile reinforcement ratio, and the number of fabric layers were chosen as experimental variables. The maximum load of FRCM-strengthened specimens increased from 11.2% to 98.2% relative to the reference specimens. The energy ratio and ductility of the FRCM-strengthened specimens decreased with the higher amount of fabric and tensile reinforcement. The effective stress level of FRCM fabric can be accurately predicted by a bond strength of ACI 549 and Jung’s model.

  11. Universal relation between spectroscopic constants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) The author has used eq. (6) of his paper to calculate De. This relation leads to a large deviation from the correct value depending upon the extent to which experimental values are known. Guided by this fact, in our work, we used experimentally observed De values to derive the relation between spectroscopic constants.

  12. Homogenized global nonlinear constitutive model for RC panels under cyclic loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, Miquel; Voldoire, Francois; Kotronis, Panagiotis; Erlicher, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    A new nonlinear stress resultant global constitutive model for RC panels is presented. Concrete damage, concrete stress transfer at cracks and bond-slip stress are the main nonlinear effects identified at the local scale that constitute the basis for the construction of the stress resultant global model through an analytical homogenization technique. The closed form solution is obtained using general functions for the previous phenomena. (authors)

  13. Hysteretic MDOF Model to Quantify Damage for RC Shear Frames Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, Ahmet S.

    A hysteretic mechanical formulation is derived to quantify local, modal and overall damage in reinforced concrete (RC) shear frames subject to seismic excitation. Each interstorey is represented by a Clough and Johnston (1966) hysteretic constitutive relation with degrading elastic fraction of th...... shear frame is subject to simulated earthquake excitations, which are modelled as a stationary Gaussian stochastic process with Kanai-Tajimi spectrum, multiplied by an envelope function. The relationship between local, modal and overall damage indices is investigated statistically....

  14. ENEA TRIGA RC-1 reactor activities in the fields of nuclear medicine and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, Gianni; Festinesi, Armando; Palomba, Mario; Rosa, Roberto; Rossi, Gabriela; Sangiovanni, Gino; Santoro, Emilio; Sedda, Antioco Franco; Storelli, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    In the last three years, TRIGA RC-1 plant staff is involved in collaborations with some roman hospitals for the production of particular radioisotopes for the diagnosis and therapy in the field of human cancer. Further, the thermal column of TRIGA reactor has been prepared for neutron radiography and tomography. For another channel, instruments and equipment above neutron radiography and tomography are in preparation phase. This paper includes an overview of the experimental equipment properly developed by TRIGA staff. (authors)

  15. RC2S: a cognitive remediation program to improve social cognition in schizophrenia and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie ePEYROUX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind, attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (Cognitive Remediation of Social Cognition in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual-reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with

  16. Sustainable RC Beam-Column Connections with Headed Bars: A Formula for Shear Strength Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Tung Tran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam-column joints are critical regions for reinforced concrete (RC frames subjected to earthquakes. The steel reinforcement is, in general, highly concentrated in these zones. This is why in many cases, headed bars are used. A headed bar is a longitudinal steel reinforcement whose end has a special button added to reduce the bonding length of the steel rebar. This paper establishes a formula predicting the shear strength of exterior RC beam-column connections where the beam longitudinal reinforcements use headed bars. A database was collected, which contained 30 experimental data about the exterior beam-column joints using headed bars and subjected to quasi-static cyclic loading. First, from the collected database, a statistical study was carried out to identify the most influencing parameters on the shear strength of the beam-column joints tested. The three most important parameters were identified and an empirical modified formula was developed based on the formula existing in the standards. The study showed that the results obtained from the modified formula proposed in the present study were closer to the experimental results than that obtained from the formula existing in the standards. Finally, a numerical study was performed on two T-form RC structures and the numerical results were compared with the prediction calculated from the modified formula proposed. For two investigated cases, the proposed formula provided the results in the safety side and the differences with the numerical results were less than 20%. Thus, the proposed formula can be used for a rapid assessment of the shear strength of RC joints using headed bars.

  17. Loads experiments study on two-story RC box and truncated conical walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asega, H.; Iizuka, S.; Kurihara, I.; Kubo, T.

    1987-01-01

    The failure modes of the two specimens were the sliding shear failure. The two specimens showed almost equal deformation at the maximum shear strength. The ratio of the flexural deformation in the deformation of the truncated conical was larger than that of the box wall. The ratio of the shear deformation in the deformation of the two-story RC box wall was larger than that of the flexural deformation. (orig./HP)

  18. Comparative Analysis of Existing RC Columns Jacketed with CFRP or FRCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Del Zoppo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC columns typical of existing structures often exhibit premature failures during seismic events (i.e., longitudinal bars buckling and shear interaction mechanisms due to the poor quality concrete and the absence of proper seismic details in the potential plastic hinge region. The Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP externally bonded reinforcement is known to be a valid technique to improve the shear capacity or the ductility of existing RC columns. However, few experimental tests have proven its effectiveness in the case of columns affected by shear interaction mechanisms. In this work, the behavior of existing RC columns with border line behavior between flexure and shear have been investigated in the case of poor quality concrete and light FRP strengthening with local jacketing and medium quality concrete and strong FRP strengthening with local jacketing, in order to highlight the effect of concrete strength on the effectiveness of the retrofit intervention. As an alternative to FRP jacketing; the effectiveness of the Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite (FRCC jacketing for the seismic strengthening of columns with highly deteriorated concrete cover or columns already damaged by an earthquake is also evaluated. Six full-scale RC columns have been tested under cyclic loading: one was used as a control specimen; four were strengthened in the potential plastic hinge region with carbon FRP (CFRP; and one was fully jacketed with FRCC. The comparison between poor and medium quality concrete columns showed that the CFRP local jacketing is more effective in the case of poor quality concrete. The FRCC jacketing appears to be a sound repair strategy and a suitable alternative to the FRP jacketing in case of poor quality; however, more experimental research is needed for improving this retrofit technique.

  19. A three-layer distributed RC network with two transmission zeros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the properties of a three-layer distributed RC network consisting of two resistive layers separated by a dielectric which may be used to realize two zeros of transmission on the j-omega axis of the complex frequency plane. The relative location of the two zeros is controlled by the location of a contact placed on one of the resistive layers.

  20. Risk Quantification for Sustaining Coastal Military Installation Asset and Mission Capabilities (RC-1701)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-06

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Risk Quantification for Sustaining Coastal Military Installation Asset and Mission Capabilities (RC-1701) 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) wind model TC96 (Thompson and Cardone 1996), 2) Surge has been simulated using the ADvanced CIRCulation model ADCIRC...coefficient, and h is the depth of the PBL (Thompson and Cardone 1996). The cyclone pressure is defined by an axisymmetrical exponential pressure or by

  1. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients' functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient's goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters' mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders.

  2. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders

  3. A hybrid Rankine cycle (HyRC) with ambient pressure combustion (APC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lijun; Thimsen, David; Clements, Bruce; Zheng, Ligang; Pomalis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The main losses in thermal power generation include heat in exhaust flue gas, heat rejected through steam condensation of low-pressure turbine, and exergy destruction in heat exchange process etc. To the extent that the heat losses are significantly greater in temperature than either air or water coolant resources, these losses also represent exergy losses which might be exploited to improve plant capacity and efficiency. This paper presents a hybrid Rankine cycle (HyRC) with an ambient pressure combustion (APC) boiler to address the recovery potential of these losses within the steam Rankine cycle (SRC). The APC–HyRC concept employs an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to supplement SRC and to reduce cycle energy losses to the atmosphere since organic fluids are capable of lowering cycle condensation temperature when a very low temperature heat sink is available. The case studies based on a 399 MW SRC unit show that the APC–HyRC configurations have better thermodynamic performance than its base case SRC at a cycle condensation temperature of 30 °C and below. The best APC–HyRC configuration generates up to 14% more power than the baseline steam cycle which is a 5.45% increase in overall gross efficiency with a cycle condensation temperature at 4 °C. - Highlights: • A hybrid Rankine cycle with water and organic fluid is presented. • Heat losses in exhaust flue gas and exhaust steam are reduced. • Exergy losses in regeneration process are reduced. • Efficiency improvements are made to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. • Issues in design/construction of greenfield and repowering project are discussed

  4. Constant displacement rate testing at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, J.J.; Gonyea, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A short time test has been developed which is capable of determining the long time notch sensitivity tendencies of CrMoV rotor forging materials. This test is based on Constant Displacement Rate (CDR) testing of a specific notch bar specimen at 1200 0 F at 2 mils/in/hour displacement rate. These data were correlated to conventional smooth and notch bar rupture behavior for a series of CrMoV materials with varying long time ductility tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the details of this new test procedure and some of the relevant mechanics of material information generated during its development

  5. Impact of Cyclic Loading on Chloride Diffusivity and Mechanical Performance of RC Beams under Seawater Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of cyclic loading on the mechanical performance and chloride diffusivity of RC beams exposed to seawater wet-dry cycles. To induce initial damage to RC beam specimen, cyclic loading controlled by max load and cycles was applied. Then beam specimens underwent 240 wet-dry cycles of seawater. Results show that the chloride content increased as max load and cycle increased. The chloride content at steel surface increased approximatively linearly as average crack width increased. Moreover, the max load had more influence on chloride content at steel surface than cycle. The difference of average chloride diffusion coefficient between tension and compression concrete was little at uncracked position. Average chloride diffusion coefficient increased as crack width increased when crack width was less than 0.11 mm whereas the increasing tendency was weak when crack width exceeded 0.11 mm. The residual yield load and ultimate load of RC beams decreased as max load and cycle increased. Based on univariate analysis of variance, the max load had more adverse effect on yield load and ultimate load than cycle.

  6. Evaluation of Structural Robustness against Column Loss: Methodology and Application to RC Frame Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A; Noh, Sam-Young

    2017-08-01

    A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness.

  7. A new NASA LaRC Multi-Purpose Prepregging Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Dixon, D.; Johnston, N. J.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-purpose prepregging machine has been designed and built for NASA Langley Research Center. The machine has numerous advantages over existing units due to its various modular components. Each of these can be used individually or simultaneously depending on the required prepregging method. A reverse roll coater provides the ability to prepare thin films from typical hot-melt thermoset formulations. Also, if necessary, the design allows direct fiber impregnation within the reverse roll coater gap. Included in the impregnation module is a solution dip tank allowing the fabrication of thermoplastic prepregs from solution. The proceeding modules within the unit consist of four nip stations, two hot-plates, a hot-sled option and a high temperature oven. This paper describes the advantages of such a modular construction and discusses the various processing combinations available to the prepregger. A variety of high performance prepreg material systems were produced on IM7 (Hercules) carbon fiber. These included LaRC RP46, a PMR-type resin processed from methanol and two polyamide acids, LaRC IA and LaRC ITPI, prpregged from N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). Parameters involved in the production of these prepreg materials are presented as are the mechanical properties of the resulting good quality laminates. A brief introduction into the existing prepregging science is presented. Topics relating to solution prepregging are identified with a focus on the current research effort and its future development.

  8. Friction correction for model ship resistance and propulsion tests in ice at NRC's OCRE-RC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lau

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the result of a preliminary analysis on the influence of hull-ice friction coefficient on model resistance and power predictions and their correlation to full-scale measurements. The study is based on previous model-scale/full-scale correlations performed on the National Research Council - Ocean, Coastal, and River Engineering Research Center's (NRC/OCRE-RC model test data. There are two objectives for the current study: (1 to validate NRC/OCRE-RC's modeling standards in regarding to its practice of specifying a CFC (Correlation Friction Coefficient of 0.05 for all its ship models; and (2 to develop a correction methodology for its resistance and propulsion predictions when the model is prepared with an ice friction coefficient slightly deviated from the CFC of 0.05. The mean CFC of 0.056 and 0.050 for perfect correlation as computed from the resistance and power analysis, respectively, have justified NRC/OCRE-RC's selection of 0.05 for the CFC of all its models. Furthermore, a procedure for minor friction corrections is developed. Keywords: Model test, Ice resistance, Power, Friction correction, Correlation friction coefficient

  9. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  10. The IL-17F/IL-17RC Axis Promotes Respiratory Allergy in the Proximal Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Luca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin 17 (IL-17 cytokine and receptor family is central to antimicrobial resistance and inflammation in the lung. Mice lacking IL-17A, IL-17F, or the IL-17RA subunit were compared with wild-type mice for susceptibility to airway inflammation in models of infection and allergy. Signaling through IL-17RA was required for efficient microbial clearance and prevention of allergy; in the absence of IL-17RA, signaling through IL-17RC on epithelial cells, predominantly by IL-17F, significantly exacerbated lower airway Aspergillus or Pseudomonas infection and allergic airway inflammation. In contrast, following infection with the upper respiratory pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, the IL-17F/IL-17RC axis mediated protection. Thus, IL-17A and IL-17F exert distinct biological effects during pulmonary infection; the IL-17F/IL-17RC signaling axis has the potential to significantly worsen pathogen-associated inflammation of the lower respiratory tract in particular, and should be investigated further as a therapeutic target for treating pathological inflammation in the lung.

  11. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value.

  12. nRC: non-coding RNA Classifier based on structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiannaca, Antonino; La Rosa, Massimo; La Paglia, Laura; Rizzo, Riccardo; Urso, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) are small non-coding sequences involved in gene expression regulation of many biological processes and diseases. The recent discovery of a large set of different ncRNAs with biologically relevant roles has opened the way to develop methods able to discriminate between the different ncRNA classes. Moreover, the lack of knowledge about the complete mechanisms in regulative processes, together with the development of high-throughput technologies, has required the help of bioinformatics tools in addressing biologists and clinicians with a deeper comprehension of the functional roles of ncRNAs. In this work, we introduce a new ncRNA classification tool, nRC (non-coding RNA Classifier). Our approach is based on features extraction from the ncRNA secondary structure together with a supervised classification algorithm implementing a deep learning architecture based on convolutional neural networks. We tested our approach for the classification of 13 different ncRNA classes. We obtained classification scores, using the most common statistical measures. In particular, we reach an accuracy and sensitivity score of about 74%. The proposed method outperforms other similar classification methods based on secondary structure features and machine learning algorithms, including the RNAcon tool that, to date, is the reference classifier. nRC tool is freely available as a docker image at https://hub.docker.com/r/tblab/nrc/. The source code of nRC tool is also available at https://github.com/IcarPA-TBlab/nrc.

  13. Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability of Steel and RC Moment Buildings Using HAZUS and Statistical Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mansouri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Designer engineers have always the serious challenge regarding the choice of the kind of structures to use in the areas with significant seismic activities. Development of fragility curve provides an opportunity for designers to select a structure that will have the least fragility. This paper presents an investigation into the seismic vulnerability of both steel and reinforced concrete (RC moment frames using fragility curves obtained by HAZUS and statistical methodologies. Fragility curves are employed for several probability parameters. Fragility curves are used to assess several probability parameters. Furthermore, it examines whether the probability of the exceedence of the damage limit state is reduced as expected. Nonlinear dynamic analyses of five-, eight-, and twelve-story frames are carried out using Perform 3D. The definition of damage states is based on the descriptions provided by HAZUS, which gives the limit states and the associated interstory drift limits for structures. The fragility curves show that the HAZUS procedure reduces probability of damage, and this reduction is higher for RC frames. Generally, the RC frames have higher fragility compared to steel frames.

  14. FRP-RC Beam in Shear: Mechanical Model and Assessment Procedure for Pseudo-Ductile Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Petrone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a mechanics-based shear model for reinforced concrete (RC elements strengthened in shear with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP and a design/assessment procedure capable of predicting the failure sequence of resisting elements: the yielding of existing transverse steel ties and the debonding of FRP sheets/strips, while checking the corresponding compressive stress in concrete. The research aims at the definition of an accurate capacity equation, consistent with the requirement of the pseudo-ductile shear behavior of structural elements, that is, transverse steel ties yield before FRP debonding and concrete crushing. For the purpose of validating the proposed model, an extended parametric study and a comparison against experimental results have been conducted: it is proven that the common accepted rule of assuming the shear capacity of RC members strengthened in shear with FRP as the sum of the maximum contribution of both FRP and stirrups can lead to an unsafe overestimation of the shear capacity. This issue has been pointed out by some authors, when comparing experimental shear capacity values with the theoretical ones, but without giving a convincing explanation of that. In this sense, the proposed model represents also a valid instrument to better understand the mechanical behavior of FRP-RC beams in shear and to calculate their actual shear capacity.

  15. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  16. Investigation of the fittest shear transfer model used to FEM analysis of RC structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tatumi; Aoyagi, Masao; Endo, Takao

    1988-01-01

    In order to rationalize the design method of reinforced concrete (RC) structures in the nuclear power plant, the structural analysis, which is able to simulate the seismic behavior of RC structures, should be established. In this report, the investigation of shear transfer model at shear plane to be applied to FEM analysis is performed. Main conclusions obtained within the limit of the study are as follows. 1. Development of the shear transfer model at shear plane. 1) Two shear transfer models are developed to be used to the 2-dimensional nonlinear FEM analysis. 2) In one model suggested, reinforcements are modeled by plate elements and the nonlinearity of concrete surrounding reinforcement but the properties of bond-slip relation between concrete and reinforcements is also considered. 3) In another model, reinforcements are modeled by equivalent concrete properties, in which axial regidity and dowel effects of reinforcements are considered. 2. Verification of the suggested model. 1) It is confirmed that the computational results using the above-mentioned model could simulate the experimental ones fairly well. 2) Considering the application to the analysis of RC structures in the design, the model, in which reinforcement are modeled by equivalent concrete properties, is useful in view point of accuracy and simplicity. (author)

  17. Interfacial stresses in damaged RC beams strengthened with externally bonded CFRP plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benrahou, K.H.; Adda bedia, E.A.; Benyoucef, S.; Tounsi, A.; Benguediab, M.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical method to predict the interfacial stresses in the adhesive layer of damaged reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate is presented. The adopted model is developed including the adherend shear deformations by assuming a linear shear stress through the depth of the RC beam [A. Tounsi, Int. J. Solids Struct., in press], while all existing solutions neglect this effect [e.g. S. Benyoucef, A. Tounsi, S.A. Meftah, E.A. Adda Bedia, Compos. Interfaces, in press; S.T. Smith, J.G. Teng, Eng. Struct. 23 (7) (2001) 857-871; T.M. Roberts, Struct. Eng. 67 (12) (1989) 229-233; A. Tounsi, S. Benyoucef, Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., in press; T. Stratford, J. Cadei, Construct. Building Mater. 20 (2006) 34-35]. In addition, in the present study the anisotropic damage model is adopted to describe the damage of the RC beams. It is shown that the damage has a significant effect on the interfacial stresses in FRP-damaged RC beam

  18. Pros and cons of multistory RC tunnel-form (box-type) buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Yuksel, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Tunnel-form structural systems (i.e., box systems), having a load-carrying mechanism composed of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls and slabs only, have been prevailingly utilized in the construction of multistory residential units. The superiority of tunnel-form buildings over their conventional counterparts stems from the enhanced earthquake resistance they provide, and the considerable speed and economy of their construction. During recent earthquakes in Turkey, they exhibited better seismic performance in contrast to the damaged condition of a number of RC frames and dual systems (i.e., RC frames with shear wall configurations). Thus the tunnel-form system has become a primary construction technique in many seismically active regions. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of tunnel-form buildings are addressed in terms of design considerations and construction applications. The impacts of shear wall reinforcement ratio and its detailing on system ductility, loadcarrying capacity and failure mechanism under seismic forces are evaluated at section and global system levels. Influences of tension/compression coupling and wall openings on the response are also discussed. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models, verified through comparisons with experimental results, were used for numerical assessments. Findings from this projection provide useful information on adequate vertical reinforcement ratio and boundary reinforcement to achieve enhanced performance of tunnel-form buildings under seismic actions. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Summary of LaRC 2-inch Erectable Joint Hardware Heritage Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    As the National Space Transportation System (STS, also known as the Space Shuttle) went into service during the early 1980's, NASA envisioned many missions of exploration and discovery that could take advantage of the STS capabilities. These missions included: large orbiting space stations, large space science telescopes and large spacecraft for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. The missions required structures that were significantly larger than the payload volume available on the STS. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) conducted studies to design and develop the technology needed to assemble the large space structures in orbit. LaRC focused on technology for erectable truss structures, in particular, the joint that connects the truss struts at the truss nodes. When the NASA research in large erectable space structures ended in the early 1990's, a significant amount of structural testing had been performed on the LaRC 2-inch erectable joint that was never published. An extensive set of historical information and data has been reviewed and the joint structural testing results from this historical data are compiled and summarized in this report.

  20. Cosmological Constant and the Final Anthropic Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cirkovic, Milan M.; Bostrom, Nick

    1999-01-01

    The influence of recent detections of a finite vacuum energy ("cosmological constant") on our formulation of anthropic conjectures, particularly the so-called Final Anthropic Principle is investigated. It is shown that non-zero vacuum energy implies the onset of a quasi-exponential expansion of our causally connected domain ("the universe") at some point in the future, a stage similar to the inflationary expansion at the very beginning of time. The transition to this future inflationary phase...

  1. Temperature dependence of grain boundary free energy and elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foiles, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the suggestion that the temperature dependence of the grain boundary free energy can be estimated from the temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The temperature-dependent elastic constants and free energy of a symmetric Σ79 tilt boundary are computed for an embedded atom method model of Ni. The grain boundary free energy scales with the product of the shear modulus times the lattice constant for temperatures up to about 0.75 the melting temperature.

  2. Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

  3. Calculation of magnetic hyperfine constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufaical, R.F.; Maffeo, B.; Brandi, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine constants of the V sub(K) center in CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 have been calculated assuming a phenomenological model, based on the F 2 - 'central molucule', to describe the wavefunction of the defect. Calculations have shown that introduction of a small degree of covalence, between this central molecule and neighboring ions, is necessary to improve the electronic structure description of the defect. It was also shown that the results for the hyperfine constants are strongly dependent on the relaxations of the ions neighboring the central molecule; these relaxations have been determined by fitting the experimental data. The present results are compared with other previous calculations where similar and different theoretical methods have been used

  4. Photodissociation constant of NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nootebos, M.A.; Bange, P.

    1992-01-01

    The velocity of the dissociation of NO 2 into ozone and NO mainly depends on the ultraviolet sunlight quantity, and with that the cloudiness. A correct value for this reaction constant is important for the accurate modelling of O 3 - and NO 2 -concentrations in plumes of electric power plants, in particular in the case of determination of the amount of photochemical summer smog. An advanced signal processing method (deconvolution, correlation) was applied on the measurements. The measurements were carried out from aeroplanes

  5. Effect of Chlorides on Conductivity and Dielectric Constant in Hardened Cement Mortar: NDT for Durability Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric constant and conductivity, the so-called EM properties (electromagnetic, are widely adopted for NDT (Nondestructive Technique in order to detect damage or evaluate performance of concrete without damage to existing RC (reinforced concrete. Among deteriorating agents, chloride ion is considered as one of the most critical threats due to rapid penetration and direct effect on steel corrosion. In the work, cement mortar samples with 3 w/c (water-to-cement ratios and 4 levels of chloride addition are considered. Conductivity and dielectric constant are measured in the normal frequency range. They increase with strength of mortar and more chloride ions due to denser pore formation. Furthermore, the behaviors of measured EM property are investigated with carbonation velocity and strength, which shows an attempt of application to durability evaluation through EM measurement.

  6. Loss Characteristics of 6.5 kV RC-IGBT Applied to a Traction Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjin Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 6.5 kV level IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor modules are widely applied in megawatt locomotive (MCUs traction converters, to achieve an upper 3.5 kV DC link, which is beneficial for decreasing power losses and increasing the power density. Reverse Conducting IGBT (RC-IGBT constructs the conventional IGBT function and freewheel diode function in a single chip, which has a greater flow ability in the same package volume. In the same cooling conditions, RC-IGBT allows for a higher operating temperature. In this paper, a mathematic model is developed, referring to the datasheets and measurement data, to study the 6.5 kV/1000 A RC-IGBT switching features. The relationship among the gate desaturated pulse, conducting losses, and recovery losses is discussed. Simulations and tests were carried out to consider the influence of total losses on the different amplitudes and durations of the desaturated pulse. The RC-IGBT traction converter system with gate pulse desaturated control is built, and the simulation and measurements show that the total losses of RC-IGBT with desaturated control decreased comparing to the RC-IGBT without desaturated control or conventional IGBT. Finally, a proportional small power platform is developed, and the test results prove the correction of the theory analysis.

  7. Quantum black holes and Planck's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the Planck-scale black holes of quantum gravity must obey a consistency condition relating Planck's constant to the integral of the mass of the black holes over time, if the usual path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is to make sense on physical spacetime. It is also shown, using time-dependent perturbation theory in ordinary quantum mechanics, that a massless particle will not propagate on physical spacetime with the black holes present unless the same condition is met. (author)

  8. Varying constants, black holes, and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tentative observations and theoretical considerations have recently led to renewed interest in models of fundamental physics in which certain 'constants' vary in time. Assuming fixed black hole mass and the standard form of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Davies, Davis and Lineweaver have argued that the laws of black hole thermodynamics disfavor models in which the fundamental electric charge e changes. I show that with these assumptions, similar considerations severely constrain 'varying speed of light' models, unless we are prepared to abandon cherished assumptions about quantum gravity. Relaxation of these assumptions permits sensible theories of quantum gravity with ''varying constants,'' but also eliminates the thermodynamic constraints, though the black hole mass spectrum may still provide some restrictions on the range of allowable models

  9. GRUCAL, a computer program for calculating macroscopic group constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, D.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy averaged nuclear data to describe the interaction of neutrons with individual isotopes in material compositions of reactor zones. The code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but will be read at the actual execution time from a separate instruction file. This allows to accomodate GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts. (orig.) [de

  10. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  11. Low power constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Raut, S.M.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low power ultrafast constant fraction discriminator, which significantly reduces the power consumption. A conventional fast discriminator consumes about 1250 MW of power whereas this low power version consumes about 440 MW. In a multi detector system, where the number of discriminators is very large, reduction of power is of utmost importance. This low power discriminator is being designed for GRACE (Gamma Ray Atmospheric Cerenkov Experiments) telescope where 1000 channels of discriminators are required. A novel method of decreasing power consumption has been described. (author)

  12. Can coupling constants be related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan; Ng, Wing-Chiu.

    1978-06-01

    We analyze the conditions under which several coupling constants in field theory can be related to each other. When the relation is independent of the renormalization point, the relation between any g and g' must satisfy a differential equation as follows from the renormalization group equations. Using this differential equation, we investigate the criteria for the feasibility of a power-series relation for various theories, especially the Weinberg-Salam type (including Higgs bosons) with an arbitrary number of quark and lepton flavors. (orig./WL) [de

  13. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  14. Hydrodynamic constants from cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2008-01-01

    We study a gravity dual of Bjorken flow of N=4 SYM-theory plasma. We point out that the cosmic censorship hypothesis may explain why the regularity of the dual geometry constrains the hydrodynamic constants. We also investigate the apparent horizon of the dual geometry. We find that the dual geometry constructed on Fefferman-Graham (FG) coordinates is not appropriate for examination of the apparent horizon since the coordinates do not cover the trapped region. However, the preliminary analysis on FG coordinates suggests that the location of the apparent horizon is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic parameters. (author)

  15. The calcium-dependent protein kinase RcCDPK2 phosphorylates sucrose synthase at Ser11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Gerdis, Suzanne A; Ying, Sheng; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2016-10-15

    Imported sucrose is cleaved by sucrose synthase (SUS) as a critical initial reaction in the biosynthesis of storage end-products by developing seeds. Although SUS is phosphorylated at a conserved seryl residue by an apparent CDPK (Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase) in diverse plant tissues, the functions and mechanistic details of this process remain obscure. Thus, the native CDPK that phosphorylates RcSUS1 (Ricinus communis SUS1) at Ser 11 in developing COS (castor oil seeds) was highly purified and identified as RcCDPK2 by MS/MS. Purified RcSUS1-K (-kinase) and heterologously expressed RcCDPK2 catalyzed Ca 2+ -dependent Ser 11 phosphorylation of RcSUS1 and its corresponding dephosphopeptide, while exhibiting a high affinity for free Ca 2+ ions [K 0.5 (Ca 2+ ) < 0.4 µM]. RcSUS1-K activity, RcCDPK2 expression, and RcSUS1 Ser 11 phosphorylation peaked during early COS development and then declined in parallel. The elimination of sucrose import via fruit excision triggered RcSUS1 dephosphorylation but did not alter RcSUS1-K activity, suggesting a link between sucrose signaling and posttranslational RcCDPK2 control. Both RcCDPK2-mCherry and RcSUS1-EYFP co-localized throughout the cytosol when transiently co-expressed in tobacco suspension cells, although RcCDPK2-mCherry was also partially localized to the nucleus. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ∼20% of RcSUS1-K activity associates with microsomal membranes in developing COS, as does RcSUS1. In contrast with RcCDPK1, which catalyzes inhibitory phosphorylation of COS bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser 451 , RcCDPK2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, a wide pH-activity profile centered at pH 8.5, and insensitivity to metabolite effectors or thiol redox status. Our combined results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca 2+ -signaling and the control of photosynthate partitioning during COS development. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the

  16. Lepton Collider Operation with Constant Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Wienands, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, electron-positron colliders have been operating in a top-off-and-coast fashion with a cycle time depending on the beam life time, typically on the order of an hour. Each top-off involves ramping detector systems in addition to the actual filling time. The loss in accumulated luminosity is typically 20-50%. During the last year, both B-Factories have commissioned a continuous-injection mode of operation in which beam is injected without ramping the detector, thus raising luminosity integration by constant operation at peak luminosity. Constant beam currents reduce thermal drift and trips caused by change in beam loading. To achieve this level of operation, special efforts were made to reduce the injection losses and also to implement special gating procedures in the detectors, minimizing dead time. Bunch-injection control decides which bunch to inject into next while maintaining small charge variation between bunches. Beam collimation can reduce injection noise but also cause an increase in back...

  17. Lepton Collider Operation With Constant Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.

    2006-01-01

    Electron-positron colliders have been operating in a top-up-and-coast fashion with a cycle time depending on the beam life time, typically one or more hours. Each top-up involves ramping detector systems in addition to the actual filling time. The loss in accumulated luminosity may be 20-50%. During the last year, both B-Factories have commissioned a continuous-injection mode of operation in which beam is injected without ramping the detector, thus raising luminosity integration by always operating at peak luminosity. Constant beam currents also reduce thermal drift and trips caused by change in beam loading. To achieve this level of operation, special efforts were made to reduce the injection losses and also to implement gating procedures in the detectors, minimizing dead time. Beam collimation can reduce injection noise but also cause an increase in background rates. A challenge can be determining beam lifetime, important to maintain tuning of the beams

  18. RC-3095, a Selective Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist, Does Not Protect the Lungs in an Experimental Model of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Oliveira-Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RC-3095, a selective GRPR antagonist, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in different models of inflammation. However, its protective effect on lungs submitted to lung ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been addressed before. Then, we administrated RC-3095 intravenously before and after lung reperfusion using an animal model of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI by clamping the pulmonary hilum. Twenty Wistar rats were subjected to an experimental model in four groups: SHAM, ischemia-reperfusion (IR, RC-Pre, and RC-Post. The final mean arterial pressure significantly decreased in IR and RC-Pre compared to their values before reperfusion (P<0.001. The RC-Post group showed significant decrease of partial pressure of arterial oxygen at the end of the observation when compared to baseline (P=0.005. Caspase-9 activity was significantly higher in the RC-Post as compared to the other groups (P<0.013. No significant differences were observed in eNOS activity among the groups. The groups RC-Pre and RC-Post did not show any significant decrease in IL-1β (P=0.159 and TNF-α (P=0.260, as compared to IR. The histological score showed no significant differences among the groups. In conclusion, RC-3095 does not demonstrate a protective effect in our LIRI model. Additionally, its use after reperfusion seems to potentiate cell damage, stimulating apoptosis.

  19. Design issues and cost implications of RTO/RC-ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, C.; Antipenkov, A.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Heidl, H.; Janeschitz, G.; Martin, E.; Tivey, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the conceptual divertor design developed for the reduced technical objectives/reduced cost-international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC-ITER). The cost drivers are discussed and a number of cost-reducing measures identified. Scaled costs, based on industrial estimates of the 1998 ITER design (Technical Basis for the ITER Final Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis (FDR). ITER EDA Documentation Series No. 16. IAEA, Vienna, 1998), give for the RTO/RC-ITER ∼60% of the FDR costs. Plasma facing components (PFCs) account for 75% of the total divertor costs. Hence, PFC design simplifications are outlined in the paper showing the possibility of achieving a cost reduction of 50%. The design proposals, outlined in the paper, focus on minimising the number of sub-components and simplifying the manufacturing cycle. These changes contribute to improved reliability based on a more robust coolant design layout. The reduced space allocated to the divertor (G. Janeschitz, A. Antipenkov, V. Barabash, S. Chiocchio, G. Federici, C. Ibbott, E. Martin, R. Tivey, Overview of the Divertor Design and its Integration into RTO/RC-ITER, this conference) requires changes to the design that minimise the cassette body thickness, relocate the cassette attachments and revise the remote handling philosophy. Results of supporting electro-magnetic, neutron shielding, thermo-hydraulic and pumping conductance analyses are reported, qualifying the cassette design. A reduction in the coolant inlet temperature to 100-120 deg. C is discussed in terms of thermal-hydraulic performance and fatigue life of the heat sink. Finally, an R and D plan sets out the work needed: (1) to develop the cost saving measures of the new design; and (2) to demonstrate the reliability of the chosen technologies

  20. ALGORITMA RC4 DALAM PROTEKSI TRANSMISI DAN HASIL QUERY UNTUK ORDBMS POSTGRESQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Ariyanto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research will be worked through about how cryptography RC4's algorithm implementation in protection to query result and of query, security by encryption and descryption up to both is in network. Implementation of this research which is build software in client that function access databases that is placed by the side of server. Software that building to have facility for encryption and descryption query result and of query that is sent from client goes to server and. transmission query result and of query can secure its security. Well guaranted transmission security him of query result and of query can be told to succeed if success software can encryption query result and of query which transmission so that in the event of scanning to both, scanning will not understand data content. Conclusion of this research that is woke up software succeed encryption query and result of query which transmission between application of client and of server databases. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Pada penelitian ini dibahas mengenai bagaimana mengimplementasikan algoritma kriptografi RC4 dalam proteksi terhadap query dan hasil query, pengamanan dilakukan dengan cara melakukan enkripsi dan dekripsi selama keduanya berada di dalam jaringan. Pengimplementasian dari penelitian ini yaitu membangun sebuah software yang akan diletakkan di sisi client yang berfungsi mengakses database yang diletakkan di sisi server. Software yang dibangun memiliki fasilitas untuk mengenkripsi dan mendektipsi query dan hasil query yang dikirimkan dari client ke server dan juga sebaliknya. Dengan demikian tramsmisi query dan hasil query dapat terjamin keamanannya.Terjaminnya keamanan transmisi query dan hasil query dapat dikatakan berhasil jika software berhasil mengenkripsi query dan hasil query yang ditransmisikan sehingga apabila terjadi penyadapan terhadap keduanya, penyadap tidak akan mengerti isi data tersebut. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini yaitu software yang dibangun

  1. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of RcSUS1, a Cytosolic Sucrose Synthase Phosphorylated in Vivo at Serine 11 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M.; Mullen, Robert T.; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of 32Pi from [γ-32P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes. PMID:25313400

  2. Formas estructurales de fuerza constante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewski, Waclaw

    1963-05-01

    Full Text Available The author seeks to prove the need to obtain the most essential form in the various types of structures by applying a number of rational principles, of which the constant stress principle is one of the most decisive. The structural form should be a logical consequence of all its functional circumstances, and this requires a clear understanding of the general behaviour of each part of the structure, and also of the main stresses which operate on it, considered as a unitary whole. To complete his theoretical argument, the author gives some examples, in the design of which the criterion of constant stress has been adopted. The author considers the various aspects which are involved in obtaining a structural design that satisfies given functional and aesthetic requirements. In doing so he refers to his personal experience within Poland, and infers technical principles of general validity which should determine the rational design of the form, as an integrated aspect of the structural pattern. The projects which illustrate this paper are Polish designs of undoubted constructive significance, in which the principle of constant stress has been applied. Finally the author condenses his whole theory in a simple and straightforward practical formula, which should be followed if a truly rational form is to be achieved: the constancy of stress in the various structural elements.El autor se esfuerza en mostrar la necesidad de llegar a la forma real en las distintas estructuras siguiendo una serie de principios racionales, entre los que domina el criterio de la fuerza constante. La forma ha de ser una consecuencia lógica en todos sus aspectos, y esto exige un claro conocimiento del comportamiento general de cada una de las partes de la estructura, y de los esfuerzos generales que dominan en la misma al considerarla como un todo. Para completar la exposición de orden teórico, el autor presenta algunos ejemplos en cuyo proyecto se ha seguido el criterio de

  3. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe014-A (RC-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe014-A (RC-10 was derived from a fresh oocyte voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a mixed 46XY and 47XY +12 male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  4. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe006-A (RC-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe006-A (RC-2 was derived from a frozen and thawed blastocyst voluntarily donated as surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line exhibits expression of expected pluripotency markers and in vitro differentiation potential to three germinal lineage representative cell populations. It has a male trisomy 12 karyotype (47XY, +12. Microsatellite DNA marker identity and HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  5. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe010-A (RC-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe010-A (RC-6 was derived from a frozen and thawed blastocyst voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XY male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  6. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8 was derived from a frozen and thawed day 5 embryo cultivated to the blastocyst stage. The embryo was voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  7. Overview of the divertor design and its integration into RTO/RC-ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeschitz, G.; Tivey, R.; Antipenkov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Heidl, H.; Ibbott, C.; Martin, E.

    2000-01-01

    The design of the divertor and its integration into the reduced technical objectives/reduced cost-international thermonuclear energy reactor (RTO/RC-ITER) is based on the experience gained from the 1998 design of international thermonuclear energy reactor (ITER) and on the research and development performed throughout the engineering design activities (EDA). This paper gives an overview of the layout and functional design of the RTO/RC-ITER divertor, including the integration into the machine and the remote replacement of the divertor cassettes. Design guidelines are presented which have allowed quick preparation of divertor layouts suitable for further study using the B2-EIRENE edge plasma code. As in the 1998 design, the divertor is segmented into cassettes, and the segmentation, which is three per sector, is driven by access through the divertor level ports. Maintaining this access and avoiding interference with poloidal field coils means that the divertor level ports need to be inclined (7 deg.). This opens up the possibility of incorporating inboard and outboard baffles into the divertor cassettes. The cassettes are transported in-vessel by making use of the toroidal rails onto which the cassettes are finally clamped in position. Significant reduction of the space available between the X-point and the vacuum vessel results in re-positioning of the toroidal rails in order to retain sufficient depth for the inner and outer divertor legs. This, in turn, requires some changes to the remote handling (RH) concept. Remote handling (RH) is now based on using a cantilevered articulated gripper during the radial movement of the cassettes inside the RH ports. However, the principle to use a cassette toroidal mover (CTM) for in vessel handling is unchanged, hence maintaining the validity of previous EDA research and development. The space previously left below the cassettes for RH was also used for pumping. Elimination of this space has led to re-siting of the pumping

  8. Vibration based structural assessment of the rehabilitation intervention in r.c. segmental bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Franchetti Paolo; Frizzarin Michele; Leonardi Andrea; Zeni Fabio

    2015-01-01

    A vibration based structural assessment campaign was carried out on a r.c. segmental bridge in North East Italy. The bridge has a cantilever static scheme, fixed at the top of the piers and with a hinge at the centre of the span. The particular configuration of the hinge consists in a couple of steel elements, each one composed by a tongue and groove joint. Since the year 1960, the hinge was subjected to consumption and degradation, that caused a malfunctioning of the device. An intervention ...

  9. Human geminin promotes pre-RC formation and DNA replication by stabilizing CDT1 in mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabeni, Andrea; Melixetian, Marina; Zamponi, Raffaella

    2004-01-01

    -mediated degradation by inhibiting its ubiquitination. In particular, Geminin ensures basal levels of CDT1 during S phase and its accumulation during mitosis. Consistently, inhibition of Geminin synthesis during M phase leads to impairment of pre-RC formation and DNA replication during the following cell cycle....... Moreover, we show that inhibition of CDK1 during mitosis, and not Geminin depletion, is sufficient for premature formation of pre-RCs, indicating that CDK activity is the major mitotic inhibitor of licensing in human cells. Taken together with recent data from our laboratory, our results demonstrate...

  10. A numerical design approach for single amplifier, Active-RC Butterworth filter of order 5

    OpenAIRE

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2007-01-01

    A design method is presented for the design of all pole lowpass active-RC filters applying operational amplifiers. The operational amplifier model used is the integrator model: omegat/s where omegat is the unity gain frequency. The design method is used for the design of a fifth order Butterworth filter applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. It is shown that the influence from the real operational amplifier may be reduced by trimming just one resistor in th...

  11. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS CALCULATION ON SINGLE ROTOR BLADE USING FLOEFD, ANSYS FLUENT AND RC-VTOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of computational simulation of helicopter rotor's single blade flow, for which experimental (model test data are published, are represented in this article. The calculations were made in the universal software package of CFD modeling FloEFD, which was based on the solution of averaged equations' system of Navier-Stocks, as well as in the program software RC-VTOL using the vortex method. The obtained results are compared with experimental data and modeling results in the program software ANSYS Fluent (license of TsAGI Nr. 501024. The work shows satisfactory, and in some cases good calculation data reconciliation getting with different techniques including experimental.

  12. Computing the Gromov hyperbolicity constant of a discrete metric space

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Anas

    2012-07-01

    Although it was invented by Mikhail Gromov, in 1987, to describe some family of groups[1], the notion of Gromov hyperbolicity has many applications and interpretations in different fields. It has applications in Biology, Networking, Graph Theory, and many other areas of research. The Gromov hyperbolicity constant of several families of graphs and geometric spaces has been determined. However, so far, the only known algorithm for calculating the Gromov hyperbolicity constant δ of a discrete metric space is the brute force algorithm with running time O (n4) using the four-point condition. In this thesis, we first introduce an approximation algorithm which calculates a O (log n)-approximation of the hyperbolicity constant δ, based on a layering approach, in time O(n2), where n is the number of points in the metric space. We also calculate the fixed base point hyperbolicity constant δr for a fixed point r using a (max, min)−matrix multiplication algorithm by Duan in time O(n2.688)[2]. We use this result to present a 2-approximation algorithm for calculating the hyper-bolicity constant in time O(n2.688). We also provide an exact algorithm to compute the hyperbolicity constant δ in time O(n3.688) for a discrete metric space. We then present some partial results we obtained for designing some approximation algorithms to compute the hyperbolicity constant δ.

  13. Geiger-Mueller haloid counter dead time dependence on counting rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.; Tsvetkov, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental dependences of the dead time of Geiger counters (SBM-19, SBM-20, SBM-21 and SGM-19) on the loading, are presented. The method of two sources has been used to determine the dead time counters of increased stability. The counters are switched on according to the usually used circuit of discrete counting with loading resistance of 50 MOhm and the separating capacity of 10 pF. Voltage pulses are given to the counting device with the time of resolution of 100 ns, discrimenation threshold 3 V, input resistance 3.6 Ω and the input capacity-15 pF. The time constant of the counter RC-circuit is 50 μs

  14. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  15. Can the cosmological constant undergo abrupt changes?

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Rosabal, A; Cabo, Alejandro; Garcia-Chung, Alejandro; Rosabal, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The existence of a simple spherically symmetric and static solution of the Einstein equations in the presence of a cosmological constant vanishing outside a definite value of the radial distance is investigated. A particular succession of field configurations, which are solutions of the Einstein equations in the presence of the considered cosmological term and auxiliary external sources, is constructed. Then, it is shown that the associated succession of external sources tend to zero in the sense of the generalized functions. The type of weak solution that is found becomes the deSitter homogeneous space-time for the interior region, and the Schwartzschild space in the outside zone.

  16. The Boltzmann constant from a snifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyukodi, B; Sárközi, Zs; Néda, Z; Tunyagi, A; Györke, E

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation of a small glass of ethylic alcohol is studied both experimentally and through an elementary thermal physics approach. For a cylindrical beaker and no air flow in the room, a simple quadratic relation is found between the evaporation time and the mass of evaporated liquid. This problem and the obtained results offer excellent possibilities for simple student experiments and for testing basic principles of thermal physics. As an example, we use the obtained results for estimating the value of the Boltzmann constant from evaporation experiments. (paper)

  17. Creep investigation of GFRP RC Beams - Part B: a theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masmoudi abdelmonem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study about the viscoelastic time-dependent (creep behavior of pultruded GFRP elements made of polyester and E-glass fibres. Experimental results reported in Part A are firstly used for material characterization by means of empirical and phenomenological formulations.   The superposition principles by adopting the law of creep following the Eurocode 2 recommendations are also investigated. Analytical study was also conducted including creep under constant stress; successions of increasing stress superposition principle equivalent time and the return creep reloading. The results of this study revealed that Beams reinforced with GFRP are less marked with creep phenomenon.  This investigation should guide the civil engineer/designer for a better understanding creep phenomenon in GFRP reinforced concrete members.

  18. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  19. Energy, stability and cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S.

    1982-01-01

    The definition of energy and its use in studying stability in general relativity are extended to the case when there is a nonvanishing cosmological constant Λ. Existence of energy is first demonstrated for any model (with arbitrary Λ). It is defined with respect to sets of solutions tending asymptotically to any background space possessing timelike Killing symmetry, and is both conserved and of flux integral form. When Λ O, small excitations about De Sitter space are stable inside the event horizon. Outside excitations can contribute negatively due to the Killing vector's flip at the horizon. This is a universal phenomenon associated with the possibility of Hawking radiation. Apart from this effect, the Λ>O theory appears to be stable, also at the semi-classical level. (author)

  20. Development of a hysteresis model for R/C columns subjected to bi-axial lateral loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Sekhar Chandra; Chowdhury, Rajib; Roy, Raghupati; Reddy, G. Rami

    2003-01-01

    Recent investigations on dynamic response of reinforced concrete (R/C) structures have confirmed that the R/C structural members undergo much more inelastic deformation in each of the two mutually perpendicular directions under bi-directional seismic loading, than that observed only under unidirectional ground motion. To predict the seismic response of R/C structure with fair accuracy demands, a faithful model that can incorporate the effect of biaxial bending interaction in column. This model should not have high computational demand but should adequately reflect the stiffness degrading and strength deterioration characteristics of R/C structural members. Present study is an effort to develop such a bi-directional hysteresis model accounting the effect of interaction between lateral loadings in two orthogonal directions. The development of the present model is based on the yield surface approach and it can incorporate both strength and stiffness degradation characteristics, which is unavoidable in R/C structures during cyclic loading. The performance of the proposed model/ is demonstrated through the prediction of available experimental results of a reinforced concrete column, subjected to biaxial loading. (author)