WorldWideScience

Sample records for rc beams wrapped

  1. Fatigue behavior of RC T-beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Farghal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the fatigue performance of reinforced concrete (RC T-beams strengthened in shear with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composite. Experiments were conducted on RC beams with and without CFRP sheets bonded on their web surfaces and subjected to static and cycling loading. The obtained results showed that the strengthened beams could survive one million cycles of cyclic loading (=50% of maximum static load with no apparent signs of damage (premature failure demonstrating the effectiveness of CFRP strengthening system on extending the fatigue life of structures. Also, for beams having the same geometry, the applied strengthening technique can significantly enhance the cycling load particularly, in case of beams provided with U-jacket sheets. Moreover, although the failure mode for the different beams was a brittle one, the strengthened beams provided with U-jacket sheets approved an acceptable enhancement in the structural ductility.

  2. Shear Strengthening of RC Deep Beam Using Externally Bonded GFRP Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, A.; Patel, S. S.; Nayak, A. N.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the experimental investigation of RC deep beams wrapped with externally bonded Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) fabrics in order to study the Load versus deflection behavior, cracking pattern, failure modes and ultimate shear strength. A total number of five deep beams have been casted, which is designed with conventional steel reinforcement as per IS: 456 (Indian standard plain and reinforced concrete—code for practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2000). The spans to depth ratio for all RC deep beams have been kept less than 2 as per the above specification. Out of five RC deep beams, one without retrofitting serves as a reference beam and the rest four have been wrapped with GFRP fabrics in multiple layers and tested with two point loading condition. The first cracking load, ultimate load and the shear contribution of GFRP to the deep beams have been observed. A critical discussion is made with respect to the enhancement of the strength, behaviour and performance of retrofitted deep beams in comparison to the deep beam without GFRP in order to explore the potential use of GFRP for strengthening the RC deep beams. Test results have demonstrated that the deep beams retrofitted with GFRP shows a slower development of the diagonal cracks and improves shear carrying capacity of the RC deep beam. A comparative study of the experimental results with the theoretical ones predicted by various researchers available in the literatures has also been presented. It is observed that the ultimate load of the beams retrofitted with GFRP fabrics increases with increase of number of GFRP layers up to a specific number of layers, i.e. 3 layers, beyond which it decreases.

  3. Study on shear strengthening of RC continuous T-beams using different layers of CFRP strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alferjani, M. B. S.; Samad, A. A. Abdul; Mohamad, Noridah [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Elrawaff, Blkasem S.; Elzaroug, Omer [Faculty of Civil Engineering Omar Al Mukhtar University, Bayda, Libya, Africa (Libya)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are externally bonded to reinforced concrete (RC) members to provide additional strength such as flexural, shear, etc. However, this paper presents the results of an experimental investigation for enhancing the shear capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) continuous T- beams using different layers of CFRP wrapping schemes. A total of three concrete beams were tested and various sheet configurations and layouts were studied to determine their effects on ultimate shear strength and shear capacity of the beams. One beam was kept as control beams, while other beams were strengthened with externally bonded CFRP strips with three side bonding and one or two layers of CFRP strips. From the test results, it was found that all schemes were found to be effective in enhancing the shear strength of RC beams. It was observed that the strength increases with the number of sheet layers provided the most effective strengthening for RC continuous T- beam. Beam strengthened using this scheme showed 23.21% increase in shear capacity as compared to the control beam. Two prediction models available in literature were used for computing the contribution of CFRP strips and compared with the experimental results.

  4. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  5. 3D FE Analysis of RC Beams Externally Strengthened with SRG/SRP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bencardino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate, through a nonlinear Finite Element (FE analysis, the structural behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams externally strengthened by using Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG and Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP systems. The parameters taken into account were the external strengthening configuration, with or without U-wrap end anchorages, as well as the strengthening materials. The numerical simulations were carried out by using a three-dimensional (3D FE model. The linear and nonlinear behavior of all materials was modeled by appropriate constitutive laws and the connection between concrete substrate and external reinforcing layer was simulated by means of cohesive surfaces with appropriate bond-slip laws. In order to overcome convergence difficulties, to simulate the quasi-static response of the strengthened RC beams, a dynamic approach was adopted. The numerical results in terms of load-displacement curves, failure modes, and load and strain values at critical stages were validated against some experimental data. As a result, the proposed 3D FE model can be used to predict the structural behavior up to ultimate stage of similar strengthened beams without carrying out experimental tests.

  6. RC beams shear-strengthened with fabric-reinforced-cementitious-matrix (FRCM) composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Giovanni; Babaeidarabad, Saman; Leardini, Lorenzo; Nanni, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The interest in retrofit/rehabilitation of existing concrete structures has increased due to degradation and/or introduction of more stringent design requirements. Among the externally-bonded strengthening systems fiber-reinforced polymers is the most widely known technology. Despite its effectiveness as a material system, the presence of an organic binder has some drawbacks that could be addressed by using in its place a cementitious binder as in fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) systems. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with U-wraps made of FRCM. An extensive experimental program was undertaken in order to understand and characterize this composite when used as a strengthening system. The laboratory results demonstrate the technical viability of FRCM for shear strengthening of RC beams. Based on the experimental and analytical results, FRCM increases shear strength but not proportionally to the number of fabric plies installed. On the other hand, FRCM failure modes are related with a high consistency to the amount of external reinforcement applied. Design considerations based on the algorithms proposed by ACI guidelines are also provided.

  7. Numerical model of RC beam response to corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Magdalena; Pamin, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement used to be represented by Tuutti's model with initiation and propagation phases. During the initiation phase chlorides penetrate the concrete cover and accumulate around reinforcement bars. The chloride concentration in concrete increases until it reaches a chloride threshold value, causing deterioration of the passive layer of reinforcement. Then the propagation phase begins. During the propagation phase steel has no natural anti-corrosion protection, a corrosion current flows and this induces the production of rust. A growing volume of corrosion products generates stresses in concrete, which leads to cracking, splitting, delamination and loss of strength. The mechanical response of RC elements to reinforcement corrosion has mostly been examined on the basis of a 2D cross-section analysis. However, with this approach it is not possible to represent both corrosion and static loading. In the paper a 3D finite element model of an RC beam with the two actions applied is presented. Rust is represented as an interface between steel and concrete, considering the volumetric expansion of rust.

  8. Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.

  9. Explicit expression for effective moment of inertia of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Patel

    Full Text Available AbstractDeflection is an important design parameter for structures subjected to service load. This paper provides an explicit expression for effective moment of inertia considering cracking, for uniformly distributed loaded reinforced concrete (RC beams. The proposed explicit expression can be used for rapid prediction of short-term deflection at service load. The explicit expression has been obtained from the trained neural network considering concrete cracking, tension stiffening and entire practical range of reinforcement. Three significant structural parameters have been identified that govern the change in effective moment of inertia and therefore deflection. These three parameters are chosen as inputs to train neural network. The training data sets for neural network are generated using finite element software ABAQUS. The explicit expression has been validated for a number of simply supported and continuous beams and it is shown that the predicted deflections have reasonable accuracy for practical purpose. A sensitivity analysis has been performed, which indicates substantial dependence of effective moment of inertia on the selected input parameters.

  10. Estimation methods of deformational behaviours of RC beams under the unrestrained condition at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanezu, Tsutomu; Nakano, Takehiro; Endo, Tatsumi

    1986-01-01

    The estimation methods of free deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) beams at elevated temperatures are investigated based on the concepts of ACI's and CEB/FIP's formulas, which are well used to estimate the flexural deformations of RC beams at normal temperature. Conclusions derived from the study are as follows. 1. Features of free deformations of RC beams. (i) The ratios of the average compressive strains on the top fiber of RC beams to the calculated ones at the cracked section show the inclinations that the ratios once drop after cracking and then remain constant according to temperature rises. (ii) Average compressive strains might be estimated by the average of the calculated strains at the perfect bond section and the cracked section of RC beam. (iii) The ratios of the average tensile strains on the level of reinforcements to the calculated ones at the cracked section are inclined to approach the value of 1.0 monotonically according to temperature rises. The changes of the average tensile strains are caused by the deterioration of bond strength and cracking due to the increase of the differences of expansive strains between reinforcement and concrete. 2. Estimation methods of free deformations of RC beams. (i) In order to estimate the free deformations of RC beams at elevated temperatures, the basic concepts of ACI's and CEB/FIP's formulas are adopted, which are well used to estimate the M-φ relations of RC beams at normal temperature. (ii) It was confirmed that the suggested formulas are able to estimate the free deformations of RC beams, that is, the longitudinal deformation and the curvature, at elevated temperatures. (author)

  11. Observation of damage process in RC beams under cucle bending by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsu, Masayasu; Tsuji, Nobuyuki; Yasuoka, Daisuke

    1997-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are generally applied to construction of buildings and bridges, and are imposed on cyclic loading incessantly. It is considered that detected acoustic emission (AE) waveforms are associated with the damage degree and the fracture mechanisms of RC structures. Therefor, the cyclic bending tests are applied to damaged RC beam specimens. To evaluate the interior of the damaged RC beams, the AE source kinematics are determined by 'SiGMA' procedure for AE moment tensor analysis. By using 'SiGMA' procedure, AE source kinematics, such as source locations, crack types, crack orientations and crack motions, can be identified. The results show the applicability to observation of the fracture process under cyclic bending load and evaluation the degree of damage of RC beam.

  12. Research on the Fatigue Flexural Performance of RC Beams Attacked by Salt Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiang-hong; Xu, Fang-yuan; Jin, Wei-liang; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xi-xi; Chen, Cai-sheng

    2018-04-01

    The fatigue flexural performance of RC beams attacked by salt spray was studied. A testing method involving electro osmosis, electrical accelerated corrosion and salt spray was proposed. This corrosion process method effectively simulates real-world salt spray and fatigue loading exerted by RC components on sea bridges. Four RC beams that have different stress amplitudes were tested. It is found that deterioration by corrosion and fatigue loading reduces the fatigue life of the RC and decreases the ability of deformation. The fatigue life and deflection ability could be reduced by increasing the stress amplitude and the corrosion duration time. The test result demonstrates that this experimental method can couple corrosion deterioration and fatigue loading reasonably. This procedure may be applied to evaluate the fatigue life and concrete durability of RC components located in a natural salt spray environment.

  13. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  14. Flexural repair/strengthening of pre-damaged R.C. beams using embedded CFRP rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa M. Morsy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many reinforced concrete R.C. elements need either strengthening due to the need of increasing the service loads or repair due to overloading stress or environmental deterioration affecting these elements. In this paper an experimental program is presented to investigate the effect of using embedded CFRP rod as NSM reinforcement for strengthening/repairing R.C. beams pre-damaged by loading to different loading levels and comparing the results to those of non-preloaded beams. A total of five beams were cast and six beams were tested under four point loading. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of providing one 12 mm diameter CFRP rod in addition to the existing steel reinforcement. Three beams were tested to failure directly without any preloading, whereas the other three beams were firstly subjected to preloading to different load levels. Following that these three beams were strengthened and were tested up to failure.

  15. RC T beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Spagnolo JR

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental data of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites. The tests were composed of eight T beams, b w=15 cm, h=40 cm, flange width 40 cm, flange height 8 cm, and length 300 cm, divided into two series with the same longitudinal steel reinforcement and a reference beam without strengthening in each series. The beams had two types of arrangement of internal steel stirrups. The test variables were the internal and external geometric ratio of the transverse reinforcement and the mechanical ratio of carbon fiber composites stirrups. All the beams were loaded at two points. The strengthened beams were submitted to a preloading and the strengthening was applied to the cracked beam. All the beams were designed in order to guarantee shear failure, and the ultimate load of the strengthened beams was 36% to 54% greater than the reference beams. The Cracking Sliding Model applied to the strengthened beams was evaluated and showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azim Shukri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels.

  17. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Ahmad Azim; Darain, Kh Mahfuz Ud; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2015-07-08

    Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM) technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels.

  18. EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING OF RC T-BEAMS WITH CFRP TENDONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennitz, Anders; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    FRPs is about to become common practice. Several guidelines on the subject have been presented during the last decade, e.g. [1-5]. Next step is to further utilize the excellent behaviour of the advanced material, in particular CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers). CFRPs have mechanical properties...... capacity could be increased, with a carefully applied compressive stress existing open cracks in concrete may be partly closed and it might also be possible to reduce large deflections. In that way the durability of the entire RC (Reinforced Concrete) -structure can be increased. Application of FRPs......As the acceptance for non-stressed FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymers) increase steadily in the construction industry, the industries susceptibility for new ideas in the material’s usage increase. Improving the performance of a bridge, a parking garage or a multistory building by the use of appropriate...

  19. Effect of web openings on the structural behavior of RC beams subjected to pure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Taha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of modern buildings, the presence of openings became a necessity nowadays in order to accommodate the many pipes and ducts required for the different services. On the other hand, the presence of these openings in RC beams affects their structural behavior. One important behavior that needs further study would be torsion. Currently, there are no guide lines available to analyze or design RC beams with web openings under pure torsion. Thus, the main objective of this research is to investigate the behavior of simply supported RC beams with openings subjected to pure torsion. In the first part of this paper, an experimental study is conducted on seven beams subjected to pure torsion loading in order to investigate the effect of the number of openings, the spacing between stirrups, and beam depth. All beams have a constant clear span length of 1800 mm and a constant beam width of 150 mm. The beams have varying opening number and stirrups arrangement as well as varying beam depth in order to investigate the effect of these parameters on the behavior of the beams. Systematic measurements such as the cracking torque, the ultimate torque, the angle of rotation of the beam at cracking, and the angle of rotation of the beam at the ultimate load are conducted for further understanding of the beam behavior under torsion. In the second part of the paper, the experimental results are compared with the numerical results obtained using the non-linear finite element analysis program, ANSYS. Good agreement between the experimental and numerical results is found.

  20. Strut and tie modeling for RC short beams with corroded stirrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed K. El-Sayed

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is one of the major problems that shorten the service life of reinforced concrete (RC structures. Steel stirrups, due to their location as an outer reinforcement, are more susceptible to corrosion problems and damage. However, there is limited research work in the literature on the effects of stirrup corrosion on the shear strength of RC beams. This paper attempts to evaluate analytically the residual shear strength of RC short beams with corrosion-damaged stirrups. The shear strength of short or deep beams are generally determined using the strut and tie model. The corrosion effects were implemented in the model to make it capable of predicting the residual shear capacity of RC beams with corroded stirrups. The effect of corrosion is implemented considering the reduction in geometry of the concrete cross section due to spalling and reduction in effective compressive strength of concrete due to corrosion cracks. The proposed strut and tie model which accounts for the corrosion effects was verified using the experimental data available in the literature, and good agreement was found.

  1. In RC buildings, the vertical and horizontal members (ie, the beams ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 4. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction - 18. How do Beams in RC Buildings Resist Earthquakes? C V R Murty. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 4 April 2005 pp 87-90 ...

  2. Shear Strengthening of RC Beams Using Sprayed Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohamad Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of externally bonded sprayed glass fiber reinforced polymer (Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening of RC beams under quasi-static loading is investigated. Different techniques were utilized to enhance the bond between concrete and Sprayed GFRP, involving the use of through bolts and nuts paired with concrete surface preparation through sandblasting and through the use of a pneumatic chisel prior to Sprayed GFRP application. It was found that roughening the concrete surface using a pneumatic chisel and using through bolts and nuts were the most effective techniques. Also, Sprayed GFRP applied on 3 sides (U-shaped was found to be more effective than 2-sided Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening. Sprayed GFRP increased the shear load-carrying capacity and energy absorption capacities of RC beams. It was found that the load-carrying capacity of strengthened RC beams was related to an effective strain of applied Sprayed GFRP. This strain was related to Sprayed GFRP configuration and the technique used to enhance the concrete-FRP bond. Finally, an equation was proposed to calculate the contribution of Sprayed GFRP in the shear strength of an RC beam.

  3. Experimental study on fatigue crack propagation rate of RC beam strengthened with carbon fiber laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiyan; Liu, Guangwan; Guo, Xinyan; Huang, Man

    2008-11-01

    The experimental research on fatigue crack propagation rate of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber laminate (CFL) is carried out by MTS system in this paper. The experimental results show that, the main crack propagation on strengthened beam can be summarized into three phases: 1) fast propagation phase; 2) steady propagation and rest phase; 3) unsteady propagation phase. The phase 2-i.e. steady propagation and rest stage makes up about 95% of fatigue life of the strengthened beam. The propagation rate of the main crack, da/dN, in phase 2 can be described by Paris formula, and the constant C and m can be confirmed by the fatigue crack propagation experiments of the RC beams strengthened with CFL under three-point bending loads.

  4. Numerical prediction of fire resistance of RC beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serega, Szymon; Wosatko, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Fire resistance of different structural members is an important issue of their strength and durability. A simple but effective tool to investigate multi-span reinforced concrete beams exposed to fire is discussed in the paper. Assumptions and simplifications of the theory as well as numerical aspects are briefly reviewed. Two steps of nonlinear finite element analysis and two levels of observation are distinguished. The first step is the solution of transient heat transfer problem in representative two-dimensional reinforced concrete cross-section of a beam. The second part is a nonlinear mechanical analysis of the whole beam. All spans are uniformly loaded, but an additional time-dependent thermal load due to fire acts on selected ones. Global changes of curvature and bending moment functions induce deterioration of the stiffness. Benchmarks are shown to confirm the correctness of the model.

  5. Evaluating the Dynamic Characteristics of Retrofitted RC Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghods, Amir S.; Esfahani, Mohamad R.; Moghaddasie, Behrang

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the relationship between the damage and changes in dynamic characteristics of reinforced concrete members strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). Modal analysis is a popular non-destructive method for evaluating health of structural systems. A total of 8 reinforced concrete beams with similar dimensions were made using concrete with two different compressive strengths and reinforcement ratios. Monotonic loading was applied with four-point-bending setup in order to generate different damage levels in the specimens while dynamic testing was conducted to monitor the changes in dynamic characteristics of the specimens. In order to investigate the effect of CFRP on static and dynamic properties of specimens, some of the beams were loaded to half of their ultimate load carrying capacity and then were retrofitted using composite laminates with different configuration. Retrofitted specimens demonstrated elevated load carrying capacity, higher flexural stiffness and lower displacement ductility. By increasing the damage level in specimens, frequencies of the beams were decreased and after strengthening these values were improved significantly. The intensity of the damage level in each specimen affects the shape of its mode as well. Fixed points and curvatures of mode shapes of beams tend to move toward the location of the damage in each case

  6. RC Beams Strengthened with Mechanically Fastened Composites: Experimental Results and Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Martinelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanically-fastened fiber-reinforced polymer (MF-FRP systems has recently emerged as a competitive solution for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC beams and slabs. An overview of the experimental research has proven the effectiveness and the potentiality of the MF-FRP technique which is particularly suitable for emergency repairs or when the speed of installation and immediacy of use are imperative. A finite-element (FE model has been recently developed by the authors with the aim to simulate the behavior of RC beams strengthened in bending by MF-FRP laminates; such a model has also been validated by using a wide experimental database collected from the literature. By following the previous study, the FE model and the assembled database are considered herein with the aim of better exploring the influence of some specific aspects on the structural response of MF-FRP strengthened members, such as the bearing stress-slip relationship assumed for the FRP-concrete interface, the stress-strain law considered for reinforcing steel rebars and the cracking process in RC members resulting in the well-known tension stiffening effect. The considerations drawn from this study will be useful to researchers for the calibration of criteria and design rules for strengthening RC beams through MF-FRP laminates.

  7. Confinement Effect on Material Properties of RC Beams Under Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sumant; Shiyekar, Mukund Ramchandra; Shiyekar, Sandip Mukund

    2017-12-01

    In structural analysis, especially in indeterminate structures, it becomes essential to know the material and geometrical properties of members. The codal provisions recommend elastic properties of concrete and steel and these are fairly accurate enough. The stress-strain curve for concrete cylinder or a cube specimen is plotted. The slope of this curve is modulus of elasticity of plain concrete. Another method of determining modulus of elasticity of concrete is by flexural test of a beam specimen. The modulus of elasticity most commonly used for concrete is secant modulus. The modulus of elasticity of steel is obtained by performing a tension test of steel bar. While performing analysis by any software for high rise building, cross area of plain concrete is taken into consideration whereas effects of reinforcement bars and concrete confined by stirrups are neglected. Present aim of study is to determine elastic properties of reinforced cement concrete beam. Two important stiffness properties such as AE and EI play important role in analysis of high rise RCC building idealized as plane frame. The experimental program consists of testing of beams (model size 150 × 150 × 700 mm) with percentage of reinforcement varying from 0.54 to 1.63% which commensurate with existing Codal provisions of IS:456-2000 for flexural member. The effect of confinement is considered in this study. The experimental results are verified by using 3D finite element techniques.

  8. Experimental study of nylon fibre reinforced RC beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.A.; Jokhio, S.; Qazi, Attiq-ur-Rehman

    2002-01-01

    Six concrete beams reinforced with Nylon fibre strands placed in tensile zone as an alternative of steel bars have been tested. Fibre of 1.2 mm dia was used and 10 pieces were twisted together to form the strand; the number of turns being a parameter of study. This was done in order to over come the problem of bond, because the surface of fibre is very smooth and slippery. Two strands were used in each beam and in order to eliminate possibility of premature failure due to bond, specially designed End-Steel Anchorages were also tried. All the beams were 1000 mm long and 50 x 100 mm in cross section with an affective span of 900 mm. The tensile behaviors as well as moduli of the fibre itself were also determined. No shear reinforcement was used. The results are encourage and comparative financial study shows that this material holds promise for future use. However, more experimental study is needed. (author)

  9. Bonding techniques for flexural strengthening of R.C. beams using CFRP laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Morsy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of an alternative method of attaching FRP laminates to reinforced concrete beams by the way of fasting steel rivets through the FRP laminate and concrete substrate. Five full scale R.C. beams were casted and strengthened in flexural using FRP laminate bonded with conventional epoxy and compared with other beams strengthened with FRP laminate and bonded with fastener “steel rivets” of 50 mm length and 10 mm diameter. Based on experimental evidence the beam strengthened with conventional bonding methods failed due to de-bonding with about 13% increase over the un-strengthened beam. On the other hand, the beams strengthened with FRP laminate and bonded by four steel fastener rivets only failed by de-bonding also but at higher flexural capacity with increase 19% over the un-strengthened beam.

  10. Impact of Cyclic Loading on Chloride Diffusivity and Mechanical Performance of RC Beams under Seawater Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of cyclic loading on the mechanical performance and chloride diffusivity of RC beams exposed to seawater wet-dry cycles. To induce initial damage to RC beam specimen, cyclic loading controlled by max load and cycles was applied. Then beam specimens underwent 240 wet-dry cycles of seawater. Results show that the chloride content increased as max load and cycle increased. The chloride content at steel surface increased approximatively linearly as average crack width increased. Moreover, the max load had more influence on chloride content at steel surface than cycle. The difference of average chloride diffusion coefficient between tension and compression concrete was little at uncracked position. Average chloride diffusion coefficient increased as crack width increased when crack width was less than 0.11 mm whereas the increasing tendency was weak when crack width exceeded 0.11 mm. The residual yield load and ultimate load of RC beams decreased as max load and cycle increased. Based on univariate analysis of variance, the max load had more adverse effect on yield load and ultimate load than cycle.

  11. Interfacial stresses in damaged RC beams strengthened with externally bonded CFRP plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benrahou, K.H.; Adda bedia, E.A.; Benyoucef, S.; Tounsi, A.; Benguediab, M.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical method to predict the interfacial stresses in the adhesive layer of damaged reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate is presented. The adopted model is developed including the adherend shear deformations by assuming a linear shear stress through the depth of the RC beam [A. Tounsi, Int. J. Solids Struct., in press], while all existing solutions neglect this effect [e.g. S. Benyoucef, A. Tounsi, S.A. Meftah, E.A. Adda Bedia, Compos. Interfaces, in press; S.T. Smith, J.G. Teng, Eng. Struct. 23 (7) (2001) 857-871; T.M. Roberts, Struct. Eng. 67 (12) (1989) 229-233; A. Tounsi, S. Benyoucef, Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., in press; T. Stratford, J. Cadei, Construct. Building Mater. 20 (2006) 34-35]. In addition, in the present study the anisotropic damage model is adopted to describe the damage of the RC beams. It is shown that the damage has a significant effect on the interfacial stresses in FRP-damaged RC beam

  12. Sustainable RC Beam-Column Connections with Headed Bars: A Formula for Shear Strength Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Tung Tran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam-column joints are critical regions for reinforced concrete (RC frames subjected to earthquakes. The steel reinforcement is, in general, highly concentrated in these zones. This is why in many cases, headed bars are used. A headed bar is a longitudinal steel reinforcement whose end has a special button added to reduce the bonding length of the steel rebar. This paper establishes a formula predicting the shear strength of exterior RC beam-column connections where the beam longitudinal reinforcements use headed bars. A database was collected, which contained 30 experimental data about the exterior beam-column joints using headed bars and subjected to quasi-static cyclic loading. First, from the collected database, a statistical study was carried out to identify the most influencing parameters on the shear strength of the beam-column joints tested. The three most important parameters were identified and an empirical modified formula was developed based on the formula existing in the standards. The study showed that the results obtained from the modified formula proposed in the present study were closer to the experimental results than that obtained from the formula existing in the standards. Finally, a numerical study was performed on two T-form RC structures and the numerical results were compared with the prediction calculated from the modified formula proposed. For two investigated cases, the proposed formula provided the results in the safety side and the differences with the numerical results were less than 20%. Thus, the proposed formula can be used for a rapid assessment of the shear strength of RC joints using headed bars.

  13. Shear Resistance Capacity of Interface of Plate-Studs Connection between CFST Column and RC Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of a concrete-filled steel tube (CFST column and reinforced concrete (RC beam produces a composite structural system that affords good structural performance, functionality, and workability. The effective transmission of moments and shear forces from the beam to the column is key to the full exploitation of the structural performance. The studs of the composite beam transfer the interfacial shear force between the steel beam and the concrete slab, with the web bearing most of the vertical shear force of the steel beam. In this study, the studs and vertical steel plate were welded to facilitate the transfer of the interfacial shear force between the RC beam and CFST column. Six groups of a total of 18 specimens were used to investigate the shear transfer mechanism and failure mode of the plate-studs connection, which was confirmed to effectively transmit the shear forces between the beam and column. The results of theoretical calculations were also observed to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  14. Behavior of Insulated Carbon-FRP-Strengthened RC Beams Exposed to Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, B.

    2014-09-01

    There are two main approaches to improving the fire resistance of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) systems. While the most common method is to protect or insulate the FRP system, an other way is to use fibers and resins with a better fire performance. This paper presents a numerical investigation into the five protection behavior of insulated carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP)-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The effects of external loading and thermal expansion of materials at elevated temperatures are taken into consideration in a finite-element model. The validity of the numerical model is demonstrated with results from an existing experimental study on insulated CFRP-strengthened RC beams. Conclusions of this investigation are employed to predict the structural behavior of CFRP-strengthened concrete structures.

  15. Full Scale RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Alessandro; Napoli, Annalisa; Realfonzo, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy) in order to investigate the seismic performance of RC beam-column joints strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP) systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems), the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.

  16. Effect of discrete glass fibers on the behavior of R.C. Beams exposed to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Riad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding discrete glass fibers on the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams under different fire and cooling conditions. Eighteen beams with different concrete compressive strengths were tested to study the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams containing discrete glass fibers when exposed to different fire and cooling conditions. Nine beams were prepared from normal strength concrete (NSC with compressive strength equal to 35 MPa while the other beams were prepared from high strength concrete (HSC with compressive strength equal to 60 MPa. The beams contained different contents of discrete glass fibers. The modes of failure of tested specimens show that the crack patterns change according to fire condition and fiber content. Analysis of test results show that adding discrete glass fibers to NSC increased the residual stiffness of the tested specimens after firing and decreased the rate of the deflection gain during firing. Also adding fibers to concrete has a limited positive effect on the ultimate strength of the specimens compared to the control specimens. Its effect on deflection due to fire is more pronounced. Finally, the recommended optimum ratio of discrete glass fibers is not more than 0.5% of the total concrete weight.

  17. Calibrating and validating a FE model for long-term behavior of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Nikola D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the research carried out in finding an optimal finite element (FE model for calculating the long-term behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams. A multi-purpose finite element software DIANA was used. A benchmark test in the form of a simply supported beam loaded in four point bending was selected for model calibration. The result was the choice of 3-node beam elements, a multi-directional fixed crack model with constant stress cut-off, nonlinear tension softening and constant shear retention and a creep and shrinkage model according to CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. The model was then validated on 14 simply supported beams and 6 continuous beams. Good agreement was found with experimental results (within ±15%.

  18. Development of Shear Capacity Prediction Model for FRP-RC Beam without Web Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Arman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Available codes and models generally use partially modified shear design equation, developed earlier for steel reinforced concrete, for predicting the shear capacity of FRP-RC members. Consequently, calculated shear capacity shows under- or overestimation. Furthermore, in most models some affecting parameters of shear strength are overlooked. In this study, a new and simplified shear capacity prediction model is proposed considering all the parameters. A large database containing 157 experimental results of FRP-RC beams without shear reinforcement is assembled from the published literature. A parametric study is then performed to verify the accuracy of the proposed model. Again, a comprehensive review of 9 codes and 12 available models is done, published back from 1997 to date for comparison with the proposed model. Hence, it is observed that the proposed equation shows overall optimized performance compared to all the codes and models within the range of used experimental dataset.

  19. Interaction between corrosion crack width and steel loss in RC beams corroded under load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malumbela, Goitseone; Alexander, Mark; Moyo, Pilate

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results and discussions on an experimental study conducted to relate the rate of widening of corrosion cracks with the pattern of corrosion cracks as well as the level of steel corrosion for RC beams (153 x 254 x 3000 mm) that were corroded whilst subjected to varying levels of sustained loads. Steel corrosion was limited to the tensile reinforcement and to a length of 700 mm at the centre of the beams. The rate of widening of corrosion cracks as well as strains on uncracked faces of RC beams was constantly monitored during the corrosion process, along the corrosion region and along other potential cracking faces of beams using a demec gauge. The distribution of the gravimetric mass loss of steel along the corrosion region was measured at the end of the corrosion process. The results obtained showed that: the rate of widening of each corrosion crack is dependent on the overall pattern of the cracks whilst the rate of corrosion is independent of the pattern of corrosion cracks. A mass loss of steel of 1% was found to induce a corrosion crack width of about 0.04 mm.

  20. FRP-RC Beam in Shear: Mechanical Model and Assessment Procedure for Pseudo-Ductile Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Petrone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a mechanics-based shear model for reinforced concrete (RC elements strengthened in shear with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP and a design/assessment procedure capable of predicting the failure sequence of resisting elements: the yielding of existing transverse steel ties and the debonding of FRP sheets/strips, while checking the corresponding compressive stress in concrete. The research aims at the definition of an accurate capacity equation, consistent with the requirement of the pseudo-ductile shear behavior of structural elements, that is, transverse steel ties yield before FRP debonding and concrete crushing. For the purpose of validating the proposed model, an extended parametric study and a comparison against experimental results have been conducted: it is proven that the common accepted rule of assuming the shear capacity of RC members strengthened in shear with FRP as the sum of the maximum contribution of both FRP and stirrups can lead to an unsafe overestimation of the shear capacity. This issue has been pointed out by some authors, when comparing experimental shear capacity values with the theoretical ones, but without giving a convincing explanation of that. In this sense, the proposed model represents also a valid instrument to better understand the mechanical behavior of FRP-RC beams in shear and to calculate their actual shear capacity.

  1. Prestress Loss of CFL in a Prestressing Process for Strengthening RC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A prestressing system was designed to strengthen reinforced concrete (RC beams with prestressed carbon fiber laminate (CFL. During different prestressing processes, prestress loss was measured using strain gauges attached on the surface of CFL along the length direction. The prestress loss was 50–68% of the whole prestress loss, which is typically associated with CFL slipping between the grip anchors. Approximately 20–27% of the prestress loss was caused by the elastic shortening of the RC beam. An analytical model using linear-elastic theory was constructed to calculate the prestress loss caused by CFL slipping between the anchors and the elastic shortening of the strengthened beams. The compared results showed that the analytical model of prestress loss can describe the experimental data well. Methods of reducing the prestress loss were also suggested. Compared to other experiments, the prestressing system proposed by this research group was effective because the maximum percentage of prestress loss was 14.9% and the average prestress loss was 12.5%.

  2. Flexural and Shear Behavior of RC Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Wire Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafea Flaih Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study  the effect of using fiber wire mesh on the flexural and shear properties of RC concrete beams. Six reinforced concrete beams (120*180*1220mm were tested under two load points. Fiber wire mesh was applied with two manners, first one is three layers as U shape around the section of the beam, the second one is four layers around overall section of beam. The test results indicated that using of fiber wire mesh as additional reinforcement can increase the ultimate load of about (1.85-3.58% in the case of flexural and (17.7-23.7% in case of shear. Also,  results showed that an increasing in  first cracking  load is obtained from  (42.8-85.7% in case of flexural and from (41.2-76.5% in case of shear. Also the shear behavior of beams becomes more ductile when the fiber wire mesh was used in beams. The cracks of shrinkage was disappeared when the fiber wire mesh surround the section of the beam

  3. Preloading Effect on Strengthening Efficiency of RC Beams Strengthened with Non- and Pretensioned NSM Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kotynia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The near surface mounted (NSM technique has been shown to be one of the most promising methods for upgrading reinforced concrete (RC structures. Many tests carried out on RC members strengthened in flexure with NSM fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP systems have demonstrated greater strengthening efficiency than the use of externally-bonded (EB FRP laminates. Strengthening with simultaneous pretensioning of the FRP results in improvements in the serviceability limit state (SLS conditions, including the increased cracking moment and decreased deflections. The objective of the reported experimental program, which consisted of two series of RC beams strengthened in flexure with NSM CFRP strips, was to investigate the influence of a number of parameters on the strengthening efficiency. The test program focused on an analysis of the effects of preloading on the strengthening efficiency which has been investigated very rarely despite being one of the most important parameters to be taken into account in strengthening design. Two preloading levels were considered: the beam self-weight only, which corresponded to stresses on the internal longitudinal reinforcement of 25% and 14% of the yield stress (depending on a steel reinforcement ratio, and the self-weight with the additional superimposed load, corresponding to 60% of the yield strength of the unstrengthened beam and a deflection equal to the allowable deflection at the SLS. The influence of the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio was also considered in this study. To reflect the variability seen in existing structures, test specimens were varied by using different steel bar diameters. Finally, the impact of the composite reinforcement ratio and the number of pretensioned FRP strips was considered. Specimens were divided into two series based on their strengthening configuration: series “A” were strengthened with one pretensioned and two non-pretensioned carbon FRP (CFRP strips, while series

  4. Estimating the behavior of RC beams strengthened with NSM system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Rohollah Hosseini Vaez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, conventional materials such as steel and concrete are being replaced by fiber reinforced polymer (FRP materials for the strengthening of concrete structures. Among the strengthening techniques based on Fiber Reinforced Polymer composites, the use of near-surface mounted (NSM FRP rods is emerging as a promising technology for increasing flexural and shear strength of deficient concrete, masonry and timber members. An artificial neural network is an information processing tool that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems (such as the brain process the information. The key element of this tool is the novel structure of the information processing system. In engineering applications, a neural network can be a vector mapper which maps an input vector to an output one. In the present study, a new approach is developed to predict the behavior of strengthened concrete beam using a large number of experimental data by applying artificial neural networks. Having parameters used as input nodes in ANN modeling such as elastic modulus of the FRP reinforcement, the ratio of the steel longitudinal reinforcement, dimensions of the beam section, the ratio of the NSM-FRP reinforcement and characteristics of concrete, the output node was the flexural strength of beams. The idealized neural network was employed to generate empirical charts and equations to be used in design. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of strengthened RC beam using artificial neural networks.

  5. Parameters That Effect the Interfacial Stresses in Fibre Reinforced Plastic Laminates Strengthened Rc Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Sayın

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of externally bonded fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP laminates for strengthening of reinforced concrete beams has become an effective method. This method has been used because of the advantages of FRP materials such as their high strength-to-weight ratio, good corrosion resistance, and versatility in coping with different sectional shapes and corners. Many studies on this theme have been carried out since the early 1900s. In this study, interfacial stresses of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP effect the parameters will be studied as experimental and numerical. Adhesives used in the beams applied to FRP's thickness, adhesive type and the state of the concrete surface, produced experimental samples are exposed to the bending effect will be studied as a comparative. Afterwards, by using the ANSYS® WB finite element program to model and analyze RC beams by externally bonding FRP will be carried out. Adhesive thickness, adhesive type, the concrete surface will be performed by entering the parameters for analysis of stress can be obtained as a result. Thus, the analytical expressions of stress and normal stress equations will establish should be modified. Finite element analysis and experimental results will be compared, compatibility investigated, the results and recommendations presented by the study be completed.

  6. Simulation of Shear and Bending Cracking in RC Beam: Material Model and its Application to Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhatar, S. N.; Sonoda, Y.; Zuki, S. S. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Noh, M. S. Md

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a simple and reliable non-linear numerical analysis incorporated with fully Lagrangian method namely Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to predict the impact response of the reinforced concrete (RC) beam under impact loading. The analysis includes the simulation of the effects of high mass low-velocity impact load falling on beam structures. Three basic ideas to present the localized failure of structural elements are: (1) the accurate strength of concrete and steel reinforcement during the short period (dynamic), Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF) has been employed for the effect of strain rate on the compression and tensile strength (2) linear pressure-sensitive yield criteria (Drucker-Prager type) with a new volume dependent Plane-Cap (PC) hardening in the pre-peak regime is assumed for the concrete, meanwhile, shear-strain energy criterion (Von-Mises) is applied to steel reinforcement (3) two kinds of constitutive equation are introduced to simulate the crushing and bending cracking of the beam elements. Then, these numerical analysis results were compared with the experimental test results.

  7. Experimental investigation on full scale RC beam-column joint of NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thandavamoorthy, T.S.; Lakshmanan, N.; Reddy, G.R.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) structures in India are constructed using reinforced concrete. The beam-column joint in these structures are critical sub-assemblages because they ensure continuity of a structure and transfer forces from one element to another. Under seismic excitation, the beam-column joint region is subjected to horizontal and vertical shear forces whose magnitudes are typically many times higher than those within the adjacent beams and columns. In view of the increased incidence of seismicity in the country, the safety of these structures against earthquake loading assumes greater significance. There is a growing need to look into the seismic safety aspect of existing RC frame type structures in NPPs, which have been designed as per codes prevalent at the time of their construction. Seismic performance of such joints has not been studied extensively in India. Therefore experimental testing of full scale joint identical to those available in the existing NPP structures, was carried out to study its behaviour and evaluate its capacity. The size of the beam of the joint was 2000 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm and column 2915 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm. The percentage reinforcement of the beam was 4.95 and column 1.5. Such full scale and heavily reinforced concrete joint was cast successfully in the laboratory and tested under monotonic loading. The paper presents a complete description of the experimental testing, observations made during testing as for cracking, deflection and rotation of joint, discussion of results obtained, etc. Conclusions drawn from the investigation are also presented. (author)

  8. Anchorage strength models for end-debonding predictions in RC beams strengthened with FRP composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, V.; Guadagnini, M.; Valluzzi, M. R.

    2008-05-01

    The increase in the flexural capacity of RC beams obtained by externally bonding FRP composites to their tension side is often limited by the premature and brittle debonding of the external reinforcement. An in-depth understanding of this complex failure mechanism, however, has not yet been achieved. With specific regard to end-debonding failure modes, extensive experimental observations reported in the literature highlight the important distinction, often neglected in strength models proposed by researchers, between the peel-off and rip-off end-debonding types of failure. The peel-off failure is generally characterized by a failure plane located within the first few millimetres of the concrete cover, whilst the rip-off failure penetrates deeper into the concrete cover and propagates along the tensile steel reinforcement. A new rip-off strength model is described in this paper. The model proposed is based on the Chen and Teng peel-off model and relies upon additional theoretical considerations. The influence of the amount of the internal tensile steel reinforcement and the effective anchorage length of FRP are considered and discussed. The validity of the new model is analyzed further through comparisons with test results, findings of a numerical investigation, and a parametric study. The new rip-off strength model is assessed against a database comprising results from 62 beams tested by various researchers and is shown to yield less conservative results.

  9. Time-variant flexural reliability of RC beams with externally bonded CFRP under combined fatigue-corrosion actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaud, David; Ali, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Time-variant reliability analysis of RC highway bridges strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer CFRP laminates under four possible competing damage modes (concrete crushing, steel rupture after yielding, CFRP rupture and FRP plate debonding) and three degradation factors is analyzed in terms of reliability index β using FORM. The first degradation factor is chloride-attack corrosion which induces reduction in steel area and concrete cover cracking at characteristic key times (corrosion initiation, severe surface cover cracking). The second degradation factor considered is fatigue which leads to damage in concrete and steel rebar. Interaction between corrosion and fatigue crack growth in steel reinforcing bars is implemented. The third degradation phenomenon is the CFRP properties deterioration due to aging. Considering these three degradation factors, the time-dependent flexural reliability profile of a typical simple 15 m-span intermediate girder of a RC highway bridge is constructed under various traffic volumes and under different corrosion environments. The bridge design options follow AASHTO-LRFD specifications. Results of the study have shown that the reliability is very sensitive to factors governing the corrosion. Concrete damage due to fatigue slightly affects reliability profile of non-strengthened section, while service life after strengthening is strongly related to fatigue damage in concrete. - Highlights: • We propose a method to follow the time-variant reliability of strengthened RC beams. • We consider multiple competing failure modes of CFRP strengthened RC beams. • We consider combined degradation mechanisms (corrosion, fatigue, ageing of CFRP)

  10. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP Bars for Enhancing the Flexural Performance of RC Beams Using Side-NSM Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akter Hosen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC structures require strengthening for numerous factors, such as increased load, modification of the structural systems, structural upgrade or errors in the design and construction stages. The side near-surface mounted (SNSM strengthening technique with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars is a relatively new emerging technique for enhancing the flexural capacities of existing RC elements. Nine RC rectangular beams were flexurally strengthened with this technique and tested under four-point bending loads until failure. The main goal of this study is to optimize the structural capacity of the RC beams by varying the amount of strengthening reinforcement and bond length. The experimental test results showed that strengthening with SNSM GFRP bars significantly enhanced the flexural responses of the specimens compared with the control specimen. The first cracking and ultimate loads, energy absorption capacities, ductility and stiffness were remarkably enhanced by the SNSM technique. It was also confirmed that the bond length of the strengthened reinforcement greatly influences the energy absorption capacities, ductility and stiffness. The effect of the bond length on these properties is more significant compared to the amount of strengthening reinforcement.

  11. Effect of the Fiber Type and Axial Stiffness of FRCM on the Flexural Strengthening of RC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Jabr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of externally-bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP sheets has been successfully used in the repair and strengthening of both the shear and flexural capacities of reinforced concrete (RC beams, slabs and columns since the 1990s. However, the externally-bonded FRP reinforcements still present many disadvantages, such as poor performance in elevated temperature and fire, lack of permeability and strength degradation when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. To remedy such drawbacks, the fiber-/fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM has been recently introduced. The FRCM system consists of a fiber mesh or grid embedded in a cementitious bonding material. The present research investigates the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC beams with FRCM. The experimental testing included eight large-scale concrete beams, 150 mm × 250 mm × 2400 mm, internally reinforced with steel bars and strengthened in flexure with FRCM. The investigated parameters were the internal steel reinforcement ratio and the FRCM systems. Two steel reinforcement ratios of 0.18 and 0.36 of the balanced reinforcement ratio, as well as three FRCM systems using glass, carbon and PBO fibers were investigated. Test results are presented in terms of load-deflection, load-strain and load-crack width relationships. The test results indicated that the PBO FRCM significantly increased the ultimate capacity of the strengthened RC beams with both low and moderate internal reinforcement ratios compared to the glass and carbon FRCM.

  12. Ductility Analysis of RC Beams Considering the Concrete Confinement Effect Produced by the Shear Reinforcement: a Numerical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Gorla Nogueira

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a simplified numerical approach to study the influence of the confinement effect provided by transversal reinforcement on the ductility behavior of RC beams in bending is proposed. A unidimensional FEM mechanical model coupled to the Mazars’ damage model to simulate concrete behavior was adopted to assess ductility curvatures at the ultimate limit state. The confinement effect was incorporated to the numerical model through a calibration process of the damage internal parameters, based on the Least Square Method and an analytical law proposed by Kent and Park (1971. Several numerical analyses were carried out considering different designs of RC beams according to a parametric study varying the neutral axis position, concrete compressive strength and the volumetric transversal reinforcement ratio. The obtained results showed the importance of the amount of transversal reinforcement on the ductility behavior, increasing the ductility factor even for the cases with inappropriate neutral axis position.

  13. A study on shear behavior of R/C beams subjected to long-term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many structural members are subjected to long term heating. There are few experimental data available on the behavior especially in shear of reinforced concrete (R/C) members subjected to long term heating. This paper describes a study aimed at experimentally determining the shear behavior of R/C members in nuclear power plant facilities following sustained heating at high temperatures

  14. Implementation of Highly-Flowable Strain Hardening Fiber Reinforced Concrete in New RC Beam-Column Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Wen-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of New RC project was aimed to reduce the member sections and increase the available space of high rise buildings by using high strength concrete (f’c > 70 MPa and high strength rebars (fy > 685 MPa. Material consumptions and member section sizes can be further reduced owing to the upgrade of strength. However, the nature of brittleness of high strength may also cause early cover spalling and other ductility issues. Addition of steel fibers is an alternative as transverse reinforcement. Highly flowable strain hardening fiber reinforced concrete (HF-SHFRC has excellent workability in the fresh state and exhibits the strain-hardening and multiple cracking characteristics of high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCC in their hardened state. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of implementing HF-SHFRC in New RC building systems, particularly for beam-column joints as an alternative of transverse reinforcements. Four full-scale exterior beam-column joints, including two specimens with intensive transverse reinforcements and two specimens made of HF-SHFRC without any stirrup, are tested. Test results show that the HF-SHFRC specimens perform as well as specimens with intensive transverse reinforcements regarding failure mode, ductility, energy dissipation and crack width control. Integration of New RC building systems and HF-SHFRC can assuring construction qualities and further diminish labor work and give infrastructure longer service life, and eventually lower the life-cycle cost.

  15. Evaluation on effects of chloride-induced deterioration on mechanical properties of RC beams with cracking damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Otsuka, Taku

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of chloride-induced deterioration on mechanical properties of aging reinforced concrete (RC) structures and the applicability of the material degradation model that takes reinforcing steel corrosion into consideration for finite element analysis. We conducted the corrosion tests under the simulated tidal environment and the flexural loading tests for the RC beams with cracking damage and initial defects. Then, the experimental results were numerically correlated to validate the devised modeling. The obtained results were summarized as follows: (a) The cracking damage in specimens caused a minor effect on the reinforcing steel corrosion in the case where the thickness of cover concrete was 40 mm and main rebars did not yield before chloride attack. On the other hand the maximum corrosion ratio of the deteriorated part became considerably larger than that of the non-cracking part in the specimens where the cover concrete were removed partially to simulate spalling by the severe corrosion. (b) Based on the test results, we derived the corrosion velocity of reinforcing steel corresponding to cracking damage degrees. (c) In FEM analyses, we showed that the above modeling can estimate the flexural strength of RC beams in consideration of the degradation in elongation performance of reinforcing steel due to corrosion. (author)

  16. Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP under High Temperature and High Humidity Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical and experimental methods were applied to investigate fatigue crack propagation behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams strengthened with a new type carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP named as carbon fiber laminate (CFL subjected to hot-wet environment. J-integral of a central crack in the strengthened beam under three-point bending load was calculated by ABAQUS. In finite element model, simulation of CFL-concrete interface was based on the bilinear cohesive zone model under hot-wet environment and indoor atmosphere. And, then, fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out under high temperature and high humidity (50°C, 95% R · H environment pretreatment and indoor atmosphere (23°C, 78% R · H to obtain a-N curves and crack propagation rate, da/dN, of the strengthened beams. Paris-Erdogan formula was developed based on the numerical analysis and environmental fatigue tests.

  17. Experimental investigations into the shear behavior of self-compacting RC beams with and without shear reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar N. HANOON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is a new generation of high-performance concrete, known for its excellent deformability and high resistance to segregation and bleeding. Nonetheless, SCC may be incapable of resisting shear because the shear resistance mechanisms of this concrete are uncertain, especially the aggregate interlock mechanism. This uncertainty is attributed to the fact that SCC contains a smaller amount of coarse aggregates than normal concrete (NC does. This study focuses on the shear strength of self-compacting reinforced concrete (RC beams with and without shear reinforcement. A total of 16 RC beam specimens was manufactured and tested in terms of shear span-to-depth ratio and flexural and shear reinforcement ratio. The test results were compared with those of the shear design equations developed by ACI, BS, CAN and NZ codes. Results show that an increase in web reinforcement enhanced cracking strength and ultimate load. Shear-tension failure was the control failure in all tested beams.

  18. Dependence of neutron rate production with accelerator beam profile and energy range in an ADS-TRIGA RC1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozabadi, M.M.; Karimi, J. [Birjand Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Zangian, M. [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2016-12-15

    Lead, mercury, tantalum and tungsten were used as target material for calculation of spallation processes in an ADS-TRIGA RC1 reactor. The results show that tungsten has the highest neutron production rate. Therefore it was selected as target material for further calculations. The sensitivity of neutron parameters of the ADS reactor core relative to a change of beam profile and proton energy was determined. The core assembly and parameters of the TRIGA RC1 demonstration facility were used for the calculation model. By changing the proton energy from 115 to 1 400 MeV by using the intra-nuclear cascade model of Bertini (INC-Bertini), the quantity of the relative difference in % for energy gain (G) and spallation neutron yield (Y{sub n/p}), increases to 289.99 % and 5199.15 % respectively. These changes also reduce the amount of relative difference for the proton beam current (I{sub p}) and accelerator power (P{sub acc}), 99.81 % and 81.28 % respectively. In addition, the use of a Gaussian distribution instead of a uniform distribution in the accelerator beam profile increases the quantity of relative difference for energy gain (G), net neutron multiplication (M) and spallation neutron yield (Y{sub n/p}), up to 4.93 %, 4.9 % and 5.55 % respectively.

  19. Seismic Performance of RC Beam-Column Connections with Continuous Rectangular Spiral Transverse Reinforcements for Low Ductility Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadamin Azimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic performance of RC columns could be significantly improved by continuous spiral reinforcement as a result of its adequate ductility and energy dissipation capacity. Due to post-earthquake brittle failure observations in beam-column connections, the seismic behaviour of such connections could greatly be improved by simultaneous application of this method in both beams and columns. In this study, a new proposed detail for beam to column connection introduced as “twisted opposing rectangular spiral” was experimentally and numerically investigated and its seismic performance was compared against normal rectangular spiral and conventional shear reinforcement systems. In this study, three full scale beam to column connections were first designed in conformance with Eurocode (EC2-04 for low ductility class connections and then tested by quasistatic cyclic loading recommended by ACI Building Code (ACI 318-02. Next, the experimental results were validated by numerical methods. Finally, the results revealed that the new proposed connection could improve the ultimate lateral resistance, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity.

  20. NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF NONSEISMICALLY DETAILED INTERIOR RC BEAM-COLUMN CONNECTION UNDER REVERSED CYCLIC LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a nonlinear finite element analysis of non-seismically detailed RC beam column connections under reversed cyclic load. The test of half-scale nonductile reinforced concrete beam-column joints was conducted. The tested specimens represented those of the actual mid-rise reinforced concrete frame buildings designed according to the non-seismic provisions of the ACI building code.  The test results show that specimens representing small and medium column tributary area failed in brittle joint shear while specimen representing large column tributary area failed by ductile flexure though no ductile reinforcement details were provided. The nonlinear finite element analysis was applied to simulate the behavior of the specimens. The finite element analysis employs the smeared crack approach for modeling beam, column and joint, and employs the discrete crack approach for modeling the interface between beam and joint face. The nonlinear constitutive models of reinforced concrete elements consist of coupled tension-compression model to model normal force orthogonal and parallel to the crack and shear transfer model to capture the shear sliding mechanism. The FEM shows good comparison with test results in terms of load-displacement relations, hysteretic loops, cracking process and the failure mode of the tested specimens. The finite element analysis clarifies that the joint shear failure was caused by the collapse of principal diagonal concrete strut.

  1. Flexural Behavior of RC Members Using Externally Bonded Aluminum-Glass Fiber Composite Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns improvement of flexural stiffness/strength of concrete members reinforced with externally bonded, aluminum-glass fiber composite (AGC beams. An experimental program, consisting of seven reinforced concrete slabs and seven reinforced concrete beams strengthened in flexure with AGC beams, was initiated under four-point bending in order to evaluate three parameters: the cross-sectional shape of the AGC beam, the glass fiber fabric array, and the installation of fasteners. The load-deflection response, strain distribution along the longitudinal axis of the beam, and associated failure modes of the tested specimens were recorded. It was observed that the AGC beam led to an increase of the initial cracking load, yielding load of the tension steels and peak load. On the other hand, the ductility of some specimens strengthened was reduced by more than 50%. The A-type AGC beam was more efficient in slab specimens than in beam specimens and the B-type was more suitable for beam specimens than for slabs.

  2. Strengthening of structurally damaged wide shallow RC beams using externally bonded CFRP plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeh A. Al-Zaid

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete wide shallow beams (WSBs are commonly used in the joist flooring systems. The structural behavior of WSBs strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP reinforcement was studied on isolated beams and as part of full-scale building. The effect of structural damage on the performance of WSBs flexurally strengthened with CFRP plates was investigated and presented in this paper. Eight full-scale WSBs were tested under four-point bending up to failure. Seven beams were strengthened with CFRP plates bonded to the soffit of the beams and one beam was unstrengthened serving as control. Prior to strengthening, the beams were subjected to different levels of damaging by preloading to 30-95% of the beams' flexural capacity. One beam was fully damaged by preloading to failure and repaired before strengthening by replacing the crushed concrete. The data showed that the pre-damaged strengthened beams exhibited ultimate capacities up to 8% lower than those of the undamaged strengthened beams. However, the load carrying capacities of pre-damaged strengthened beams were more than those predicted by ACI 440 design guide, fib Bulletin 14, and JSCE design recommendations. Both fib Bulletin 14 and JSCE design recommendations gave very conservative predictions with average ratios of experimental to predicted ultimate capacity of 2.02 and 2.35, respectively. More accurate predictions were obtained by ACI 440 design guide as the corresponding ratio was 1.24. These results indicate that strong confidence and reliability can be placed in applying CFRP strengthening to structurally damaged WSBs.

  3. Creep investigation of GFRP RC Beams - Part A : Literature review and experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masmoudi abdelmonem

    2014-11-01

    This paper (Part A presents a literature review and the loading history of six experimental beams reinforced with GFRP and steel bars. The results of this study revealed that Beams reinforced with GFRP are less marked with creep phenomenon.  This investigation should guide the civil engineer/designer for a better understanding creep phenomenon in GFRP reinforced concrete members.

  4. Evaluation of Shear Strength of RC Beams with Multiple Interfaces Formed before Initial Setting Using 3D Printing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongjin Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent development of 3D printing technology, concrete materials are sometimes used in 3D printing. Concrete structures based on 3D printing have been characterized to have the form of multiple layer build-up. Unlike general concrete structures, therefore, the 3D-printed concrete can be regarded as an orthotropic material. The material property of the 3D-printed concrete’s interface between layers is expected to be far different from that of general concrete bodies since there are no aggregate interlocks and weak chemical bonding. Such a difference finally affects the structural performance of concrete structures even though the interfaces are formed before initial setting of the concrete. The current study mainly reviewed the changes in fracture energy (toughness with respect to various environmental conditions of such interface. Changes in fracture energies of interfaces between concrete layers were measured using low-speed Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD closed loop concrete fracture test. The experimental results indicated reduction in fracture energy as well as tensile strengths. To improve the tensile strength of interfaces, the use of bridging materials is suggested. Since it was assumed that reduction in fracture energy could be a cause of shear strength, to evaluate the reduced structural performance of concrete structure constructed with multiple interfaces by 3D printing technology, the shear strength of RC beam by 3D printing technology was predicted and compared with that of plain RC beam. Based on the fracture energy measured in this study, Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT theory-applied Vector 2 program was employed to predict the degree of reduction in shear strength without considering stirrups. Reduction factors were presented based on the obtained results to predict the reduction in shear strength due to interfaces before initial setting of the concrete.

  5. Effect of releasing pretension for Rc Beams Bonded with Prestressed Fr Strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao-yang, Z.; Xue-jun, H.; Xing-guo, W.; Fei-fei, X

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of releasing pretension is theoretically and experimentally investigated for flexural members externally bonded with prestressed FRP laminate or near-surface-mounted with prestressed FRP plate or rod. The stresses of FRP on the interface and at cross sections of a beam are analyzed on the basis of linear elastic theory. The expressions are derived for effective prestress, prestress loss and camber at the midspan of the beam. Tests are performed on two reinforced concrete beams bonded with prestressed GFRP plate. The comparison between the analytical and the measured results shows the analyses in this paper are rational and correct. (author)

  6. Unified model to predict flexural shear behavior of externally bonded RC beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colotti, V.; Spadea, G.; Swamy, R.N.

    2006-01-01

    Structural strengthening with externally bonded reinforcement is now recognized as a cost-effective, structurally sound and practically efficient method of rehabilitating deteriorating and damaged reinforced concrete beams. There is now an urgent need to develop a sound engineering basis which can predict the failure loads of all such strengthened beams in a reliable and consistent manner. Existing models to predict the behavior at ultimate of strengthened beams suffer from many limitations and weaknesses. This paper presents a unified global model, based on the Strut-and-Tie approach, to predict the failure loads of reinforced concrete beams strengthened for flexure and/or shear. This structural model is based on rational engineering principles, considers all the possible failure modes, and incorporates the load transfer mechanism bond to reflect the debonding phenomena which has a dominant influence on the failure process of plated beams. The model is validated against about 200 strengthened beam test reported in the literature and failing in flexure and/or shear, involving a large number of structural variables and steel, carbon and glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates as reinforcing medium. (author)

  7. Concrete cover cracking with reinforcement corrosion of RC beam during chloride-induced corrosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruijin; Castel, Arnaud; Francois, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the evolution of the corrosion pattern based on two beams corroded by 14 years (beam B1CL1) and 23 years (beam B2CL1) of conservation in a chloride environment. The experimental results indicate that, at the cracking initiation stage and the first stage of cracking propagation, localized corrosion due to chloride ingress is the predominant corrosion pattern and pitting corrosion is the main factor that influences the cracking process. As corrosion cracking increases, general corrosion develops rapidly and gradually becomes predominant in the second stage of cracking propagation. A comparison between existing models and experimental results illustrates that, although Vidal et al.'s model can better predict the reinforcement corrosion of beam B1CL1 under localized corrosion, it cannot predict the corrosion of beam B2CL1 under general corrosion. Also, Rodriguez's model, derived from the general corrosion due to electrically accelerated corrosion experiments, cannot match natural chloride corrosion irrespective of whether corrosion is localized or general. Thus, for natural general corrosion in the second stage of cracking propagation, a new model based on the parameter of average steel cross-section loss is put forward to predict steel corrosion from corrosion cracking.

  8. Flexural Behavior of Self-Compacting RC Continuous Beams Strengthened by CFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This search presented an experimental study of the flexural behavior of self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams externally strengthened by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP Sheets. The practical study contained eight self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams (with two span, each span had (1500 mm length and (150x250 mm cross sectional dimensions. Seven of these beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets with and without external anchorage. The experimental variables included location of CFRP sheets and anchor type and location. The results, shows that the beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets provided improvement in ultimate loads reached (60.71%. The usage of CFRP in the anchorage zone indicated an effective method in comparison to increasing the CFRP sheets lengths or extending them up to the support or under the loading points. Test results also showed that side strengthening provided an effective tool for increasing the load at the cracking stage and also the load capacity and reducing flexural crack widths.

  9. Are Available Models Reliable for Predicting the FRP Contribution to the Shear Resistance of RC Beams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sas, G.; Täljsten, Björn; Barros, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the trustworthiness of the existing theory for predicting the fiber-reinforced plastic contribution to the shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams is discussed. The most well-known shear models for external bonded reinforcement are presented, commented on, and compared...

  10. Defining the crack pattern of RC beams through the golden section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantilli, A P; Chiaia, B; Cennamo, C

    2011-01-01

    Both in architecture and arts, the golden section has been exclusively taken into consideration for its geometrical properties. Specifically, among all the proportions, the golden section can inspire beauty. Indeed, it has driven the construction of buildings for centuries. Nevertheless, as discussed for the first time in the present paper, static equilibrium of structures calls the golden section into play. This is the case of reinforced concrete beam in four point bending, whose average crack spacing in the constant moment zone increases of a factor equal to the irrational number 1.61803 when the geometrical dimensions of the beam are doubled. In other words, it can be argued that the centrality of golden section in the art of construction has profound physical meanings, as it can bring together the aesthetic of nature and architecture, and the equilibrium of stress flow in solid bodies.

  11. Defining the crack pattern of RC beams through the golden section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantilli, A P; Chiaia, B [Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Cennamo, C, E-mail: alessandro.fantilli@polito.it [Department of ' Cultura del Progetto' , Universita di Napoli SUN, via San Lorenzo, Aversa 81031 (Italy)

    2011-07-19

    Both in architecture and arts, the golden section has been exclusively taken into consideration for its geometrical properties. Specifically, among all the proportions, the golden section can inspire beauty. Indeed, it has driven the construction of buildings for centuries. Nevertheless, as discussed for the first time in the present paper, static equilibrium of structures calls the golden section into play. This is the case of reinforced concrete beam in four point bending, whose average crack spacing in the constant moment zone increases of a factor equal to the irrational number 1.61803 when the geometrical dimensions of the beam are doubled. In other words, it can be argued that the centrality of golden section in the art of construction has profound physical meanings, as it can bring together the aesthetic of nature and architecture, and the equilibrium of stress flow in solid bodies.

  12. FLEXURAL CAPACITY OF THE PRECAST RC BEAM-COLUMN CONNECTION USING CFRP SHEET

    OpenAIRE

    Djamaluddin, Rudy; Rante, Harmonis; Irmawaty, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Precast concrete have advantages in quality and shorter construction time. The connection of a precast concrete structures is important for the successful construction. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the flexural capacity of the portal system beam-column connection of precast concrete using CFRP sheet. The study was conducted to develop a connection system using CFRP sheet on a precast concrete frame of a highway bridges. A series of specimens with parameter of CFRP shee...

  13. Quasi-plane-hypothesis of strain coordination for RC beams seismically strengthened with externally-bonded or near-surface mounted fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xiantao; Liu, Hanlong; Zhou, Fengjun

    2013-03-01

    The application of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP), including carbon FRP and glass FRP, for structural repair and strengthening has grown due to their numerous advantages over conventional materials such as externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) and near-surface mounted (NSM) strengthening techniques. This paper summarizes the results from 21 reinforced concrete beams strengthened with different methods, including externally-bonded and near-surface mounted FRP, to study the strain coordination of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam. Since there is relative slipping between the RC beam and the FRP, the strain of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam satisfy the quasi-plane-hypothesis; that is, the strain of the longitudinal fiber that parallels the neutral axis of the plated beam within the scope of the effective height ( h 0) of the cross section is in direct proportion to the distance from the fiber to the neutral axis. The strain of the FRP and steel rebar satisfies the equation: ɛ FRP= βɛ steel, and the value of β is equal to 1.1-1.3 according to the test results.

  14. Bonding capacity of the GFRP-S on strengthened RC beams after sea water immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mufti Amir; Djamaluddin, Rudy

    2017-11-01

    Construction of concrete structures that located in extreme environments are such as coastal areas will result in decreased strength or even the damage of the structures. As well know, chloride contained in sea water is responsible for strength reduction or structure fail were hence maintenance and repairs on concrete structure urgently needed. One popular method of structural improvements which under investigation is to use the material Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer which has one of the advantages such as corrosion resistance. This research will be conducted experimental studies to investigate the bonding capacity behavior of reinforced concrete beams with reinforcement GFRP-S immersed in sea water using immersion time of one month, three months, six months and twelve months. Test specimen consists of 12 pieces of reinforced concrete beams with dimensions (150x200x3000) mm that had been reinforced with GFRP-S in the area of bending, the beam without immersion (B0), immersion one month (B1), three months (B3), six months (B6) and twelve months (B12). Test specimen were cured for 28 days before the application of the GFRP sheet. Test specimen B1, B3, B6 and B12 that have been immersed in sea water pool with a immersion time each 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. The test specimen without immersion test by providing a static load until it reaches the failure, to record data during the test strain gauge mounted on the surface of the specimen and the GFRP to collect the strain value. From the research it obvious that there is a decrease bonding capacity on specimens immersed for one month, three months, six months and twelve months against the test object without immersion of 8.85%; 8.89%; 9.33% and 11.04%.

  15. Creep investigation of GFRP RC Beams - Part B: a theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masmoudi abdelmonem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study about the viscoelastic time-dependent (creep behavior of pultruded GFRP elements made of polyester and E-glass fibres. Experimental results reported in Part A are firstly used for material characterization by means of empirical and phenomenological formulations.   The superposition principles by adopting the law of creep following the Eurocode 2 recommendations are also investigated. Analytical study was also conducted including creep under constant stress; successions of increasing stress superposition principle equivalent time and the return creep reloading. The results of this study revealed that Beams reinforced with GFRP are less marked with creep phenomenon.  This investigation should guide the civil engineer/designer for a better understanding creep phenomenon in GFRP reinforced concrete members.

  16. Effect of shear span-to-depth ratio on the shear behavior of BFRP-RC deep beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamad Siyam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shear behavior of deep concrete beams reinforced with basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP bars for flexure without web reinforcements. The experimental testing performed herein consisted of a total of 4 short beams, three of which were reinforced with BFRP and one beam was reinforced with steel bars. The primary test variable was the shear-span-to-effective-depth ratio (a/d and its influence on the beams’ mid-span deflections, shear capacity, load-deformation relationships and the failure modes.

  17. Modèle de confinement pour les colonnes de section circulaire en béton armé confiné avec des enveloppes en polymère renforcé de fibres de carbone Confinement model for circular RC columns wrapped with CFRP composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzaid R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Un programme experimental comprenant des essais sur 30 cylindres 160×320 mm a ete mene en vue de determiner le gain de resistance et de ductilite du beton confine par collage externe de tissu de polymere renforce de fibres de carbone (PRFC. Les variables etudiees sont la resistance a la compression du beton non confine f’co, le niveau de confinement, exprime par le nombre de plis de PRFC applique aux eprouvettes. La deformation circonferentielle a la rupture du composite PRF et l’feffet de la pression de confinement laterale effective de l’fenveloppe composite ont ete egalement etudies. Pour l’fensemble des specimens testes, l’faugmentation de la rigidite du confinement entraine a la fois une augmentation significative de la resistance a la compression axiale et de la ductilite des specimens en beton confine avec des PRFC par rapport aux specimens en beton non confine. Base sur les resultats experimentaux, un modele de confinement pratique est propose pour predire la resistance a la compression maximale du beton confine avec des materiaux composites (f’cc et la deformation axiale correspondante (εcc. The present paper deals with the analysis of experimental results, in terms of load carrying capacity and strains, obtained from tests on plain- and reinforced- concrete (RC cylinder, strengthened with external carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP. The parameters considered are the number of composite layers, the compressive strength of unconfined concrete. The effective circumferential FRP failure strain and the effect of the effective lateral confining pressure were investigated. Totally thirty cylinders (160×320 mm were subjected to axial compression which includes control specimens. All the test specimens were loaded to failure in axial compression and the behaviour of the specimens in the axial and transverse directions was investigated. Test results shown that the CFRP wrap increases the strength and ductility of reinforced

  18. Effect of strong-column weak-beam design provision on the seismic fragility of RC frame buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Mitesh; Singh, Yogendra; Lang, Dominik H.

    2018-04-01

    Incremental dynamic analyses are conducted for a suite of low- and mid-rise reinforced-concrete special moment-resisting frame buildings. Buildings non-conforming and conforming to the strong-column weak-beam (SCWB) design criterion are considered. These buildings are designed for the two most severe seismic zones in India (i.e., zone IV and zone V) following the provisions of Indian Standards. It is observed that buildings non-conforming to the SCWB design criterion lead to an undesirable column failure collapse mechanism. Although yielding of columns cannot be avoided, even for buildings conforming to a SCWB ratio of 1.4, the observed collapse mechanism changes to a beam failure mechanism. This change in collapse mechanism leads to a significant increase in the building's global ductility capacity, and thereby in collapse capacity. The fragility analysis study of the considered buildings suggests that considering the SCWB design criterion leads to a significant reduction in collapse probability, particularly in the case of mid-rise buildings.

  19. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  20. On RC-spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  1. ELASTO-PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF RC FRAMES COMPOSED OF STEEL JACKETTED RC SHORT COLUMNS AND SPANDREL WALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study is a part of the investigation on the seismic design method for Double Tubes Hybrid System (DTHS) for buildings. This structural system consists of RC core walls as the interior tube, and the exterior frames composed of RC short columns and RC spandrel walls as the exterior tube. The RC core walls are designed as the Energy Dissipation Structural Walls (EDSW), which are composed of RC coupled shear walls linked by short steel H-shaped beams as the energy dissipation de...

  2. Design of RC frames for pre-selected collapse mechanism and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, total energy of RC frames is calculated and .... curvature relations of RC beam and column members are required for both ..... Case study ..... Turkish Seismic Design Code 2007 Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara.

  3. Identity as wrapping up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an understanding of cross-professional collaboration and to develop a notion of professional identity based in practice. The background of the paper is science and technology studies and more precisely actor network theory. The method used: The empirical analysis...... in close relation to the making of a report concerning the cross-professional collaboration. Findings are that “Identity as wrapping up” points to the way in which certain actors, by other actors, are maneuvered into certain pockets in a network. Identity as wrapping up is emphasized as a way...... of participating, which is closely connected to the intention to control the relation towards the other. Thus identity as wrapping up is argued to be a strategy to optimize the situation of one’s own profession. Conclusion: This articulation of identity contributes to the actor network literature as well...

  4. Non-Traditional Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  5. Plaster-Wrap Dragons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her students constructed a three-dimensional sculpture of a dragon using plaster wrap and other materials. The dragons were formed from modest means--using only a toilet-paper tube, newsprint, tape and wire.

  6. Development of chloride-induced corrosion in pre-cracked RC beams under sustained loading: Effect of load-induced cracks, concrete cover, and exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Linwen [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); François, Raoul, E-mail: raoul.francois@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Dang, Vu Hiep [Hanoi Architectural University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Hanoi (Viet Nam); L' Hostis, Valérie [CEA Saclay, CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gagné, Richard [Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This paper deals with corrosion initiation and propagation in pre-cracked reinforced concrete beams under sustained loading during exposure to a chloride environment. Specimen beams that were cast in 2010 were compared to specimens cast in 1984. The only differences between the two sets of beams were the casting direction in relation to tensile reinforcement and the exposure conditions in the salt-fog chamber. The cracking maps, corrosion maps, chloride profiles, and cross-sectional loss of one group of two beams cast in 2010 were studied and their calculated corrosion rates were compared to that of beams cast in 1984 in order to investigate the factors influencing the natural corrosion process. Experimental results show that, after rapid initiation of corrosion at the crack tip, the corrosion process practically halted and the time elapsing before corrosion resumed depended on the exposure conditions and cover depth.

  7. Wrapped Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    New NASA vehicles, such as Earth Departure Stage (EDS), Orion, landers, and orbiting fuel depots, need improved cryogenic propellant transfer and storage for long-duration missions. Current cryogen feed line multilayer insulation (MLI) performance is 10 times worse per area than tank MLI insulation. During each launch, cryogenic piping loses approximately 150,000 gallons (equivalent to $300,000) in boil-off during transfer, chill down, and ground hold. Quest Product Development Corp., teaming with Ball Aerospace, developed an innovative advanced insulation system, Wrapped MLI (wMLI), to provide improved thermal insulation for cryogenic feed lines. wMLI is high-performance multilayer insulation designed for cryogenic piping. It uses Quest's innovative discrete-spacer technology to control layer spacing/ density and reduce heat leak. The Phase I project successfully designed, built, and tested a wMLI prototype with a measured heat leak 3.6X lower than spiral-wrapped conventional MLI widely used for piping insulation. A wMLI prototype had a heat leak of 7.3 W/m2, or 27 percent of the heat leak of conventional MLI (26.7 W/m2). The Phase II project is further developing wMLI technology with custom, molded polymer spacers and advancing the product toward commercialization via a rigorous testing program, including developing advanced vacuuminsulated pipe for ground support equipment.

  8. Experimental Research on Seismic Performance of a New-Type of R/C Beam-Column Joints with End Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new-type of fabricated beam-column connections with end plates. The joint details are as follows: the concrete beams are connected to column by end plates and six high strength long bolts passing through the core area. In addition, in order to increase the stiffness and shear strength, stirrups are replaced by the steel plate hoop in the core zone. To examine the fail behavior of the fabricated beam-column connection specimens, a quasi-static test is conducted for nine full-scale models to obtain the hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, ductility, energy dissipation capacity, and other seismic indicators. The experimental results show that all specimens failed in bending in a malleable way with a beam plastic hinge and the hysteresis curves are excellently plump for the end plate connections. From the seismic indexes, the fabricated connection specimens exhibit better seismic performance, which can provide reference for the application of prefabricated frame structure in the earthquake area.

  9. Strengthening and repairing of damaged concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.K.; Ebrahiem, G.T.A.; Hassanein, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The main part in this investigation is concerned with the advanced techniques of retrofitting damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) were employed for this purpose. The aim of this paper is to investigate the advantage of using glass fiber .reinforced plastics (GFRP) to retrofit and repair damaged reinforced concrete beams. In this investigation, concrete beam specimens were preloaded up to the 60%, 70% arid 80% of their ultimate load capacity. The damaged beams were then repaired with one layer of FRP composite wraps and re-tested. Plastic reinforced by glass fibers 20% fiber volume fractions and with various fiber arrangement unidirectional, bi-directional and chopped were also considered. Four points bending test was adopted. The bending tests were performed on fourteen RC beams in addition to a two control, all of them were (225 30 15) cm in dimensions, and with a typical reinforcement details. Test results were indicative of the merit of using GFRP, as the ultimate loads were almost restored and the modes of failure were of ductile nature. Even more an increase in the ultimate bearing capacity was recorded for some of the retrofitted beams. The effects of the previously mentioned parameters on the cracking pattern and failure mode were reported and thoroughly discussed

  10. Wrap Spinning: Principles and Development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brydon, AG

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available A wrap yarn is a composite structure comprising a core of twisted or twisted fibres bound by a yarn or continuous filament. The term wrap yarn therefore include yarns produced by the hollow spindle method as well as similar structure such as selfil...

  11. Investigation on Strengthening Approaches Adopted for Poorly Detailed RC Corbels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chandra Neupane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor detailing of the position of bearing pad over reinforced concrete (RC corbel may lead to premature failure, which is undesired and structurally vulnerable. An appropriate retrofitting solution is necessary to ensure the functionality of such RC corbels. Considering the growing popularity of external carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP in retrofitting, this research examines the effectiveness of an externally wrapped unidirectional CFRP sheet and compares its performance against traditional retrofitting methods. Moreover, it is intended to fulfill the lack of extensive research on external CFRP application for corbel strengthening. A total of eight medium-scale corbel specimens were tested on vertical load. Observed premature failure due to placing the bearing pad near the edge of corbel was verified and the effectiveness of the proposed structural strengthening solutions was studied. Experimental results show that although the loading capacity of the damaged corbel due to the poor detailing of bearing pad position could not be fully recovered, the external CFRP wrapping method demonstrated superior performance over RC jacketing and was able to prevent localized failure. Further study based on non-linear 3D finite element analysis (FEA was carried out to identify the governing parameters of each retrofitting solution. Numerical studies suggested important parameters of various retrofitting alternatives for higher capacity assurance.

  12. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  13. MASH Test 3-11 on the T131RC Bridge Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) currently uses the TxDOT Type T101RC Bridge Rail, : a steel post and beam bridge rail anchored to the top of concrete curbs. The T101RC Bridge Rail is : 27 inches in height and can be anchored to the top of ...

  14. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  15. WRAP 2A product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    WRAP-2A will process mixed and low-level waste (MLLW) for disposal. The final treatment processes selected for use in WRAP-2A consist of stabilization using cementitious materials and immobilization using thermosetting polymers. Modifications or additions to these processes may be made as technology improvements become known. Knowledge of the diverse waste forms that must be processed will be important to the effective exploration of process technologies that may be available. This document is a compilation of the current knowledge of the waste and process methods specified for each type of waste. As the uncertainties associated with the waste and methods of processing are addressed and resolved, revisions to this document will be made. This document is broken down by feed stream, source of the waste, waste codes, radiological characterization and recommended final forms of the waste for each stream

  16. Branes wrapped on coassociative cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Rafael

    2001-06-01

    We obtain a supergravity solution arising when D6-branes are wrapped on coassociative four-cycles of constant curvature in seven manifolds of G 2 holonomy. The solutions preserve two supercharges and thus represent supergravity duals of three dimensional Yang-Mills with N=1 supersymmetry. When uplifted to eleven dimensions our solution describes M-theory on the background of an eight manifold with Spin(7) holonomy. (author)

  17. Toy models for wrapping effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penedones, Joao; Vieira, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The anomalous dimensions of local single trace gauge invariant operators in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be computed by diagonalizing a long range integrable Hamiltonian by means of a perturbative asymptotic Bethe ansatz. This formalism breaks down when the number of fields of the composite operator is smaller than the range of the Hamiltonian which coincides with the order in perturbation theory at study. We analyze two spin chain toy models which might shed some light on the physics behind these wrapping effects. One of them, the Hubbard model, is known to be closely related to N = 4 SYM. In this example, we find that the knowledge of the effective spin chain description is insufficient to reconstruct the finite size effects of the underlying electron theory. We compute the wrapping corrections for generic states and relate them to a Luscher like approach. The second toy models are long range integrable Hamiltonians built from the standard algebraic Bethe ansatz formalism. This construction is valid for any symmetry group. In particular, for non-compact groups it exhibits an interesting relation between wrapping interactions and transcendentality.

  18. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  19. Altitmeter for RC aircraft models

    OpenAIRE

    Švec, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Předmětem mé bakalářské práce je návrh výškoměru, který využívá pro záznam letové polohy modelu RC letadla vyhodnocování aktuálního atmosferického tlaku. Údaje jsou po dobu letu ukládány do paměti, odkud je možné je po skončení záznamu přes rozhraní USB uložit v PC. Software na PC zajišťuje komunikaci se zařízením a přepočet zaznamenaného tlaku na nadmořskou výšku RC modelu. The aim of my bachelor thesis is to design a altimeter, who uses to record the attitude of the model "RC plane" eval...

  20. Effects of delayed wrapping of baled silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of baled silage allows greater flexibility for harvest management when weather does not allow drying and harvesting forage as dry hay. However, timely wrapping on the day of baling can be difficult if significant numbers of bales need to be wrapped, or if a mechanical breakdown occurs. Researc...

  1. Limit analysis on FRP-strengthened RC members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. De Domenico

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC members strengthened with externally bonded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP plates are numerically investigated by a plasticity-based limit analysis approach. The key-concept of the present approach is to adopt proper constitutive models for concrete, steel reinforcement bars (re-bars and FRP strengthening plates according to a multi-yield-criteria formulation. This allows the prediction of concrete crushing, steel bars yielding and FRP rupture that may occur at the ultimate limit state. To simulate such limitstate of the analysed elements, two iterative methods performing linear elastic analyses with adaptive elastic parameters and finite elements (FEs description are employed. The peak loads and collapse mechanisms predicted for FRP-plated RC beams are validated by comparison with the corresponding experimental findings.

  2. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltakci, M. Y.; Ozturk, M.; Arslan, M. H.

    2010-09-01

    The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls) in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools). This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application) and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam). Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  3. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Kaltakci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools. This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam. Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  4. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferies, D.; Morris, J.W.; White, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model number-sign 90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique

  5. Electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Valeriu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two types of active configurations for realizing electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators. The type-1 network employs two grounded scaled resistances KR 1 and KR 2 , where K is scaling factor. The frequency of oscillation W 0 is controlled conveniently by adjusting K, since W 0 appears in the form W 0 =1/K √ R 1 C 1 R 2 C 2 . For realizing the scaled resistances, an active configuration is proposed, which realizes KR 1 =R 1 /(1+f(V B )), where f(V B ) denotes a function of a controlling voltage V B . Thus the frequency tuning can be effected by controlling a voltage V B . The type-2 oscillator uses two periodically switched conductances. It is shown that the tuning of oscillation frequency can be done by varying the pulse width-to-period ratio (t/T) of the periodically switched conductances. (author)

  6. Wrapping Our Brains around Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Curran

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As many of us begin to embrace the concept of sustainability, we realize that it is not simply something that we ‘do.’ Rather, sustainability is a destination that we aspire to reach with the selection of the sustainable pathways that we choose as we proceed along the journey. We are embarking on a new journey with the creation of Sustainability, an on-line, open access journal. As stated on the journal’s website, Sustainability is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly journal of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies that are related to sustainability and sustainable development. To genuinely wrap our brains around the impact that our actions have on the sustainability of our planet, we must first understand something of the big picture and have a firm grasp of the terminology. To help further clarify the elusive term ‘sustainability,’ without attempting to provide an exact definition, this paper outlines various, inter-related concepts and basic practices and approaches that are being used in the name of sustainability, including: traditional end-of-pipe control strategies, life cycle, environmental sustainability, urban sustainability, industrial ecology, business sustainability, sustainable supply chain systems, sustainability indicators and metrics, green chemistry and green engineering, design for the environment, sustainable buildings, eco-tourism, and renewable and sustainable energy and fuels.

  7. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  8. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General Provisions § 95.201 (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? The R/C Service is a private...

  9. Tests on coatings made of plastic wraps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radomil, M; Boubela, L

    1980-01-01

    Testing is a necessity to evaluate the quality of plastic wrappings used as pipe coatings. Many foreign producers indicate the quality of their products by specifying the physical properties of either insulating wraps (their fracture propagation, water-vapor penetrability, electrical resistance, etc.) or the primer with reference to a relevant foreign standard. In principle, therefore none of the insulating materials available are proved with regard to the actual operating properties of the entire insulating system - the corresponding primer and the laminated polyethylene wrap. Because of the need for total system testing, the Fuel Research Institute cooperated with Transitni Plynovod in determining the optimum system to recommend for insulation mechanically applied in the field.

  10. WRAP: a water reactor analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.M.

    1977-06-01

    The modular computational system known as the Water Reactor Analysis Package (WRAP) has been developed at the Savannah River Laboratory. WRAP is essentially a reprogrammed version of the RELAP4 computer code with an extensively restructured input format, a dynamic dimensioning capability and additional computational capabilities such as an automatic steady-state option for pressurized water reactors and an automatic restart capability with provision for renodalization. The report describes the capabilities of WRAP at its current stage of development. The addition of new capabilities (e.g., a BWR steady-state capability), the inclusion of improved models (e.g., models in RELAP4/M0D8) and the development of improved numerical techniques to reduce execution time are being planned at this time

  11. Radiolabelling of RC-160: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Balter Binsky, H.S.; Robles, A.M.; Rodriguez, G.; Souto, B.; Laiz, J.; Oliver, P.; Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    Vapreotide (RC-160) was labelled with 125 I using Chloramine-T and Iodogen methods and with 99m Tc by a direct method with sodium ditionite as reducing agent in the presence of ascorbic acid. Several methods of purification and quality control were evaluated. Yields of the reactions and of purification steps were calculated. The results obtained for the radioiodination reactions showed higher yields when limiting Chloramine-T method was used. Labelling of RC-160 with 99m Tc indicated better yields when high radioactivity concentration of the radionuclide was used. Stability of the products obtained was assessed at different post-labelling times by selected quality control methods: Sep-Pak cartridge as purification method and chromatography by RP-HPLC and ITLC-SG using saline solution as solvent. It was demonstrated that I-125-RC-160 and Tc-99m-RC-160 were stable during five weeks (at -20 deg. C) and 6 hours (at room temperature) respectively. Preliminary biodistribution of Tc-99m-RC-160 in normal rats and mice were done showing different biological behaviour compared with control animals injected with pertechnetate. In conclusion, RC-160 was successfully labelled with both radionuclides, with radiochemical purity higher than 95%. These results encourage further research work in animal models as well as to investigate the biochemical behaviour of radiolabelled peptide. (author)

  12. Pitting corrosion and structural reliability of corroding RC structures: Experimental data and probabilistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Mark G.; Al-Harthy, Ali

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic analysis is developed to assess the temporal and spatial variability of pitting corrosion on the reliability of corroding reinforced concrete (RC) structures. The structure considered herein is a singly reinforced RC beam with Y16 or Y27 reinforcing bars. Experimental data obtained from corrosion tests are used to characterise the probability distribution of pit depth. The RC beam is discretised into a series of small elements and maximum pit depths are generated for each reinforcing steel bar in each element. The loss of cross-sectional area, reduction in yield strength and reduction in flexural resistance are then inferred. The analysis considers various member spans, loading ratios, bar diameters and numbers of bars in a given cross-section, and moment diagrams. It was found that the maximum corrosion loss in a reinforcing bar conditional on beam collapse was no more than 16%. The probabilities of failure considering spatial variability of pitting corrosion were up to 200% higher than probabilities of failure obtained from a non-spatial analysis after 50 years of corrosion. This shows the importance of considering spatial variability in a structural reliability analysis for deteriorating structures, particularly for corroding RC beams in flexure

  13. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems

  14. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described

  15. Wrap-Attack Pack: Product Packaging Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…

  16. WRAP Module 1 waste characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the characterization methodology for waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility. The scope of this document includes all solid low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), mixed waste (MW), and dangerous waste. This document is not meant to be all-inclusive of the waste processed or generated within WRAP Module 1, but to present a methodology for characterization. As other streams are identified, the method of characterization will be consistent with the other streams identified in this plan. The WRAP Module 1 facility is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The facility's function is two-fold. The first is to verify/characterize, treat and repackage contact handled (CH) waste currently in retrievable storage in the LLW Burial Grounds, Hanford Central Waste Complex, and the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF). The second is to verify newly generated CH TRU waste and LLW, including MW. The WRAP Module 1 facility provides NDE and NDA of the waste for both drums and boxes. The NDE is used to identify the physical contents of the waste containers to support waste characterization and processing, verification, or certification. The NDA results determine the radioactive content and distribution of the waste

  17. Dose determination with plane-parallel ionization chambers in therapeutic electron and photon beams. Report of the 2nd research co-ordinated meeting (326-E2-RC-641.2), March 30 - April 3, 1998, Barcelona, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1987, the IAEA published a report entitled 'Absorbed Dose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams: An International Code of Practice' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 277) to advise users how to obtain the absorbed dose in water from the measurements made with an ionization chamber, calibrated in terms of air kerma. For high-energy photons (energies above 1 MeV) the chamber calibration was at a single photon quality (Cobalt-60 gamma rays). The scientific scope of the Co-ordinated Research Project is to investigate the accuracy of the new data and procedures included in the Code of Practice IAEA TRS-381. Differences with existing recommendations, published by national organizations, are to be evaluated to analyze the possible impact on patient dosimetry. The second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was organized to revise the activities in the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) and the status of the various projects. The status of the on-going work under the frame of the CRP was presented by the participants in the RCM during the first two days and each contribution discussed in detail. During the following days, plans were made on the work left for each participant to complete the project and the feasibility of preparing a report describing in detail the work done in the project

  18. Fractional-order RC and RL circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2012-05-30

    This paper is a step forward to generalize the fundamentals of the conventional RC and RL circuits in fractional-order sense. The effect of fractional orders is the key factor for extra freedom, more flexibility, and novelty. The conditions for RC and RL circuits to act as pure imaginary impedances are derived, which are unrealizable in the conventional case. In addition, the sensitivity analyses of the magnitude and phase response with respect to all parameters showing the locations of these critical values are discussed. A qualitative revision for the fractional RC and RL circuits in the frequency domain is provided. Numerical and PSpice simulations are included to validate this study. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  19. Effect of scopoletin on fascia-wrapped diced cartilage grafts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgically wrapped diced cartilages exhibit various degrees of resorption; thus, it has been recommended that fascia be used to wrap diced cartilages. However, few surgeons suggest the use of AlloDerm for wrapping because the harvesting of fascia may cause hematoma and alopecia [17]. Additionally, block grafts have a.

  20. Out-of-plane ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nukui, Yasushi; Imamura, Akira; Terayama, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Kojima, Isao

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the out-of-plane shear in RC mat-slab foundations, and the reasonable method has been demanded to estimate ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations in the nuclear facilities. In the previous study, the out-of-plane loading tests on the 20 square slab specimens had been performed to collect the fundamental data. In this study, the test results were successfully predicted by 3D non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It has been confirmed that the ultimate shear stress in the slab specimen can be estimated by the Arakawa's formula, which is commonly used to estimate the shear strength of RC beams. (author)

  1. Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Smith, Kevin G.; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims to communi......The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims...... to communicate best practices in conserving biodiversity and sustaining ecosystem services to potential users and to promote the wise-use of aquatic resources, improve livelihoods and enhance policy information....

  2. RC Circuits: Some Computer-Interfaced Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Pratibha; Verma, Mallika

    1994-01-01

    Describes a simple computer-interface experiment for recording the response of an RC network to an arbitrary input excitation. The setup is used to pose a variety of open-ended investigations in network modeling by varying the initial conditions, input signal waveform, and the circuit topology. (DDR)

  3. Implementation of RC5 and RC6 block ciphers on digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaj Mohamed, A.; Zaibi, G.; Kachouri, A.

    2011-01-01

    With the fast evolution of the networks technology, the security becomes an important research axis. Many types of communication require the transmission of digital images. This transmission must be safe especially in applications that require a fairly high level of security such as military applications, spying, radars, and biometrics applications. Mechanisms for authentication, confidentiality, and integrity must be implemented within their community. For this reason, several cryptographic algorithms have been developed to ensure the safety and reliability of this transmission. In this paper, we investigate the encryption efficiency of RC5 and RC6 block cipher applied to digital images by including a statistical and differential analysis then, and also we investigate those two block ciphers against errors in ambient noise. The security analysis shows that RC6 algorithm is more secure than RC5. However, using RC6 to encrypt images in rough environment (low signal to noise ratio) leads to more errors (almost double of RC5) and may increase energy consumption by retransmitting erroneous packets. A compromise security/energy must be taken into account for the good choice of encryption algorithm.

  4. 47 CFR 95.221 - (R/C Rule 21) How do I have my R/C transmitter serviced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC certificated R/C transmitter (see R/C Rule 9) must be made in accord with the Technical... in order to: (1) Adjust a transmitter to an antenna; (2) Detect or measure radiation of energy other...

  5. Tapered Polymer Fiber Sensors for Reinforced Concrete Beam Vibration Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Ibrahim, Zainah; Ma, Jianxun; Ismail, Zubaidah; Iseley, David Thomas

    2016-12-16

    In this study, tapered polymer fiber sensors (TPFSs) have been employed to detect the vibration of a reinforced concrete beam (RC beam). The sensing principle was based on transmission modes theory. The natural frequency of an RC beam was theoretically analyzed. Experiments were carried out with sensors mounted on the surface or embedded in the RC beam. Vibration detection results agreed well with Kistler accelerometers. The experimental results found that both the accelerometer and TPFS detected the natural frequency function of a vibrated RC beam well. The mode shapes of the RC beam were also found by using the TPFSs. The proposed vibration detection method provides a cost-comparable solution for a structural health monitoring (SHM) system in civil engineering.

  6. Fractional RC and LC Electrical Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Aguilar José Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation for the electrical RC and LC circuit in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 < ɣ ≤1. To keep the dimensionality of the physical parameters R, L, C the new parameter σ is introduced. This parameter characterizes the existence of fractional structures in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative ɣ and the new parameter σ is found. The numeric Laplace transform method was used for the simulation of the equations results. The results show that the fractional differential equations generalize the behavior of the charge, voltage and current depending of the values of ɣ. The classical cases are recovered by taking the limit when ɣ = 1. An analysis in the frequency domain of an RC circuit shows the application and use of fractional order differential equations.

  7. The sentence wrap-up dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Laurie A; Kaan, Edith; Sabourin, Laura; Taylor, Ryan C

    2018-03-30

    Current sentence processing research has focused on early effects of the on-line incremental processes that are performed at each word or constituent during processing. However, less attention has been devoted to what happens at the end of the clause or sentence. More specifically, over the last decade and a half, a lot of effort has been put into avoiding measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs) at the final word of a sentence, because of the possible effects of sentence wrap-up. This article reviews the evidence on how and when sentence wrap-up impacts behavioral and ERP results. Even though the end of the sentence is associated with a positive-going ERP wave, thus far this effect has not been associated with any factors hypothesized to affect wrap-up. In addition, ERP responses to violations have not been affected by this positivity. "Sentence-final" negativities reported in the literature are not unique to sentence final positions, nor do they obscure or distort ERP effects associated with linguistic manipulations. Finally, the empirical evidence used to argue that sentence-final ERPs are different from those recorded at sentence-medial positions is weak at most. Measuring ERPs at sentence-final positions is therefore certainly not to be avoided at all costs, especially not in cases where the structure of the language under investigation requires it. More importantly, researchers should follow rigorous method in their experimental design, avoid decision tasks which may induce ERP confounds, and ensure all other possible explanations for results are considered. Although this article is directed at a particular dogma from a particular literature, this review shows that it is important to reassess what is regarded as "general knowledge" from time to time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  9. Biological data integration: wrapping data and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Zoé

    2002-06-01

    Nowadays scientific data is inevitably digital and stored in a wide variety of formats in heterogeneous systems. Scientists need to access an integrated view of remote or local heterogeneous data sources with advanced data accessing, analyzing, and visualization tools. Building a digital library for scientific data requires accessing and manipulating data extracted from flat files or databases, documents retrieved from the Web as well as data generated by software. We present an approach to wrapping web data sources, databases, flat files, or data generated by tools through a database view mechanism. Generally, a wrapper has two tasks: it first sends a query to the source to retrieve data and, second builds the expected output with respect to the virtual structure. Our wrappers are composed of a retrieval component based on an intermediate object view mechanism called search views mapping the source capabilities to attributes, and an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) engine, respectively, to perform these two tasks. The originality of the approach consists of: 1) a generic view mechanism to access seamlessly data sources with limited capabilities and 2) the ability to wrap data sources as well as the useful specific tools they may provide. Our approach has been developed and demonstrated as part of the multidatabase system supporting queries via uniform object protocol model (OPM) interfaces.

  10. Numerical study on shear resisting mechanism for corroded RC box culverts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Iwamori, Akiyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of reinforcing steel corrosion on the shear resisting mechanism of RC box culverts and the applicability of the material degradation model in a finite element method. First, in FEM analyses, loss of reinforcement section area and initial tension strain due to reinforcement corrosion, and deteriorated bond characteristics between reinforcement and concrete, were considered. Second, cyclic loading tests using full-scale corroded specimens were numerically analyzed. The analyzed crack patterns and load-displacement relationships up to the maximum load were observed to be in close agreement with the experiment results within the average corrosion ratio of 10% of primary reinforcement. The fact that corrosion cracks can importantly affect the progression of shear cracks and shear strength of RC beams was also found. On the other hand, we established that RC box culverts being statically indeterminate structures, sectional forces are redistributed after cracking damage, and local material deterioration has a minor effect on shear capacity. Furthermore, a parametric study was carried out for corroded RC box culverts using parameters such as size, steel corrosion location, and corrosion level. (author)

  11. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  12. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) Drawing List

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEIDERT, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This supporting document delineates the process of identification, categorization, and/or classification of the WRAP facility drawings used to support facility operations and maintenance. This document provides a listing of those essential or safety related drawings which have been identified to date. All other WRAP facility drawings have been classified as general

  13. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be...

  14. Structural Behaviors of Reinforced Concrete Piers Rehabilitated with FRP Wraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsuk Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP wraps to retrofit and strengthen existing structures such as reinforced concrete piers is becoming popular due to the higher tensile strength, durability, and flexibility gained and the method’s ease of handling and low installation and maintenance costs. As yet, however, few guidelines have been developed for determining the optimum thicknesses of the FRP wraps applied to external surfaces of concrete or masonry structures. In this study, nonlinear pushover finite element analyses were utilized to analyze the complex structural behaviors of FRP-wrapped reinforced rectangular piers. Design parameters such as pier section sizes, pier heights, pier cap lengths, compressive strengths of concrete, and the thicknesses of the FRP wraps used were thoroughly tested under incremental lateral and vertical loads. The results provide useful guidelines for analyzing and designing appropriate FRP wraps for existing concrete piers.

  15. ECE diagnostics for RTO/RC ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayakis, G.; Bartlett, D.V.; Costley, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) diagnostic on the Reduced Technical Objectives/Reduced Cost International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It discusses the implications of the new machine design on the measurement requirements, the ability of the diagnostic technique to meet these, and the changes in the implementation imposed by the new layout. Finally, it outlines the physics studies, design and R and D work required prior to the detailed design and construction of the diagnostic. Key results are: (i) that the localisation of the measurement is similar to that in ITER-FDR (40-100 mm in X-mode, 60-200 mm in O-mode for the reference scenario), so that the relative spatial resolution degrades in this, smaller, machine, and (ii) the expected effect of transport barriers on the temperature profile in the high temperature region will be poorly resolved, because the effect of the temperature gradient on the outboard side is to degrade the resolution to (∼250 mm in X-mode, ∼350 mm in O-mode). Nevertheless ECE will be able to make a unique and useful contribution to the RTO/RC ITER measurement set

  16. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on nitrogen balance and blood urea nitrogen in gestating sheep offered alfalfa silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposing ensiled forage to oxygen can result in DM deterioration and reduce silage intake by animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on N balance and blood urea N in gestating sheep offered alfalfa si...

  17. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber

  18. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber.

  19. Study on reinforced concrete high-rise building using prefabricated beam-column joints. Part 3. ; Basic anchorage behaviors of longitudinal bars of beams. Hahsirater dot hari setsugobu PC ka koho (PG connection koho) wo mochiita RC koso tatemono no kaihatsu. 3. ; Hari shukin no kisoteki teichaku seijo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEkine, M.; Yoshioka, K.; Eto, H. (Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-10

    Pull-out tests were carried out to examine basic anchorage behaviors of through holes for beam re-bars by using a PG connection method, in which columns and beam-column joints with through holes for beam re-bars in the reinforced concrete framed construction are precast simultaneously. Specimens made by the PG connection method showed better anchorage behaviors than specimens made by the conventional anchorage method. In case of anchorage width of 80cm and concrete strength of about 350kgf/cm{sup 2}, it was recognized that large slipping of re-bars did not occur under allowable bond stress when the interval between re-bars was not less than 15cm and covering depth to the core of re-bars was not less than 8cm. Concerning a specimen which did not show splitting bond failure because of lateral compressive stress, bond stress of re-bars when large slipping occurred was 1.5 times or more in comparison with the allowable bond stress. Since this specimen held high slipping rigidity even after increase of slipping, its anchoring stress increased by 32-57% compared with a specimen without lateral compressive stress. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication for intrathoracic migration of wrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic fundoplication is fast emerging as the treatment of choice of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, a complication peculiar to laparoscopic surgery for this disease is the intrathoracic migration of the wrap. This article describes a case of a male patient who developed this particular complication after laparoscopic total fundoplication. Following a trauma, wrap migration occurred. The typical history and symptomatology is described. The classical Barium swallow picture is enclosed. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication was carried out. The difficulties encountered are described. Postoperative wrap migration can be suspected clinically by the presence of a precipitating event and typical symptomatology. Confirmation is by a Barium swallow. Treatment is by redo surgery.

  1. IIA/B, Wound and Wrapped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, Ulf H.; Guijosa, Alberto; Kruczenski, Martin

    2000-01-01

    We examine the T-duality relation between 1+1 NCOS and the DLCQ limit of type IIA string theory. We show that, as long as there is a compact dimension, one can meaningfully define an 'NCOS' limit of IIB/A string theory even in the absence of D-branes (and even if there is no B-field). This yields a theory of closed strings with strictly positive winding, which is T-dual to DLCQ IIA/B without any D-branes. We call this the Type IIB/A Wound String Theory. The existence of decoupled sectors can be seen directly from the energy spectrum, and mirrors that of the DLCQ theory. It becomes clear then that all of the different p+1 NCOS theories are simply different states of this single Wound IIA/B theory which contain D-branes. We study some of the properties of this theory. In particular, we show that upon toroidal compactification, Wound string theory is U-dual to various Wrapped Brane theories which contain OM theory and the ODp theories as special states. (author)

  2. Development of wire wrapping technology for FBR fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Tetsuya; Seki, Nobuo; Sawayama, Takeo; Ishibashi, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    For the FBR fuel assembly, the spacer wire is adopted to maintain the space between fuel pins. The developments have been carried out to achieve automatically wire wrapping with high precision. Based on the fundamental technology developed through the mock-up test operation, Joyo 'MK-I', fuel pin fabrication was started using partially mechanized wire wrapping machine in 1973. In 1978, an automated wire wrapping machine for Joyo 'MK-II' was developed by the adoption of some improvements for the wire inserting system to end plug hole and the precision of wire pitch. On the bases of these experiences, fully automated wire wrapping machine for 'Monju' fuel pin was installed at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in 1987. (author)

  3. Thermal hydraulic evaluation of advanced wire-wrapped assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic analyses presented in this report are based on application of the subchannel concept in association with the use of bulk parameters for coolant velocity and coolant temperature within a subchannel. The interactions between subchannels are due to turbulent interchange, pressure-induced diversion crossflow, directed sweeping crossflow induced by the helical wire wrap, and transverse thermal conduction. The FULMIX-II computer program was successfully developed to perform the steady-state temperature predictions for LMFBR fuel assemblies with the reference straight-start design and the advanced wire-wrap designs. Predicted steady-state temperature profiles are presented for a typical CRBRP 217-rod wire-wrapped assembly with the selected wire-wrap designs

  4. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Weight Scale Analysis Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fairbanks Weight Scales are used at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility to determine the weight of waste drums as they are received, processed, and shipped. Due to recent problems, discovered during calibration, the WRAP Engineering Department has completed this document which outlines both the investigation of the infeed conveyor scale failure in September of 1999 and recommendations for calibration procedure modifications designed to correct deficiencies in the current procedures

  5. Assessment of SFR Wire Wrap Simulation Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchini, Marc-Olivier G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Popov, Emilian L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Swiler, Laura P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Predictive modeling and simulation of nuclear reactor performance and fuel are challenging due to the large number of coupled physical phenomena that must be addressed. Models that will be used for design or operational decisions must be analyzed for uncertainty to ascertain impacts to safety or performance. Rigorous, structured uncertainty analyses are performed by characterizing the model’s input uncertainties and then propagating the uncertainties through the model to estimate output uncertainty. This project is part of the ongoing effort to assess modeling uncertainty in Nek5000 simulations of flow configurations relevant to the advanced reactor applications of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. Three geometries are under investigation in these preliminary assessments: a 3-D pipe, a 3-D 7-pin bundle, and a single pin from the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility. Initial efforts have focused on gaining an understanding of Nek5000 modeling options and integrating Nek5000 with Dakota. These tasks are being accomplished by demonstrating the use of Dakota to assess parametric uncertainties in a simple pipe flow problem. This problem is used to optimize performance of the uncertainty quantification strategy and to estimate computational requirements for assessments of complex geometries. A sensitivity analysis to three turbulent models was conducted for a turbulent flow in a single wire wrapped pin (THOR) geometry. Section 2 briefly describes the software tools used in this study and provides appropriate references. Section 3 presents the coupling interface between Dakota and a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code (Nek5000 or STARCCM+), with details on the workflow, the scripts used for setting up the run, and the scripts used for post-processing the output files. In Section 4, the meshing methods used to generate the THORS and 7-pin bundle meshes are explained. Sections 5, 6 and 7 present numerical results

  6. Nde of Frp Wrapped Columns Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Dutta, Shasanka Shekhar; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using Infrared Thermography (IRT) for detecting debonds in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) wrapped columns. Laboratory tests were conducted on FRP wrapped concrete cylinders of size 6″×12″ (152.4 mm×304.8 mm) in which air-filled and water-filled debonds of various sizes were placed underneath the FRP wraps. Air-filled debonds were made by cutting plastic sheets into the desired sizes whereas water-filled debonds were made by filling water in custom made polyethylene pouches. Both carbon and glass fiber reinforced wraps were considered in this study. Infrared tests were conducted using a fully radiometric digital infrared camera which was successful in detecting air-filled as well as water-filled subsurface debonds. In addition to the laboratory testing, two field trips were made to Moorefield, West Virginia for detecting subsurface debonds in FRP wrapped timber piles of a railroad bridge using infrared testing. The results revealed that infrared thermography can be used as an effective nondestructive evaluation tool for detecting subsurface debonds in structural components wrapped with carbon or glass reinforced composite fabrics.

  7. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  8. Vapreotide: BMY 41606, RC 160, Sanvar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Vapreotide [Octastatin, Sanvar, RC 160, BMY 41606] is a somatostatin analogue developed at Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA, which holds patent rights for vapreotide. Vapreotide provides a much higher metabolic stability than its parent compound. Vapreotide was licensed to Debiopharm for development in Europe. Vapreotide is usually administered SC although a slow-release IM formulation is also available. Other sustained-release formulations are under development. H3 Pharma plans to sign agreements for all indications in the core markets of North America, Europe and in non-core geographic regions during 2003. H3 Pharma will also seek to obtain registration and early market entry in non-core countries with help from partners. Sanvar Immediate Release (IR) has been submitted for approval within the European Union for the treatment of acute oesophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). Sanvar IR has been awarded orphan drug status in the US for EVB. In July 2003, H3 Pharma received written confirmation from the US FDA that the dossier for Sanvar is fileable for registration in the United States for the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). The Sanvar IR (immediate-release) formulation is expected to enter the US market by late 2004. H3 Pharma expects to file for Latin American registration for this indication in the second half of 2003, with registrations in other regions to follow. Sanvar SR has been submitted for Orphan Drug designation.

  9. Seismic Performance of Precast Polystyrene RC Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Ari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast concrete structure such as precast wall is a concept that is growing rapidly these days. However, the earthquake resistance is believed to be one of its drawbacks. Additionally, the large weight of solid elements also increase the building weight significantly which consequently increase the earthquake base shear force as well. Therefore, investigation on the seismic performance of precast concrete wall has been carried out. Three RC wall specimens using wire mesh reinforcement and EPS (Extended Polystyrene System panel have been tested. This wall was designed as a structural wall that was capable in sustaining lateral loads (in-plane yet were lightweight to reduce the total weight of the building. Parameter observed was the ratio of height to width (aspect ratio of wall of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively with the aim to study the behaviour of brittle to ductile transition of the wall. Incremental static load tests were conducted until reaching peak load and then followed by displacement control until failure. Several data were measured at every stage of loading comprising lateral load-displacement behaviour, ultimate strength and collapse mechanism. The outcomes showed that precast concrete walls with a steel wire and EPS panel filler provided considerably good resistance against lateral load.

  10. Quasi-stationary mechanics of elastic continua with bending stiffness wrapping on a pulley system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, S.; Mirhadizadeh, S.

    2016-05-01

    In many engineering applications elastic continua such as ropes and belts often are subject to bending when they pass over pulleys / sheaves. In this paper the quasi-stationary mechanics of a cable-pulley system is studied. The cable is modelled as a moving Euler- Bernoulli beam. The distribution of tension is non-uniform along its span and due to the bending stiffness the contact points at the pulley-beam boundaries are not unknown. The system is described by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with undetermined boundary conditions. The resulting nonlinear Boundary Value Problem (BVP) with unknown boundaries is solved by converting the problem into the ‘standard’ form defined over a fixed interval. Numerical results obtained for a range of typical configurations with relevant boundary conditions applied demonstrate that due to the effects of bending stiffness the angels of wrap are reduced and the span tensions are increased.

  11. The Second ICASE/LaRC Industry Roundtable: Session Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girimaji, Sharath

    1997-01-01

    The second ICASE/LaRC Industry Roundtable was held October 7-9, 1996 at the Williamsburg Hospitality House, Williamsburg, Virginia. Like the first roundtable in 1994, this meeting had two objectives: (1) to expose ICASE and LaRC scientists to industrial research agendas; and (2) to acquaint industry with the capabilities and technology available at ICASE, LaRC and academic partners of ICASE. Nineteen sessions were held in three parallel tracks. Of the 170 participants, over one third were affiliated with various industries. Proceedings from the different sessions are summarized in this report.

  12. WRAP module 1 DMS/PCS interface definition document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This document has been developed to define the computer software interfaces between Waste Receiving ampersand Processing Module 1 (WRAP 1) computer systems. The interfaces include those data interfaces which exist between the Plant Control System (PCS) and Data Management System (DMS), between the DMS and Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) equipment, and between the DMS and Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) equipment. In addition to the data interfaces between the various WRAP computer systems; there are also a number of control functions between WRAP 1 equipment. These control function interfaces have been specified in WRAP Construction specification 13462 and the associated equipment specifications. The PCS vendor has been listed in the equipment specifications as the responsible party for establishing the final control system interface between the PCS and Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Equipment, the PCS and Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Equipment, and the PCS and BWAS equipment. The primary interface requirements between these systems are addressed in Specification Sections 13462, 13532, 13533, 13026, 13537, and 13538. Additional requirements may be found in other specification sections such as the Automatic Stacker Retriever System (AS/RS) Technical Specification 14520 and the WRAP 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

  13. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  14. Analysis and optimization of RC delay in vertical nanoplate FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Changbeom; Ko, Kyul; Kim, Jongsu; Kim, Minsoo; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed short channel effects (SCEs) and RC delay with Vertical nanoplate FET (VNFET) using 3-D Technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. The device is based on International Technology Road-map for Semiconductor (ITRS) 2013 recommendations, and it has initially gate length (LG) of 12.2 nm, channel thickness (Tch) of 4 nm, and spacer length (LSD) of 6 nm. To obtain improved performance by reducing RC delay, each dimension is adjusted (LG = 12.2 nm, Tch = 6 nm, LSD = 11.9 nm). It has each characteristic in this dimension (Ion/Ioff = 1.64 × 105, Subthreshold swing (S.S.) = 73 mV/dec, Drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) = 60 mV/V, and RC delay = 0.214 ps). Furthermore, with long shallow trench isolation (STI) length and thick insulator thickness (Ti), we can reduce RC delay from 0.214 ps to 0.163 ps. It is about a 23.8% reduction. Without decreasing drain current, there is a reduction of RC delay as reducing outer fringing capacitance (Cof). Finally, when source/drain spacer length is set to be different, we have verified RC delay to be optimum.

  15. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, M.A.; Cammann, J.W.; McBeath, R.S.; Rode, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    A new Hanford waste management facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility (planned to be operational by FY 1994) will receive, inspect, process, and repackage contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) contaminated solid wastes. The wastes will be certified according to the waste acceptance criteria for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) geologic repository in southeast New Mexico. Three alternatives which could cost effectively be applied to certify Hanford CH-TRU waste to the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) have been examined in this updated engineering study. The alternatives differed primarily in the reference processing systems used to transform nonconforming waste into an acceptable, certified waste form. It is recommended to include the alternative of shredding and immobilizing nonconforming wastes in cement (shred/grout processing) in the WRAP facility. Preliminary capital costs for WRAP in mid-point-of-construction (FY 1991) dollars were estimated at $45 million for new construction and $37 million for modification and installation in an existing Hanford surplus facility (231-Z Building). Operating, shipping, and decommissioning costs in FY 1986 dollars were estimated at $126 million, based on a 23-y WRAP life cycle (1994 to 2017). During this period, the WRAP facility will receive an estimated 38,000 m 3 (1.3 million ft 3 ) of solid CH-TRU waste. The study recommends pilot-scale testing and evaluation of the processing systems planned for WRAP and advises further investigation of the 231-Z Building as an alternative to new facility construction

  16. A Plastic Design Method for RC Moment Frame Buildings against Progressive Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Faghihmaleki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, progressive collapse potential of generic 3-, 8- and 12-storey RC moment frame buildings designed based on IBC-2006 code was investigated by performing non-linear static and dynamic analyses. It was observed that the model structures had high potential for progressive collapse when the second floor column was suddenly removed. Then, the size of beams required to satisfy the failure criteria for progressive collapse was obtained by using the virtual work method; i.e., using the equilibrium of the external work done by gravity load due to loss of a column and the internal work done by plastic rotation of beams. According to the nonlinear dynamic analysis results, the model structures designed only for normal load turned out to have strong potential for progressive collapse whereas the structures designed by plastic design concept for progressive collapse satisfied the failure criterion recommended by the GSA code. 

  17. Vortex-Induced Vibration Tests of a Marine Growth Wrapped Cylinder at Subcritical Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian V. J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV may cause great damage to deep water risers. Estimation of accurate hydrodynamic coefficients and response amplitudes for fouled tubular cylinders subjected to VIVs is a complex task. This paper presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation on in-line and cross-flow forces acting on cylinders wrapped with marine growth, subjected to current at Subcritical Reynolds Number. The drag and lift force coefficients have been determined through the use of the Fast Fourier Analysis methods. The different tests were conducted in the offshore engineering laboratory at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP, Malaysia. In this study, a cylinder with outer diameter Do = 27 mm, fixed at top as cantilever beam was used. The in-line and cross-flow forces were measured using VIV Force Totaller (VIVFT. VIVFT is a two degree of freedom (2DOF forces sensor developed by UTP to measure the VIV forces. The tests were conducted for current velocity varied between 0.118 to 0.59 m/s. The test results suggest that the cylinder wrapped with marine growth has shown an overall increase in drag and inertia coefficients as well as on response amplitudes.

  18. Collisionless effects on beam-return current systems in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study of the beam-return current system (BRCS) in solar flares shows that the precipitating electrons modify the way in which the return current (RC) is carried by the background plasma. In particular it is found that the RC is not carried by the bulk of the electrons but by a small number of high-velocity electrons. For beam/plasma densities exceeding approximately 0.001, this can reduce the effects of collisions and heating by the RC. For higher-density beams, where the RC could be unstable to current-driven instabilities, the effects of strong turbulence anomalous resistivity prevent the appearance of such instabilities. The main conclusion is that the BRCS is interconnected, and that the beam-generated strong turbulence determines how the RC is carried.

  19. Fabrication details for wire wrapped fuel assembly components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosy, B.J.

    1978-09-01

    Extensive hydraulic testing of simulated LMFBR blanket and fuel assemblies is being carried out under this MIT program. The fabrication of these test assemblies has involved development of manufacturing procedures involving the wire wrapped pins and the flow housing. The procedures are described in detail in the report

  20. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the WRAP Module 1 Facility on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  1. Implementation plan for WRAP Module 1 operational readiness review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP 1) will be used to receive, sample, treat, and ship contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU), low-level waste (LLW), and low-level mixed waste (LLMW) to storage and disposal sites both on the Hanford site and off-site. The primary mission of WRAP 1 is to characterize and certify CH waste in 55-gallon and 85-gallon drums; and its secondary function is to certify CH waste standard waste boxes (SWB) and boxes of similar size for disposal. The WRAP 1 will provide the capability for examination (including x-ray, visual, and contents sampling), limited treatment, repackaging, and certification of CH suspect-TRU waste in 55-gallon drums retrieved from storage, as well as newly generated CH LLW and CH TRU waste drums. The WRAP 1 will also provide examination (X-ray and visual only) and certification of CH LLW and CH TRU waste in small boxes. The decision to perform an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) was made in accordance with WHC-CM-5-34, Solid Waste Disposal Operations Administration, Section 1.4, Operational Readiness Activities. The ORR will ensure plant and equipment readiness, management and personnel readiness, and management programs readiness for the initial startup of the facility. This implementation plan is provided for defining the conduct of the WHC ORR

  2. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the WRAP Module 1 Facility on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  3. Operational readiness review phase-1 final report for WRAP-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-27

    This report documents the Operational Readiness Review for WRAP-1 Phase-1 operations. The report includes all criteria, lines of inquiry with resulting Findings and Observations. The review included assessing operational capability of the organization and the computer controlled process and facility systems.

  4. ROOM TEMPERATURE BULK SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOCABLES WRAPPED WITH POLYPYRROLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet chemical synthesis of silver cables wrapped with polypyrrole is reported in aqueous media without use of any surfactant/capping agent and/or template. The method employs direct polymerization of pyrrole of an aqueous solution with AgNO3 as an oxidizing agent. The four probe c...

  5. DMS test summary report for the WRAP facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1997-11-04

    This report documents the functional and integration testing process performed to verify functionality of the Release 1.1, Release 2.0, Release 3.0 and Release 3.1 software for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) Data Management Systems (DMS) Release 2.

  6. DMS test summary report for the WRAP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the functional and integration testing process performed to verify functionality of the Release 1.1, Release 2.0, Release 3.0 and Release 3.1 software for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) Data Management Systems (DMS) Release 2

  7. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for wire-wrapped PWR cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diller, P. [General Electric Company, 3901 Castle Hayne Rd., Wilmington, NC 28401 (United States)], E-mail: pdiller@gmail.com; Todreas, N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: todreas@mit.edu; Hejzlar, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This work focuses on the steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic analyses for PWR cores using wire wraps in a hexagonal array with either U (45% w/o)-ZrH{sub 1.6} (referred to as U-ZrH{sub 1.6}) or UO{sub 2} fuels. Equivalences (thermal-hydraulic and neutronic) were created between grid spacer and wire wrap designs, and were used to apply results calculated for grid spacers to wire wrap designs. Design limits were placed on the pressure drop, critical heat flux (CHF), fuel and cladding temperature and vibrations. The vibrations limits were imposed for flow-induced vibrations (FIV) and thermal-hydraulic vibrations (THV). The transient analysis examined an overpower accident, loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and loss of flow accident (LOFA). The thermal-hydraulic performance of U-ZrH{sub 1.6} and UO{sub 2} were found very similar. Relative to grid spacer designs, wire wrap designs were found to have smaller fretting wear, substantially lower pressure drop and higher CHF. As a result, wire wrap cores were found to offer substantially higher maximum powers than grid spacer cores, allowing for a 25% power increase relative to the grid spacer uprate [Shuffler, C.A., Malen, J.A., Trant, J.M., Todreas, N.E., 2009a. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for grid supported and inverted fueled PWR cores. Nuclear Technology (this special issue devoted to hydride fuel in LWRs)] and a 58% power increase relative to the reference core.

  8. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLS, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary

  9. R$_{b}$ - R$_{c}$ crisis and new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, G; Hou Wei Shu; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Branco, Gustavo C; Hou, Wei Shu

    1996-01-01

    The experimental values of R_b and R_c are the only data which do not seem to agree with Standard Model predictions. Although it is still premature to draw any definite conclusions, it is timely to look for new physics which could explain the excess in R_b and deficit in R_c. We investigate this problem in a simple extension of the Standard Model, where a charge +2/3 isosinglet quark is added to the standard spectrum. Upon the further introduction of an extra scalar doublet, one finds a solution with interesting consequences.

  10. Deformation Analysis of RC Ties Externally Strengthened with FRP Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribniak, V.; Arnautov, A. K.; Kaklauskas, G.; Jakstaite, R.; Tamulenas, V.; Gudonis, E.

    2014-11-01

    The current study has two objectives: to validate the ability of the Atena finite-element software to estimate the deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) elements strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and to assess the effect of FRP-to-concrete bond strength on the results of numerical simulation. It is shown that the bond strength has to be selected according to the overall stiffness of the composite element. The numerical results found are corroborated experimentally by tensile tests of RC elements strengthened with basalt FRP sheets.

  11. Nonlinear seismic analysis of continuous RC bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čokić Miloš M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear static analysis, known as a pushover method (NSPA is oftenly used to study the behaviour of a bridge structure under the seismic action. It is shown that the Equivalent Linearization Method - ELM, recommended in FEMA 440, is appropriate for the response analysis of the bridge columns, with different geometric characteristics, quantity and distribution of steel reinforcement. The subject of analysis is a bridge structure with a carriageway plate - a continuous beam with three spans, with the 24 + 40 + 24 m range. Main girder is made of prestressed concrete and it has a box cross section of a constant height. It is important to study the behaviour, not only in the transverse, but also in the longitudinal direction of the bridge axis, when analysing the bridge columns exposed to horizontal seismic actions. The columns were designed according to EN1992, parts 1 and 2. Seismic action analysis is conducted according to EN 1998: 2004 standard. Response spectrum type 1, for the ground type B, was applied and the analysis also includes 20% of traffic load. The analysis includes the values of columns displacement and ductility. To describe the behaviour of elements under the earthquake action in both - longitudinal and transverse direction, pushover curves were formed.

  12. Multiple Surrogate Modeling for Wire-Wrapped Fuel Assembly Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, Wasim; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this work, shape optimization of seven pin wire wrapped fuel assembly has been carried out in conjunction with RANS analysis in order to evaluate the performances of surrogate models. Previously, Ahmad and Kim performed the flow and heat transfer analysis based on the three-dimensional RANS analysis. But numerical optimization has not been applied to the design of wire-wrapped fuel assembly, yet. Surrogate models are being widely used in multidisciplinary optimization. Queipo et al. reviewed various surrogates based models used in aerospace applications. Goel et al. developed weighted average surrogate model based on response surface approximation (RSA), radial basis neural network (RBNN) and Krigging (KRG) models. In addition to the three basic models, RSA, RBNN and KRG, the multiple surrogate model, PBA also has been employed. Two geometric design variables and a multi-objective function with a weighting factor have been considered for this problem

  13. Wire-wrap bundle compression-characteristics study. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertock, A.J.

    1974-06-01

    An analytical computer comparison was made of the compression characteristics of proposed wire-wrap bundles. The study included analysis of 7- and 37-rod straight-start bundles (base configuration), and softened 37-rod configurations. The softened configurations analyzed were: straight-start with distributed wireless fuel rods, and the staggered wire-wrap start angles of 0 0 -30 0 -60 0 and 0 0 -45 0 -90 0 . The compression of the bundle simulates the bundle-to-channel interference at end-of-life conditions at which high differential swelling between the channel and bundle has been predicted. The computer results do not include the so-called dispersion effects. The effects of other variables such as pitch length, creep, axial variations in swelling, and degree of swelling were not studied. These analytic studies give an indication of trends only. No credence should be given to specific quantitative load or deflection results quoted in this report

  14. Damage Localization and Quantification of Earthquake Excited RC-Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P.S.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the paper a recently proposed method for damage localization and quantification of RC-structures from response measurements is tested on experimental data. The method investigated requires at least one response measurement along the structure and the ground surface acceleration. Further, the t...

  15. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 11 November 2016 pp 1029-1042 ... But a lot of things, (including the complex impedanceitself, and some insight into complex analysis) can be understoodbetter if we use the FT approach to solve the differentialequations that come up in ...

  16. Some comments on N=1 gauge theories from wrapped branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apreda, R.; Bigazzi, F.; Petrini, M.; Cotrone, A.L.; Zaffaroni, A.

    2001-12-01

    We discuss various aspects of gauge theories realized on the world-volume of wrapped branes. In particular we analyze the coupling of SYM operators to space-time fields both in N=1 and N=2 models and give a description of the gluino condensate in the Maldacena-Nunez N=1 solution. We also explore the seven dimensional BPS equations relevant for these solutions and their generalizations. (author)

  17. Thermal analysis methods for LMFBR wire wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.

    1976-11-01

    A note is presented which was written to stimulate an awareness and discussion of the fundamental differences in the formulation of certain existing analysis codes for LMFBR wire wrap bundles. The contention of the note is that for those array types where data exists (one wire per pin, equal start angles), the ENERGY method results for coolant temperature under forced convection conditions provide benchmarks of reliability equal to the results of codes COBRA and TH1-3D

  18. CEL Working procedures for WRAP 2A formulation development test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchsherer, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The WRAP 2A facility will encapsulate retrieved, stored, and newly generated contact-handled mixed low level waste (MLLW) into 55-500 gal cementitous forms. Standardized test procedures will be required to facilitate this process. Cementitous specimens will be prepared from simulated drum wastes and will be tested in the Chemical Engineering Laboratory using the laboratory operating/working procedures encorporated into this document

  19. Patient-specific fibre-based models of muscle wrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, J.; Clapworthy, G. J.; Zhao, Y.; Tao, Y.; Gonzalez-Garcia, G.; Dong, F.; Wei, H.; Kohoutová, E.

    2013-01-01

    In many biomechanical problems, the availability of a suitable model for the wrapping of muscles when undergoing movement is essential for the estimation of forces produced on and by the body during motion. This is an important factor in the Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human project which is investigating the likelihood of fracture for osteoporotic patients undertaking a variety of movements. The weakening of their skeletons makes them particularly vulnerable to bone fracture caused by excessive loading being placed on the bones, even in simple everyday tasks. This paper provides an overview of a novel volumetric model that describes muscle wrapping around bones and other muscles during movement, and which includes a consideration of how the orientations of the muscle fibres change during the motion. The method can calculate the form of wrapping of a muscle of medium size and visualize the outcome within tenths of seconds on commodity hardware, while conserving muscle volume. This makes the method suitable not only for educational biomedical software, but also for clinical applications used to identify weak muscles that should be strengthened during rehabilitation or to identify bone stresses in order to estimate the risk of fractures. PMID:24427519

  20. Hot fuel examination facility element spacer wire-wrap machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, D.A.; Sherman, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive examinations of irradiated experimental fuel elements conducted in the Argonne National Laboratory Hot Fuel Examination Facility/North (HFEF/N) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory include laser and contact profilometry (element diameter measurements), electrical eddy-current testing for cladding and thermal bond defects, bow and length measurements, neutron radiography, gamma scanning, remote visual exam, and photography. Profilometry was previously restricted to spiral profilometry of the element to prevent interference with the element spacer wire wrapped in a helix about the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II)-type fuel element from end to end. By removing the spacer wire prior to conducting profilometry examination, axial profilometry techniques may be used, which are considerably faster than spiral techniques and often result in data acquisition more important to experiment sponsors. Because the element must often be reinserted into the nuclear reactor (EBR-II) for additional irradiation, however, the spacer wire must be reinstalled on the highly irradiated fuel element by remote means after profilometry of the wireless elements. The element spacer wire-wrap machine developed at HFEF is capable of helically wrapping fuel elements with diameters up to 1.68 cm (0.660 in.) and 2.44-m (96-in.) lengths. The machine can accommodate almost any desired wire pitch length by simply inserting a new wrapper gear module

  1. Universal critical wrapping probabilities in the canonical ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Universal dimensionless quantities, such as Binder ratios and wrapping probabilities, play an important role in the study of critical phenomena. We study the finite-size scaling behavior of the wrapping probability for the Potts model in the random-cluster representation, under the constraint that the total number of occupied bonds is fixed, so that the canonical ensemble applies. We derive that, in the limit L→∞, the critical values of the wrapping probability are different from those of the unconstrained model, i.e. the model in the grand-canonical ensemble, but still universal, for systems with 2yt−d>0 where yt=1/ν is the thermal renormalization exponent and d is the spatial dimension. Similar modifications apply to other dimensionless quantities, such as Binder ratios. For systems with 2yt−d≤0, these quantities share same critical universal values in the two ensembles. It is also derived that new finite-size corrections are induced. These findings apply more generally to systems in the canonical ensemble, e.g. the dilute Potts model with a fixed total number of vacancies. Finally, we formulate an efficient cluster-type algorithm for the canonical ensemble, and confirm these predictions by extensive simulations.

  2. WRAP Module 1 data management system (DMS) software design description (SDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, P.A.

    1995-03-17

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS) System Design Description (SDD) describes the logical and physical architecture of the system. The WRAP 1 DMS SDD formally partitions the elements of the system described in the WRAP 1 DMS Software requirements specification into design objects and describes the key properties and relationships among the design objects and interfaces with external systems such as the WRAP Plant Control System (PCS). The WRAP 1 DMS SDD can be thought of as a detailed blueprint for implementation activities. The design descriptions contained within this document will describe, in detail, the software products that will be developed to assist the Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1, in their management functions. The WRAP 1 DMS is required to collect, store, and report data related to certification, tracking, packaging, repackaging, processing, and shipment of waste processed or stored at the WRAP 1 facility.

  3. WRAP Module 1 data management system (DMS) software design description (SDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS) System Design Description (SDD) describes the logical and physical architecture of the system. The WRAP 1 DMS SDD formally partitions the elements of the system described in the WRAP 1 DMS Software requirements specification into design objects and describes the key properties and relationships among the design objects and interfaces with external systems such as the WRAP Plant Control System (PCS). The WRAP 1 DMS SDD can be thought of as a detailed blueprint for implementation activities. The design descriptions contained within this document will describe, in detail, the software products that will be developed to assist the Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1, in their management functions. The WRAP 1 DMS is required to collect, store, and report data related to certification, tracking, packaging, repackaging, processing, and shipment of waste processed or stored at the WRAP 1 facility

  4. Reinforced concrete beams with web openings: A state of the art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Fayyadh, M.M.; Naganathan, S.; Nasharuddin, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Present paper highlights the gaps in the work related RC beams with web opening. ► There is limited work on comparing of design approaches of RC beams with opening. ► Strengthening with externally bonded steel or FRP sheets needs to be investigated. ► There is no repair work been done on the RC beams with opening. -- Abstract: The construction of modern buildings requires many pipes and ducts in order to accommodate essential services such as air conditioning, electricity, telephone, and computer network. Web openings in concrete beams enable the installation of these services. A number of studies have been conducted with regards to reinforced concrete beams which contain web openings. The present paper aims to compile this state of the art work on the behaviour, analysis and design of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams with transverse web openings. A variety of aspects will be highlighted and discussed including the classification of openings, guidelines for opening location, and the structural behaviour of RC beams with web openings. Various design approaches will also be detailed, for example the American Concrete Institute (ACI) approach, the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) approach and the strut and tie method. Moreover, the strengthening of RC beams with openings using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) material and steel plates is presented. Finally, directions for future research based on the gaps which exist in the present work are presented.

  5. Beam-Beam Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities

  6. 75 FR 1356 - RC2 Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... primarily at toy stores and various retailers nationwide, and secondarily through RC2's e-commerce websites... various retailers nationwide, and secondarily through RC2's e-commerce Web sites or as `sub-components' of...(e). Published below is a provisionally-accepted Settlement Agreement with RC2 Corporation...

  7. GR712RC- Dual-Core Processor- Product Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Fredrik; Habinc, Sandi; Gaisler, Jiri

    2012-08-01

    The GR712RC System-on-Chip (SoC) is a dual core LEON3FT system suitable for advanced high reliability space avionics. Fault tolerance features from Aeroflex Gaisler’s GRLIB IP library and an implementation using Ramon Chips RadSafe cell library enables superior radiation hardness.The GR712RC device has been designed to provide high processing power by including two LEON3FT 32- bit SPARC V8 processors, each with its own high- performance IEEE754 compliant floating-point-unit and SPARC reference memory management unit.This high processing power is combined with a large number of serial interfaces, ranging from high-speed links for data transfers to low-speed control buses for commanding and status acquisition.

  8. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  9. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner

  10. Centrifuge modeling of rocking-isolated inelastic RC bridge piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, Marianna; Knappett, Jonathan A; Brown, Michael J; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; Gazetas, George

    2014-12-01

    Experimental proof is provided of an unconventional seismic design concept, which is based on deliberately underdesigning shallow foundations to promote intense rocking oscillations and thereby to dramatically improve the seismic resilience of structures. Termed rocking isolation , this new seismic design philosophy is investigated through a series of dynamic centrifuge experiments on properly scaled models of a modern reinforced concrete (RC) bridge pier. The experimental method reproduces the nonlinear and inelastic response of both the soil-footing interface and the structure. To this end, a novel scale model RC (1:50 scale) that simulates reasonably well the elastic response and the failure of prototype RC elements is utilized, along with realistic representation of the soil behavior in a geotechnical centrifuge. A variety of seismic ground motions are considered as excitations. They result in consistent demonstrably beneficial performance of the rocking-isolated pier in comparison with the one designed conventionally. Seismic demand is reduced in terms of both inertial load and deck drift. Furthermore, foundation uplifting has a self-centering potential, whereas soil yielding is shown to provide a particularly effective energy dissipation mechanism, exhibiting significant resistance to cumulative damage. Thanks to such mechanisms, the rocking pier survived, with no signs of structural distress, a deleterious sequence of seismic motions that caused collapse of the conventionally designed pier. © 2014 The Authors Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Investigation on the thermographic detection of corrosion in RC structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Kyriakides, Nicholas; Georgiou, Panagiota G.; Ioannou, Fotia G.

    2017-09-01

    Corrosion of the steel reinforcement is the main problem of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Over the past decades, several methods have been developed aiming to detect the corrosion process early in order to minimise the structural damage and consequently the repairing costs. Emphasis was given in developing methods and techniques of non-destructive nature providing fast on-the-spot detection and covering large areas rather that concentrating on single locations. This study, investigates a non-destructive corrosion detection technique for reinforced concrete, which is based on infrared thermography and the difference in thermal characteristics of corroded and non-corroded steel rebars. The technique is based on the principle that corrosion products have poor heat conductivity, and they inhibit the diffusion of heat that is generated in the reinforcing bar due to heating. For the investigation RC specimens, have been constructed in the laboratory using embedded steel bars of different corrosion states. Afterward, one surface of the specimens was heated using an electric device while thermal images were captured at predefined time instants on the opposite surface with an IR camera. The test results showed a clear difference between the thermal characteristics of the corroded and the non-corroded samples, which demonstrates the potential of using thermography in corrosion detection in RC structures.

  12. Status of thermohydraulic studies of wire-wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairallah, A.; Leteinturier, D.; Skok, J.

    1979-01-01

    A status review is presented of the work undertaken in CEA to acquire good understanding and description of the single-phase thermal-hydraulic problems in LMFBR wire-wrapped bundles. Design-type and reference-type calculational tools developed for the study of forced convection in nominal and distorted bundle geometries are briefly presented. Local hot spots and mixed convection situations are discussed in some more details. Out-of-pile and in-pile experimental programs designed in support to code development are described. (author)

  13. Infinite volume of noncommutative black hole wrapped by finite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Baocheng, E-mail: zhangbc.zhang@yahoo.com [School of Mathematics and Physics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); You, Li, E-mail: lyou@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-02-10

    The volume of a black hole under noncommutative spacetime background is found to be infinite, in contradiction with the surface area of a black hole, or its Bekenstein–Hawking (BH) entropy, which is well-known to be finite. Our result rules out the possibility of interpreting the entropy of a black hole by counting the number of modes wrapped inside its surface if the final evaporation stage can be properly treated. It implies the statistical interpretation for the BH entropy can be independent of the volume, provided spacetime is noncommutative. The effect of radiation back reaction is found to be small and doesn't influence the above conclusion.

  14. Waste receiving and processing (WRAP) module 1 hazards assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Receiving and Processing Module I (WRAP 1) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of the WRAP 1 is the responsibility of Rust Federal Services Hanford (RFSH). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the WRAP 1. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  15. Extending the shelf life of fresh sweet corn by shrink-wrapping, refrigeration, and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, T.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical, physical, sensory, and microbiological changes were monitored during storage of unwrapped and shrink-wrapped fresh sweet corn at 10 degree and 20 degree C. Wrapping essentially eliminated moisture loss and resulted in elevated carbon dioxide and decreased oxygen concentrations within packages. These effects, together with refrigeration markedly reduced the changes associated with senscence and post harvest deterioration, and hence resulted in at least a threefold extension in shelf life. The water-saturated atmosphere, however, enhanced microbial growth on shrink-wrapped corn. The initial microbial population was effectively decreased by treating the wrapped corn with 0.5 or 1.0 kGy (Co 60 ) irradiation

  16. Pressure drop measurements in LMFBR wire wrapped blanket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.; Hawley, J.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-07-01

    In this experiment, measurements of subchannel static pressure for an interior and edge subchannel were taken at two elevations in two wire-wrapped 61-pin bundles. One of the bundles has geometric characteristics of P/D = 1.067 and H/D = 8.0 (4 inch lead length and 0.501 inch rod diameter) and the other bundle has geometric characteristics of P/D = 1.067 and H/D = 4.0 (2 inch lead length and 0.501 inch rod diameter). The bundle average friction factors as well as the local subchannel friction factors for both interior and edge subchannels were determined from the experimental static pressure data. The average subchannel flow rates for both edge and interior subchannels were determined in a separate experiment. Results show that two correlations suggested by Rehme and Novendstern for the bundle average friction factor cannot predict the data within the range of experimental error. The bundle average friction factors for both bundles under test were underestimated by Rehme's correlation and overestimated by Novendstern's correlation. The results of the local subchannel friction factors indicate the effect of the wire lead length is more pronounced in the interior subchannel friction factor than in the edge subchannel friction factor. As the wire wrap lead length decreases, both interior and edge subchannel friction factors increase

  17. Hairy Graphenes: Wrapping Nanocellulose Nets around Graphene Oxide Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Rui; Kim, Ho Shin; Korolovych, Volodymyr F; Zhang, Shuaidi; Yingling, Yaroslava; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2018-04-17

    Constructing advanced functional nanomaterials with pre-designed organized morphologies from low-dimension synthetic and biological components is extremely challenging because of complex inter-component interactions, high-aspect ratios, flexible shapes, crumpling instabilities and limited common wet-chemistry processing conditions. Herein, we report an efficient and universal amphiphilicity-driven assembly strategy to construct "hairy" flexible hybrid nanosheets with the net of 1D cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) conformally wrapped around 2D graphene oxide (GO) monolayers. This interface-driven bio-synthetic assembly is facilitated by variable amphiphilic interfacial balance via tailoring the surface chemistry of flexible GO sheets as controllably pre-oxidized 2D template cores, resulting in individual sheets tightly surrounded by dense conformal nanocellulose network. These nanocellulose-net wrapped GO nanosheets demonstrate extremely high compressive elastic modulus above 180 GPa due to the strong bonding between nanofibers and GO sheets and arrest of the buckling events. This unique mechanical stability far exceeds the compressive instability limits of both individual components, 1D cellulose nanofibers and 2D graphene monolayers. Additionally, the presence of CNF reinforced nanocellulose network significantly enhances the wetting ability of initial hydrophobic reduced GO nanosheets, enabling the long-term stability of CNFs-rGO dispersion and allowing fast water transport combined with high filtration efficiency for CNFs-rGO membranes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Pressure drop measurements in LMFBR wire wrapped blanket assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C.; Hawley, J.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-07-01

    In this experiment, measurements of subchannel static pressure for an interior and edge subchannel were taken at two elevations in two wire-wrapped 61-pin bundles. One of the bundles has geometric characteristics of P/D = 1.067 and H/D = 8.0 (4 inch lead length and 0.501 inch rod diameter) and the other bundle has geometric characteristics of P/D = 1.067 and H/D = 4.0 (2 inch lead length and 0.501 inch rod diameter). The bundle average friction factors as well as the local subchannel friction factors for both interior and edge subchannels were determined from the experimental static pressure data. The average subchannel flow rates for both edge and interior subchannels were determined in a separate experiment. Results show that two correlations suggested by Rehme and Novendstern for the bundle average friction factor cannot predict the data within the range of experimental error. The bundle average friction factors for both bundles under test were underestimated by Rehme's correlation and overestimated by Novendstern's correlation. The results of the local subchannel friction factors indicate the effect of the wire lead length is more pronounced in the interior subchannel friction factor than in the edge subchannel friction factor. As the wire wrap lead length decreases, both interior and edge subchannel friction factors increase.

  19. Seismic Retrofitting: Reinforced Concrete (RC shear wall versus Reinforcement of RC element by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP using PUSHOVER analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya RIYAD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seismic retrofitting of constructions vulnerable to earthquakes is a current problem of great political and social relevance. During the last sixty years, moderate to severe earthquakes have occurred in Morocco (specifically in Agadir 1960 and Hoceima 2004. Such events have clearly shown the vulnerability of the building stock in particular and of the built environment in general. Hence, it is very much essential to retrofit the vulnerable building to cope up for the next damaging earthquake. In this paper, the focus will be on a comparative study between two techniques of seismic retrofitting, the first one is a reinforcement using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP applied to RC elements by bonding , and the second one is a reinforcement with a shear wall. For this study, we will use a non-linear static analysis -also known as Pushover analysis - on a reinforced concrete structure consisting of beams and columns, and composed from eight storey with a gross area of 240 m², designed conforming to the Moroccan Seismic code[1].

  20. The Efficiency of Basalt Fibres in Strengthening the Reinforced Concrete Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Şerbescu, Andreea; Kypros, Pilakoutas; Ţăranu, N.

    2006-01-01

    The technique of externally bonding fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminates on the tension side of reinforced concrete (RC) beams is already widely accepted as an easy to apply, corrosion resistant and effective solution due to the high strength as well as the low weight of the composite material. The basalt fibres are produced from volcano rocks by a simple process; their applicability as reinforcing material composites utilized for plate bonding of RC beams was not enough researc...

  1. Partial strengthening of R.C square columns using CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaban Abdel-Hay

    2014-12-01

    An experimental program was undertaken testing ten square columns 200 × 200 × 2000 mm. One of them was a control specimen and the other nine specimens were strengthened with CFRP. The main parameters studied in this research were the compressive strength of the upper part, the height of the upper poor concrete part, and the height of CFRP wrapped part of column. The experimental results including mode of failure, ultimate load, concrete strain, and fiber strains were analyzed. The main conclusion of this research was, partial strengthening of square column using CFRP can be permitted and gives good results of the column carrying capacity.

  2. The gammaTuRC Nanomachine Mechanism and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehlman, Timothy D.

    The complexity and precision of the eukaryotic cell's cytoskeletal network is unrivaled by any man-made systems, perfected by billions of years of evolution, mastering elegant processes of self-assembly, error correction, and self-repair. Understanding the capabilities of these networks will have important and far reaching applications in human medicine by aiding our understanding of developmental processes, cellular division, and disease mechanisms, and through biomimicry will provide insights for biosynthetic manufacturing at the nanoscale and across scales. My research utilizes cross species techniques from Human to the model organism of Fission Yeast to investigate the structure and mechanisms of the g-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC). The gTuRC is a highly conserved eukaryotic multiprotein complex serving as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) responsible for microtubule nucleation through templating, regulation of dynamics, and establishment of microtubule polarity. Microtubules are 25 nm diameter dynamic flexible polymers of a/b-tubulin heterodimers that function as scaffolds, force generators, distributors, and intracellular highways. The microtubule cytoskeleton is essential for numerous fundamental cellular processes such as mitotic division of chromosomes and cell division, organelle distribution within the cell, cell signaling, and cell shape. This incredible diversity in functions is made possible in part due to molecular motor Kinesin-like proteins (Klps), which allow expansion into more specialized neural, immune, and ciliated cell functions. Combined, the MTOC, microtubules, and Klps represent ideal microtubule cytoskeleton protein (MCP) modular components for in vitro biomimicry towards generation of adaptable patterned networks for human designed applications. My research investigates the hypothesis that a mechanistic understanding of conserved MTOC gTuRC mechanisms will help us understand dynamic cellular nanomachines and their ability to self

  3. Some security results of the RC4+ stream cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Jha, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    to any even 8-bit constant other than 0xAA. Therefore, the question that naturally arises is whether the design of RC4+ can be protected by fixing the pad parameter to some constant odd value. In this paper, we try to answer this very question. We show that the design is still vulnerable by mounting...... in terms of number of faults required and the computational complexity. In fact, we reduce the number of faults by around 11264 on average, and our algorithm is around 26 times faster....

  4. Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams with CFRP and GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mustafa Önal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete beams were strengthened by wrapping the shear edges of the beams twice at 45° in opposite directions by either carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP or glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP. The study included 3 CFRP wrapped beams, 3 GFRP wrapped beams, and 3 control beams, all of which were 150 × 250 × 2200 mm and manufactured with C20 concrete and S420a structural steel at the Gazi University Technical Education Faculty labs, Turkey. Samples in molds were cured by watering in the open air for 21 days. Four-point bending tests were made on the beam test specimens and the data were collected. Data were evaluated in terms of load displacement, bearing strength, ductility, and energy consumption. In the CFRP and GFRP reinforced beams, compared to controls, 38% and 42%, respectively, strength increase was observed. In all beams, failure-flexural stress occurred in the center as expected. Most cracking was observed in the flexural region 4. A comparison of CFRP and GFRP materials reveals that GFRP enforced parts absorb more energy. Both materials yielded successful results. Thicker epoxy application in both CFRP and GFRP beams was considered to be effective in preventing break-ups.

  5. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  6. Effect of scopoletin on fascia-wrapped diced cartilage grafts | Zeng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of scopoletin (SL) on fascia-wrapped diced cartilage grafts in rhinoplasty surgery. Methods: Cartilage grafts (2 × 2 cm) from the ears of New Zealand rabbits were diced into sections (1 mm3) and then wrapped in muscle fascia taken from the right rear leg. Each graft was placed on the back of ...

  7. Technical safety requirements (TSR) for waste receiving and processing (WRAP) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The scope of this TSR document is based on the WRAP Final Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-W026-SAR-002) and supporting documents. The administrative controls set forth in this TSR document are derived from the WRAP Final Safety Analysis Report

  8. The first biopolymer-wrapped non-carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsi, Mohtashim H; Geckeler, Kurt E [Laboratory of Applied Macromolecular Chemistry, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261-Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: keg@gist.ac.kr

    2008-02-20

    DNA-wrapped halloysite nanotubes were obtained by a mechanochemical reaction in the solid state. The characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed that the nanotubes were cut into shorter lengths and were completely covered with DNA. This resulted in a high aqueous solubility of the product with stability of the solution for about 6 weeks. The nanotubes were cut to different fractions with lengths of 200-400 nm (30-40%), 400-600 nm (10-20%) and 600-800 nm (5-10%) after ball milling. FTIR spectroscopic analysis shows that the DNA in the product remained intact. This straightforward technique for obtaining water-soluble halloysite nanotubes by a solid-state reaction has great potential for biomedical applications of nanotubes.

  9. The first biopolymer-wrapped non-carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsi, Mohtashim H; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2008-01-01

    DNA-wrapped halloysite nanotubes were obtained by a mechanochemical reaction in the solid state. The characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed that the nanotubes were cut into shorter lengths and were completely covered with DNA. This resulted in a high aqueous solubility of the product with stability of the solution for about 6 weeks. The nanotubes were cut to different fractions with lengths of 200-400 nm (30-40%), 400-600 nm (10-20%) and 600-800 nm (5-10%) after ball milling. FTIR spectroscopic analysis shows that the DNA in the product remained intact. This straightforward technique for obtaining water-soluble halloysite nanotubes by a solid-state reaction has great potential for biomedical applications of nanotubes

  10. Realization, characterization and functionalization of lipidic wrapped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Obata, Yosuke; Sato, Izumi; Okamura, Yosuke; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Takeda, Naoya; Takeoka, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Mass-produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are strongly aggregated and highly hydrophobic, and processes to make them water soluble are required for biological applications. Both covalent and non-covalent strategies are pursued for obtaining stable, highly concentrated CNT aqueous dispersions. Covalent functionalization has the great disadvantage of producing an irreversible chemical modification of nanotubes, thus alterating their mechanical, chemical and electric properties. On the other hand, non-covalent functionalization is often obtained by employing surfactants that sensibly affect cell viability. Moreover, derivatization with biological moieties is often impossible through non-covalent CNT dispersion. This paper proposes a non-covalent dispersion of multi-wall CNT based on a lipidic mixture that can guarantee high concentration and high stability as well as high cytocompatibility. Moreover, CNTs wrapped with a lipid membrane are realized to demonstrate that the proposed CNTs can be functionalised with a dodecapeptide that specifically recognizes activated platelets without chemical modification of the nanotube itself.

  11. Masonry Columns Confined by Steel Fiber Composite Wraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of steel fiber reinforced polymer (SRP as a means of increasing the capacity of masonry columns is investigated in this study. The behavior of 23 solid-brick specimens that are externally wrapped by SRP sheets in low volumetric ratios is presented. The specimens are subjected to axial monotonic load until failure occurs. Two widely used types of masonry columns of differing square cross-sections were tested in compression (square and octagonal cross-sections. It is concluded that SRP-confined masonry behaves very much like fiber reinforced polymers (FRP-confined masonry. Confinement increases both the load-carrying capacity and the deformability of masonry almost linearly with average confining stress. A comparative analysis between experimental and theoretical values computed in compliance with the Italian Council of Research (CNR was also developed.

  12. Acoustic emission from fiber reinforced plastic damaged hoop wrapped cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, A.; Kung, D.; Westbrook, D.R.

    2000-03-01

    Metal lined continuous fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) hoop wrapped cylinders with axial cuts to the FRP were modeled mathematically and tested experimentally. Steel lined and aluminum alloy lined glass FRP vessels were subjected to acoustic emission tests (AE) and hydraulic burst tests. The burst pressure decreased monotonically with the length of the axial cut. Acoustic emission increased initially with a decrease in burst pressure, and attained a maximum at an intermediate level of damage to the FRP. However, acoustic emission decreased when the level of damage was higher and the burst pressure was lower. Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of the search for an acoustic emission test method to inspect periodically the vessels used for the storage of compressed gaseous fuels on natural gas vehicles (NGV) and hydrogen vehicles.

  13. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report

  14. Wrapping up the bad news – HIV assembly and release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Bo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The late Nobel Laureate Sir Peter Medawar once memorably described viruses as ‘bad news wrapped in protein’. Virus assembly in HIV is a remarkably well coordinated process in which the virus achieves extracellular budding using primarily intracellular budding machinery and also the unusual phenomenon of export from the cell of an RNA. Recruitment of the ESCRT system by HIV is one of the best documented examples of the comprehensive way in which a virus hijacks a normal cellular process. This review is a summary of our current understanding of the budding process of HIV, from genomic RNA capture through budding and on to viral maturation, but centering on the proteins of the ESCRT pathway and highlighting some recent advances in our understanding of the cellular components involved and the complex interplay between the Gag protein and the genomic RNA.

  15. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  16. Functionalization of surfactant wrapped graphenenanosheets with alkylazides for enhanced dispersibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadukumpully, Sajini; Gupta, Jhinuk; Zhang, Yongping; Xu, Guo Qin; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    A facile and simple approach for the covalent functionalization of surfactant wrapped graphene sheets is described. The approach involves functionalization of dispersible graphene sheets with various alkylazides and 11-azidoundecanoic acid proved the best azide for enhanced dispersibility. The functionalization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The free carboxylic acidgroups can bind to gold nanoparticles, which were introduced as markers for the reactive sites. The interaction between gold nanoparticles and the graphene sheets was followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The gold nanoparticle-graphene composite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, demonstrating the uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles all over the surface. Our results open the possibility to control the functionalization on graphene in the construction of composite nanomaterials.A facile and simple approach for the covalent functionalization of surfactant wrapped graphene sheets is described. The approach involves functionalization of dispersible graphene sheets with various alkylazides and 11-azidoundecanoic acid proved the best azide for enhanced dispersibility. The functionalization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The free carboxylic acidgroups can bind to gold nanoparticles, which were introduced as markers for the reactive sites. The interaction between gold nanoparticles and the graphene sheets was followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The gold nanoparticle-graphene composite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, demonstrating the uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles all over the surface. Our results open the possibility to control the functionalization on graphene in the construction of composite nanomaterials. Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization details of dodecylazide

  17. Looking for Holes in Sterile Wrapping: How Accurate Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidifard, Christopher H; Mayassi, Hani A; Bush, Chelsea M; Opalacz, Brian M; Richardson, Mark W; Muccino, Paul M; DiPasquale, Thomas G

    2018-05-01

    Defects in sterile surgical wrapping are identified by the presence of holes through which light can be seen. However, it is unknown how reliably the human eye can detect these defects. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) how often holes in sterile packaging of various sizes could be detected; and (2) whether differences in lighting, experience level of the observer, or time spent inspecting the packaging were associated with improved likelihood of detection of holes in sterile packaging. Thirty participants (10 surgical technicians, 13 operating room nurses, seven orthopaedic surgery residents) inspected sterile sheets for perforations under ambient operating room (OR) lighting and then again with a standard powered OR lamp in addition to ambient lighting. There were no additional criteria for eligibility other than willingness to participate. Each sheet contained one of nine defect sizes with four sheets allocated to each defect size. Ten wraps were controls with no defects. Participants were allowed as much time as necessary for inspection. Holes ≥ 2.5 mm were detected more often than holes ≤ 2 mm (87% [832 of 960] versus 7% [82 of 1200]; odds ratio, 88.6 [95% confidence interval, 66.2-118.6]; p < 0.001). There was no difference in detection accuracy between OR lamp and ambient lightning nor experience level. There was no correlation between inspection time and detection accuracy. Defects ≤ 2 mm were not reliably detected with respect to lighting, time, or level of experience. Future research is warranted to determine defect sizes that are clinically meaningful. Level II, diagnostic study.

  18. In vacuo X-ray data collection from graphene-wrapped protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Anna J.; Crawshaw, Adam D.; Trincao, Jose; Aller, Pierre; Alcock, Simon; Nistea, Ioana; Salgado, Paula S.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2015-01-01

    A method is reported for collecting room-temperature data from protein crystals under vacuum by protecting them with a thin graphene layer. The measurement of diffraction data from macromolecular crystal samples held in vacuo holds the promise of a very low X-ray background and zero absorption of incident and scattered beams, leading to better data and the potential for accessing very long X-ray wavelengths (>3 Å) for native sulfur phasing. Maintaining the hydration of protein crystals under vacuum is achieved by the use of liquid jets, as with serial data collection at free-electron lasers, or is side-stepped by cryocooling the samples, as implemented at new synchrotron beamlines. Graphene has been shown to protect crystals from dehydration by creating an extremely thin layer that is impermeable to any exchanges with the environment. Furthermore, owing to its hydrophobicity, most of the aqueous solution surrounding the crystal is excluded during sample preparation, thus eliminating most of the background caused by liquid. Here, it is shown that high-quality data can be recorded at room temperature from graphene-wrapped protein crystals in a rough vacuum. Furthermore, it was observed that graphene protects crystals exposed to different relative humidities and a chemically harsh environment

  19. In vacuo X-ray data collection from graphene-wrapped protein crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Anna J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Crawshaw, Adam D. [Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Trincao, Jose; Aller, Pierre; Alcock, Simon; Nistea, Ioana [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Salgado, Paula S. [Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Evans, Gwyndaf, E-mail: gwyndaf.evans@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-26

    A method is reported for collecting room-temperature data from protein crystals under vacuum by protecting them with a thin graphene layer. The measurement of diffraction data from macromolecular crystal samples held in vacuo holds the promise of a very low X-ray background and zero absorption of incident and scattered beams, leading to better data and the potential for accessing very long X-ray wavelengths (>3 Å) for native sulfur phasing. Maintaining the hydration of protein crystals under vacuum is achieved by the use of liquid jets, as with serial data collection at free-electron lasers, or is side-stepped by cryocooling the samples, as implemented at new synchrotron beamlines. Graphene has been shown to protect crystals from dehydration by creating an extremely thin layer that is impermeable to any exchanges with the environment. Furthermore, owing to its hydrophobicity, most of the aqueous solution surrounding the crystal is excluded during sample preparation, thus eliminating most of the background caused by liquid. Here, it is shown that high-quality data can be recorded at room temperature from graphene-wrapped protein crystals in a rough vacuum. Furthermore, it was observed that graphene protects crystals exposed to different relative humidities and a chemically harsh environment.

  20. Ultimate capacity and influenced factors analysis of nuclear RC containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenning; Hou Gangling; Zhou Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Ultimate compressive bearing capacity, influenced factors and its rules of nuclear RC containment are key problems of safety assessment, accident treatment and structure design, etc. Ultimate compressive bearing capacity of nuclear RC containment is shown by concrete damaged plasticity model and steel double liner model of ABAQUS. The study shows that the concrete of nuclear RC containment cylinder wall becomes plastic when the internal pressure is up to 0.87 MPa, the maximum tensile strain of steel liner exceeds 3000 × 10 6 and nuclear RC containment reaches ultimate status when the internal pressure is up to 1.02 MPa. The result shows that nuclear RC containment is in elastic condition under the design internal pressure and the bearing capacity meets requirement. Prestress and steel liner play key parts in the ultimate internal pressure and failure mode of nuclear RC containment. The study results have value for the analysis of ultimate compressive bearing capacity, structure design and safety assessment. (authors)

  1. Seismic performance of masonry-infilled RC frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Bârnaure

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The masonry infill of RC frames structures is generally considered as non-structural. The design of the concrete frames is often made by ignoring the influence of the masonry infill, which is only accounted for its mass. The experience on buildings submitted to earthquakes shows that masonry infill walls completely change the behaviour of bare frames due to increased initial stiffness and low deformability. The way in which masonry infills affect the RC frames members is difficult to predict, as different failure modes can occur either in the masonry or in the surrounding frame. In addition to local effects, the position of the masonry infills at different levels can lead to structural irregularity, with a strong influence on the global seismic response of the building. Less infilled stories, also called soft stories, have a particularly unfavourable behaviour under seismic loads, as frame members at these levels are more susceptible to failure. This paper analyses the differences in the behaviour of bare and infilled frames through numerical modelling. Nonlinear push-over analyses of infilled frames are carried out under in-plane vertical and lateral loading. The infill panels are modelled as equivalent single diagonal struts. Several force-displacements laws are considered for these diagonals.

  2. Strengthening of RC bridge slabs using CFRP sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy A. Fathelbab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many old structures became structurally insufficient to carry the new loading conditions requirements. Moreover, they suffer from structural degradation, reinforcement steel bars corrosion, bad weather conditions…etc. Many official authorities in several countries had recognized many old bridges and buildings as structurally deficient by today’s standards. Due to these reasons, structural strengthening became an essential requirement and different strengthening techniques appeared in market. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP strengthening techniques established a good position among all other techniques, giving excellent structural results, low time required and moderate cost compared with the other techniques. The main purpose of this research is to study analytically the strengthening of a reinforced concrete bridge slabs due to excessive loads, using externally bonded FRP sheets technique. A commercial finite element program ANSYS was used to perform a structural linear and non-linear analysis for strengthened slab models using several schemes of FRP sheets. A parametric study was performed to evaluate analytically the effect of changing both FRP stiffness and FRP schemes in strengthening RC slabs. Comparing the results with control slab (reinforced concrete slab without strengthening it is obvious that attaching FRP sheets to the RC slab increases its capacity and enhances the ductility/toughness.

  3. Comparison of three different prehospital wrapping methods for preventing hypothermia - a crossover study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariassen Erik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental hypothermia increases mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Various methods for insulating and wrapping hypothermic patients are used worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal insulating effects and comfort of bubble wrap, ambulance blankets / quilts, and Hibler's method, a low-cost method combining a plastic outer layer with an insulating layer. Methods Eight volunteers were dressed in moistened clothing, exposed to a cold and windy environment then wrapped using one of the three different insulation methods in random order on three different days. They were rested quietly on their back for 60 minutes in a cold climatic chamber. Skin temperature, rectal temperature, oxygen consumption were measured, and metabolic heat production was calculated. A questionnaire was used for a subjective evaluation of comfort, thermal sensation, and shivering. Results Skin temperature was significantly higher 15 minutes after wrapping using Hibler's method compared with wrapping with ambulance blankets / quilts or bubble wrap. There were no differences in core temperature between the three insulating methods. The subjects reported more shivering, they felt colder, were more uncomfortable, and had an increased heat production when using bubble wrap compared with the other two methods. Hibler's method was the volunteers preferred method for preventing hypothermia. Bubble wrap was the least effective insulating method, and seemed to require significantly higher heat production to compensate for increased heat loss. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a combination of vapour tight layer and an additional dry insulating layer (Hibler's method is the most efficient wrapping method to prevent heat loss, as shown by increased skin temperatures, lower metabolic rate and better thermal comfort. This should then be the method of choice when wrapping a wet patient at risk of developing hypothermia in prehospital

  4. Multi-level nonlinear modeling verification scheme of RC high-rise wall buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Alwaeli, W.; Mwafy, A.; Pilakoutas, K.; Guadagnini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete (RC) high-rise wall buildings are designed and detailed to respond well beyond the elastic range under the expected earthquake ground motions. However, despite their considerable section depth, in terms of analysis, RC walls are still often treated as linear elements, ignoring the effect of deformation compatibility. Due to the limited number of available comprehensive experimental studies on RC structural wall systems subjected to cycling loading, few...

  5. Solution Améliorée Pour La Détermination Des Contraintes d’interfaces d’une Poutre En Béton Armé Renforcée Avec Une Plaque En Composite. Improved closed-form solution to interfacial stresses in RC beams strengthened with FRP strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tounsi A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Le renforcement des structures en béton armé en utilisant les matériaux composites est devenu une technique très répandue dans le domaine de la réparation et de la réhabilitation des ouvrages existants. Cependant, le décollement des plaques de renforcement par rapport à la structure renforcée empêche de profiter pleinement de cette technique. L’analyse des contraintes d’interface joue un rôle prépondérant dans la compréhension du phénomène de décollement. Dans ce travail, il est question d’étudier une poutre en flexion, simplement appuyée et renforcée par une plaque en composite en développant une nouvelle approche théorique basée sur la prise en compte de l’effet du cisaillement. En effet une distribution parabolique des contraintes de cisaillement le long des épaisseurs des adhérents est considérée. Contrairement à d’autres travaux qui reposent sur l’hypothèse d’une même courbure pour les adhérents ce travail propose une nouvelle approche considérant la moyenne des courbures au niveau de l’adhésif. Une modélisation par éléments finis est réalisée dans le but de la comparer avec le modèle analytique proposé. Les résultats de cette étude semblent concorder avec ceux de la littérature et apporte ainsi une nouvelle contribution dans le calcul des structures hybrides. The strengthening of concrete structures in situ with externally bonded fiberreinforced plastic (FRP composite sheets is increasingly being used for the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. However, debonding along the FRP-concrete interface can lead to premature failure of the structures. The interfacial stresses have played a significant role in understanding this premature debonding failure of such repaired structures. In this paper, an improved theoretical analysis of the interfacial stresses is presented for a simply supported concrete beam bonded with a FRP plate. The shear strains of the adherends have

  6. An enhanced chaotic key-based RC5 block cipher adapted to image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragallah, Osama S.

    2012-07-01

    RC5 is a block cipher that has several salient features such as adaptability to process different word lengths with a variable block size, a variable number of rounds and a variable-length secret key. However, RC5 can be broken with various attacks such as correlation attack, timing attack, known plaintext correlation attack and differential attacks, revealing weak security. We aimed to enhance the RC5 block cipher to be more secure and efficient for real-time applications while preserving its advantages. For this purpose, this article introduces a new approach based on strengthening both the confusion and diffusion operations by combining chaos and cryptographic primitive operations to produce round keys with better pseudo-random sequences. Comparative security analysis and performance evaluation of the enhanced RC5 block cipher (ERC5) with RC5, RC6 and chaotic block cipher algorithm (CBCA) are addressed. Several test images are used for inspecting the validity of the encryption and decryption algorithms. The experimental results show the superiority of the suggested enhanced RC5 (ERC5) block cipher to image encryption algorithms such as RC5, RC6 and CBCA from the security analysis and performance evaluation points of view.

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ONAD-2D3RC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1ONAD-2D3RC 1ONA 2D3R D C ADTIVAVELDTYPNTDIGDPSYPHIGIDIKSVRSKKTAK...WNMQNGKVGTAHIIYNSVDKRLSAVVSYPNADSATVSYDVDLDNVLPEWVRVGLSASTGLYKETNTILSWSFTSKLKT------NALHFMFNQFSKDQKDLILQGDAT... 1ONA D 1ONAD TRVSSN

  8. Analytical, Numerical and Experimental Examination of Reinforced Composites Beams Covered with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimzade, A. A.; Tuhta, S.

    2012-03-01

    In the article, analytical, numerical (Finite Element Method) and experimental investigation results of beam that was strengthened with fiber reinforced plastic-FRP composite has been given as comparative, the effect of FRP wrapping number to the maximum load and moment capacity has been evaluated depending on this results. Carbon FRP qualitative dependences have been occurred between wrapping number and beam load and moment capacity for repair-strengthen the reinforced concrete beams with carbon fiber. Shown possibilities of application traditional known analysis programs, for the analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) strengthened structures.

  9. Design of the RTO/RC ITER primary pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, P.; Ibbott, C; Janeschitz, G.; Martin, E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary pumping system is needed not only to exhaust helium ash resulting from the DT reaction but also excess fuelling gas injected during the fusion burn, which can extend for 100's to 1000's of seconds, and to perform a variety of other functions. The prevailing environmental conditions, principally nuclear radiation, tritium exposure, magnetic fields, and the need for containment, have a significant impact on the design and selection of equipment. This paper presents the design of the Reduced Technical Objectives/Reduced Cost (RTO/RC) ITER primary pumping system with particular emphasis on the nuclear aspects of the design. Component selection and equipment layout issues to meet established requirements for the system are reviewed together with the R and D that is being undertaken to support the design. In addition, serviceability and maintainability issues related to this system are also discussed

  10. Status of blanket design for RTO/RC ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Ioki, K.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Miki, N.

    2000-01-01

    Design has progressed on the FW/blanket for the RTO/RC (reduced technical objective/ reduced cost) ITER. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design. However, design and fabrication methods of the FW/blanket have been improved to achieve ∝ 50% reduction of the construction cost compared to that for the 1998 ITER design. Detailed blanket module designs with flat separable FW panels have been developed to reduce the fabrication cost and the future radioactive waste. Most of the R and D performed so far during the EDA (engineering design activity) is still applicable. Further cost reduction methods are also being investigated and additional R and D is being performed. (orig.)

  11. Present and future activities of TRIGA RC-1 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festinesi, A.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of reactor activities is presented and discussed. The RC-1 reactor is used by ENEA's laboratories, research institutes and national industries for different aims: research, analysis materials behaviour under neutron flux, etc. To satisfy the requests increase it is important to signalize: - the realization of a new radiochemical laboratory for radioisotopes production, to be used in a medical and/or diagnostic field in general; - the realization of a tritium handling laboratory, to study tritium solubility, release and diffusion in different material (particularly in ceramic breeder as lithium aluminate) to support Italian programs on fusion technology; - a research activity on the reactors computerized control by a console of advanced conception. The aim of this activity is the development of an ergonomic control room that could be a reference point for the planning of the power reactor control rooms

  12. SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION EFFECTS ON MULTISTOREY R/C STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muberra ESER AYDEMIR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the behavior of multistorey structures considering soil structure interaction under earthquake excitation. For this purpose, sample 3, 6, 9 storey RC frames are designed based on Turkish Seismic Design Code and analyzed in time domain with incremental dynamic analysis. Strength reduction factors are investigated for generated sample plane frames for 64 different earthquake motions recorded on different site conditions such as rock, stiff soil, soft soil and very soft soil. According to the analysis result, strength reduction factors of sample buildings considering soil structure interaction are found to be almost always smaller than design strength reduction factors given in current seismic design codes, which cause an unsafe design and nonconservative design forces.

  13. Design Optimization of Hybrid FRP/RC Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Vasileios S.; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Brown, Jeff; Kim, Daewon

    2018-04-01

    The hybrid bridge consists of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) slab supported by U-shaped Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) girders. Previous studies on similar hybrid bridges constructed in the United States and Europe seem to substantiate these hybrid designs for lightweight, high strength, and durable highway bridge construction. In the current study, computational and optimization analyses were carried out to investigate six composite material systems consisting of E-glass and carbon fibers. Optimization constraints are determined by stress, deflection and manufacturing requirements. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and optimization software were utilized, and a framework was developed to run the complete analyses in an automated fashion. Prior to that, FEA validation of previous studies on similar U-shaped FRP girders that were constructed in Poland and Texas is presented. A finer optimization analysis is performed for the case of the Texas hybrid bridge. The optimization outcome of the hybrid FRP/RC bridge shows the appropriate composite material selection and cross-section geometry that satisfies all the applicable Limit States (LS) and, at the same time, results in the lightest design. Critical limit states show that shear stress criteria determine the optimum design for bridge spans less than 15.24 m and deflection criteria controls for longer spans. Increased side wall thickness can reduce maximum observed shear stresses, but leads to a high weight penalty. A taller cross-section and a thicker girder base can efficiently lower the observed deflections and normal stresses. Finally, substantial weight savings can be achieved by the optimization framework if base and side-wall thickness are treated as independent variables.

  14. Complete BWR--EM LOCA analysis using the WRAP--EM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmeyer, R.R.; Gregory, M.V.; Buckner, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package, Evaluation Model (WRAP--EM), provides a complete analysis of postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA's) in light--water nuclear power reactors. The system is being developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to interpret and evaluate reactor vendor, evaluation model (EM) analyses. The initial version of the WRAP--EM system for analysis of boiling water reactors (BWR's) is operational. To demonstrate the complete capability of the WRAP--BWR--EM system, a LOCA analysis has been performed for the Hope Creek Plant

  15. Finite-Element Modeling of a Damaged Pipeline Repaired Using the Wrap of a Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Chebakov, M. I.; Dumitrescu, A.; Zecheru, G.

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear static problem of FEM modeling of a damaged pipeline repaired by a composite material and subjected to internal pressure is considered. The calculation is carried out using plasticity theory for the pipeline material and considering the polymeric filler and the composite wrap. The level of stresses in various zones of the structure is analyzed. The most widespread alloy used for oil pipelines is selected as pipe material. The contribution of each component of the pipeline-filler-wrap system to the level of stresses is investigated. The effect of the number of composite wrap layers is estimated. The results obtained allow one to decrease the costs needed for producing test specimens.

  16. Gamma radiation, cold and four different wrappings to preserve ginger rhizomes, Zingiber officinallis Roscoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirol, Marco Antonio P.; Neto, J.T.; Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2002-01-01

    After irradiating with a single dose of 50 Gy, ginger rhizomes were dipped into paraffin for coating, wrapped in a plastic film of low-density polyethylene, on perforated or non-perforated polivinyl chloride film, and compared with non-wrapping and non-irradiation as the controls. After treatments the rhizomes were maintained refrigerated at 13 deg. C and 80% relative humidity. As a main result it could be observed that dipping into paraffin and wrapping with plastics resulted in smaller weight loss of the rhizomes

  17. Non-metallic structural wrap systems for pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.H.; Wesley Rowley, C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of thermoplastics and reinforcing fiber has been a long-term application of non-metallic material for structural applications. With the advent of specialized epoxies and carbon reinforcing fiber, structural strength approaching and surpassing steel has been used in a wide variety of applications, including nuclear power plants. One of those applications is a NSWS for pipe and other structural members. The NSWS is system of integrating epoxies with reinforcing fiber in a wrapped geometrical configuration. This paper specifically addresses the repair of degraded pipe in heat removal systems used in nuclear power plants, which is typically caused by corrosion, erosion, or abrasion. Loss of structural material leads to leaks, which can be arrested by a NSWS for the pipe. The technical aspects of using thermoplastics to structurally improve degraded pipe in nuclear power plants has been addressed in the ASME B and PV Code Case N-589. Using the fundamentals described in that Code Case, this paper shows how this technology can be extended to pipe repair from the outside. This NSWS has already been used extensively in non-nuclear applications and in one nuclear application. The cost to apply this NSWS is typically substantially less than replacing the pipe and may be technically superior to replacing the pipe. (author)

  18. 12 loops and triple wrapping in ABJM theory from integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmetti, Lorenzo; Bombardelli, Diego; Cavaglià, Andrea; Tateo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Adapting a method recently proposed by C. Marboe and D. Volin for N=4 super-Yang-Mills, we develop an algorithm for a systematic weak coupling expansion of the spectrum of anomalous dimensions in the sl(2)-like sector of planar N=6 super-Chern-Simons. The method relies on the Quantum Spectral Curve formulation of the problem and the expansion is written in terms of the interpolating function h(λ), with coefficients expressible as combinations of Euler-Zagier sums with alternating signs. We present explicit results up to 12 loops (six nontrivial orders) for various twist-1 and twist-2 operators, corresponding to triple and double wrapping terms, respectively, which are beyond the reach of the Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz as well as Lüscher’s corrections. The algorithm works for generic states in this sector and in principle can be used to compute arbitrary orders of the weak coupling expansion. For the simplest operator with L=1 and spin S=1, the Padé extrapolation of the 12-loop result nicely agrees with the available Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz data in a relatively wide range of values of the coupling. A Mathematica notebook with a selection of results is attached.

  19. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The Connecticut low income weatherization program was developed in response to a 1987 rate docket order from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) to Connecticut Light Power Co., an operating subsidiary of Northeast Utilities (NU). (Throughout this report, NU is referred to as the operator of the program.) This program, known as the Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership, or WRAP, was configured utilizing input from a collaborative group of interested parties to the docket. It was agreed that this program would be put forth by the electric utility, but would not ignore oil and gas savings (thus, it was to be fuel- blind''). The allocated cost of conservation services for each fuel source, however, should be cost effective. It was to be offered to those utility customers at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty levels, and provide a wide array of energy saving measures directed toward heating, water heating and lighting. It was felt by the collaborative group that this program would raise the level of expenditures per participant for weatherization services provided by the state, and by linking to and revising the auditing process for weatherization, would lower the audit unit cost. The program plans ranged from the offering of low-cost heating, water heating and infiltration measures, increased insulation levels, carpentry and plumbing services, to furnace or burner replacement. The program was configured to allow for very comprehensive weatherization and heating system servicing.

  20. Chlorinated paraffins wrapping of carbon nanotubes: A theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qiuyue; Ding, Ning; Chen, Xiangfeng; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence

    2018-04-01

    How nanomaterials interact with pollutants is the central for understanding their environmental behavior and practical application. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theoretical (DFT) methods were used to investigated the influence of carbon chain length, degree of chlorination, chain configuration, and chirality of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and diameter of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on the interaction between CPs and SWNTs. The simulation results demonstrated that CP chain length and chlorination degree played considerably important roles in determining interaction strength between SWNTs and CPs. The interaction energies increased with increasing chain length and chlorination degree. The chirality of SWNT exerted negligible influence on the interaction energy between SWNTs and CPs. On the contrary, interaction energy increased with increasing radius of SWNTs due to the surface curvatures. This result was rationalized by considering the decrease in SWNT curvature with increasing radius, which resulted in plane-like CNT wall. The negligible influence of CP chain configurations was attributed to relative flexibility of CP carbon chains, which can wrap on tubes through conformational changes with low-energy barriers. MD results indicated that CPs could adsorb on SWNT surface rapidly in aqueous environment. Charge transfer and electronic density results indicated that the interaction between CPs and SWNTs was physisorption in nature. This work provides fundamental information regarding SWNTs as sorbents for CPs extraction and adsorptive removal from environmental water system.

  1. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms In this article ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. Mitrajyoti Ghosh. 83, Mitrapara 2nd Lane, Harinavi,. Kolkata 700148, West Bengal,. India. Email: mijospeakingnow@gmail.com. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. In this article we shall mathematically analyse the Resistor-. Capacitor (RC) circuit with the help of Fourier transforms. (FT).

  2. Development of an Improved Crack Propagation Model for Corrosion-Induced Cover Cracking in RC Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilyati, S.; Nizam, Z. M.; Zurisman, M. A. A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2017-06-01

    During the last two decades, reinforced concrete (RC) has been extensively used in most of the world as one of the common construction material due to its advantages and durability. However, RC structures exposed to marine environments are subjected to chloride attack. Chlorides from seawater penetrate into RC structures are not only causing severe corrosion problems but also affect the durability and serviceability of such structures. This paper investigates the influence of transverse reinforcement and spacing of reinforcing bars on concrete cover cracking of two-way RC slab specimens using accelerated corrosion tests. The experimental program involved the testing of four RC slab specimens and was generally designed to observe the crack width and the time of crack to propagate. An improved model for predicting the timing of crack propagation based on the experimental data was then developed.

  3. X-ray irradiation of RC-MAP pre-stored for various numbers of days. Effect of X-ray irradiation on RC-MAP and reuse of RC-MAP after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naotomo; Nagumo, Fumio; Kawasaki, Seiji; Matsuzaki, Miwako; Tadano, Jutaro

    1995-01-01

    X-ray irradiation is currently in wide use as a means of preventing post-transfusion graft-versus-host disease (PT-GVHD). In this study, we evaluated the effects of X-ray irradiation on RC-MAP pre-stored for various numbers of days, and assessed how long irradiated RC-MAP can be stored. RC-MAP was irradiated at a dosage of 15 Gy at 1, 7, 14, 21 or 28 days after blood collection. These specimens were referred to as group I, II, III, IV and V (X-ray-irradiated groups), respectively. Non-irradiated RC-MAP was used as the control. Results showed that plasma K concentration increased after X-ray irradiation. It is therefore advisable that RC-MAPs be used immediately in infants and in renal failure. However, to maximize the efficiency of blood product use, it seemed possible that groups I and II could be used within two weeks after irradiation, and group III within one week. On the basis of this increase in K concentration, however, groups IV and V plasma should be used immediately after irradiation. (author)

  4. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  5. Enhancing the Supercapacitor Performance of Graphene/MnO 2 Nanostructured Electrodes by Conductive Wrapping

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua; Hu, Liangbing; Liu, Nian; Wang, Huiliang; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Yang, Yuan; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-01-01

    suffer from poor electronic and ionic conductivities, resulting in their limited performance in power density and cycling. Here we developed a "conductive wrapping" method to greatly improve the supercapacitor performance of graphene/MnO2-based

  6. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management

  7. Wrapping interactions and the genus expansion of the 2-point function of composite operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieg, Christoph; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of wrapping interactions for a general class of theories with color degrees of freedom, including N=4 SYM. Wrapping interactions arise in the genus expansion of the 2-point function of composite operators as finite size effects that start to appear at a certain order in the coupling constant at which the range of the interaction is equal to the length of the operators. We analyze in detail the relevant genus expansions, and introduce a strategy to single out the wrapping contributions, based on adding spectator fields. We use a toy model to demonstrate our procedure, performing all computations explicitly. Although completely general, our treatment should be particularly useful for applications to the recent problem of wrapping contributions in some checks of the AdS/CFT correspondence

  8. Coaxial Thermoplastic Elastomer-Wrapped Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Deformable and Wearable Strain Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Xu, Xuezhu; Xin, Yangyang; Lubineau, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    performances in these design requirements. Here, achieving highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors by using a coaxial structure, prepared via coaxial wet spinning of thermoplastic elastomer-wrapped carbon nanotube fibers, is proposed. The sensors attain

  9. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  10. Suffocation caused by plastic wrap covering the face combined with nitrous oxide inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Suicide using a combination of a plastic bag over the head and inhalation of a non-irritating gas, such as helium, argon or nitrogen, has been reported in the literature. Here an unusual suicide method in a 17-year old man by suffocation from covering the face with household plastic wrap, combined....... The deceased was a 17-year old man who was found with the nose and mouth closed with a piece of kitchen plastic wrap. The plastic wrap had been removed prior to autopsy. Autopsy findings were suggestive of asphyxia, but were otherwise negative. Nitrous oxide was detected in the brain and lung tissue...... with headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (headspace-GCMS). The cause of death was assumed to be suffocation caused by plastic wrap covering the face, combined with nitrous oxide inhalation. Suicide was suspected because of a history of depression for several months. Nitrous oxide, also known...

  11. artificial neural network model for low strength rc beam shear capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    RESEARCH PAPER. Keywords: Shear strength, reinforced concrete, Artificial Neural Network, design equations ... searchers using artificial intelligence to im- prove on theoretical ...... benefit to humanity or a waste of time?” The. Structural ...

  12. Shear Capacity of Large-Scale RC Beams Affected by ASR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) on the shear capacity for concrete slabs without shear reinforcement. An experimental full-scale in-situ program consisting of four slabs from a bridge (Vosnæsvej) has been carried out and the results have been published in ref. [1......) and Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1). The analysis shows that three experiments were highly affected by the preparation of the experimental setup. Only one experiment contained useful information about the shear capacity. The analysis of this experiment shows that the shear capacity is not reduced as much...

  13. Strengthening Performance of PALF-Epoxy Composite Plate on Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Siew C.; Tong, Foo S.; Doh, Shu I.; Gimbun, Jolius; Ong, Huey R.; Serigar, Januar P.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the effective strengthening potential of pineapple leaves fiber (PALF)-epoxy composite plate on reinforced concrete (RC) beam. At first the PALF is treated with alkali (NaOH) and its morphology is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). The composite plates made of PALF and epoxy with fiber loading ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 v/v was tested for its flexural behaviour. The composite was then used for external RC beam strengthening. The structural properties of RC beams were evaluated and all the beams were tested under four-point bending. It was found that the flexural strength increased as the fiber volume ratio increases. The maximum flexural strength (301.94 MPa) was obtained at the fiber volume ratio of 40%. The beam strengthened with PALF-epoxy composite plate has a 7% higher beam capacity compared to the control beam. Cracks formed at the edge of the plate of PALF-strengthened beams resulted in diagonal cracking. Result from this work shows that the PALF-epoxy composite plate has the potential to be used as external strengthening material for RC beam.

  14. Determination of trace and minor elements in Mexican cigarette wrapping paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of 14 elements in cigarette wrapping papers used in manufacturing 21 different Mexican cigarette brands was measured using instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis. These elements are As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th and Zn. The concentration of the elements was compared with the reported concentration in similar studies for elemental content in Pakistani, American, Chinese, Egyptian, Jordanian and Iranian cigarette wrapping papers. (author)

  15. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Weight Scale Analysis Fairbanks Weight Scale Evaluation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Fairbanks Weight Scales are used at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility to determine the weight of waste drums as they are received, processed, and shipped. Due to recent problems, discovered during calibration, the WRAP Engineering Department has completed this document which outlines both the investigation of the infeed conveyor scale failure in September of 1999 and recommendations for calibration procedure modifications designed to correct deficiencies in the current procedures

  16. 279 Watt Metal-Wrap-Through module using industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillevin, N.; Heurtault, B.; Geerligs, L.J.; Anker, J.; Van Aken, B.B.; Bennett, I.J.; Jansen, M.J.; Berkeveld, L.D.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Wenchao, Zhao; Jianming, Wang; Ziqian, Wang; Yingle, Chen; Yanlong, Shen; Zhiyan, Hu; Gaofei, Li; Jianhui, Chen; Bo, Yu; Shuquan, Tian; Jingfeng, Xiong [Yingli Solar, 3399 Chaoyang North Street, Baoding (China)

    2012-09-15

    This paper describes results of metal wrap through (MWT) cells produced from n-type Czochralski silicon wafers, and modules produced from those cells. The use of n-type silicon as base material allows for high efficiencies: for front emitter contacted industrial cells, efficiencies up to 20% have been reported. MWT cells allow even higher cell efficiency due to reduced front metal coverage, and additionally full back-contacting of the MWT cells in a module results in reduced cell to module (CTM) fill factor losses. MWT cells were produced by industrial process technologies. The efficiency of the MWT cells reproducibly exceeds the efficiency of front contact cells based on the same technology by about 0.2-0.3%, and routes for further improvement are analyzed. 60-cell modules were produced from both types of cells (MWT and H-pattern front emitter). In a direct module performance comparison, the MWT module, based on integrated backfoil, produced 3% higher power output than the comparable tabbed front emitter contact module. CTM current differences arise from the higher packing density, and in this experiment from a lower reflectance of the backfoil, in MWT modules. CTM FF differences are related to resistive losses in copper circuitry on the backfoil versus tabs. The CTM FF loss of the MWT module was reduced by 2.2%abs compared to the tabbed front emitter contact module. Finally, simple process optimizations were tested to improve the n-type MWT cell and module efficiency. A module made using MWT cells of 19.6% average efficiency resulted in a power output of 279W. The cell and module results are analyzed and routes for improvements are discussed.

  17. Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres as a photocatalyst for high performance photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Dongfang; Ge, Qisheng; Ping, Guangxing; Fan, Meiqiang; Qin, Laishun; Bai, Liqun; Lv, Chunju; Shu, Kangying

    2015-01-01

    In this work, graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres (ZnO–graphene nanocomposites) were prepared by a simple facile lyophilization method, followed by thermal treatment process. ZnO nanospheres with the size of about 100–400 nm, composed of numerous nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure, were well separated from each other and wrapped with transparent graphene sheets. Compared to ZnO nanospheres, the ZnO–graphene nanocomposites showed a significant enhancement in the photodegradation of methylene blue. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to their favorable dye-adsorption affinity and increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer of the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO to graphene. Thus, this work could provide a facile and low-cost method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, sensing, and so on. - Highlights: • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were prepared by a facile lyophilization method. • ZnO nanospheres were separated from each other and wrapped with 2D graphene sheets. • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres exhibited superior photocatalytic activities. • The photocatalytic mechanisms of graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were discussed

  18. Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres as a photocatalyst for high performance photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Da, E-mail: dchen_80@hotmail.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Dongfang; Ge, Qisheng; Ping, Guangxing [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Qin, Laishun [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Bai, Liqun [School of Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Lv, Chunju; Shu, Kangying [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres (ZnO–graphene nanocomposites) were prepared by a simple facile lyophilization method, followed by thermal treatment process. ZnO nanospheres with the size of about 100–400 nm, composed of numerous nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure, were well separated from each other and wrapped with transparent graphene sheets. Compared to ZnO nanospheres, the ZnO–graphene nanocomposites showed a significant enhancement in the photodegradation of methylene blue. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to their favorable dye-adsorption affinity and increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer of the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO to graphene. Thus, this work could provide a facile and low-cost method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, sensing, and so on. - Highlights: • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were prepared by a facile lyophilization method. • ZnO nanospheres were separated from each other and wrapped with 2D graphene sheets. • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres exhibited superior photocatalytic activities. • The photocatalytic mechanisms of graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were discussed.

  19. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerilli, Francesca; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  20. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerilli, Francesca [Unicusano - Università degli Studi Niccolò Cusano Telematica Roma, 00166 Rome (Italy); Vairo, Giuseppe [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”- (DICII), 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  1. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerilli, Francesca; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  2. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  3. The role of relational capital (RC in green supply chain management (GSCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Viviane Viegas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM is an emergent issue in operations management. It is addressed to intra and inter-organizational practices adoption in order to promote sustainability in supply chains. Relational Capital (RC, also an emergent issue, plays a relevant role to resize views based solely in transactions costs and resources to a relationship view leaned on governance for information, trust and longevity in relationships, looking for positive results for all the chain’s participants. This article reviews and criticizes seminal literature on intangible assets in order to rescue RC features and link them to GSCM development. Through exploratory and descriptive methods, recent studies on RC and GSCM are identified with respect their descriptors – ways in which RC is understood and employed in GSCM; focus – goals and main use of RC; and directionality – if developments of RC in GSCM are addressed from producers to their suppliers and respective clients, or if suppliers and clients also address results of RC. It is concluded that, usually, there is unidirectionality in the application of such efforts: improvement initiatives go from the producer to the supplier or client development, but processes through which environmental practices of suppliers and clients influence the performance of GSCM are poor explored.

  4. Dynamic behavior and functional integrity tests on RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Kinji; Nasuda, Toshiaki; Shibata, Akenori.

    1991-01-01

    A project consisting of seven subprojects has been conducted to study the dynamic behavior and functional integrity of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls in reactor buildings. The objective of this project is to obtain the data to improve and prepare the seismic analysis code regarding the nonlinear structural behavior and integrity of reactor buildings during and after earthquakes. The project started in April, 1986, and will end in March, 1994. Seven subprojects are strain rate test, damping characteristic test, ultimate state response test and the verification test for the test of restoring force characteristics regarding dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance; the restoring force characteristic test on the shear walls with openings; and pull-out strength test and the test on air leakage through concrete cracks regarding the functional integrity. The objectives of respective subprojects, the test models and the interim results are reported. Three subprojects have been completed by March, 1990. The results of these projects will be used for the overall evaluation. The strain rate test showed that the ultimate strength of shear walls increased with strain rate. A formula for estimating air flow through the cracks in walls was given by the leakage test. (K.I.)

  5. Seismic performance of existing R.C. framed buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A. El-Betar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The earthquakes disasters basically occur due to buildings damage not because of the earth shaking. Therefore, the countries have being updated the seismic codes. The seismic loads for buildings design in Egyptian Code have been changed from (EC-1994 to (ECP-201, 2012. On the other hand, the need is raised to study the vulnerability of existing buildings, which can be divided into the buildings designed to resist the gravity loads only (GLD and the buildings designed according to Egyptian code (EC-1994. Comparison between forces due to Egyptian code for loads (EC-1994 and (ECP-201, 2012 is carried out on the multi-stories R.C. framed buildings which are the most common type of existing buildings in Egypt. To investigate the vulnerability of existing buildings, nonlinear static pushover analysis is conducted to evaluate the real strength of the existing buildings. Moreover, it is considered a useful and effective tool for the performance of three framed buildings: 3, 6 and 10 stories due to expected future earthquakes. Finally, it is found that the vulnerability of existing GLD buildings occurs at expected ground accelerations (ag greater than 0.125 g in Egyptian seismic map, while the EC-94 designed buildings behave elastically up to (ag equals to 0.2 g and above that a slight damage may occur.

  6. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-07-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame. To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme.

  7. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-01-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame.To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme

  8. Prediction of Cracking Induced by Indirect Actions in RC Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anerdi, Costanza; Bertagnoli, Gabriele; Gino, Diego; Malavisi, Marzia; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Cracking of concrete plays a key role in reinforced concrete (RC) structures design, especially in serviceability conditions. A variety of reasons contribute to develop cracking and its presence in concrete structures is to be considered as almost unavoidable. Therefore, a good control of the phenomenon in order to provide durability is required. Cracking development is due to tensile stresses that arise in concrete structures as a result of the action of direct external loads or restrained endogenous deformations. This paper focuses on cracking induced by indirect actions. In fact, there is very limited literature regarding this particular phenomenon if compared to its high incidence in the construction practice. As a consequence, the correct prediction of the crack opening, width and position when structures are subjected to imposed deformations, such as massive castings or other highly restrained structures, becomes a compelling task, not so much for the structural capacity, as for their durability. However, this is only partially addressed by commonly used design methods, which are usually intended for direct actions. A set of non-linear analysis on simple tie models is performed using the Finite Element Method in order to study the cracking process under imposed deformations. Different concrete grades have been considered and analysed. The results of this study have been compared with the provisions of the most common codes.

  9. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, O.; Jara, J. M.; Jara, M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models.

  10. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, O; Jara, J M; Jara, M; Olmos, B A

    2015-01-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models. (paper)

  11. Model tests on dynamic performance of RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshio; Shibata, Akenori; Inoue, Norio; Muroi, Kazuo.

    1991-01-01

    For the inelastic dynamic response analysis of a reactor building subjected to earthquakes, it is essentially important to properly evaluate its restoring force characteristics under dynamic loading condition and its damping performance. Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main structural members of a reactor building, and dominate its seismic behavior. In order to obtain the basic information on the dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance of shear walls, the dynamic test using a large shaking table, static displacement control test and the pseudo-dynamic test on the models of a shear wall were conducted. In the dynamic test, four specimens were tested on a large shaking table. In the static test, four specimens were tested, and in the pseudo-dynamic test, three specimens were tested. These tests are outlined. The results of these tests were compared, placing emphasis on the restoring force characteristics and damping performance of the RC wall models. The strength was higher in the dynamic test models than in the static test models mainly due to the effect of loading rate. (K.I.)

  12. Shear design and assessment of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams based on a mechanical model

    OpenAIRE

    Marí Bernat, Antonio Ricardo; Bairán García, Jesús Miguel; Cladera Bohigas, Antoni; Oller Ibars, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Safe and economical design and assessment of reinforced (RC) and prestressed concrete (PC) beams requires the availability of accurate but simple formulations which adequately capture the structural response. In this paper, a mechanical model for the prediction of the shear-flexural strength of PC and RC members with rectangular, I, or T sections, with and without shear reinforcement, is presented. The model is based on the principles of concrete mechanics and on assumptions supported by the ...

  13. Formulation development of retrocyclin 1 analog RC-101 as an anti-HIV vaginal microbicide product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, A B; Cost, M R; Cole, A L; Cole, A M; Patton, D L; Gupta, P; Rohan, L C

    2011-05-01

    RC-101 is a synthetic microbicide analog of retrocyclin, which has shown in vitro activity against X4 and R5 HIV-1. In an effort to develop a safe and effective RC-101 vaginal microbicide product, we assessed safety in ex vivo macaque and human models and efficacy using in vitro and ex vivo models. A polyvinyl-alcohol vaginal film containing RC-101 (100 μg/film) was developed. Formulation assessment was conducted by evaluating disintegration, drug content, mechanical properties, and stability. Efficacy was evaluated by in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) assay and ex vivo human ectocervical tissue explant model. Ex vivo safety studies were conducted by exposing RC-101 to an excised monkey reproductive tract and excised human ectocervical tissue. RC-101 100 μg films were shown to be safe to human and monkey tissue and effective against HIV-1 in vitro and ex vivo in human ectocervical tissue. The 90% inhibitory concentration (IC90) for RC-101 films at 2,000 μg (IC90=57.5 μM) using an ex vivo model was 10-fold higher than the IC90 observed using an in vitro model (IC90=5.0 μM). RC-101 films were stable for 1 month at 25°C, with in vitro bioactivity maintained for up to 6 months. RC-101 was developed in a quick-dissolve film formulation that was shown to be safe in an ex vivo model and effective in in vitro and ex vivo models. RC-101 film formulations were shown to maintain bioactivity for a period of 6 months. Findings from the present study contribute to the development of a safe and effective topical microbicide product.

  14. An optimum design of R-C oscillatory De-Qing circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dezhang; Pan Linghe; Yang Tianlu

    1990-01-01

    An optimum design of R-C oscillatory De-Qing circuit has been developed for voltage regulation of the pulse modulator. When a new coefficient T 3 /T is introduced, the selection of De-Qing circuit parameters will become quite simple and the optimum parameters can be calculated directly. The De-Qing circuit parameters calculated will be effective in the whole range of the percentage regulation η from zero to maximum design value. The limit value of η is 0.36 or 0.29, theoretically, when the time constant of the De-Qing circuit is 3RC or 5RC respectively

  15. Cracking and Deformation Modelling of Tensile RC Members Using Stress Transfer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldas Jakubovskis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modeling technique for bond, cracking and deformation analysis of RC members. The proposed mod-eling technique is not restricted by the geometrical dimensions of the analyzed member and may be applied for various load-ing conditions. Tensile as well as bending RC members may be analyzed using the proposed technique. Adequacy of the modeling strategy was evaluated by the developed numerical discrete crack algorithm, which allows modeling deformation and cracking behavior of tensile RC members. Comparison of experimental and numerical results proved the applicability of the proposed modeling strategy.

  16. Observations on out-of-plane behaviour of URM walls in buildings with RC slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Tondelli, Marco; Beyer, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In Switzerland many new residential buildings are constructed as unreinforced masonry (URM) structures or as mixed structures where URM walls are coupled with reinforced concrete (RC) walls by RC slabs. At present the boundary conditions of URM walls subjected to out-of-plane accelerations are still not well quantified. In the framework of a large research activity on RC-URM wall structures a shake-table test on a four-storey mixed structure was performed. The test specimen, which was built a...

  17. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs from Wrapping Films and Wrapped PDO Italian Cheeses by Using HS-SPME and GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Panseri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays food wrapping assures attractive presentation and simplifies self-service shopping. Polyvinylchloride (PVC- and polyethylene (PE-based cling-films are widely used worldwide for wrapping cheeses. For this purpose, films used in retail possess suitable technical properties such as clinginess and unrolling capacity, that are achieved by using specific plasticizers during their manufacturing process. In the present study, the main VOCs of three cling-films (either PVC-based or PE-based for retail use were characterized by means of Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction and GC/MS. In addition, the effects of cling film type and contact time on the migration of VOCs from the films to four different PDO Italian cheeses during cold storage under light or dark were also investigated. Among the VOCs isolated from cling-films, PVC released 2-ethylhexanol and triacetin. These compounds can likely be considered as a “non-intentionally added substance”. These same compounds were also detected in cheeses wrapped in PVC films with the highest concentration found after 20 days storage. The PE cling-film was shown to possess a simpler VOC profile, lacking some molecules peculiar to PVC films. The same conclusions can be drawn for cheeses wrapped in the PE cling-film. Other VOCs found in wrapped cheeses were likely to have been released either by direct transfer from the materials used for the manufacture of cling-films or from contamination of the films. Overall, HS-SPME is shown to be a rapid and solvent free technique to screen the VOCs profile of cling-films, and to detect VOCs migration from cling-films to cheese under real retail storage conditions.

  18. Strength and behavior in shear of reinforced concrete deep beams under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Satadru Das [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Li, Bing, E-mail: cbli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Fujikake, Kazunori [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka 239 8686 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of wider range of loading rates on dynamic shear behavior of RC deep beams. ► Experimental investigation of RC deep beam with and without shear reinforcements. ► Verification of experimental results with truss model and FE simulation results. ► Empirical equations are proposed to predict the dynamic increase factor of maximum resistance. -- Abstract: Research on reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams has seen considerable headway over the past three decades; however, information on the dynamic shear strength and behavior of RC deep beams under varying rates of loads remains limited. This paper describes the experimental results of 24 RC deep beams with and without shear reinforcements under varying rates of concentrated loading. Results obtained serve as useful data on shear resistance, failure patterns and strain rates corresponding to varying loading rates. An analytical truss model approach proves its efficacy in predicting the dynamic shear resistance under varying loading rates. Furthermore, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) model is described and the simulation results are verified with the experimental results. A parametric study is then conducted to investigate the influence of longitudinal reinforcement ratio, transverse reinforcement ratio and shear span to effective depth ratio on shear behavior. Subsequently, two empirical equations were proposed by integrating the various parameters to assess the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of maximum resistance under varying rates of concentrated loading.

  19. An under-designed RC frame: Seismic assessment through displacement based approach and possible refurbishment with FRP strips and RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Many existing reinforced concrete buildings in Southern Europe were built (and hence designed) before the introduction of displacement based design in national seismic codes. They are obviously highly vulnerable to seismic actions. In such a situation, simplified methodologies for the seismic assessment and retrofitting of existing structures are required. In this study, a displacement based procedure using non-linear static analyses is applied to a four-story existing RC frame. The aim is to obtain an estimation of its overall structural inadequacy as well as the effectiveness of a specific retrofitting intervention by means of GFRP laminates and RC jacketing. Accurate numerical models are developed within a displacement based approach to reproduce the seismic response of the RC frame in the original configuration and after strengthening.

  20. The Influence of a Padded Hand Wrap on Punching Force in Elite and Untrained Punchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Galpin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Punching is integral to success in combat sports, making it a frequent activity during practice/training. Improving safety of this activity benefits both the athlete and training partners. This study was designed to 1 test the precision and reliability of a commercially available striking device and 2 assess the influence of a novel padded hand wrap on punching force in elite and untrained punchers. Fourteen male professional boxers and mixed martial artists (PRO; age=29.2±5.6y; height=180.3±9.0cm; mass=87.1±17.9kg, winning %=73.8±13.8%, number of victories via knockout/technical knockout=35.6± 21.9% and 24 untrained male punchers (UNT; 27.6±6.9y, 177.6±18.3cm, 84.3±16.9kg wore a standardized boxing glove and performed 20 maximal punches (4 sets of 5 into a device designed to measure punching force. All participants performed, in a counterbalanced order, 2 sets of 5 with a standardized hand wrap and 2 sets of 5 with the same wrap plus an additional 1.2cm thick cylinder 4g foam-like pad (WRAP placed over the knuckles. PRO produced significantly more punching force than UNT, regardless of condition. Punching force was lower by 12.6% (p<0.05 for PRO and 8.9% (p<0.05 for UNT with WRAP (compared to no WRAP. These findings suggest WRAP significantly reduces punching force, which may be important for long-term safety of the puncher’s hand and/or the person receiving the strike. Keywords: safety, punching, striking, hitting, combat, pad

  1. Flexural and Thermal Properties of Novel Energy Conservation Slotted Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional solid reinforced concrete (RC beams were modified to slotted beams for consideration as thermal insulation structural components. The slotted beam consisted of an outer and an inner beam, respectively, with a slot located near the middle of the beam along its width direction for filling thermal insulation material. Flexural and thermal behavior of the slotted beams were investigated. Three RC reference solid beams and six slotted beams were fabricated and tested under four-point bending tests. The test results indicated that the failure mode of both slotted beams and the solid beams was flexural failure. However, the damage process of the slotted beams was different from that of the solid beams at the final loading stage. The moment curvature analysis indicated that the tensile reinforcement ratio of the outer and inner beams had an important effect on the flexural behavior, especially the ductility of the slotted beams. Thermal study indicated that the heat transfer coefficient of the slotted beam was greatly reduced and the thermal inertia factor increased a lot, compared with the solid beam. In addition, FE simulation results showed that a new frame structure using slotted beams exhibited obvious and attractive thermal insulation property.

  2. Experiment and simulation of double-layered RC plates under impact loadings. Part 1: Impact tests for double-layered RC plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Ueda, M.; Taniguchi, H.; Kambayashi, A.; Ohno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1993-01-01

    At a nuclear power plant facility, it should be of interest and important problem to ensure structures against impact loads induced by projectile impacts or plant-internal accidents. It has been well known that local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the impacted area and scabbing of concrete from the back face of the target together with projectile penetration into the target. There are several techniques for improving the impact resistance of RC slabs, that is, lining with a steel plate on the impacted and/or rear face of the slab, making the slab a double-layered composite slab with an elastic absorber and employing a fiber reinforced concrete or a high-strength concrete as the slab materials. Of the many measures available for withstanding impact loads, the use of a double-layered reinforced concrete (RC) slab with absorber is expected to have the higher resistance in reducing or preventing local damage. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates subjected to the impact of projectile. In the experiment, the effects of two parameters; the combination of two RC plates having different thicknesses and the existence of an absorber in the middle layer, are mainly investigated. And, the effects of the concrete thickness (7,9 and 11 cm) and the concrete strength (a normal-:35MPa, a lightweight-:40MPa and a high-strength:57MPa) of target were also examined. RC plates, 0.6m-square, were used for test specimens. The projectile has a mass of 0.43kg, made of steel with a flat nose. An average projectile velocity was about 170m/sec. A rubber plate shaped into a square with the same size of RC plate was used for a double-layered specimen as an absorber which was put between two RC plates. It could be concluded that double-layering and presence of an absorber had a considerable effect on the increase of impact resistance of RC plate. In order to reduce local damage, it is more effective to

  3. Production of the heat exchanger tubes, which will cool down the LHC magnets, and of the cold bore tubes, in which the proton beams will circulate, is due to be completed around the end of 2004. These essential components of the LHC magnets are receiving their finishing touches at CERN : cold bore tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Insulation of the cold bore tubes in which the LHC beams will circulate takes place in Building 927. In the background, Bruno Meunier checks the wrapping machine while, in the foreground, Olivier Vasseur removes the polyester wrapping that covers the tube's insulating layers.

  4. Advanced field-solver techniques for RC extraction of integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Resistance and capacitance (RC) extraction is an essential step in modeling the interconnection wires and substrate coupling effect in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (IC). The field-solver techniques for RC extraction guarantee the accuracy of modeling, and are becoming increasingly important in meeting the demand for accurate modeling and simulation of VLSI designs. Advanced Field-Solver Techniques for RC Extraction of Integrated Circuits presents a systematic introduction to, and treatment of, the key field-solver methods for RC extraction of VLSI interconnects and substrate coupling in mixed-signal ICs. Various field-solver techniques are explained in detail, with real-world examples to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm. This book will benefit graduate students and researchers in the field of electrical and computer engineering, as well as engineers working in the IC design and design automation industries. Dr. Wenjian Yu is an Associate Professor at the Department of ...

  5. Direct Observation of Energy Detrapping in LH1-RC Complex by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hendrikx, Ruud; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2017-01-18

    The purple bacterial core light harvesting antenna-reaction center (LH1-RC) complex is the simplest system able to achieve the entire primary function of photosynthesis. During the past decade, a variety of photosynthetic proteins were studied by a powerful technique, two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). However, little attention has been paid to LH1-RC, although its reversible uphill energy transfer, trapping, and backward detrapping processes, represent a crucial step in the early photosynthetic reaction dynamics. Thus, in this work, we employed 2DES to study two LH1-RC complexes of Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum. By direct observation of detrapping, the complex reversible process was clearly identified and an overall scheme of the excitation evolution in LH1-RC was obtained.

  6. Noise analysis of gate electrode work function engineered recessed channel (GEWE-RC) MOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwala, Ajita; Chaujar, Rishu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the noise assessment, using ATLAS device simulation software, of a gate electrode work function engineered recessed channel (GEWE-RC) MOSFET involving an RC and GEWE design integrated onto a conventional MOSFET. Furthermore, the behaviour of GEWE-RC MOSFET is compared with that of a conventional MOSFET having the same device parameters. This paper thus optimizes and predicts the feasibility of a novel design, i.e., GEWE-RC MOSFET for high-performance applications where device and noise reduction is a major concern. The noise metrics taken into consideration are: minimum noise figure and optimum source impedance. The statistical tools auto correlation and cross correlation are also analysed owing to the random nature of noise.

  7. Quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges wrapped with different plastic films under simulated marketing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Malinconico, M; Avella, M; Di Lorenzo, M L; Mura; Palma, A

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and eating quality of citrus fruit changes slowly after harvest, and quality alteration is mainly due to shrinkage, loss of firmness, excessive weight loss and decay rather than a reduction of nutritional value and taste features. Film wrapping may be a suitable means to reduce transpiration and preserve market quality provided film permeability to gases does not lead to: 1) a reduction of in-package O2 partial pressure at a point that would induce anaerobic respiration; 2) an increase of CO2 concentration to toxic levels. This experiment was carried out to study quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges treated or not treated with 500 mg/L imazalil (IMZ) and wrapped with continuous, macro- or micro-perforated polyolefinic films. Wrapped and no-wrapped fruit were stored at 20 degrees C and 60% RH for 20 or 30 days. In-package gas composition of the macro-perforated film showed no significant difference compared to air composition, while in-package partial pressure of CO2 and O2 ranged between 4 (continuous film) and 9.8 kPa (micro-perforated films), and 14.8 (continuous film) and 5 kPa (micro-perforated films), respectively. After 30 days of storage weight loss in fruit wrapped with the macro-perforated film was (4.3%) slightly lowerthan un-packed fruit (5%), while in all other packages weight loss never exceeded 0.7%.Quality changes were quite stable over storage in all treatments, although slight but significantly lower levels of total soluble solids and ascorbic acid were detected in micro-perforated films with the lowest degree of perforation. However, the sensory analysis denoted a remarkable decrease of firmness in un-wrapped or wrapped fruit with macro-perforated film, while a moderate build-up of off-flavour, which reduced the eating quality, developed in micro-perforated films. Decay ranged between 6 and 12% in not treated fruit, with the lowest incidence detected in un-wrapped fruit, whereas differences among the different films were not

  8. The metal wrap through solar cell. Developement and characterisation; Die metal wrap through Solarzelle. Entwicklung und Charakterisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Florian

    2009-03-20

    This work focuses on the development and the optimization of the metal wrap through (MWT) solar cell. Primary goal of this work has been the development of an appropriate process flow for MWT solar cells, which generates only insignificant extra costs compared to the conventional process flow, however, achieves a significant efficiency increase for MWT cells compared to conventionally processed cells. The latter was one of the main challenges of this work. For this purpose MWT solar cells have been studied and characterized in detail. Loss mechanisms have been detected and improvements evaluated as well as transferred to the cell process. Furthermore, the assembling process for MWT solar cells in the module has been optimized focusing on less series resistance losses. A comparison with the conventional module assembling process is presented. A process flow similar to the one for the conventional process has been developed for MWT solar cells. Merely two additional laser process steps for hole drilling and rear contact isolation as well as one screen printing step for the through connection turn out to be necessary. It is shown that the additional screen printing process can be omitted without significant efficiency losses, if the through connection and solder pad metallization is done in a single process step. Furthermore, a fast and reliable through connection process has been developed and characterized in detail. Moreover, a gauge mounting block for MWT solar cells has been constructed, analyzed and calibrated for current-voltage-characteristic measurements. With multi crystalline MWT silicon solar cells an efficiency gain up to 0.5% absolute has been achieved compared to conventionally processed solar cells - thereby reaching a maximum cell efficiency of more than 16.7%. Due to a novel MWT module technology developed in this work the efficiency compared to the conventional technology could be improved further by another 0.3% absolute. The primary loss

  9. Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel bundle for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Ho; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly mock-up of a Japanese loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor, Monju, were investigated with a numerical analysis using a general-purpose commercial computational fluid dynamics code, CFX. Complicated and vortical flow phenomena in the wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly were captured by a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow simulation using a shear stress transport turbulence model. The main purpose of the current study is to understand the three-dimensional complex flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped fuel assembly to support the license issue for the core design. Computational fluid dynamics results show good agreement with friction factor correlation models. The secondary flow in the corner and edge subchannels is much stronger than that in an interior subchannel. The axial velocity averaged in the corner and edge subchannels is higher than that averaged in the interior subchannels. Three-dimensional multiscale vortex structures start to be formed by an interaction between secondary flows around each wire-wrapped pin. Behavior of the large-scale vortex structures in the corner and edge subchannels is closely related to the relative position between the hexagonal duct wall and the helically wrapped wire spacer. The small-scale vortex is axially developed in the interior subchannels. Furthermore, a driving force on each wire spacer surface is closely related to the relative position between the hexagonal duct wall and the wire spacer.

  10. Reduction in Wound Complications After Total Ankle Arthroplasty Using a Compression Wrap Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Oliver N; Hsu, Andrew R; Haddad, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical differences in wound complications after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) between a cohort of patients that received a compression wrap protocol and a historical control group treated with cast immobilization. Patient charts and postoperative wound pictures were reviewed for 42 patients who underwent a compression wrap protocol and 50 patients who underwent circumferential casting after primary TAA from 2008 to 2013. A blinded reviewer graded each wound using a novel postoperative wound classification system, and recorded whether the wound was completely healed by or after 3 months. A second blinded review was performed to determine intraobserver reliability. Mean patient age was 55 years (range, 24-80) and all patients had at least 6-month follow-up. There were significantly more total wound complications (P = .02) and mild wound complications (P = .02) in the casted group compared to the compression wrap group. There were no significant differences in the number of moderate and severe complications between each group. A significantly higher proportion of TAA incisions took longer than 3 months to heal in the casted group (P = .02). Based on our clinical experience with postoperative wound care after TAA, use of a compression wrap protocol was safe and effective at reducing wound-related complications, and well tolerated by patients. Further prospective, randomized clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the utility and cost-effectiveness of a compression wrap protocol after TAA. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Cooking loss, tenderness, and sensory evaluation of chicken meat roasted after wrapping with edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközet, Ahmet Oktay; Uslu, Mustafa Kemal

    2018-01-01

    In this study, edible films were produced from sodium caseinate and a sodium caseinate-starch mixture and with or without oleoresins (cumin and oregano oleoresin mixture). Chicken meat was wrapped in the respective films, stored at 4 ℃ for four days, and roasted at 200 ℃ for 30 min. The cooking loss, color changes, instrumental tenderness (shear force and energy) were measured. In addition, sensory evaluation was performed. All films effectively reduced cooking loss from chicken meat. The sodium caseinate-starch-based films were the most successful in preventing cooking loss. The average shear force and shear energy values of the wrapped samples were about 40% and 30% less than those of control samples, respectively. In sensory evaluation, chicken meat roasted after wrapping with the films was considered more tender and delicious than the control. Particularly, chicken meat wrapped with the films containing oleoresin mixture was assessed as the most delicious among the samples. It was shown that the cooking quality of the chicken meat could be significantly improved by pre-wrapping the meat with edible films.

  12. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H₂S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonlinear behaviors of FRP-wrapped tall trees subjected to high wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Yi, Z. Z.; Choi, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the mechanical stability of historical tall trees wrapped with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates using finite element (FE) analysis. High wind loads are considered as external loading conditions as they are one of the major threats on the structural stability of tall old trees. There have been several traditional practices to enhance the stability of tall trees exposed to high windstorms such as tree supporters and anchorages. They, however, have been sometimes causing negative effects with their misuses as the application guidelines for those methods were not adequately studied or documented. Furthermore, the oldest known trees in the country should be protected from the damage of external surface as well as ruin of the landscape. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural effects of FRP wraps applied to tall trees subjected to high wind loads. The anisotropic material properties of wood and FRP laminates were considered in the analysis in addition to geometrically nonlinear behaviors. This study revealed that FRP wrapping for tall trees could effectively reduce the deflections and maximum stresses of trees, which results in the enhanced stability of tall trees. The optimum geometry and thicknesses of FRP wraps proposed in this study would provide fundemental guidelines for designing and constructing the application of innovative FRP wraps on tall trees, which are structurally unstable or should be preserved nationally and historically.

  14. SEISMICALLY RETROFITTING AND UPGRADING RC-MRF BY USING EXPANDED METAL PANELS

    OpenAIRE

    Phung Ngoc, Dung

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete moment resisting frames (RC-MRFs) have been widely used as the main structural resisting systems for over 30 years based on their capacity in resisting both gravity loads and lateral forces like winds or earthquakes and on low cost of construction. However, there have been still many existing RC-MRFs not designed according to any modern seismic code. This may lead to some undesired failures under a rather low intensity earthquake. There are several existing retrofitting sy...

  15. Study on labelling methods of 125I-RC-160 and its biodistribution in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Wang Xiqing; Wang Liangang; Li Fujun; Deng Jinglan

    2002-01-01

    A method for the iodination of peptide RC-160 with high efficiency was developed. RC-160 was iodinated with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as oxidant, the conventional chloramine T (Ch-T) method was used as control. The labelling condition of NBS method was optimized and radiolabelled conjugate 125 I-RC-160 was assessed as follows: no further purification was needed, the measured labelling yield of 125 I-RC-160 was 92% and the specific activity was 1.95 x 10 12 Bq/m mol. The yield increased as the amount of NBS increased. The optimal ratio of RC-160 (μg): 125 I (MBq): NBS(μg) was 3:7.4:1. For Ch-T method, the labelling yield is 56% and specific activity was 0.65 x 10 12 Bq/m mol; but after purification by SepPak-C 18 , the labelling yield may reach as high as 92%. 1h after injection, radioactivity in blood decreased by 87.2%. No obvious concentration of 125 I-RC-160 in thyroid or kidney was observed

  16. Beam-beam phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    In colliding beam storage rings the beam collision regions are generally so short that the beam-beam interaction can be considered as a series of evenly spaced non-linear kicks superimposed on otherwise stable linear oscillations. Most of the numerical studies on computers were carried out in just this manner. But for some reason this model has not been extensively employed in analytical studies. This is perhaps because all analytical work has so far been done by mathematicians pursuing general transcendental features of non-linear mechanics for whom this specific model of the specific system of colliding beams is too parochial and too repugnantly physical. Be that as it may, this model is of direct interest to accelerator physicists and is amenable to (1) further simplification, (2) physical approximation, and (3) solution by analogy to known phenomena

  17. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Public Address System Review Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUMPHRYS, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    Public address system operation at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility was reviewed. The review was based on an Operational Readiness Review finding that public address performance was not adequate in parts of the WRAP facility. Several improvements were made to the WRAP Public Address (PA) system to correct the deficiencies noted. Speaker gain and position was optimized. A speech processor was installed to boost intelligibility in high noise areas. Additional speakers were added to improve coverage in the work areas. The results of this evaluation indicate that further PA system enhancements are not warranted. Additional speakers cannot compensate for the high background sound and high reverberation levels found in the work areas. Recommendations to improve PA system intelligibility include minor speaker adjustments, enhanced PA announcement techniques, and the use of sound reduction and abatement techniques where economically feasible

  18. On the effectiveness of XML schema validation for countering XML signature wrapping attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Meyer, Christopher; Somorovsky, Juraj

    2011-01-01

    In the context of security of Web Services, the XML Signature Wrapping attack technique has lately received increasing attention. Following a broad range of real-world exploits, general interest in applicable countermeasures rises. However, few approaches for countering these attacks have been...... investigated closely enough to make any claims about their effectiveness. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of the specific countermeasure of XML Schema validation in terms of fending Signature Wrapping attacks. We investigate the problems of XML Schema validation for Web Services messages......, and discuss the approach of Schema Hardening, a technique for strengthening XML Schema declarations. We conclude that XML Schema validation with a hardened XML Schema is capable of fending XML Signature Wrapping attacks, but bears some pitfalls and disadvantages as well....

  19. Waste Analysis Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRINER, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for dangerous, mixed, and radioactive waste accepted for confirmation, nondestructive examination (NDE) and nondestructive assay (NDA), repackaging, certification, and/or storage at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Mixed and/or radioactive waste is treated at WRAP. WRAP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  20. Quality Assistance Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Word Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization. The Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, DOE/WIPP-069 (WIPP-WAC) delineates the quality assurance objectives which have been established for NDA measurement systems. Sites must demonstrate that the quality assurance objectives can be achieved for each radioassay system over the applicable ranges of measurement. This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the radioassay quality assurance objectives or QAOs. A brief description of the each test and significant conclusions are included. Variables that may have affected test outcomes and system response are also addressed

  1. Experimental investigation of the seismic performance of the R/C frames with reinforced masonry infills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjung, Jafril; Maidiawati, Nugroho, Fajar

    2017-10-01

    Intensive studies regarding the investigation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (R/C) frames which are infilled with brick masonry walls have been carried out by several researchers within the last three-decades. According to authors' field and experimentally experiences conclude that the unreinforced brick masonry infills significantly contributes to increase the seismic performance of the R/C frame structure. Unfortunately, the presence of brick masonry infill walls causes several undesirable effects such as short column, soft-storey, torsion and out of plane collapse. In this study, a strengthening technique for the brick masonry infills were experimentally investigated to improve the seismic performance of the R/C frame structures. For this purpose, four experimental specimens have been prepared, i.e. one of bare R/C frame (BF), one of R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall (IFUM) and two of R/C frames were infilled with reinforced brick-masonry wall (IFRM-1 and IFRM-2). The bare frame and R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall represents the typical R/C buildings' construction in Indonesia assuming the brick-masonry wall as the non-structural elements. The brick-masonry wall infills in specimens IFRM-1 and IFRM-2 were strengthened by using embedded ϕ4 plain steel bar on their diagonal and center of brick-masonry wall, respectively. All specimens were laterally pushed-over. The lateral loading and its lateral displacement, failure mechanism and their crack pattern were recorded during experimental works. Comparison of the experimental results of these four specimens conclude that the strengthening of the brick-masonry infills wall gave the significantly increasing of the seismic performance of the R/C frame. The seismic performance was evaluated based on the lateral strength of the R/C specimen. The embedded plain steel bar on brick-masonry also reduces the diagonal crack on the brick-masonry wall. It seems that

  2. Upon local blockage formations in LMFBR fuel rod bundles with wire-wrapped spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minden, C. v.; Schultheiss, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study, to improve understanding of local particle depositions in a wire-wrapped LMFBR fuel bundle, has been performed. Theoretical considerations show, that a preferentially axial process of particle depositions occurs. The experiments confirm this and clarify that the blockages arise near the particle source and settle at the spatially arranged minimum gaps in the bundle. The results suggest that, considering flow reduction, cooling and DND-detection, such fuel particle blockages are less dangerous. With reference to these safety-relevant factors, wire-wrapped LMFBR fuel bundles seem to gain advantages compared to the grid design. (orig.) [de

  3. Develoment of pressure drop calculation modules for a wire-wrapped LMR subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Won Seok; Kim, Young Il

    2000-06-01

    Pressure drop calculation modules for a wire-wrapped LMR subassembly was been developed. This report summarizes present information on pressure drop calculation modules for inlet hole, lower part and upper part of a wire-wrapped LMR subassembly which was developed using simple formulas of sudden expansion and sudden contraction. A case calculation study was done using design data of a KALIMER driver fuel subassembly. And the total pressure drop in the driver fuel subassembly, except for the bundle part, was calculated as 0.13 MPa, which is in the reasonable pressure drop range. The developed modules will be integrated in the total subassembly pressure drop calculation code with further improvements

  4. Investigating the effect of multiple layers of insulation with a bubble wrap experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Dolores; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    We provide a fun, inexpensive laboratory experiment for students to investigate the effects of multiple layers of insulation and observe diminishing values for additional layers using bubble wrap. This experiment provides an opportunity for students to learn about heat transfer through conduction using readily available materials. A water-ice pack is placed on top of five layers of bubble wrap. The temperature is taken between each layer periodically for at least 15 min. Students determine asymptotic temperatures for varying layers. This experiment also suggests a real world application.

  5. Transparently wrap-gated semiconductor nanowire arrays for studies of gate-controlled photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, Gustav; Storm, Kristian; Torstensson, Henrik; Wallentin, Jesper; Borgström, Magnus T.; Hessman, Dan; Samuelson, Lars [Solid State Physics, Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-12-04

    We present a technique to measure gate-controlled photoluminescence (PL) on arrays of semiconductor nanowire (NW) capacitors using a transparent film of Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) wrapping around the nanowires as the gate electrode. By tuning the wrap-gate voltage, it is possible to increase the PL peak intensity of an array of undoped InP NWs by more than an order of magnitude. The fine structure of the PL spectrum reveals three subpeaks whose relative peak intensities change with gate voltage. We interpret this as gate-controlled state-filling of luminescing quantum dot segments formed by zincblende stacking faults in the mainly wurtzite NW crystal structure.

  6. Nonlinear earthquake analysis of reinforced concrete frames with fiber and Bernoulli-Euler beam-column element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaton, Muhammet

    2014-01-01

    A beam-column element based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is researched for nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) structural element. Stiffness matrix of this element is obtained by using rigidity method. A solution technique that included nonlinear dynamic substructure procedure is developed for dynamic analyses of RC frames. A predicted-corrected form of the Bossak-α method is applied for dynamic integration scheme. A comparison of experimental data of a RC column element with numerical results, obtained from proposed solution technique, is studied for verification the numerical solutions. Furthermore, nonlinear cyclic analysis results of a portal reinforced concrete frame are achieved for comparing the proposed solution technique with Fibre element, based on flexibility method. However, seismic damage analyses of an 8-story RC frame structure with soft-story are investigated for cases of lumped/distributed mass and load. Damage region, propagation, and intensities according to both approaches are researched.

  7. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustatea, Gabriel; Vidal, Loïc; Calinescu, Ioan; Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana; Balan, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3–11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO 3 solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text

  8. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustatea, Gabriel [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Vidal, Loïc [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France); Calinescu, Ioan [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana [National Research and Development Institute for Food Bioresources – IBA Bucharest (Romania); Balan, Lavinia, E-mail: lavinia.balan@uha.fr [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3–11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO{sub 3} solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text.

  9. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustatea, Gabriel; Vidal, Loïc; Calinescu, Ioan; Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana; Balan, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3-11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO3 solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text.

  10. Damage Localization and Quantification of Earthquake Excited RC-Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1998-01-01

    or three series of ground motions of increasing magnitude. After each of these runs the damage state of the frame was examined and each storey of the frame were classified into one of the following six classifications: undamaged, cracked, lightly damaged, damaged, severely damaged or collapse. During each...... of the ground motion events the storey accelerations were measured by accelerometers. After application of the last earthquake sequence to the structure the frames were cut into pieces and each of the beams and columns was statically tested and damage assessment was performed using the obtained stiffnesses...

  11. Why do males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis wrap their nuptial gifts in silk: Female preference or male control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tina; Bollerup, Kristine; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis present a nuptial prey gift to the female during courtship as a mating effort. The gift is usually round and wrapped in white silk. It was suggested that the wrapped gift functions as a sensory trap by mimicking the female's eggsac implying that males exploit...

  12. Upgrading the seismic capacity of existing RC buildings using buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abou-Elfath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many existing RC buildings do not meet the lateral strength requirements of current seismic codes and are vulnerable to significant damage or collapse in the event of future earthquakes. In the past few decades, buckling-restrained braces have become increasingly popular as a lateral force resisting system because of their capability of improving the strength, the stiffness and the energy absorbing capacity of structures. This study evaluates the seismic upgrading of a 6-story RC-building using single diagonal buckling restrained braces. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio, the brace ductility factors and the member strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained in this study indicate that strengthening of RC buildings with buckling restrained braces is an efficient technique as it significantly increases the PGA capacity of the RC buildings. The results also indicate the increase in the PGA capacity of the RC building with the increase in the amount of the braces.

  13. Evaluation of reuterin production in urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Peter; Wind, Anette; Sommer, Philip; Schaefer, Laura; Crowley, Kate; Britton, Robert A; Reid, Gregor

    2008-08-01

    Classified as a distinct species in 1980, Lactobacillus reuteri strains have been used in probiotic formulations for intestinal and urogenital applications. In the former, the primary mechanism of action of L. reuteri SD2112 (ATCC 55730) has been purported to be its ability to produce the antibiotic 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), also known as reuterin. In the vagina, it has been postulated that probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 does not require reuterin production but mediates a restoration of the normal microbiota via hydrogen peroxide, biosurfactant, lactic acid production, and immune modulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether strain RC-14 produced reuterin. Using PCR and DNA dot blot analyses, numerous Lactobacillus species, including RC-14, were screened for the presence of the gene encoding the large subunit of glycerol dehydratase (gldC), the enzyme responsible for reuterin production. In addition, lactobacilli were grown in glycerol-based media and both high-performance liquid chromatography and a colorimetric assay were used to test for the presence of reuterin. L. reuteri RC-14 was determined to be negative for gldC sequences, as well as for the production of reuterin when cultured in the presence of glycerol. These findings support that the probiotic effects of L. reuteri RC-14, repeatedly demonstrated during numerous studies of the intestine and vagina, are independent of reuterin production.

  14. CSER-98-002: Criticality analysis for the storage of special nuclear material sources and standards in the WRAP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOLDBERG, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will store uranium and transuranic (TRU) sources and standards for certification that WRAP meets the requirements of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In addition, WRAP must meet internal requirements for testing and validation of measuring instruments for nondestructive assay (NDA). In order to be certified for WIPP, WRAP will participate in the NDA Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). This program is a blind test of the NDA capabilities for TRU waste. It is intended to ensure that the NDA capabilities of this facility satisfy the requirements of the quality assurance program plan for the WIPP. The PDP standards have been provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for this program. These standards will be used in the WRAP facility

  15. Decoration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping and its application in MWCNT/polyethylene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, An-En; Tsai, Shu-Ya; Hsu, Mei-Wen; Chang, Shinn-Jen

    2012-05-06

    We dispersed the non-covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a polymer dispersant and obtained a powder of polymer-wrapped CNTs. The UV-vis absorption spectrum was used to investigate the optimal weight ratio of the CNTs and polymer dispersant. The powder of polymer-wrapped CNTs had improved the drawbacks of CNTs of being lightweight and difficult to process, and it can re-disperse in a solvent. Then, we blended the polymer-wrapped CNTs and polyethylene (PE) by melt-mixing and produced a conductive masterbatch and CNT/PE composites. The polymer-wrapped CNTs showed lower surface resistivity in composites than the raw CNTs. The scanning electron microscopy images also showed that the polymer-wrapped CNTs can disperse well in composites than the raw CNTs.

  16. Input parameters to codes which analyze LMFBR wire-wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, J.T.; Chan, Y.N.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-12-01

    This report provides a current summary of recommended values of key input parameters required by ENERGY code analysis of LMFBR wire wrapped bundles. This data is based on the interpretation of experimental results from the MIT and other available laboratory programs

  17. Test Specifications and the Design of the Wire Wrapped 37-Pin Fuel Assembly for Hydrodynamic Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. K.; Euh, D. J.; Bae, H.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Most influencing parameters on uncertainties and sensitivities of the CFD analyses are the friction coefficient and the mixing coefficient. The friction coefficient is related to the flow distribution in reactor sub-channels. The mixing coefficient is defined with the cross flow between neighboring sub-channels. The eventual purpose of the thermal hydraulic design considering these parameters is to guarantee the fuel cladding integrity as the design limit parameter. At the moment, the experimental program is being undertaken to quantify these friction and mixing parameters which characterize the flow distribution in sub-channels, and the wire wrapped 37-pin rod assembly and its hexagonal test rig have been designed and fabricated. The quantified thermal hydraulic experimental data from this program are utilized primarily to estimate the accuracy of the safety analysis codes and their thermal hydraulic model. A wire wrapped 37 pin fuel assembly has been designed for the measurements of the flow distribution, where the measurements are utilized to quantify the friction coefficient and the mixing coefficient. The test rig of the wire wrapped 37 pin fuel assembly has been fabricated considering the geometric and flow dynamic similarities. It comprises four components i. e., the upper plenum, the fuel housing, the lower plenum, and the wire wrapped 37 pin fuel assembly. At further works, the quantified friction and mixing coefficients through the experiments are going to be utilized for insuring the reliability of the CFD analysis results

  18. Influence of wraps over efectivity of logistic operations in distribution of non-alcoholic drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Toušek; Jaroslava Pechová

    2008-01-01

    The article is focused on optimization of logistic operations in food stuff industry with emphasis on non-alcoholic drinks form the point of view of the usage of common applied wrapping technologies potential. Especially the attention is paid to the influence of used packages over the level of logistic costs including the influence of used packages over the transport intensity of logistic operations.

  19. Sport socks do not enhance calf muscle pump function but inelastic wraps do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsch, H; Mosti, G

    2014-12-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the effect of elastic and inelastic compression on calf muscle pump function in healthy male athletes. This was an experimental study which included 21 healthy male athletes. The ejection fraction (EF) of the venous calf pump was measured comparing the effects of a variety of compression materials: 1) sport compression stockings; 2) light zinc paste bandages; 3) sport compression stockings with additional Velcro® wraps over the calf. The influence of sport stocking and wraps on the venous calibre at the largest calf circumference in the lying and standing position was investigated using MRI. Inelastic compression exerting a median pressure in the standing position of 37.5 mmHg (zinc paste) and 48 mmHg (loosely applied straps over a sport stocking) achieved a significant increase of EF up to 100%. Sport stockings alone with a standing pressure of 19-24 mmHg did not show a significant change of EF. MRI demonstrated some venous narrowing in the lying but not in the standing position. By wrapping inelastic straps over the stocking an emptying of the veins in the lying and a considerable narrowing in the standing position could be observed. Venous calf pump function in athletes is not influenced by elastic sport stockings, but inelastic wraps either alone or applied over sport stockings lead to a significant enhancement.

  20. Polymer Composite Wrapping and Cathodic Protection System for Reinforced Concrete Piles in Marine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    pile. The contractor was directed to design and develop a thermoset FRP pile wrapping system utilizing commercially available products. Contract re...Total anode weight in submerged/mud zone: 48 lb (net) ERDC/CERL TR-13-6 52 The anode configuration used for the project was 4 bulk zinc alloy anodes

  1. WRAP Module 1 data management system (DMS) software design description (SDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Revision 2 of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS) Preliminary Software Design Description (PSDD) provides a high-level design description of the system. The WRAP 1 DMS is required to collect, store, and report data related to certification, tracking, packaging, repackaging, processing, and shipment of waste processed or stored at the WRAP 1 facility. The WRAP 1 DMS SDD is used as the primary medium for communication software design information. This release provides design descriptions for the following process modules produced under Phase 1 of the development effort: Receiving Drum or Box Containers Process Routing and Picklists; Waste Inventory by Location and/or Container Relationships; LLW Process Glovebox Facility Radiologic Material Inventory Check (partial); Shipping (partial production); Drum or Box NDE Operations; and Drum or Box NDA Operations Data Review (partial production). In addition, design descriptions are included for the following process modules scheduled for development under Phases 2 and 3: Activity Comment; LLW RWM Glovebox Sample Management; TRU Process Glovebox; TRU RWM Glovebox; and TRUPACT Processing. Detailed design descriptions for Reports and Facility Metrics have also been provided for in Revision 2 of this document

  2. Dynamic investigation of DNA bending and wrapping by type II topoisomerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qing; Finzi, Laura; Dunlap, David

    2009-11-01

    Type II topoisomerases catalyze DNA decatenation and unwinding which is crucial for cell division, and therefore type II topoisomerases are some of the main targets of anti-cancer drugs. A recent crystal structure shows that, during the catalytic cycle, a yeast type II topoimerase can bend a 10 base pair DNA segment by up to 150 degrees. Bacterial gyrase, another type II topoisomerase, can wrap DNA into a tight 180 degree turn. Bending a stiff polymer like DNA requires considerable energy and could represent the rate limiting step in the catalytic (topological) cycle. Using modified deoxyribonucleotides in PCR reactions, stiffer DNA fragments have been produced and used as substrates for topoisomerase II-mediated relaxation of plectonemes introduced in single molecules using magnetic tweezers. The wrapping ability of gyrase decreases for diamino-purine-substituted DNA in which every base pair has three hydrogen-bonds. The overall rate of relaxation of plectonemes by recombinant human topoisomerase II alpha also decreases. These results reveal the dynamic properties of DNA bending and wrapping by type II topisomerases and suggest that A:T base pair melting is a rate determining step for bending and wrapping.

  3. AWWA C303-17 concrete pressure pipe, bar-wrapped, steel-cylinder type

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes the manufacture of concrete pressure pipe, reinforced with a steel cylinder that is helically wrapped with mild steel bar reinforcement, in sizes ranging from 10 in. through 72 in. (250 mm through 1,830 mm), inclusive, and for working pressures up to 400 psi (2,760 kPa).

  4. QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLS, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the various QAOs. A brief description of each test and any significant conclusions is included. Variables which may have affected test outcomes are examined. This report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary

  5. Visual deterioration 1½ years after wrapping an un-clippable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Optochiasmatic arachnoiditis (OCA) is a serious complication that can occur after wrapping of aneurysms in the proximity of the optic pathways. This paper seeks to illustrate one such case with a view to drawing attention to the dangers of this practice. Method: Single case report and review of the literature.

  6. Visual deterioration 1½ years after wrapping an un-clippable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-09-02

    Sep 2, 2005 ... C/O Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosciences,. University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Rd. Parktown 2193,. Johannesburg, South Africa email: jmno@mweb.co.za. Visual deterioration 1½ years after wrapping an un-clippable anterior communicating artery aneurysm: report of a case and.

  7. Freedom of Contract in Click Wrap Agreements in Malaysia and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rafiei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in the communications industry, particularly over the last decade, has given rise to consumers and commercial providers who want to form their own business or contractual agreements via the Internet. The mark of such technology can be seen in a new form of contract called “click wrap.”

  8. Membrane-Wrapping Contributions to Malaria Parasite Invasion of the Human Erythrocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sabyasachi; Auth, Thorsten; Gov, Nir S.; Satchwell, Timothy J.; Hanssen, Eric; Zuccala, Elizabeth S.; Riglar, David T.; Toye, Ashley M.; Betz, Timo; Baum, Jake; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The blood stage malaria parasite, the merozoite, has a small window of opportunity during which it must successfully target and invade a human erythrocyte. The process of invasion is nonetheless remarkably rapid. To date, mechanistic models of invasion have focused predominantly on the parasite actomyosin motor contribution to the energetics of entry. Here, we have conducted a numerical analysis using dimensions for an archetypal merozoite to predict the respective contributions of the host-parasite interactions to invasion, in particular the role of membrane wrapping. Our theoretical modeling demonstrates that erythrocyte membrane wrapping alone, as a function of merozoite adhesive and shape properties, is sufficient to entirely account for the first key step of the invasion process, that of merozoite reorientation to its apex and tight adhesive linkage between the two cells. Next, parasite-induced reorganization of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and release of parasite-derived membrane can also account for a considerable energetic portion of actual invasion itself, through membrane wrapping. Thus, contrary to the prevailing dogma, wrapping by the erythrocyte combined with parasite-derived membrane release can markedly reduce the expected contributions of the merozoite actomyosin motor to invasion. We therefore propose that invasion is a balance between parasite and host cell contributions, evolved toward maximal efficient use of biophysical forces between the two cells. PMID:24988340

  9. Super-energy wrap-up model for renovation of standard wooden houses in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on the developed theoretical practice of super-insulation solution for renovation of exiting standard wooden houses in Greenland built from 1950s until 2006, more than half the building stock in Arctic Greenland. From various perspectives, the wrap-up system is evaluated as a ...

  10. Influence of the stretch wrapping process on the mechanical behavior of a stretch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel; Stommel, Markus; Zimmer, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Lightweight construction is an ongoing task in packaging development. Consequently, the stability of packages during transport is gaining importance. This study contributes to the optimization of lightweight packaging concepts regarding their stability. A very widespread packaging concept is the distribution of goods on a pallet whereas a Polyethylene (PE) stretch film stabilizes the lightweight structure during the shipment. Usually, a stretch wrapping machine applies this stretch film to the pallet. The objective of this study is to support packaging development with a method that predicts the result of the wrapping process, based on the mechanical characterization of the stretch film. This result is not only defined by the amount of stretch film, its spatial distribution on the pallet and its internal stresses that result in a containment force. More accurate, this contribution also considers the influence of the deformation history of the stretch film during the wrapping process. By focusing on similarities of stretch wrappers rather than on differences, the influence of generalized process parameters on stretch film mechanics and thereby on pallet stability can be determined experimentally. For a practical use, the predictive method is accumulated in an analytic model of the wrapping process that can be verified experimentally. This paves the way for experimental and numerical approaches regarding the optimization of pallet stability.

  11. Polyethylene versus cotton cap as an adjunct to body wrap in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Hashim; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Adli, Ali; Shareena, Ishak; Rohana, Jaafar

    2017-07-01

    Occlusive body wrap using polyethylene plastic applied immediately after birth had been shown to reduce hypothermia among preterm infants. Various adjunct methods have been studied in an attempt to further reduce the incidence of hypothermia. This study was conducted to determine whether polyethylene cap is more effective than cotton cap as an adjunct to polyethylene occlusive body wrap in reducing hypothermia in preterm infants. The subjects consisted of preterm infants 24-34 weeks' gestation born at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Infants were randomly assigned to NeoCap or control groups. Infants in both groups were wrapped in polyethylene sheets from the neck downwards immediately after birth without prior drying. Infants in the control group had their heads dried and subsequently covered with cotton caps while infants in the NeoCap group had polyethylene caps put on without drying. Axillary temperature was measured on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and after having been stabilized in the incubator. Among the 80 infants recruited, admission hypothermia (axillary temperature <36.5°C) was present in 37 (92.5%) and in 40 (100%) in the NeoCap and control groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in mean temperature on NICU admission between the two groups (35.3 vs 35.1°C, P = 0.36). Mean post-stabilization temperature, however, was significantly higher in the NeoCap group (36.0 vs 35.5°C, P = 0.01). Combined use of polyethylene body wrap and polyethylene cap was associated with a significantly higher mean post-stabilization temperature compared with polyethylene body wrap and cotton cap. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Extended storage of gamma-irradiated mango at tropical ambient temperature by film wrap packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janave, Machhindra T.; Sharma, A.

    2005-01-01

    Low dose gamma-irradiation of pre-climacteric mango (Mangifera indica L var.'Alphonso') fruits at 100 Gy extended the shelf-life at ambient temperature (28-32 degC) by 5-6 days. The extension of shelf-life was dose dependent, maximum being at 200 Gy by about 8-10 days. Wrapping the fruits in food grade Klin Wrap film resulted in more number of fruits remaining in semiripe condition after 21 days of storage as revealed by colour of the fruits, texture, TSS, pH, acidity and vitamin C content. The fruits retained about 40% of chlorophyll however, unwrapped fruits were complete yellow. Physiological weight loss (PWL) was reduced by 50% in Klin film wrapped fruits as compared to that in unwrapped fruits. More than 70-80% fruits remained as marketable fruits at the end of experiment when control fruits were slightly overripe. The shelf-life in Klin film wrapped irradiated mangoes was extended by about 10-15 days over irradiated unwrapped fruits resulting in total shelf-life of about 25-30 days at room temperature. In mangoes of variety 'Dasheri', gamma-irradiation extended the shelf-life by 4-5 days, which could be increased further, by another 7-10 days by Klin wrap packaging. These fruits also remained green at the end of experiment, confirming the observations with 'Alphonso' mango. These results show that low dose gamma-irradiation in combination with Klin film packaging delayed ripening as indicated by higher retention of fruit colour and reduction of PWL. (author)

  13. Preformulation and stability in biological fluids of the retrocyclin RC-101, a potential anti-HIV topical microbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrads Thomas P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RC-101, a cationic peptide retrocyclin analog, has in vitro activity against HIV-1. Peptide drugs are commonly prone to conformational changes, oxidation and hydrolysis when exposed to excipients in a formulation or biological fluids in the body, this can affect product efficacy. We aimed to investigate RC-101 stability under several conditions including the presence of human vaginal fluids (HVF, enabling the efficient design of a safe and effective microbicide product. Stability studies (temperature, pH, and oxidation were performed by HPLC, Circular Dichroism, and Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Additionally, the effect of HVF on formulated RC-101 was evaluated with fluids collected from healthy volunteers, or from subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV. RC-101 was monitored by LC-MS/MS for up to 72 h. Results RC-101 was stable at pH 3, 4, and 7, at 25 and 37°C. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide resulted in less than 10% RC-101 reduction over 24 h. RC-101 was detected 48 h after incubation with normal HVF; however, not following incubation with HVF from BV subjects. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of preformulation evaluations and highlight the impact of HVF on microbicide product stability and efficacy. RC-101 was stable in normal HVF for at least 48 h, indicating that it is a promising candidate for microbicide product development. However, RC-101 stability appears compromised in individuals with BV, requiring more advanced formulation strategies for stabilization in this environment.

  14. Seismic design of RC buildings theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Manohar, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a textbook for engineering courses on earthquake resistant design. The book covers important attributes for seismic design such as material properties, damping, ductility, stiffness and strength. The subject coverage commences with simple concepts and proceeds right up to nonlinear analysis and push-over method for checking building adequacy. The book also provides an insight into the design of base isolators highlighting their merits and demerits. Apart from the theoretical approach to design of multi-storey buildings, the book highlights the care required in practical design and construction of various building components. It covers modal analysis in depth including the important missing mass method of analysis and tension shift in shear walls and beams. These have important bearing on reinforcement detailing. Detailed design and construction features are covered for earthquake resistant design of reinforced concrete as well as confined and reinforced masonry structures. Th...

  15. Hypomethylation of the IL17RC Promoter Associates with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population worldwide. Although recent studies have demonstrated strong genetic associations between AMD and SNPs in a number of genes, other modes of regulation are also likely to play a role in the etiology of this disease. We identified a significantly decreased level of methylation on the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients. Furthermore, we showed that hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients led to an elevated expression of its protein and messenger RNA in peripheral blood as well as in the affected retina and choroid, suggesting that the DNA methylation pattern and expression of IL17RC may potentially serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of AMD and likely plays a role in disease pathogenesis.

  16. Hypomethylation of IL17RC Promoter Associates with Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Liu, Baoying; Tuo, Jingsheng; Shen, Defen; Chen, Ping; Li, Zhiyu; Liu, Xunxian; Ni, Jia; Dagur, Pradeep; Sen, H. Nida; Jawad, Shayma; Ling, Diamond; Park, Stanley; Chakrabarty, Sagarika; Meyerle, Catherine; Agron, Elvira; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.; McCoy, J. Philip; Blum, Emily; Francis, Peter J.; Klein, Michael L.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Baird, Paul N.; Chan, Chi-Chao; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population worldwide. While recent studies have demonstrated strong genetic associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms within a number of genes and AMD, other modes of regulation are also likely to play a role in its etiology. We identified a significantly decreased level of methylation on the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients. Further, we showed that hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients led to an elevated expression of its protein and mRNA in peripheral blood as well as in the affected retina and choroid, suggesting that the DNA methylation pattern and expression of IL17RC may potentially serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of AMD and likely plays a role in disease pathogenesis. PMID:23177625

  17. KOMBINASI ALGORITMA AES, RC4 DAN ELGAMAL DALAM SKEMA HYBRID UNTUK KEAMANAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Widarma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman atau pertukaran data adalah hal yang sering terjadi dalam dunia teknologi informasi. Data yang dikirim kadang sering berisi data informasi yang penting bahkan sangat rahasia dan harus dijaga keamanannya. Untuk menjaga keamanan data, dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik kriptografi. Algoritma AES dan RC4 adalah salah satu dari algoritma simetri. Kelemahan dari algoritma simetri adalah proses enkripsi dan dekripsi menggunakan kunci yang sama. Untuk mengatasi tersebut dilakukan dengan menggunakan algoritma Elgamal. Algoritma Elgamal adalah termasuk algoritma asimetri. Algoritma Elgamal digunakan untuk mengamankan kunci dari algoritma AES dan RC4. Peningkatan keamanan pesan dan kunci dilakukan dengan algoritma hybrid. Algoritma hybrid dengan mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma baik algoritma simetri maupun algortima asimetri akan menambah keamanan sehingga menjadi lebih aman dan powerful (Jain & Agrawal 2014. Penelitian ini akan dilakukan metode hybrid yaitu mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma kriptografi dengan menggunakan algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan RC4 untuk kerahasiaan data serta algoritma Elgamal digunakan untuk enkripsi dan dekripsi kunci.

  18. Nonlinear analysis of RC cylindrical tank and subsoil accounting for a low concrete strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński Paweł M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses deformational and incremental approaches to a nonlinear FE analysis of soil-structure interaction including the description of behaviour of the RC structure and the subsoil under short-term loading. Two kinds of constitutive models for ground and structure were adopted for a nonlinear interaction analysis of the RC cylindrical tank with subsoil. The constitutive laws for concrete and subsoil were developed in compliance with the deformational and flow theories of plasticity. Moreover, a non-linear elastic-brittle-plastic analysis of RC axi-symmetric structures using finite element iterative techniques is presented. The results of the two types of FE analysis of soil-structure interaction are compared taking into account a low concrete strength of tank structure.

  19. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  20. Modeling of R/C Servo Motor and Application to Underactuated Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masato; Kitayoshi, Ryohei; Wada, Takashi; Maruta, Ichiro; Sugie, Toshiharu

    An R/C servo motor is a compact package of a DC geard-motor associated with a position servo controller. They are widely used in small-sized robotics and mechatronics by virtue of their compactness, easiness-to-use and high/weight ratio. However, it is crucial to clarify their internal model (including the embedded position servo) in order to improve control performance of mechatronic systems using R/C servo motors, such as biped robots or underactuted sysyems. In this paper, we propose a simple and realistic internal model of the R/C servo motors including the embedded servo controller, and estimate their physical parameters using continuous-time system identification method. We also provide a model of reference-to-torque transfer function so that we can estimate the internal torque acting on the load.

  1. 3-D Image Encryption Based on Rubik's Cube and RC6 Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Mai; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M.; Eldokany, Ibrahim M.; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd

    2017-12-01

    A novel encryption algorithm based on the 3-D Rubik's cube is proposed in this paper to achieve 3D encryption of a group of images. This proposed encryption algorithm begins with RC6 as a first step for encrypting multiple images, separately. After that, the obtained encrypted images are further encrypted with the 3-D Rubik's cube. The RC6 encrypted images are used as the faces of the Rubik's cube. From the concepts of image encryption, the RC6 algorithm adds a degree of diffusion, while the Rubik's cube algorithm adds a degree of permutation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed encryption algorithm is efficient, and it exhibits strong robustness and security. The encrypted images are further transmitted over wireless Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system and decrypted at the receiver side. Evaluation of the quality of the decrypted images at the receiver side reveals good results.

  2. Immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. Transfer of immunity with primed CD45RC+ and CD45RC- CD4 T-cell subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P

    1996-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen CD4 T cells were separated by antibody......-induced increase in CD45RC+ cells is most likely due to generation of antigen-specific memory T cells....

  3. Energy transfer dynamics in an RC-LH1-PufX tubular photosynthetic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, J; Sener, M; Schulten, K [Department of Physics and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); Struempfer, J [Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); Qian, P; Hunter, C N, E-mail: kschulte@ks.uiuc.ed [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Light absorption and the subsequent transfer of excitation energy are the first two steps in the photosynthetic process, carried out by protein-bound pigments, mainly bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), in photosynthetic bacteria. BChls are anchored in light-harvesting (LH) complexes, such as light-harvesting complex I (LH1), which directly associates with the reaction center (RC), forming the RC-LH1 core complex. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, RC-LH1 core complexes contain an additional protein, PufX, and assemble into dimeric RC-LH1-PufX core complexes. In the absence of LH complex II (LH2), the former complexes can aggregate into a helically ordered tubular photosynthetic membrane. We have examined the excitation transfer dynamics in a single RC-LH1-PufX core complex dimer using the hierarchical equations of motion for dissipative quantum dynamics that accurately, yet in a computationally costly manner, treat the coupling between BChls and their protein environment. A widely employed description, the generalized Foerster (GF) theory, was also used to calculate the transfer rates of the same excitonic system in order to verify the accuracy of this computationally cheap method. Additionally, in light of the structural uncertainties in the Rba. sphaeroides RC-LH1-PufX core complex, geometrical alterations were introduced into the BChl organization. It is shown that the energy transfer dynamics are not affected by the considered changes in the BChl organization and that the GF theory provides accurate transfer rates. An all-atom model for a tubular photosynthetic membrane is then constructed on the basis of electron microscopy data, and the overall energy transfer properties of this membrane are computed.

  4. Energy transfer dynamics in an RC-LH1-PufX tubular photosynthetic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsin, J; Sener, M; Schulten, K; Struempfer, J; Qian, P; Hunter, C N

    2010-01-01

    Light absorption and the subsequent transfer of excitation energy are the first two steps in the photosynthetic process, carried out by protein-bound pigments, mainly bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), in photosynthetic bacteria. BChls are anchored in light-harvesting (LH) complexes, such as light-harvesting complex I (LH1), which directly associates with the reaction center (RC), forming the RC-LH1 core complex. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, RC-LH1 core complexes contain an additional protein, PufX, and assemble into dimeric RC-LH1-PufX core complexes. In the absence of LH complex II (LH2), the former complexes can aggregate into a helically ordered tubular photosynthetic membrane. We have examined the excitation transfer dynamics in a single RC-LH1-PufX core complex dimer using the hierarchical equations of motion for dissipative quantum dynamics that accurately, yet in a computationally costly manner, treat the coupling between BChls and their protein environment. A widely employed description, the generalized Foerster (GF) theory, was also used to calculate the transfer rates of the same excitonic system in order to verify the accuracy of this computationally cheap method. Additionally, in light of the structural uncertainties in the Rba. sphaeroides RC-LH1-PufX core complex, geometrical alterations were introduced into the BChl organization. It is shown that the energy transfer dynamics are not affected by the considered changes in the BChl organization and that the GF theory provides accurate transfer rates. An all-atom model for a tubular photosynthetic membrane is then constructed on the basis of electron microscopy data, and the overall energy transfer properties of this membrane are computed.

  5. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulations, EU Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to good manufacturing practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a cryopreserved blastocyst stage embryo voluntarily donated as surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe016-A (RC-12 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro. Karyology revealed a mixed male karyotype at early passage (P15, which resolved as normal 46XY by passage 33. Microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  6. Analysis of an Irregular RC Multi-storeyed Building Subjected to Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    AkashRaut; Pachpor, Prabodh; Dautkhani, Sanket

    2018-03-01

    Many buildings in the present scenario have irregular configurations both in plan and elevation. This in future may subject to devastating earthquakes. So it is necessary to analyze the structure. The present paper is made to study three type of irregularity wiz vertical, mass and plan irregularity as per clause 7.1 of IS 1893 (part1)2002 code. The paper discusses the analysis of RC (Reinforced Concrete) Buildings with vertical irregularity. The study as a whole makes an effort to evaluate the effect of vertical irregularity on RC buildings for which comparison of three parameters namely shear force, bending moment and deflection are taken into account.

  7. Virtual RC Damping of LCL-Filtered Voltage Source Converters with Extended Selective Harmonic Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Active damping and harmonic compensation are two common challenges faced by LCL-filtered voltage source converters. To manage them holistically, this paper begins by proposing a virtual RC damper in parallel with the passive filter capacitor. The virtual damper is actively inserted by feeding back...... the passive capacitor current through a high-pass filter, which indirectly, furnishes two superior features. They are the mitigation of phase lag experienced by a conventional damper and the avoidance of instability caused by the negative resistance inserted unintentionally. Moreover, with the virtual RC...

  8. The snap-back effect of an RC-IGBT and its simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenliang; Tian Xiaoli; Zhu Yangjun; Tan Jingfei

    2013-01-01

    The RC-IGBT (reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor) is a new kind of power semiconductor device which has many advantages such as smaller chip size, higher power density, lower manufacturing cost, softer turn off behavior, and better reliability. However, its performance has a number of drawbacks, such as the snap-back effect. In this paper, an introduction about the snap-back effect of the RC-IGBT is given firstly. Then the physical explanations are presented with two simplified models. After that, some numerical simulations are carried out to verify the correctness of the models. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections with Governing Joint Shear Failure Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Najafgholipour

    Full Text Available Abstract Reinforced concrete (RC beam-column connections especially those without transverse reinforcement in joint region can exhibit brittle behavior when intensive damage is concentrated in the joint region during an earthquake event. Brittle behavior in the joint region can compromise the ductile design philosophy and the expected overall performance of structure when subjected to seismic loading. Considering the importance of joint shear failure influences on strength, ductility and stability of RC moment resisting frames, a finite element modeling which focuses on joint shear behavior is presented in this article. Nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA of RC beam-column connections is performed in order to investigate the joint shear failure mode in terms of joint shear capacity, deformations and cracking pattern. A 3D finite element model capable of appropriately modeling the concrete stress-strain behavior, tensile cracking and compressive damage of concrete and indirect modeling of steel-concrete bond is used. In order to define nonlinear behavior of concrete material, the concrete damage plasticity is applied to the numerical model as a distributed plasticity over the whole geometry. Finite element model is then verified against experimental results of two non-ductile beam-column connections (one exterior and one interior which are vulnerable to joint shear failure. The comparison between experimental and numerical results indicates that the FE model is able to simulate the performance of the beam-column connections and is able to capture the joint shear failure in RC beam-column connections.

  10. Long-term deflection and flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams with recycled aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won-Chang; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Long-term deformation of recycled aggregate concrete beams was examined. • Three beams were monitored for over 380 days. • Influence of recycled aggregate on the long-term performance. • Comparison of that between normal and recycled aggregate concrete beams. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the long-term deformations of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams for over 1 year (380 days) and flexural behavior of RAC beams after exposure to sustained loading. Three reinforced concrete (RC) beam specimens were fabricated with replacement percentage of aggregate (100% natural aggregate, 100% recycled coarse aggregate, and 50% recycled fine aggregate) and subjected to sustained loading that is 50% of the nominal flexural capacity. During the sustained loading period (380 days), the long-term deflection due to creep and shrinkage was recorded and compared with predicted behavior that was determined based on current specifications (ACI 318 Code). After measuring the long-term deflection for 380 days, four-point bending tests were conducted to investigate the flexural behavior of RC beams after exposure to sustained loading and determine any reduction in flexural capacity. A modified equation to predict the long-term deflection values for RC beams with recycled aggregate is proposed, and the experimental results are compared with the predictions calculated using the ACI 318 Code provisions

  11. Flexural strengthening of reinforced lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete beams with near-surface mounted GFRP bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, W.C.; Balendran, R.V.; Nadeem, A.; Leung, H.Y. [City University of Hong Kong (China). Department of Building and Construction

    2006-10-15

    Application of near-surface mounted (NSM) fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) bars is emerging as a promising technology for increasing flexural and shear strength of deficient reinforced concrete (RC) members. In order for this technique to perform effectively, the structural behaviour of RC elements strengthened with NSM FRP bars needs to be fully characterized. This paper focuses on the characterization of flexural behaviour of RC members strengthened with NSM glass-FRP bars. Totally, 10 beams were tested using symmetrical two-point loads test. The parameters examined under the beam tests were type of concretes (lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete and normal concrete), type of reinforcing bars (GFRP and steel), and type of adhesives. Flexural performance of the tested beams including modes of failure, moment-deflection response and ultimate moment capacity are presented and discussed in this paper. Results of this investigation showed that beams with NSM GFRP bars showed a reduction in ultimate deflection and an improvement in flexural stiffness and bending capacity, depending on the PA content of the beams. In general, beams strengthened with NSM GFRP bars overall showed a significant increase in ultimate moment ranging from 23% to 53% over the corresponding beams without NSM GFRP bars. The influence of epoxy type was found conspicuously dominated the moment-deflection response up to the peak moment. Besides, the ultimate moment of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars could be predicted satisfactorily using the equation provided in ACI 318-95 Building Code. (author)

  12. Coherent beam-beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)

  13. Generation of equivalent forms of operational trans-conductance amplifier-RC sinusoidal oscillators: the nullor approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Senani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown in two earlier papers published from this study that corresponding to a given single-operational trans-conductance amplifier (single-OTA-RC and dual-OTA-RC sinusoidal oscillators, there are three other structurally distinct equivalent forms having the same characteristic equation, one of which employs both grounded capacitors (GC. In this study, an earlier nullor-based theory of generating equivalent op-amp oscillator circuits, proposed by the first author, is extended to derive equivalent OTA-RC circuits which discloses the existence of an additional number of equivalent forms for the same given OTA-RC oscillators than those predicted by the quoted earlier works, and thereby considerably enlarging the set of equivalents of a given OTA-RC oscillator. Furthermore, the presented nullor-based theory of generating equivalent OTA-RC oscillators results in three additional interesting outcomes: (i the revelation that corresponding to any given OTA-RC oscillator there are two ‘both-GC’ oscillators (and not merely one, as derived in the quoted earlier works; (ii the availability of explicit current outputs in several of the derived equivalents and (iii the realisability explicit-current-output ‘quadrature oscillators’ in some of the generated equivalent oscillators. The workability of the generated equivalent OTA-RC oscillators has been verified by SPICE simulations, based on CMOS OTAs using 0.18 µm CMOS technology process parameters, and some sample results are given.

  14. Isolation and molecular characterization of RcSERK1: A Rosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase; SP, signal peptide; SPP, .... primers used for detecting RcSERK1 gene expression were: for- .... and mainly in the PLBs but weak in the callus and rhi- ... Transformed cells in the bright light (A and E), in the dark for cell nucleuses stained with DAPI (B and F),.

  15. Experimental study on behavior of RC panels covered with steel plates subjected to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Hashimoto; Katsuki Takiguchi; Koshiro Nishimura; Kazuyuki Matsuzawa; Mayuko Tsutsui; Yasuhiro Ohashi; Isao Kojima; Haruhiko Torita

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on the behavior of concrete panels with steel plate subjected to missile impact. Two tests were carried out, divided in accordance with the types of projectile, non-deformable and deformable. In all, 40 specimens of 750 mm square were prepared. The panel specimen was suspended vertically by two steel wire ropes to allow free movement after projectile impact, and was subjected to a projectile. As a result, it is confirmed that a RC panel with steel plate on its back side has higher impact resistance performance than a RC panel and that thickness of concrete panel, thickness of steel plate and the impact velocity of the projectile have a great effect on the failure modes of steel concrete panels. Moreover, based on the experimental results, the quantitative evaluation method for impact resistance performance of RC panels covered with steel plates is examined. The formula for perforation velocity of a half steel concrete panel, proposed in accordance with the bulging height, is effective to evaluate the impact resistance performance of RC panels with steel plates. (authors)

  16. Modelling loading and break-up of RC structure due to internal explosion of fragmenting shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Stolz, A.; Riedel, W.; Mediavilla Varas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Klotz Group (KG), an international group of experts on explosion safety, investigates the debris throw hazard associated with the accidental detonation of ammunition in reinforced concrete (RC-) structures. Experiments are combined with engineering models but also with results of advanced

  17. Modelling loading and break-up of RC structure due to internal explosion of fragmenting shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Stolz, A.; Riedel, W.; Mediavilla, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Klotz Group (KG), an mtemational group of experts on explosion safety, investigates the debris throw hazard associated with the accidental detonation of ammunition in reinforced concrete (RC-) structures. Experiments are combined with engineering models but also with results of advanced

  18. KOMBINASI ALGORITMA AES, RC4 DAN ELGAMAL DALAM SKEMA HYBRID UNTUK KEAMANAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Widarma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak — Pengiriman atau pertukaran data adalah hal yang sering terjadi dalam dunia teknologi informasi. Data yang dikirim kadang sering berisi data informasi yang penting bahkan sangat rahasia dan harus dijaga keamanannya. Untuk menjaga keamanan data, dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik kriptografi. Algoritma AES dan RC4 adalah salah satu dari algoritma simetri. Kelemahan dari algoritma simetri adalah proses enkripsi dan dekripsi menggunakan kunci yang sama. Untuk mengatasi tersebut dilakukan dengan menggunakan algoritma Elgamal. Algoritma Elgamal adalah termasuk algoritma asimetri. Algoritma Elgamal  digunakan untuk mengamankan kunci dari algoritma AES dan RC4. Peningkatan keamanan pesan dan kunci dilakukan dengan algoritma hybrid. Algoritma hybrid dengan mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma baik algoritma simetri maupun algortima asimetri akan menambah keamanan sehingga menjadi lebih aman dan powerful (Jain & Agrawal 2014. Penelitian ini akan dilakukan metode hybrid yaitu mengkombinasikan beberapa algoritma kriptografi dengan menggunakan algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan RC4 untuk kerahasiaan data serta algoritma Elgamal digunakan untuk enkripsi dan dekripsi kunci. Kata Kunci :  kriptograpi, algoritma AES, RC4, Elgamal, hybrid

  19. The values of the parameters of some multilayer distributed RC null networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, L. P.; Raghunath, S.

    1974-01-01

    In this correspondence, the values of the parameters of some multilayer distributed RC notch networks are determined, and the usually accepted values are shown to be in error. The magnitude of the error is illustrated by graphs of the frequency response of the networks.

  20. GENERACIÓN DE POLINOMIOS DE SCHUBERT CON COCOA II: GRAFOS RC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Novoa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El polinomio de Schubert asociado a una permutación w es codificado por medio de la información contenida en ciertos grafos rc. Presentamos un programa para el cómputo de los polinomios de Schubert por medio de movimientos definidos sobre estos grafos.

  1. Susceptibility of the MMPI-2 Clinical, Restructured Clinical (RC), and Content Scales to Overreporting and Underreporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Graham, John R.; Arbisi, Paul A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined and compared the susceptibility of three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale sets (Clinical, Restructured Clinical [RC], and Content) to over- and underreporting using five analog samples. Two samples of 85 and 191 undergraduate students, respectively, took the MMPI-2 under underreporting versus…

  2. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…

  3. Impact response of RC rock-shed girder with sand cushion under falling load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir; Kishi, Norimitsu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → An applicability of FE model of RC girders with sand cushion has been investigated. → Experimental and numerical results of Impact force, reaction force and displacement have been performed. → Cracks obtained from numerical models are in good agreement with the experimental ones. → Reaction force-displacement loops agree well between numerical and experimental results. → The configuration of the hysteretic loop at failure of RC girders can be approximated by a parallelogram. - Abstract: In order to establish a proper finite element model of prototype RC girder with sand element for impact response analysis, dynamic response analysis of RC girders with sand cushion subjected to impact force due to weight falling from the height of H = 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 m was performed to improve the state of the art of protective design for real scale rock-sheds by using LS-DYNA code. An applicability of proposed model was discussed comparing with experimental results (e.g. impact force, reaction force and displacement waves). From this study, dynamic characteristics of impact response can be better simulated by using the proposed model. As a result, when the sand cushion was set up, the impact force, reaction force, mid-span displacement waves, distribution of reaction force-displacement loops, and crack patterns obtained from the numerical analysis are in good agreement with those from the experimental results.

  4. Identification Report: Earthquake Test on 2-Bay, 6-Story Scale 1:5 RC-Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The aim of the present report is to supply the identification results from the tests performed with a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay scale 1:5 RC-frame at Aalborg University, Denmark during the autumn 1996. The tests were performed as a part of a Ph.D study considering evaluation of ...

  5. Power Efficient Gigabit Communication Over Capacitively Driven RC-Limited On-Chip Interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Schinkel, Daniel; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—This paper presents a set of circuit techniques to achieve high data rate point-to-point communication over long on-chip RC-limited wire-pairs. The ideal line termination impedances for a flat transfer function with linear phase (pure delay) are derived, using an s-parameter wire-pair

  6. Problems and their solutions in practical application of Eurocodes in seismic design of RC structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milev Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to present practical application of Eurocodes in the field of RC structures design. The selected examples represent the main problems in practical application of Eurocodes for seismic analysis and design of RC Structures in Bulgarian construction practice. The analysis is focused on some structural and economic problems as well as on some contradictions in Eurocode 8 itself. Special attention is paid to the practical solution of the following problems: recognition of torsionally flexible systems, stiffness reduction of RC elements for linear analysis dimensions and detailing of confined boundary areas of shear walls, detailing of wall structures, etc. Those problems appear during the practical design of some buildings in Bulgaria. Several proposals for solving some problems defined in the paper are presented through some practical examples. Some conclusions are made for further application of Eurocode 8 in the design and construction practice. The importance of some rules and procedures in Eurocode 8 is supported by the examples of damaged RC members during the past earthquakes. The problems of Eurocode 8 and their solutions are illustrated through the experience of Bulgarian construction practice.

  7. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  8. The negative differential resistance characteristics of an RC-IGBT and its equivalent circuit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenliang; Zhu Yangjun; Tian Xiaoli; Lu Shuojin

    2014-01-01

    A simple equivalent circuit model is proposed according to the device structure of reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistors (RC-IGBT). Mathematical derivation and circuit simulations indicate that this model can explain the snap-back effect (including primary snap-back effect, secondary snap-back effect, and reverse snap-back effect) and hysteresis effect perfectly. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Damage Localization of Severely Damaged RC-Structures Based on Measured Eigenperiods from a Single Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the estimation of the damage location of severely damaged Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures excited by earthquakes. It is assumed that the building is instrumented with a sensor measuring the earthquake acceleration signal at ground surface and a sensor measuring only...

  10. Reduced graphene oxide and Ag wrapped TiO2 photocatalyst for enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Sim, Lan Ching; Jang, Min; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Bahnemann, Detlef; Saravanan, Pichiah

    2015-01-01

    A well-organised reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and silver (Ag) wrapped TiO 2 nano-hybrid was successfully achieved through a facile and easy route. The inherent characteristics of the synthesized RGO-Ag/TiO 2 were revealed through crystalline phase, morphology, chemical composition, Raman scattering, UV-visible absorption, and photoluminescence analyses. The adopted synthesis route significantly controlled the uniform formation of silver nanoparticles and contributed for the absorption of light in the visible spectrum through localized surface plasmon resonance effects. The wrapped RGO nanosheets triggered the electron mobility and promoted visible light shift towards red spectrum. The accomplishment of synergised effect of RGO and Ag well degraded Bisphenol A under visible light irradiation with a removal efficiency of 61.9%

  11. Wrapped and unwrapped phase of radiation scattered by a discrete number of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Stephen M; Ridley, Kevin D

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates wrapped and unwrapped phase differences generated by a non-Gaussian scattering model: the two-dimensional random walk. Mean square values for these quantities are obtained for one and two scatterers, as well as the large scatterer limit when the field constitutes a circular complex Gaussian process. Numerical simulation is used to investigate the phase under more general fluctuation conditions, and reveals that the wrapped phase difference correlation converges rapidly to that result predicted for a Gaussian speckle field. Analytical results for the unwrapped phase indicate that this quantity transitions from a stationary process for one and two scatterers to a non-stationary process in the large scatterer limit. The nature of this transition is examined using numerical simulation for arbitrary scatterer number. Phase correlations are of consequence in various phase sensitive detection systems, and this paper examines both Gaussian and non-Gaussian fields

  12. User's guide to input for WRAP: a water reactor analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.V.

    1977-06-01

    The document describes the input records required to execute the Water Reactor Analysis Package (WRAP) for the analysis of thermal-hydraulic transients in primarily light water reactors. The card input required by RELAP4 has been significantly modified to broaden the code's input processing capabilities: (1) All input is in the form of templated, named records. (2) All components (volumes, junctions, etc.) are named rather than numbered, and system relationships are formed by defining associations between the names. (3) A hierarchical part structure is used which allows collections of components to be described as discrete parts (these parts may then be catalogued for use in a wide range of cases). A sample problem, the small break analysis of the Westinghouse Trojan Plant, is discussed and detailed, step-by-step instructions in setting up an input data base are presented. A master list of all input templates for WRAP is compiled

  13. Control characteristics for wrap-around fins on cruise missiles configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Monta, W. J.; Carter, W. V.; Alexander, W. K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents selected results of a panel loads study conducted as part of the final phase of an extensive investigation of an air-breathing missile concept employing wrap-around aerodynamic surfaces. Typical results for M = 2.36 are presented for the fin load results, plus a brief review of basic results of the previously reported tests. Vapor screen results are also discussed. The present results indicate that the fin load characteristics are nearly identical for planar and curved fins having the same projected planform and would permit the use of planar-surface predictions for supersonic speeds in the preliminary design stages of missiles employing wrap-around curved fins.

  14. Turbulent-flow split model and supporting experiments for wire-wrapped core assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.; Rohsenow, W.

    1978-04-01

    A flow split model for the turbulent flow in a wire-wrapped nuclear fuel rod assembly is developed taking the form drag and sweeping flow between subchannels into consideration. This model is applicable to the flow distribution between two types of subchannels, i.e., interior and edge subchannels. The constants in this model for each type of subchannel were determined using all experimental data in the literature and the results of two tests performed as part of this study to fill a gap in the available literature. These experiments to measure flow split were performed on two wire-wrapped 61 pin bundles of pin pitch to pin diameter ratio, P/D, equal to 1.063 and wire lead to pin diameter ratios, H/D, of 4 and 8. The predictions of this model match all experimental data in the literature within +- 5%

  15. Feasibility of using cling-wrap films as a packaging material for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhari, Vilendra V.; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2005-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation (2 and 10 kgGy) on the stability of commercially available cling-wrap films for minimally processed foods was investigated. Migration of additives from the films into diethyl ether and water was monitored by TLC and by GC/MS analysis of their acetylated derivatives. Diocytyl phthalate was identified in the ether extract as the major migrant accounting for 98% of the total constituents detected. Other migrants identified in the minor amounts ( t 32.29 min corresponding to 1,3- dichloro-2-propanol. These changes, however, had no significant effect of the sensory and physical quality of the film. Thus feasibility of the using cling-wrap films as a packaging material for radiation processed food has been established. (author)

  16. Wire-wrapped rod-bundle heat-transfer analysis for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.N.C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1982-07-01

    Helical wire wraps are widely used in the LMFBR fuel and blanket assemblies to provide coolant mixing and maintain proper spacing between fuel pins. The presence of the helical wire, however, may possibly induce heat transfer problems, such as the uncertainty of the maximum clad temperature as a result of the contact between the wires and the pins. In this study, the detailed transient three dimensional velocity and temperature distributions for the coolant around the pin will be determined by solving the governing momentum and energy equation numerically. A computer code HEATRAN has been developed to perform this calculation. Before the computer code HEATRAN is applied to the wire wrapped rod bundle problem, it is used to analyze a wide range of fluid and heat transfer problem to verify its capabilities

  17. The survival of Teredo navalis L. in timber wrapped in TERRAM4000 and a plastic membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Marie; Gregory, D. J.; Botfeldt, Knud Bo

    2014-01-01

    had been confirmed, the blocks were removed and wrapped in either TERRAM4000 (polypropylene and polyethylene) or a proprietary plastic membrane (polyethylene), normally used on fishing piles or piers, as a protection against shipworm in Denmark. An optical oxygen sensor was packed together with each...... block to measure the amount of available oxygen around the wood. After one week the oxygen level around the test blocks wrapped in the plastic membrane had dropped drastically and lead to the death of all shipworms within the test blocks after one-four weeks. Although no new shipworm attacked the wood...... plastic materials (TERRAM4000 and a plastic membrane) to stop both initial attack by T. navalis and their effects on wood with active woodborer degradation. Blocks of pinewood were submerged in the southern part of the Kattegat in Denmark, where shipworm is known to be prolific. After settling and attack...

  18. Brachial artery protected by wrapped latissimus dorsi muscle flap in high voltage electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, E.; Eser, C.; Kokacya, O.; Kesiktas, E.; Yavuz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary High voltage electrical injury can disrupt the vascular system and lead to extremity amputations. It is important to protect main vessels from progressive burn necrosis in order to salvage a limb. The brachial artery should be totally isolated from the burned area by a muscle flap to prevent vessel disruption. In this study, we report the use of a wrap-around latissimus dorsi muscle flap to protect a skeletonized brachial artery in a high voltage electrical injury in order to salvage the upper extremity and restore function. The flap wrapped around the exposed brachial artery segment and luminal status of the artery was assessed using magnetic resonance angiography. No vascular intervention was required. The flap survived completely with good elbow function. Extremity amputation was not encountered. This method using a latissimus dorsi flap allows the surgeon to protect the main upper extremity artery and reconstruct arm defects, which contributes to restoring arm function in high voltage electrical injury. PMID:28149236

  19. Radioactive Air Emmission Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MENARD, N.M.

    2000-12-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07 for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. The rewrite of this NOC incorporates all the approved revisions (Sections 5.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 9.0), a revised potential to emit (PTE) based on the revised maximally exposed individual (MEI) (Sections 8.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0, and 15.0), the results of a study on fugitive emissions (Sections 6.0, 10.0, and 15.0), and reflects the current operating conditions at the WRAP Facility (Section 5.0). This NOC replaces DOE/RL-93-15 and DOE/RL-93-16 in their entirety. The primary function of the WRAP Facility is to examine, assay, characterize, treat, verify, and repackage radioactive material and mixed waste. There are two sources of emissions from the WRAP Facility: stack emissions and fugitive emissions. The stack emissions have an unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 1.13 E+02 millirem per year. The abated TEDE for the stack emissions is estimated at 5.63 E-02 millirem per year to the MEI. The fugitive emissions have an unabated TEDE estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 5.87 E-04. There is no abatement for the fugitive emissions.

  20. Radioactive Air Emmission Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MENARD, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07 for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. The rewrite of this NOC incorporates all the approved revisions (Sections 5.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 9.0), a revised potential to emit (PTE) based on the revised maximally exposed individual (MEI) (Sections 8.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0, and 15.0), the results of a study on fugitive emissions (Sections 6.0, 10.0, and 15.0), and reflects the current operating conditions at the WRAP Facility (Section 5.0). This NOC replaces DOE/RL-93-15 and DOE/RL-93-16 in their entirety. The primary function of the WRAP Facility is to examine, assay, characterize, treat, verify, and repackage radioactive material and mixed waste. There are two sources of emissions from the WRAP Facility: stack emissions and fugitive emissions. The stack emissions have an unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 1.13 E+02 millirem per year. The abated TEDE for the stack emissions is estimated at 5.63 E-02 millirem per year to the MEI. The fugitive emissions have an unabated TEDE estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 5.87 E-04. There is no abatement for the fugitive emissions

  1. Suffocation caused by plastic wrap covering the face combined with nitrous oxide inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt

    2017-09-01

    Suicide using a combination of a plastic bag over the head and inhalation of a non-irritating gas, such as helium, argon or nitrogen, has been reported in the literature. Here an unusual suicide method in a 17-year old man by suffocation from covering the face with household plastic wrap, combined with nitrous oxide inhalation, is presented. The case was reviewed based on police, autopsy and hospital reports. A PubMed search for scientific literature related to nitrous oxide abuse and suicide by suffocation was performed and our findings discussed in relation to the scientific literature found. The deceased was a 17-year old man who was found with the nose and mouth closed with a piece of kitchen plastic wrap. The plastic wrap had been removed prior to autopsy. Autopsy findings were suggestive of asphyxia, but were otherwise negative. Nitrous oxide was detected in the brain and lung tissue with headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (headspace-GCMS). The cause of death was assumed to be suffocation caused by plastic wrap covering the face, combined with nitrous oxide inhalation. Suicide was suspected because of a history of depression for several months. Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, has a euphoric effect and is used as a recreational inhalant drug that can be purchased legally. Deaths caused by recreational nitrous oxide abuse are rare but may occur if used in combination with a plastic bag over the head. This is the first report of suicide by suffocation by external obstruction combined with nitrous oxide inhalation.

  2. A miniature implantable coil that can be wrapped around a tubular organ within the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-05-01

    There are many tubular or rod-shaped organs and tissues within the human body. A miniature medical implant that wraps around such a biological structure can monitor or modulate its function. In order to provide the wrap-around implant with power, a solenoidal coil coupled wirelessly with a planar coil outside the human body can be used. Unfortunately, there is a serious practical problem that this configuration cannot be realized easily because the implantable solenoidal coil cannot be positioned around the tubular biological structure unless either the structure or the coil is cut and reconnected, which is impermissible in most cases. In addition, when a planner exterior coil is used for wireless power transfer and communication, its maximum magnetic coupling with the implanted solenoidal coil is achieved when the tubular structure is perpendicular to the surface of the body. However, in human anatomy, most tubular/rod structures are oriented horizontally. In order to solve these problems, we present a new flexible coil for the class of wrapped-around implantable devices. Our multilayer coil has specially designed windings in cross patterns. The new coil can be made conveniently in high precision at low cost on a flat substrate using the same technology for making the flexible multilayer printed circuit boards along with miniature sensors and electronic circuits. This allows the implant to be made in a flat form and then wrapped around the biostructure during surgery. We present the design of this new coil, perform theoretical analysis with respect to its wireless power transfer efficiency, discuss the effects of coil parameters, and conduct experiments using constructed miniature prototypes. Our results confirm the validity of the new coil.

  3. The Role of Wet Wrap Therapy in Skin Disorders - A literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie; Thyssen, Jacob P; Maibach, Howard I

    2015-01-01

    Wet wrap therapy, based on skin application of a double layer of tubular bandages or gauze with a moist first inner layer and a dry second outer layer, is utilized to treat various pruritic conditions, in particular severe and refractory atopic dermatitis. This review, by literature search...... may trigger increased lamellar body secretion resulting in recovery of the damaged intercellular lipid laminar structure. Otherwise, little investigation on mechanisms exists....

  4. Thermal hydraulic calculation of wire-wrapped bundles using a finite element method. Thesee code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzaud, P.; Gay, B.; Verviest, R.

    1981-07-01

    The physical and mathematical models used in the THESEE code now under development by the CEA/CEN Cadarache are presented. The objective of this code is to predict the fine three-dimensional temperature field in the sodium in a wire-wrapped rod bundle. Numerical results of THESEE are compared with measurements obtained by Belgonucleaire in 1976 in a sodium-cooled seven-rod bundle

  5. Ceramic fiber blanket wrap for fire protection of cable trays and conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaille, C.E.; Reiman, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    In some areas of nuclear power plants, cables of redundant electrical systems, which are necessary for the safe shutdown of the reactor, are in close proximity. If a fire should occur in one of these areas, both electrical systems could be destroyed before the fire is extinguished and control of the reactor may be lost. A ceramic fiber blanket was evaluated as a fire protective wrap around cable trays and conduits. 2 refs

  6. Natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) peel waste with additive essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti Agustina, E. S.; Elfi Susanti, V. H.

    2018-05-01

    The research aimed to produce natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa Paradisiaca Linn.) peel waste with additive essentials oils. The method used in this research was alkalization. The delignification process is done with the use of NaOH 4% at the temperature of 100°C for 1.5 hours. Additive materials in the form of essential oils are added as a preservative and aroma agent, namely cinnamon oil, lemon oil, clove oil and lime oil respectively 2% and 3%. Chemical and physical properties of the produced papers are tested included water content (dry-oven method SNI ISO 287:2010), pH (SNI ISO 6588-1.2010), grammage (SNI ISO 536:2010) and brightness (SNI ISO 2470:2010). Testing results of each paper were compared with commercial wrapping paper. The result shows that the natural paper from banana peel waste with additive essential oil meets the standard of ISO 6519:2016 about Basic Paper for Laminated Plastic Wrapping Paper within the parameter of pH and water content. The paper produced also meet the standard of ISO 8218:2015 about Food Paper and Cardboard within the grammage parameter (high-grade grammage), except the paper with 2% lemon oil. The paper which is closest to the characteristic of commercial wrapping paper is the paper with the additive of 2% cinnamon oil, with pH of 6.95, the water content of 7.14%, grammage of 347.6 gram/m2 and the brightness level of 24.68%.

  7. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above

  8. A miniature implantable coil that can be wrapped around a tubular organ within the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shitong Mao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many tubular or rod-shaped organs and tissues within the human body. A miniature medical implant that wraps around such a biological structure can monitor or modulate its function. In order to provide the wrap-around implant with power, a solenoidal coil coupled wirelessly with a planar coil outside the human body can be used. Unfortunately, there is a serious practical problem that this configuration cannot be realized easily because the implantable solenoidal coil cannot be positioned around the tubular biological structure unless either the structure or the coil is cut and reconnected, which is impermissible in most cases. In addition, when a planner exterior coil is used for wireless power transfer and communication, its maximum magnetic coupling with the implanted solenoidal coil is achieved when the tubular structure is perpendicular to the surface of the body. However, in human anatomy, most tubular/rod structures are oriented horizontally. In order to solve these problems, we present a new flexible coil for the class of wrapped-around implantable devices. Our multilayer coil has specially designed windings in cross patterns. The new coil can be made conveniently in high precision at low cost on a flat substrate using the same technology for making the flexible multilayer printed circuit boards along with miniature sensors and electronic circuits. This allows the implant to be made in a flat form and then wrapped around the biostructure during surgery. We present the design of this new coil, perform theoretical analysis with respect to its wireless power transfer efficiency, discuss the effects of coil parameters, and conduct experiments using constructed miniature prototypes. Our results confirm the validity of the new coil.

  9. Final safety analysis report (FSAR) for waste receiving and processing (WRAP) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This safety analysis report provides a summary description of the WRAP Facility, focusing on significant safety-related characteristics of the location and facility design. This report demonstrates that adherence to the safety basis wi11 ensure necessary operational safety considerations have been addressed sufficiently and justifies the adequacy of the safety basis in protecting the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment

  10. Tomographic reconstruction of storm time RC ion distribution from ENA images on board multiple spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ying; Yan, Wei-Nan; Xu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    A quantitative retrieval of 3-D distribution of energetic ions as energetic neutral atoms (ENA) sources is a challenging task. In this paper the voxel computerized tomography (CT) method is initially applied to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of energetic ions in the magnetospheric ring current (RC) region from ENA emission images on board multiple spacecraft. To weaken the influence of low-altitude emission (LAE) on the reconstruction, the LAE-associated ENA intensities are corrected by invoking the thick-target approximation. To overcome the divergence in iteration due to discordant instrument biases, a differential ENA voxel CT method is developed. The method is proved reliable and advantageous by numerical simulation for the case of constant bias independent of viewing angle. Then this method is implemented with ENA data measured by the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers mission which performs stereoscopic ENA imaging. The 3-D spatial distributions and energy spectra of RC ion flux intensity are reconstructed for energies of 4-50 keV during the main phase of a major magnetic storm. The retrieved ion flux distributions seem to correspond to an asymmetric partial RC, located mainly around midnight favoring the postmidnight with L = 3.5-7.0 in the equatorial plane. The RC ion distributions with magnetic local time depend on energy, with major equatorial flux peak for lower energy located east of that for higher energy. In comparison with the ion energy spectra measured by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms-D satellite flying in the RC region, the retrieved spectrum from remotely sensed ENA images are well matched with the in situ measurements.

  11. Perbandingan Algoritma Enkripsi GGHN(8,8 dan RC4 Untuk Video Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriyo Satriyo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Encryption is a solutions to secure the information transmitted through the medium of communication that can not be intercepted by unauthorized parties. This study implemented two algorithms i.e. RC4 and GGHN (8.8 in video conference. This study compared the speed  of  both  encryption  and  decryption  of  the  encryption  algorithm,  and  perform  measurements  of  bandwidth .  From  the  results  of measurements of the speed can be concluded that the RC4 algorithm is 1.53 times and 1.34 times faster than GGHN(8,8 for encryption and  decryption  audio  data.  The  encryption  and  decryption  video  data  RC4  are  1.44  times  and  1.09  times  faster  than  GHN(8,8. Bandwidth  usage  for  video  conferencing  without  encryption  and  bandwidth  usage  on  a  video  conference  with  RC4  encryption  and GGHN (8.8 is the same.Keywords: Video Conference; RC4; GGHN(8,8; Real Time Protocol.

  12. A Wrapping Method for Inserting Titanium Micro-Mesh Implants in the Reconstruction of Blowout Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Joon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium micro-mesh implants are widely used in orbital wall reconstructions because they have several advantageous characteristics. However, the rough and irregular marginal spurs of the cut edges of the titanium mesh sheet impede the efficacious and minimally traumatic insertion of the implant, because these spurs may catch or hook the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva during the insertion procedure. In order to prevent this problem, we developed an easy method of inserting a titanium micro-mesh, in which it is wrapped with the aseptic transparent plastic film that is used to pack surgical instruments or is attached to one side of the inner suture package. Fifty-four patients underwent orbital wall reconstruction using a transconjunctival or transcutaneous approach. The wrapped implant was easily inserted without catching or injuring the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva. In most cases, the implant was inserted in one attempt. Postoperative computed tomographic scans showed excellent placement of the titanium micro-mesh and adequate anatomic reconstruction of the orbital walls. This wrapping insertion method may be useful for making the insertion of titanium micro-mesh implants in the reconstruction of orbital wall fractures easier and less traumatic.

  13. Analytical Call Center Model with Voice Response Unit and Wrap-Up Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hampl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years of computer integration significantly changed the process of service in a call center service systems. Basic building modules of classical call centers – a switching system and a group of humans agents – was extended with other special modules such as skills-based routing module, automatic call distribution module, interactive voice response module and others to minimize the customer waiting time and wage costs. A calling customer of a modern call center is served in the first stage by the interactive voice response module without any human interaction. If the customer requirements are not satisfied in the first stage, the service continues to the second stage realized by the group of human agents. The service time of second stage – the average handle time – is divided into a conversation time and wrap-up time. During the conversation time, the agent answers customer questions and collects its requirements and during the wrap-up time (administrative time the agent completes the task without any customer interaction. The analytical model presented in this contribution is solved under the condition of statistical equilibrium and takes into account the interactive voice response module service time, the conversation time and the wrap-up time.

  14. DOE final report phase one startup, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document is to validate that the WRAP facility is physically ready to start up phase 1, and that the managers and operators are prepared to safely manage and operate the facility when all pre-start findings have been satisfactorily corrected. The DOE Readiness Assessment (RA) team spent a week on-site at Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP-1) to validate the readiness for phase 1 start up of facility. The Contractor and DOE staff were exceptionally cooperative and contributed significantly to the overall success of the RA. The procedures and Conduct of Operations areas had significant discrepancies, many of which should have been found by the contractor review team. In addition the findings of the contractor review team should have led the WRAP-1 management team to correcting the root causes of the findings prior to the DOE RA team review. The findings and observations include many issues that the team believes should have been found by the contractor review and corrective actions taken. A significantly improved Operational Readiness Review (ORR) process and corrective actions of root causes must be fully implemented by the contractor prior to the performance of the contractor ORR for phase 2 operations. The pre-start findings as a result of this independent DOE Readiness Assessment are presented

  15. Control of flow around a circular cylinder wrapped with a porous layer by magnetohydrodynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovand, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfahani, J.A., E-mail: abolfazl@um.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saha, S.C.; Gu, Y.T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia); Dehesht, M. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, P.O. Box 35196-45399, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    The present study focuses on the analysis of two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow past a circular cylinder wrapped with a porous layer in different laminar flow regimes. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model has been used for simulating flow in porous medium using finite volume based software, Fluent 6.3. In order to analyze the MHD flow, the mean and instantaneous drag and lift coefficients and stream patterns are computed to elucidate the role of Stuart number, N and Darcy number, Da. It is revealed that the magnetic fields are capable to stabilize flow and suppress the vortex shedding of vortices. The N-Re plane shows the curves for separating steady and periodic flow regimes, N{sub cr} and disappearing of vortex, N{sub diss}. For validate the solution, the obtained C{sub D} and St are compared with available results of literature. - Highlights: • The value of interaction parameter, N{sub cr}, depends on the Reynolds number. • N{sub cr} for porous-wrapped solid cylinder is less than the value of solid cylinder. • The St number of porous-wrapped cylinder is less than that of the rigid one. • When Da is decreased, St also decreases.

  16. Oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing prevent gastrooesophageal reflux disease in dogs after oesophageal anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ji-Gang; Liu, Quan-Xing; Den, Xu-Feng; Min, Jia-Xin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficiency of oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique in decreasing the rate of postoperative gastrooesophageal reflux disease in a dog model. METHODS: We operated on 10 dogs in this study. First, we resected a 5-cm portion of the distal oesophagus and then restored the continuity of the oesophageal and gastric walls by end-to-end anastomosis. A group of five dogs was subjected to the oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique, whereas another group (control) of five dogs was subjected to the stapling technique after oesophagectomy. The symptom of gastrooesophageal reflux was recorded by 24-h pH oesophageal monitoring. Endoscopy and barium swallow examination were performed on all dogs. Anastomotic leakage was observed by X-ray imaging, whereas benign anastomotic stricture and mucosal damage were observed by endoscopy. RESULTS: None of the 10 dogs experienced anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy. Four dogs in the new technology group resumed regular feeding, whereas only two of the dogs in the control group tolerated solid food intake. pH monitoring demonstrated that 25% of the dogs in the experimental group exhibited reflux and that none had mucosal damage consistent with reflux. Conversely, both reflux and mucosal damage were observed in all dogs in the control group. CONCLUSION: The oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique can improve the postoperative quality of life through the long-term elimination of reflux oesophagitis and decreased stricture formation after primary oesophageal anastomosis. PMID:25516655

  17. Water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP: a refinery case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dian Kurnia Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The key approach to manage and prevent potential hazards arising from specific contaminants in water networks is to consider water as the main product delivered. This new concept, addressed as water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP, has been further developed from hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP to illustrate the potential hazards which are the roots of hindering intra-facility water reuse strategies. For industrial sectors applying water reclamation and reuse schemes, it is paramount that the reclaimed water quality stays within the desired quality. The objective of WRAP is to establish a new methodology and knowledge, which will contribute to the sustainable development of industrial water management, and demonstrate its capabilities in identifying and addressing any potential hazards in the selected schemes adoption by the industries. A ‘what-if’ scenario was simulated using a refinery as a case study to show strategies on how to benefit reclaimed or reuse water based on reliable, applied and scientific research within the process integration area. In conclusion, the WRAP model will facilitate operators, consultants and decision makers to reuse water on a fit-for-use basis whilst avoiding contaminant accumulation in the overall system and production of sub-quality products from inadequate processes after several reuses.

  18. A comparative analysis on the shed vortices from the wake of finned, foam-wrapped cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khashehchi, Morteza [Department of Agro-Technology, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashtiani Abdi, Iman; Hooman, Kamel, E-mail: m.khashehchi@ut.ac.ir [School of Mechanical and mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2017-08-15

    The wake characteristics behind a finned and a foam-wrapped circular cylinder has been compared in a study (Khashehchi et al 2014 Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 52 328–38) done by the Authors. In this paper, the shed vortices from the wake of the same cylinders have been studied. Shedding in a bluff body has an important effect on increasing the pressure drop downstream of the object. Here, we have used particle image velocimetry to investigate the detached vortices from the wake behind a foam-wrapped and a finned cylinder. The standard case of cross-flow over a bare cylinder, i.e. no surface extension, has also been tested as a benchmark. The experiments have been performed for Reynolds numbers 2000 based on the mean air velocity and the cylinder’s outer diameter. To identify the features of each aforementioned case, linear stochastic estimation has been applied to the velocity fields. Results show that unlike the fin, adding foam to the cylinder surface increases the size of detached vortices and amplifies the core strength. Moreover, foam-wrapped cylinder in contrast to the finned one produces strong three-dimensionality. Interestingly, finned cylinder’s results show less three-dimensionality compared to the bare cylinder. (paper)

  19. Enhancing the Supercapacitor Performance of Graphene/MnO 2 Nanostructured Electrodes by Conductive Wrapping

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2011-10-12

    MnO2 is considered one of the most promising pseudocapactive materials for high-performance supercapacitors given its high theoretical specific capacitance, low-cost, environmental benignity, and natural abundance. However, MnO2 electrodes often suffer from poor electronic and ionic conductivities, resulting in their limited performance in power density and cycling. Here we developed a "conductive wrapping" method to greatly improve the supercapacitor performance of graphene/MnO2-based nanostructured electrodes. By three-dimensional (3D) conductive wrapping of graphene/MnO2 nanostructures with carbon nanotubes or conducting polymer, specific capacitance of the electrodes (considering total mass of active materials) has substantially increased by ∼20% and ∼45%, respectively, with values as high as ∼380 F/g achieved. Moreover, these ternary composite electrodes have also exhibited excellent cycling performance with >95% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles. This 3D conductive wrapping approach represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of metal oxide-based electrochemical supercapacitors and can be generalized for designing next-generation high-performance energy storage devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: A two-dimensional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.

  1. Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams with a hybrid combination of steel and aramid reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawileh, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of concrete beams reinforced steel and FRP bars. • Developed finite element models achieved good results. • The models are validated via comparison with experimental results. • Parametric studies are performed. - Abstract: Corrosion of steel bars has an adverse effect on the life-span of reinforced concrete (RC) members and is usually associated with crack development in RC beams. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been recently used to reinforce concrete members in flexure due to their high tensile strength and superior corrosion resistance properties. However, FRP materials are brittle in nature, thus RC beams reinforced with such materials would exhibit a less ductile behavior when compared to similar members reinforced with conventional steel reinforcement. Recently, researchers investigated the performance of concrete beams reinforced with a hybrid combination of steel and Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP) reinforcement to maintain a reasonable level of ductility in such members. The function of the AFRP bars is to increase the load-carrying capacity, while the function of the steel bars is to ensure ductility of the flexural member upon yielding in tension. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model that predicted the load versus mid-span deflection response of tested RC beams conducted by other researchers with a hybrid combination of steel and AFRP bars. The developed FE models account for the constituent material nonlinearities and bond–slip behavior between the reinforcing bars and adjacent concrete surfaces. It was concluded that the developed models can accurately capture the behavior and predicts the load-carrying capacity of such RC members. In addition, a parametric study is conducted using the validated models to investigate the effect of AFRP bar size, FRP material type, bond–slip action, and concrete compressive strength on the performance of concrete beams when reinforced

  2. Osiris wrapped with the skin of the celestial fawn: note on D. S. I 11.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónatan Ortiz-García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed an explanation for certain information transmitted by Diodorus Siculus, according to which the Egyptian god Osiris was wrapped with a fawn skin with stars.

  3. RHIC Beam Loss Monitor System Initial Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R. L.; Michnoff, R. J.; Geller, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The RHIC Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) System is designed to prevent beam loss quenching of the superconducting magnets, and acquire loss data. Four hundred ion chambers are located around the rings to detect losses. The required 8-decade range in signal current is compressed using an RC pre-integrator ahead of a low current amplifier. A beam abort may be triggered if fast or slow losses exceed programmable threshold levels. A micro-controller based VME module sets references and gains and reads trip status for up to 64 channels. Results obtained with the detectors in the RHIC Sextant Test and the prototype electronics in the AGS-to-RHIC (AtR) transfer line are presented along with the present status of the system

  4. Strain Measurement during Stress Rupture of Composite Over-Wrapped Pressure Vessel with Fiber Bragg Gratings Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Curtis E.; Grant, Joseph; Russell, Sam; Arnett, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Fiber optic Bragg gratings were used to measure strain fields during Stress Rupture (SSM) test of Kevlar Composite Over-Wrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV). The sensors were embedded under the over-wrapped attached to the liner released from the Kevlar and attached to the Kevlar released from the liner. Additional sensors (foil gages and fiber bragg gratings) were surface mounted on the COPY liner.

  5. Pengaruh Penggunaan Plastic Wrap Terhadap Core Temperature Pasien Pediatrik 1-3 Tahun Yang Menjalani Operasi Palatoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Averoes; Suwarman; Eri Surahman

    2013-01-01

    The decrease rate of body temperature can be reduced by passive insulation by covering the body with certain materials which have poor heat conductivity (insulator). Insulator material which is wrapped on the body can prevent the process of convection, conduction and evaporation so that the degree of heat loss was reduced on average 30%. One material that can be used as an insulator is the plastic. This study was conducted to assess the effect of plastic wrap on the core temperature of pediat...

  6. Pengaruh Penggunaan Plastic Wrap Terhadap Core Temperature Pasien Pediatrik 1-3 Tahun Yang Menjalani Operasi Palatoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Averoes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decrease rate of body temperature can be reduced by passive insulation by covering the body with certain materials which have poor heat conductivity (insulator. Insulator material which is wrapped on the body can prevent the process of convection, conduction and evaporation so that the degree of heat loss was reduced on average 30%. One material that can be used as an insulator is the plastic. This study was conducted to assess the effect of plastic wrap on the core temperature of pediatric aged 1 to 3 years who underwent cleft palate surgery. The study was conducted on 30 pediatric patients, aged 1-3 years, with ASA I physical status who underwent cleft surgery with general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups. One group used plastic wrap to be wrapped on the body, and another is the control group. Rectal temperature was recorded during anesthesia. Research data was tested statistically by the Mann-Whitney test. The results of statistical calculation indicated that the average core temperature during anesthesia in plastic wrap group was higher than the control group with a significant result (p <0.001. The average core temperature in the plastic wrap is 36.17° C (0.31° C which is higher than the control group (35.88° C (0.43° C. It can be concluded that the use of plastic wrap causes temperature reduction degree to be lower than the control group. The degree in plastic wrap group is 0.8 °C while the degree in control group is 1.2°C in the control group (p <0.005.

  7. The effect of CFRP on retrofitting of damaged HSRC beams using AE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffian Noor, M. S.; Noorsuhada, M. N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the effect of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) on retrofitted high strength reinforced concrete (HSRC) beams using acoustic emission (AE) technique. Two RC beam parameters were prepared. The first was the control beam which was undamaged HSRC beam. The second was the damaged HSRC beam retrofitted with CFRP on the soffit. The main objective of this study is to assess the crack modes of HSRC beams using AE signal strength. The relationship between signal strength, load and time were analysed and discussed. The crack pattern observed from the visual observation was also investigated. HSRC beam retrofitted with CFRP produced high signal strength compared to control beam. It demonstrates the effect of the AE signal strength for interpretation and prediction of failure modes that might occur in the beam specimens.

  8. Effect of spice-incorporated starch edible film wrapping on shelf life of white shrimps stored at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenatchisundaram, Sivarajan; Chandrasekar, Chandra Mohan; Udayasoorian, Lalitha Priya; Kavindapadi Rajasekaran, Rakhavan; Kesavan, Radha Krishnan; Srinivasan, Babuskin; Muthusamy, Sukumar

    2016-09-01

    White shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) are a major aquaculture product in the world fishery market. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clove- and cinnamon-assimilated starch edible films on the shelf life of white shrimps in terms of maintaining their freshness and other organoleptic properties. Physical, chemical, microbial and sensory qualities of edible film-wrapped white shrimps were studied until they reached their limit of acceptability during storage at different temperatures (10 and 4 °C). Shrimp samples wrapped with spice-assimilated edible films showed lower bacterial counts. Shelf life extension of edible film-wrapped white shrimps was estimated to be 14 and 12 days for storage at 10 and 4 °C respectively. Reduced lipid oxidation and release of nitrogen base compounds were noted for edible film-wrapped shrimp samples. Good consumer acceptance was noted for edible film-wrapped shrimp samples through sensory evaluation. The results of this study show that spice-fused edible films were effective in inhibiting the growth of microbial populations. Reductions in lipid oxidation and total volatile base nitrogen were also achieved through edible film wrapping of shrimps, which increased their consumer acceptance during sensory evaluation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Cadaver wrapping and arrival performance of adult flies in an oil palm plantation in northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Azwani; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Aziz, Al Thbyani; Boots, Michael

    2011-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that criminals wrap dead bodies in an attempt to conceal evidence. To anticipate the forensic implications of this phenomenon, we examined whether flies that are naturally associated with cadavers exhibit a delay in attendance or differ in species composition and abundance patterns because of the presence of wrapping material. Wrapped and exposed carcasses of dead monkeys placed in an oil plantation in Kedah, Malaysia, were visited over 50 d. On daily visits to each of the six carcasses, visiting adult flies were sampled using hand nets. Flies of 12 families were encountered. Calliphoridae (Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and C. megacephala (F.) was the most prevalent family, followed by Sphaeroceridae. Some families tended to be more abundant in WRCs (i.e., Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Phoridae), whereas others (i.e., Piophilidae, Sepsidae, and Psychodidae) were more prevalent in exposed carcasses. Wrapping delayed the arrival of all fly species encountered, with delays varying from 1 to 13 d depending on species. Wrapping did not affect species composition of flies, but prolong the occurrence of some species. The results of the current study emphasize the need to take into consideration the presence of a wrap when estimating postmortem interval.

  10. Behavior and Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Circular Concrete Columns Partially Wrapped with FRP Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP jacketing/wrapping has become an attractive strengthening technique for concrete columns. Wrapping an existing concrete column with continuous FRP jackets with the fiber in the jacket being oriented in the hoop direction is referred to as FRP full wrapping strengthening technique. In practice, however, strengthening concrete columns with vertically discontinuous FRP strips is also favored and this technique is referred to as FRP partial wrapping strengthening technique. Existing research has demonstrated that FRP partial wrapping strengthening technique is a promising and economical alternative to the FRP full wrapping strengthening technique. Although extensive experimental investigations have hitherto been conducted on partially FRP-confined concrete columns, the confinement mechanics of confined concrete in partially FRP-confined circular columns remains unclear. In this paper, an experimental program consisting of fifteen column specimens was conducted and the test results were presented. A reliable three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE approach for modeling of partially FRP-confined circular columns was established. In the proposed FE approach, an accurate plastic-damage model for concrete under multiaxial compression is employed. The accuracy of the proposed FE approach was verified by comparisons between the numerical results and the test results. Numerical results from the verified FE approach were then presented to gain an improved understanding of the behavior of confined concrete in partially FRP-confined concrete columns.

  11. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  12. Experimental and analytical investigation of reinforced high strength concrete continuous beams strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbarzadeh, H.; Maghsoudi, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon and glass fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP and GFRP) are two materials suitable for strengthening the reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Although many in situ RC beams are of continuous constructions, there has been very limited research on the behavior of such beams with externally applied FRP laminate. In addition, most design guidelines were developed for simply supported beams with external FRP laminates. This paper presents an experimental program conducted to study the flexural behavior and redistribution in moment of reinforced high strength concrete (RHSC) continuous beams strengthened with CFRP and GFRP sheets. Test results showed that with increasing the number of CFRP sheet layers, the ultimate strength increases, while the ductility, moment redistribution, and ultimate strain of CFRP sheet decrease. Also, by using the GFRP sheet in strengthening the continuous beam reduced loss in ductility and moment redistribution but it did not significantly increase ultimate strength of beam. The moment enhancement ratio of the strengthened continuous beams was significantly higher than the ultimate load enhancement ratio in the same beam. An analytical model for moment-curvature and load capacity are developed and used for the tested continuous beams in current and other similar studies. The stress-strain curves of concrete, steel and FRP were considered as integrity model. Stress-strain model of concrete is extended from Oztekin et al.'s model by modifying the ultimate strain. Also, new parameters of equivalent stress block are obtained for flexural calculation of RHSC beams. Good agreement between experiment and prediction values is achieved.

  13. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  14. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  15. Mouse RC/BTB2, a Member of the RCC1 Superfamily, Localizes to Spermatid Acrosomal Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuening; Nagarkatti-Gude, David R.; Hess, Rex A.; Henderson, Scott C.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Zhang, Zhibing

    2012-01-01

    Mouse RC/BTB2 is an unstudied protein of the RCC1 (Regulator of Chromosome Condensation) superfamily. Because of the significant remodeling of chromatin that occurs during spermiogenesis, we characterized the expression and localization of mouse RC/BTB2 in the testis and male germ cells. The Rc/btb2 gene yields two major transcripts: 2.3 kb Rc/btb2-s, present in most somatic tissues examined; and 2.5 kb Rc/btb2-t, which contains a unique non-translated exon in its 5′-UTR that is only detected in the testis. During the first wave of spermatogenesis, Rc/btb2-t mRNA is expressed from day 8 after birth, reaching highest levels of expression at day 30 after birth. The full-length protein contains three RCC1 domains in the N-terminus, and a BTB domain in the C-terminus. In the testis, the protein is detectable from day 12, but is progressively up-regulated to day 30 and day 42 after birth. In spermatids, some of the protein co-localizes with acrosomal markers sp56 and peanut lectin, indicating that it is an acrosomal protein. A GFP-tagged RCC1 domain is present throughout the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells. However, both GFP-tagged, full-length RC/BTB2 and a GFP-tagged BTB domain localize to vesicles in close proximity to the nuclear membrane, suggesting that the BTB domain might play a role in mediating full-length RC/BTB2 localization. Since RCC1 domains associate with Ran, a small GTPase that regulates molecular trafficking, it is possible that RC/BTB2 plays a role in transporting proteins during acrosome formation. PMID:22768142

  16. Serviceability behavior of Reinforcement Concrete beams with polypropylene and steel fibers

    OpenAIRE

    NaserKabashi; Cenë Krasniqi

    2015-01-01

    Serviceability Limit States (SLS) may lead to the design of concrete elements internally reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP).In many types of concrete structure loss the serviceability due to wide cracks, number of cracks or large deflection is not uncommon behaviour in concrete structures or concrete beams.The flexural ductility affects the serviceability deflection of RC beams once flexural cracking take place.Imprvement will be focused on the use of polypropilene fib...

  17. Nonlinear δf Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T perpendicularb >> T parallelb ). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with ∂/∂θ = 0

  18. A Modified Model for Deflection Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Deformed GFRP Rebar

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Minkwan; Oh, Hongseob; Lim, Junhyun; Sim, Jongsung

    2016-01-01

    The authors carried out experimental and analytical research to evaluate the flexural capacity and the moment-deflection relationship of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars. The proposed model to predict the effective moment of inertia for R/C beam with GFRP bars was developed empirically, based on Branson’s equation to have better accuracy and a familiar approach to a structural engineer. For better prediction of the moment-deflection relationship until the ultimate strength is reached,...

  19. Learning Abstract Physical Concepts from Experience: Design and Use of an RC Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Alfredo; Ordenes, Jorge; de la Fuente, Milton

    2018-05-01

    Science learning for undergraduate students requires grasping a great number of theoretical concepts in a rather short time. In our experience, this is especially difficult when students are required to simultaneously use abstract concepts, mathematical reasoning, and graphical analysis, such as occurs when learning about RC circuits. We present a simple experimental model in this work that allows students to easily design, build, and analyze RC circuits, thus providing an opportunity to test personal ideas, build graphical descriptions, and explore the meaning of the respective mathematical models, ultimately gaining a better grasp of the concepts involved. The result suggests that the simple setup indeed helps untrained students to visualize the essential points of this kind of circuit.

  20. Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.B.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Venugopal, V.

    2011-01-01

    A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

  1. Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, M B; Ramakumar, K L; Venugopal, V [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-01

    A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

  2. Understanding of self-terminating pulse generation using silicon controlled rectifier and RC load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chris, E-mail: chrischang81@gmail.com; Karunasiri, Gamani, E-mail: karunasiri@nps.edu [Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Alves, Fabio, E-mail: falves@alionscience.com [Alion Science and Technology at NPS, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Recently a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)-based circuit that generates self-terminating voltage pulses was employed for the detection of light and ionizing radiation in pulse mode. The circuit consisted of a SCR connected in series with a RC load and DC bias. In this paper, we report the investigation of the physics underlying the pulsing mechanism of the SCR-based. It was found that during the switching of SCR, the voltage across the capacitor increased beyond that of the DC bias, thus generating a reverse current in the circuit, which helped to turn the SCR off. The pulsing was found to be sustainable only for a specific range of RC values depending on the SCR’s intrinsic turn-on/off times. The findings of this work will help to design optimum SCR based circuits for pulse mode detection of light and ionizing radiation without external amplification circuitry.

  3. A 500-600 MHz GaN power amplifier with RC-LC stability network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyu; Duan, Baoxing; Yang, Yintang

    2017-08-01

    A 500-600 MHz high-efficiency, high-power GaN power amplifier is designed and realized on the basis of the push-pull structure. The RC-LC stability network is proposed and applied to the power amplifier circuit for the first time. The RC-LC stability network can significantly reduce the high gain out the band, which eliminates the instability of the power amplifier circuit. The developed power amplifier exhibits 58.5 dBm (700 W) output power with a 17 dB gain and 85% PAE at 500-600 MHz, 300 μs, 20% duty cycle. It has the highest PAE in P-band among the products at home and abroad. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB339901).

  4. The response of an RC line MWPC to primary cosmic rays. [Multi-Wire Proportional Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. C.; Selig, W. J.; Austin, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simple 50 x 50 sq cm MWPC plane was arranged as an RC-line and flown on a balloon flight with the MSFC-UAH Cosmic Ray experiment. Positions of primary cosmic ray tracks in the RC-line were determined by the risetime method and compared with the expected position as indicated by a best line fitted through four planes of the conventional MWPC hodoscope. Mean errors were estimated for sea-level muons, and CNO group and iron group particles. It is believed that the delta-rays accompanying the primaries degraded the position resolution. Measured standard deviations allowing for uncertainty in the true track position are of the order of 1 cm or less in the primary charge region between 7 and 26.

  5. RC structures strengthened by metal shear panels: experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Matteis, G.; Formisano, A.; Mazzolani, F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Metal shear panels (MSPs) may be effectively used as a lateral load resisting system for framed structures. In the present paper, such a technique is applied for the seismic protection of existing RC buildings, by setting up a specific design procedure, which has been developed on the basis of preliminary full-scale experimental tests. The obtained results allowed the development of both simplified and advanced numerical models of both the upgraded structure and the applied shear panels. Also, the proposed design methodology, which is framed in the performance base design philosophy, has been implemented for the structural upgrading of a real Greek existing multi-storey RC building. The results of the numerical analysis confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed technique, also emphasising the efficiency of the implemented design methodology

  6. Flexural Behavior of RC Slabs Strengthened in Flexure with Basalt Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugyu Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both experimental and analytical research results for predicting the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with basalt fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM. A total of 13 specimens were fabricated to evaluate the flexural behavior of RC slabs strengthened with basalt FRCM composite and were tested under four-point loading. The fiber type, tensile reinforcement ratio, and the number of fabric layers were chosen as experimental variables. The maximum load of FRCM-strengthened specimens increased from 11.2% to 98.2% relative to the reference specimens. The energy ratio and ductility of the FRCM-strengthened specimens decreased with the higher amount of fabric and tensile reinforcement. The effective stress level of FRCM fabric can be accurately predicted by a bond strength of ACI 549 and Jung’s model.

  7. Homogenized global nonlinear constitutive model for RC panels under cyclic loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, Miquel; Voldoire, Francois; Kotronis, Panagiotis; Erlicher, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    A new nonlinear stress resultant global constitutive model for RC panels is presented. Concrete damage, concrete stress transfer at cracks and bond-slip stress are the main nonlinear effects identified at the local scale that constitute the basis for the construction of the stress resultant global model through an analytical homogenization technique. The closed form solution is obtained using general functions for the previous phenomena. (authors)

  8. Dynamics model for real time diagnostics of Triga RC-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, A.M.; Nanni, V.; Meo, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents dynamics model of TRIGA RC-1 reactor system. The model is dedicated to the real-time early fault detection during a reactor operation in one week exploitation cycle. The algorithms are specially suited for real-time, long time and also accelerated simulations with assumed diagnostic oriented accuracy. The approximations, modular structure, numerical methods and validation are discussed. The elaborated model will be build in the TRIGA Supervisor System and TRIGA Diagnostic Simulator

  9. Hysteretic MDOF Model to Quantify Damage for RC Shear Frames Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, Ahmet S.

    A hysteretic mechanical formulation is derived to quantify local, modal and overall damage in reinforced concrete (RC) shear frames subject to seismic excitation. Each interstorey is represented by a Clough and Johnston (1966) hysteretic constitutive relation with degrading elastic fraction of th...... shear frame is subject to simulated earthquake excitations, which are modelled as a stationary Gaussian stochastic process with Kanai-Tajimi spectrum, multiplied by an envelope function. The relationship between local, modal and overall damage indices is investigated statistically....

  10. ENEA TRIGA RC-1 reactor activities in the fields of nuclear medicine and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, Gianni; Festinesi, Armando; Palomba, Mario; Rosa, Roberto; Rossi, Gabriela; Sangiovanni, Gino; Santoro, Emilio; Sedda, Antioco Franco; Storelli, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    In the last three years, TRIGA RC-1 plant staff is involved in collaborations with some roman hospitals for the production of particular radioisotopes for the diagnosis and therapy in the field of human cancer. Further, the thermal column of TRIGA reactor has been prepared for neutron radiography and tomography. For another channel, instruments and equipment above neutron radiography and tomography are in preparation phase. This paper includes an overview of the experimental equipment properly developed by TRIGA staff. (authors)

  11. RC2S: a cognitive remediation program to improve social cognition in schizophrenia and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie ePEYROUX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind, attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (Cognitive Remediation of Social Cognition in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual-reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with

  12. Loads experiments study on two-story RC box and truncated conical walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asega, H.; Iizuka, S.; Kurihara, I.; Kubo, T.

    1987-01-01

    The failure modes of the two specimens were the sliding shear failure. The two specimens showed almost equal deformation at the maximum shear strength. The ratio of the flexural deformation in the deformation of the truncated conical was larger than that of the box wall. The ratio of the shear deformation in the deformation of the two-story RC box wall was larger than that of the flexural deformation. (orig./HP)

  13. A proposal for seismic evaluation index of mid-rise existing RC buildings in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqi, Ahmad; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    Mid-rise RC buildings gradually rise in Kabul and entire Afghanistan since 2001 due to rapid increase of population. To protect the safety of resident, Afghan Structure Code was issued in 2012. But the building constructed before 2012 failed to conform the code requirements. In Japan, new sets of rules and law for seismic design of buildings had been issued in 1981 and severe earthquake damage was disclosed for the buildings designed before 1981. Hence, the Standard for Seismic Evaluation of RC Building published in 1977 has been widely used in Japan to evaluate the seismic capacity of existing buildings designed before 1981. Currently similar problem existed in Afghanistan, therefore, this research examined the seismic capacity of six RC buildings which were built before 2012 in Kabul by applying the seismic screening procedure presented by Japanese standard. Among three screening procedures with different capability, the less detailed screening procedure, the first level of screening, is applied. The study founds an average seismic index (IS-average=0.21) of target buildings. Then, the results were compared with those of more accurate seismic evaluation procedures of Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM) and Time History Analysis (THA). The results for CSM and THA show poor seismic performance of target buildings not able to satisfy the safety design limit (1/100) of the maximum story drift. The target buildings are then improved by installing RC shear walls. The seismic indices of these retrofitted buildings were recalculated and the maximum story drifts were analyzed by CSM and THA. The seismic indices and CSM and THA results are compared and found that building with seismic index larger than (IS-average =0.4) are able to satisfy the safety design limit. Finally, to screen and minimize the earthquake damage over the existing buildings, the judgement seismic index (IS-Judgment=0.5) for the first level of screening is proposed.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Existing RC Columns Jacketed with CFRP or FRCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Del Zoppo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC columns typical of existing structures often exhibit premature failures during seismic events (i.e., longitudinal bars buckling and shear interaction mechanisms due to the poor quality concrete and the absence of proper seismic details in the potential plastic hinge region. The Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP externally bonded reinforcement is known to be a valid technique to improve the shear capacity or the ductility of existing RC columns. However, few experimental tests have proven its effectiveness in the case of columns affected by shear interaction mechanisms. In this work, the behavior of existing RC columns with border line behavior between flexure and shear have been investigated in the case of poor quality concrete and light FRP strengthening with local jacketing and medium quality concrete and strong FRP strengthening with local jacketing, in order to highlight the effect of concrete strength on the effectiveness of the retrofit intervention. As an alternative to FRP jacketing; the effectiveness of the Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite (FRCC jacketing for the seismic strengthening of columns with highly deteriorated concrete cover or columns already damaged by an earthquake is also evaluated. Six full-scale RC columns have been tested under cyclic loading: one was used as a control specimen; four were strengthened in the potential plastic hinge region with carbon FRP (CFRP; and one was fully jacketed with FRCC. The comparison between poor and medium quality concrete columns showed that the CFRP local jacketing is more effective in the case of poor quality concrete. The FRCC jacketing appears to be a sound repair strategy and a suitable alternative to the FRP jacketing in case of poor quality; however, more experimental research is needed for improving this retrofit technique.

  15. A three-layer distributed RC network with two transmission zeros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the properties of a three-layer distributed RC network consisting of two resistive layers separated by a dielectric which may be used to realize two zeros of transmission on the j-omega axis of the complex frequency plane. The relative location of the two zeros is controlled by the location of a contact placed on one of the resistive layers.

  16. Risk Quantification for Sustaining Coastal Military Installation Asset and Mission Capabilities (RC-1701)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-06

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Risk Quantification for Sustaining Coastal Military Installation Asset and Mission Capabilities (RC-1701) 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) wind model TC96 (Thompson and Cardone 1996), 2) Surge has been simulated using the ADvanced CIRCulation model ADCIRC...coefficient, and h is the depth of the PBL (Thompson and Cardone 1996). The cyclone pressure is defined by an axisymmetrical exponential pressure or by

  17. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients' functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient's goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters' mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders.

  18. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders

  19. A hybrid Rankine cycle (HyRC) with ambient pressure combustion (APC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lijun; Thimsen, David; Clements, Bruce; Zheng, Ligang; Pomalis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The main losses in thermal power generation include heat in exhaust flue gas, heat rejected through steam condensation of low-pressure turbine, and exergy destruction in heat exchange process etc. To the extent that the heat losses are significantly greater in temperature than either air or water coolant resources, these losses also represent exergy losses which might be exploited to improve plant capacity and efficiency. This paper presents a hybrid Rankine cycle (HyRC) with an ambient pressure combustion (APC) boiler to address the recovery potential of these losses within the steam Rankine cycle (SRC). The APC–HyRC concept employs an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to supplement SRC and to reduce cycle energy losses to the atmosphere since organic fluids are capable of lowering cycle condensation temperature when a very low temperature heat sink is available. The case studies based on a 399 MW SRC unit show that the APC–HyRC configurations have better thermodynamic performance than its base case SRC at a cycle condensation temperature of 30 °C and below. The best APC–HyRC configuration generates up to 14% more power than the baseline steam cycle which is a 5.45% increase in overall gross efficiency with a cycle condensation temperature at 4 °C. - Highlights: • A hybrid Rankine cycle with water and organic fluid is presented. • Heat losses in exhaust flue gas and exhaust steam are reduced. • Exergy losses in regeneration process are reduced. • Efficiency improvements are made to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. • Issues in design/construction of greenfield and repowering project are discussed

  20. Dynamics model for real time diagnostics of TRIGA RC-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, A.M.; Nanni, V.; Meo, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents dynamics model of TRIGA RC-1 reactor system. The model is dedicated to the real-time early fault detection during a reactor operation in one week exploitation cycle. The algorithms are specially suited for real-time, long time and also accelerated simulations with assumed diagnostic oriented accuracy. The approximations, modular structure, numerical methods and validation are discussed. The elaborated model will be build in the TRIGA Supervisory System and TRIGA Diagnostic Simulator. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Structural Robustness against Column Loss: Methodology and Application to RC Frame Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A; Noh, Sam-Young

    2017-08-01

    A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness.

  2. A new NASA LaRC Multi-Purpose Prepregging Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Dixon, D.; Johnston, N. J.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-purpose prepregging machine has been designed and built for NASA Langley Research Center. The machine has numerous advantages over existing units due to its various modular components. Each of these can be used individually or simultaneously depending on the required prepregging method. A reverse roll coater provides the ability to prepare thin films from typical hot-melt thermoset formulations. Also, if necessary, the design allows direct fiber impregnation within the reverse roll coater gap. Included in the impregnation module is a solution dip tank allowing the fabrication of thermoplastic prepregs from solution. The proceeding modules within the unit consist of four nip stations, two hot-plates, a hot-sled option and a high temperature oven. This paper describes the advantages of such a modular construction and discusses the various processing combinations available to the prepregger. A variety of high performance prepreg material systems were produced on IM7 (Hercules) carbon fiber. These included LaRC RP46, a PMR-type resin processed from methanol and two polyamide acids, LaRC IA and LaRC ITPI, prpregged from N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). Parameters involved in the production of these prepreg materials are presented as are the mechanical properties of the resulting good quality laminates. A brief introduction into the existing prepregging science is presented. Topics relating to solution prepregging are identified with a focus on the current research effort and its future development.

  3. A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Intertwining Chaotic Maps and RC4 Stream Cipher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Manju; Gupta, Shailender

    2018-03-01

    As the systems are enabling us to transmit large chunks of data, both in the form of texts and images, there is a need to explore algorithms which can provide a higher security without increasing the time complexity significantly. This paper proposes an image encryption scheme which uses intertwining chaotic maps and RC4 stream cipher to encrypt/decrypt the images. The scheme employs chaotic map for the confusion stage and for generation of key for the RC4 cipher. The RC4 cipher uses this key to generate random sequences which are used to implement an efficient diffusion process. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB-2016b and various performance metrics are used to evaluate its efficacy. The proposed scheme provides highly scrambled encrypted images and can resist statistical, differential and brute-force search attacks. The peak signal-to-noise ratio values are quite similar to other schemes, the entropy values are close to ideal. In addition, the scheme is very much practical since having lowest time complexity then its counterparts.

  4. Friction correction for model ship resistance and propulsion tests in ice at NRC's OCRE-RC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lau

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the result of a preliminary analysis on the influence of hull-ice friction coefficient on model resistance and power predictions and their correlation to full-scale measurements. The study is based on previous model-scale/full-scale correlations performed on the National Research Council - Ocean, Coastal, and River Engineering Research Center's (NRC/OCRE-RC model test data. There are two objectives for the current study: (1 to validate NRC/OCRE-RC's modeling standards in regarding to its practice of specifying a CFC (Correlation Friction Coefficient of 0.05 for all its ship models; and (2 to develop a correction methodology for its resistance and propulsion predictions when the model is prepared with an ice friction coefficient slightly deviated from the CFC of 0.05. The mean CFC of 0.056 and 0.050 for perfect correlation as computed from the resistance and power analysis, respectively, have justified NRC/OCRE-RC's selection of 0.05 for the CFC of all its models. Furthermore, a procedure for minor friction corrections is developed. Keywords: Model test, Ice resistance, Power, Friction correction, Correlation friction coefficient

  5. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  6. The IL-17F/IL-17RC Axis Promotes Respiratory Allergy in the Proximal Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Luca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin 17 (IL-17 cytokine and receptor family is central to antimicrobial resistance and inflammation in the lung. Mice lacking IL-17A, IL-17F, or the IL-17RA subunit were compared with wild-type mice for susceptibility to airway inflammation in models of infection and allergy. Signaling through IL-17RA was required for efficient microbial clearance and prevention of allergy; in the absence of IL-17RA, signaling through IL-17RC on epithelial cells, predominantly by IL-17F, significantly exacerbated lower airway Aspergillus or Pseudomonas infection and allergic airway inflammation. In contrast, following infection with the upper respiratory pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, the IL-17F/IL-17RC axis mediated protection. Thus, IL-17A and IL-17F exert distinct biological effects during pulmonary infection; the IL-17F/IL-17RC signaling axis has the potential to significantly worsen pathogen-associated inflammation of the lower respiratory tract in particular, and should be investigated further as a therapeutic target for treating pathological inflammation in the lung.

  7. Direct displacement-based design of special composite RC shear walls with steel boundary elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kazemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Special composite RC shear wall (CRCSW with steel boundary elements is a kind of lateral force resisting structural system which is used in earthquake-prone regions. Due to their high ductility and energy dissipation, CRCSWs have been widely used in recent years by structural engineers. However, there are few studies in the literature on the seismic design of such walls. Although there are many studies in the literature on the Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD of RC structures, however, no study can be found on DDBD of CRCSWs. Therefore, the aim of present study is to evaluate the ability of DDBD method for designing CRCSWs. In this study, four special composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel boundary elements of 4, 8, 12 and 16 story numbers were designed using the DDBD method for target drift of 2%. The seismic behavior of the four CRCSWs was studied using nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. Dynamic analyses were performed for the mentioned walls using 7 selected earthquake records. The seismic design parameters considered in this study includes: lateral displacement profile, inelastic dynamic inter-story drift demand, failure pattern and the composite RC shear walls overstrength factor. For each shear wall, the overall overstrength factor was calculated by dividing the ultimate dynamic base shear demand (Vu by the base shear demand (Vd as per the Direct Displacement Based-Design (DDBD method. The results show that the DDBD method can be used to design CRCSWs safely in seismic regions with predicted behavior.

  8. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value.

  9. nRC: non-coding RNA Classifier based on structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiannaca, Antonino; La Rosa, Massimo; La Paglia, Laura; Rizzo, Riccardo; Urso, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) are small non-coding sequences involved in gene expression regulation of many biological processes and diseases. The recent discovery of a large set of different ncRNAs with biologically relevant roles has opened the way to develop methods able to discriminate between the different ncRNA classes. Moreover, the lack of knowledge about the complete mechanisms in regulative processes, together with the development of high-throughput technologies, has required the help of bioinformatics tools in addressing biologists and clinicians with a deeper comprehension of the functional roles of ncRNAs. In this work, we introduce a new ncRNA classification tool, nRC (non-coding RNA Classifier). Our approach is based on features extraction from the ncRNA secondary structure together with a supervised classification algorithm implementing a deep learning architecture based on convolutional neural networks. We tested our approach for the classification of 13 different ncRNA classes. We obtained classification scores, using the most common statistical measures. In particular, we reach an accuracy and sensitivity score of about 74%. The proposed method outperforms other similar classification methods based on secondary structure features and machine learning algorithms, including the RNAcon tool that, to date, is the reference classifier. nRC tool is freely available as a docker image at https://hub.docker.com/r/tblab/nrc/. The source code of nRC tool is also available at https://github.com/IcarPA-TBlab/nrc.

  10. Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability of Steel and RC Moment Buildings Using HAZUS and Statistical Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mansouri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Designer engineers have always the serious challenge regarding the choice of the kind of structures to use in the areas with significant seismic activities. Development of fragility curve provides an opportunity for designers to select a structure that will have the least fragility. This paper presents an investigation into the seismic vulnerability of both steel and reinforced concrete (RC moment frames using fragility curves obtained by HAZUS and statistical methodologies. Fragility curves are employed for several probability parameters. Fragility curves are used to assess several probability parameters. Furthermore, it examines whether the probability of the exceedence of the damage limit state is reduced as expected. Nonlinear dynamic analyses of five-, eight-, and twelve-story frames are carried out using Perform 3D. The definition of damage states is based on the descriptions provided by HAZUS, which gives the limit states and the associated interstory drift limits for structures. The fragility curves show that the HAZUS procedure reduces probability of damage, and this reduction is higher for RC frames. Generally, the RC frames have higher fragility compared to steel frames.

  11. Investigation of the fittest shear transfer model used to FEM analysis of RC structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tatumi; Aoyagi, Masao; Endo, Takao

    1988-01-01

    In order to rationalize the design method of reinforced concrete (RC) structures in the nuclear power plant, the structural analysis, which is able to simulate the seismic behavior of RC structures, should be established. In this report, the investigation of shear transfer model at shear plane to be applied to FEM analysis is performed. Main conclusions obtained within the limit of the study are as follows. 1. Development of the shear transfer model at shear plane. 1) Two shear transfer models are developed to be used to the 2-dimensional nonlinear FEM analysis. 2) In one model suggested, reinforcements are modeled by plate elements and the nonlinearity of concrete surrounding reinforcement but the properties of bond-slip relation between concrete and reinforcements is also considered. 3) In another model, reinforcements are modeled by equivalent concrete properties, in which axial regidity and dowel effects of reinforcements are considered. 2. Verification of the suggested model. 1) It is confirmed that the computational results using the above-mentioned model could simulate the experimental ones fairly well. 2) Considering the application to the analysis of RC structures in the design, the model, in which reinforcement are modeled by equivalent concrete properties, is useful in view point of accuracy and simplicity. (author)

  12. Pros and cons of multistory RC tunnel-form (box-type) buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Yuksel, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Tunnel-form structural systems (i.e., box systems), having a load-carrying mechanism composed of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls and slabs only, have been prevailingly utilized in the construction of multistory residential units. The superiority of tunnel-form buildings over their conventional counterparts stems from the enhanced earthquake resistance they provide, and the considerable speed and economy of their construction. During recent earthquakes in Turkey, they exhibited better seismic performance in contrast to the damaged condition of a number of RC frames and dual systems (i.e., RC frames with shear wall configurations). Thus the tunnel-form system has become a primary construction technique in many seismically active regions. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of tunnel-form buildings are addressed in terms of design considerations and construction applications. The impacts of shear wall reinforcement ratio and its detailing on system ductility, loadcarrying capacity and failure mechanism under seismic forces are evaluated at section and global system levels. Influences of tension/compression coupling and wall openings on the response are also discussed. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models, verified through comparisons with experimental results, were used for numerical assessments. Findings from this projection provide useful information on adequate vertical reinforcement ratio and boundary reinforcement to achieve enhanced performance of tunnel-form buildings under seismic actions. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Summary of LaRC 2-inch Erectable Joint Hardware Heritage Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    As the National Space Transportation System (STS, also known as the Space Shuttle) went into service during the early 1980's, NASA envisioned many missions of exploration and discovery that could take advantage of the STS capabilities. These missions included: large orbiting space stations, large space science telescopes and large spacecraft for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. The missions required structures that were significantly larger than the payload volume available on the STS. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) conducted studies to design and develop the technology needed to assemble the large space structures in orbit. LaRC focused on technology for erectable truss structures, in particular, the joint that connects the truss struts at the truss nodes. When the NASA research in large erectable space structures ended in the early 1990's, a significant amount of structural testing had been performed on the LaRC 2-inch erectable joint that was never published. An extensive set of historical information and data has been reviewed and the joint structural testing results from this historical data are compiled and summarized in this report.

  14. Detection of Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation Using Sex Pheromone Trap and its Control by Pod Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rahmawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae is a major pest of cocoa. Detection of the pest infestation using sex pheromone traps in the early growth and development of cocoa pods is important for an early warning system programme. In order to prevent the pest infestation the young pods were wrapped with plastic bags. A research to study the CPB incidence was conducted at cocoa plantations in Banjarharjo and Banjaroya villages, District of Kalibawang; Hargotirto and Hargowilis villages, District of Kokap; and Pagerharjo village, District of Samigaluh, Yogyakarta. The experiments design used RCBD with four treatments (sex pheromone trap, combination of sex pheromone trap and pod wrapping, pod wrapping, and control and five replications. As many as 6 units/ha pheromone traps were installed with a distance of 40 m in between. Results showed that one month prior to the trap installation in the experimental plots there were ripen cocoa pods as many as 9-13%, which were mostly infested by CPB. During the time period of introducting research on August to Desember 2016 there was not rambutan fruits as the CPB host, hence the CPB resource was from infested cocoa pods. The CPB moth trapped as many as 0−7 (1.13 ± 0.14 moths/6 traps/12 observations. The seed damage due to CPB larvae in the pheromone trap treatments (23.98% was relatively similar with the control (20.25%. Seed damage rate in combination treatment of pheromone trap and pod wrapping (0.59% was relatively the same with the pod wrapping (0.20%. The pheromone trap was more usefull for monitoring tool rather than for control, meanwhile pod wrapping was an effective control measure of CPB.   Intisari Penggerek Buah Kakao (PBK, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae merupakan salah satu hama utama kakao. Deteksi serangan hama PBK dengan perangkap feromon seks pada awal pertumbuhan dan perkembangan buah kakao penting dilakukan sebagai

  15. MnO{sub 2}-wrapped hollow graphitized carbon nanosphere electrode for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jing; Yang, Xing; Zhou, Haiyan; Kang, Liping; Lei, Zhibin [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710062 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Liu, Zong-Huai, E-mail: zhliu@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710062 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanospheres are prepared by a cooperative template wrapping method. • MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanospheres possess large specific surface area. • MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanospheres are benefit for transmission of ions and electrons. • MnO{sub 2}/HGC electrodes exhibit a high specific capacitance. - Abstract: MnO{sub 2}-wrapped hollow graphitized carbon nanospheres (MnO{sub 2}/HGC) electrodes are prepared by a cooperative template wrapping method. hollow Graphitized carbon nanospheres (HGC) are firstly obtained by carbonizing phenolic resin followed by etching the SiO{sub 2} template, then the MnO{sub 2} ultrathin nanoplates are coated on the surfaces of the HGC nanospheres through a redox reaction between KMnO{sub 4} and HGC nanospheres. The as-prepared MnO{sub 2}/HGC hollow nanospheres possess porous structure and large specific surface area (∼230 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). The specific capacitances of MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanosphere electrodes with different mass ratios of MnO{sub 2} to HGC are about 340–380 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, and shows relative good cycling performance of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles. The good specific capacitance is ascribed to the novel hollow nanosphere structure, which possesses high surface-to-volume ratio, and makes it easy for the mass diffusion of electrolyte and transmission of ions and electrons and also maintains the mechanical integrality.

  16. Camembert-type cheese ripening dynamics are changed by the properties of wrapping films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picque, D; Leclercq-Perlat, M N; Guillemin, H; Perret, B; Cattenoz, T; Provost, J J; Corrieu, G

    2010-12-01

    Four gas-permeable wrapping films exhibiting different degrees of water permeability (ranging from 1.6 to 500 g/m(2) per d) were tested to study their effect on soft-mold (Camembert-type) cheese-ripening dynamics compared with unwrapped cheeses. Twenty-three-day trials were performed in 2 laboratory-size (18L) respiratory-ripening cells under controlled temperature (6 ± 0.5°C), relative humidity (75 ± 2%), and carbon dioxide content (0.5 to 1%). The films allowed for a high degree of respiratory activity; no limitation in gas permeability was observed. The wide range of water permeability of the films led to considerable differences in cheese water loss (from 0.5 to 12% on d 23, compared with 15% for unwrapped cheeses), which appeared to be a key factor in controlling cheese-ripening progress. A new relationship between 2 important cheese-ripening descriptors (increase of the cheese core pH and increase of the cheese's creamy underrind thickness) was shown in relation to the water permeability of the wrapping film. High water losses (more than 10 to 12% on d 23) also were observed for unwrapped cheeses, leading to Camembert cheeses that were too dry and poorly ripened. On the other hand, low water losses (from 0.5 to 1% on d 23) led to over-ripening in the cheese underrind, which became runny as a result. Finally, water losses from around 3 to 6% on d 23 led to good ripening dynamics and the best cheese quality. This level of water loss appeared to be ideal in terms of cheese-wrapping film design. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) 2A Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberd, D.L.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1994-07-01

    Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Waste have accumulated at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Future generated waste streams from planned facilities at the Hanford Site and off site will also generate solid wastes that contain both radiological and hazardous chemical components. Most of the low-level waste (LLW) in this category is generated in batches sized to be stored in smaller containers (mostly 55-gallon drums and boxes). To meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions, most of this waste will need to be treated to meet disposal requirements. In general this treatment must include stabilization/solidification either as a sole method or as part of a treatment train. A planned DOE facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A, Building 2337-W, is scoped to provide this required treatment for containerized contact-handle at sign d (CH), mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Hanford Site. The core processes in WRAP Module 2A include cement stabilization of particulate waste, polyethylene encapsulation (via extrusion) of particulate waste, and cement encapsulation (via vibratory infilling) of hard and soft debris. A conceptual design was prepared and issued in July 1992. Since that time, process development test activities and further design iterations have evolved into the optimized process and facility design presented in this paper. This paper will discuss the revised processing scheme, equipment configuration, and facility layout. The WRAP Module 2A will begin construction in 1996 after a detailed design effort and pilot testing activities

  18. Origins of the helical wrapping of phenyleneethynylene polymers about single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bargen, Christopher D; MacDermaid, Christopher M; Lee, One-Sun; Deria, Pravas; Therien, Michael J; Saven, Jeffery G

    2013-10-24

    The highly charged, conjugated polymer poly[p-{2,5-bis(3-propoxysulfonicacidsodiumsalt)}phenylene]ethynylene (PPES) has been shown to wrap single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), adopting a robust helical superstructure. Surprisingly, PPES adopts a helical rather than a linear conformation when adhered to SWNTs. The complexes formed by PPES and related polymers upon helical wrapping of a SWNT are investigated using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the presence and absence of aqueous solvent. In simulations of the PPES/SWNT system in an aqueous environment, PPES spontaneously takes on a helical conformation. A potential of mean force, ΔA(ξ), is calculated as a function of ξ, the component of the end-to-end vector of the polymer chain projected on the SWNT axis; ξ is a monotonic function of the polymer's helical pitch. ΔA(ξ) provides a means to quantify the relative free energies of helical conformations of the polymer when wrapped about the SWNT. The aqueous system possesses a global minimum in ΔA(ξ) at the experimentally observed value of the helical pitch. The presence of this minimum is associated with preferred side chain conformations, where the side chains adopt conformations that provide van der Waals contact between the tubes and the aliphatic components of the side chains, while exposing the anionic sulfonates for aqueous solvation. The simulations provide a free energy estimate of a 0.2 kcal/mol/monomer preference for the helical over the linear conformation of the PPES/SWNT system in an aqueous environment.

  19. Beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the open-quotes Boosterclose quotes and open-quotes ATLASclose quotes linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates

  20. Dedicated Shift Wrap-up Time Does Not Improve Resident Sign-out Volume or Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmonod, Rebecca K; Brook, Christopher; Winther, Mark; Pathak, Soma; Boyd, Molly

    2010-02-01

    Sign-out (SO) is a challenge to the emergency physician. Some training programs have instituted overlapping 9-hour shifts. The residents see patients for eight hours, and have one hour of wrap-up time. This hour helps them complete patient care, leaving fewer patients to sign-out. We examined whether this strategy impacts SO burden. This is a retrospective review of patients evaluated by emergency medicine (EM) residents working 9-hour (eight hours of patient care, one hour wrap-up time) and 12-hour shifts (12 hours patient care, no reserved time for wrap-up). Data were collected by reviewing the clinical tracker. A patient was assigned to the resident who initiated care and dictated the chart. SO was defined as any patient in the ED without disposition at change of shift. Patient turn-around-time (TAT) was also recorded. One-hundred sixty-one postgraduate-year-one resident (PGY1), 264 postgraduate-year-two resident (PGY2), and 193 postgraduate-year-three resident (PGY3) shifts were included. PGY1s signed out 1.9 patients per 12-hour shift. PGY2s signed out 2.3 patients on 12-hour shifts and 1.8 patients on 9-hour shifts. PGY3s signed out 2.1 patients on 12-hour shifts and 2.0 patients on 9-hour shifts. When we controlled for patients seen per hour, SO burden was constant by class regardless of shift length, with PGY2s signing out 18% of patients seen compared to 15% for PGY3s. PGY1s signed out 18% of patients seen. TAT for patients seen by PGY1s and PGY2s was similar, at 189 and 187 minutes, respectively. TAT for patients seen by PGY3s was significantly less at 175 minutes. The additional hour devoted to wrapping up patients in the ED had no affect on SO burden. The SO burden represented a fixed percentage of the total number of patients seen by the residents. PGY3s sign-out a smaller percentage of patients seen compared to other classes, and have faster TATs.

  1. Technical assessment of compliance with workplace air sampling requirements at WRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HACKWORTH, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this Technical Assessment is to satisfy HSRCM-1, ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' Article 551.4 for a documented study of facility Workplace Air Monitoring (WAM) programs. HSRCM-1 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). The HSRCM-1 complies with Title 10. Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). This document provides an evaluation of the compliance of the Waste Receiving and Processing facility (WRAP) WAM program to the criteria standards, requirements, and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance

  2. Capillary origami: spontaneous wrapping of a droplet with an elastic sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Charlotte; Reverdy, Paul; Doppler, Lionel; Bico, José; Roman, Benoît; Baroud, Charles N

    2007-04-13

    The interaction between elasticity and capillarity is used to produce three-dimensional structures through the wrapping of a liquid droplet by a planar sheet. The final encapsulated 3D shape is controlled by tailoring the initial geometry of the flat membrane. Balancing interfacial energy with elastic bending energy provides a critical length scale below which encapsulation cannot occur, which is verified experimentally. This length is found to depend on the thickness as h3/2, a scaling favorable to miniaturization which suggests a new way of mass production of 3D micro- or nanoscale objects.

  3. Coaxial Thermoplastic Elastomer-Wrapped Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Deformable and Wearable Strain Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2018-01-22

    Highly conductive and stretchable fibers are crucial components of wearable electronics systems. Excellent electrical conductivity, stretchability, and wearability are required from such fibers. Existing technologies still display limited performances in these design requirements. Here, achieving highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors by using a coaxial structure, prepared via coaxial wet spinning of thermoplastic elastomer-wrapped carbon nanotube fibers, is proposed. The sensors attain high sensitivity (with a gauge factor of 425 at 100% strain), high stretchability, and high linearity. They are also reproducible and durable. Their use as safe sensing components on deformable cable, expandable surfaces, and wearable textiles is demonstrated.

  4. Dedicated Shift Wrap-up Time Does Not Improve Resident Sign-out Volume or Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanmonod, Rebecca K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sign-out (SO is a challenge to the emergency physician. Some training programs have instituted overlapping 9-hour shifts. The residents see patients for eight hours, and have one hour of wrap-up time. This hour helps them complete patient care, leaving fewer patients to sign-out. We examined whether this strategy impacts SO burden.Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients evaluated by emergency medicine (EM residents working 9-hour (eight hours of patient care, one hour wrap-up time and 12-hour shifts (12 hours patient care, no reserved time for wrap-up. Data were collected by reviewing the clinical tracker. A patient was assigned to the resident who initiated care and dictated the chart. SO was defined as any patient in the ED without disposition at change of shift. Patient turn-around-time (TAT was also recorded.Results: One-hundred sixty-one postgraduate-year-one resident (PGY1, 264 postgraduate-year-two resident (PGY2, and 193 postgraduate-year-three resident (PGY3 shifts were included. PGY1s signed out 1.9 patients per 12-hour shift. PGY2s signed out 2.3 patients on 12-hour shifts and 1.8 patients on 9-hour shifts. PGY3s signed out 2.1 patients on 12-hour shifts and 2.0 patients on 9-hour shifts. When we controlled for patients seen per hour, SO burden was constant by class regardless of shift length, with PGY2s signing out 18% of patients seen compared to 15% for PGY3s. PGY1s signed out 18% of patients seen. TAT for patients seen by PGY1s and PGY2s was similar, at 189 and 187 minutes, respectively. TAT for patients seen by PGY3s was significantly less at 175 minutes.Conclusion: The additional hour devoted to wrapping up patients in the ED had no affect on SO burden. The SO burden represented a fixed percentage of the total number of patients seen by the residents. PGY3s sign-out a smaller percentage of patients seen compared to other classes, and have faster TATs. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:35-39].

  5. [Constitutive correlations for wire-wrapped subchannel analysis under forced and mixed convection conditions]. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.K.; Todreas, N.E.

    1984-08-01

    A new version of the ENERGY series code, ENERGY-IV, was written for predicting coolant temperature distributions in wire-wrapped rod assemblies used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. The ENERGY-IV Code is applicable to both steady-state forced and mixed convection operation for a single isolated assembly. (The SUPERENERGY Code, [Basehore (1980)] is applicable to core wide forced convection analysis.) ENERGY-IV is an empirical code designed to be fast running. Hence the core designer can use it as an inexpensive thermal hydraulic design or diagnosis tool

  6. Retrieval of ion distributions in RC from TWINS ENA images by CT technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.; Yan, W.; Xu, L.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission is the first constellation to employ imagers on two separate spacecraft to measure energetic neutral atoms (ENA) produced by charge exchange between ring current energetic ions and cold exospheric neutral atoms. By applying the 3-D volumetric pixel (voxel) computed tomography (CT) inversion method to TWINS images, parent ion populations in the ring current (RC) and auroral regions are retrieved from their ENA signals. This methodology is implemented for data obtained during the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm on 11 October 2008. For this storm the two TWINS satellites were located in nearly the same meridian plane at vantage points widely separated in magnetic local time, and both more than 5 RE geocentric distance from the Earth. In the retrieval process, the energetic ion fluxes to be retrieved are assumed being isotropic with respect to pitch angle. The ENA data used in this study are differential fluxes averaged over 12 sweeps (corresponding to an interval of 16 min.) at different energy levels ranging throughout the full 1--100 keV energy range of TWINS. The ENA signals have two main components: (1) a low-latitude/ high-altitude signal from trapped RC ions and (2) a low-altitude signal from precipitating ions in the auroral/subauroral ionosphere. In the retrieved ion distributions, the main part of the RC component is located around midnight toward dawn sector with L from 3 to 7 or farther, while the subauroral low-altitude component is mainly at pre-midnight. It seems that the dominant energy of the RC ions for this storm is at the lowest energy level of 1-2 keV, with another important energy band centered about 44 keV. The low-altitude component is consistent with in situ observations by DMSP/SSJ4. The result of this study demonstrates that with satellite constellations such as TWINS, using all-sky ENA imagers deployed at multiple vantage points, 3-D distribution of RC ion

  7. CD45RC isoform expression identifies functionally distinct T cell subsets differentially distributed between healthy individuals and AAV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ordonez

    Full Text Available In animal models of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV, the proportion of CD45RC T cell subsets is important for disease susceptibility. Their human counterparts are, however, functionally ill defined. In this report, we studied their distribution in healthy controls (HC, AAV patients and in Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE patients as disease controls. We showed that CD45RC expression level on human CD4 and CD8 T cells identifies subsets that are highly variable among individuals. Interestingly, AAV patients exhibit an increased proportion of CD45RC(low CD4 T cells as compared to HC and SLE patients. This increase is stable over time and independent of AAV subtype, ANCA specificity, disease duration, or number of relapses. We also analyzed the cytokine profile of purified CD4 and CD8 CD45RC T cell subsets from HC, after stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs. The CD45RC subsets exhibit different cytokine profiles. Type-1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were produced by all CD45RC T cell subsets, while the production of IL-17, type-2 (IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory (IL-10 cytokines was restricted to the CD45RC(low subset. In conclusion, we have shown that CD45RC expression divides human T cells in functionally distinct subsets that are imbalanced in AAV. Since this imbalance is stable over time and independent of several disease parameters, we hypothesize that this is a pre-existing immune abnormality involved in the etiology of AAV.

  8. Study on effects of different patterns and cracking for wastes FRP (used banner) wrapping on compressive strength of confined concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazani Leman, Alif; Shahidan, Shahiron; Azmi, M. A. M.; Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Ali, N.; Abdullah, S. R.; Zuki, S. S. Mohd; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Previous researches have shown that FRP are being introduce into wide variety of civil engineering applications. Fibre Reinforce Concrete (FRP) are also used as repairing method in concrete structures. FRP such as S-glass, AR-glass, E-glass, C-glass, and Aramid Fibre are the common material used in industry. The FRP strips provide the necessary longitudinal and hoop reinforcement. However, there are lots waste materials that can be form as fibre and used in repairing. Banner is a type of waste material fibre that can be used in repairing. In this study, banner will be used as the replacement of the common FRP. The confined concrete (cylinder) of 300mm height and 150mm diameter were cast with M35 grade concrete and tested until it is crack. Next banner are used as the wrapping along the cracking of the concrete with three different pattern that are full wrapping, two band wrapping and cross wrapping using epoxy. Epoxy is a common name for a type of strong adhesive used for sticking things together and covering surface. The objective of this study is to determine the maximum strength and the effect of different patterns wrapping of FRP (banner) on the compressive strength of confined concrete. The results are shows that banner are suitable as a replacement of material for FRP.

  9. Measurements of Flow Mixing at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 61-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Hyungmo; Ko, Yung Joo; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Jeong, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    For a safety analysis in a core thermal design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), flow mixing characteristics at subchannels in a wire-wrapped rod bundle are crucial factor for the design code verification and validation. Wrapped wires make a cross flow in a circumference of the fuel rod, and this effect lets flow be mixed. Therefore the sub-channel analysis method is commonly used for thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped sub-channel type. To measure flow mixing characteristics, a wire mesh sensing technique can be useful method. A wire mesh sensor has been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field, i.e. gas and liquid. However, the recent reports that the wire mesh sensor can be used successfully to recognize the flow field in liquid phase by injecting a tracing liquid with a different level of electric conductivity. The subchannel flow characteristics analysis method is commonly used for the thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped subchannel type. In this study, mixing experiments were conducted successfully at a hexagonally arrayed 61-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section. Wire mesh sensor was used to measure flow mixing characteristics. The developed post-processing method has its own merits, and flow mixing results were reasonable

  10. The numerical model of multi-layer insulation with a defined wrapping pattern immersed in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecha, Ziemowit; Lubryka, Eliza

    2017-11-01

    The numerical model of thin layers, characterized by a defined wrapping pattern can be a crucial element of many computational problems related to engineering and science. A motivating example is found in multilayer electrical insulation, which is an important component of superconducting magnets and other cryogenic installations. The wrapping pattern of the insulation can significantly affect heat transport and the performance of the considered instruments. The major objective of this study is to develop the numerical boundary conditions (BC) needed to model the wrapping pattern of thin insulation. An example of the practical application of the proposed BC includes the heat transfer of Rutherford NbTi cables immersed in super-fluid helium (He II) across thin layers of electrical insulation. The proposed BC and a mathematical model of heat transfer in He II are implemented in the open source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM. The implemented mathematical model and the BC are compared in the experiments. The study confirms that the thermal resistance of electrical insulation can be lowered by implementing the proper wrapping pattern. The proposed BC can be useful in the study of new patterns for wrapping schemes. The work has been supported by statutory funds from Polish Ministry for Science and Higher Education for the year of 2017.

  11. Loss Characteristics of 6.5 kV RC-IGBT Applied to a Traction Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjin Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 6.5 kV level IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor modules are widely applied in megawatt locomotive (MCUs traction converters, to achieve an upper 3.5 kV DC link, which is beneficial for decreasing power losses and increasing the power density. Reverse Conducting IGBT (RC-IGBT constructs the conventional IGBT function and freewheel diode function in a single chip, which has a greater flow ability in the same package volume. In the same cooling conditions, RC-IGBT allows for a higher operating temperature. In this paper, a mathematic model is developed, referring to the datasheets and measurement data, to study the 6.5 kV/1000 A RC-IGBT switching features. The relationship among the gate desaturated pulse, conducting losses, and recovery losses is discussed. Simulations and tests were carried out to consider the influence of total losses on the different amplitudes and durations of the desaturated pulse. The RC-IGBT traction converter system with gate pulse desaturated control is built, and the simulation and measurements show that the total losses of RC-IGBT with desaturated control decreased comparing to the RC-IGBT without desaturated control or conventional IGBT. Finally, a proportional small power platform is developed, and the test results prove the correction of the theory analysis.

  12. WRAP53 is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancer- a study of Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Da-Wei; Adell, Gunnar; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Expression of WRAP53 protein has oncogenic properties and it is up regulated in several types of tumors. We examined expression of WRAP53 protein in rectal cancers and analyzed its relationship to the response to preoperative radiotherapy and patient survival. The WRAP53 protein was examined by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa, primary tumors and lymph node metastases from 143 rectal cancer patients participated in a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Frequency of WRAP53 protein expression was increased in primary rectal cancer compared to the normal mucosa (p < 0.05). In non-radiotherapy group positive WRAP53 in primary tumors (p = 0.03, RR, 3.73, 95% CI, 1.13-11.89) or metastases (p = 0.01, RR, 4.11, 95% CI, 1.25-13.14), was associated with poor prognosis independently of stages and differentiations. In radiotherapy group, positive WRAP53 in the metastasis correlated with better survival (p = 0.04). An interaction analysis showed that the correlations of WRAP53 with the prognostic significance with and without radiotherapy in the metastasis differed (p = 0.01). In the radiotherapy group, expression of WRAP53 in metastases gave a better outcome (p = 0.02, RR, 0.32, 95% CI, 0.13-0.84), and an interaction analysis showed significance between the two groups (p = 0.01). WRAP53 may be a new biomarker used to predict prognosis and to select suitable patients for preoperative radiotherapy

  13. Effect of Diagonal Belt to the Moment Capacity of the Precast Beam-Column Joint using CFRP Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Djamaluddin, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    The FRP sheet has been applied in many fields of civil engineering structures. The study on the application has been spread out involving of precast concrete structures, such as the application on the connection of beam and column of precast concrete structures. Since the strength of the CFRP sheet is depend on the bonding capacity, it is necessary to apply a vertical U-wrap belt on the main sheet to increase its bonding strength. However, it was reported that the vertical U-wrap belt may cau...

  14. Impedimetric Zika and Dengue Biosensor based on Functionalized Graphene Oxide Wrapped Silica Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seon-Ah; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Stanciu, Lia A. Stanciu; Poudyal, Shishir; Kuhn, Richard J.

    A composite of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized graphene oxide (APTES-GO) wrapped on SiO2 particles (SiO2@APTES-GO) was prepared via self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirmed wrapping of the SiO2 particles by the APTES-GO sheets. An impedimetric biosensor was constructed and used to sensitively detect Zika and dengue DNA and RNA via primer hybridization using different oligonucleotide sequences. The results demonstrate that the SiO2@APTES-GO electrode materials provide enhanced RNA detection sensitivity with selectivity and detection limit (1 femto-Molar), compared to both APTES-GO and APTES-SiO2. The three-dimensional structure, higher contact area, electrical properties and the ability for rapid hybridization offered by the SiO2@APTES-GO resulted in a successful design of a Zika and dengue biosensor with the lowest detection limit reported to date. We are in the process of developing a platform for multiple viral detection for point-of-care diagnostics for arthropode borne viral infectious diseases.

  15. Carbon nanofibers wrapped with zinc oxide nano-flakes as promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bishweshwar; Park, Mira; Ojha, Gunendra Prasad; Park, Juhyeong; Kuk, Yun-Su; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Park, Soo-Jin

    2018-07-15

    A combination of electrospinning technique and hydrothermal process was carried out to fabricate zinc oxide nano-flakes wrapped carbon nanofibers (ZnO/CNFs) composite as an effective electrode material for supercapacitor. The morphology of the as-synthesized composite clearly revealed that the carbon nanofibers were successfully wrapped with ZnO nano-flakes. The electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized nanocomposite electrode was evaluated by the cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GDC), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and compared with the pristine ZnO nanofibers. It was found that the composite exhibited a higher specific capacitance (260 F/g) as compared to pristine ZnO NFs (118 F/g) at the scan rate of 5 mV/s. Furthermore, the ZnO/CNFs composite also exhibited good capacity retention (73.33%). The obtained results indicated great potential applications of ZnO/CNFs composite in developing energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. The present work might provide a new route for utilizing ZnO based composites for energy storage applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap for customizable soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Junghwan; Lee, Byeongmoon; Oh, Eunho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2017-03-24

    Rapid growth of stretchable electronics stimulates broad uses in multidisciplinary fields as well as industrial applications. However, existing technologies are unsuitable for implementing versatile applications involving adaptable system design and functions in a cost/time-effective way because of vacuum-conditioned, lithographically-predefined processes. Here, we present a methodology for a fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap as a universal strategy which makes it more feasible to implement various stretchable electronic systems with customizable layouts and functions. The key aspects involve inkjet-printed rigid island (PRI)-based stretchable platform technology and corresponding printing-based automated electronic functionalization methodology, the combination of which provides fully printed, customized layouts of stretchable electronic systems with simplified process. Specifically, well-controlled contact line pinning effect of printed polymer solution enables the formation of PRIs with tunable thickness; and surface strain analysis on those PRIs leads to the optimized stability and device-to-island fill factor of strain-engineered electronic wraps. Moreover, core techniques of image-based automated pinpointing, surface-mountable device based electronic functionalizing, and one-step interconnection networking of PRIs enable customized circuit design and adaptable functionalities. To exhibit the universality of our approach, multiple types of practical applications ranging from self-computable digital logics to display and sensor system are demonstrated on skin in a customized form.

  17. Multiple zeta functions and double wrapping in planar N=4 SYM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurent, Sébastien; Volin, Dmytro

    2013-10-01

    Using the FiNLIE solution of the AdS/CFT Y-system, we compute the anomalous dimension of the Konishi operator in planar N=4 SYM up to eight loops, i.e. up to the leading double wrapping order. At this order a non-reducible Euler-Zagier sum, ζ1,2,8, appears for the first time. We find that at all orders in perturbation, every spectral-dependent quantity of the Y-system is expressed through multiple Hurwitz zeta functions, hence we provide a Mathematica package to manipulate these functions, including the particular case of Euler-Zagier sums. Furthermore, we conjecture that only Euler-Zagier sums can appear in the answer for the anomalous dimension at any order in perturbation theory. We also resum the leading transcendentality terms of the anomalous dimension at all orders, obtaining a simple result in terms of Bessel functions. Finally, we demonstrate that exact Bethe equations should be related to an absence of poles condition that becomes especially non-trivial at double wrapping.

  18. Nondestructive Examination Equipment in the Hanford Site WRAP 1 and Retrieval Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keve, J.K.; Weber, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) is currently under construction at the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington Stage. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in 1996. Its mission is to annually receive more than 6,800 55-gallon drums of both newly generated and retrieved contact-handled solid waste and prepare them for certification and disposal. WRAP 1, the Nondestructive Examination (NDE) System has two primary functions: To identify the presence or verify the absence of non-compliant materials in the un-manifested, retrieved drums, and to certify that all outgoing drums of TRU waste (newly generated and processed) are free of liquids and other non-compliant items. The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility, Phase 1 Project will unearth and recover the first 10,000 of 38,000 drums of suspect TRU waste buried between 1970 and 1985 for which no detailed contents manifests exist. Follow-on projects will recover the balance of the buried drums. To resolve safely issues about storing the newly unearthed drums, the containers and contents will be examined at the recovery site before the containers are placed in storage facilities

  19. Shifting of wrapped phase maps in the frequency domain using a rational number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdeisat, Munther A; Abushakra, Ahmad; Qaddoura, Maen; Burton, David R; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The number of phase wraps in an image can be either reduced, or completely eliminated, by transforming the image into the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, and then shifting the spectrum towards the origin. After this, the spectrum is transformed back to the spatial domain using the inverse Fourier transform and finally the phase is extracted using the arctangent function. However, it is a common concern that the spectrum can be shifted only by an integer number, meaning that the phase wrap reduction is often not optimal. In this paper we propose an algorithm than enables the spectrum to be frequency shifted by a rational number. The principle of the proposed method is confirmed both by using an initial computer simulation and is subsequently validated experimentally on real fringe patterns. The technique may offer in some cases the prospects of removing the necessity for a phase unwrapping process altogether and/or speeding up the phase unwrapping process. This may be beneficial in terms of potential increases in signal recovery robustness and also for use in time-critical applications. (paper)

  20. Synthesis of multiwall carbon nanotube wrapped Co(OH)_2 flakes: A high-performance supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Chanchal; Ghosh, Debasis; Ganguly, Mainak; Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Roy, Anindita; Pal, Tarasankar

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multiwalled carbon nanotube wrapped Co(OH)_2 nanoflakes has been fabricated. • It showed high supercapcitive performance with specific capacitance of 603 F/g. • The as-prepared composite material exhibited remarkable cycling stability. • It may be applied for the development of supercapacitor electrode material. - Abstract: The problem of poor electron conductivity is always associated with pseudocapacitive electrode material that deters full utilization of the active material. To have a viable solution to this problem, we report fabrication of a composite material bringing highly conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) wrapped pseudocapacitive with Co(OH)_2 nanoflakes. An in situ growth route evolves the supercapacitor via our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal reaction condition (MHT). An electrochemical investigation substantiates that the composite material electrode is highly active, which delivers a maximum specific capacitance of 603 F g"−"1 (at 1 mV s"−"1 scan rate), outstanding long-term cyclic stability with 96% retention at a constant current density of 1.5 A g"−"1 after 1000 cycles of operation. Thus it offers almost an effortless approach to fabricate high-power and high-energy density supercapacitors. By virtue of having high-capacity of pseudocapacitive hydroxides and desirable conductivity of carbon-based materials, the as-synthesized material could be a promising candidate for the development of supercapacitor electrode material.

  1. Constitutive correlations for wire-wrapped subchannel analysis under forced and mixed convection conditions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.K.; Todreas, N.E.

    1984-08-01

    A simple subchannel analysis method based on the ENERGY series of codes, ENERGY-IV, has been established for predicting the temperature field in a single isolated wire-wrapped Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassembly under steady state forced and mixed convection conditions. The ENERGY-IV is a totally empirical code employed for fast running purposes and requires well calibrated lead length averaged input parameters to achieve satisfactory predictions. These input parameters were identified to be the inlet flow split parameters, the subchannel friction factors, the interchannel mixing parameters, the conduction shape factor, and the transverse velocity at the edge gap. Experiments were performed in a 37-pin wire-wrapped rod bundle with a geometry between that of a typical LMFBR fuel subassembly and blanket subassembly for filling the gap in the available data base for the input parameters. The isokinetic extraction method for measuring subchannel velocity, the pitot-static probe for measuring pressure drop, and the salt tracer injection method for estimating the interchannel mixing, were used in these experiments

  2. Magnetic electrospun short nanofibers wrapped graphene oxide as a promising biomaterials for guiding cellular behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhang-Qi; Shi, Chuanmei; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Ting

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic particles show extremely wide application prospects in the biomedical field, particularly in the success of cellular manipulation, drug delivery systems, magnetic hyperthermia and NRI contrast enhancement. Graphene oxide with functional groups has a promising biological effect. In this work, we develop magnetic short-fibers wrapped graphene oxide for guiding cellular behavior with the aid of high-speed shear of nanofibers fabricated through electrospinning technique. The diameter and the length of short-fibers are about 300nm and 80μm, respectively. The short-fibers exhibit superior magnetic properties (saturation magnetization value: 50.33emu/g), which has a strong response appearance to the NdFeB magnet. SEM images and laser confocal images display that there has an extremely tight adhesion between the short-fibers wrapped graphene oxide and cells. The control of cell-fibers structure behavior can be realized by applying external magnet. The results may provide an attractive perspective on the treatment of disease with magnetic field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap for customizable soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Junghwan; Lee, Byeongmoon; Oh, Eunho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2017-03-01

    Rapid growth of stretchable electronics stimulates broad uses in multidisciplinary fields as well as industrial applications. However, existing technologies are unsuitable for implementing versatile applications involving adaptable system design and functions in a cost/time-effective way because of vacuum-conditioned, lithographically-predefined processes. Here, we present a methodology for a fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap as a universal strategy which makes it more feasible to implement various stretchable electronic systems with customizable layouts and functions. The key aspects involve inkjet-printed rigid island (PRI)-based stretchable platform technology and corresponding printing-based automated electronic functionalization methodology, the combination of which provides fully printed, customized layouts of stretchable electronic systems with simplified process. Specifically, well-controlled contact line pinning effect of printed polymer solution enables the formation of PRIs with tunable thickness; and surface strain analysis on those PRIs leads to the optimized stability and device-to-island fill factor of strain-engineered electronic wraps. Moreover, core techniques of image-based automated pinpointing, surface-mountable device based electronic functionalizing, and one-step interconnection networking of PRIs enable customized circuit design and adaptable functionalities. To exhibit the universality of our approach, multiple types of practical applications ranging from self-computable digital logics to display and sensor system are demonstrated on skin in a customized form.

  4. Wrapping corrections beyond the sl(2) sector in N = 4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, M.; Ratti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Macorini, G. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-07-15

    The sl(2) sector of N = 4 SYM theory has been much studied and the anomalous dimensions of those operators are well known. Nevertheless, many interesting operators are not included in this sector. We consider a class of twist operators beyond the sl(2) subsector introduced by Freyhult, Rej and Zieme. They are spin n, length-3 operators. At one-loop they can be identified with three gluon operators. At strong coupling, they are associated with spinning strings with two spins in AdS space and charge in S{sup 5}. We exploit the Y-system to compute the leading weak-coupling four loop wrapping correction to their anomalous dimension. The result is written in closed form as a function of the spin n. We combine the wrapping correction with the known four loop asymptotic Bethe Ansatz contribution and analyze special limits in the spin n. In particular, at large n, we prove that a generalized Gribov-Lipatov reciprocity holds. At negative unphysical spin, we present a simple BFKL-like equation predicting the rightmost leading poles. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Impedimetric Dengue Biosensor based on Functionalized Graphene Oxide Wrapped Silica Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seon-Ah; Poudyal, Shishir; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D graphene oxide based material design. • Fabrication of a label-free dengue DNA and RNA impedimetric biosensor. • Design of a surface-based dengue sensor with good selectivity and detection limit. - Abstract: A composite of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized graphene oxide (APTES-GO) wrapped on SiO 2 particles (SiO 2 @APTES-GO) was prepared via self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirmed wrapping of the SiO 2 particles by the APTES-GO sheets. An impedimetric biosensor was constructed and used to sensitively detect dengue DNA and dengue RNA via primer hybridization using different oligonucleotide sequences. The results demonstrated that the SiO 2 @APTES-GO electrode material led to enhanced dengue RNA detection sensitivity with selectivity and detection limit (1 femto-Molar), compared to both APTES-GO and APTES-SiO 2 . The three-dimensional structure, higher contact area, electrical properties and the ability for rapid hybridization offered by the SiO 2 @APTES-GO led to the successful design of a dengue biosensor with the lowest detection limit reported to date.

  6. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  7. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  8. The preparation of layered double hydroxide wrapped carbon nanotubes and their application as a flame retardant for polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Baoxian; Fang Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) wrapped with layered double hydroxide (LDH-w-CNTs) were facilely obtained through in situ introduction of CNTs into the hydrothermal reaction system of LDH, with the goal of combining their unique physical and chemical characteristics to meet new advanced applications. Morphological observations indicated that LDH lamellae enwrapped the surface of CNTs and the wrapping degree was dependent on the functionalization of CNTs. ζ-potential measurements showed that the interaction between the positive charge of LDH and the negative charge of CNTs was the main driving force of the wrapping process. Both hybrids led to a reduction in the peak heat release rate (PHRR) of polypropylene, indicating that they could confer better flame retardancy on polypropylene with respect to LDH and CNTs.

  9. CSER-98-002: Criticality analysis for the storage of special nuclear material sources and standards in the WRAP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will store uranium and transuranic (TRU) sources and standards for certification that WRAP meets the requirements of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In addition, WRAP must meet internal requirements for testing and validation of measuring instruments for nondestructive assay (NDA). In order to be certified for WIPP, WRAP will participate in the NDA Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). This program is a blind test of the NDA capabilities for TRU waste. It is intended to ensure that the NDA capabilities of this facility satisfy the requirements of the quality assurance program plan for the WIPP. The PDP standards have been provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for this program. These standards will be used in the WRAP facility. To internally check the accuracy and sensitivity of the NDA instruments, a further set of sources and standards will also be used by the facility. Each sealed source or standard will be referred to herein as a unit. Various combinations of these units will be placed in test drums and/or boxes which will be subject to their own limits until unloaded. There will be two sealed test drums with five grams of weapons grade plutonium loaded in them. These drums will be appropriately marked and will be subject to the unit limits rather than the drum limits. This analysis shows that the storage and use of special nuclear material sources and standards within the limited control facility of WRAP (Rooms 101 and 104) is safe from a criticality standpoint. With the form, geometry, and masses involved with this evaluation, a criticality is not possible. The limits given in Section 2 should be imposed on facility operations

  10. Environmental performance review and cost analysis of MSW landfilling by baling-wrapping technology versus conventional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano, J.M.; Gasso, S.; Perez, C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper first reviews the chemical, physical and biological processes, and the environmental performance of MSW compacted and plastic-wrapped into air-tight bales with low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The baling-wrapping process halts the short and half-term biological activity and consequently the emission of gases and leachates. It also facilitates the handling of the refuse, and considerably reduces the main environmental impacts of a landfill. The main technologies available for baling-wrapping MSW are also presented. Furthermore, a cost analysis comparing a conventional landfill (CL) without baling system versus two landfills using different baling-wrapping technologies (rectangular and cylindrical bales) is carried out. The results are presented comparatively under the conditions of construction, operation and maintenance and postclosure, as required by European Directive 1999/31. A landfill using rectangular plastic-wrapped bales (LRPB) represents an economically competitive option compared to a CL. The increased capacity of the waste disposal zone when using rectangular bales due to the high density of the bales compensates for the increased operating and maintenance (O and M) costs of the method. Landfills using cylindrical plastic-wrapped bales (LCPB's) do not fare so well, mainly because the density within the bales is lower, the cylindrical geometry of the bales does not allow such an efficient use of the space within the landfill, and the processing capacity of the machinery is lower. From the cost model, the resulting unit costs per tonne in a LRPB, a LCPB and a CL for 100,000 t/year of waste, an operation time of 15 years and a landfill depth (H) of 20 m, are 31.52, 43.36 and 31.83 Euro/t, respectively

  11. The calcium-dependent protein kinase RcCDPK2 phosphorylates sucrose synthase at Ser11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Gerdis, Suzanne A; Ying, Sheng; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2016-10-15

    Imported sucrose is cleaved by sucrose synthase (SUS) as a critical initial reaction in the biosynthesis of storage end-products by developing seeds. Although SUS is phosphorylated at a conserved seryl residue by an apparent CDPK (Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase) in diverse plant tissues, the functions and mechanistic details of this process remain obscure. Thus, the native CDPK that phosphorylates RcSUS1 (Ricinus communis SUS1) at Ser 11 in developing COS (castor oil seeds) was highly purified and identified as RcCDPK2 by MS/MS. Purified RcSUS1-K (-kinase) and heterologously expressed RcCDPK2 catalyzed Ca 2+ -dependent Ser 11 phosphorylation of RcSUS1 and its corresponding dephosphopeptide, while exhibiting a high affinity for free Ca 2+ ions [K 0.5 (Ca 2+ ) < 0.4 µM]. RcSUS1-K activity, RcCDPK2 expression, and RcSUS1 Ser 11 phosphorylation peaked during early COS development and then declined in parallel. The elimination of sucrose import via fruit excision triggered RcSUS1 dephosphorylation but did not alter RcSUS1-K activity, suggesting a link between sucrose signaling and posttranslational RcCDPK2 control. Both RcCDPK2-mCherry and RcSUS1-EYFP co-localized throughout the cytosol when transiently co-expressed in tobacco suspension cells, although RcCDPK2-mCherry was also partially localized to the nucleus. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ∼20% of RcSUS1-K activity associates with microsomal membranes in developing COS, as does RcSUS1. In contrast with RcCDPK1, which catalyzes inhibitory phosphorylation of COS bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser 451 , RcCDPK2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, a wide pH-activity profile centered at pH 8.5, and insensitivity to metabolite effectors or thiol redox status. Our combined results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca 2+ -signaling and the control of photosynthate partitioning during COS development. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the

  12. RC-3095, a Selective Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist, Does Not Protect the Lungs in an Experimental Model of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Oliveira-Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RC-3095, a selective GRPR antagonist, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in different models of inflammation. However, its protective effect on lungs submitted to lung ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been addressed before. Then, we administrated RC-3095 intravenously before and after lung reperfusion using an animal model of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI by clamping the pulmonary hilum. Twenty Wistar rats were subjected to an experimental model in four groups: SHAM, ischemia-reperfusion (IR, RC-Pre, and RC-Post. The final mean arterial pressure significantly decreased in IR and RC-Pre compared to their values before reperfusion (P<0.001. The RC-Post group showed significant decrease of partial pressure of arterial oxygen at the end of the observation when compared to baseline (P=0.005. Caspase-9 activity was significantly higher in the RC-Post as compared to the other groups (P<0.013. No significant differences were observed in eNOS activity among the groups. The groups RC-Pre and RC-Post did not show any significant decrease in IL-1β (P=0.159 and TNF-α (P=0.260, as compared to IR. The histological score showed no significant differences among the groups. In conclusion, RC-3095 does not demonstrate a protective effect in our LIRI model. Additionally, its use after reperfusion seems to potentiate cell damage, stimulating apoptosis.

  13. Fatigue Resistance of Filled NR with PMMA-Wrapped and Rare Earth-Doped Alumina-Siloxane Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used to wrap alumina-siloxane sol which was produced by water glass, aluminum nitrate and α-methacrylic acid, and as a result, alumina-siloxane gel wrapped by PMMA was obtained. Meanwhile, rare earth ions were employed to dope in the course of reaction, and the formed rare earth doped PMMA microcapsule powder was filled into natural rubber (NR). It is found through the analysis of mechanical properties that Young′s modulus universally improves and a remarkable resistance to fatigue is displayed. Retention rate of tensile strength is twice that of the controlled sample after ten thousand times of extension fatigue.

  14. Swelling behaviors in a fuel assembly for the wrapping wire and duct made of modified 316 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Ichiro; Akasaka, Naoaki

    2010-01-01

    Swelling behaviors in the wrapping wire and duct made of modified type 316 austenitic stainless steel were investigated in a fuel assembly irradiated in a fast breeder reactor. The temperature dependence of volumetric swelling was measured in the wrapping wire and the duct, and the peak temperatures of swelling were evaluated. The void distribution in the material was measured by microstructure observation with electron microscopy, and it was found that the voids prefentially grew near the surface. This phenomenon seemed to be caused by a surface effect on the neutron-irradiated materials. (author)

  15. Lead foil wrapping of the plastic scintillators for the gamma ray detection: optical reflector or spectrum intensifier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, A.; Askari, M.; Sasanpour, M. Taghan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of lead wrapping on the response of the plastic scintillators as gamma detectors. Experimental tests and Geant4 simulations showed that lead wrapping cannot increase the gamma absorption efficiency of the detector but, as a reflector, it can improve the optical properties of the detector. The reflectivity of the lead foil as an optical reflector was determined equal to 66% using an experimental-simulation combined method. Based on the obtained results, the optical collection efficiency of the detector was also increased about 4% after employing the lead reflector.

  16. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of a Gaussian beam (GB) into a symmetrical higher order TEMp0 Laguerre Gaussian beam (LGB) intensity distribution of which is further rectified and transformed into a Gaussian intensity distribution in the plane of a converging...

  17. Design issues and cost implications of RTO/RC-ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, C.; Antipenkov, A.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Heidl, H.; Janeschitz, G.; Martin, E.; Tivey, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the conceptual divertor design developed for the reduced technical objectives/reduced cost-international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC-ITER). The cost drivers are discussed and a number of cost-reducing measures identified. Scaled costs, based on industrial estimates of the 1998 ITER design (Technical Basis for the ITER Final Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis (FDR). ITER EDA Documentation Series No. 16. IAEA, Vienna, 1998), give for the RTO/RC-ITER ∼60% of the FDR costs. Plasma facing components (PFCs) account for 75% of the total divertor costs. Hence, PFC design simplifications are outlined in the paper showing the possibility of achieving a cost reduction of 50%. The design proposals, outlined in the paper, focus on minimising the number of sub-components and simplifying the manufacturing cycle. These changes contribute to improved reliability based on a more robust coolant design layout. The reduced space allocated to the divertor (G. Janeschitz, A. Antipenkov, V. Barabash, S. Chiocchio, G. Federici, C. Ibbott, E. Martin, R. Tivey, Overview of the Divertor Design and its Integration into RTO/RC-ITER, this conference) requires changes to the design that minimise the cassette body thickness, relocate the cassette attachments and revise the remote handling philosophy. Results of supporting electro-magnetic, neutron shielding, thermo-hydraulic and pumping conductance analyses are reported, qualifying the cassette design. A reduction in the coolant inlet temperature to 100-120 deg. C is discussed in terms of thermal-hydraulic performance and fatigue life of the heat sink. Finally, an R and D plan sets out the work needed: (1) to develop the cost saving measures of the new design; and (2) to demonstrate the reliability of the chosen technologies

  18. ALGORITMA RC4 DALAM PROTEKSI TRANSMISI DAN HASIL QUERY UNTUK ORDBMS POSTGRESQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Ariyanto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research will be worked through about how cryptography RC4's algorithm implementation in protection to query result and of query, security by encryption and descryption up to both is in network. Implementation of this research which is build software in client that function access databases that is placed by the side of server. Software that building to have facility for encryption and descryption query result and of query that is sent from client goes to server and. transmission query result and of query can secure its security. Well guaranted transmission security him of query result and of query can be told to succeed if success software can encryption query result and of query which transmission so that in the event of scanning to both, scanning will not understand data content. Conclusion of this research that is woke up software succeed encryption query and result of query which transmission between application of client and of server databases. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Pada penelitian ini dibahas mengenai bagaimana mengimplementasikan algoritma kriptografi RC4 dalam proteksi terhadap query dan hasil query, pengamanan dilakukan dengan cara melakukan enkripsi dan dekripsi selama keduanya berada di dalam jaringan. Pengimplementasian dari penelitian ini yaitu membangun sebuah software yang akan diletakkan di sisi client yang berfungsi mengakses database yang diletakkan di sisi server. Software yang dibangun memiliki fasilitas untuk mengenkripsi dan mendektipsi query dan hasil query yang dikirimkan dari client ke server dan juga sebaliknya. Dengan demikian tramsmisi query dan hasil query dapat terjamin keamanannya.Terjaminnya keamanan transmisi query dan hasil query dapat dikatakan berhasil jika software berhasil mengenkripsi query dan hasil query yang ditransmisikan sehingga apabila terjadi penyadapan terhadap keduanya, penyadap tidak akan mengerti isi data tersebut. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini yaitu software yang dibangun

  19. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of RcSUS1, a Cytosolic Sucrose Synthase Phosphorylated in Vivo at Serine 11 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M.; Mullen, Robert T.; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of 32Pi from [γ-32P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes. PMID:25313400

  20. Economic analysis of grid and wire wrap supported hydride and oxide fueled pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuffler, C.; Diller, P.; Malen, J.; Todreas, N.; Greenspan, E.; Petrovic, B.

    2009-01-01

    An economic analysis is performed to calculate the levelized unit cost of electricity (COE) for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) retrofitted with a range of potential U (45 wt.%)-ZrH 1.6 hydride and UO 2 oxide fueled geometries (i.e., combinations of rod diameter and pitch) supported by traditional grid spacers (square array) and wire wrap spacers (hexagonal array). The time frame considered in computing the COE is the remaining plant life, beginning at the time of retrofit. The goals of the analysis are twofold: (1) comparing the economic performance of UO 2 and U-ZrH 1.6 fuels for a range of retrofitted geometries supported by grid and wire wrap spacers; and (2) investigating the potential economic benefits for nuclear utilities considering retrofitting new fuels and/or geometries into existing PWR pressure vessels. Fuel cycle, operations and maintenance (O and M), and capital costs are considered. The economic performance of U-ZrH 1.6 and UO 2 fuels is found to be similar, with UO 2 fueled designs providing a slight advantage when supported by grid spacers, and U-ZrH 1.6 providing a slight advantage when supported by wire wrap spacers. These small differences in cost, however, are within the bounds of uncertainty of this study and are not believed to provide a strong economic argument for the use of one fuel type over the other. To demonstrate the potential economic benefits of retrofitted designs to nuclear utilities, two different comparisons are made. The first compares the COE for retrofitted designs with the COE for a reference PWR, assumed to have operated long enough to recuperate its initial capital investment. The costs for this reference PWR reflect the 'do-nothing' case for current plant owners whose primary expenditures are fuel cycle and O and M costs. The second comparison introduces a different reference PWR that includes the costs to operate an existing unit and the cost to purchase power from a newly constructed PWR, for comparison with