Sample records for rbc special studies

  1. RBC count (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  2. Preoperative diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma: a 99mTc-RBC SPECT study. (United States)

    Burroni, Luca; Borsari, Giulia; Pichierri, Patrizia; Polito, Ennio; Toscano, Olga; Grassetto, Gaia; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico; Vattimo, Angelo Giuseppe


    This study aimed to describe 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy as a diagnostic method for orbital cavernous hemangiomas and to evaluate this diagnostic tool according to surgical outcomes. Fifty-five patients with clinical and radiological (US, CT, and/or MRI) suspicion of unilateral cavernous hemangioma of the orbit underwent 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.Qualitative and semiquantitative evaluations were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. SPECT images showed focal uptake in the orbital mass in 36 of 55 patients. Nineteen patients had a negative scintigraphic pattern, with concordance of early and late absence of uptake of 99mTc-RBC.Our procedure showed 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for the diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma, with a positive predictive value of 90.9% and a negative predictive value of 100%. 99mTc-RBC imaging is safe, easy to perform, and highly accurate in providing adequate clinical and surgical management. As a noninvasive and highly specific method for diagnosing orbital hemangioma, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy can avoid more invasive imaging or biopsy.

  3. Erythrocyte survival studies in lymphomas : a prognostic appraisal. [/sup 51/Cr-labelled RBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, B; Subrahmanyam, K; Pant, G C [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Inst. of Medical Sciences


    Erythrocyte survival studies using /sup 51/Cr-labelled RBC's were conducted using 20 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and 10 control subjects. Hepatic, splenic, and cardiac areas were monitored for rapid detection of hypersplenism. The findings are discussed in relation to the prognosis of the disease in the patients.

  4. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.


    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP 2 ), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the β-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and β-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations

  5. The study of x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy of 99mTc-RBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chunyi


    99m Tc-RBC are widely used as visualization agents for a blood pool. In this research 99m Tc-RBC was prepared by in vivo labeling. The chemical state and changes of 99m Tc atoms in 99m Tc-RBC was determined by x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of 99m Tc-RBC is best shown by the determination of XPS at one hour or at two hours after labeling. There are two ways of coordination of bonding of RBC and 99m Tc: One is the coordination of 99m Tc with the oxygen atom which carries a negative charge of the carboxyl radical on the polypeptide bond, the other is the coordination of 99m Tc with a sulfur atom which caries the negative charge of cysteine. From the E b value of 99m Tc-RBC 99m Tc 3d5/2, it can be inferred that 99m Tc of 99m Tc-RBC is less than a trivalent. At the same time, the results of the determination by XPS with the compounds containing 99 TcO 4 - , 99 Tc(V), 99 Tc(IV) and 99 Tc(III) show that the chemical shift is lowered as the reduction state is lowered. Experimental results coincide with theoretical inferences

  6. RBC nuclear scan (United States)

    ... page: // RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  7. Experimental method for the study of blood and RBC suspension conductivity under flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.


    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2014), s. 995-1004 ISSN 1310-1331 Grant - others:The Ministry of Education and Science of Bulgaria(BG) BG051PO001-3.3-05/0001; The Ministry of Education, Youth and Science of Bulgaria(BG) DO-805/2012 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : viscometric flow * conductivity * blood/RBC suspension microstructural changes Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2014

  8. Epidemiology of RBC Transfusions in Patients With Severe Acute Kidney Injury: Analysis From the Randomized Evaluation of Normal Versus Augmented Level Study. (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Lo, Serigne; Gallagher, Martin; Cass, Alan; Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon


    To assess the epidemiology and outcomes associated with RBC transfusion in patients with severe acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty-five ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Cohort of 1,465 patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level replacement therapy study. Daily information on morning hemoglobin level and amount of RBC transfused were prospectively collected in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level study. We analyzed the epidemiology of such transfusions and their association with clinical outcomes. Overall, 977 patients(66.7%) received a total of 1,192 RBC units. By day 5, 785 of 977 transfused patients (80.4%) had received at least one RBC transfusion. Hemoglobin at randomization was lower in transfused than in nontransfused patients (94 vs 111 g/L; p regression analysis, RBC transfusion was independently associated with lower 90-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38-0.79). However, we found no independent association between RBC transfusions and mortality when the analyses were restricted to patients surviving at least 5 days (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.85). We found no independent association between RBC transfusion and renal replacement therapy-free days, mechanical ventilator-free days, or length of stay in ICU or hospital. In patients with severe acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, we found no association of RBC transfusion with 90-day mortality or other patient-centered outcomes. The optimal hemoglobin threshold for RBC transfusion in such patients needs to be determined in future randomized controlled trials.

  9. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  10. Phylogeny of the Juncaceae based on rbcL sequences, with special emphasis on Luzula DC. and Juncus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drábková, L.; Kirschner, J.; Seberg, Ole


    Cladistic analysis of rbcL nucleotide sequences was applied to 58 taxa representing most subgenera and sections of Luzula and Juncus, chosen to reflect morphological and geographical diversity of both genera. Additionally, representatives of all other genera of the Juncaceae and two taxa from the......-supported clade is represented by an assemblage of representatives of five genera and species distributed in the Southern Hemisphere: Juncus capensis and J. lomatophyllus (both from section Graminifolii), Rostkovia, Distichia, Marsippospermum, and Patosia....

  11. Study of RBC Efficiency in Aniline Removal by Increasing Contactor Specific Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Mousavi Aliani


    Full Text Available Aniline is a first type amino aromatic compound and has various applications in different pharmaceutical, synthetic dye, plastic, and petrochemical industries. It is poisonous and its discharge into the environment causes serious hazards that warrant it removal by an efficient treatment process.  In this study, the efficiency of rotating biological contactors in aniline removal was investigated using four 3-liter parallel systems (in two series. Two reactors in the first series had 27 disks. The second series had 14 discs with packings in each reactor with the same specific surfaces as compared to the first system.Aniline concentrations from 100 to 1200 mg/L and hydraulic loading rates from 1.57 to 6.28 L/m2.d were used throughout the study period in two treatments. The effect of disc rotation speed on system efficiency was also investigated. The results indicated that COD removal efficiency decreased with increasing hydraulic loading rate but increased with increasing disc speed from 5 to 15 rpm. The best removal efficiencies of 88 and 86 percent for RBCI and RBCII, respectively, were obtained for an aniline concentration of 400 mg/L, a hydraulic loading rate of 1.57 L/m2.d, and a disc speed of 15 rpm. Based on the results, although both systems yield almost equal efficiencies, the start-up period was shorter in RBCII with a clearer effluent due to the lower quantity of suspended microorganisms in the reactor than that in RBCI. Use of packing may decrease energy consumption for disc rotation due to the overall weight reduction of the system.

  12. Use of Laser Assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer (LoRRca MaxSis in the Diagnosis of RBC Membrane Disorders, Enzyme Defects, and Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias: A Monocentric Study on 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zaninoni


    Full Text Available Chronic hemolytic anemias are a group of heterogeneous diseases mainly due to abnormalities of red cell (RBC membrane and metabolism. The more common RBC membrane disorders, classified on the basis of blood smear morphology, are hereditary spherocytosis (HS, elliptocytosis, and hereditary stomatocytoses (HSt. Among RBC enzymopathies, the most frequent is pyruvate kinase (PK deficiency, followed by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, pyrimidine 5′ nucleotidase P5′N, and other rare enzymes defects. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, diagnosis may be often challenging despite the availability of a variety of laboratory tests. The ektacytometer laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyser (LoRRca MaxSis, able to assess the RBC deformability in osmotic gradient conditions (Osmoscan analysis, is a useful diagnostic tool for RBC membrane disorders and in particular for the identification of hereditary stomatocytosis. Few data are so far available in other hemolytic anemias. We evaluated the diagnostic power of LoRRca MaxSis in a large series of 140 patients affected by RBC membrane disorders, 37 by enzymopathies, and 16 by congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II. Moreover, nine patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH were also investigated. All the hereditary spherocytoses, regardless the biochemical defect, showed altered Osmoscan curves, with a decreased Elongation Index (EI max and right shifted Omin; hereditary elliptocytosis (HE displayed a trapezoidal curve and decreased EImax. Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHSt caused by PIEZO1 mutations was characterized by left-shifted curve, whereas KCNN4 mutations were associated with a normal curve. Congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II and RBC enzymopathies had Osmoscan curve within the normal range except for glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI deficient cases who displayed an enlarged curve associated with significantly increased Ohyper, offering a

  13. Geomembrane special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The objective of the Geomembrane Special Study was to asses the suitability of geomembranes in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pile designs. Geomembranes, also called flexible membrane liners, are made of polymer resins and are thermoplastic materials. Part of the special study was to evaluate regulatory compliance and acceptability issues. This study was proposed because of the extensive use of geomembranes in hazardous waste site remedial actions and their accepted use in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cells as both covers and liners to limit infiltration, or as part of leachate collection systems. This study has reviewed the recent geomembrane literature focusing on: (1) longevity; (2) performance; (3) constructibility; and (4) quality control/quality assurance considerations. In addition to these technical considerations, regulatory compliance and acceptability concerns were also evaluated. This report describes the results of the literature review, including correspondence with manufacturers, resin producers, experts in the field, and long-term major users. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Studies on Dasyaceae. 3. Towards a phylogeny of the Dasyaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta), based on comparative rbcL gene sequences and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Y.S D M; van der Wurff, A.W G; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    Phylogenetic analyses of the Dasyaceae based on sequence analysis of the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and 42 morphological characters are presented. Comparative sequence analysis confirms the general view of the Ceramiaceae as a primitive, paraphyletic

  15. Molecular cloning of RBCS genes in Selaginella and the evolution of the rbcS gene family

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    Wang Bo


    Full Text Available Rubisco small subunits (RBCS are encoded by a nuclear rbcS multigene family in higher plants and green algae. However, owing to the lack of rbcS sequences in lycophytes, the characteristics of rbcS genes in lycophytes is unclear. Recently, the complete genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii provided the first insight into the rbcS gene family in lycophytes. To understand further the characteristics of rbcS genes in other Selaginella, the full length of rbcS genes (rbcS1 and rbcS2 from two other Selaginella species were isolated. Both rbcS1 and rbcS2 genes shared more than 97% identity among three Selaginella species. RBCS proteins from Selaginella contained the Pfam RBCS domain F00101, which was a major domain of other plant RBCS proteins. To explore the evolution of the rbcS gene family across Selaginella and other plants, we identified and performed comparative analysis of the rbcS gene family among 16 model plants based on a genome-wide analysis. The results showed that (i two rbcS genes were obtained in Selaginella, which is the second fewest number of rbcS genes among the 16 representative plants; (ii an expansion of rbcS genes occurred in the moss Physcomitrella patens; (iii only RBCS proteins from angiosperms contained the Pfam PF12338 domains, and (iv a pattern of concerted evolution existed in the rbcS gene family. Our study provides new insights into the evolution of the rbcS gene family in Selaginella and other plants.

  16. Tc-99m Labeled Red Blood Cell by Ultra Tag RBC Kit in Patients Suspected of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusuwan, Pawana; Leaungwutiwong, Suraphong; Tocharoenchai, Chiraporn; Chaiwatanarat, Tawatchai; Sirisatipoch, Sasitorn; Rajadara, Samart; Naktong, Thanyada; Thanyarak, Sucheera


    Twenty patients suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent Tc-99m labeled red blood cell (RBC) by ultraTag RBC kit at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Bumrungrad Hospital between January 2000 and December 2002 were studied. The histories of patients together with either endoscopic results or angiographic findings or pathological reports were used as gold standards. Two by Two decision matrix was used for data analysis and the sensitivity together with specificity were calculated. The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit are 87.5% and 91.7%, respectively. We conclude that Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit gives high percentages of sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the image quality is improved because of the absence of free Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake in the stomach in all patients

  17. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  18. Haemostatic function and biomarkers of endothelial damage before and after RBC transfusion in patients with haematologic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A M; Leinøe, E B; Johansson, P I


    function and the endothelium) to RBC transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was sampled from patients with various transfusion-dependent haematologic diseases before 1 and 24 h after RBC transfusion. Primary and secondary haemostasis was evaluated by whole-blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate....... Compared to before transfusion, patients had slightly reduced coagulability 1 h after RBC transfusion, assessed by TEG. However, transfusion of older RBC products (>14 days) was associated with increased coagulability (all P level of syndecan-1 increased slightly 24 h after transfusion (median....... The changes observed were small to moderate and the clinical relevance of these findings should be investigated in larger studies....

  19. Estimation of adult and neonatal RBC lifespans in anemic neonates using RBCs labeled at several discrete biotin densities. (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Denison J; Widness, John A; Nalbant, Demet; Schmidt, Robert L; Mock, Donald M; An, Guohua; Veng-Pedersen, Peter


    Prior conclusions that autologous neonatal red blood cells (RBC) have substantially shorter lifespans than allogeneic adult RBCs were not based on direct comparison of autologous neonatal vs. allogeneic adult RBCs performed concurrently in the same infant. Biotin labeling of autologous neonatal RBCs and allogeneic adult donor RBCs permits concurrent direct comparison of autologous vs. allogeneic RBC lifespan. RBCs from 15 allogeneic adult donors and from 15 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates were labeled at separate biotin densities and transfused simultaneously into the 15 neonates. Two mathematical models that account for the RBC differences were employed to estimate lifespans for the two RBC populations. Mean ± SD lifespan for adult allogeneic RBC was 70.1 ± 19.1 d, which is substantially shorter than the 120 d lifespan of both autologous and adult allogeneic RBC in healthy adults. Mean ± SD lifespan for neonatal RBC was 54.2 ± 11.3 d, which is only about 30% shorter than that of the adult allogeneic RBCs. This study provides evidence that extrinsic environmental factors primarily determine RBC survival (e.g., small bore of the capillaries of neonates, rate of oxygenation/deoxygenation cycles) rather than factors intrinsic to RBC.

  20. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions under flow. Role of RBC deformability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.


    Roč. 25, 3-4 (2010), s. 45-52 ISSN 1313-2458 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : apparent viscosity * conductivity * RBC suspensions * dextran 70 * PEG 35 000 * glutaraldehyde Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  1. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.


    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 μCi of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 μCi Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 μCi In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 μCi of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 μCi is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results

  2. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) (United States)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin


    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  3. 99mTc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru


    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author)

  4. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph


    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic

  5. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

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    Maryam Yousefi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  6. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications. (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph


    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.

  7. Development of a kit for RBC labelling with 99mTc and its clinic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marafuschi, A.M.; Nowotny, G.A.; Palcos, M.C.; Rotta, M. del C.


    A kit for labelling red blood cells (RBC) with 99m Tc based on a Tin Pyrophosphate mixture freeze-dried and a saline solution saturated with nitrogen has been prepared for spleen and placenta scanning, circulatory studies and blood volume determinations. The stannous tin is intended to reduce the 99m Tc pertechnetate, obtained either from generators or from solvent extraction, to the appropriate valence state suitable for labelling. The technique is as follows: Add to the heparinized blood sample the Tin-Pyrophosphate mixture dissolved in the saline solution. After five minutes incubation time at room temperature the plasma is discarded by centrifugation. Following the addition of the tracer activity to the separated RBC, the supernatant is discarded after a second centrifugation. Depending on the test to be performed, the RBC are either resuspended in saline solution for blood pool or circulation studies or denaturalized at 49.5 deg C for spleen scanning. The labelling yield (95-88%) and its stability has been checked by in vitro measurements, up to four hours after labelling. The biological distribution and spleen uptake have been determined in rats and rabbits. The developed method proved to be adequate for labelling RBC with good labelling retention. An interesting application is shown in babies with congenital cardiac defects and suspected absence of the spleen, where the scan gave a good image of the existing spleen. (author) [es

  8. Multiple and Periodic Measurement of RBC Aggregation and ESR in Parallel Microfluidic Channels under On-Off Blood Flow Control

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    Yang Jun Kang


    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC aggregation causes to alter hemodynamic behaviors at low flow-rate regions of post-capillary venules. Additionally, it is significantly elevated in inflammatory or pathophysiological conditions. In this study, multiple and periodic measurements of RBC aggregation and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are suggested by sucking blood from a pipette tip into parallel microfluidic channels, and quantifying image intensity, especially through single experiment. Here, a microfluidic device was prepared from a master mold using the xurography technique rather than micro-electro-mechanical-system fabrication techniques. In order to consider variations of RBC aggregation in microfluidic channels due to continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip, two indices (aggregation index (AI and erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate aggregation index (EAI are evaluated by using temporal variations of microscopic, image-based intensity. The proposed method is employed to evaluate the effect of hematocrit and dextran solution on RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. As a result, EAI displays a significantly linear relationship with modified conventional ESR measurement obtained by quantifying time constants. In addition, EAI varies linearly within a specific concentration of dextran solution. In conclusion, the proposed method is able to measure RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. Furthermore, the method provides multiple data of RBC aggregation and ESR through a single experiment. A future study will involve employing the proposed method to evaluate biophysical properties of blood samples collected from cardiovascular diseases.

  9. A gene phylogeny of the red algae (Rhodophyta) based on plastid rbcL. (United States)

    Freshwater, D W; Fredericq, S; Butler, B S; Hommersand, M H; Chase, M W


    A phylogeny for the Rhodophyta has been inferred by parsimony analysis of plastid rbcL sequences representing 81 species, 68 genera, 38 families, and 17 orders of red algae; rbcL encodes the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Levels of sequence divergence among species, genera, and families are high in red algae, typically much greater than those reported for flowering plants. The Rhodophyta traditionally consists of one class, Rhodophyceae, and two subclasses, Bangiophycidae and Florideophycidae. The Bangiophycidae with three orders (Porphyridiales, Compsopogonales, and Bangiales) appears to be polyphyletic, and the Florideophycidae with 17 orders is monophyletic in this study. The current classification of the Florideophycidae based on ultrastructure of pit connections is supported. With the exception of the Rhodogorgonales, which appears to be misplaced, orders with one or two pit-plug cap layers (Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Acrochaetiales, Palmanales, Batrachospermales, and Nemaliales) terminate long branches of basal position within Florideophycidae in the most parsimonious rbcL tree. Orders that lack typical cap layers but possess a cap membrane are resolved as a monophyletic clade sister to the Ahnfeltiales. The large order Gigartinales, which is distributed among five rbcL clades, is polyphyletic. Families that possess typical carrageenan in their cell walls are resolved as a terminal clade containing two family complexes centered around the Solieriaceae and Gigartinaceae. PMID:8041781

  10. Measurement of blood coagulation with considering RBC aggregation through a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer. (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Nam, Jeonghun; Xue, Shubin; Shin, Sehyun


    Even though blood coagulation can be tested by various methods and techniques, the effect of RBC aggregation on blood coagulation is not fully understood. The present study monitored clot formation in a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer. Citrated blood samples with and without the addition of calcium ion solution were initially disaggregated by rotating a stirrer in the microchip. After abrupt stop of the rotating stirrer, the transmitted light intensity over time was recorded. The syllectogram (light intensity vs. time graph) manifested a rapid increase that is associated with RBC aggregation followed by a decrease that is associated with blood coagulation. The time to reach the peak point was used as a new index of coagulation time (CT) and ranged from 200 to 500 seconds in the present measurements. The CT was inversely proportional to the concentration of fibrinogen, which enhances RBC aggregation. In addition, the CT was inversely proportional to the hematocrit, which is similar to the case of the prothrombin time (PT), as measured by a commercial coagulometer. Thus, we carefully concluded that RBC aggregation should be considered in tests of blood coagulation.

  11. Antioxidant activity of citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in the RBC's of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallak, M.; Jaliah, B.I.


    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects in alloxan induced diabetes. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the mechanism of damage of red blood cells and anaemia in diabetic patients. So the current study was carried out to investigate the protective role of citrullus colocynthis against oxidative stress in the RBC's of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glibenclamide (a positive control) orally. Evaluations were made for haematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC's of all experimental rats. Results: The diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in total erythrocytes count and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and a normal Haemoglobin (Hb) value in the blood. They also showed decreased levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the RBC's hemolysate. On other hand, oral administration of citrullus colocynthis or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats, they resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in the in total erythrocytes count and PCV (Haematocrit) values in the blood and caused a significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT in the RBC's of those diabetic treated rats when compared to diabetic rats given normal saline. The effect was more profound in citrullus colocynthis treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a potent antioxidant property

  12. Strategi Perancangan Mutu Ripe Banana Chip (RBC Berbasis Harapan Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Herry P


    Full Text Available Ripe Banana Chip (RBC, merupakan salah satu jenis kripik yang dibuat dari pisang masak. RBC dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknologi penggorengan vakum (vacum frying ataupun pembekuan (freezing. RBC pisang mas cukup banyak memiliki keunggulan dari nilai gizinya. Produk ini masih belum diketahui tingkat kesesuain mutunya dengan keinginan konsumen dilihat dari aspek fisik ataupun organoleptik. Tujuan penelitian ini agar dapat mengetahui rancangan mutu yang tepat untuk produk RBC pisang mas. Penelitian ini menggunakan tiga metode, diantaranya metode skoring, Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI, dan metode diagram tulang ikan. Hasil dari penelitian, yaitu : warna RBC dengan intensitas 5,56 (kuning dan skor 3,862 (suka ; informasi kemasan dengan intensitas 4,5 (setuju dan skor 3,534 (suka ; kenyamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,58 (nyaman dan skor 4,155 (suka ; keamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,15 (sangat aman dan skor 4,086 (suka ; ketebalan dengan intensitas 8,31(sangat tebal dan skor 1,604 (sangat tidak suka ; Oil dengan intensitas 4,86 (banyak dan skor 2,483 (tidak suka ; kerenyahan dengan intensitas 7,32 (keras dan skor 2,843 (cukup suka ; Easy of breaking dengan intensitas 5,17 (mudah dipatahkan dan skor 3,158 (cukup suka ; rasa manis dengan intensitas 7,89 (manis dan skor 3,208 (cukup suka ; rasa asam dengan intensitas 4,84 (agak asam dan skor 3,309 (cukup suka. Nilai CSI yang dihasilkan, yaitu sebesar 64% (puas. Strategi untuk meningkatkan mutu RBC diantaranya: mengurangi ukuran ketebalan bahan baku sebelum diproses; lebih dipertimbangkan lagi tingkat kematangan pisang; memberi pengarahan dan motivasi kepada pekerja; melakukan pengawasan saat produksi berlangsung; lebih memperhatikan keseragaman ukuran pisang, dan menggunakan alternatif lain dalam penirisan minyak, misalnya sentrifuse agar keberadaan minyak berkurang.

  13. Placentography with technetium-99m labelled RBC - an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, C.A.; Benjamin, C.S.; Balakrishnan; Narasimhan


    During 1979-80, placentography was performed in 40 cases of pregnant women with third trimester bleeding. Random labelled RBC with sup(99m)Tc of activity 2-3 mci was used, depending upon the weight of the patient. In 98% of cases, the isotope finding was confirmed. (author)

  14. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions under flow. Role of RBC aggregating agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.


    Roč. 45, 2-4 (2010), s. 253-261 ISSN 1386-0291 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : apparent viscosity * conductivity * unsteady flow * RBC suspensions * dextrans * PEG Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2010

  15. Special safeguards study. Scopes of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Special Safeguards Study (SSS) will be conducted by a combination of (1) contacts with other agencies, (2) NRC staff studies and analysis and (3) contracted studies in specific areas. Most of the study effort will be carried out by contractual support activities. These activities will be devoted to providing technical information, primarily qualitative because of the short term of the study, to enable the staff to determine the most cost-effective sets of measures for plutonium recycle and high-enriched uranium fuel cycle safeguards. The scope of work for these activities is given. The scope of work describes tasks that range from confirming the Commission's safeguards objective to defining specific protection systems for the following siting arrangements: dispersed sites, collocated fuel cycle plants, and mixed parks where reactors, reprocessing plants and fuel fabrication plants are collocated. (U.S.)

  16. Discriminatory power of rbcL barcode locus for authentication of some of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants. (United States)

    Maloukh, Lina; Kumarappan, Alagappan; Jarrar, Mohammad; Salehi, Jawad; El-Wakil, Houssam; Rajya Lakshmi, T V


    DNA barcoding of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants is of high practical and scientific value as the plants adapt to very harsh environmental conditions that challenge their identification. Fifty-one plant species belonged to 22 families, 2 monocots, and 20 eudicots; a maximum number of species being legumes and grasses were collected. To authenticate the morphological identification of the wild plant taxa, rbcL and matK regions were used in the study. The primer universality and discriminatory power of rbcL is 100%, while it is 35% for matK locus for these plant species. The sequences were submitted to GenBank; accession numbers were obtained for all the rbcL sequences and for 6 of matK sequences. We suggest rbcL as a promising barcode locus for the tested group of 51 plants. In the present study, an inexpensive, simple method of identification of rare desert plant taxa through rbcL barcode is being reported.

  17. Effect of RBC concentrate transfusions on serum ferritin content in children with acute leukaemia. (United States)

    Bebeshko, V G; Bruslova, E M; Tsvietkova, N M; Iatsemirskii, S M; Puchkareva, T I; Gonchar, L A; Krukovska, V V; Zelinska, A V; Mishchenko, L P


    To study the serum ferritin levels in children with acute leukemia, depending on the number of transfusions of RBC concentrate and period of disease. We studied the red blood count, serum iron and ferritin levels in 54 patients with acute leukemia before chemotherapy, at the time of a standardized treatment protocol, and after transfusions of RBC concentrates. In the debute of acute leukemia just before treatment lauch the serum ferritin in 81.5% of children was 2.3-2.5 higher than normal. The need for transfusion of RBC concentrates was higher under serum ferritin level exceeding 500 ng/mL. The association was established between ferritin content and age of the children, variant of acute leukemia and period of the disease. The level of serum ferritin can be used as a marker of ferrokinetic status for timely diagnosis of iron overload in children with acute leukemias and for application of treatment-and-prophylactic actions. Bebeshko V. G., Bruslova K. M., Cvjetkova N. M., Jacemyrskyj S. M., Pushkarova T. I., Gonchar L. O., Krukovska V. V., Zelinska A. V., Mishhenko L. P., 2013.

  18. Simulator for training operators of electric substation: an approach via RBC-Paraconsistent; Simulador para treinamento de operadores de subestacao eletrica: um enfoque via RBC-paraconsistente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert-Torres, G.; Martins, H.G.; Coutinho, M.P.; Goulart, J.D.C.; Soares, F.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails:,,,,


    This article presents a combination of two techniques applied artificial intelligence to solve problems to Restoration of an Electric Substation: Casebased Reasoning - CBR and the Four Values Annotated Paraconsistent Logic - 4vAPL. The process occurs in the connection functions of belief, disbelief, specialty and temporality to LPA4v in the retrieval of cases to determine process diagnostic of an RBC. The field of CBR is applied in a recovery of an electric substation. The LPA4v is the support applied in problems that have inconsistent information, partials and undefined. Thus this study is closer of the real situations.

  19. Phylogeny and intraspecific variability of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from plastid rbcL sequences. (United States)

    Manen, Jean-François; Habashi, Christine; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Park, Jeong-Mi; Schneeweiss, Gerald M


    The rbcL sequences of 106 specimens representing 28 species of the four recognized sections of Orobanche were analyzed and compared. Most sequences represent pseudogenes with premature stop codons. This study confirms that the American lineage (sects. Gymnocaulis and Myzorrhiza) contains potentially functional rbcL-copies with intact open reading frames and low rates of non-synonymous substitutions. For the first time, this is also shown for a member of the Eurasian lineage, O. coerulescens of sect. Orobanche, while all other investigated species of sects. Orobanche and Trionychon contain pseudogenes with distorted reading frames and significantly higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions. Phylogenetic analyses of the rbcL sequences give equivocal results concerning the monophyly of Orobanche, and the American lineage might be more closely related to Boschniakia and Cistanche than to the other sections of Orobanche. Additionally, species of sect. Trionychon phylogenetically nest in sect. Orobanche. This is in concordance with results from other plastid markers (rps2 and matK), but in disagreement with other molecular (nuclear ITS), morphological, and karyological data. This might indicate that the ancestor of sect. Trionychon has captured the plastid genome, or parts of it, of a member of sect. Orobanche. Apart from the phylogenetically problematic position of sect. Trionychon, the phylogenetic relationships within sect. Orobanche are similar to those inferred from nuclear ITS data and are close to the traditional groupings traditionally recognized based on morphology. The intraspecific variation of rbcL is low and is neither correlated with intraspecific morphological variability nor with host range. Ancestral character reconstruction using parsimony suggests that the ancestor of O. sect. Orobanche had a narrow host range.

  20. Bentonite-amended soils special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report presents the results of a two-phased special study to evaluate the viability of soil amended with a high percentage of bentonite as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. Phase I of the study was initiated in order to examine the feasibility of using bentonite-amended soils as a cover component on sideslopes and topslopes. The Phase I objectives were to test a variety of materials to determine if low hydraulic conductivities were achievable in materials exhibiting sufficient strength and to select suitable materials for further testing. Phase II objectives were to (1) optimize designs -- test materials with various percentages of bentonite added; (2) provide design recommendations; (3) address constructibility concerns; and (4) evaluate long-term performance with respect to desiccation effects on the amended materials


    Phoenix Union High School District, AZ.


  2. Safety and economic study of special trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, W.V.; Hall, R.J.


    A comparative evaluation is being conducted of the safety and economics of special (35 mph and less) and regular trains for shipment of spent fuels. The approach, pertinent considerations, and results to date are discussed. The preliminary conclusion is that special train requirements have potential for only a small reduction in the accident likelihood, while increasing the cost

  3. Bentonite-amended soil special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This special study was conducted to assess the viability of soil with a high percentage of bentonite added as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. To achieve maximum concentration limits (MCLs) at several UMTRA Project sites, covers with a very low permeability are needed. If alternate concentration limits (ACLs) are the appropriate site groundwater compliance strategy, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to demonstrate, among other things, that the infiltration to the disposal cell is as low as reasonably achievable, and hence that the cover has a very low permeability. When the study discussed here was begun, the lowest permeability element available was CLAYMAX R , a manufactured liner material constructed of natural material (bentonite clay) between two geosynthetics.The strength of soil-bentonite mixes was measured to see if they could be placed on sideslopes and not pose stability problems. Also evaluated were the hydraulic conductivities of soil-bentonite mixes. If the strengths and permeabilities of soils with a high percentage of bentonite are favorable, the soils may be used as infiltration barriers in current cover designs without changing pile geometries. The scope of work for this study called for a literature review and a two-phased laboratory testing program. This report presents the results of the literature review and the first phase of the testing program

  4. Health Professions Officer Special Pay Study HPOSPS (United States)


    the career field and the tax: Student-Transient-Prisoner/Patient ( STP ), Special Duty, and Outside. o STP : The Army equivalent of this Air Force...patterns due to their highly marketable skills which can be transferred to another form of public service (e.g., inter-Service transfer) or are in high... STP , and developmental opportunities (primarily special duties). The inventory identifies categories indicating skill availability (“Not Fully

  5. Selection of water treatment processes special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering

  6. Penelitian penentuan konstanta saturasi (Ks pada rbc unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno


    Full Text Available Kinetic of Rotating Biological Contractor have been investigated by manu researchers. In general the model emploued either saturation kinetic (following Monod equation or first order kinetic to describe substrate removal. In this experiment, saturation kinetic model was used to find out the saturation constant of the RBC unit. The influent fed into the unit was synthetic waste water with glucose as organic carbon sources. The flow was maintained constant at 20.4 1/d and COD influent resulted the saturation constant (Ks 11.17 mg/I with 20 hours of detention time.

  7. Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo (United States)

    Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil


    Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

  8. Decision Tree Algorithm-Generated Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Barcodes of rbcL Genes for 38 Brassicaceae Species Tagging. (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Kuo-Chuan; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei


    DNA barcode sequences are accumulating in large data sets. A barcode is generally a sequence larger than 1000 base pairs and generates a computational burden. Although the DNA barcode was originally envisioned as straightforward species tags, the identification usage of barcode sequences is rarely emphasized currently. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association studies provide us an idea that the SNPs may be the ideal target of feature selection to discriminate between different species. We hypothesize that SNP-based barcodes may be more effective than the full length of DNA barcode sequences for species discrimination. To address this issue, we tested a r ibulose diphosphate carboxylase ( rbcL ) S NP b arcoding (RSB) strategy using a decision tree algorithm. After alignment and trimming, 31 SNPs were discovered in the rbcL sequences from 38 Brassicaceae plant species. In the decision tree construction, these SNPs were computed to set up the decision rule to assign the sequences into 2 groups level by level. After algorithm processing, 37 nodes and 31 loci were required for discriminating 38 species. Finally, the sequence tags consisting of 31 rbcL SNP barcodes were identified for discriminating 38 Brassicaceae species based on the decision tree-selected SNP pattern using RSB method. Taken together, this study provides the rational that the SNP aspect of DNA barcode for rbcL gene is a useful and effective sequence for tagging 38 Brassicaceae species.

  9. Arabidopsis Pol II-Dependent in Vitro Transcription System Reveals Role of Chromatin for Light-Inducible rbcS Gene Transcription1 (United States)

    Ido, Ayaka; Iwata, Shinya; Iwata, Yuka; Igarashi, Hisako; Hamada, Takahiro; Sonobe, Seiji; Sugiura, Masahiro; Yukawa, Yasushi


    In vitro transcription is an essential tool to study the molecular mechanisms of transcription. For over a decade, we have developed an in vitro transcription system from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-cultured cells (BY-2), and this system supported the basic activities of the three RNA polymerases (Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III). However, it was not suitable to study photosynthetic genes, because BY-2 cells have lost their photosynthetic activity. Therefore, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro transcription systems were developed from green and etiolated suspension cells. Sufficient in vitro Pol II activity was detected after the minor modification of the nuclear soluble extracts preparation method; removal of vacuoles from protoplasts and L-ascorbic acid supplementation in the extraction buffer were particularly effective. Surprisingly, all four Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit (rbcS-1A, rbcS-1B, rbcS-2B, and rbcS-3B) gene members were in vitro transcribed from the naked DNA templates without any light-dependent manner. However, clear light-inducible transcriptions were observed using chromatin template of rbcS-1A gene, which was prepared with a human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP1) and HeLa histones. This suggested that a key determinant of light-dependency through the rbcS gene transcription was a higher order of DNA structure (i.e. chromatin). PMID:26662274

  10. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteomics--Part I: Proteomics and RBC physiology. (United States)

    Pasini, Erica M; Lutz, Hans U; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W


    Membrane proteomics is concerned with accurately and sensitively identifying molecules involved in cell compartmentalisation, including those controlling the interface between the cell and the outside world. The high lipid content of the environment in which these proteins are found often causes a particular set of problems that must be overcome when isolating the required material before effective HPLC-MS approaches can be performed. The membrane is an unusually dynamic cellular structure since it interacts with an ever changing environment. A full understanding of this critical cell component will ultimately require, in addition to proteomics, lipidomics, glycomics, interactomics and study of post-translational modifications. Devoid of nucleus and organelles in mammalian species other than camelids, and constantly in motion in the blood stream, red blood cells (RBCs) are the sole mammalian oxygen transporter. The fact that mature mammalian RBCs have no internal membrane-bound organelles, somewhat simplifies proteomics analysis of the plasma membrane and the fact that it has no nucleus disqualifies microarray based methods. Proteomics has the potential to provide a better understanding of this critical interface, and thereby assist in identifying new approaches to diseases. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A


    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  12. Area Studies and Special Collections: Shared Challenges, Shared Strength (United States)

    Carter, Lisa R.; Whittaker, Beth M.


    Special collections and area studies librarians face similar challenges in the changing academic library environment, including the need to articulate the value of these specialized collections and to mainstream processes and practices into larger discovery, teaching, learning, and research efforts. For some institutions, these similarities have…

  13. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Carter, Susan J.


    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  14. Computer Assisted Instruction in Special Education Three Case Studies


    İbrahim DOĞAN; Ömür AKDEMİR


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the computer use of three students attending the special education center. Students have mental retardation, hearing problem and physical handicap respectively. The maximum variation sampling is used to select the type of handicap while the convenience sampling is used to select the participants. Three widely encountered handicap types in special education are chosen to select the study participants. The multiple holistic case study design is used i...

  15. Discriminating plants using the DNA barcode rbcLb: an appraisal based on a large data set. (United States)

    Dong, Wenpan; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Xu, Chao; Long, Ping; Chen, Chumming; Zhou, Shiliang


    The ideal DNA barcode for plants remains to be discovered, and the candidate barcode rbcL has been met with considerable skepticism since its proposal. In fact, the variability within this gene has never been fully explored across all plant groups from algae to flowering plants, and its performance as a barcode has not been adequately tested. By analysing all of the rbcL sequences currently available in GenBank, we attempted to determine how well a region of rbcL performs as a barcode in species discrimination. We found that the rbcLb region was more variable than the frequently used rbcLa region. Both universal and plant group-specific primers were designed to amplify rbcLb, and the performance of rbcLa and rbcLb was tested in several ways. Using blast, both regions successfully identified all families and nearly all genera; however, the successful species identification rates varied significantly among plant groups, ranging from 24.58% to 85.50% for rbcLa and from 36.67% to 90.89% for rbcLb. Successful species discrimination ranged from 5.19% to 96.33% for rbcLa and from 22.09% to 98.43% for rbcLb in species-rich families, and from 0 to 88.73% for rbcLa and from 2.04% to 100% for rbcLb in species-rich genera. Both regions performed better for lower plants than for higher plants, although rbcLb performed significantly better than rbcLa overall, particularly for angiosperms. Considering the applicability across plants, easy and unambiguous alignment, high primer universality, high sequence quality and high species discrimination power for lower plants, we suggest rbcLb as a universal plant barcode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Adsorption isotherm special study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The study was designed to identify methods to determine adsorption applicable to Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, and to determine how changes in aquifer conditions affect metal adsorption, resulting retardation factors, and estimated contaminant migration rates. EPA and ASTM procedures were used to estimate sediment sorption of U, As, and Mo under varying groundwater geochemical conditions. Aquifer matrix materials from three distinct locations at the DOE UMTRA Project site in Rifle, CO, were used as the adsorbents under different pH conditions; these conditions stimulated geochemical environments under the tailings, near the tailings, and downgradient from the tailings. Grain size, total surface area, bulk and clay mineralogy, and petrography of the sediments were characterized. U and Mo yielded linear isotherms, while As had nonlinear ones. U and Mo were adsorbed strongly on sediments acidified to levels similar to tailings leachate. Changes in pH had much less effect on As adsorption. Mo was adsorbed very little at pH 7-7.3, U was weakly sorbed, and As was moderately sorbed. Velocities were estimated for metal transport at different pHs. Results show that the aquifer materials must be characterized to estimate metal transport velocities in aquifers and to develop groundwater restoration strategies for the UMTRA project

  17. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai


    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  18. Noninvasive evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding: comparison between contrast-enhanced MDCT and 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy. (United States)

    Zink, Stephen I; Ohki, Stephen K; Stein, Barry; Zambuto, Domenic A; Rosenberg, Ronald J; Choi, Jenny J; Tubbs, Daniel S


    The purpose of our study was to compare contrast-enhanced MDCT and (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scanning for the evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Over 17 months, 55 patients (32 men, 23 women; age range, 21-92 years) were evaluated prospectively with contrast-enhanced MDCT using 100 mL of iopromide 300 mg I/mL. Technetium-99m-labeled RBC scans were obtained on 41 of 55 patients and select patients underwent angiography for attempted embolization. Each imaging technique was reviewed in a blinded fashion for sensitivity for detection of active bleeding as well as the active lower gastrointestinal bleeding location. Findings were positive on both examinations in eight patients and negative on both examinations in 20 patients. Findings were positive on contrast-enhanced MDCT and negative on (99m)Tc-labeled RBC in two patients; findings were negative on contrast-enhanced MDCT and positive on (99m)Tc-labeled RBC in 11 patients. Statistics showed significant disagreement, with simple agreement = 68.3%, kappa = 0.341, and p = 0.014. Sixteen of 60 (26.7%) contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were positive prospectively, with all accurately localizing the site of bleeding and identification of the underlying lesion in eight of 16 (50%). Nineteen of 41 (46.3%) (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scans were positive. Eighteen of 41 matched patients went on to angiography. In four of these 18 (22.2%) patients, the site of bleeding was confirmed by angiography, but in 14 of 18 (77.8%), the findings were negative. Contrast-enhanced MDCT and (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scanning show significant disagreement for evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Contrast-enhanced MDCT appears effective for detection and localization in cases of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding in which hemorrhage is active at the time of CT.

  19. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.


    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  20. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions in Dextran and PEG under flow II. Role of RBC deformability and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.; Gluhcheva, Y.


    Roč. 49, 1-4 (2011), s. 441-450 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC suspensions * conductivity * Dextran 70 * Polyethylene glycol 35 000 (PEG) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.398, year: 2011

  1. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions in Dextran and PEG under flow II. Role of RBC deformability and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.; Gluhcheva, Y.


    Roč. 49, 1-4 (2011), s. 441-450 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC suspensions * conductivity * Dextran 70 * Polyethylene glycol 35 000 ( PEG ) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.398, year: 2011

  2. Computer Assisted Instruction in Special Education Three Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim DOĞAN


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the computer use of three students attending the special education center. Students have mental retardation, hearing problem and physical handicap respectively. The maximum variation sampling is used to select the type of handicap while the convenience sampling is used to select the participants. Three widely encountered handicap types in special education are chosen to select the study participants. The multiple holistic case study design is used in the study. Results of the study indicate that teachers in special education prefer to use educational games and drill and practice type of computers programs. Also it is found that over use of the animation, text and symbols cause cognitive overload on the student with mental retardation. Additionally, it is also discovered that the student with hearing problem learn words better when the computers are used in education as compared to the traditional method. Furthermore the student with physical handicap improved his fine muscle control abilities besides planned course objectives when computers are used in special education.

  3. Savant Syndrome: Case Studies, Hypotheses, and Implications for Special Education. (United States)

    Cheatham, Susan Klug; And Others


    The concept of savant syndrome, encompassing those individuals historically known as "idiot savants," is reviewed. Case studies demonstrating special abilities in the areas of calendar calculating, musical ability, artistic talent, memorization, mathematical skills, mechanical achievement, and fine sensory discrimination are discussed,…

  4. Decoding Computer Games: StudyingSpecial Operation 85”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Jalalzadeh


    Full Text Available As other media, computer games convey messages which have tow features: explicit and implicit. Semiologically studying computer games and comparing them with narrative structures, the present study attempts to discover the messages they convey. Therefore we have studied and decoded “Special operation 85” as a semiological text. Results show that the game’s features, as naming, interests and motivations of the engaged people, and the events narrated, all lead the producers to their goals of introducing and publicizing Iranian-Islamic cultural values. Although this feature makes “Special Opreation 85” a unique game, it fails in its attempt to produce a mythical personage in Iranian-Islamic cultural context.

  5. Tissue Characterization of Lemna gibba rbcS Promoter%浮萍rbcS启动子组织特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凤珍; 李倩; 王友如


    A new rbcS (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit) promoter with the size of 1 438 bp (named SSU5C promoter) was cloned from Lemna gibba. SSU5C promoter was fused with the GUS reporter gene to construct a plant binary vector (pSSU5C-IGUS), and introduced into duckweed by agrogacterium-mediated trans-formation. The transgenic plantlets were generated. This study was focused on the tissue characterization of SSU5C promoter. GUS staining showed that SSU5C promoter drove GUS to express in the green tissue in leaf, stem and petiole of T1 tobacco, whereas no GUS activity was observed in root. In reproductive organs, the GUS activity was observed in corolla lobes, anther and stigma, no GUS activity was observed in other parts. It was obvious that rbcS promoter can not only express in the green tissue, but also can express in reproductive organs. The results lay a good doundation for the application of SSU5C in plant genetic engineering.%SSU5C启动子(全长1438 bp)是从浮萍基因组中新克隆的一个rb c S (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carbo-xylase small subunit)启动子。本研究将 SSU5C 启动子与GUS基因融合,成功构建植物双元表达载p SSU5C-IGUS,并利用农杆菌介导法转化烟草,获得转基因植株,探究SSU5C启动子在烟草中的组织表达特点。GUS检测结果表明:在T1烟草的营养器官中,SSU5C启动子主要驱动GUS基因在烟草叶片和叶柄、茎等绿色组织中表达,而在根部不表达;在生殖器官中,GUS基因主要在花冠裂片以及花药和柱头中表达。本研究首次发现浮萍rb c S启动子不仅在绿色组织中表达,而且在生殖器官中的花冠裂片以及花药和柱头中表达,这一发现可为SSU5C启动子在植物基因工程中的应用奠定基础。

  6. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstead, William M [U PENNSYLVANIA; Kiessling, J W [U PENNSYLVANIA; Chen, Xiao - Han [U PENNSYLVANIA; Smith, Douglas H [U PENNSYLVANA; Higazi, Abd Ar [U PENNSYLVANIA; Cines, Douglas B [U PENNSYLVANIA; Bdeir, Khalil [U PENNSYLVANIA; Zaitsev, Sergei [U PENNSYLVANIA; Muzykantov, Vladimir R [U PENNSYLVANIA


    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  7. A Comparative Study of Administrator and Special Education Teacher Perceptions of Special Education Teacher Attrition and Retention (United States)

    Sheldrake, Danielle Angelina


    This mixed methods study identifies perceived causes of and solutions to the attrition of special education teachers. Researchers have documented that special education teaching positions encounter higher attrition rates than their general education peers (Katsiyannis, Zhang, & Conroy in Olivarez & Arnold, 2006; Mitchell & Arnold,…

  8. Red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in confined microflows: Pressure-flow relationship. (United States)

    Stauber, Hagit; Waisman, Dan; Korin, Netanel; Sznitman, Josué


    Microfluidic-based assays have become increasingly popular to explore microcirculation in vitro. In these experiments, blood is resuspended to a desired haematocrit level in a buffer solution, where frequent choices for preparing RBC suspensions comprise notably Dextran and physiological buffer. Yet, the rational for selecting one buffer versus another is often ill-defined and lacks detailed quantification, including ensuing changes in RBC flow characteristics. Here, we revisit RBC suspensions in microflows and attempt to quantify systematically some of the differences emanating between buffers. We measure bulk flow rate (Q) of RBC suspensions, using PBS- and Dextran-40, as a function of the applied pressure drop (ΔP) for two hematocrits (∼0% and 23%). Two distinct microfluidic designs of varying dimensions are employed: a straight channel larger than and a network array similar to the size of individual RBCs. Using the resulting pressure-flow curves, we extract the equivalent hydrodynamic resistances and estimate the relative viscosities. These efforts are a first step in rigorously quantifying the influence of the 'background' buffer on RBC flows within microfluidic devices and thereby underline the importance of purposefully selecting buffer suspensions for microfluidic in vitro assays. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Determination of degree of RBC agglutination for blood typing using a small quantity of blood sample in a microfluidic system. (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Zhou, Xin-Miao; Yen, Hsiu-Rong


    Blood typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This paper presents a microfluidic blood typing system using a small quantity of blood sample to determine the degree of agglutination of red blood cell (RBC). Two measuring methods were proposed: impedimetric measurement and electroanalytical measurement. The charge transfer resistance in the impedimetric measurement and the power parameter in the electroanalytical measurement were used for the analysis of agglutination level. From the experimental results, both measuring methods provide quantitative results, and the parameters are linearly and monotonically related to the degree of RBC agglutination. However, the electroanalytical measurement is more reliable than the impedimetric technique because the impedimetric measurement may suffer from many influencing factors, such as chip conditions. Five levels from non-agglutination (level 0) to strong agglutination (level 4+) can be discriminated in this study, conforming to the clinical requirement to prevent any risks in transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Time dependent variation of human blood conductivity as a method for an estimation of RBC aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.


    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2008), s. 69-78 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC aggregation * blood conductivity * low shear rate viscometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.814, year: 2008

  11. 40 CFR 35.2035 - Rotating biological contractor (RBC) replacement grants. (United States)


    ... treatment works owner, the applicant, its engineers, contractors, equipment manufacturers or suppliers; (b) The RBC failure has significantly increased the project's capital or operation and maintenance costs; (c) The modification/replacement project meets all requirements of EPA's construction grant and other...

  12. 77 FR 50487 - Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy Services LP (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-328-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  13. Rheological and electrical properties of polymeric nanoparticle solutions and their influence on RBC suspensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Koseva, N.; Kowalczyk, A.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.


    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2014), s. 35190 ISSN 1430-6395 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : nanoparticles and RBC suspensions * poly(acrylic acid) * rheology * electrical conductivity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2014

  14. Safe medication management in specialized home healthcare - an observational study. (United States)

    Lindblad, Marléne; Flink, Maria; Ekstedt, Mirjam


    Medication management is a complex, error-prone process. The aim of this study was to explore what constitutes the complexity of the medication management process (MMP) in specialized home healthcare and how healthcare professionals handle this complexity. The study is theoretically based in resilience engineering. Data were collected during the MMP at three specialized home healthcare units in Sweden using two strategies: observation of workplaces and shadowing RNs in everyday work, including interviews. Transcribed material was analysed using grounded theory. The MMP in home healthcare was dynamic and complex with unclear boundaries of responsibilities, inadequate information systems and fluctuating work conditions. Healthcare professionals adapted their everyday clinical work by sharing responsibility and simultaneously being authoritative and preserving patients' active participation, autonomy and integrity. To promote a safe MMP, healthcare professionals constantly re-prioritized goals, handled gaps in communication and information transmission at a distance by creating new bridging solutions. Trade-offs and workarounds were necessary elements, but also posed a threat to patient safety, as these interim solutions were not systematically evaluated or devised learning strategies. To manage a safe medication process in home healthcare, healthcare professionals need to adapt to fluctuating conditions and create bridging strategies through multiple parallel activities distributed over time, space and actors. The healthcare professionals' strategies could be integrated in continuous learning, while preserving boundaries of safety, instead of being more or less interim solutions. Patients' and family caregivers' as active partners in the MMP may be an underestimated resource for a resilient home healthcare.

  15. Increase in Red Blood Cell-Nitric Oxide Synthase Dependent Nitric Oxide Production during Red Blood Cell Aging in Health and Disease: A Study on Age Dependent Changes of Rheologic and Enzymatic Properties in Red Blood Cells (United States)

    Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Brinkmann, Christian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke


    Aim To investigate RBC-NOS dependent NO signaling during in vivo RBC aging in health and disease. Method RBC from fifteen healthy volunteers (HC) and four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were separated in seven subpopulations by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Results The proportion of old RBC was significantly higher in DM compared to HC. In both groups, in vivo aging was marked by changes in RBC shape and decreased cell volume. RBC nitrite, as marker for NO, was higher in DM and increased in both HC and DM during aging. RBC deformability was lower in DM and significantly decreased in old compared to young RBC in both HC and DM. RBC-NOS Serine1177 phosphorylation, indicating enzyme activation, increased during aging in both HC and DM. Arginase I activity remained unchanged during aging in HC. In DM, arginase I activity was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC but decreased during aging. In HC, concentration of L-arginine, the substrate of RBC-NOS and arginase I, significantly dropped from young to old RBC. In DM, L-arginine concentration was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC and significantly decreased during aging. In blood from healthy subjects, RBC-NOS activation was additionally inhibited by N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-Ornithine dihydrochloride which decreased RBC nitrite, and impaired RBC deformability of all but the oldest RBC subpopulation. Conclusion This study first-time showed highest RBC-NOS activation and NO production in old RBC, possibly to counteract the negative impact of cell shrinkage on RBC deformability. This was even more pronounced in DM. It is further suggested that highly produced NO only insufficiently affects cell function of old RBC maybe because of isolated RBC-NOS in old RBC thus decreasing NO bioavailability. Thus, increasing NO availability may improve RBC function and may extend cell life span in old RBC. PMID:25902315

  16. Oral supplementation of vitamin E reduces osmotic fragility of RBC in hemolytic anemic patients with G6PD deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, N.; Begum, S.; Begum, N.; Ali, T.


    Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell member by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus protects cells from oxidative stress-induced lysis in G6PD deficiency. Changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH and MCHC may occur in haemolytic anaemic patients with G6PD deficiency. To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on these changes in order to evaluate the role of this anti-oxidant vitamin in reducing chronic haemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. A total number of 102 subjects with age ranged of 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (experimental group) and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group). The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children ?12 years (in a divided dose, i.e., 4 times daily). Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control) and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD) of Haematology, Banglabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2005 to June 2006 and all healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method. Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV. MCH, MCHC were significantly lower in patients suffering from

  17. Study of a scintillation detector of special shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empl, A.


    Object of this thesis is the study of a rotated scintillator segment especially regarding its light yield. For this both an experiment with the prototype of a segment was performed and also software was produced which simulates the photon transport through light guides and scintillators. The latter allows to obtain without experiment first estimations of the optical properties for variations of the 'verticil' segment. In the central chapter 3 the experimental arrangement and the performance of the experiment are described. Subsequently the measurement results are presented. Previously however chapter 2 is dedicated to the simulation of the photon transport (program structure, simulation results) and the special geometry of the 'verticil'. (orig./HSI) [de

  18. Crucial design issues for special access technology; a Delphi study. (United States)

    O'Rourke, Pearl; Ekins, Ray; Timmins, Bernard; Timmins, Fiona; Long, Siobhan; Coyle, Eugene


    To develop and demonstrate a method to involve professional users of assistive technology (AT) in the development process of customisable products. Employing the ideas of user participation and mass customisation, this research addresses the need for reduced product costs and optimised product flexibility. An adaptable six-question Delphi study was developed to establish consensus among AT professionals on design issues relating to a specified AT domain requiring innovation. The study is demonstrated for the special access technology (SAT) domain. A modified morphological matrix structures the application of the study results to the product design process. Fourteen professionals from the Republic of Ireland and the UK participated. Consensus was reached on prevalent parts of SAT that malfunction, primary reasons for SAT malfunction, characteristics of clients associated with SAT selection, client needs regarding SAT use and training, desirable traits of SAT and clinicians' frustrations with SAT. The study revealed a range of problems related to SAT, highlighting the complexities of successful SAT adoption. The questions led to differentiated insights and enabled design solution conceptualisation from various perspectives. The approach was found to help facilitate efficient generation and application of professional users' knowledge during the design process of customisable AT.

  19. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian


    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This study explored whether increased red blood cell (RBC) swelling and/or plasma or urine amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge might be informative about relative chronic hyperosmotic stress in free-living men. Five healthy men (20–25 years) with baseline total water intake below 2 L/day participated in an 8-week clinical study: four 2-week periods in a U-shaped A-B-C-A design. Intake of drinking water was increased by +0.8 ± 0.3 L/day in period 2, and +1.5 ± 0.3 L/day in period 3, and returned to baseline intake (0.4 ± 0.2 L/day) in period 4. Each week, fasting blood and urine were collected after a 750 mL bolus of drinking water, following overnight water restriction. The periods of higher water intake were associated with significant decreases in RBC deformability (index of cell swelling), plasma histidine, urine arginine, and urine glutamic acid. After 4 weeks of higher water intake, four out of five participants had ½ maximal RBC deformability below 400 mmol/kg; plasma histidine below 100 μmol/L; and/or undetectable urine arginine and urine glutamic acid concentrations. Work is warranted to pursue RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge as possible biomarkers of chronic cell hydration. PMID:24303184

  20. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares


    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases.

  1. Rotational dynamics of C60 in Na2RbC60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christides, C.; Prassides, K.; Neumann, D.A.; Copley, J.R.D.; Mizuki, J.; Tanigaki, K.; Hirosawa, I.; Ebbesen, T.W.


    We have measured the low-energy neutron inelastic-scattering (NIS) spectra of superconducting Na 2 RbC 60 in the temperature range 50-350 K. Well-defined librational peaks are observed at 50 K at 2.83(17) meV (FWHM = 1.7(5) meV). They soften and broaden with increasing temperature. Their behaviour mimics that found in solid C 60 and differs markedly from K 3 C 60 . The rotational barrier for C 60 reorientations in Na 2 RbC 60 is somewhat higher than in pristine C 60 and approximately half as large as in K 3 C 60 . An order-disorder transition is anticipated at a temperature higher than that found in C 60 . (orig.)

  2. Feasibility Study Analysis of Establishing Archery Sports Special Place (United States)

    Tarigan, U. P. P.; Mardhatillah, A.; Budiman, I.; Sembiring, A. C.; Ramadhan, M. S.


    This study essentially discusses the basic concepts related to the decision and process of selecting a sports archery business project in order to provide economic and social benefits over time. Archery sports is a sport that requires special skills, both accuracy, coordination mental training and improves the physical condition of the prime. In Medan, it's still a bit of practice archery, but many people love this sport. From the data collected, there are three locations where archery in the city of the field of the Sunggal Knights is located at Jl Tunggul Hitam no.1A, Kec. Medan Sunggal, Avros Educational Park Aval address at Avros Street No.60 Medan, and the Knights of Johor Archery Club which is located at Jl. The work of Darma Gg. Ujung Family, Medan Johor. Therefore a feasibility study was undertaken in establishing an archery sports place in the field. The aspects to be considered in making feasibility studies are market and marketing aspects, technical and equipment aspects, management aspects, legal aspects, economic and social aspects, and financial aspects. Financial analysis using own capital got Payback Period 3 years 5,8 months, Net Present Value Rp 11.684.026 and obtained Internal Rate of Return of 17%.

  3. rbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns.


    Hasebe, M; Omori, T; Nakazawa, M; Sano, T; Kato, M; Iwatsuki, K


    Pteriodophytes have a longer evolutionary history than any other vascular land plant and, therefore, have endured greater loss of phylogenetically informative information. This factor has resulted in substantial disagreements in evaluating characters and, thus, controversy in establishing a stable classification. To compare competing classifications, we obtained DNA sequences of a chloroplast gene. The sequence of 1206 nt of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbc...

  4. Neem leaf extract as potential modifier of free radical interaction with RBC membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Shilpa M.; Kulkarni, Satish G.; Rane, Charusheela


    Full text: Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is well known as village pharmacy due to its multifaceted medicinal action in curing countless health problems. The leaf extract of Neem is known to purify blood by removing toxins and neutralizing free radicals. Using gamma irradiation as free radical generation process the efficacy of neem leaf extract in combating free radical attack on RBC membrane has been explored. The results narrating role of concentration and dose dependency in this radio modulation will be discussed

  5. Feasibility study of red blood cell debulking by magnetic field-flow fractionation with step-programmed flow. (United States)

    Moore, Lee R; Williams, P Stephen; Nehl, Franziska; Abe, Koji; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej


    Emerging applications of rare cell separation and analysis, such as separation of mature red blood cells from hematopoietic cell cultures, require efficient methods of red blood cell (RBC) debulking. We have tested the feasibility of magnetic RBC separation as an alternative to centrifugal separation using an approach based on the mechanism of magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF). A specially designed permanent magnet assembly generated a quadrupole field having a maximum field of 1.68 T at the magnet pole tips, zero field at the aperture axis, and a nearly constant radial field gradient of 1.75 T/mm (with a negligible angular component) inside a cylindrical aperture of 1.9 mm (diameter) and 76 mm (length). The cell samples included high-spin hemoglobin RBCs obtained by chemical conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin (met RBC) or by exposure to anoxic conditions (deoxy RBC), low-spin hemoglobin obtained by exposure of RBC suspension to ambient air (oxy RBC), and mixtures of deoxy RBC and cells from a KG-1a white blood cell (WBC) line. The observation that met RBCs did not elute from the channel at the lower flow rate of 0.05 mL/min applied for 15 min but quickly eluted at the subsequent higher flow rate of 2.0 mL/min was in agreement with FFF theory. The well-defined experimental conditions (precise field and flow characteristics) and a well-established FFF theory verified by studies with model cell systems provided us with a strong basis for making predictions about potential practical applications of the magnetic RBC separation.

  6. Analysis of RBC-microparticles in stored whole blood bags - a promising marker to detect blood doping in sports? (United States)

    Voss, Sven Christian; Jaganjac, Morana; Al-Thani, Amna Mohamed; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Raynaud, Christophe Michel; Al-Jaber, Hind; Al-Menhali, Afnan Saleh; Merenkov, Zeyed Ahmad; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Latiff, Aishah; Georgakopoulos, Costas


    Blood doping in sports is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To find a possible biomarker for the detection of blood doping, we investigated the changes in blood stored in CPDA-1 blood bags of eight healthy subjects who donated one unit of blood. Aliquots were taken on days 0, 14, and 35. Platelet-free plasma was prepared and stored at -80°C until analysis on a flow cytometer dedicated for the analysis of microparticles (MPs). Changes in the number of red blood cell (RBC) -MPs were highly significant (p doping control but confirmation by a transfusion study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Study of Support Services for Children with Special Needs in the State of Sikkim (United States)

    Dash, Neena


    The purpose of this paper is to present the status of integrated education for children with special needs in the State of Sikkim, to study the various support services required for children with special needs for their successful completion of primary education, to ascertain the academic support provided to children with special needs in the…

  8. A Study on Family Opinions Concerning Services Provided in Special Education Centres (United States)

    Ugurlu, Necla Isikdogan; Kayhan, Nilay


    This study is to diagnose and evaluate children with different special needs medically and educationally and, as a result of those evaluations, to identify families' expectations, opinions and suggestions concerning the special education process, services and the functioning of special education institutions. The mothers of five children who…

  9. Reconstructing a herbivore's diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants. (United States)

    Erickson, David L; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman A; McShea, William J; Ottesen, Andrea


    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbc L gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time-sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples ( F  = 1.73, P  = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4-12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed plants inventoried

  10. Molecular evolution of rbcL in three gymnosperm families: identifying adaptive and coevolutionary patterns

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sen, Lin


    Abstract Background The chloroplast-localized ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco), the primary enzyme responsible for autotrophy, is instrumental in the continual adaptation of plants to variations in the concentrations of CO2. The large subunit (LSU) of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene. Although adaptive processes have been previously identified at this gene, characterizing the relationships between the mutational dynamics at the protein level may yield clues on the biological meaning of such adaptive processes. The role of such coevolutionary dynamics in the continual fine-tuning of RbcL remains obscure. Results We used the timescale and phylogenetic analyses to investigate and search for processes of adaptive evolution in rbcL gene in three gymnosperm families, namely Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae. To understand the relationships between regions identified as having evolved under adaptive evolution, we performed coevolutionary analyses using the software CAPS. Importantly, adaptive processes were identified at amino acid sites located on the contact regions among the Rubisco subunits and on the interface between Rubisco and its activase. Adaptive amino acid replacements at these regions may have optimized the holoenzyme activity. This hypothesis was pinpointed by evidence originated from our analysis of coevolution that supported the correlated evolution between Rubisco and its activase. Interestingly, the correlated adaptive processes between both these proteins have paralleled the geological variation history of the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Conclusions The gene rbcL has experienced bursts of adaptations in response to the changing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. These adaptations have emerged as a result of a continuous dynamic of mutations, many of which may have involved innovation of functional Rubisco features. Analysis of the protein structure and the functional implications of such

  11. Special Education and General Education--Coordinated or Separated? A Study of Curriculum Planning for Pupils with Special Educational Needs (United States)

    Nilsen, Sven


    The central issue of this article is the coordination between special and general education in curriculum planning for pupils with special educational needs. The focus is on individual education plans (IEPs) in special education and work plans in general education. This is also viewed in relation to how special and general education teachers…

  12. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study


    Attar, Karen


    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare Family Archive of Walter de la Mare's Printed Oeuvre at Senate House Library, University of London, as an example of a modern author collections in an institutiona...

  13. School Transitions: A Qualitative Study of the Supports Provided by Washington State Special Education Administrators (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Kari


    This study investigated the role of special education administrators in the transition planning process for children with disabilities ages 3-21 in selected Washington school districts. A basic qualitative study was selected to construct meaning from a described phenomenon. The study sought to identify and explain how special education…

  14. Orff-Schulwerk in Special Education: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filianou


    Full Text Available In the school year 2012-2013 a cross-curricular programme was designed by a class teacher and a music teacher in a school for children with special needs in Athens, Greece. The programme was based on the Carl Orff approach. The purpose of this article is to show the advantages and the effectiveness of the elemental music and movement approach when applied in a group of students with special educational needs in a public school for special education. The motivation of the cooperating teachers in selecting this specific group stemmed from the particular challenges that they were facing. The first challenge was the lack of homogeneity among the students. There were children with mental deficiencies, pervasive developmental disorders (autism and rare syndromes. The second challenge was that the programme focused on only one specific topic that sought to acquaint children with their body and how to relate to it through space and time. The final challenge was the use of music and movement as the main means of achieving the goals of this programme. The goals were both musical and non-musical. The outcomes of the programme were thought to be positive by both teachers. The students worked in a group and their cooperation increased progressively during the programme. They showed progress not only cognitively but also psychokinetically and socially. At the end of the school year, their progress was marked by their participation in the school festival, in a performance of music and movement, which was the result of their efforts all year.

  15. Westinghouse Hanford Company special nuclear material vault storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisch, R.R.


    Category 1 and 2 Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) require storage in vault or vault type rooms as specified in DOE orders 5633.3A and 6430.1A. All category 1 and 2 SNM in dry storage on the Hanford site that is managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co (WHC) is located in the 200 West Area at Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facilities. This document provides current and projected SNM vault inventories in terms of storage space filled and forecasts available space for possible future storage needs

  16. Studying typoligical features of sportsmen of different specializations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova O.V.


    Full Text Available Properties of temperament of students-sportsmen are considered. 10 basketball-players and 10 fighters took part in research. Experience of trainings makes no less 3th. All participants of research have sporting qualification of the I digit. A level is certain extra-, introversion and measures of psychoneurotic sportsmen of different specialization. Directions of selection of hardwares and determination of individual style of activity are rotined. The constituents of individual approach are extended. The methods of work are certain with every sportsman.

  17. Education Empowerment Model for the Disabled Learners: A Case Study at Cicendo School for Special Education (United States)

    Kamil, Mustofa; Shantini, Yanti; Sardin


    This paper originates from a study conducted to examine the challenges faced by the Schools for Special Education (SLB) in their effort to empower people living with disabilities. The study aimed: 1) to describe the stages involved in the education for empowerment of the disabled groups through schools for special education, 2) to present an…

  18. Special Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special Educators (United States)

    Downing, Brienne


    Special education teachers are in high demand and greatly needed to meet the needs of the growing population of students qualified for special education services under the Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004. The increasing attrition rates of special education teachers are a social justice issue that needs attention. The…

  19. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia; Measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with sup 99m Tc-RBC SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo (Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan)); Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi


    To evaluate the efficacy of tests for selecting patients with hemodynamic compromise, measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in thirteen patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and was compared with results obtained by {sup 133}Xe SPECT and acetazolamide (Diamox) test. All patients in our study suffered TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery, although plain CT scan or MRI revealed no or, if any, only localized infarcted lesions. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with {sup 133}Xe SPECT before and after intravenous injection of 10 - 12 mg/kg acetazolamide (Diamox). Our results suggest that the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF (mean transit time) is a more sensitive index of the cerebral perfusion reserve than the use of only rCBV or rCBF of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Also, the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF is significantly correlated (r= -0.72) with the Diamox reactivity of rCBF, which is considered to represent the cerebral vasodilatory capacity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. Postoperative SPECT study revealed remarkable improvement of ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF and Diamox reactivity in four patients who underwent EC/IC bypass surgery to improve the hemodynamic compromise. In conclusion, our results suggest that the measurement of rCBV/rCBF with {sup 133}Xe SPECT and {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT is useful for detecting the hemodynamic compromise in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (author).

  20. The Effect of Badges on the Engagement of Students with Special Educational Needs: A Case Study (United States)

    Sitra, Ourania; Katsigiannakis, Vangelis; Karagiannidis, Charalampos; Mavropoulou, Sofia


    This paper addresses the perceived benefits from gamification in the context of special education. It presents the findings of a study evaluating the effects of a specific gamification element (badges) on the engagement of five students with special learning needs, through online courses developed on the Moodle Learning Management System (LMS).…

  1. A Mixed Methods Survey Research Study of Novice Special Education Teachers: Investigation of Reading Preparedness (United States)

    Stratton, Mary P.


    Novice special education teachers have become an integral part of the public and private school systems throughout Pennsylvania. This mixed-methods research study explored the expertise and preparedness of current novice special education teachers. A combination of an electronic survey questionnaire and phone and face-to-face interviews were…

  2. [sup 99m]Tc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy; Assessmet of bleeding site and rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)


    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with [sup 99m]Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author).

  3. National study on carless and special needs populations mobilizing your community for emergency evacuation. (United States)


    The National Study on Carless and Special Needs Evacuation Planning was a multi-year study funded by the Federal Transit Administration : to research how state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), transit ...

  4. Physiologic Impact of Circulating RBC Microparticles upon Blood-Vascular Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Said


    Full Text Available Here, we review current data elucidating the role of red blood cell derived microparticles (RMPs in normal vascular physiology and disease progression. Microparticles (MPs are submicron-size, membrane-encapsulated vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to numerous stimuli that promote a sequence of cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes and resulting MP genesis. MPs were originally considered as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and more recently are recognized to have pleiotropic biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in initiating apoptosis. RMPs, specifically, form normally during RBC maturation in response to injury during circulation, and are copiously produced during processing and storage for transfusion. Notably, several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs markedly from that of intact RBCs and the nature/composition of RMP components are affected by the specific circumstances of RMP genesis. Described RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion as well as influence upon vasoregulation via influence upon nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Of particular relevance, RMPs scavenge NO more avidly than do intact RBCs; this physiology has been proposed to contribute to the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that may be observed following transfusion. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in normal and patho-physiology and in transfusion recipients is an area of continued investigation.

  5. Influence of iron deficiency in the radiopharmaceutical behavior of red blood cells labeled with 99mTc(99mTC-RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmanovici, G.; Salgueiro, M.J.; Pernas, L.; Collia, N.; Leonardi, N.; Zubillaga, M.


    Full text: Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with 99m Tc are commonly used in the evaluation of cardiac function, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, red blood cell volume or splenic sequestration. Generally stannous ion is used as reducing agent. A proposed mechanism is that once the stannous ion (Sn) and the pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) reach the interior of the RBC, the radionuclide is mainly house in the β-chain of hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to determine if hemoglobin content reduction, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, could affect the efficiency of RBC labeling and the biological distribution of this radiopharmaceutical. We studied 30 rats fed for 3 weeks after weaning with diets with iron contents of 6.5 ppm (group A), 18 ppm (group B) and 100 ppm (control). For all groups, the labeling yields were always higher than 97%; the percentage of radioactivity was mostly founded in blood with almost negligible radioactivity the rest of the studied organs. We can conclude that the decrease in hemoglobin content, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, does not interfere neither in the labeling nor in the biodistribution of red blood cells labeled with 99m Tc. (author)

  6. California GAMA Special Study: Nitrate Fate and Transport in the Salinas Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Jean E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hillegonds, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holtz, Marianne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, Sarah K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Under the GAMA program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory carries out special studies that address groundwater quality issues of statewide relevance. The study described here is one in a series of special studies that address the fate and transport of nitrate in basins where groundwater is the main source of water for both irrigation and public drinking water supply.

  7. The study of the value of applying the special functions of DSA during uterine artery embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ting; Zhao Zhenhua; Lv Weigong


    Objective: To study the value of applying the special functions of DSA during uterine artery embolization. Methods: 122 cases were performed uterine artery embolization, including 67 cases with traditional operation and 55 cases with applying the special functions of DSA: rotary DSA angiography, the best work position and road map technology. We recorded the correlative operative indices to compare and analyse the mean exposure time, the mean operative time, the mean dosage of contrast medium, the probability of vasospasm and injury of blood vessel during operation. Results: The mean exposure time, mean operative time and the mean dosage of contrast medium were reduced with the special functions of DSA during uterine artery embolization. There is significant difference between traditional operation and the operation applying the special functions of DSA (P<0.01). Conclusion: Applying the special functions of DSA during uterine artery embolization can reduce the operative time, operative risk and economic burden. (authors)

  8. Special care with special child-oral health status of differently abled children attending special schools in Delhi: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Prasad


    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an essential component of overall health. Oral health maintenance is more complex for the physically challenged children; the essential problem is lack of cooperation and coordination because of their physical or mental inability. Thus, physically challenged children are considered as a high-risk group for having dental problems. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess dental caries experience, oral hygiene status, periodontal status, and prevalence of malocclusion among differently abled children attending special schools in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A total of 1060 (610 males and 450 females, differently abled children were included in the study. The children were grouped into visually impaired, hearing and speech impaired, and orthopedic physically challenged only. Clinical examination was recorded using Dentition Status and Treatment Need Index and periodontal status recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013 and examination for malocclusion was made according to the Dental Aesthetic Index as described by the WHO Oral Health Survey 1997. The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index introduced by John C Greene and Jack R Vermillion in 1964 was used to assess the oral hygiene status. Results: Out of 1060 physically challenged children, 56.4% (598 had dental caries with the mean index or decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT being 1.10 (standard deviation ±1.26. It was observed that prevalence of dental caries was high in visually impaired group (63.2% and least in hearing and speech impaired group (51.7%. The overall oral hygiene status recorded was good in 58.5%, fair in 40.8%, and poor in 0.7% of the study population. Conclusion: The cumulative neglect of oral health was seen among the physically challenged children. Children with visual impairment had much more poorer oral health when compared to the hearing and speech impairment and orthopedically physically challenged group. An improved accessibility

  9. Intelligent transportation systems for planned special events : a cross-cutting study (United States)


    This cross-cutting study examines how six agencies in five states used and continue to use ITS to reduce congestion generated by planned special events, thereby reducing crashes, increasing travel time reliability, and reducing driver frustration.

  10. Long-chain PUFA in Granulocytes, Mononuclear Cells, and RBC in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis: Relation to Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Marianne H.; Ott, Peter; Michaelsen, Kim F.


    -related liver disease were matched with 20 CF patients without. Blood samples were analysed for liver biochemistry and haematology. Granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and RBC were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography. Hepatic ultrasound...

  11. Employing Case Study Methodology in Special Educational Settings (United States)

    Rouse, Angelise M.


    In general, case studies are a preferred strategy when "how" or "why" questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context (Yin, 2009). This article will examine the advantages and disadvantages of employing case study…

  12. Prevalence of Sport Specialization in High School Athletics: A 1-Year Observational Study. (United States)

    Bell, David R; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison


    The prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes is unknown. This information is needed to determine the scope of this issue in an active population. To determine the prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes and to determine if specialization is influenced by classification method, year in school, sex, and school size. A secondary purpose was to determine if highly specialized athletes would be more likely to report a history of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. High school athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years from 2 local high schools completed both a sport specialization survey and an injury history survey. Athletes were classified into low, moderate, or high specialization groups using a recently developed 3-point system and were also classified using a self-classification method. A total of 302 athletes completed the surveys and were classified as low specialization (n = 105, 34.8%), moderate specialization (n = 87, 28.8%), or high specialization (n = 110, 36.4%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to be classified in the low specialization group (low, 43%; moderate, 32%; high, 25%) compared with those from the large school (low, 26%; moderate, 26%; high, 48%) (P single sport (n = 89, 29.5%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to classify themselves as multisport (n = 128, 86%) (P school (n = 85, 56%). There were no differences in the history of hip, knee, or ankle injuries between athletes who self-classified as single sport (hip: n = 10, 3%; knee: n = 19, 6%; ankle: n = 35, 12%) versus those who self-classified as multisport (hip: n = 45, 8%; knee: n = 23, 15%; ankle: n = 98, 33%) (P > .370). Classification method and school size influenced the prevalence of specialization in high school athletes. Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a history of overuse knee or hip injuries. Participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year

  13. Specialized mouse embryonic stem cells for studying vascular development. (United States)

    Glaser, Drew E; Burns, Andrew B; Hatano, Rachel; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Fan, Yuhong; McCloskey, Kara E


    Vascular progenitor cells are desirable in a variety of therapeutic strategies; however, the lineage commitment of endothelial and smooth muscle cell from a common progenitor is not well-understood. Here, we report the generation of the first dual reporter mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines designed to facilitate the study of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle development in vitro. These mESC lines express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the endothelial promoter, Tie-2, and Discomsoma sp. red fluorescent protein (RFP) under the promoter for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The lines were then characterized for morphology, marker expression, and pluripotency. The mESC colonies were found to exhibit dome-shaped morphology, alkaline phosphotase activity, as well as expression of Oct 3/4 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. The mESC colonies were also found to display normal karyotypes and are able to generate cells from all three germ layers, verifying pluripotency. Tissue staining confirmed the coexpression of VE (vascular endothelial)-cadherin with the Tie-2 GFP+ expression on endothelial structures and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain with the α-SMA RFP+ smooth muscle cells. Lastly, it was verified that the developing mESC do express Tie-2 GFP+ and α-SMA RFP+ cells during differentiation and that the GFP+ cells colocalize with the vascular-like structures surrounded by α-SMA-RFP cells. These dual reporter vascular-specific mESC permit visualization and cell tracking of individual endothelial and smooth muscle cells over time and in multiple dimensions, a powerful new tool for studying vascular development in real time.

  14. rbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns. (United States)

    Hasebe, M; Omori, T; Nakazawa, M; Sano, T; Kato, M; Iwatsuki, K


    Pteriodophytes have a longer evolutionary history than any other vascular land plant and, therefore, have endured greater loss of phylogenetically informative information. This factor has resulted in substantial disagreements in evaluating characters and, thus, controversy in establishing a stable classification. To compare competing classifications, we obtained DNA sequences of a chloroplast gene. The sequence of 1206 nt of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL) was determined from 58 species, representing almost all families of leptosporangiate ferns. Phlogenetic trees were inferred by the neighbor-joining and the parsimony methods. The two methods produced almost identical phylogenetic trees that provided insights concerning major general evolutionary trends in the leptosporangiate ferns. Interesting findings were as follows: (i) two morphologically distinct heterosporous water ferns, Marsilea and Salvinia, are sister genera; (ii) the tree ferns (Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae, and Metaxyaceae) are monophyletic; and (iii) polypodioids are distantly related to the gleichenioids in spite of the similarity of their exindusiate soral morphology and are close to the higher indusiate ferns. In addition, the affinities of several "problematic genera" were assessed.

  15. OpenRBC: Redefining the Frontier of Red Blood Cell Simulations at Protein Resolution (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Li, He; Grinberg, Leopold; Sachdeva, Vipin; Evangelinos, Constantinos; Karniadakis, George

    We present a from-scratch development of OpenRBC, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics code, which is capable of performing an unprecedented in silico experiment - simulating an entire mammal red blood cell lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton modeled by 4 million mesoscopic particles - on a single shared memory node. To achieve this, we invented an adaptive spatial searching algorithm to accelerate the computation of short-range pairwise interactions in an extremely sparse 3D space. The algorithm is based on a Voronoi partitioning of the point cloud of coarse-grained particles, and is continuously updated over the course of the simulation. The algorithm enables the construction of a lattice-free cell list, i.e. the key spatial searching data structure in our code, in O (N) time and space space with cells whose position and shape adapts automatically to the local density and curvature. The code implements NUMA/NUCA-aware OpenMP parallelization and achieves perfect scaling with up to hundreds of hardware threads. The code outperforms a legacy solver by more than 8 times in time-to-solution and more than 20 times in problem size, thus providing a new venue for probing the cytomechanics of red blood cells. This work was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Model- ing of Materials (CM4). YHT acknowledges partial financial support from an IBM Ph.D. Scholarship Award.

  16. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis; With special reference to the neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kubo, Hideki; Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))


    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.).

  17. Reconstructing a herbivore’s diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman; McShea, William J.; Ottesen, Andrea


    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbcL gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time—sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples (F = 1.73, P = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4–12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed behaviour may favour

  18. A Descriptive Case Study of Appreciative Inquiry as an Approach to Strategic Planning for Special Education in a Public School (United States)

    Ruhlman, Paul L., Jr.


    This study's purpose was to describe appreciative inquiry (AI) as an approach to strategic planning for special education in a public school. The study investigated four research questions. How do plans for special education emerge as participants engage in the four phases of AI during strategic planning for the future of special education in a…

  19. Birth weight and special educational needs: results of a population-based study in Berlin. (United States)

    Bettge, Susanne; Oberwöhrmann, Sylke; Brockstedt, Matthias; Bührer, Christoph


    Preterm infants are at higher risk for developmental problems. The aim of this study is to quantify the relation between birth weight and special educational needs. We analyzed data from the pre-school examinations of 134 313 children in Berlin aged 5 to 6 who were examined between 2007 and 2011. Special educational needs were diagnosed in 8058 children (6.0%), 4943 (61%) of whom had weighed 3000 g or more at birth. The percentage of children with special educational needs rose steadily with decreasing birth weight (2250-2499 g, 9.2%; 1250-1499 g, 21.1%; less than 750 g, 35.6%). Logistic regression analysis yielded odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals for special educational needs that ranged from 1.32 [1.17-1.47] for birth weight 2750-2999 g to 12.83 [7.48-22.03] for birth weight less than 750 g. Further risk factors were male sex (1.88 [1.75-2.03]), low social status (5.96 [5.21-6.82]), an immigrant background associated with poor German language skills in the family (1.63 [1.43-1.86]), and being raised by a single parent (1.21 [1.12-1.31]). On the other hand, nursery school and/or kindergarten enrollment for at least two years before entering school (0.82 [0.73-0.91]) and an immigrant background with good German skills in the family (0.39 [0.34-0.45]) were associated with lower rates of special educational needs. The risk of special educational needs increases already with moderately decreased birth weight. The most important factor other than birth weight is the family's social status. Although children of very low birth weight have a much higher rate of special educational needs than other children, they still make up only a small percentage of all children with special educational needs.

  20. DNA Barcoding the Canadian Arctic Flora: Core Plastid Barcodes (rbcL + matK) for 490 Vascular Plant Species (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M.; Sokoloff, Paul C.; Gillespie, Lynn J.; Consaul, Laurie L.; Bull, Roger D.


    Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA–trnH, psbK–psbI, atpF–atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF–atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species. PMID

  1. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error. (United States)

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean


    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  2. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences across Six Case Studies (United States)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby


    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The…

  3. 77 FR 9948 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E7 Studies in Support of Special... (United States)


    ...] International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations; Geriatrics... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``E7 Studies... under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for...

  4. Differentiated practice and specialization in community nursing: a descriptive study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Huijer Abu-Saad, H.; Zee, J. van der


    Nursing roles are described with respect to two principles on the basis of an inventory study carried out in the Netherlands: differentiated practice and specialization. A total of 58 agencies for community nursing participated in this study (response = 84%). In each of these agencies an expert was

  5. Delimiting the species Neosiphonia yendoi (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) based on COI and rbcL genetic variation in Korea and Japan (United States)

    Kim, Byeongseok; Yang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Myung Sook


    Although the marine red algal genus Neosiphonia is well characterized, many species of Neosiphonia are poorly understood. To correctly define the species delimitation of Neosiphonia yendoi using genetic variation, owing to the confusion over identification with " N. sphaerocarpa" from Korea, we investigated intensively the haplotype network of the mitochondrial COI and the plastid rbcL genes of specimens collected from Korea and Japan. The molecular analyses indicated that specimens collected in different sites of Korea and Japan belong to the same species, Neosiphonia yendoi and " Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa" from Korea, which is distinguished from N. sphaerocarpa from Florida and is allied with N. yendoi collected from the type locality, Muroran of Japan. A total of 29 COI and 13 rbcL haplotypes were found and the COI haplotype network shows evidence of a clear break between specimens from Jeju Island and all other locations of Korea, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity within N. yendoi.

  6. Contínua evolução da RBC: um obrigado a todos os colaboradores!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Telles


    Full Text Available Desde de seu nascimento, a RBC prima pela divulgação do conhecimento pericial tecnicamente validado e pela discussão de novos métodos e de casos. É o caminho que há de ser constantemente trilhado pelos profissionais da perícia para que não eivem seus laudos periciais e pareceres técnicos de vícios insanáveis cujas consequências seriam nefastas para a justiça. Não é à toa que o Corpo Editorial da RBC, com o imprescindível auxílio dos editores de sessão e dos avaliadores, não envida esforços na contínua evolução da revista em direção à qualidade. Prova disso é a permanente busca por indexação em vários meios e pela elevação dos índices de qualidade por qualificação externa. A RBC aparece no Latindex, no CrossRef, no Google Scholar, no Research Gate, no Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ, no Electronic Journal Library (EZ3, no Scilit, no Diadorim, na ABEC Brasil, na Universitäts Bibliothek UBL Leipzig e na Qualis/CAPES.

  7. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration (United States)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.


    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Andriichuk


    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative description of inclusive and special systems of education. On the basis of American and British studies are shown that modern scientists, voluntary organizations and parents of the disabled kids meet two problems: to prove that inclusion is necessary for children with special needs as the alternative to special education and to illustrate the real ways of inclusive education implementation into general educational process. The main goal of inclusive education is defined – to educate an absolutely full member of society by attracting all participants of education process to the general school activities. The author of the article points out that the professionals in the sphere of special education created and worked out a great amount of forms, methods and techniques of teaching which work with particular categories of children with special educational needs. This potential is useful and valuable from the point of view of inclusion which cannot succeed without the professional participation of specialists in different fields of pedagogy, psychology and rehabilitology.

  9. Recruiting a special sample with sparse resources: lessons from a study of Gulf War veterans. (United States)

    Erickson, Laura C; Ritchie, Janis B; Javors, Jennifer M; Golomb, Beatrice A


    Recruitment is the most common failure point for clinical studies, with recruitment failure adversely affecting science, dollar costs, human capital, and the ethical risk-benefit trade-off to study participants. Added problems attend recruitment of special and/or challenging candidate populations, particularly in settings of sparse recruitment resources. Obstacles to study recruitment and participation of ill Gulf War veterans (GWVs) include health barriers, work and family obligations, mistrust of the medical/scientific community, and challenges to identifying/reaching potential participants. We sought to identify and implement a minimal-cost multipronged recruitment approach for a small single-site (recruitment settings and larger multisite studies. Categories of recruitment approach included directed as well as general media, collaborations with support groups/interest groups, local free advertising resources (Craigslist and Backpage), physician outreach, Internet-based approaches, and referrals from study participants and screenees. We describe the subcategories and yield of each approach within each approach. Each approach contributed candidates to the final recruitment tally, with the largest fractional contribution by directed media (52%). Among the remainder, no other individual approach was clearly dominant (largest contribution: 13%). Special population subsamples present special challenges; all approaches cited may not be useful in all settings and subpopulations. A multipronged suite of minimal-cost approaches led to successful recruitment to target for this single-site clinical trial for a special population with significant recruitment challenges. It additionally yielded a nation-wide corpus of several hundred individuals interested in participation in future studies of GWVs. While certain approaches produced disproportionate yield, it was not possible to predict these a priori. We suggest that this model, which incorporates a suite of approaches, and

  10. A Case Study of Conceptual Change in Special Relativity: The Influence of Prior Knowledge in Learning. (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.


    Results of a case study (one graduate physics tutor) demonstrate that a person's conceptions, which include metaphysical commitments, play a significant role in the way s/he understands complex subject matter such as Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. (Author/SK)

  11. Understanding Special Olympics Experiences from the Athlete Perspectives Using Photo-Elicitation: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Burnham Riosa, Priscilla; Robinson, Suzanne; Ryan, Stephanie; Tint, Ami; Viecili, Michelle; MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Shine, Rebecca


    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities experience challenges to participating in organized sport, despite its known benefits. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of participating in sport (Special Olympics) from the perspectives of athletes with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Five…

  12. Enacting the Role of Special Needs Educator--Six Swedish Case Studies (United States)

    Klang, Nina; Gustafson, Katarina; Möllås, Gunvie; Nilholm, Claes; Göransson, Kerstin


    With the increasing focus on inclusion, special needs educators (SNEs) are now expected to share responsibility for pupils with teacher colleagues and to lead school development, but it is a challenge to enact this role in schools. The aim of the study was to explore how professional roles of Swedish SNEs are enacted in local school contexts. From…

  13. Comparative Study of Bullying Victimization among Students in General and Special Education (United States)

    Hartley, Michael T.; Bauman, Sheri; Nixon, Charisse L.; Davis, Stan


    Research on bullying is an important avenue for understanding the social integration of students in special education. Focused on 3,305 students who self-reported victimization of two to three times per month or more, this study compared the pattern of verbal, relational, and physical bullying among students in general education and special…

  14. External Reporting Lines of Academic Special Libraries: A Health Sciences Case Study (United States)

    Buhler, Amy G.; Ferree, Nita; Cataldo, Tara T.; Tennant, Michele R.


    Very little literature exists on the nature of external reporting lines and funding structures of academic special libraries. This study focuses on academic health sciences libraries. The authors analyze information gathered from statistics published by the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) from 1977 through 2007; an…

  15. A five-year study of residents of a special hostel for people with dementia. (United States)

    Lefroy, R B; Hobbs, M S; Hyndman, J


    In order to consider whether admission to a special hostel was a desirable policy in view of the likelihood of subsequent transfer to a nursing home, this study compared the time spent by residents in a special hostel with the period in a nursing home after they were transferred out of the hostel. We also estimated the number of nursing home places necessary for residents who were transferred and studied the reasons for transfer. The setting was a special hostel in Perth, Western Australia, for 36 people with moderate or severe dementia. The periods spent in the hostel or a nursing home were calculated for all residents admitted between 1985 and 1990. Forty-two of the 84 residents admitted during the study period were transferred to nursing homes. About two thirds of the total time in the two institutions was spent in the hostel. The two principal reasons necessitating transfer to a nursing home were advancing dementia and the addition of a physical impairment. Because a major proportion of the care of selected people with dementia (who can no longer remain at home) can be undertaken in a special hostel, this facility should be included with standard hostel and nursing home in arrangements for institutional care. Between 20 and 25 nursing home places are necessary for residents transferred from a hostel of this size.

  16. Feasibility Study of Document Delivery Services in Special Libraries in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assiyeh Pour- Emam- Ali


    Full Text Available The present study investigates the feasibility of establishing document delivery services in special libraries in Tehran. Document delivery services is copyright-cleared hard copy or electronic copy supply to individuals or corporations on a non-profit or for-profit basis. A descriptive survey was conducted over 105 special libraries located within Tehran. Capabilities studied included manual and automated equipments, skilled and motivated manpower, adequate budget and etc. Investigations show that 8.42% of these libraries use web-sites for resource location. 5.43% employ bibliographies. 5.36% of users lodge their requests by phone. 2.32% of the libraries receive requests in person. 3.14% of librarians are familiar with English while 6.28% are familiar with IT. 5.27% of the libraries studied use British library Document Supply Center at Boston Spa as their primary source of Foreign Document acquisition. 5.32% of the libraries consider membership in Interlibrary Cooperative Schemes as appropriate means of meeting patrons’ information needs. Maximum request response time is 3-4 weeks. 3.28% of the requests are for books. 6.88% of the special libraries, lack staff training courses for skill acquisition in the area of document delivery. 8.29% of libraries cite lack of adequate equipment as the main document delivery obstacle. The findings demonstrate the document delivery service among special libraries in Tehran is not appropriate given the existing capabilities.

  17. Study of special capacity in boxers with different styles of fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Aksutin


    Full Text Available Purpose : the determination of tendency in boxer to a certain style of fight is important at all stages. Material : The special capacity in boxers with different styles of fight were studied. The special capacity and the impact force were studied by special training equipment among 23 boxers of higher qualification. The absolute and the relative strength of serial and single strikes were studied. Results : the results indicated that the absolutely impact force, the total tonnage and the relative strength of his right hand of strikes in boxers-“strongman” are more higher than in boxers with different styles. In boxers-“player” the power-hitting left-handed is more increasing for different styles. This fact indicates the presence among boxers-“player” the left-handed persons. Conclusions : the presented data are indicated about more higher of special endurance in boxers-“fastest”. This group of boxers differs from other of more higher development speed endurance

  18. Special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.


    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  19. Reconstructing a herbivore’s diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman; McShea, William J.; Ottesen, Andrea


    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbcL gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time—sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples (F = 1.73, P = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4–12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed <1 % of each

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, and smoking behaviours among physicians specializing in public health: a multicentre study. (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Saulle, Rosella; Unim, Brigid; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Baldo, Vincenzo; Bergomi, Margherita; Cacciari, Paolo; Castaldi, Silvana; Del Corno, Giuseppe; Di Stanislao, Francesco; Panà, Augusto; Gregorio, Pasquale; Grillo, Orazio Claudio; Grossi, Paolo; La Rosa, Francesco; Nante, Nicola; Pavia, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Schioppa, Francesco Saverio; Fallico, Roberto; Siliquini, Roberta; Triassi, Maria; Vitale, Francesco; Boccia, Antonio


    Healthcare professionals have an important role to play both as advisers-influencing smoking cessation-and as role models. However, many of them continue to smoke. The aims of this study were to examine smoking prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among four cohorts physicians specializing in public health, according to the Global Health Profession Students Survey (GHPSS) approach. A multicentre cross-sectional study was carried out in 24 Italian schools of public health. The survey was conducted between January and April 2012 and it was carried out a census of students in the selected schools for each years of course (from first to fourth year of attendance), therefore among four cohorts of physicians specializing in Public Health (for a total of n. 459 medical doctors). The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered via a special website which is created ad hoc for the survey. Logistic regression model was used to identify possible associations with tobacco smoking status. Hosmer-Lemeshow test was performed. The level of significance was P ≤ 0.05. A total of 388 answered the questionnaire on the website (85%), of which 81 (20.9%) declared to be smokers, 309 (79.6%) considered health professionals as behavioural models for patients, and 375 (96.6%) affirmed that health professionals have a role in giving advice or information about smoking cessation. Although 388 (89.7%) heard about smoking related issues during undergraduate courses, only 17% received specific smoking cessation training during specialization. The present study highlights the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training, given the high prevalence of smokers among physicians specializing in public health, their key role both as advisers and behavioural models, and the limited tobacco training offered in public health schools.

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Smoking Behaviours among Physicians Specializing in Public Health: A Multicentre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre


    Full Text Available Background. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play both as advisers—influencing smoking cessation—and as role models. However, many of them continue to smoke. The aims of this study were to examine smoking prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among four cohorts physicians specializing in public health, according to the Global Health Profession Students Survey (GHPSS approach. Materials and Methods. A multicentre cross-sectional study was carried out in 24 Italian schools of public health. The survey was conducted between January and April 2012 and it was carried out a census of students in the selected schools for each years of course (from first to fourth year of attendance, therefore among four cohorts of physicians specializing in Public Health (for a total of n. 459 medical doctors. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered via a special website which is created ad hoc for the survey. Logistic regression model was used to identify possible associations with tobacco smoking status. Hosmer-Lemeshow test was performed. The level of significance was P≤0.05. Results. A total of 388 answered the questionnaire on the website (85%, of which 81 (20.9% declared to be smokers, 309 (79.6% considered health professionals as behavioural models for patients, and 375 (96.6% affirmed that health professionals have a role in giving advice or information about smoking cessation. Although 388 (89.7% heard about smoking related issues during undergraduate courses, only 17% received specific smoking cessation training during specialization. Conclusions. The present study highlights the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training, given the high prevalence of smokers among physicians specializing in public health, their key role both as advisers and behavioural models, and the limited tobacco training offered in public health schools.

  2. BMI changes in children and adolescents attending a specialized childhood obesity center: a cohort study


    Maggio, Albane BR; Saunders Gasser, Catherine; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier E; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Chamay-Weber, Catherine


    Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...

  3. Psychosocial Studies of Migration and Community: Introduction to the Special Issue


    Douglas D. Perkins; Neal A. Palmer; Manuel García-Ramírez


    Introducing the special issue on psychosocial studies of migration and community, we briefly reflect on the global increase in, and issues related to, both international and domestic migration, particularly from rural areas of less developed countries, which has fueled rapid urbanization and intercultural tensions in both post-industrial and developing countries. Topics covered in the issue are summarized, including an Italian study of the emotional impact of discrimination against immigrant ...

  4. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies (United States)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  5. Tourette's syndrome in a special education population: a pilot study involving a single school district. (United States)

    Kurlan, R; Whitmore, D; Irvine, C; McDermott, M P; Como, P G


    To determine whether children requiring special education represent a high-risk group for identifying Tourette's syndrome (TS), we performed direct examinations for the presence of tics in 35 special education and 35 regular classroom students from a single school district. Of the special education students, nine (26%) had definite or probable tics as compared with only two (6%) of the regular classroom students. About one-third of the students with tics currently meet diagnostic criteria for TS and probably more will do so in the future. About one-half of the subjects with tics have evidence of obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB) or an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). For three randomly selected students with definite tics, direct examinations of first-degree relatives revealed the presence of tics in all families. Subjects to the limitations of this pilot study, we conclude that TS and related tic disorders are commonly associated with the need for special education in this single school district. TS might also be an important contributor to school problems in the childhood population at large and may be a highly prevalent condition. In addition, we conclude that childhood tics are associated with OCB and ADHD, are genetically determined, and are part of the TS clinical spectrum.

  6. Special Needs Education in Light of the Inclusion Principle: An Exploratory Study of Special Needs Education Practice in Belarusian and Norwegian Preschools (United States)

    Hannås, Bjørg Mari; Bahdanovich Hanssen, Natallia


    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible practical consequences of the ideological principle of inclusion. In this article, we investigate, compare and discuss how employees of Norwegian and Belarusian preschools perceive their own, and their preschools', special needs education practices related to children with language difficulties.…

  7. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise


    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  8. Habitat specialization through germination cueing: a comparative study of herbs from forests and open habitats. (United States)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen Pieter; Bruun, Hans Henrik


    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently accompanied by specialization in their regeneration niche; and (2) species are thereby adapted to utilize different windows of opportunity in time (season) and space (habitat). Seed germination response to temperature, light and stratification was tested for 17 congeneric pairs, each consisting of one forest species and one open-habitat species. A factorial design was used with temperature levels and diurnal temperature variation (10 °C constant, 15-5 °C fluctuating, 20 °C constant, 25-15 °C fluctuating), and two light levels (light and darkness) and a cold stratification treatment. The congeneric species pair design took phylogenetic dependence into account. Species from open habitats germinated better at high temperatures, whereas forest species performed equally well at low and high temperatures. Forest species tended to germinate only after a period of cold stratification that could break dormancy, while species from open habitats generally germinated without cold stratification. The empirically derived germination strategies correspond quite well with establishment opportunities for forest and open-habitat plant species in nature. Annual changes in temperature and light regime in temperate forest delimit windows of opportunity for germination and establishment. Germination strategies of forest plants are adaptations to utilize such narrow windows in time. Conversely, lack of fit between germination ecology and environment may explain why species of open habitats generally fail to establish in forests. Germination strategy should be considered an important mechanism for habitat specialization in temperate herbs to forest habitats. The findings strongly suggest that

  9. Reasons for the choice to specialize in psychiatry - a retrospective study. (United States)

    Szczegielniak, Anna; Skowronek, Anna; Skowronek, Rafał; Dębska, Ewa; Wydra, Katarzyna; Frey, Przemysław; Krysta, Krzysztof


    Providing the mental health service is one of the main tasks of every state. Its implementation obviously depends on the number of professionally active psychiatrists. The aim of the study was to analyze the motives in the choice of the specialization in psychiatry from the perspective of physicians-practitioners. An original questionnaire, containing 22 questions, was implemented. The study group was created by recruiting 132 psychiatrists participating in the International Scientific-Training Conference in Wisła, Poland in 2011. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. The majority of the respondents decided to become psychiatrists during their university studies (43.61%) and just after their studies (37.59%). Only 9.02% knew before starting university, which field of medicine to select, and 8.27% were originally practitioners in a different medical specialization. The factors having the greatest influence on making the decision were: self-esteem (58.64%), practical classes in college and the experience of special types of work with a patient (the percentage for both factors was 33.83%). Prestige (3%) and media influence (3.76%) seem to be the least important factors. 81% of respondents admitted that it was their own independent decision. In the group of those who were influenced by others, the strongest source of advice was the opinion of a partner (4.51%), while the opinion of the family and a well-known specialist in the field turned out to be much less important (the percentage for both factors was 1.5%). 94.73% participants said that they would choose the same specialization once again. Public perception of psychiatry is still not satisfactory and may have little impact on the popularity of this specialization. The form of teaching at universities is important in the selection process of the specialization. The results of our questionnaire may be a helpful tool to improve the image of psychiatry as an attractive path of professional career, and

  10. [Study on spectrum analysis of X-ray based on rotational mass effect in special relativity]. (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Quan; Xiao, Qing-Quan


    Based on special relativity, the formation mechanism of characteristic X-ray has been studied, and the influence of rotational mass effect on X-ray spectrum has been given. A calculation formula of the X-ray wavelength based upon special relativity was derived. Error analysis was carried out systematically for the calculation values of characteristic wavelength, and the rules of relative error were obtained. It is shown that the values of the calculation are very close to the experimental values, and the effect of rotational mass effect on the characteristic wavelength becomes more evident as the atomic number increases. The result of the study has some reference meaning for the spectrum analysis of characteristic X-ray in application.

  11. The Disability Studies in Education Annual Conference: Explorations of Working Within, and Against, Special Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Connor


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the Disability Studies in Education (DSE conference as an example of expanding disability studies (DS. First, the origins, purpose, and history of the DSE conference are described as a valid alternative discipline to special education. Second, the following three questions are posed in relation to DSE scholars: (1 To what degree can we transgress within existing structures of teacher education and doctoral programs without being provided lip-service, coopted, or dismissed as ideological versus practical? (2 To what degree can we engage (and critique the field of special education within its journals and conferences—and provide a greater plurality of perspectives within them? And, (3 how can we strategize to widely circulate ideas within DSE throughout education and its related fields? Presentations from the 2012 DSE conference are analyzed, described, and used as a collective response to help answer these questions. Fourth, DSE scholars share post-conference thoughts on the future of DSE. Finally, the deep debt of DSE to DS is acknowledged, along with speculation about possible ways in which DSE may help inform the growth of DS.  Keywords: disability studies in education, critical special educators, teacher education, research in education, ideology

  12. 浮萍中一个新rbcS基因启动子的克隆及分析%Analysis of a Novel rbcS Promoter Cloned in Duckweed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为了分离组织特异性、诱导性的启动子,本研究根据新克隆的浮萍rbcS基因序列设计引物,采用改进的5'walking技术从浮萍基因组中克隆了一个新的rbcS基因启动子,命名为SSU5C基因启动子.序列分析表明:SSU5C基因启动子长度为1 543 bp,含有保守性元件TATA和CAAT box,并且含有水杨酸、脱落酸、赤霉素、茉莉酸甲酯等植物激素和葡萄糖等的保守顺式作用元件.In silico分析初步推测SSU5C基因启动子受多种信号途径的协调调控.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Evgenievich Strakhov


    Full Text Available In today's world, a crucial role is played by the judiciary. In the period lasting judicial reform, it is important to explore this institution not only at the present stage, but also to trace the history of its development, including - through analysis and synthesis of existing studies of the judiciary and judicial reforms.The purpose of this study - to explore the historiography of general, special and regional studies of judicial reform of1864 inRussia, to classify research on history and on the subject of the study.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the significant weight of the studies of the judicial reform of 1864 and classified by facilitating orientation interested in individuals in the study subjects.The author uses historical, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the historiography of general, special and regional studies of the judicial reform of1864 inRussia, introducing a classification of such studies in chronological order (pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern stages and subject matter (common - affecting all aspects of judicial reform, special - dedicated to a particular aspect (legal agencies, prosecutors, legal, etc. and regional - dedicated to judicial reform, or some aspects of it in some regions of Russia.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in industry disciplines "judiciary", "advocacy", "notary public", "public prosecutor's supervision" and general theoretical "History of State and Law," "History of the fatherland" ; in science - by picking up information about the historiography of the judicial reform, and in practice - said work can serve as a guide to research judicial reform, which may be useful to practitioners of judicial and investigative bodies, as well as - prosecutors

  14. 7 CFR 3402.6 - Overview of the special international study and/or thesis/dissertation research travel allowance. (United States)


    ... thesis/dissertation research travel allowance. 3402.6 Section 3402.6 Agriculture Regulations of the... GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.6 Overview of the special international study and/or thesis... special international study or thesis/dissertation research travel allowance, the Project Director must...

  15. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster issue on `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence' (United States)

    Itoh, S.-I.


    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) invites submissions on the topic of `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence', for consideration for a special topical cluster of articles to be published early in 2006. The topical cluster will be published in an issue of PPCF, combined with regular articles. The Guest Editor for the special cluster will be S-I Itoh, Kyushu University, Japan. There has been remarkable progress in the area of structure formation by turbulence. One of the highlights has been the physics of zonal flow and drift wave turbulence in toroidal plasmas. Extensive theoretical as well as computational studies have revealed the various mechanisms in turbulence and zonal flows. At the same time, experimental research on the zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of global electric field by turbulence has evolved rapidly. Fast growth in reports of experimental results has stimulated further efforts to develop increased knowledge and systematic understanding. Each paper considered for the special cluster should describe the present research status and new scientific knowledge/results from the authors on experimental studies of zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of electric field by turbulence (including studies of Reynolds-Maxwell stresses, etc). Manuscripts submitted to this special cluster in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal. The Guest Editor guides the progress of the cluster from the initial open call, through the standard refereeing process, to publication. To be considered for inclusion in the special cluster, articles must be submitted by 2 September 2005 and must clearly state `for inclusion in the Turbulent Plasma Cluster'. Articles submitted after this deadline may not be included in the cluster issue but may be published in a later issue of the journal. Please submit your manuscript electronically via our web site at www

  16. Selection of GP. Mur antigen-negative RBC for blood recipients with anti-'Mia ' records decreases transfusion reaction rates in Taiwan. (United States)

    Yang, C-A; Lin, J-A; Chang, C-W; Wu, K-H; Yeh, S-P; Ho, C-M; Chang, J-G


    To evaluate the clinical significance of GP. Mur antigen-negative blood selection for transfusion in patients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The GP. Mur RBC phenotype is prevalent (7·3%) in Taiwan. Antibodies against GP. Mur (anti-'Mi a ') are identified in 1·24% of our population, and anti-'Mi a ' screening using GP. Mur RBC has been routine for Taiwan's blood banks. However, due to the lack of commercial antibodies, only cross-matching was used to prevent transfusion of GP. Mur-positive blood to patients with anti-'Mi a ' in most hospitals. There is still a risk of GP. Mur-positive RBC exposure and subsequent anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. Since February 2014, GP. Mur antigen-negative RBCs identified by reaction with anti-'Mi a '-positive serum were selected for blood recipients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The transfusion reactions between January 2013 and January 2014 were compared with those that occurred between February 2014 and July 2015. The transfusion reaction rate was significantly higher in anti-'Mi a '-positive blood recipients compared to total subjects receiving an RBC transfusion before GP. Mur-negative donor RBC selection. After antigen-negative RBC selection, the transfusion reaction frequency in subjects with anti-'Mi a ' became similar to total blood recipients. IgG form anti-'Mi a ' antibodies were present in all cases of probable anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. The time required for anti-'Mi a ' boosting after transfusion was around 4-21 days. Selection of GP. Mur-negative RBC for transfusion to patients with anti-'Mi a ' records could decrease the rate of transfusion reaction and antibody boosting. This procedure should be incorporated into blood bank routines in areas where anti-'Mi a ' is prevalent. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  17. Overview of the Health and Retirement Study and Introduction to the Special Issue. (United States)

    Fisher, Gwenith G; Ryan, Lindsay H


    Twenty five years ago, the largest academic behavioral and social science project ever undertaken in the U.S. began: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The HRS is an invaluable publicly available dataset for investigating work, aging, and retirement and informing public policy on these issues. This biennial longitudinal study began in 1992 and has studied more than 43,000 individuals and produced almost 4000 journal articles, dissertations, books, book chapters, and reports to date. The purpose of this special issue of Work, Aging and Retirement is to describe the HRS and highlight relevant research that utilizes this rich and complex dataset. First, we briefly describe the background that led to the development of the HRS. Then we summarize key aspects of the study, including its development, sampling, and methodology. Our review of the content of the survey focuses on the aspects of the study most relevant to research on worker aging and retirement. Next, we identify key strengths and important limitations of the study and provide advice to current and future HRS data users. Finally, we summarize the articles in this Special Issue (all of which use data from the HRS) and how they advance our knowledge and understanding of worker aging and retirement.

  18. Reflexiones sobre la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC: la experiencia de un programa de RBC en Bolivia Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR: the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urko Díaz-Aristizabal


    Full Text Available La Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC es una estrategia de desarrollo comunitario avalada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO, que persigue la rehabilitación, la igualdad de oportunidades y la integración social de las Personas con Discapacidad (PD en sus entornos. Con este objetivo promueve la colaboración entre las PD, sus familias y los diferentes actores de la comunidad involucrados, así como el liderazgo comunitario y la participación de las PD mediante el impulso de la colaboración multisectorial. Este artículo expone los antecedentes históricos y las características fundamentales de la estrategia de RBC a partir de un programa llevado a cabo por una fundación del departamento de Cochabamba (Bolivia, para después incidir en algunos aspectos referentes al contexto sociocultural, que especialmente en situaciones de interculturalidad, pueden determinar que un programa de RBC tenga éxito o esté abocado al fracaso.Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO, the International Labor Office (ILO and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO. It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio

  19. The Use of Mindfulness to Enhance a Special Educator's Self-Efficacy: A Qualitative Case Study (United States)

    Kynaston, Kristina


    The problem addressed in this study was that few special educators have strategies to cope with the stressors of teaching, building self-efficacy, and managing classroom behavior. Special educators who work with students who have disabilities have unique needs when it comes to behavior management, building classroom community, and increasing…

  20. Robot ZORA in rehabilitation and special education for children with severe physical disabilities: a pilot study. (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Renée J F; Lexis, Monique A S; de Witte, Luc P


    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of ZORA robot-based interventions in rehabilitation and special education for children with severe physical disabilities. A two-centre explorative pilot study was carried out over a 2.5-month period involving children with severe physical disabilities with a developmental age ranging from 2 to 8 years. Children participated in six sessions with the ZORA robot in individual or in group sessions. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data on aspects of feasibility, usability, barriers and facilitators for the child as well as for the therapist and to obtain an indication of the effects on playfulness and the achievement of goals. In total, 17 children and seven professionals participated in the study. The results of this study show a positive contribution of ZORA in achieving therapy and educational goals. Moreover, sessions with ZORA were indicated as playful. Three main domains were indicated to be the most promising for the application of ZORA: movement skills, communication skills and cognitive skills. Furthermore, ZORA can contribute towards eliciting motivation, concentration, taking initiative and improving attention span of the children. On the basis of the results of the study, it can be concluded that ZORA has potential in therapy and education for children with severe physical disabilities. More research is needed to gain insight into how ZORA can be applied best in rehabilitation and special education.

  1. Evolution of RLSB, a nuclear-encoded S1 domain RNA binding protein associated with post-transcriptional regulation of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA in vascular plants. (United States)

    Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Stata, Matt; Siford, Rebecca; Sage, Tammy L; Sage, Rowan F; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A; Berry, James O


    RLSB, an S-1 domain RNA binding protein of Arabidopsis, selectively binds rbcL mRNA and co-localizes with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) within chloroplasts of C3 and C4 plants. Previous studies using both Arabidopsis (C3) and maize (C4) suggest RLSB homologs are post-transcriptional regulators of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA. While RLSB accumulates in all Arabidopsis leaf chlorenchyma cells, in C4 leaves RLSB-like proteins accumulate only within Rubisco-containing bundle sheath chloroplasts of Kranz-type species, and only within central compartment chloroplasts in the single cell C4 plant Bienertia. Our recent evidence implicates this mRNA binding protein as a primary determinant of rbcL expression, cellular localization/compartmentalization, and photosynthetic function in all multicellular green plants. This study addresses the hypothesis that RLSB is a highly conserved Rubisco regulatory factor that occurs in the chloroplasts all higher plants. Phylogenetic analysis has identified RLSB orthologs and paralogs in all major plant groups, from ancient liverworts to recent angiosperms. RLSB homologs were also identified in algae of the division Charophyta, a lineage closely related to land plants. RLSB-like sequences were not identified in any other algae, suggesting that it may be specific to the evolutionary line leading to land plants. The RLSB family occurs in single copy across most angiosperms, although a few species with two copies were identified, seemingly randomly distributed throughout the various taxa, although perhaps correlating in some cases with known ancient whole genome duplications. Monocots of the order Poales (Poaceae and Cyperaceae) were found to contain two copies, designated here as RLSB-a and RLSB-b, with only RLSB-a implicated in the regulation of rbcL across the maize developmental gradient. Analysis of microsynteny in angiosperms revealed high levels of conservation across eudicot species and for both paralogs in

  2. California GAMA Special Study: Analysis of Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine and Metabolites as Wastewater Tracers in Water Resource Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vu, A. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA Special Studies project provides analyses and interpretation of constituents of concern that allow assessment of current groundwater conditions. In addition, the Special Studies project develops analyses that will enhance the monitoring and assessment effort by focusing on specific constituents of concern and water quality parameters, such as disinfection byproducts (DBP), wastewater indicators, and redox conditions, as it relates to irrigation and groundwater management. This study developed a robust analytical method for the quantitation of CBZ, OXC, CBZ-E, CBZ-DiOH, and CBZ-10-OH in wastewater treatement plant (WWTP) effluent and in groundwater in the parts per trillion range.

  3. Medical Speciality Thesis: Contribution to a Controversial Issue with a Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bilgin SAYDAM


    Full Text Available The aquisition of clinical and practical skills is the main target during the speciality training program. On the other hand, acquisition of skills in reading and interpreting scientific knowledge are also important training targets in order to develop and update clinical practice constantly. The process of thesis preparation during the speciality training provides an important opportunity to capture the skills in interpreting scientific knowledge. In Turkey, thesis writing has been obligatory for completion of speciality training for several years. Recently, there has been a discussion about the obligation for clinicians to write a thesis, especially those who are undertaking specialist training in education and research hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pros and cons of thesis writing during speciality training using a questionnaire that was sent to specialists. This descriptive and analytical study was conducted as an e-questionnaire between December, 2013, and May, 2014. A likert scale consisted of 18 questions has been prepared in accordance with this study. Th e questionnaire was sent to 1536 physicians. 328 of the questionnaires have been included in the study by evaluating the responses obtained from 345 of the participants. Th e response rate was 23%. Th e Cronbach alpha coeff icient was 0.77. Out of the 328 questionnaires, 11.9 %were from Basic Medical Sciences, 57%from Internal Medical Sciences, and 30.2%from Surgical Medical Sciences. Among the respondents, the percentage of specialists, assistant professors, associate professors and professors were 20.7%, 8.2%, 13.7%, and 57.3%, respectively. Independent of specialty field and aff iliation, the respondents concluded that the conduction and thesis writing contributed to their scientific career in spite of the common problems they encountered regarding adequate time for preparation. Furthermore, they concluded that thesis writing had a positive eff ect in the

  4. Study of special challenges for NDT-methods on nuclear structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maack, Stefan; Wiggenhauser, Herbert [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Thunell, Bjoern [Scanscot Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)


    The special design of buildings, constructed for nuclear power plants is a particular challenge for the nondestructive testing in the building industry. In particular the major component thicknesses, the degree of reinforcement and surface coating systems make the application of NDT methods difficult. The studies first steps were undertaken to determine to which extent established applications of these techniques are useable in the field of infrastructure buildings. Methods have been evaluated that are already state of the art. So for example the ground penetrating radar was used for locating metallic mounting parts. Furthermore, the low-lying internal structure of the containment was investigated with the ultrasonic method.

  5. U.S. N.R.C. special safeguards study on nuclear material control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.


    In Feb. 1975, NRC directed that an effort be made to determine a safeguards program for Pu recycle. This paper summarizes results of individual contractor evaluations of upgrading material control and accounting concepts as applied to strategically important special nuclear material and describes staff interpretations of these results as applied to future high-throughput fuel-cycle facilities. Real-time material control, design for physical inventory, Pu isotopics control and calorimetry, and material control and accounting for highly enriched uranium fuel materials were the concepts studied. 1 table, 15 references

  6. NWTS conceptual reference repository description (CRRD). Volume III. Criteria, bases, special studies, and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This volume documents the criteria, design bases, and special studies and provides the backup for the design presented in Volume II. The criteria presented here were developed by ONWI as a draft version for consideration in this conceptual report. Since these criteria were developed subsequent to preparation of the reports used as a basis for the CRRD, not all of the criteria could be fully considered in preparation of the CRRD. However, they were used as guidelines wherever possible. The criteria for terminal storage of waste are still in development. The chapter on the design bases identifies the important design considerations and provides the justification for their selection. The design bases were developed not so much to give exact values for parameters as to identify the parameters that are significant to the design. They also serve as a common basis for coordinating analysis and design studies unitl the next design phase is completed. Some of the design bases presented here were taken directly from the Stearns-Roger NWTS-R1 Conceptual Design Report. The special studies document technical aspects of the design that are of particular importance or that furnish additional information pertaining to the design

  7. Studying Teaching Methods, Strategies and Best Practices for Young Children with Special Educational Needs (United States)

    Tzivinikou, S.; Papoutsaki, K.


    Teaching objectives in special education are different from those in the ordinary classroom. Educational programmes for special needs students are focused on individual learning, achievement and progress. Thus, the instruction in special education classrooms and resource rooms in inclusive schools has to be specific, directed and individualised.…

  8. Personal Financial Planning for Retirement: A Study with Specialization Courses' Students of a Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas Dietrich


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research aimed to identify whether students of specialization of a higher education institution of Rio Grande do Sul held a personal financial planning for retirement. Yet, through this study it was sought to determine how these students do their financial planning for retirement, and those who do not realize it why they do not. To develop this study, the method used had quantitative and descriptive approach, the results were obtained through a research conducted in the first half of 2015 with 166 students in 11 courses of specialization of a higher education institution. As a result, it was found that less than half of respondents hold a financial planning for retirement, the majority uses the private pension as a major investment for such planning and that those who do not realize allege the lack of resources to save and invest or, yet, they consider themselves too young to start this planning, but it was found that the vast majority of participants do not realize that financial planning for retirement plan to do it. Still, it was contacted that the level of knowledge of personal finance and items related to social security is greatest among participants who hold a personal financial planning for retirement.

  9. Planning for success: desired characteristics of special operations surgeons, a pilot study. (United States)

    Campbell, Barrett H; Alderman, Shawn M


    Selection criteria for Special Operations Forces (SOF) physicians are often unclear to potential candidates without prior SOF experience. To date, no published career resource exists to guide the careers of physicians interested in becoming a SOF surgeon. Using a survey tool, desirable characteristics and personal attributes were identified that can be used to inform candidate career decisions and better prepare them for a future position in Special Operations. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey instrument was developed and distributed to current Army SOF Command Surgeons for further distribution to subordinate surgeons. RESULTS were analyzed as a cohort and by subordinate command. Respondents consisted of current SOF Surgeons. Uniformly, the individual characteristics most strongly desired are professionalism, being a team player, and leadership. Possessing or obtaining Airborne and Flight Surgeon qualifications prior to consideration for a surgeon position was highly desired. Residency training within Family Medicine or Emergency Medicine constituted the vast majority of specialty preference. Understanding which characteristics and attributes are desirable to current surgeons and commanders can aid physicians interested in SOF surgeon positions. Using this study and future studies can guide career planning and foster the selection of ideally trained physicians who will operate at the tip of the spear. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy of the Department of the Army, the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 2012.

  10. Hand hygiene compliance in transplant and other special patient groups: an observational study. (United States)

    Graf, Karolin; Ott, Ella; Wolny, Michael; Tramp, Nadine; Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Haverich, Axel; Chaberny, Iris Freya


    This study evaluates hand hygiene behavior of health care workers in a German university hospital stratified for treatment of special patient groups (eg, transplant patients). From 2008 to 2010, comprehensive education and training of all health care workers was implemented to improve hand hygiene compliance. Consumption rates of alcohol-based hand rub and gloves were collected and evaluated. Of the 5,647 opportunities of hand disinfection evaluated, 1,607 occurred during care for transplant patients. To our knowledge, this is the largest survey of hand hygiene compliance in special patient groups on intensive care units in a university hospital in Germany. Health care workers on surgical intensive care units showed lower hand hygiene compliance compared with health care workers on other types of intensive care units. Compliance toward hand hygiene was significantly higher on hemato-oncologic and pediatric wards. In general, hand disinfection was performed significantly more frequently after an intervention than before (P hand hygiene compliance when caring for transplant patients or other patients (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.42). Nurse's and physician's hand hygiene compliance improved because of education. Hand hygiene compliance is not increased in the care for transplant patients (despite their predisposition for nosocomial infections) compared with other patients. Additional studies will be necessary to further investigate these findings. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic influences on musical specialization: a twin study on choice of instrument and music genre. (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik


    Though several studies show that genetic factors influence individual differences in musical engagement, aptitude, and achievement, no study to date has investigated whether specialization among musically active individuals in terms of choice of instrument and genre is heritable. Using a large twin cohort, we explored whether individual differences in instrument choice, instrument category, and the type of music individuals engage in can entirely be explained by the environment or are partly due to genetic influences. About 10,000 Swedish twins answered an extensive questionnaire about music-related traits, including information on the instrument and genre they played. Of those, 1259 same-sex twin pairs reported to either play an instrument or sing. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) for concordance in music choices (if both twins played) comparing identical and nonidentical twin pairs, with significant ORs indicating that identical twins are more likely to engage in the same type of music-related behavior than are nonidentical twins. The results showed that for almost all music-related variables, the odds were significantly higher for identical twins to play the same musical instrument or music genre, suggesting significant genetic influences on such music specialization. Possible interpretations and implications of the findings are discussed. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present intervention study reveals that students diagnosed with an intellectual disability (ID are able to construct meaning from written expository text through guided social interaction. There were 31 students recruited from four special schools participating in this intervention study.The study involves a pre-test phase and a post-test phase. The students were divided into two intervention conditions: (a reciprocal teaching (RT, which involved practice in four reading strategies—prediction, question generating, clarification, and summarisation—and (b inference training (IT, which involved practice in answering inference questions, i.e., where you have to read between the lines to find the answer. The training included 16 sessions over 8 weeks. Pre- testing and post-testing included seven tests. Improvement of test results was obtained in both conditions to about the same extent, indicating that both conditions were beneficial.

  13. RBC acetyl cholinesterase: A poor man′s early diagnostic biomarker for familial alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s disease dementia

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    Himmatrao Saluba Bawaskar


    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of red blood cell acetyl cholinesterase (AChE in a familial Alzheimer′s diseases (AD Parkinson′s disease dementia (PDD and their first generation. Setting: General hospital, Mahad district, Raigad. Patients and Methods: Clinically diagnosed patients of AD and PDD and their asymptomatic relatives. Their blood was collected in EDTA tube and transferred to laboratory at Mumbai. Result: Median red blood cell (RBC cholinesterase levels amongst PDD, their first generation asymptomatic relatives, familial AD, asymptomatic relatives of AD, healthy controls, farmers exposed to pesticides (positive control and other neurological condition without dementia (hypertension with TIA 1, sub-dural hematoma 2, hypothyroid 1, non-familial unilateral parkinsonism without dementia 3, writers cramps 2, hyponitremia 1 and cerebral palsy with non-fluent aphasia 1. Median values of RBC AChE were 19086.78 U/L, 15666.05 U/L, 9013.11 U/L, 7806.19 U/L, 14334.57 U/L, 9785.05 U/L and 13162.60 U/L, respectively. As compared to controls, RBC AChE levels were statistically significant among PDD (P = 0.004 and significantly lowered among familial AD patients (P = 0.010, relatives of patients (P = 0.010. Interpretations: Below the normal RBC AChE level is a potential biomarker in asymptomatic relatives of familial AD patients. RBC AChE is raised than normal level in patients suffering from PDD, where AChE inhibitors are helpful. However, RBC AChE level below the normal where AChE inhibitor may not be effective.

  14. A special gonad protection for comparing sciatic radiographs of infants with dosimetric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepler, P.; Havranek, C.; Nava, N.


    For comparing radiographs to recognize sciatic dysplasias, a special gonad protection was applied leaving unprotected, in the manner of a window, only those parts of the skeleton which are of importance for this examination, while all surrounding parts including the gonads are covered by a 1.5 mm lead sheet. The testicles are additionally protected against scattered rediation by a trough-shaped 1.5 mm lead sheet. The effectiveness of this device has been tested by dosimetric studies with LiF and CaF 2 dosemeters directly on the patient. For correcting the energy dependence of the CaF 2 dosemeters, a special method was applied. Besides the intake and exit dose the gonad exposure was determined by measurements behind the scrotum and in the rectum, 7 cm above the anus. The smallest radiation exposure at still satisfactory quality of the picture was achieved by the setting of 60 kV, 1 mAs, namely 0.12 +- 0.04 mrads for the ovary and 0.03 - 0.07 mR for the scrotum. For girls this would correspond to half the natural daily radiation exposure, for boys to only one tenth of this value. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta: A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yu


    Full Text Available Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1 thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2 cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3 the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  16. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): a new species from South China Sea based on morphological observation and rbcL gene sequences analysis. (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao


    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81-108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114-133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  17. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao


    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia. PMID:24455703

  18. Introduction to Special Issue on New Studies in EROI (Energy Return on Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A.S. Hall


    Full Text Available Energy Return on Investment (EROI refers to how much energy is returned from one unit of energy invested in an energy-producing activity. It is a critical parameter for understanding and ranking different fuels. There were a number of studies on EROI three decades ago but relatively little work since. Now there is a whole new interest in EROI as fuels get increasingly expensive and as we attempt to weigh alternative energies against traditional ones. This special volume brings together a whole series of high quality new studies on EROI, as well as many papers that struggle with the meaning of changing EROI and its impact on our economy. One overall conclusion is that the quality of fuels is at least as important in our assessment as is the quantity. I argue that many of the contemporary changes in our economy are related directly to changing EROI as our premium fuels are increasingly depleted.

  19. General and specialized brain correlates for analogical reasoning: A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies. (United States)

    Hobeika, Lucie; Diard-Detoeuf, Capucine; Garcin, Béatrice; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle


    Reasoning by analogy allows us to link distinct domains of knowledge and to transfer solutions from one domain to another. Analogical reasoning has been studied using various tasks that have generally required the consideration of the relationships between objects and their integration to infer an analogy schema. However, these tasks varied in terms of the level and the nature of the relationships to consider (e.g., semantic, visuospatial). The aim of this study was to identify the cerebral network involved in analogical reasoning and its specialization based on the domains of information and task specificity. We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 27 experiments that used analogical reasoning tasks. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was one of the regions most consistently activated across the studies. A comparison between semantic and visuospatial analogy tasks showed both domain-oriented regions in the inferior and middle frontal gyri and a domain-general region, the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was specialized for analogy tasks. A comparison of visuospatial analogy to matrix problem tasks revealed that these two relational reasoning tasks engage, at least in part, distinct right and left cerebral networks, particularly separate areas within the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight several cognitive and cerebral differences between relational reasoning tasks that can allow us to make predictions about the respective roles of distinct brain regions or networks. These results also provide new, testable anatomical hypotheses about reasoning disorders that are induced by brain damage. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1953-1969, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. First-principles study of ternary fcc solution phases from special quasirandom structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Dongwon; Wang Yi; Liu Zikui; Walle, Axel van de


    In the present work, ternary special quasirandom structures (SQSs) for a fcc solid solution phase are generated at different compositions, x A =x B =x C =(1/3) and x A =(1/2), x B =x C =(1/4), whose correlation functions are satisfactorily close to those of a random fcc solution. The generated SQSs are used to calculate the mixing enthalpy of the fcc phase in the Ca-Sr-Yb system. It is observed that first-principles calculations of all the binary and ternary SQSs in the Ca-Sr-Yb system exhibit very small local relaxation. It is concluded that the fcc ternary SQSs can provide valuable information about the mixing behavior of the fcc ternary solid solution phase. The SQSs presented in this work can be widely used to study the behavior of ternary fcc solid solutions

  1. The special study module: a novel approach to undergraduate teaching in occupational medicine. (United States)

    Fletcher, G; Agius, R M


    Difficulties in teaching occupational medicine to undergraduates stem from the reduced availability of teaching time and the perception of the specialty. Recent changes in the General Medical Council curricular framework have permitted the development of a special study module (options course) in occupational medicine, in which a small number of motivated undergraduates elected to participate and which was adequately resourced. This course laid particular emphasis on changing students' attitudes towards the specialty, self-learning techniques, problem-solving and other skills such as workplace assessment. The objectives, content and teaching methods of the course are described, as is a preliminary evaluation. It is suggested that other medical schools should adopt and refine this approach in order to improve the quality of undergraduate training in at least a proportion of the output of medical schools.

  2. Landscape planning and management of spas in Serbia with special reference to the selected case studies

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    Crnčević Tijana


    Full Text Available In the paper is presented the overview of the legal requirements in Serbia covering planning and as well landscape planning. It is stress that Serbia is in the process of the ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and adoption of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS where is included the obligation of the production of the study 'Characterization of the landscape in Serbia' and as well pilot projects 'Characterization of the landscape' where are separated priority areas and where are specially stressed as tourist destinations spas. Taking into consideration that important step towards development of the methodological framework for landscape planning and management in Serbia was made with the inclusion of this subject within the process of formulating of the SPRS, besides the overview of the main obligations set by this document covering landscape planning and management, as an example of the current practice, two case studies of Vrnjacka spa and Pribojska spa are presented where special attention within planning documents was given to the protection and enhancement of the landscape. Beside that, as a contribution, it is given the proposal of the preliminary typology of the landscape of Vrnjacke spa within the borders of the Master plan and Pribojska spa within the borders of the Plan of detailed regulation. Taking into consideration the scope of these plans, the landscape is defined as cultural and by more detailed analyses as urban and rural. Within these two types of landscape are separated urban area, the 'core' of the spa, peri-urban area, and within rural forest and agricultural area. One of the main conclusions of this paper is that the inclusion of the landscape within legal framework which is promoting spatial and urban planning, nature and environmental protection is very important prerequisite for adequate planning and management of the landscape in Serbia.

  3. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud


    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  4. Compassion Fatigue among Secondary Special Education Teachers: A Case Study about Job Stress and Burnout (United States)

    Davis, Kimberly C.; Palladino, John M.


    In an age with increased teacher preparation requirements, and ever-growing student populations, a great need exists to adequately train and retain highly qualified special education teachers. Special Education is a profession that has long been plagued by shortages of qualified personnel. Many factors contribute to the shortfall of educators in…

  5. Taxonomy, phylogenetics and biogeography of Chesneya (Fabaceae), evidenced from data of three sequences, ITS, trnS-trnG, and rbcL (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Xiao-Li Hao; Vyacheslav V. Byalt; Alexander P. Sukhorukov; Stewart C. Sanderson


    Plants of Central Asia have played a significant role in the origin of floras of Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Chesneya, a small leguminous genus occurring in Central Asia, western Asia, and Tibet, is used to establish phylogenetic relationships and discuss the evolutionary and biogeographical history based on sequence data of ITS and trnS-trnG and rbcL.We...

  6. Use of rbcL and trnL-F as a two-locus DNA barcode for identification of NW-European ferns: an ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de G.A.; During, H.J.; Maas, J.W.; Schneider, H.; Erkens, R.H.J.


    Although consensus has now been reached on a general two-locus DNA barcode for land plants, the selected combination of markers (rbcL + matK) is not applicable for ferns at the moment. Yet especially for ferns, DNA barcoding is potentially of great value since fern gametophytes—while playing an

  7. Catastrophic health expenditure among households with members with special diseases: A case study in Kurdistan. (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Safari, Hossein; Piroozi, Bakhtiar; Qanbari, Laila; Farshadi, Salahadin; Qasri, Homan; Farhadifar, Fariba


    Background: One of the main goals of health systems is to protect people against financial risks associated with diseases that can be catastrophic for patients. In 2014, Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP) was implemented in Iran; one of the objectives of HSEP was to reduce out-of-pocket payments and provide more financial protection for people. Therefore, the present study aimed at exploring the likelihood of facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) among households with members suffering from dialysis, kidney transplant, or multiple sclerosis (MS) after the implementation of HSEP. Methods: A total number of 385 households were selected using stratified random sampling and were asked to complete the World Health Survey questionnaire through telephone conversations. As outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO), when household out-of-pocket expense for health services is ≥40% of its capacity to pay, then that household is considered to be facing CHE. Furthermore, determinants of CHE were identified using logistic regression. Results: The percentage of facing catastrophic health care expenditures for households with a MS, dialysis, and kidney transplant patient was 20.6%, 18.7%, and 13.8%, respectively. Results of logistic regression analysis revealed that patient's economic status, level of education, supplementary insurance status, type of disease, multiple members with special diseases in the household, rural residence, use of inpatient, dental, and rehabilitation services were effective factors for determining the likelihood of facing CHE. Conclusion: Despite the implementation of HSEP, the percentage of CHE is still high for households that have members who suffer from special diseases. However, basic health insurance packages should be amended and more cost-sharing exemptions should be granted to provide more financial protection for the vulnerable households.

  8. Visual search behaviour in skeletal radiographs: a cross-speciality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, J.J.H.; Nicolaou, M.; Emery, R.J.; Darzi, A.W.; Yang, G.-Z.


    Aim: To determine whether experience improves the consistency of visual search behaviour in fracture identification in plain radiographs, and the effect of specialization. Material and methods: Twenty-five observers consisting of consultant radiologists, consultant orthopaedic surgeons, orthopaedic specialist registrars, orthopaedic senior house officers, and accident and emergency senior house officers examined 33 skeletal radiographs (shoulder, hand, and knee). Eye movement data were collected using a Tobii 1750 eye tracker with levels of diagnostic confidence collected simultaneously. Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence and Gaussian mixture model fitting of fixation distance-to-fracture were used to calculate the consistency and the relationship between discovery and reflective visual search phases among different observer groups. Results: Total time spent studying the radiograph was not significantly different between the groups. However, the expert groups had a higher number of true positives (p < 0.001) with less dwell time on the fracture site (p < 0.001) and smaller KL distance (r = 0.062, p < 0.001) between trials. The Gaussian mixture model revealed smaller mean squared error in the expert groups in hand radiographs (r 0.162, p = 0.07); however, the reverse was true in shoulder radiographs (r -0.287, p < 0.001). The relative duration of the reflective phase decreases as the confidence level increased (r = 0.266, p = 0.074). Conclusions: Expert search behaviour exhibited higher accuracy and consistency whilst using less time fixating on fracture sites. This strategy conforms to the discovery and reflective phases of the global-focal model, where the reflective search may be implicated in the cross-referencing and conspicuity of the target, as well as the level of decision-making process involved. The effect of specialization appears to change the search strategy more than the effect of the length of training

  9. Linguistic explanation and domain specialization: a case study in bound variable anaphora. (United States)

    Adger, David; Svenonius, Peter


    The core question behind this Frontiers research topic is whether explaining linguistic phenomena requires appeal to properties of human cognition that are specialized to language. We argue here that investigating this issue requires taking linguistic research results seriously, and evaluating these for domain-specificity. We present a particular empirical phenomenon, bound variable interpretations of pronouns dependent on a quantifier phrase, and argue for a particular theory of this empirical domain that is couched at a level of theoretical depth which allows its principles to be evaluated for domain-specialization. We argue that the relevant principles are specialized when they apply in the domain of language, even if analogs of them are plausibly at work elsewhere in cognition or the natural world more generally. So certain principles may be specialized to language, though not, ultimately, unique to it. Such specialization is underpinned by ultimately biological factors, hence part of UG.

  10. OEXP exploration studies technical report. Volume 3: Special reports, studies, and indepth systems assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.B.; Bland, D.


    The Office of Exploration (OEXP) at NASA has been tasked with defining and recommending alternatives for an early 1990's national decision on a focused program of manned exploration of the Solar System. The Mission analysis and System Engineering (MASE) group, which is managed by the Exploration Studies Office at the Johnson Space Center, is responsible for coordinating the technical studies necessary for accomplishing such a task. This technical report, produced by the MASE, describes the process used to conduct exploration studies and discusses the mission developed in a case study approach. The four case studies developed in FY88 include: (1) a manned expedition to PHOBOS; (2) a manned expedition to MARS; (3) a lunar surface observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution. The final outcome of this effort is a set of programmatic and technical conclusions and recommendations for the following year's work

  11. Peculiarities of the Intentionality of Teenagers Studying in the a Specialized and Basic Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratyev M.D.,


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an empirical study of intentionality of adolescents studying in the a specialized and basic educational program. Intentionality of the individual is considered in two aspects: time (temporal and content. The temporal aspect of personal intentionality investigated by determining the type of time perspective using the questionnaire by F.Zimbardo, while content aspect investigated by determining the orientation of the person (focus on themselves, or on the interaction, or on the task, determined by B.Bass orientation questionnaire. The article marked features peculiar to two aspects of the personal intentionality of teenage students studying in classes with the specific and the basic educational program. There are differences in the time component of the personal intentionality in the «Positive past» and «Future» orientation types and in content component in "Focusing on the interaction" and "Focus on the task" types. The article confirms the hypothesis of significant differences in the characteristics of temporal and content components of the personal intentionality of the teenagers, interprets the results, and gives the prospects of the study

  12. Utilization of uranium cost/benefit study for nuclear powered merchant ships. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.R.


    This study presents a cost/benefit analysis for the utilization of uranium in merchant ships versus the use of uranium for the generation of electricity in central power stations. The study concludes that an alternative naval fuel to oil must be developed for the merchant marine to reduce U.S. dependency upon foreign supplies of a critical fuel. The study further indicates that use of uranium for ship propulsion results in transport of large quantities of needed import/exports while the residual oil saved will generate the same quantity of electricity in a central power station as the uranium used for ship propulsion

  13. Do special constables in London feel that they are adequately prepared to meet their first aid responsibilities? A qualitative study. (United States)

    Chandan, Joht Singh; Meakin, Richard


    This study's aims were to explore the views of special constables in the London metropolitan police force concerning their obligations and skills as first aiders. The metropolitan police force provides police officers to act as first responders to emergency calls made by the public. Special constables act with the same powers and responsibility as police officers and are required to deal with incidents involving medical emergencies. West London Police Station. Fifteen special constables entered and completed the study. A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the 'thematic framework approach' to analysis. Four main themes were identified. (1) 'Our responsibility?'--Special constables felt they had a responsibility, but were unsure of the origin of this responsibility, with many feeling it stemmed from public expectation. (2) 'Confidence'--Special constables had mixed feelings regarding their confidence in first aid scenarios and many felt that more could be done to improve their confidence. (3) 'Training needs'--Many felt the current training system was lacking in several ways including regularity, teaching and content. (4) 'Personal first aid knowledge'--Special constables were disappointed with their past performances. Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest the need to improve the confidence of special constables in first aid situations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  14. Role of Tc-99m labeled RBC SPECT in haemangioma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddadi, Fariba; Kamali, Hosein; Faghihi, Amir Hosein; Shokouhizadeh, Reza


    Full text: Haemangioma of the liver must be included in the differential diagnosis of all focal hepatic lesions. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques continue to play a unique role in the evaluation of hepatic masses. Role of planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic haemangioma is already established although it has limitations, which can be significantly improved by means of SPECT studies. A prospective study was carried out to evaluate Tc-99m red blood cell SPECT imaging in liver haemangioma and compare it with CT findings. Radionuclide liver scan, both planar and SPECT was done in 10 patients who had 16 liver masses diagnosed as haemangiomas on their CT. The acquisition protocol was an immediate perfusion phase study in an anterior view followed by SPECT of the liver at 2 hours. A perfusion/blood-pool mismatch is the hallmark finding for hepatic haemangioma. The smallest haemangioma detected with isotope scan was of 1.55 cm size. Planar scintigraphy showed a sensitivity of 82% versus 94.2% for SPECT. It was mostly due to missing of lesions less than 2 cm in size on planar scans. For cavernous haemangioma (n=4) the specificity and positive predictive value was 100%. We believe that hepatic scintigraphy still continues to play an important role in the diagnosis of hepatic masses especially for liver haemangioma where Tc-99m labeled red blood cell scanning has considerably high specificity. However, planar imaging has poor sensitivity especially for the identification of smaller lesions. Hepatic scintigraphy is non-invasive, easy to perform and inexpensive. In our opinion, when a suspicion of hepatic haemangioma is raised on CT or other imaging modalities, it needs to be confirmed by radionuclide blood-pool study. (author)

  15. A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students (United States)

    Prevost, Jill K.

    In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

  16. Psychosocial Studies of Migration and Community: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D. Perkins


    Full Text Available Introducing the special issue on psychosocial studies of migration and community, we briefly reflect on the global increase in, and issues related to, both international and domestic migration, particularly from rural areas of less developed countries, which has fueled rapid urbanization and intercultural tensions in both post-industrial and developing countries. Topics covered in the issue are summarized, including an Italian study of the emotional impact of discrimination against immigrant adolescents; acculturation, integration and adaptation of Muslim immigrant youth in New Zealand; perceptions of human trafficking in Moldova; Chinese migrant workers´ social networks, life satisfaction and political participation; physician brain drain from sub-Saharan Africa; and a critical analysis of the oppressive and liberating impact of organizations on immigrants, multiculturalism, and social justice. The issue concludes with commentary articles by four leading international scholars of migration and community. The breadth of topics helps to address wide-ranging gaps in the literature, but more psychological and social research must connect ecologically across multiple levels and to cultural, political, economic, and environmental studies of migration and community.

  17. FTA Corpus: a parallel corpus of English and Spanish Free Trade Agreements for the study of specialized collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Patiño García


    Full Text Available This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA, a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America and a smaller subcorpus in English-Norwegian and Spanish-Norwegian that was prepared and then aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998. The data was taken from Free Trade Agreements. These agreements are specialized texts officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries in the last twenty years. Thus, FTAs are a rich repository for terminology and phraseology that is used in different fields of business activity throughout the world. The corpus contains around 1.37 million words in the English section and 1.48 million words in its Spanish counterpart, plus 60,000 words each in the Spanish-Norwegian and English-Norwegian subcorpus. The corpus is being used primarily to study the terms and specialized collocations that include these terms in this kind of specialized texts.Keywords: specialized collocation, specialized parallel corpus, corpus linguistics, Free Trade Agreement

  18. Etiology of cardiogenic shock early after open-heart surgery: Assessment by Tc-99m RBC wall motion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, T.; Gray, R.; Chaux, A.; Lee, M.; Matloff, J.; Raymond, M.; Berman, D.


    When life-threatening cardiogenic shock (CI 1.8 1/min/m/sup 2/, elevated right and left-side filling pressures) occurs early (0-48 hrs) after open-heart surgery, routine approaches frequently cannot distinguish between expected etiologies: (1) transient systolic failure of the LV, RV, or both, common early postoperatively (postop); (2) perioperative infarct of the LV or RV; (3) myocardial restriction due to active pericardial bleeding or to accumulated clots and fluid; (4) diminished LV reserve from aneurysmectomy; and (5) residual valvular regurgitation. Distinction is critical, because (1), (2), and (4) will be treated by optimizing preload and afterload; (3) with urgent (if active bleeding) or semi-urgent surgery; and (5) with repeat valvular surgery. In 22 pts with unexpected early postop cardiogenic shock, Tc-99m-RBC equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography revealed: global LV (3 pts) or RV (3 pts) dysfunction, new segmental LV dysfunction (2 pts), active bleeding (5 pts) and/or accumulated pericardial fluid ( 8 pts) with hyperdynamic LV and RV, and a small hyperdynamic LV without effusion (1 pt), providing a specific etiologic diagnosis in all cases. In the Cardiac Surgical ICU, therapeutic decisions frequently await and depend on the results of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, now routinely performed in postop pts with unexpected cardiogenic shock

  19. Small scale homelike special care units and traditional special care units: effects on cognition in dementia; a longitudinal controlled intervention study. (United States)

    Kok, Jeroen S; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Berg, Ina J; Scherder, Erik J A


    Evidence shows that living in small scale homelike Special Care Units (SCU) has positive effects on behavioural and psychological symptoms of patients with dementia. Effects on cognitive functioning in relation to care facilities, however, are scarcely investigated. The purpose of this study is to gain more insight into the effects of living in small scale homelike Special Care Units, compared to regular SCU's, on the course of cognitive functioning in dementia. A group of 67 patients with dementia who moved from a regular SCU to a small scale homelike SCU and a group of 48 patients with dementia who stayed in a regular SCU participated in the study. Cognitive and behavioural functioning was assessed by means of a neuropsychological test battery and observation scales one month before (baseline), as well as 3 (post) and 6 months (follow-up) after relocation. Comparing the post and follow-up measurement with the baseline measurement, no significant differences on separate measures of cognitive functioning between both groups were found. Additional analyses, however, on 'domain clusters' revealed that global cognitive functioning of the small scale homelike SCU group showed significantly less cognitive decline three months after the transfer (p Effect sizes (95% CI) show a tendency for better aspects of cognition in favour of the homelike small scaled SCU group, i.e., visual memory, picture recognition, cognitive decline as observed by representatives and the clustered domains episodic memory and global cognitive functioning. While there is no significant longitudinal effect on the progression of cognitive decline comparing small scaled homelike SCU's with regular SCU's for patients with dementia, analyses on the domain clusters and effect sizes cautiously suggest differences in favour of the small scaled homelike SCU for different aspects of cognition.

  20. Pediatric Patients Receiving Specialized Palliative Home Care According to German Law: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Nolte-Buchholtz


    Full Text Available In Germany, every child with a life-limiting condition suffering from symptoms that cannot sufficiently be controlled is eligible by law for specialized pediatric palliative home care (SPPHC. It is the aim of this study to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children referred to SPPHC and to compare patients with cancer and non-cancer conditions. The prospective multicenter study includes data on 75 children (median age 7.7 years, 50.7% male. The majority had non-cancer conditions (72%. The most common symptoms were cognitive impairment, somatic pain, impairment in communication or swallowing difficulties. Swallowing difficulties, seizures, and spasticity occurred significantly more often in non-cancer patients (p < 0.01. Cancer patients received antiemetics significantly more often (permanent and on demand than non-cancer patients (p < 0.01. Significantly more non-cancer patients had some type of feeding tube (57.3% or received oxygen (33.3% (p < 0.01. Central venous catheters had been fitted in 20% of the patients, mostly in cancer patients (p < 0.001. Tracheostomy tubes (9.3% or ventilation (14.7% were only used in non-cancer patients. In conclusion, patients referred to SPPHC are a diverse cohort with complex conditions including a large range of neurologically originating symptoms. The care of pediatric palliative care patients with cancer is different to the care of non-cancer patients.

  1. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis


    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  2. Histological study of human sublingual gland with special emphasis on intercalated and striated ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, R.; Minhas, L.A.; Mubarik, A.


    Objective: To study the histomorphological characteristics of human sublingual gland, specially of intercalated and striated ducts. Study design: Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Army Medical College from Jan 2002 to Dec 2002 Materials and methods: Fifteen sublingual glands (right and left) from postmortem cases were obtained from District Headquarter Hospital Rawalpindi, within twelve hours of death. Five micrometer thick sections were made and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E). Morphology of intercalated and striated ducts was studied and their number was counted. Results: The mean number of intercalated ducts in the right gland 'a'and 'b' parts, and in the left gland 'a' and 'b' parts was 1.45+-0.14, 1.39+-.009, 1.31+-0.11 and 1.18+-0.10 respectively. The mean diameter of intercalated ducts in the same parts was 19.76+-0.44 micro m, 20.6+-0.53 micro m, 20.34+-0.49 micro m and 19.84+-0.98 micro m respectively. The mean number of striated ducts in the right gland ''a'' and ''b'' parts, and in the left gland ''a'' and ''b'' parts was 0.55+-.008, 0.57+-.008, 0.80+-0.14 and 0.80+-0.14 while mean diameter of striated ducts in the right gland ''a'' and ''b'' parts, and in the left gland ''a'' and ''b'' parts was 49.90+-4.70 micro m, 53.23+-2.50 micro m, 61.68+-3.93 micro m and 57.73+-2.85 micro m respectively. Conclusion: The difference between the mean number and diameter of the ducts of right and left glands was statistically insignificant. (author)

  3. Social inclusion and wellbeing of families of children with special needs transnational study report


    Colomeischi, Aurora Adina; Fillella Gui, Gemma; Veiga Branco, Augusta; Alimović, Sonja; Baranauskiene, Ingrida; Gol-Guven, Mine


    BUILDING BRIDGES: PROMOTING SOCIAL INCLUSION AND WELLBEING FOR FAMILIES OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS – PSI-WELL The project entitled Building Bridges: Promoting Social Inclusion and Wellbeing for Families of Children with Special Needs (PSI_WELL) proposes an innovative approach aimed to facilitate social inclusion and wellbeing for families confronting with disabled children through adult education for parents. The project is addressing to the specific needs of families parenting childre...

  4. A Study for Obtaining New and More General Solutions of Special-Type Nonlinear Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hong


    The generalized algebraic method with symbolic computation is extended to some special-type nonlinear equations for constructing a series of new and more general travelling wave solutions in terms of special functions. Such equations cannot be directly dealt with by the method and require some kinds of pre-processing techniques. It is shown that soliton solutions and triangular periodic solutions can be established as the limits of the Jacobi doubly periodic wave solutions.

  5. Characteristics of scientific production in Special Education in Virtual Health Library (VHL: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pizzani


    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize, through bibliometric approach, the scientific literature in this Special Education in the databases of the Virtual Health Library (VHL. The VHL is coordinated by BIREME - Specialized Center of the Pan American Health Organization whose objective is to promote the dissemination and use of scientific information in health. Method: The research methodology was performed by observing the following steps: a literature review on education special and bibliometrics, data collection from the site of BIREME about the presence of special education in the databases, organization, processing and bibliometric analysis of data collected using the software MS Excel and Vantage Point. Results: indicators produced allow signal that the predominant language of scientific production was the Portuguese and the majority of records were written individually, the themes addressed were psychology and developmental psychology. Conclusion: These bibliometric indicators characterizing the state of the art of scientific literature in Special Education at the various bases Data Bireme and also showed a field of interconnections between Health Sciences and Special Education.

  6. Synthesis to Special Issue on New Studies in EROI (Energy Return on Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A.S. Hall


    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of a series of twenty papers on the topic of EROI, or energy return on investment. EROI is simply the energy gained from an energy-obtaining effort divided by the energy used to get that energy. For example, one barrel of oil invested into getting oil out of the ground might return fifty, thirty, ten or one barrel, depending when and where the process is taking place. It is meant to be read in conjunction with the first paper in this special issue and also a number of the papers themselves. As such I try to summarize what general trends we might conclude from these varied and often highly technical papers. About half of the papers are reports on empirical analyses of various energy sources such as Norwegian or Gulf of Mexico oil, Pennsylvania gas and so on. About a quarter of the papers are methodological: how do we go about undertaking these analyses, what problems are there, what are the proper boundaries and so on. The final quarter are in a sense philosophical: since it appears that we will be living indefinitely in a world of decreasing EROIs, what are the economic, social and psychological implications? The rest of this paper summarizes the results of these studies.

  7. [The study of quality of life of epileptic children with the special questionnaire QOLCE]. (United States)

    Melikian, E G; Mukhin, K Iu; Nikiforova, N V


    The objective was to create a Russian version of the special quality of life (QOL) questionnaire QOLCE for children with epilepsy and to use it to study QOL. The language and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire has been carried out. The final pilot version was administered to 50 mothers of children with epilepsy. The age of patients was from 4 to 16 years (mean 8.94 +/- 4.21), mean age at-disease-onset was 5.30 +/- 3.33 years (from 1 month to 12 years), mean duration of epilepsy was 4.36 +/- 3.48 years, mean duration of treatment was 3.28 +/- 2.58 years. Idiopathic epilepsy was diagnosed in 17 (34%) children, symptomatic - in 13 (26%), cryptogenic - in 20 (40%). The QOLCE was acceptable for all parents. For the majority of items, the mean percentage of missing answers was 3.09%; for Social activity and Stigma subscales the values were 15%. The lowest scores were shown on subscales Physical Restrictions (49.16 +/- 20.31), Cognitive Function (55.78 +/- 23.36), General Health (59.90 +/- 26.16). The highest scores were on the subscale Social Activity (78.08 +/- 26.88). The authors believe that the further testing of the Russian version of the QOLCE is needed.

  8. Dental Students’ Knowledge of Oral Health for Persons with Special Needs: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Salama


    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of dental students with respect to oral health care of the person with special health care needs (SHCN and evaluate effectiveness of an education program on improving their knowledge. Method. An evaluation consisting of a questionnaire was answered before and immediately after a 30-minute educational presentation in the form of a DVD that includes a PowerPoint and a video of oral health care for individuals with SHCN. The questionnaire was based on the materials and information presented in the DVD and included 26 questions (true/false/I do not know. Results. The mean (±SD score on the pretest was 10.85 (±5.20, which increased to 16.85 (±5.47 on the posttest. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001. Forty percent of the students surveyed reported that they were very satisfied with the educational part of the presentation, while 50% were somewhat satisfied. Thirty percent of students expressed that the educational intervention used is very effective. Conclusions. Viewing the educational intervention was effective in informing the sophomore students and providing them with instructive basic information on person with SHCN. Dental colleges should increase students’ knowledge, training, and exposure to individuals with SHCN.

  9. D Mapping of Cultural Heritage: Special Problems and best Practices in Extreme Case-Studies (United States)

    Patias, P.; Kaimaris, D.; Georgiadis, Ch.; Stamnas, A.; Antoniadis, D.; Papadimitrakis, D.


    Photogrammetrey has a long successful history in the area of 3D modelling and documentation of cultural heritage monuments. In some cases an extensive study, preparation and the application of novel solutions is required for the successful documentation and 3D modelling of monuments. In most of the cases the problem that we have to face is difficulties regarding accessing, photographing, and measuring the monument from the optimal distance, in combination with the need for a high spatial resolution mapping. This paper is highlighting the special problems and the novel solutions, performed during mapping of two significant cultural heritage monuments in Greece. The Roussanou monastery (1527-1529 A.C., Meteora, Center Greece) and its underlying rock, had to be photographed and measured from a far distance and measured with various spatial resolutions. In the lakeside Neolithic settlement of Dispilio (6.000 B.C., western Greece) the enclosure which is covered with vegetation above a height of 3 m, had to be measured with high spatial resolution. The combined use of a laser scanner, a digital camera equipped with a telephoto lens and UAV allowed the successful mapping and the production of orthophotomaps in each case.

  10. A numerical study on the influence of slope and curvature on smoke flow in special section tunnel with natural ventilation (United States)

    Wang, Wenzhou; Zhou, Xianping; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Ya; Liu, Wanfu; Hong, Li


    In this study, a special section tunnel model was established by using FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator). The influences of lope and curvature on smoke flow under natural ventilation have been studied. The results showed that under the condition of natural ventilation, the slope has some influences on the smoke flow in special section tunnel. The smoke spreading speed is accelerated along the upstream direction and decrease along the downstream direction due to buoyancy effect of slope. The steeper the tunnel, the more obvious the buoyancy effect. The curvature has little effect on the flow of flue gas.

  11. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles


    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  12. Revista Educação Especial: a bibliometric study of scientific production in the field of Special Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Cristina da Silva


    Full Text Available This article presents the results a bibliometric study of the scientific production in the field of Special Education, that aimed to analyze the 147 articles published from 2000-2006 including those published online, totaling 14 issues in the Revista Educação Especial. This journal was chosen as the unit of analysis because it is being the most long-standing journal in the country. The bibliometric analysis of the articles and citations allowed build the following indicators of scientific production: a for articles published: evolution of articles published; typology of the articles, number of pages of articles, authors of the articles, scientific collaboration in the authorship; productivity authors; transiente of the authors; gender, geographic origin and institutional affiliation of the authors; b about the citations made by the authors: thematic of the articles, authors of the citations; the source updating level; origin, typology, languages and format of the sources cited; identification of the resources periodic cited; the core of the journal and secondary areas the field of Special Education. The bibliometric analysis this scientific production this journal demonstrated its consolidation in the area of Special Education. The study Bibliometric of citations made by the authors allowed verify the interdisciplinarity of Special Education with other areas of knowledge. It was verified as to represent the field of Special Education as a medium for information, as well as facilitate the dissemination of research carried out in this area.

  13. A multicenter study on dental trauma in permanent incisors among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia. (United States)

    Fernandez, Carla; Kaschke, Imke; Perlman, Steven; Koehler, Bjoern; Marks, Luc


    Special Olympics athletes, as part of the population with intellectual disabilities, are reported to be more vulnerable to dental injuries due to poor lip closure, slow response to environmental obstacles, oral pathologic reflexes, or dental features. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental trauma among Special Olympics athletes in countries of Europe and Eurasia. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized Special Smiles screening forms and procedures from consenting 15,941 athletes participating in the annual Special Olympics held in 49 countries from Europe and Eurasia between 2007 and 2012. The data was compiled in an Excel worksheet and transferred to an SPSS data file in order to be analyzed. A total of 2190 athletes presented dental injury (13.02%) with a std. deviation of 5.02%, and there were no significant differences (p = 0.136) in mean dental injury between age groups (one-way ANOVA test). The present data suggest that dental trauma is an actual problem among individuals with special needs. The distribution of prevalence among the different countries had a remarkable variability, but it is evident that a relatively high proportion of this population is in need of dental trauma preventive programs.

  14. RBC Antibody Screen (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  15. RBC urine test (United States)

    ... measurement for a result of this test. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  16. Studies on the History of Special Education in Italy: State of the Art and Paths for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Morandini


    Full Text Available The history of special education in Italy is a highly recent field of study. Prior to this, the theme had only been treated in a small number of publications that were limited in scope, primarily hagiografic and journalistic in style, and whose authors themselves worked in special education. In 1993, the article by Roberto Sani, devoted to Severino Fabriani, educator of female deaf mutes in Restoration Modena, marked the beginning of a history of special education that was researched using an interdisciplinary approach and situated within the broader framework of social and political history, and the history of institutions and cultural processes. Following in the line of enquiry into the history of special education inaugurated by Sani, further studies have been published since the beginning of the new millennium, by both established historians of education and young scholars joining the field. Some of these authors have maintained a focus on the world of education for the deaf; others have extended this model of interpretation to related field (educational institutions for children affected by rickets and by blindness. What avenues of research remain open to those wishing to pursue the history of special education? Numerous are the aspects still awaiting systematic investigation. It might therefore be to investigate the educational models and school programs offered over time for persons with disabilities affecting more than one sense (e.g., those who are both deaf and blind. How to reference this article Morandini, M. C. (2016. Studies on the History of Special Education in Italy: State of the Art and Paths for Future Research. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 235-247. doi:

  17. Ohio study shows that insurance coverage is critical for children with special health care needs as they transition to adulthood. (United States)

    Goudie, Anthony; Carle, Adam C


    Nearly 30 percent of young adults with special health care needs in Ohio lack health insurance, compared to 5 percent of the state's children with special health care needs. As children with such needs become too old for Medicaid or insurance through their parents' employer, they face great challenges in obtaining insurance. Lack of insurance is highly predictive of unmet needs, which in turn are predictive of costly hospital-based encounters. Young adults with special health care needs who are uninsured are more than twice as likely as their peers with insurance to forgo filling prescriptions and getting care and to have problems getting care. Even after insurance status is accounted for, young adults with special health care needs are more likely than children with such needs to not fill prescriptions because of cost and to delay or forgo needed care. This study demonstrates that continuous and adequate health insurance is vital to the continued well-being of children with special health care needs as they transition to young adulthood.

  18. Typical and atypical neurodevelopment for face specialization: An fMRI study (United States)

    Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; Gundran, Andrew; Davies, Faraday; Clark, Jonathan D.; Ruble, Lisa; Glaser, Paul; Bhatt, Ramesh S.


    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their relatives process faces differently from typically developed (TD) individuals. In an fMRI face-viewing task, TD and undiagnosed sibling (SIB) children (5–18 years) showed face specialization in the right amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), with left fusiform and right amygdala face specialization increasing with age in TD subjects. SIBs showed extensive antero-medial temporal lobe activation for faces that was not present in any other group, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism. In ASD, face specialization was minimal but increased with age in the right fusiform and decreased with age in the left amygdala, suggesting atypical development of a frontal-amygdala-fusiform system which is strongly linked to detecting salience and processing facial information. PMID:25479816

  19. The Special Place Project: Efficacy of a Place-Based Case Study Approach for Teaching Geoscience (United States)

    Moosavi, Sadredin


    Achieving geoscience literacy of the general population has become increasingly important world wide as ever more connected and growing societies depend more and more on our planet's limited natural resource base. Building citizen understanding of their dependence on the local environment, and the geologic processes which created and continue to change it, has become a great challenge to educators at all levels of the education system. The Special Place Project described in this presentation explores use of a place-based case study approach combining instruction in geoscience content with development of observation, reasoning, writing and presentation skills. The approach allows students to select the locations for their individual case studies affording development of personal connections between the learner and his environment. The approach gives instructors at many grade levels the ability to develop core pedagogical content and skills while exploring the unique geologic environments relevant to the local population including such critical issues as land use, resource depletion, energy, climate change and the future of communities in a changing world. The geologic reasons for the location of communities and key events in their histories can be incorporated into the students' case studies as appropriate. The project is unique in placing all course instruction in the context of the quest to explore and gain understanding of the student's chosen location by using the inherently more generalized course content required by the curriculum. By modeling how scientists approach their research questions, this pedagogical technique not only integrates knowledge and skills from across the curriculum, it captures the excitement of scientific thinking on real world questions directly relevant to students' lives, increasing student engagement and depth of learning as demonstrated in the case study reports crafted by the students and exam results. Student learning of topics

  20. Prospective Study on Music Therapy in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients during Specialized Inpatient Palliative Care. (United States)

    Kordovan, Sarah; Preissler, Pia; Kamphausen, Anne; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin


    This study was a prospective evaluation of feasibility, acceptance, and potential beneficial effects of music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients on a specialized palliative care inpatient ward. Intervention had to consist of at least two sessions, but frequency and duration was left to the patients` decision. Different music therapy methods were offered to the patient at the beginning of every session. Patients rated their subjective benefit. Disease-related and sociodemographic factors were considered as potentially influencing factors. A total of 166 music therapy sessions were performed with 41 patients (average, 4; range, 2-10). Average session duration was 41 minutes (range, 20-70). Most favored methods were therapeutic conversation in 84% of sessions; listening to relaxing music, 39%; playing an instrument, 31%; and music-lead imagination, 11%. Receptive music therapy was applied in 45%, active forms in 25%, a combination of both in 7%, and therapeutic conversation only in 23%. Music therapy was rated to be "helpful" in 68%. Positive effects were significantly associated with frequency (p = 0.009) and duration (p = 0.040), living in a partnership (p = 0.017), having children (p = 0.035), psycho-oncologic therapy (p = 0.043), experience with music therapy (p = 0.007), role of music in life (p = 0.035), playing an instrument (p = 0.021), and singing regularly (p = 0.003). Music therapy techniques, especially receptive methods, are feasible and well accepted in terminally ill cancer patients. Therapeutic conversation seems to play an important role. Frequency and duration of music therapy, previous experience with music and music therapy, as well as sociodemographic factors influence positive effects of music therapy.

  1. Extending decision making competence to special populations: a pilot study of persons on the autism spectrum. (United States)

    Levin, Irwin P; Gaeth, Gary J; Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Yegorova, Vitaliya; Cederberg, Charles; Yan, Haoyang


    The area of decision making has much to offer in our effort to understand special populations. This pilot study is an example of just such a project, where we illustrate how traditional decision making tools and tasks can be used to uncover strengths and weaknesses within a growing population of young adults with autism. In this pilot project we extended accounts of autistic behavior such as those derived from "theory of mind" to predict key components of decision making in high-functioning young adults on the autism spectrum. A battery of tests was administered to 15 high-functioning college students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), focusing on decision making competence (DMC) and other aspects of decision making related to known deficits associated with autism. Data from this group were compared to data from unselected college students receiving the same measures. First, as a test of a key social deficit associated with autism, the target group scored much lower on the Empathy Quotient scale. Traditional elements of decision making competency such as Numeracy and application of decision rules were comparable across groups. However, there were differences in thinking style, with the ASD group showing lesser ability and engagement in intuitive thinking, and they showed lower levels of risk taking. For comparisons within the ASD group, autobiographical reports concerning individual lifestyles and outcomes were used to derive a scale of Social Functioning. The lowest scoring individuals showed the lowest levels of intuitive thinking, the lowest perceived levels of others' endorsement of socially undesirable behaviors, and the lowest ability to discriminate between "good" and "bad" risks. Results are discussed in terms of interventions that might aid high-functioning young adults with ASD in their everyday decision making.

  2. History and the Study of "Administration" (LAMPS) in Education: A Reflection on an Editorial for a Special Issue (United States)

    Ribbins, Peter


    The special edition of JEAH published in August 2006 on "Administration and Leadership in Education: A Case for History?" argued that history has been seriously undervalued in the study of administration and leadership in education. My introductory editorial explained why this mattered and outlined the framework in which the papers it…

  3. Traffic Safety Facts - Research Note: Additional Analysis of National Child Restraint Use Special Study: Characteristics Of Those Not Restrained (United States)


    The National Child Restraint Use Special Study (NCRUSS) recorded the use of car seats and belt-positioning booster seats in children up to 8 years old in 4,167 vehicles. Observers approached vehicles that carried at least one child. They interviewed ...

  4. A Study of Student Interaction in an Online Learning Environment Specially Crafted for Cross-Level Peer Mentoring (United States)

    Ruane, Regina


    This study explored the ways that students in an online teacher education program connected in a specially crafted peer mentoring program developed for cross-level peer mentoring. Program administrators developed the peer mentoring site in response to observations that enrolled students, particularly new students, were often unsure of how to…

  5. Improving Distance Education for Students with Special Needs: A Qualitative Study of Students' Experiences with an Online Library Research Course (United States)

    Catalano, Amy


    This article describes a study in which seven students with diverse disabilities participated in a one-credit online library research course which had been adapted to be accessible using the best practices literature on distance education for students with special needs. Students provided feedback on the design of the course and participated in…

  6. What State Supply and Demand Studies Tell Us about Special Education Personnel Needs. Practice Brief. Spring 2011 (United States)

    Muller, Eve


    Critical to any comprehensive plan for addressing personnel shortages in the field of special education is the gathering of data on supply and demand at the state and local education agency (LEA) levels. Many states now conduct regular supply and demand studies in order to inform decisions regarding the recruitment, preparation and retention of…

  7. The Preparation of Young People with Special Needs for an Active Adult Life--An Exploratory Study. 2nd Version. (United States)

    Diniz, Fernando, Comp.; Kropveld, Peter, Comp.

    An exploratory study sought to examine the special educational needs of young people with disabilities preparing for the transition from school to adulthood. Major issues addressed were citizenship (social and life skills), the world of work, and recreation. Students aged 14 and above from several European countries who were perceived as having…

  8. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects]. (United States)

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V


    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  9. A Natural Variation Study of Engagement and Confidence among Parents of Learners with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) (United States)

    Barlow, Alexandra; Humphrey, Neil


    Parents' involvement in their children's education is known to be an important predictor of a range of adaptive outcomes. For learners with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), lack of parental engagement and confidence has been highlighted as a problematic issue. Given this, the objectives of the current study were to: (i) determine…

  10. The Crossmatch/Issue Ratio:  Use of a Novel Quality Indicator and Results of an International Survey on RBC Crossmatching and Issuing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazer, Mark H; Alcantara, Ramir; Beizai, Pouneh


    OBJECTIVES: To understand the worldwide scope of RBC crossmatching and issuing practices and measure efficiency using a novel quality indicator, the crossmatch/issue (C/I) ratio. METHODS: An electronic survey was disseminated to hospital transfusion services collecting details about RBC...... crossmatching and issuing practices. Respondents were asked to enumerate the number of RBCs crossmatched and issued at their institutions during the 2014 calendar year to calculate the C/I ratio. RESULTS: Fifty-two survey responses were received, mostly from North American transfusion services (28/52, 54......%). The electronic crossmatch was the most common technique (n = 29), and most respondents performed the crossmatch at the time that an order for RBCs was received in the transfusion service (even if an order to issue the RBCs was not received). Data to calculate the C/I ratio were supplied by 22 respondents...

  11. R and G color component competition of RGB image decomposition as a criterion to register RBC agglutinates for blood group typing. (United States)

    Doubrovski, Valeri A; Ganilova, Yuliya A; Zabenkov, Igor V


    A new approach of the criterion assignment for registration of erythrocyte agglutinates to instrumentally determine blood group type is suggested. The criterion is based on comparison of R and G components of RGB decomposition of microscopy digital image taken for the blood-serum mixture sample. For the chosen experimental conditions, the minimal size (area) of RBC agglutinate to be registered by the criterion suggested is estimated theoretically. The proposed method was tested experimentally on the example of monitoring agglutinates in flow. The encouraging experimental results were obtained for improvement of the resolving power of the method; the optimal experimental conditions were revealed for maximum resolution. Though the suggested method was realized for dynamic (flow) blood group determination, it could also be applied for diagnostics in a stationary environment. This approach increases the reliability of RBC agglutinates registration and, hence, blood group typing. The results may be used to develop the apparatus for automated determination of human blood group.

  12. A Study of Self-Perceived Transformational Leadership Behaviors of Special Education Directors (United States)

    Williams, Kristen E.


    The special education director is responsible for a myriad of responsibilities related to the education of students with disabilities. Little is known about the leadership behaviors associated with this position. Considerable research has been done to document the many benefits of transformational leadership behaviors on organizational climate and…

  13. Habitat or prey specialization in predatory ladybird beetles: a case study of two closely related species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.


    Roč. 140, č. 3 (2016), s. 199-208 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : aphids * habitat * ladybirds * prey * reproductive investment * specialization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  14. Evolution of specialization: a phylogenetic study of host range in the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus). (United States)

    Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A


    Specialization is common in most lineages of insect herbivores, one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. To address how and why specialization is maintained over evolutionary time, we hypothesized that plant defense and other ecological attributes of potential host plants would predict the performance of a specialist root-feeding herbivore (the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus). Using a comparative phylogenetic and functional trait approach, we assessed the determinants of insect host range across 18 species of Asclepias. Larval survivorship decreased with increasing phylogenetic distance from the true host, Asclepias syriaca, suggesting that adaptation to plant traits drives specialization. Among several root traits measured, only cardenolides (toxic defense chemicals) correlated with larval survival, and cardenolides also explained the phylogenetic distance effect in phylogenetically controlled multiple regression analyses. Additionally, milkweed species having a known association with other Tetraopes beetles were better hosts than species lacking Tetraopes herbivores, and milkweeds with specific leaf area values (a trait related to leaf function and habitat affiliation) similar to those of A. syriaca were better hosts than species having divergent values. We thus conclude that phylogenetic distance is an integrated measure of phenotypic and ecological attributes of Asclepias species, especially defensive cardenolides, which can be used to explain specialization and constraints on host shifts over evolutionary time.

  15. Migration and Ethnic Group Disproportionality in Special Education: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Gabel, Susan L.; Curcic, Svjetlana; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, Khaled; Albee, Lynn


    Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into…

  16. Inequitable Variations: A Review of Research in Technology, Literacy Studies and Special Education (United States)

    Pandya, Jessica Zacher; Ávila, JuliAnna


    This essay presents the results of a review of research published in the last 10 years on the uses of what we term "productive" digital technologies in special education contexts. There is little overlap between research on productive technologies such as digital storytelling in mainstream contexts and research on technology use to…

  17. Democratizing Education: A Case Study of Inclusive Schooling for Students with Special Needs in Poland (United States)

    Baran, Jolanta; Winzer, Margaret


    This paper focuses on the democratization of education in the post-socialist space through an examination of inclusive schooling for students with special needs in Poland. It embeds the inclusive education reform and its attendant policies and practices within the political and social transitions that essentially dated from 1989 and saw Poland…

  18. Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies : Special Issue on The Importance of Local Knowledge and Interdisciplinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For this special issue of TES we have selected four articles on constraints and options for managing trees in Africa. The articles have been produced within a larger multidisciplinary research programme on People, Trees and Agriculture in Africa (Petrea) funded by the Danish Development Research ...

  19. Follow-Up Study to Family Members' Reactions to the Initial Special Education Meeting (United States)

    Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Paez, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ivan


    Family involvement is a central component of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Family members are to be integrated in all aspects of the special education process. At the onset, of family involvement, it is imperative for educators to be aware of possible reactions family members may experience in this initial stage. This…

  20. Public health foodborne illness case study during a Special Operations Forces deployment to South America. (United States)

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin


    Although many public health articles have been published detailing foodborne illness outbreaks, a medical literature search revealed no articles that detail a case study or a specific response of a deployed U.S. military unit to a potential foodborne illness. This article describes a recent public health case study of a U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) team sickened while deployed to South America. It highlights public health factors which may affect U.S. personnel deployed or serving overseas and may serve as a guide for a deployed SOF medic to reference in response to a potential food- or waterborne illness outbreak. Eight food samples and five water samples were collected. The food samples were obtained from the host nation kitchen that provided food to the SOF team. The water samples were collected from the kitchen as well as from multiple sites on the host nation base. These samples were packaged in sterile containers, stored at appropriate temperatures, and submitted to a U.S. Army diagnostic laboratory for analysis. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of elevated aerobic plate counts (APCs) in the food prepared by the host nation and consumed by the SOF team. High APCs in food are the primary indicator of improper sanitation of food preparation surfaces and utensils. This case study concluded that poor kitchen sanitation, improper food storage, preparation, and/or holding were the probable conditions that led to the team?s symptoms. These results emphasize the importance of ensuring safe food and water for U.S. personnel serving overseas, especially in a deployment or combat setting. Contaminated food and/or water will negatively impact the health and availability of forces, which may lead to mission failure. The SOF medic must respond to potential outbreaks and be able to (1) critically inspect food preparation areas and accurately advise commanders in order to correct deficiencies and (2) perform food/water surveillance testing consistently

  1. [Primary care evaluation of the hypertensive patient management in specialized care after derivation (DERIVA-2 Study)]. (United States)

    Martell-Claros, Nieves; Galgo Nafría, Alberto; Abad-Cardiel, María; Álvarez-Álvarez, Beatriz; García Donaire, José Antonio; Márquez-Contreras, Emilio; Molino-González, Ángel


    To know the opinion/evaluation of the primary care physicians (PCPH) of the received information about patients that were attended in specialized care (SC). Cross-sectional study. Performed nationwide in primary care centers. Researchers from the primary care network. We used the SEH-LELHA derivation criteria guidelines, plus an ad hoc survey that included demographic and anthropometric data, blood pressure levels, and the main reason for derivation to SC at the baseline and final (post-derivation) visit. In addition, time deployed for the study of every patient, changes in diagnosis and treatment, type of follow-up, issues throughout the derivation process and assessment of the medical referred to the PCPH were evaluated. With participation of 578 researchers from primary, the study included 1715 patients aged 60.7±13.3years, 62.7% male. Patients were taking 2.3±1.2 (range 0-10) antihypertensive drugs pre-referral and 2.5±1.2 (0-9) after derivation. Blood pressure levels changed from 166±21.6 /97.7±12.6mmHg to 143±14.4 /85.5±10.5mmHg. The number of controlled patients (BP<140 and <90mmHg) increased from 5.8% to 32.2%. Time between pre- and post-derivation visit was 72±64days (median 57days, IQ26-99). The PCPH received a medical report in 80.3% of cases, 76.9% with an explanation of the results of the complementary tests, 75.8% with additional information or a reasoning of treatment and in 71% of cases information about the patient future management. 63% of PCPH were fully agreed with the management of the specialist, 29% agree and 2% strongly disagree. The derivation was evaluated as effective or very effective in 86% of patients and no effective in 9%. Communication between AE and SC in HTA is valued satisfactorily by MAP. However there is still room for improvement in the process. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. Application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on host-parasite relationships, with special reference to larval trematodes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, N.Oe.


    The application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on various host-parasite relationships between larval trematodes and their intermediate and definite hosts is reviewed. Such studies comprise, for example, the reproduction and nutrition of various developmental stages of trematodes in relation to host and environment. The preparation and application of radiolabelled larvae are also discussed with special emphasis on their use in studies on free-living ecology and migration in hosts. (author)

  3. Special needs hurricane shelters and the ageing population: development of a methodology and a case study application. (United States)

    Horner, Mark W; Ozguven, Eren Erman; Marcelin, Jean Michael; Kocatepe, Ayberk


    Recent experience of hurricanes, particularly in the southeast United States, has heightened awareness of the multifaceted nature of and the challenges to effective disaster relief planning. One key element of this planning is providing adequate shelter at secure locations for people who evacuate. Some of these individuals will have 'special needs', yet there is little research on the relationship with shelter space. This study designed a geographic information systems-based network optimisation methodology for the siting of special needs hurricane relief shelters, with a focus on the transportation component. It sought to find new locations for shelters that maximise accessibility by vulnerable populations, given capacity constraints, concentrating on the ageing population. The framework was implemented in a medium-sized metropolitan statistical area in the state of Florida where data suggest a possible deficit in special needs shelter space. The study analysed options for increasing special needs shelter capacity, while considering potential uncertainties in transportation network availability. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  4. Diaphyseal pseudarthrosis of the femur in a patient with poliomyelitis. A special case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Enríquez-Castro


    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of long bone pseudarthrosis ranges from 2% to 10%, with the femur being the second most commonly affected bone. There are local and systemic factors that influence the development of this condition. Various implants such as plates, nails, external fixators and combinations of the foregoing, plus grafts and materials to facilitate consolidation are reported in the literature to treat pseudarthrosis. Objective: To present the special case study of a patient diagnosed with pseudarthrosis of the femur who presented with poliomyelitis sequelae. Case report: A 40-year-old man with a history of poliomyelitis previously treated with osteosynthesis on 2 occasions due a fracture of the left femur. He was assessed and diagnosed with pseudarthrosis of the left femur with poliomyelitis sequelae. He underwent surgery with Luque rod fixation, frozen fibular graft and bone graft chips. His bones consolidated 12 months after the operation and he was able to resume normal activities at 16 months. Resumen: Introducción: La pseudoartrosis en los huesos largos tiene una incidencia del 2 al 10%; el fémur ocupa el segundo lugar en frecuencia. Existen factores locales y sistémicos en el desarrollo de esta patología. Para su tratamiento está descrito el uso de diversos implantes, placas, clavos, fijadores externos y combinaciones entre los mismos, más aplicación de injerto y materiales que coadyuven en la consolidación. Objetivo: Presentación de un caso especial con diagnóstico de pseudoartrosis en fémur que presenta secuelas de poliomielitis. Caso clínico: Hombre de 40 años con antecedente de poliomielitis, inicialmente tratado con osteosíntesis en 2 ocasiones por fractura de fémur izquierdo. Es valorado y se hace diagnóstico de pseudoartrosis de fémur izquierdo y secuelas de poliomielitis. Tratamiento enclavado con una barra de Luque, injerto de peroné congelado y chips. Tuvo una consolidación a los 12 meses postcirug

  5. Study on Stationarity of Random Load Spectrum Based on the Special Road (United States)

    Yan, Huawen; Zhang, Weigong; Wang, Dong


    In the special road quality assessment method, there is a method using a wheel force sensor, the essence of this method is collecting the load spectrum of the car to reflect the quality of road. According to the definition of stochastic process, it is easy to find that the load spectrum is a stochastic process. However, the analysis method and application range of different random processes are very different, especially in engineering practice, which will directly affect the design and development of the experiment. Therefore, determining the type of a random process has important practical significance. Based on the analysis of the digital characteristics of road load spectrum, this paper determines that the road load spectrum in this experiment belongs to a stationary stochastic process, paving the way for the follow-up modeling and feature extraction of the special road.

  6. Statues of the study on the irradiated materials by a special capsule in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.-H.; Kim, B.-G.; Cho, M.-S.; Choi, Y.


    A special capsule installed with multi-specimens for HANARO has been designed and its parts were fabricated based on the design criteria of sustaining it at the working conditions of 20 n/cm 2 of a fast neutron fluence with energies above 1 MeV and a maximum load of 200 MPa. The special capsule consists of four modules which work independently. Two of them are located in the upper part of the machine and the others are located in the lower part with a 90 degree rotation. Each module has three separate chambers, each of which contains a loading system, various measuring and controlling units. Each module was evaluated by determining the load-displacement curve of four zirconium specimens. Reliable load-displacement curves of the four specimens were obtained by a simultaneous loading at a controlled temperature. (authors)

  7. Experimental study on scale removal from special-shaped conduits through underwater electrical discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y; Wang, Z Q; Li, G F; Wu, Y; Zhou, J J


    Underwater electrical discharge technology is an innovative technique that can be used to enhance the stress intensity of water and improve the load addition. The technique enlarges the section area and compresses the surrounding water using a high-powered shock wave, which is induced by an underwater electrical discharge. This paper investigates the effectiveness of scale removal for special-shaped conduits employing underwater electrical discharge. Experimental results show that the pressure wave generated by underwater electrical discharge is capable of eliminating scale in special-shaped conduits. The data indicates that when the capacitance of the parallel-pulsed capacitors was 4 μF, the high pulsed power voltage was 33 kV and the primary discharge gap was 48 mm, the result of scale removal was remarkable. In laboratory tests, the scale of special equipment was removed to a great extent by this method. Because of its effectiveness and low cost, this method improves the practice and extends the lifetime of such equipment, and thus has potential application and economic value.

  8. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng


    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  9. Satisfaction rates with the current Special Type Consultation (STC) reimbursement scheme among General Practitioners – A Mixed Methods Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A


    The Special Type Consultation (STC) scheme is a fee-for-service reimbursement scheme for General Practitioners (GPs) in Ireland. Introduced in 1989, the scheme includes specified patient services involving the application of a learned skill, e.g. suturing. This study aims to establish the extent to which GPs believe this scheme is appropriate for current General Practice. This is an embedded mixed-methods study combining quantitative data on GPs working experience of and qualitative data on GPs attitudes towards the scheme. Data were collected by means of an anonymous postal questionnaire. The response rate was 60.4% (n=159.) Twenty-nine percent (n=46) disagreed and 65% (n=104) strongly disagreed that the current list of special items is satisfactory. Two overriding themes were identified: economics and advancement of the STC process. This study demonstrates an overwhelming consensus among GPs that the current STC scheme is outdated and in urgent need of revision to reflect modern General Practice.

  10. Small scale homelike special care units and traditional special care units : effects on cognition in dementia; a longitudinal controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jeroen S.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Berg, Ina J.; Scherder, Erik J. A.


    Background: Evidence shows that living in small scale homelike Special Care Units (SCU) has positive effects on behavioural and psychological symptoms of patients with dementia. Effects on cognitive functioning in relation to care facilities, however, are scarcely investigated. The purpose of this

  11. Specialization Patterns


    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles


    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  12. Special Weapons (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  13. Results of a Prospective Study Concerning the Clinical Efficiency of Recent Russian-Made Specialized Foods without Phenylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Bushueva


    Full Text Available Background: Specialized foods, based on aminoacids without phenilalanin, are the main source of protein for patients with phenilketonuria of all ages. Based on modern technologies, new Russian-made foods were created. They have an optimized aminoacid and micronutrient composition, which increases their bioavailability.Objective: Our aim was to investigate the clinical efficiency of the new Russian-made specialized foods based on aminoacids without phenylalanine, in patients with phenylketonuria.Methods: Evaluating physical, somatic and neuropsychic development as well as measuring phenylalanine blood level were carried out twice: before the prescription and after 1 month of using the new Russian-made specialized foods. The chemical composition of the ration was controlled using dietology methods.Results: 57 children at the age of 14 days to 15 years with phenylketonuria (which was detected in neonatal screening were picked for this study. A hypophenylalanine diet has been prescribed for all children no later than at the age of 3 months of life. In children of the first year (I group (among which there were children with high phenylalanine blood levels phenylalanine concentration decreased from 5,5 (4,0; 21,0 to 4,4 (3,7; 4,7 mg/dl (p = 0,014 while using Russian-made specialized foods. In this group of children the psychomotor and physical indices improved. In early childhood-, preschool- and school-aged patients phenylalanine blood level remained steady. The chemical composition of the ration with Russian-made foods, based on aminoacids without phenylalanine, corresponded to the reference intake of main nutrients and energy.Conclusion: Hypophenylalanine diet with new Russian-made specialized foods without phenylalanine (which is designed for phenylketonuria patients of various age groups showed high clinical efficiency of these foods.

  14. International Society of Gynecological Pathologists (ISGyP) Endometrial Cancer Project: Guidelines From the Special Techniques and Ancillary Studies Group. (United States)

    Cho, Kathleen R; Cooper, Kumarasen; Croce, Sabrina; Djordevic, Bojana; Herrington, Simon; Howitt, Brooke; Hui, Pei; Ip, Philip; Koebel, Martin; Lax, Sigurd; Quade, Bradley J; Shaw, Patricia; Vidal, August; Yemelyanova, Anna; Clarke, Blaise; Hedrick Ellenson, Lora; Longacre, Teri A; Shih, Ie-Ming; McCluggage, W Glenn; Malpica, Anais; Oliva, Esther; Parkash, Vinita; Matias-Guiu, Xavier


    The aim of this article is to propose guidelines and recommendations in problematic areas in pathologic reporting of endometrial carcinoma (EC) regarding special techniques and ancillary studies. An organizing committee designed a comprehensive survey with different questions related to pathologic features, diagnosis, and prognosis of EC that was sent to all members of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists. The special techniques/ancillary studies group received 4 different questions to be addressed. Five members of the group reviewed the literature and came up with recommendations and an accompanying text which were discussed and agreed upon by all members of the group. Twelve different recommendations are made. They address the value of immunohistochemistry, ploidy, and molecular analysis for assessing prognosis in EC, the value of steroid hormone receptor analysis to predict response to hormone therapy, and parameters regarding applying immunohistochemistry and molecular tests for assessing mismatch deficiency in EC.

  15. Criminalistic and police studies students' attitudes regarding training in special physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Goran


    Full Text Available An anonymous poll was conducted among a group of 103 first-year male students of the Police and Criminal Justice Academy following the end of the Special Physical Education I course and completion of pre-examination tasks in the 2008/09 school year. The aim of this research was to find out the views of female first-year students regarding the subject of Special Physical Education, which belongs to the group of general-professional subjects. The analysis of the poll results indicates that a large number of subjects holds that the subject in question is very significant or that it is among subjects of significance (94.17%, whereas the number of practical training hours is insufficient, being average (82.52%, and that it should be 4 lessons a week (39.81% or 5 (31.07%. The subjects also expressed an important view of the number of theory lessons, which they found was satisfactory (58.25% and that lessons should take place during both semesters, i.e. throughout the school year (86.41%. The students said that they preferred (87.38 % the special part of the curriculum (hitting, levers, throws… to the theoretical part. As for the students' views related to achievement expectations in the observed subject, it can be inferred that 49.51 % subjects achieved results equaling or exceeding their expectations, whereas 46.60 % failed to achieve the desired results. A large number of subjects, 48 (46.60% were of the opinion that the teachers and assistants engaged on this subject were extremely correct or correct, whereas 19 subjects (18.45% stated that they were incorrect or that their conduct was disappointing.

  16. Benefits for employees with children with special needs: findings from the collaborative employee benefit study. (United States)

    Perrin, James M; Fluet, Christina F; Honberg, Lynda; Anderson, Betsy; Wells, Nora; Epstein, Susan; Allen, Deborah; Tobias, Carol; Kuhlthau, Karen A


    Approximately 13-15 percent of U.S. children have special health care needs. The demands of their caregiving can affect their parents' health and workplace performance. We interviewed forty-one U.S. employers and conducted focus groups with working parents in four U.S. cities to determine the extent to which employers understand the needs of these families and to identify opportunities for improving workplace benefits for these employees beyond health insurance. Employers saw value in improving workforce performance and employee retention through expanded benefits and indicated promising opportunities to improve their response to the needs of employees with children with chronic conditions.

  17. Health seeking behavior of the mothers for the special care new-born unit discharged children: A comparative study


    Gursimer Jeet; Atul Sharma; Tulika Goswami Mohanta; Ajay Trakroo


    Establishment of special care new-born units (SCNU) in hospitals not only serves to provide the intensive care to sick neonates, but presents with opportunities to enhance knowledge and modify attitude and practices of their parents through behavior change communication (BCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District, Assam from January to June, 2011 to assess differences in health-care seeking behavior of these mothers from mothers of newborns who were born at home and mot...

  18. An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop Production/ Special Job Production/ Discrete Production/ Batch Shop Production Industries


    Lavlesh Kumar Sharma; Ravindra Mohan Saxena


    In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop production/ Special job production/ Discrete production/ Batch shop production industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop production than in the continuous/ mass production because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about...

  19. Implementing improvisation and songwriting to aid the transition to adulthood for adolelescents with special needs : a case study


    Tiusanen, Päivi


    Adolescence is a transitional period with many developmental tasks. The adolescents need to resolve the specific question of career choice and establishing authentic friendships. Transition to adulthood is often challenging to the adolescents with special education needs. Research has shown that music can serve as a medium for adolescents’ emotional self-regulation, peer-group affiliation and identity formation. The aim of this case study was to investigate a group music therapy process in...

  20. Operating in the Muskwa-Kechika special management zone : a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, G.I.; Anderson, B.; Laing, S.; Robert, J.


    The many challenges of exploring for natural gas in an area known as the Muskwa-Kechika special management zone of British Columbia were described. A key component of the stakeholder issues was addressing the concerns of the local First Nations that use the area for traditional purposes. Other stakeholders in the area are tour guides, trappers, non-government organizations that promote environmental and recreational values, and provincial ministries that are responsible for establishing regulations. The Muskwa-Kechika Protected Area was created in 1997 after Land and Resource Management plans reached a consensus on land use in the area. There are 4.4 million hectares in the area, 1.2 of which are designated as permanently protected. In support of this decision, Amoco Canada and Mobil surrendered 1420 hectares of petroleum and natural gas tenure in the area. The other 3.2 million hectares of the area lie in special management zones that allow for resource development under guidelines sensitive to wildlife and environmental values

  1. A Study of Analytical Solution for the Special Dissolution Rate Model of Rock Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang


    Full Text Available By calculating the concentration distributions of rock salt solutions at the boundary layer, an ordinary differential equation for describing a special dissolution rate model of rock salt under the assumption of an instantaneous diffusion process was established to investigate the dissolution mechanism of rock salt under transient but stable conditions. The ordinary differential equation was then solved mathematically to give an analytical solution and related expressions for the dissolved radius and solution concentration. Thereafter, the analytical solution was fitted with transient dissolution test data of rock salt to provide the dissolution parameters at different flow rates, and the physical meaning of the analytical formula was also discussed. Finally, the influential factors of the analytical formula were investigated. There was approximately a linear relationship between the dissolution parameters and the flow rate. The effects of the dissolution area and initial volume of the solution on the dissolution rate equation of rock salt were computationally investigated. The results showed that the present analytical solution gives a good description of the dissolution mechanism of rock salt under some special conditions, which may provide a primary theoretical basis and an analytical way to investigate the dissolution characteristics of rock salt.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saneeya QURESHI


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to argue that there are a number of key drivers for Special Educational Needs (SEN provision that have to be met by Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs and teaching professionals so as to ensure optimal provision and inclusion for children with SEN in mainstream primary schools. Although the research has been carried out in England, there is a significant European Dimension to the issue, as a similar role to that of SENCOs in respect of SEN management already exists in countries such as Finland and Ireland, and is being considered in Italy. Methods: This paper focuses on the data gathered for the purpose of the author’s doctoral research in England, through questionnaires and interviews with SENCOs, head teachers and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to explore key drivers of SEN provision by practitioners who support children with SEN. Results: Data illustrate that the key drivers of SEN provision include time; teacher openness to change; target setting; evidence of tried interventions; empowerment; decision-making and approachability. The implementation of such drivers depend largely on practitioner skills and competencies. Conclusion: The main conclusion within this paper is to develop points of reference for planning and practice, with illustrations of optimal provision by all practitioners who work with children with SEN.

  3. Immigrant general practitioners in Norway: a special resource? A qualitative study. (United States)

    Díaz, Esperanza; Hjörleifsson, Stefán


    To explore whether and how immigrant general practitioners (GPs) in two major cities in Norway think that their own ethnic background affects their practices and their work. Qualitative focus group and individual interviews with seven immigrant GPs, five men and two women, age 36-65 years. Their clinical experience in Norwegian primary health care ranged from four to 30 years. Analysis was conducted by systematic text condensation. First, immigrant GPs described a gradual process of becoming bicultural: the GPs communicate with immigrant patients on their own terms and draw upon their special knowledge from abroad to help selected patients, while also adapting to Norwegian cultural expectations of the GP's role. Second, the GPs described being aware of cultural issues in consultations with immigrant and Norwegian patients, but rarely making these issues explicit. The GPs ventured that cultural awareness, together with their personal experience in their own countries and as immigrants in Norway, made them able to sometimes help immigrant patients better than Norwegian GPs. Third, immigrant GPs experienced a big workload related to immigrant patients, but they accepted this as a natural part of their work. Fourth, immigrant GPs felt that they had to work harder and be more careful than their Norwegian colleagues in order to avoid complaints from patients, and to be accepted by colleagues. Immigrant GPs express broad cultural competence and keen cultural awareness in their consultations. The immigrant background of these GPs could be considered as a special resource for clinical practice.

  4. Specialized science. (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C


    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  5. The Development of Case Studies as a Method within a Longitudinal Study of Special Educational Needs Provision in the Republic of Ireland (United States)

    Rose, Richard; Shevlin, Michael


    When developing case studies within a longitudinal study of special educational needs provision within the Republic of Ireland, the authors were conscious of the critiques of the use of this approach within educational research. The difficulties associated with generalisation, challenges of ensuring trustworthiness and the possibilities of…

  6. Extending the study of decision making competence to special populations: A case study of persons on the autism spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin eLevin


    Full Text Available The area of decision making has much to offer in our effort to understand special populations. This pilot study is an example of just such a project, where we illustrate how traditional decision making tools and tasks can be used to uncover strengths and weaknesses within a growing population of young adults with autism. In this pilot project we extended accounts of autistic behavior such as those derived from theory of mind to predict key components of decision making in high-functioning young adults on the autism spectrum. A battery of tests was administered to 15 high-functioning college students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, focusing on Decision Making Competence (DMC and other aspects of decision making related to known deficits associated with autism. Data from this group were compared to data from unselected college students receiving the same measures. First, as a test of a key social deficit associated with autism, the target group scored much lower on the Empathy Quotient scale. Traditional elements of decision making competency such as Numeracy and application of decision rules were comparable across groups. However, there were differences in thinking style, with the ASD group showing lesser ability and engagement in intuitive thinking, and they showed lower levels of risk taking. For comparisons within the ASD group, autobiographical reports concerning individual lifestyles and outcomes were used to derive a scale of Social Functioning. The lowest scoring individuals showed the lowest levels of intuitive thinking, the lowest perceived levels of others' endorsement of socially undesirable behaviors, and the lowest ability to discriminate between good and bad risks. Results are discussed in terms of interventions that might aid high-functioning young adults with ASD in their everyday decision making.

  7. Study on comparison of special moment frame steel structure (SMF) and base isolation special moment frame steel structure (BI-SMF) in Indonesia (United States)

    Setiawan, Jody; Nakazawa, Shoji


    This paper discusses about comparison of seismic response behaviors, seismic performance and seismic loss function of a conventional special moment frame steel structure (SMF) and a special moment frame steel structure with base isolation (BI-SMF). The validation of the proposed simplified estimation method of the maximum deformation of the base isolation system by using the equivalent linearization method and the validation of the design shear force of the superstructure are investigated from results of the nonlinear dynamic response analysis. In recent years, the constructions of steel office buildings with seismic isolation system are proceeding even in Indonesia where the risk of earthquakes is high. Although the design code for the seismic isolation structure has been proposed, there is no actual construction example for special moment frame steel structure with base isolation. Therefore, in this research, the SMF and BI-SMF buildings are designed by Indonesian Building Code which are assumed to be built at Padang City in Indonesia. The material of base isolation system is high damping rubber bearing. Dynamic eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear dynamic response analysis are carried out to show the dynamic characteristics and seismic performance. In addition, the seismic loss function is obtained from damage state probability and repair cost. For the response analysis, simulated ground accelerations, which have the phases of recorded seismic waves (El Centro NS, El Centro EW, Kobe NS and Kobe EW), adapted to the response spectrum prescribed by the Indonesian design code, that has, are used.

  8. The Military Assistance Command-Vietnam Studies and Observations Group-A Case Study in Special Operations Campaigning (United States)


    realistically rehearsed , and executed with surprise, speed and purpose.”13 McRaven’s 11 William H...objective of special operations rather than the techniques used. For SOF to continue to achieve operational surprise, and to innovate in a constantly ...achieve success in 91 Peterson, 4-5. 49 an ever changing environment, they will need to constantly

  9. A two-locus global DNA barcode for land plants: the coding rbcL gene complements the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region. (United States)

    Kress, W John; Erickson, David L


    A useful DNA barcode requires sufficient sequence variation to distinguish between species and ease of application across a broad range of taxa. Discovery of a DNA barcode for land plants has been limited by intrinsically lower rates of sequence evolution in plant genomes than that observed in animals. This low rate has complicated the trade-off in finding a locus that is universal and readily sequenced and has sufficiently high sequence divergence at the species-level. Here, a global plant DNA barcode system is evaluated by comparing universal application and degree of sequence divergence for nine putative barcode loci, including coding and non-coding regions, singly and in pairs across a phylogenetically diverse set of 48 genera (two species per genus). No single locus could discriminate among species in a pair in more than 79% of genera, whereas discrimination increased to nearly 88% when the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer was paired with one of three coding loci, including rbcL. In silico trials were conducted in which DNA sequences from GenBank were used to further evaluate the discriminatory power of a subset of these loci. These trials supported the earlier observation that trnH-psbA coupled with rbcL can correctly identify and discriminate among related species. A combination of the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region and a portion of the coding rbcL gene is recommended as a two-locus global land plant barcode that provides the necessary universality and species discrimination.

  10. The influence of irradiation potential on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of two bulk-fill flowable RBC base materials. (United States)

    Finan, Leah; Palin, William M; Moskwa, Natalia; McGinley, Emma Louise; Fleming, Garry J P


    To assess the depth of cure claims of two bulk-fill flowable RBC bases (SDR and x-tra base) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, biaxial flexure strength (BFS), and Vickers hardness number (VHN) for specimen depths of 8mm (in 1mm increments). The degree of conversion (DC) was measured by monitoring the peak height (6164cm(-1)) of specimens (11.0±0.1mm diameter, 1.0±0.1mm thickness) during light irradiation for 20s using a quartz tungsten halogen light curing unit at 650±26mW/cm(2). DC was measured up to 120s post irradiation and repeated (n=3) for irradiation depths up to 8mm (in 1mm increments). Further series (n=20) of eight discs were prepared, stacked, light irradiated and numbered from one to eight (distance from the LCU). The specimens were stored at 37±1°C for 24h and BFS tested with the fracture fragments used to determine the VHN for each specimen. X-tra base can be irradiated to 8mm without a change in DC, something the SDR material cannot claim. However, the DC results confirm both bulk-fill flowable RBC bases have a depth of cure in excess of 4mm. One-way ANOVAs of BFS and VHN data showed significant differences between irradiation depths for x-tra base and SDR with increasing irradiation depth (4mm) resulting in significant reductions in mean BFS and VHN. The claims that the bulk-fill flowable RBC bases have a depth of cure in excess of 4mm can be confirmed but the differing chemistry of the resin formulations and filler characteristics contribute to significant differences in DC, BFS and VHN data between the two materials tested. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study results on estimation of non-specialized physical training university students in Hunan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wang


    Full Text Available Highlights the results of the implementation of national standards of physical fitness assessment of students specialized universities Chinese province of Hunan. Discovered that the main negative factors that reduce the effectiveness in this area are the following: lack of unified management of the process of introducing national standards of physical fitness assessment of students; shortcomings in the quality and quantity of equipment for evaluation, the low level of mastery of the teaching staff of the methodology and insufficient use the results of monitoring the health of the students in the further education; misallocation of time for testing and evaluation in terms of physical health. Substantiates the importance of the rational organization of the assessment system, outlined the main directions of improving the effectiveness of the implementation of national standards of physical fitness of students.

  12. The Country of Origin Effect on the Evaluation of Special Beers and the Consumers’ Purchase Intention: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Gehlen Bassani


    Full Text Available Objetives: analyze the country of origin effect on the perceived product quality, the price-willingness to pay and the consumer’s purchase intention.Method: experimental (experiment, with a factorial design 4 (Country of Origin: Germany, China, Brazil, and a control’s group x 1 (Product: special Pilsen beer. For data analysis, a quantitative statistical approach was performed with data processed by means a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, applying post-hoc tests. The sample consisted of 159 respondents who were distributed in the four experimental groups.Originality/Relevance: the study approached the country of origin effect on consumer perception and its relationship with perceived quality, willingness to pay and purchase intention of special beer.Results: the results show that the country of origin effect, as an extrinsic attribute, has a significant role in the perceived quality, willingness to pay and consumers’ purchase intentions.Theoretical/Methodological Contrbutions: the development of the research allowed us to analyze, in the evaluation of a product, in this case, special beer (Pilsen type, the strength of an extrinsic factor, that is, the country of origin effect, and its influence on the perceived quality, the price-willingness to pay and the consumer’s purchase intention.

  13. Sports-specialized intensive training and the risk of injury in young athletes: a clinical case-control study. (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R


    Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Inclusive Pedagogy in Light of Social Justice. Special Educational Rights and Inclusive Classrooms: On Whose Terms? a Field Study in Stockholm Suburbs (United States)

    De Silva, Nilani Ljunggren


    The question of inclusive education is not straightforward. Despite all its good intentions, inclusive education, in practice faces numerous challenges today. This study analyses these challenges in the Swedish special education context. The author explores special educators' experiences, possibilities and challenges when applying inclusive…

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 5, 2017 ... image processing. Detail explanations including experimental results that show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques are described in this paper. The proposed algorithm has been successfully detect and separate agglomerate RBC with 96% accuracy. Algorithm validation was verified with RBC ...

  16. First-principles study of ternary bcc alloys using special quasi-random structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao


    Using a combination of exhaustive enumeration and Monte Carlo simulated annealing, we have developed special quasi-random structures (SQSs) for ternary body-centered cubic (bcc) alloys with compositions of A 1 B 1 C 1 , A 2 B 1 C 1 , A 6 B 1 C 1 and A 2 B 3 C 3 , respectively. The structures possess local pair and multisite correlation functions that closely mimic those of the random bcc alloy. We employed the SQSs to predict the mixing enthalpies, nearest neighbor bond length distributions and electronic density of states of bcc Mo-Nb-Ta and Mo-Nb-V solid solutions. Our convergence tests indicate that even small-sized SQSs can give reliable results. Based on the SQS energetics, the predicting powers of the existing empirical ternary extrapolation models were assessed. The present results suggest that it is important to take into account the ternary interaction parameter in order to accurately describe the thermodynamic behaviors of ternary alloys. The proposed SQSs are quite general and can be applied to other ternary bcc alloys.

  17. Studies on the development of special graphite for use in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, G.; Aggarwal, R.K.; Saha, M.; Sengupta, P.R.; Mishra, A. [National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India). Carbon Technology Unit


    Special graphite is considered as a critical component of the present-day tokamaks wherein it acts as the armour material for plasma-facing components. This graphite is required to possess, besides other characteristics, high values of bulk density, bending strength and electrical and thermal conductivities and a low value of ash content. Since such graphite was not commercially available in the country, efforts to develop it were initiated at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi. The basic approach to develop this graphite was based on green coke method of making the high density graphite, wherein the green coke was modified by incorporating in it small amounts of conducting carbon materials, i.e. needle coke, synthetic graphite and natural graphite. The resulting graphites were characterized with respect to various physical characteristics, namely, green density, weight loss, volume shrinkage, linear shrinkage, bulk density, bending strength, Young's modulus and electrical resistivity, etc. The results are described and discussed in the present paper. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Implications of resin-based composite (RBC) restoration on cuspal deflection and microleakage score in molar teeth: Placement protocol and restorative material. (United States)

    McHugh, Lauren E J; Politi, Ioanna; Al-Fodeh, Rami S; Fleming, Garry J P


    To assess the cuspal deflection of standardised large mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities in third molar teeth restored using conventional resin-based composite (RBC) or their bulk fill restorative counterparts compared with the unbound condition using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge. Following thermocycling, the cervical microleakage of the restored teeth was assessed to determine marginal integrity. Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in forty-eight sound third molar teeth and randomly allocated to six groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with (and without) a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a light-emitting-diode light-curing-unit. The dependent variable was the restoration protocol, eight oblique increments for conventional RBCs or two horizontal increments for the bulk fill resin restoratives. The cumulative buccal and palatal cuspal deflections from a twin channel deflection measuring gauge were summed, the restored teeth thermally fatigued, immersed in 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage score. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified third molar teeth restored using conventional RBC materials had significantly higher mean total cuspal deflection values compared with bulk fill resin restorative restoration (all pmaterial selection is vital in the absence of clinical data. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) from two sides of the Yellow Sea: analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and plastid rbcL sequence data (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Nan; Jiang, Peng; Boo, Sung Min; Lee, Wook Jae; Cui, Yulin; Lin, Hanzhi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Zhengyi; Qin, Song


    Ulvacean green seaweeds are common worldwide; they formed massive green tides in the Yellow Sea in recent years, which caused marine ecological problems as well as a social issue. We investigated two major genera of the Ulvaceae, Ulva and Enteromorpha, and collected the plastid rbcL and nuclear ITS sequences of specimens of the genera in two sides of the Yellow Sea and analyzed them. Phylogenetic trees of rbcL data show the occurrence of five species of Enteromorpha ( E. compressa, E. flexuosa, E. intestinalis, E. linza and E. prolifera) and three species of Ulva ( U. pertusa, U. rigida and U. ohnoi). However, we found U. ohnoi, which is known as a subtropical to tropical species, at two sites on Jeju Island, Korea. Four ribotypes in partial sequences of 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 from E. compressa were also found. Ribotype network analysis revealed that the common ribotype, occurring in China, Korea and Europe, is connected with ribotypes from Europe and China/Japan. Although samples of the same species were collected from both sides of the Yellow Sea, intraspecific genetic polymorphism of each species was low among samples collected worldwide.

  20. Medical experiments on persons with special needs, a comparative study of Islamic jurisprudence vs. Arab laws: UAE law as case study. (United States)

    Hammad, Hamza Abed Al-Karim


    This article is a comparative study of medical experiments on persons with special needs in Islamic jurisprudence and Arab laws; United Arab Emirates (UAE) law as case study. The current study adopts a comparative analytical and descriptive approach. The conclusion of this study points out that the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Special Needs, ratified by a number of Arab States, including the United Arab Emirates, approves conducting medical experiments on persons with special needs, subject to their free consent. As a result of ratifying this Convention, a number of special laws were enacted to be enforced in the United Arab Emirates. On the other hand, this issue is controversial from an Islamic jurisprudence point of view. One group of jurisprudents permits conducting these experimentations if they are designed to treat the person involved, and prohibits such experimentations for scientific advancement. Other jurisprudents permit conducting medical experimentations on persons with special needs, whether the purpose of such experimentations is treatment of the disabled or achieving scientific advancement. The opinion of this group is consistent with the International Convention and the Arab laws in this respect. However, neither the Convention nor the Arab laws regulate this matter by specific and comprehensive conditions, as addressed by some contemporary scholars. It is recommended that the Convention and the Arab laws adopt these conditions. Additionally, the Convention does not state whether the experimentations may be conducted for the interest of the person with disability or for the purpose of scientific advancement. The text of the Convention is unclear and therefore requires further illumination.

  1. Teacher Use of Instructional Technology in a Special Education School for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Sola Özgüç


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate use of Instructional Technology (IT by special education teachers in a school for students with moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID. Research questions were a Which IT do teachers use during class time? b What are the ways of providing IT? (c What are the problems that teachers encountered while using IT? (d What are the results and effects of the encountered problems? (e Is there any use of assistive technology (AT devices? This is a case study based on collecting and analyzing qualitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine teachers; students with moderate to severe ID in the first, second, fifth, and seventh grade were observed in social studies lessons, as were eight teachers of those students. The study showed that use of IT is limited in a special school for children with ID and this situation is affecting teachers and students in a negative way. Also, use of AT is lacking

  2. Study on the impact of caregivers in an Italian high specialization hospital: presence, costs and nurse's perception. (United States)

    Quattrin, Rosanna; Artico, Carlo; Farneti, Federico; Panariti, Mateo; Palese, Alvisa; Brusaferro, Silvio


    The study analysed two key questions: (i) the prevalence of informal caregiving in medical and surgical wards of a high specialization hospital; (ii) the reasonable cost for the structure that would have to pay to replace informal caregiving? The study was conducted in June 2006 as a prevalence survey, using a questionnaire administered to informal caregivers and nurses working in medical and surgical wards of a high specialization hospital by ad hoc trained personnel. Questionnaire consisted in three sections: the first focused on patient's characteristics, the second on caregivers and the third on nurses' perception on caregiving phenomenon. One hundred and twenty-four eligible caregivers were identified. During the study patients admitted to hospital medical and surgery wards were 520. Among these 16.5% (86/520) was assisted by one or more caregivers. Caregivers' response rate was 69.4% (86/124), corresponding to 66 patients. This study yielded an average of 455.9 minutes per day (SD = 370.2; range = 120-1440) or 52.9 hours per week. Caregiver's presence was recognized in 88.9% (56/63) of patients. Despite the societal perspective, the costs and effects of informal caregiving to the informal caregiver are often ignored in economic evaluation. The costs of informal care are an important extent related to time inputs by relatives and friends of the care recipients. Our approach has been to monetize the informal activity care contribution of family members and/or caregivers.

  3. [The study on metabolic difference of human body affected by active stress and passive stress under special events]. (United States)

    Guo, Guang-hong; Gu, Feng; Dong, Zhen-nan; Yuan, Xin-hong; Wang, Ling; Tian, Ya-ping


    To study the metabolic difference of body influenced by active stress and passive stress under special events. To detect serum multiple biochemistry index of 57 earthquake rescue medical team and 13 victims of a natural calamity in Wenchuan earthquake by using Hitachi 7600 automatic analyzer. Stress affected biochemistry index deeply. To compared with rescue medical team, the serum ADA, ALP and TG of victims increased obviously and TP, ALB, MAO, Cr, UA, K, Na, Cl, Ca, ApoA1 and HDL decreased obviously. Many biochemistry index have been changed under stress and it relate with stress extent. The human body function status was better in active stress than in passive stress.

  4. Learnt and perceived professional roles of a new type of nurse specialized in Gerontology and Geriatrics, a qualitative study. (United States)

    Huizenga, Petra; Finnema, Evelyn; Roodbol, Petrie


    To gain insight into a new type of nurse specialized in gerontology and geriatrics, how they find meaning in the care of older persons and how this relates to the seven professional roles derived from the CanMEDS theoretical framework. To promote the quality of care for older persons in the Netherlands, one of the measures taken is the training and deployment of Registered Nurses specialized in Gerontology and Geriatrics. We focus on their professional roles in this study, to gain insight into the extent to which they fulfil their professional standards. A qualitative study, consisting of seven focus group interviews. The study population included 67 Registered Nurses. Data were collected between October 2011-May 2013. Nurses work in all seven CanMEDS roles, but not with all competences associated with these seven roles. The more distant the role is from patient activities, the less frequently competences such as social networks; design; research; innovation of care; legal, financial and organizational frameworks; professional ethics and professional innovation are mentioned. Nurses engage in activities consistent with nursing care for older people; however, despite their training, they are mainly focused on direct-patient care. Their limited awareness of the complete range of professional competences risks the stagnation of their development in professional roles such as health advocate, scholar and professional, which will not lead to an improvement in the care for older persons. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessing the Special Education Faculty Shortage: The Crisis in California--A Statewide Study of the Professoriate (United States)

    Evans, Susan; Eliot, Michael; Hood, Jolene; Driggs, Max; Mori, Ayako; Johnson, Theresa


    This article examines several questions related to the faculty shortage in special education. Using California as a case, the authors address these questions: (1) What were the personal and professional characteristics of current special education faculty preparing special education credential and doctoral candidates?; (2) What were the…

  6. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.


    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  7. Preferences of Young Adults With First-Episode Psychosis for Receiving Specialized Mental Health Services Using Technology: A Survey Study. (United States)

    Lal, Shalini; Dell'Elce, Jennifer; Tucci, Natasha; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Tamblyn, Robyn; Malla, Ashok


    Despite the potential and interest of using technology for delivering specialized psychiatric services to young adults, surprisingly limited attention has been paid to systematically assess their perspectives in this regard. For example, limited knowledge exists on the extent to which young people receiving specialized services for a first-episode psychosis (FEP) are receptive to using new technologies as part of mental health care, and to which types of technology-enabled mental health interventions they are amenable to. The purpose of this study is to assess the interest of young adults with FEP in using technology to receive mental health information, services, and supports. This study uses a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. A convenience sample of 67 participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were recruited from two specialized early intervention programs for psychosis. Interviewer-administered surveys were conducted between December 2013 and October 2014. Descriptive statistics are reported. Among the 67 respondents who completed the survey, the majority (85%, 57/67) agreed or strongly agreed with YouTube as a platform for mental health-related services and supports. The top five technology-enabled services that participants were amenable to were (1) information on medication (96%, 64/67); (2) information on education, career, and employment (93%, 62/67); (3) decision-making tools pertaining to treatment and recovery (93%, 62/67); (4) reminders for appointments via text messaging (93%, 62/67); and (5) information about mental health, psychosis, and recovery in general (91%, 61/67). The top self-reported barriers to seeking mental health information online were lack of knowledge on how to perform an Internet search (31%, 21/67) and the way information is presented online (27%, 18/67). Two thirds (67%; 45/67) reported being comfortable in online settings, and almost half (48%; 32/67) reported a preference for mixed formats when viewing mental health

  8. Research Ethics in Behavioral Interventions Among Special Populations: Lessons From the Peer Approaches to Lupus Self-Management Study. (United States)

    Faith, Trevor D; Egede, Leonard; Williams, Edith M


    Research involving a homogenous cohort of participants belonging to a special population must make considerations to recruit and protect the subjects. This study analyses the ethical considerations made in the peer approaches to lupus self-management project which pilot tested a peer mentoring intervention for African American women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Considerations made at the outset of the project are described and their justifications and reasoning are given. Through analysis of feedback from a postintervention focus group and mentors' logs, implications on program outcomes and participant satisfaction are discussed. Feedback indicated the importance of recruiting and training capable mentors, consistent contact from study staff to avert adverse events and avert fear or mistrust and careful consideration that must go into the pairing of mentors and mentees. Participant feedback also indicated that sensitive topics must be addressed carefully to prevent distress and dissatisfaction. Applying the lessons learned from this work as well as the considerations that proved successful may improve the contextualization and ethical conduct of behavioral interventions in special populations resulting in improved tailoring and acceptability toward historically underserved individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Teachers’ perceptions toward the education of students with special needs: a study in the north of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Fernandes Santos


    Full Text Available In our days not only teachers and parents hope for the schools to become inclusive, but all the society seems to understand and advocate for this need. However, when we talk about inclusion are we thinking about the same thing? Do we have the same perception of the needs, so that inclusion can really happen? In order to answers these questions a study was conducted using a questionnaire whose main objective was to understand how teachers understand and perceive the education of the pupils with Special Educational Needs (SEN. 249 teachers participated in the study, all from elementary schools located in Braga, Northern Portugal. The questionnaire had 25 items, divided into three main clusters: (1 Attitudes; (2 Resources; and (3 Collaboration. The results showed significant differences between some of the items and the variables gender, academic qualifications and professional experience. Based on these results, this research indicates that, although participants recognize that it is important to implement the philosophy of inclusion in Portugal, it is necessary to provide more training for all individuals involved in the education of students with SEN. They also indicated that there is a lack of specialized human resources needed to provide quality educational responses for the abovementioned students.

  10. EDITORIAL: Special section on recent progress on radio frequency heating and current drive studies in the JET tokamak Special section on recent progress on radio frequency heating and current drive studies in the JET tokamak (United States)

    Ongena, Jef; Mailloux, Joelle; Mayoral, Marie-Line


    This special cluster of papers summarizes the work accomplished during the last three years in the framework of the Task Force Heating at JET, whose mission it is to study the optimisation of heating systems for plasma heating and current drive, launching and deposition questions and the physics of plasma rotation. Good progress and new physics insights have been obtained with the three heating systems available at JET: lower hybrid (LH), ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and neutral beam injection (NBI). Topics covered in the present issue are the use of edge gas puffing to improve the coupling of LH waves at large distances between the plasma separatrix and the LH launcher. Closely linked with this topic are detailed studies of the changes in LH coupling due to modifications in the scrape-off layer during gas puffing and simultaneous application of ICRH. We revisit the fundamental ICRH heating of D plasmas, include new physics results made possible by recently installed new diagnostic capabilities on JET and point out caveats for ITER when NBI is simultaneously applied. Other topics are the study of the anomalous behaviour of fast ions from NBI, and a study of toroidal rotation induced by ICRH, both again with possible implications for ITER. In finalizing this cluster of articles, thanks are due to all colleagues involved in preparing and executing the JET programme under EFDA in recent years. We want to thank the EFDA leadership for the special privilege of appointing us as Leaders or Deputies of Task Force Heating, a wonderful and hardworking group of colleagues. Thanks also to all other European and non-European scientists who contributed to the JET scientific programme, the Operations team of JET and the colleagues of the Close Support Unit (CSU). Thanks are also due to the Editors, Editorial Board and referees of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion together with the publishing staff of IOP Publishing who have supported and contributed substantially to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Lacurezeanu


    Full Text Available The digitization as a general phenomenon is influencing even the students we meet nowadays, making their expectations grow regarding the experiences offered by the eLearning context. At the global level it is found that the student as consumer of pieces of different content, with different levels of involvement as well as with a different level of attention is hard to be pleased. It is difficult to follow their interests and from here stems the difficulty of measuring the studentsˊ behavior. Our study will provide a model / tool for measuring the involvement of the student specializing in tourism within the courses by capturing levels of involvement in the course of learning and outlining their behaviour. We will compare the achieved results with the model of the student as it was imagined by the teacher when constructing the entire course. Our research will provide the specialized literature with conclusions on the impact of using collaborative environments in teaching and learning with implications and consequences on the improvement of digital skills.

  12. Studies on the calcination of ammonium uranates with special reference to density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fekey, S.A.; Rofail, N.H.; Farah, M.Y.


    The objective of this study was to throw some light on ammonium uranates precipitated from uranyl nitrate solution using ammonia or urea. The effect of washing the uranates, thickness of their layers on the trays during subsequent calcination, temperature and duration, on the densities of powders formed during thermal decomposition was studied. (author)

  13. Studies on the interaction of riboflavin 5'-phosphate with proteins with special attention to bacterial bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, R.


    The central theme of this thesis is the interaction of FMN with proteins. For one of the proteins studied, the enzyme luciferase from bacteria, further investigations were done on the process of light emission.
    In chapter 2 and 3 studies are reported on the binding of FMN with relatively

  14. Special Feature: Epistemological Paradigms in Evaluation: Implications for Practice. Section 3: "Paradigm Complementarity" Case Studies. (United States)

    Kamis-Gould, Edna; And Others


    Three studies are presented, which illustrate situations in which researchers and funders agreed on the primacy of either the experimental or pragmatic paradigms but acknowledged a role for the other. The studies involved evaluations of mental health care, information systems, and a curriculum for behavioral and academic dysfunction. (SLD)

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 15, 2017 ... Research Article. Special Issue ... In myriad studies implemented, the quality of life has been defined in different ways among which the .... service and trading users in living area. ... market, bakery, barber shop, restaurant, etc.

  16. A clinical study on oral lichen planus with special emphasis on hyperpigmentation (United States)

    Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Sindhuja, Pandian; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Nirmal, Ramdas Madhavan; Reddy, B. Venkat Ramana; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan


    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a unique disorder affecting generally the older age group. Numerous studies have been done on various aspects of OLP such as pathogenesis, rate of malignant transformation, etc. However, very few studies are available with respect to clinical features especially association of hyperpigmentation and OLP. This study aims at studying the clinical aspects of OLP and study the association between hyperpigmentation and OLP in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 58 patients with OLP who attended the outpatient department of our institution were included in the study and a complete history, followed by thorough intraoral examination was done. All the data were recorded and assessed for statistical analysis using SPSS software. Results: We found that the male to female ratio affected with OLP was 1:1 and the most common form of OLP that was seen was the reticular subtype. Also, buccal mucosa was the most common affected site and more than 60% patients had hyperpigmentation associated with the site affected by OLP. We found a statistically significant relation between the reticular type of OLP and the older age group (51–70 years) with hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: Although further studies are required to say anything conclusively, post-inflammatory changes occurring the mucosa due to OLP could be a cause for hyperpigmentation in the sites affected. PMID:26538905

  17. Trends and causes of maternal mortality in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia: a matched case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legesse T


    Full Text Available Tegene Legesse,1 Misra Abdulahi,2 Anteneh Dirar2 1Department of Public Health, Collage of Health Science, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia; 2Department of Population and Family Health, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia Introduction: Measures of maternal death are fundamental to a country’s health and development status. In developing countries, it remains a daunting and largely unmet public health challenge. There were two studies completed over 10 years ago in Jimma University Specialized Hospital to identify trends, but recently there have been many changes in Ethiopia to reduce maternal death. Therefore, it is important to track the achievements made in Ethiopia in the context of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. No study undertaken in the country has quantified deaths of women from specific causes after controlling confounders.Objective: To assess trends and causes of maternal death in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia.Methods: A time-matched case–control study was conducted on 600 (120 cases and 480 controls females who utilized obstetrics and gynecology services from January 2010 to December 2014. To observe trends in maternal death, maternal mortality ratio was calculated for each year. Stata version 13 was used to analyze causal inference using propensity score matching method.Results: Maternal mortality ratio was 857/100,000 and had a decreasing trend from it’s highest in 2010 of 1,873/100,000 to it’s lowest of 350/100,000 in 2014. The leading cause of maternal death was hemorrhage (54% (β=0.477, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.307, 0.647, followed by pregnancy-induced hypertension (20% (β=0.232, 95% CI: 0.046, 0.419, and anemia (12% (β=0.110, 95% CI: 0.017, 0.204.Conclusion: There is a decreasing trend of maternal death. Hemorrhage was the major cause of death identified in each year of study. Keywords: maternal death, maternal

  18. Navy Speciality Physician Study: Historical Overview, Retention Analysis, and Synopsis of Current Civilian-Sector Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Eric


    .... The objective of the study was to further explore retention of Navy physicians, by identifying and tracking critical indicators of Navy physician retention, to provide BUMED information for improving...

  19. Studies of soy sauce sterilization and its special flavour improvement by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingtian; Jin Xinhua; Gu Guoxing; Yun Guichun


    Experimental studies for sterilizing 12 kinds of soy sauce with gamma-ray irradiation showed that both sterilization and improvements in flavour and quality of soy sauce were obtained simultaneously. (author)

  20. Special Colloquium : Looking at High Energy Physics from a gender studies perspective

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Human actors, workplace cultures and knowledge production: Gender studies analyse the social constructions and cultural representations of gender. Using methods and tools from the humanities and social science, we look at all areas, including the natural sciences and technology, science education and research labs. After a short introduction to gender studies, the main focus of my talk will be the presentation of selected research findings on gender and high energy physics. You will hear about an ongoing research project on women in neutrino physics and learn about a study on the world of high energy physicists characterised by "rites of passage" and "male tales" told during a life in physics. I will also present a study on how the HEP community communicates, and research findings on the naming culture in HEP. Getting to know findings from another field on your own might contribute to create a high energy physics culture that is fair and welcoming to all genders.

  1. A geo-economical study of beryl, specially the bery from the northeast (of Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentiere, R.


    The crystalline structure of beryl and the BeO proportion in minerals are presented. The geoeconomics areas are studied and tables of the Brazilian beryl productions and its relative position in the world-wide production are presented [pt

  2. Conceptual design studies of special-purpose equipment for Fusion Engineering Device torus-sector remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, L.S.; Watts, K.D.; Aldrich, W.E.; McPherson, R.S.


    One of the major maintenance operations anticipated for fusion reactors of the Tokamak configuration is remote removal and replacement of torus sectors. This operation will be difficult due to the massive nature of the sector (375 tonnes), and also due to the precision with which it must be positioned within the fixed structure. The same problem, only to a lesser degree, applies to sub-components of the sector such as the limiter blades, shielding, test assemblies, etc. General and specific design requirements have been generated and trade studies conducted on reactor interfacing details as well as handling machine concepts. On the basis of the design requirements and trade studies, a perferred concept for the sector handling machine was developed. In addition, a similar machine was developed for handling the intermediate sized sector sub-components. While most operations will be performed by special purpose machines such as described above, there is a need for a versatile, relatively high capacity mobile system. A concept suitable for this mobile application was also developed as part of these studies. The general conclusion, to the extent these studies have been completed, was that special single-purpose machines will be required to perform the operations requiring high load capacity and handling precision. The machine concepts developed were felt to be within the state-of-the-art, and will make extensive use of commercially available components. The most serious problem was felt to be development of simple methods to obtain the required precision in positioning massive objects such as the torus sector

  3. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald


    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  4. Preface to the Special Issue on "Geophysical and Climate Change Studies in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Siberia (TibXS from Satellite Geodesy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang


    Full Text Available This special issue publishes papers on recent results in geophysical and climate change studies over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS based upon some of the key sensors used in satellite geodesy, including satellite gravimetric sensors (GRACE and GOCE, satellite altimeters (TOPEX, Jason-1 and -2, and ENVISAT, and Global Positioning System satellites. Results from ground- and airborne-based geodetic observations, notably those based on airborne gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter (SG and seismometers are also included in the special issue. In all, 22 papers were submitted for this special issue; 17 papers were accepted.

  5. TRU waste form studies with special reference to iron-enriched basalt: 1980. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinn, J.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Kelsey, P.V. Jr.


    Material studies were performed on iron-enriched basalt (IEB) as a waste form containment medium for transuranic wastes. Specimens from laboratory scale, as well as large scale melts, were used in the evaluation. The studies included melting and casting, slag-refractory interaction, slag fruit assessments, volatility of sodium salts from IEB melts, chemical and structure homogeneity, metallic dissolution tests, physical properties, and devitrification associated with the development of mineral phases. In addition, durability tests, which included leaching and mechanical behavior, were performed


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Sreedharan Nair


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Centchroman is a novel nonsteroidal contraceptive that offers a unique combination of weak estrogenic and potent antiestrogenic properties. Centchroman inhibits the fertilised ovum from implantation and thus prevents pregnancy. The development of the steroidal contraceptive in the late 1950s was a big event in reproductive research. The pill has, however, some inherent logistic limitations such as the need for continuous administration and thus associated likelihood of side effects. This underscored the need for a safer alternative for preventing pregnancy such as postcoital contraceptives and those that interfere with events between ovulation and implantation. Hence, in this study, a clinical evaluation of centchroman for its contraceptive study was carried out on 153 women and the contraceptive benefit was evaluated at monthly intervals. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective study done in the family planning department of Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital. Postnatal patients reporting to the family planning department at 6 weeks postpartum and also patients opting for medical termination of pregnancy or cases following spontaneous abortion were selected for the study. Contraceptive efficacy of centchroman was studied over a 12-month period. RESULTS 153 subjects were studied. 63% of the subjects were in the age group of 20-24 years. 93% subjects used centchroman as a spacing method after first delivery and 6% after second delivery. 43% of acceptors were following MTP or abortion, 35% were postpartum cases and 22% were interval acceptors. 5.2% of subjects in the study group had rheumatic heart disease, 2% had hypertension and 2.6% had diabetes mellitus. Duration of use ranged from 3 months in 153 subjects to 12 months in 130 subjects. The main cause for discontinuation of centchroman was menstrual irregularity. Menstrual complaints were noted in 45% of the subjects. The major menstrual complaint was delayed cycle in 26% subjects and

  7. Shutdown decay heat removal analysis: Plant case studies and special issues: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Cramond, W.R.; Sanders, G.A.; Hatch, S.W.


    Shutdown Decay Heat Removal Requirements has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-45. The overall objectives of the USI A-45 program were to evaluate the safety adequacy of decay heat removal (DHR) systems in existing light water reactor nuclear power plants and to assess the value and impact (benefit-cost) of alternative measures for improving the overall reliability of the DHR function. To provide the technical data required to meet these objectives a program was developed that examined the state of DHR system reliability in a sample of existing plants. This program identified potential vulnerabilities and identified and established the feasibility of potential measures to improve the reliability of the DHR function. A value/impact (V/I) analysis of the more promising of such measures was conducted and documented. This report summarizes those studies. In addition, because of the evolving nature of V/I analyses in support of regulation, a number of supporting studies related to appropriate procedures and measures for the V/I analyses were also conducted. These studies are also summarized herein. This report only summarizes findings of technical studies performed by Sandia National Laboratories as part of the program to resolve this issue. 46 refs., 7 figs., 124 tabs

  8. New technology allows closer study of neutrinos; researchers credit specialized telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    Huang, N


    With the help of a newly designed telescope, University of California-Berkeley scientists and an international team of researchers have made a recent breakthrough in the study of neutrino emissions from the sun. The turning point is the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada. This telescope is the first of its kind to be sensitive enough to detect all types of neutrinos (1 page).

  9. A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft, Special Report (United States)

    Axilrod, Benjamin M.; Kline, Gordon M.


    Various transparent organic plastics, including both commercially available and experimental materials, have been examined to determine their suitability for use as flexible windshields on aircraft, The properties which have been studied include light transmission, haziness, distortion, resistance to weathering, scratch and indentation hardness, impact strength, dimensional stability, resistance to water and various cleaning fluids, bursting strength at normal and low temperatures, and flammability.

  10. Measurement Invariance in Careers Research: Using IRT to Study Gender Differences in Medical Students' Specialization Decisions (United States)

    Behrend, Tara S.; Thompson, Lori Foster; Meade, Adam W.; Newton, Dale A.; Grayson, Martha S.


    The current study demonstrates the use of item response theory (IRT) to conduct measurement invariance analyses in careers research. A self-report survey was used to assess the importance 1,363 fourth-year medical students placed on opportunities to provide comprehensive patient care when choosing a career specialty. IRT analyses supported…

  11. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy for Children with Special Needs: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Dilts, Rachel; Trompisch, Norbert; Bergquist, Timothy M.


    Dolphin-assisted therapy (DAT), as a part of animal-assisted therapy and complementary and alternative medicine, yields several positive results. This study intended to add to DAT effectiveness research while using a standardized assessment. In the Ukraine, a DAT program called DolphinSwim agreed to take part in research with 37 voluntary…

  12. Views of Constructed Languages, with Special Reference to Esperanto: An Experimental Study. (United States)

    Edwards, John; MacPherson, Lynn


    A study of college faculty and student attitudes toward artificial languages, particularly Esperanto, found faculty more knowledgeable but less enthusiastic than students about the languages. Faculty were less likely to see practical benefits in the knowledge and use of constructed languages, and less interested in seeing them taught or learning…

  13. National Survey of the Education of Teachers. Bulletin, 1933, No. 10. Volume V: Special Survey Studies (United States)

    Frazier, Benjamin W.; Betts, Gilbert L.; Greenleaf, Walter J.; Waples, Douglas; Dearborn, Ned H.; Carney, Mabel; Alexander, Thomas


    The Seventy-first Congress authorized a survey of the education of teachers on a Nation-wide scope, conducted during the last 3 years. After the work of the survey was organized it was apparent that only a limited number of studies could be undertaken with the time and funds available. It was decided, therefore, to cooperate whenever possible with…

  14. Building Evidence in Early Childhood Special Education: A Systematic Review of Replication Intervention Studies (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Movahedazarhouligh, Sara; Millen, Kaitlyn; Luckner, John L.


    Valid and evidence-informed practices are critical to help young children with disabilities and their families with highly effective interventions and instruction to reach their potentials. Replication research is critical for appraising research and identifying evidence-based practices. The purpose of this study was to replicate the methods used…

  15. Coping Power Dissemination Study: Intervention and Special Education Effects on Academic Outcomes (United States)

    Lochman, John E.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Powell, Nicole P.; Qu, Lixin; Wells, Karen; Windle, Michael


    This study examines whether a school-based preventive intervention for children with aggressive behavior affects children's academic outcomes when it is implemented by school counselors in a dissemination field trial. The Coping Power program targets empirical risk factors for aggressive behavior and focuses primarily on teaching social and…

  16. Does Empathy Predict Instructional Assignment-Related Stress? A Study in Special and General Education Teachers (United States)

    Platsidou, Maria; Agaliotis, Ioannis


    The role of empathy in the teaching profession has been vastly investigated in relation to its effect on students, but research on how teachers' empathy affects their own well-being at work is limited. This study investigated empathy and instructional assignment-related stress factors of primary school teachers serving in general or special…

  17. Heavy metals and zooplankton with special reference to Minamata (Japan) mercury pollution - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Hirota, R.

    content was 0.01 to 0.25 mu g g/1 (dry). Among the various groups of zooplankton studied chaetognaths, bivalve, and crustaceans showed higher rate of bioaccumulation. The distribution of other heavy metals was not abnormal and the values were below...

  18. Elementary Teachers Understanding of Disability, Inclusion, and Special Education: A Phenomenographic Study (United States)

    Heroux, JoDell R.


    A wide range of cultural studies research have explored the impact of deeply held cultural stereotypes on stakeholders' attitudes and dispositions towards race, gender and class, which has resulted in the development of culturally responsive teaching frameworks designed to address educational inequity for diverse groups of students. Research…

  19. Work Related Stress: Application of a Special Study to the General Business Community. (United States)

    Gallagher, Denise M.; And Others

    There has been much recent attention given to stress and the negative side effects associated with excessive stress. Employers need to recognize the effect that stress can have on the productivity and attitudes of their employees. To examine work-related stress and to develop stress management strategies, a study was conducted of flight attendants…

  20. 76 FR 24514 - Honouliuli Special Resource Study, Honolulu, Maui, Hawaii, and Kauai Counties, HI (United States)


    ... the overall study area, including management by other public agencies or the private sector; technical... entities; (4) private and nonprofit organizations; (5) private landowners; and (6) other interested parties... ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying information from public review, we cannot...

  1. A Case Study of School Choice and Special Education in the 21st Century (United States)

    Bernier, Lisa E.


    School choice is deeply rooted in the marketization theories originally presented by Milton Friedman in the 1950s. There are many school choice options available in Arizona. The purpose and primary research question of this case study explored how a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) and other factors influenced the parents' decisions to…

  2. The Peaceful Uses of Military Forces. Praeger Special Studies in International Politics and Public Affairs. (United States)

    Hanning, Hugh

    This study of the peaceful uses of military forces (PUMF) offers a compendium of information and principles for the planning and conduct of such PUMF activities as meeting disaster or emergency relief situations, education and training, and economic and social projects. The provision of training opportunities by the military is a means of…

  3. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data (United States)

    Häser, Annette


    Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae). Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae), a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women. PMID:27957401


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bharathi Yarlagadda


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ovarian tumours being second most common gynaecological cancer in India account for 30% of all cancers of female genital tract. Study conducted to determine relative frequencies of various histological types based on WHO classification and their age distribution with particular emphasis on surface epithelial tumours. This study is undertaken to find out the frequency of incidence of different histopathological subtypes with particular emphasis on surface epithelial tumours and age distribution of ovarian tumours in our institute located in coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 100 cases of ovarian neoplasms collected during a period of 3 years from June 2013 to May 2016 from the Department of Pathology, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Chinakondrupadu, Guntur, A. P, India. The patients attending our hospital are mostly from rural areas around. Paraffin blocks of all 100 ovarian neoplasms retrieved. Complete clinical and radiological findings analysed from our records. RESULTS The tumours are grouped according to the nature of tumour whether benign or borderline or malignant according to cell of origin, histological subtyping, and age group. Surface epithelial tumours are the most common. Benign tumours outnumber the malignant tumours. Benign ovarian tumours showed a peak in 21-40 Yrs. age group and malignant in the age group of 41- 60 Yrs. Results of our study compared with other studies. CONCLUSION Because of the geographic location, poverty, and illiteracy, patients seek medical advice late. So, awareness among public by health education, passive surveillance, and community screening facility will be helpful in early detection of ovarian neoplasms.

  5. Epidemiological study of dilated cardiomyopathy from eastern India with special reference to left atrial size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudrajit Paul, Saumen Nandi, Pradip K Sinha


    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a common cause of emergency visit in our country. The disease is often misdiagnosed and mistreated. There are very few studies on DCM from India. We undertook a small study on DCM patients from Eastern India to find the demographic and echocardiographic characteristics. Patients and methods: We under took this study in a tertiary care Medical College of Eastern India. All patients coming to the emergency with dyspnea were evaluated for cardiac dysfunction. Emergency echocardiography was done to diagnose dilated cardiomyopathy. Patients with DCM were then evaluated as per protocol. After stabilization, echocardiography was repeated to note the study parameters like left atrial diameter. Standard statistical tests were used. Results: we had a total of 70 patients in our study with a male: female ratio of 43:27. Most patients were aged over 40 years. Patients with COPD, history of radiation, malignancy or drug abuse were excluded. Most patients (47% were on NYHA stage 3 at the time of presentation. In our patient cohort, 24% were alcoholic and 46% were smokers. Atrial fibrillation was present in 15.7% of the patients and right and left bundle branch block had been present in 8 and 15 patients respectively. In echocardiography, increased left atrial (LA size (>40 mm was found in 45 patients. Many patients had valvular regurgitation, mitral, aortic or tricuspid. LA size was positively correlated with left ventricular systolic diameter (r=0.403 and negatively correlated with ejection fraction (r= -0.23. Analysis and conclusion: different ECG abnormalities like bundle branch block and arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation are quite common in DCM. In echocardiography, left atrial size is an important prognostic marker and correlates with left ventricular function.

  6. A Case Study of Construction of Special Database on Urban Agriculture in Library of Beijing University of Agriculture


    Liu, Qianning


    With the development of urban agriculture and digital library, the theoretical research and exploitation of special database on urban agriculture has become an inevitable trend. On the basis of analyzing the advantages of the special database on urban agriculture constructed by the library of Beijing University of Agriculture, the author has analyzed the status and the problems of the special database on urban agriculture developed by Beijing University of Agriculture and proposed the develop...

  7. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas


    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  8. Bioequivalence study of two losartan tablet formulations with special emphasis on cardiac safety. (United States)

    Khandave, Suhas S; Sawant, Satish V; Sahane, Rakhi V; Murthi, Vivekanand; Dhanure, Shivanand S; Surve, Pradeep G


    To study the bioequivalence of Losartan Potassium Tablets 50 mg manufactured by Micro Labs Ltd. India to Cozaar® Tablets 50 mg, manufactured by Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd., UK in normal healthy adult subjects under fasting condition along with the comparative safety evaluation of both treatments. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried out on 12 units each of test and reference products using the paddle method and dissolution media like water, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid with pH 1.2, pH 4.5 acetate buffer and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. An open label, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover bioequivalence study with a washout period of 7 days was conducted in 60 healthy Indian male subjects. Serial blood samples were collected after drug administration in each study period. Plasma concentrations of losartan and losartan acid were determined using a validated LC-MS-MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan and losartan acid were determined using a non compartmental model. Occurrence of adverse events, change in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and QT interval from the baseline to 3.50 h post dose were studied and compared between the two treatments as safety parameters. The in vitro study proved the essential similarity of both the formulations as evident from the similarity factor of > 50% in all the dissolution media. The ratios for geometric least square means and 90% confidence intervals were within the acceptance criteria of 80% to 125% for log transformed C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) for losartan. No statistically significant difference between the two treatments was observed for either of the safety parameters. The test product Losartan Potassium tablets 50 mg manufactured by Micro Labs Limited, India was bioequivalent to Cozaar® tablets 50 mg, manufactured by Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd., UK in terms of rate and extent of absorption. Both treatments were well tolerated and had similar non

  9. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  10. Special lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.


    In his special lecture, given at the Artsimovich-Kadomtsev Memorial Session of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, October 1998, Prof. H. Yoshikawa stated that the fusion program had come to a crossroads. He was wondering whether the future would lead to cooperation between nations, striving to overcome the difficulties the world is confronted with, or if it would lead to despair

  11. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 19 euros instead of 23 euros Entrée “Zone terrestre + aquatique” 24 euros instead of 31 euros Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open daily from 22 June to 31 August, and every week end from 3 September until 31 October. Closing of the “zone aquatique” 11 September.

  12. Special effects. (United States)

    Davis, Carol

    The nursing team on the day case ward at Alder Hey Hospital has introduced changes to the environment to help children with special needs, who often attend the ward repeatedly. Small changes, such as keeping colours on the ward neutral, can help children relax. Nurses contact parents a week before admission to find out about their child's likes and dislikes. Parents are encouraged to bring a child's favourite items with them. Operating sessions are scheduled to meet these children's needs.

  13. Introduction to Special Issue "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon


    This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap...... analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies....



    DR.S.Manikandan; J.Mary Jayakodi


    In present world smart phones play an important role in the daily life of people. The technological advancement has made smartphone as devices were the mobile users can make money transaction or payment by using application installed in phone. The present study aims to explain the application and usage of wallet money endorsed by different companies and various factors that affect the consumer’s decision to adopt mobile wallet and various risks and challenges faced by the users of mobile wall...

  15. Safety study for HTR conceptual designs under German siting conditions. Phase I B, specialized volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The basic methodology for determining sequences of events and their frequencies (events and fault trees) does not differ significantly from that of other risk studies. This applies analogously to the treatment of statistical data uncertainties and the description of results in the form of expected value with uncertainty factor. System unavailabilities are determined by means of failure rates, most of which originate from the German Risk Study, and consecutive test intervals. Unlike in other risk studies, common mode failures of components of the same kind are being considered by a mostly 10% fraction of the overall failure of the multi-train system (β-factor). A multitude of planned or unplanned operator actions are identified in the study. They are assessed using models from AIPA and according to WASH-1400. HTR-specific aspects allow mitigating operator actions in the range of days, which are approximately covered by subjective estimates, and extensive reversibility of human errors. British experience with gas-cooled reactors proved to be useful for HTR-specific components. Rates of 0.2 to 1 for small leaks and 1.5 x 10 -3 per reactor-year for larger leaks (tube ruptures) are derived on the basis of 2000 steam generator operating years. Failures of the main blowers (0.1 per blower-year) are covered by other transient events. The behaviour of structural components is of great significance for the progression of core heatup accidents. The liner of the reactor pressure vessel and the concrete located behind will fail over a large area due to decreasing strength at temperatures above 800 0 C. A rupture of closure plugs may be virtually precluded. This also applies to a failure of the reactor containment at internal design pressure. The ultimate strength will only be reached at pressures of more than 14 bar. (orig.) [de

  16. Dosimetric studies in the radiological examination of the hips in young infants with a special fenestration method of gonad protection. (United States)

    Krepler, P; Vana, N; Havranek, C


    A special lead shield of 1,5 mm Pb, with a fenestration was used for gonad protection during X-Ray of the hips for detection of dysplasia. The window allows the delineation of all parts of the skeleton required to make a correct diagnosis and check the standardized position of the pelvis, while all other parts, especially the gonads are safely shielded. The scattered radiation for the testes was further reduced by a trough-shaped lead shield behind the scrotum. The effectiveness of this gonad protection was measured by direct dosimetric studies on the infant with LiF and CaF2: Dy dosimeters at different adjustments of the X-ray generator and with medium and ultra high speed screen-film combinations.

  17. Health seeking behavior of the mothers for the special care new-born unit discharged children: a comparative study. (United States)

    Jeet, Gursimer; Sharma, Atul; Mohanta, Tulika Goswami; Trakroo, Ajay


    Establishment of special care new-born units (SCNU) in hospitals not only serves to provide the intensive care to sick neonates, but presents with opportunities to enhance knowledge and modify attitude and practices of their parents through behavior change communication (BCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District, Assam from January to June, 2011 to assess differences in health-care seeking behavior of these mothers from mothers of newborns who were born at home and mothers who had normal uneventful institutional deliveries. Mothers of 29 SCNU discharged, 34 institutions delivered and 26 home delivered children were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey tool. Mothers of children admitted to SCNU scored better in questions related to vaccination, contraception, protection of child from infections and cold and perceptions about traditional healers, but overall KAP scores in the three groups were not found significantly different.

  18. Report of the special committee for the study of physiological effects of radon in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report outlines the activities of the committee for the study of physiological effects of radon in human based on the presentation in the meetings by the members in the period, 1996-1998. The methods to estimate the exposed dose of radon (Rn) have been considerably improved now. But it is necessary to consider living conditions such as housing conditions, respiratory ratio as well as physical measurements such as Rn concentration, its balance factor, the ratio of non-absorbed component, for accurate evaluation of the physiological effects of Rn. This committee was established aiming to investigate the physiological effects of Rn in human bodies and solve the problems in this area. In a period from 1996 to 1998, meeting was held nine times by the committee. The respective main themes were as follows: the purpose of this committee and the plans of activities in future for the first meeting, indoor Rn level and balance factor for the second, outdoor Rn level and aerosol of its daughter nuclides for the third, respiratory air movement model for the 4th, Rn inhalation, epidemiological study of Rn for the 5th, epidemiological study of Rn for the 6th, problems in Rn level survey for the 7th, behaviors of Rn and its daughter nuclides in occupational environment for 9th, and variance in dose calibration factor and biological effects of α-ray for 10th. At present, dose evaluation and risk evaluation for Rn exposure include considerable uncertainty. Accurate dose evaluation for Rn is necessary to determine the limitation dose for human bodies to repress the physiological effects. (M.N.)

  19. A study on device-related infections with special reference to biofilm production and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monil Singhai


    Full Text Available Background: Indwelling medical devices (IMDs in critical patients are vulnerable to colonization by biofilm producing bacteria. Complex characteristics of bacterial biofilms promote antibiotic resistance, leading to the emergence of resistant device-related infections (DRI, which pose new challenges in their management. Materials and Methods : The study was done on 135 hospitalized (Intensive care units pediatric patients with IMDs (intravascular catheter, urinary catheter, and endotracheal tube to determine the device-specific infection rates. Biofilm formations were demonstrated by the tube method and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Bacteria in biofilms were identified by the standard conventional methods and tested for antibiotic resistance. We also detected the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs, particularly, blaCTX-M, in gram-negative isolates. Results: The rates of biofilm-based catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI, and Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP, in our study, were 10.4, 26.6, and 20%. Biofilm formation by the tube method correlated well with the SEM findings. A majority of infections were caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by Staphylococcal biofilms. A high percentage (85.7%, 95% confidence interval 64.5 to 95.8% of biofilm producing bacterial isolates, causing infection, were multidrug resistant. Many biofilm producing gram-negative isolates were ESβLs producers, and a majority particularly harbored blaCTX-M, among the ESβLs genotypes. Conclusion: The incidence of resistant device-related infections, predominantly caused by biofilm producing bacteria, is rising. The tube method is an effective screening method to test biofilm production, where sophisticated microscopy facilities are not available. The varying resistance pattern of organisms isolated in our setup, emphasizes the importance of studying the pattern of infection in

  20. Environmental impact analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program-addendum. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This study represents a qualitative extension of an earlier Environmental Impact Analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program (MarAd, 1975) using an Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC) as the reference ship, to other types of ships including a containership, dry-bulk cargo vessel, and an icebreaking oil tanker. This qualitative analysis shows that, for ships operating into coastal ports (containerships and possibly dry-bulk carriers), both ecological and radiological impacts would be somewhat greater than for the reference ULCC docking at an offshore terminal. These impacts can be kept within the guidelines established for land based nuclear power plants by implementation of appropriate operating procedures

  1. Biominerals at the nanoscale: transmission electron microscopy methods for studying the special properties of biominerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posfai, Mihaly; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.


    Biominerals have important functions in living organisms: apatite crystals are responsible for the strength of our bones and the hardness of our teeth, calcite and aragonite are used by many organisms for making shells, and magnetite and greigite help bacteria and birds to navigate in magnetic...... fields. In order to fulfill their roles in organisms, biominerals have strictly controlled physical and chemical properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is ideally suited for the study of the structures, arrangements, compositions, morphologies, crystallographic orientations, crystallographic...... minerals that form in the cells of magnetotactic bacteria....

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Special Education Due Process Hearings in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Blackwell


    Full Text Available Of the three formal dispute resolution procedures provided by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 2004(IDEA, due process hearings are the most costly in terms of time, fiscal resources, and impact on relationships between school personnel and parents. This study examined 258 due process hearings held over the past 8 years in Massachusetts to examine the characteristics of students at the center of these disputes, the issues that were addressed in the hearings, and the representation utilized by parents and school districts. The findings from this study indicated that (a Massachusetts school districts utilized attorney representation and won due process hearings at notably higher levels than parents, and (b the most frequently addressed issues at due process hearings were Individualized Education Program (IEP development/implementation and educational program placement, which are issues that represent the core mandate of IDEA to provide a free appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment (34 C.F.R. §300.300, 300.550. The authors present recommendations for policy actions and areas for future research.

  3. Implications for US Special Operations Forces and the Interagency in Phase Zero: Case Studies in the Pacific Theater, 2000 to 2014 (United States)


    What Would Sun Tzu Say?” Military Review (May-June 2004): 20. A note of Special Forces Groups: There are five active duty Special Forces Groups that...2004): 2-4. Maxwell, David. “Operation Enduring Philippines: What Would Sun Tzu Say?” Military Review (May-June 2004): 20-23. Nye Jr., Joseph S...Recommendations for Further Study ............................................................................ 84 BIBLIOGRAPHY

  4. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvan Kumar


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from

  5. Introduction to Special Issue "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon


    and global level. Country surveys were independently conducted and then centralized at one institution for further data standardization and processing. Several results indicated that the greater the societal gender equality in a country, the smaller the gender differences in drinking behavior. In most...... analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies.......This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap...

  6. Teaching Xhosa for special purposes to physiotherapy students: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertie Neethling


    Full Text Available Adults generally find language learning difficult and often do not attain much success. This article reports a case study in which a group of learners English and Afrikaans speaking physiotherapy students at the University of the Western Cape learners were allowed to share in the planning of their Xhosa course. Strategies were used to enhance the learner’s awareness of their specific communicative needs. Students were then involved in reformulating these needs in terms of desired outcomes. This meant that realistic goals were set with the effect that the objective was seen as attainable. Fear of failure was no longer acute. By participating in the planning process the learners claimed ownership of the course: they experienced a sense of achievement is experienced even before the actual learning process started which strengthened the motivation that had originally led the learner to embark upon the learning exercise.

  7. On Sequence Lengths of Some Special External Exclusive OR Type LFSR Structures – Study and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahmad


    Full Text Available The study of the length of pseudo-random binary sequences generated by Linear- Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs plays an important role in the design approaches of built-in selftest, cryptosystems, and other applications. However, certain LFSR structures might not be appropriate in some situations. Given that determining the length of generated pseudo-random binary sequence is a complex task, therefore, before using an LFSR structure, it is essential to investigate the length and the properties of the sequence. This paper investigates some conditions and LFSR’s structures, which restrict the pseudo-random binary sequences’ generation to a certain fixed length. The outcomes of this paper are presented in the form of theorems, simulations, and analyses. We believe that these outcomes are of great importance to the designers of built-in self-test equipment, cryptosystems, and other applications such as radar, CDMA, error correction, and Monte Carlo simulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Chakravarty


    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of infections and early diagnosis of Osteomyelitis have led to the improved management of Osteomyelitis. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile of Osteomyelitis and the antibiotic resistance pattern of various isolates obtained as it is an important cause of morbidity. A total of 50 patients of Osteomyelitis either attending the outpatient department or admitted in the wards of a teaching and tertiary care hospita l in Sikkim from October 2013 to October, 2014 were included in the study. All those patients who were clinically and/ or radiologically suspected of having Osteomyelitis were enrolled as cases. Pus/ pus swabs or sequestrum samples taken aseptically were c ultured aerobically at 37 0 C for 18 - 24 hours in Blood and Mac Conkey agar plates. Culture isolates were identified by a series of standard biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested on Mueller Hinton agar by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion met hod. Betalactamase production of S. aureus strains were verified by iodometric filter paper and acidometric agar plate methods. S. aureus strains were screened for methicillin resistance by using conventional microbiological methods. S. aureus turned out t o be the most common organism isolated. Other organism isolated were P. Aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Enterobacter spp., S. epidermitis, Streptococcus pyogens and Enterococcus spp. Beta - lactamase production and methicillin resistance was seen in S. aureus strains respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in other strains. Infection caused by Methicillin resistant S. aureus and multidrug resistant organisms are posing a major challenge in the treatment of Osteomyelitis. So, appropriate drug selected by antibiotic sensitivity testing should be used to treat Osteomyelitis

  9. Natural analogue study of uranium deposits in Japan with special reference to the Tono uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Kosei; Sasao, Eiji


    In order to verify the safety assessment for geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste, it is necessary to evaluate properly the stability of the disposal system under natural hydrogeological environment over long period of time (ten to hundred thousands years). For the safety assessment for that in the Japanese Islands, many geological processes inherent in the tectonically active Island-Arc system should be also taken into consideration in addition to those in stable continental environment. However, it is difficult because some processes such as earthquake seem to be accidental and some are periodic or gradual over our life scale. The uranium deposits in Japan are subjected to many geological processes inherent in the tectonically active Island-Arc system. The studies on long-term preservation of uranium deposits in Japan from a natural analogue viewpoint would be expected to provide useful information for the assessment in the Japanese Islands over long period of time. In order to understand the behavior of radionuclides under natural hydrogeological environment in Japanese Islands over long period of time, the uranium deposits in Japan, especially of the Tono uranium deposit was investigated from a natural analogue viewpoint under the course of joint research program by University of Tsukuba and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. Important conclusions obtained in the present study are summarized as follows: The migration behavior of the radionuclides in the granite area is mainly controlled by the stability of original minerals in oxic condition, being due to poor reducing agents such as organic matter and sulfide minerals. In the case of hydrothermal alteration, yttrialite and fergusonite were decomposed and thorogummite was formed at the altered part, whereas zircon and allanite have not been significantly altered. In the case of weathering, autunite and torbernite were formed, probably due to the high phosphorus weathering

  10. Sport Specialization, Part I


    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.


    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  11. Introduction to special issue 'Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: a Multi-national Study'. (United States)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon


    This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap in alcohol drinking is one of the few universal gender differences in human social behavior. However, the size of these differences varies greatly from one society to another. The papers in this issue examine, across countries, (1) men's and women's drinking patterns, (2) the prevalence of men's and women's experience of alcohol-related problems, (3) gender differences in social inequalities in alcohol use and abuse, (4) gender differences in the influence of combinations of social roles on heavy alcohol use, and (5) how societal-level factors predict women's and men's alcohol use and problems on a regional and global level. Country surveys were independently conducted and then centralized at one institution for further data standardization and processing. Several results indicated that the greater the societal gender equality in a country, the smaller the gender differences in drinking behavior. In most analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies.

  12. Studies of soy sauce sterilization and its special flavour improvement by gamma-ray irradiation (United States)

    Jingtian, Yang; Xinhua, Jin; Guoxing, Gu; Guichun, Yun

    Experimental studies for sterilizing 12 kinds of soy sauce with gamma-ray irradiation showed that both of effects for sterilization and improving flavour and quality of soy sauce were obtained simultaneously. All colibacillus in soy sauce were sterilized using 1 kGy radiation dose and total bacteria count in soy sauce can be reduced to below national standard at 5 kGy dose ( 5x10 4count/ml ). But above 10 kGy dose is needed to kill all bacteria in soy sauce. The significant changes on chemical components in soy sauce irradiated at 5-7 kGy dose took place: raduceing-sugar increased by 1-10%, total amount of 18 kinds of free amino acid raised between 3.5-28 %, emerging-sweet smell substances which have low boiling point, such as alchols, aldehydes and esters obviously increased. The taste-specialists from some soy sauce factories concluded that flavour and quality of soy sauce irradiated are better than non-irradiated.

  13. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Zuha


    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  14. [Surgery as specialization for female physicians: Results from course evaluations and alumni studies at MHH]. (United States)

    Paulmann, V; Fischer, V; Dudzinska, A; Pabst, R


    There is a lack of young surgeons in Germany. In order to provide a successful learning environment in medical education and to attract more physicians, training concepts need to be regularly controlled. Evaluation results compiled over several years from the Hanover Medical School (MHH) were analyzed for gender-related differences. In addition to overall satisfaction with practical training items were included that consider aspects of interaction between students and instructors. Furthermore, alumni studies provided data on the postgraduate specialty choice made by MHH students. Surgical training is integrated into medical education as block training periods of various durations. Against the background of an increased percentage of women in medicine this article analyzed whether surgery is evaluated differently between female and male medical students with respect to their experiences in clinical teaching. Evaluations of clinical training in surgery demonstrated that female and male medical students do not differ substantially with respect to the teaching quality; however, young female physicians choose surgery as a professional option less frequently than men. A systematic review of clinical training evaluations is crucial to identify weaknesses of current curricula. More empirical data from other faculties can induce discussions about the attractiveness of surgery as a profession.

  15. Studies on cutaneous lipid peroxide with special reference to the influences of ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kazuo


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation of lipid peroxide (LP) in some skin damages due to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Results obtained were as follows. 1) Long wave UV (UVA) was irradiated to rat skin homogenates. The levels of LP increased linearly with irradiation time. 2) When 8-methoxypsoralen was added to the homogenates prior to UVA irradiation, however, the LP levels showed no increase. 3) Various anti-oxidative agents were added to homogenates and UVA was irradiated. Only Vit. E reduced the LP levels in proportion to its concentrations. 4) Anti-oxidative agents were given to rats which were then exposed to PUVA (8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA) treatment. Among them, administration of Vit. E and pantethine was associated with reduction of serum and cutaneous LP levels with only slight histologic changes in the involved skin. 5) Vit. E deficient rats were treated with PUVA. In these models, cutaneous LP levels raised from 24 hours to 96 hours after PUVA treatment and histologic changes such as vacuolization, blister formation and cell degeneration were remarkable. From the above data, it became evident that lipid peroxidation took place in skin tissue per se and even in the UVA wave length region. After PUVA treatment, cutaneous LP levels relatively well correlated with histologic changes of the involved skin. The results suggested that LP played a certain role in skin damages due to UV. (author)

  16. A prospective observational study of vulvovagintis in pregnant women in Argentina, with special reference to candidiasis. (United States)

    Mucci, María J; Cuestas, María L; Cervetto, María M; Landaburu, María F; Mujica, María T


    To evaluate the frequency of yeast, bacteria or protozoa in pregnant women and to correlate the possible associations of these microorganisms and their relationships with vulvovaginitis (VV) and cervicitis. Vaginal specimens were collected and prepared for smears in microscope slides for the evaluation of yeast, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria. Samples were cultured in specific culture medium. Cervical specimens were used to investigate the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. We enrolled 210 pregnant women, aged 10-42 years old. Of them, 38.1% were symptomatic. Symptoms were most prevalent in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy coincident with a major prevalence of microorganisms. In this study, 39.5% of pregnant women had normal microbial biota and symptoms of VV due to non-infectious causes were observed (6.2%). The occurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 25% and Candida albicans with a prevalence of 80.7% was the dominant species (P = 0.005) while non-albicans Candida species and other yeast were more common in asymptomatic ones (P = 0.0038). The frequency of bacterial vaginosis, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 18.1%, 1.4, 1.4% and 0.5% respectively. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Zlatev


    Full Text Available Health, as well as healthy lifestyle are and will be becoming in future increasingly topical because of the social, economic and ecological problems the present young generation is facing. The paradigm of man’s ecological development is based on the understanding of the interdependence and harmony between the individual’s physical, mental and personal development. With the development of the scientific knowledge of biosystems, such as human organism, scientists established that they are an organic unity of structural and functional characteristics that are at the same time relatively independent. In other words, human physique has structural characteristics determining the body shape and size, and in particular the shape and the size of the motor apparatus, but also the functional characteristics determining the biomechanical parameters of the individual’s motor activity. It is this motor activity, physical exercise and sport that are to play the most important social functions without which we could hardly imagine the prosperity of modern society, and in particular preserving and improving the individual’s health and efficiency. Considering the specifics of higher school and the constant dynamic changes in the social and economic life, the complex ecological and social problems in everyday life, as well as the decreasing motor activity of students, it was of interest to us to study the dynamics of the changes having occurred in some anthropometric and physiological indexes over a relatively long period of time.

  18. Microbiological study of neonatal conjunctivitis with special reference to chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohile Mukula


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the microbial agents, chiefly Chlamydia trachomatis and other bacteria, in neonatal conjunctivitis. METHODS: Conjunctival specimens from 70 newborns with conjunctivitis were subjected to bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, monoclonal antibody based C. trachomatis antigen detection test and species-specific Chlamydia antibody detection in the sera of babies and their mothers, by micro-immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated from 35 (50% babies; the majority (20, 57.14% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. C. trachomatis antigen was detected in conjunctival smears of 17 (24% babies, and 6 (35.29% of them were positive for other bacteria. Six babies and their mothers tested positive for C. trachomatis Ig G antibodies. At follow-up after 14 weeks, 6 (35.29% of the Chlamydia antigen-positive babies were found to have developed recurrent conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: C. trachomatis is responsible for almost a quarter of all cases of neonatal conjunctivitis, with recurrences in 35% of cases. Bacteria could be isolated from 50% of the patients though the exact role of Staphylococcus epidermidis, isolated from 28.65% of the neonatal conjunctivitis cases, remains unclear.

  19. New Approach in Religious Studies with Special Reference to Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirwan Syafrin


    Full Text Available Beginning from the nineteenth century, Arab-Muslim intelligentsias marched to reform their societies. Many things since then have been carried out. They put forward various proposals, advanced numerous ideas and concepts and established several institutions. Nevertheless, their condition has yet improved. In some context, it even deteriorates. Triggered by this situation, a number of Arab and Muslim scholars then embark on a new reform project. But at this time, their reform attempt is materialized in the form of intellectual and cultural project. For they believe that the basic problem and crisis beset their society lies in their understanding of turâts. Thus, unless this understanding is corrected, no genuine reform would be able to be materialized. Muhammad ‘Abid al-Jabiri, a Moroccan scholar, is one of the many Arab scholars who have taken this course. For this purpose, he constructed his own project which he names Naqd al-‘Aql al-‘Arabi. This article specifically attempts to shed light on conceptual apparatus and methods that he uses which this study finds to have originated from different schools of thought of western philosophy and social sciences, important of which is Marxism and postmodernism.

  20. Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States (United States)

    Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura


    Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…

  1. Supporting Youth with Special Needs in Out-of-School Time: A Study of OST Providers in New Jersey (United States)

    Sharp, Jane; Rodas, Elizabeth Rivera; Sadovnik, Alan R.


    Although the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires accommodations for individuals with disabilities in community settings, many out-of-school time (OST) programs struggle to successfully support youth with special needs. Programs that fully include children with special needs are less available for school-age children and…

  2. Special energies and special frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrullis, M.; Englisch, H.


    ''Special frequencies'' have been asserted to be zeros of the density of frequencies corresponding to a random chain of coupled oscillators. Our investigation includes both this model and the random one-dimensional Schroedinger operator describing an alloy or its discrete analogue. Using the phase method we exactly determine a bilateral Lifsic asymptotic of the integrated density of states k(E) at special energies G s , which is not only of the classical type exp(-c/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke 1/2 ) but also exp(-c'/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke) is a typical behaviour. In addition, other asymptotics occur, e.g. vertical strokeE-E c vertical stroke c '', which show that k(E) need not be C ∞ . (orig.)

  3. Studies on the gamma radiation environment in Sweden with special reference to 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, Sara


    Gamma radiation in the environment today mainly originates from naturally occurring radionuclides, but anthropogenic radionuclides, such as 137 Cs, contribute in some areas. In order to assess population exposure in case of fallout from nuclear weapons (NWF) or accidents, knowledge and monitoring of external gamma radiation and radionuclide concentrations in the environment is important. For this purpose 34 sampling sites were established in western Sweden and repeated soil sampling, field gamma spectrometry (in situ measurements), and dose rate measurements were performed. The variations in the activities between the different sampling occasions were found to be quite large. The naturally occurring radionuclides were the main source of outdoor dose rates. The uranium and thorium decay series contributed about equally to the total dose while the contribution from 40 K was somewhat higher. The dose rates were mainly correlated to the ground cover, with higher levels on asphalt and cobble stones than on grass. The large scale deposition densities from NWF and the Chernobyl accident could be relatively well estimated by a model including the amount of precipitation and measured deposition at few reference sites. The deposition density from nuclear weapons tests in Sweden between 1962 and 1966 was found to be 1.42-2.70 kBq/m 2 and the deposition density from Chernobyl in western Sweden ranged between 0.82-2.61 kBq/m 2 . The vertical migration of 137 Cs was studied at the sampling sites in western Sweden and a solution to the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) was fitted to depth profiles. The vertical migration of 137 Cs was found to be very slow and diffusive transport was dominant at most locations. The apparent convection velocity and diffusion coefficient were found to be 0-0.35 cm/year and 0.06-2.63 cm 2 /year, respectively. The average depth of the maximum activity was 5.4±2.2 cm. The fitted depth distributions for each location were used to correct in situ

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    OFFRE SPECIALE POUR NOS MEMBRES Les vendredis 29 juillet, 5 et 12 août, Aquaparc fermera ses portes exceptionnellement à 22h00. Pour ces évènements, des tarifs défiant toute concurrence vous sont proposés. Au programme : Clown spécialiste de la sculpture de ballons de 16h00 à 21h00 Ambiance Salsa avec danseurs professionnel : Démonstration et Cours de Salsa. Les tarifs : Pour une entrée à partir de 15h00 : Enfant : CHF 22.- Adulte : CHF 26.-  

  7. Special graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.


    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [fr

  8. How physics teachers approach innovation: An empirical study for reconstructing the appropriation path in the case of special relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Ambrosis


    Full Text Available This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers’ education and how to foster fruitful interactions between research and school practice via the construction of networks of researchers and teachers. In the paper, the problems related to innovation are addressed by focusing on the phase during which teachers analyze an innovative teaching proposal in the perspective of designing their own paths for the class work. The proposal analyzed in this study is Taylor and Wheeler’s approach for teaching special relativity. The paper aims to show that the roots of problems known in the research literature about teachers’ difficulties in coping with innovative proposals, and usually related to the implementation process, can be found and addressed already when teachers approach the proposal and try to appropriate it. The study is heuristic and has been carried out in order to trace the “appropriation path,” followed by the group of teachers, in terms of the main steps and factors triggering the progressive evolution of teachers’ attitudes and competences.

  9. Motives of former interns in general practice for speciality-choice − Results of a cross-sectional study among graduates 2007 to 2012 (United States)

    Abendroth, Jens; Schnell, Ute; Lichte, Thomas; Oemler, Matthias; Klement, Andreas


    Background: The influence of a final-year elective internship in general practice (IGP) on motives affecting graduates’ choice of specialty is the object of great public interest, yet still insufficiently evaluated. Longitudinal studies show the influence of numerous motives (e.g. work-life balance), but not following the IGP experience itself. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study of all graduates who completed the IGP in Saxony-Anhalt during 2007-2012 regarding their motives for choosing a speciality. Method: A standardized questionnaire was sent to 109 former interns in general practice. The questionnaire contained 29 items addressing three topics (personal attitudes, concept of personal and professional life, motives for speciality choice) and used single-choice and multiple-choice answers, as well as Likert scales. Correlation analysis was carried out by means of Kendall's tau. Results: The questionnaire reached 97 former interns, of which 45 (46%) responded. In the overall ranking of motives for speciality choice, family (71%), leisure time (66%) and job opportunities (48%) rated as more important than income (36%), mentoring (20%), status or scientific work (20%). Only 29% of the respondents stated that their speciality choice was changed by the IGP. If the speciality choice was already established before the IGP, the influence of the IGP on speciality choice was significantly low (r=-.5; pteacher during the IGP. Conclusion: The final-year IGP is an opportunity to change the perception of general practice in students who are still undecided. This can lead to different speciality choices in a subgroup. Personal attitudes and concepts of personal life and career were also important factors affecting speciality choice. The aspects of the positive influence exerted by medical teachers on those students who are still undecided during the IGP should be carefully evaluated. PMID:24575153

  10. Specialization training in Malawi: a qualitative study on the perspectives of medical students graduating from the University of Malawi College of Medicine. (United States)

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Parekh, Natasha; Muula, Adamson S; Bui, Thuy


    There is a critical shortage of healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and Malawi has one of the lowest physician densities in the region. One of the reasons for this shortage is inadequate retention of medical school graduates, partly due to the desire for specialization training. The University of Malawi College of Medicine has developed specialty training programs, but medical school graduates continue to report a desire to leave the country for specialization training. To understand this desire, we studied medical students' perspectives on specialization training in Malawi. We conducted semi-structured interviews of medical students in the final year of their degree program. We developed an interview guide through an iterative process, and recorded and transcribed all interviews for analysis. Two independent coders coded the manuscripts and assessed inter-coder reliability, and the authors used an "editing approach" to qualitative analysis to identify and categorize themes relating to the research aim. The University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Board and the University of Malawi College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee approved this study and authors obtained written informed consent from all participants. We interviewed 21 medical students. All students reported a desire for specialization training, with 12 (57%) students interested in specialties not currently offered in Malawi. Students discussed reasons for pursuing specialization training, impressions of specialization training in Malawi, reasons for staying or leaving Malawi to pursue specialization training and recommendations to improve training. Graduating medical students in Malawi have mixed views of specialization training in their own country and still desire to leave Malawi to pursue further training. Training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa need to understand the needs of the country's healthcare workforce and the needs of their graduating medical students to be able to

  11. The Online Specialization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Hong


    Full Text Available We study the online specialization problem, where items arrive in an online fashion for processing by one of n different methods. Each method has two costs: a processing cost (paid once for each item processed, and a set-up cost (paid only once, on the method's first use. There are n possible types of items; an item's type determines the set of methods available to process it. Each method has a different degree of specialization. Highly specialized methods can process few item types while generic methods may process all item types. This is a generalization of ski-rental and closely related to the capital investment problem of Y. Azar, Y. Bartal, E. Feuerstein, A. Fiat, S. Leonardi, and A. Rosen. On capital investment. In Algorithmica, 25(1:22-36, 1999. We primarily study the case where method i+1 is always more specialized than method i and the set-up cost for a more specialized method is always higher than that of a less specialized method. We describe an algorithm with competitive ratio O(log(n, and also show an Ω(log(n lower bound on the competitive ratio for this problem; this shows our ratio is tight up to constant factors.

  12. Ethical validity of palliative sedation therapy: a multicenter, prospective, observational study conducted on specialized palliative care units in Japan. (United States)

    Morita, Tatsuya; Chinone, Yoshikazu; Ikenaga, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Makoto; Nakaho, Toshimichi; Nishitateno, Kenji; Sakonji, Mitsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Suenaga, Kazuyuki; Takigawa, Chizuko; Kohara, Hiroyuki; Tani, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Yasuo; Matsubara, Tatsuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiko; Yagi, Yasuo; Sasaki, Toru; Higuchi, Akiko; Kimura, Hideyuki; Abo, Hirofumi; Ozawa, Taketoshi; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uchitomi, Yosuke


    Although palliative sedation therapy is often required in terminally ill cancer patients to achieve acceptable symptom relief, empirical data supporting the ethical validity of this approach are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to systematically investigate whether empirical evidence supports the ethical validity of sedation. This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study, which was conducted by 21 specialized palliative care units in Japan. One-hundred two consecutive adult cancer patients who received continuous deep sedation were enrolled. Continuous deep sedation was defined as the continuous use of sedative medications to relieve intolerable and refractory distress by achieving almost or complete unconsciousness until death. Prior to the study, we conceptualized the ethical validity of sedation from the viewpoints of physicians' intent, proportionality, and autonomy. Sedation was performed mainly with midazolam and phenobarbital. The initial doses of midazolam and phenobarbital were 1.5 mg/hour and 20 mg/hour, respectively. Main administration routes were continuous subcutaneous infusion and continuous intravenous infusion, and no rapid intravenous injection was reported. Of 59 patients who received artificial hydration or could intake adequate fluids/foods orally before sedation, 63% received artificial hydration therapy after sedation, and in the remaining patients, artificial hydration was withheld or withdrawn due to fluid retention symptoms and/or patient wishes. Of 66 patients who were able to verbally express themselves, 95% explicitly stated that symptoms were intolerable. The etiologies of the symptoms requiring sedation were primarily related to the progression of the underlying malignancy, such as cancer cachexia and organ failure, and standard palliative treatments had failed: steroids in 68% of patients with fatigue, opioids in 95% of patients with dyspnea, antisecretion medications in 75% of patients with bronchial secretion

  13. Sport Specialization, Part I (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.


    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  14. Stimulating cognitive, emotional and social development with the help of music: Case study of the pupil with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma


    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to improve some cognitive and social abilities and skills of the nine-year-old boy with special needs by using different kinds of methods and techniques of help with music. In the action research (the qualitative case study were actively and on equal terms involved beside me as school psychologist, boy's teacher and his mother and also a boy alone. After a nine months long period of intervention, especially by the help of music (especially by individual and group remedial music making all members of the group actively involved in researching perceived effect of the interventions – efficiency of solving problems with concentration (and with that connecting knowledge of multiplication table, learning habits, general learning results, emotional and social maturity. The results of the research confirmed the all-working hypotheses, that the use of different methods and techniques of help with music will have a positive effect on (i boy's concentration (and with that connecting knowledge of multiplication table, (ii boy's learning habits and his general learning results and (iii boy's emotional and social maturity.

  15. A study on special test stand of automatic and manual descent control in presence of simulated g-load effect (United States)

    Glazkov, Yury; Artjuchin, Yury; Astakhov, Alexander; Vas'kov, Alexander; Malyshev, Veniamin; Mitroshin, Edward; Glinsky, Valery; Moiseenko, Vasily; Makovlev, Vyacheslav

    The development of aircraft-type reusable space vehicles (RSV) involves the problem of complete compatibility of automatic, director and manual control. Task decision is complicated, in particular, due to considerable quantitative and qualitative changes of vehicle dynamic characteristics, little stability margins (and even of unstability) of the RSV, and stringent requirements to control accuracy at some flight phases. Besides, during control a pilot is affected by g-loads which hamper motor activity and deteriorate its accuracy, alter the functional status of the visual analyser, and influence higher nervous activity. A study of g-load effects on the control efficiency, especially in manual and director modes, is of primary importance. The main tools for study of a rational selection of manual and director vehicle control systems and as an aid in formulating recommendations for optimum crew-automatic control system interactions are special complex and functional flight simulator test stands. The proposed simulator stand includes a powerful digital computer complex combined with the control system of the centrifuge. The interior of a pilot's vehicle cabin is imitated. A situation image system, pyscho-physical monitoring system, physician, centrifuge operator, and instructor stations are linked with the test stand.

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  18. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio


    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  19. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.


    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  20. Effects of random study checks and guided notes study cards on middle school special education students' notetaking accuracy and science vocabulary quiz scores (United States)

    Wood, Charles L.

    Federal legislation mandates that all students with disabilities have meaningful access to the general education curriculum and that students with and without disabilities be held equally accountable to the same academic standards (IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001). Many students with disabilities, however, perform poorly in academic content courses, especially at the middle and secondary school levels. Previous research has reported increased notetaking accuracy and quiz scores over lecture content when students completed guided notes compared to taking their own notes. This study evaluated the effects of a pre-quiz review procedure and specially formatted guided notes on middle school special education students' learning of science vocabulary. This study compared the effects of three experimental conditions. (a) Own Notes (ON), (b) Own Notes+Random Study Checks (ON+RSC), and (c) Guided Notes Study Cards+Random Study Checks (GNSC+RSC) on each student's accuracy of notes, next-day quiz scores, and review quiz scores. Each session, the teacher presented 12 science vocabulary terms and definitions during a lecture and students took notes. The students were given 5 minutes to study their notes at the end of each session and were reminded to study their notes at home and in study hall period. In the ON condition students took notes on a sheet of paper with numbered lines from 1 to 12. Just before each next-day quiz in the ON+RSC condition students used write-on response cards to answer two teacher-posed questions over randomly selected vocabulary terms from the previous day's lecture. If the answer on a randomly selected student's response card was correct, that student earned a lottery ticket for inexpensive prizes and a quiz bonus point for herself and each classmate. In the GNSC+RSC condition students took notes on specially formatted guided notes that after the lecture they cut into a set of flashcards that could used for study. The students' mean notetaking accuracy was 75

  1. Motives of former interns in general practice for speciality-choice--results of a cross-sectional study among graduates 2007 to 2012. (United States)

    Abendroth, Jens; Schnell, Ute; Lichte, Thomas; Oemler, Matthias; Klement, Andreas


    The influence of a final-year elective internship in general practice (IGP) on motives affecting graduates' choice of specialty is the object of great public interest, yet still insufficiently evaluated. Longitudinal studies show the influence of numerous motives (e.g., work-life balance), but not following the IGP experience itself. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study of all graduates who completed the IGP in Saxony-Anhalt during 2007-2012 regarding their motives for choosing a speciality. A standardized questionnaire was sent to 109 former interns in general practice. The questionnaire contained 29 items addressing three topics (personal attitudes, concept of personal and professional life, motives for speciality choice) and used single-choice and multiple-choice answers, as well as Likert scales. Correlation analysis was carried out by means of Kendall's tau. The questionnaire reached 97 former interns, of which 45 (46%) responded. In the overall ranking of motives for speciality choice, family (71%), leisure time (66%) and job opportunities (48%) rated as more important than income (36%), mentoring (20%), status or scientific work (20%). Only 29% of the respondents stated that their speciality choice was changed by the IGP. If the speciality choice was already established before the IGP, the influence of the IGP on speciality choice was significantly low (r = -.5; p life and career were also important factors affecting speciality choice. The aspects of the positive influence exerted by medical teachers on those students who are still undecided during the IGP should be carefully evaluated.

  2. Evaluación de la estrategia de rehabilitación de base comunitaria (RBC desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guajardo Córdoba


    Full Text Available A través de este proyecto de investigación se evalúo, desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación en Chile, los distintos niveles de intervención de la RBC. Así, el objetivo que guío esta investigación fue evaluar el impacto social percibido y la aceptabilidad social de la estrategia de Rehabilitación de Base Comunitaria (RBC desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación. El marco metodológico fue definido bajo los parámetros de una investigación cualitativa de carácter descriptivo y transversal. El universo de estudio correspondió a las comunas que contaban con programas de RBC que se desarrollan a nivel nacional como parte de la política nacional de discapacidad y rehabilitación en salud. Los criterios que guiaron el proceso de muestreo fueron los de pertinencia y suficiencia de la información, por lo que  se optó  por un muestreo estructural. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó mediante análisis de contenido semánticamente orientado, siguiendo una estratega intensiva, es decir, se analizó toda la información producida durante la fase de terreno. Los resultados dan cuenta de la RBC como una estrategia  con variadas formas de implementación y desarrollo que se relaciona con la historia local, el perfil de la comunidad, perfil del centro,  perfil de usuarias/ios y las características de vinculación municipal con el programa de rehabilitación. El estudio identifica en la estrategia de RBC tres modelos de acción: biomédico, biopsicosocial y comunitario.

  3. Understanding the Process: An Ethnographic Case Study of School Psychologists' Experiences in the Referral of African Americans to Special Education (United States)

    Lester, Pamela Denise


    A qualitative method of research was chosen for this study. This ethnographic case study examined school psychologists' and the referral process for special education services. The participants included school psychologists in a specific county in the state of Maryland. School psychologists are considered crucial members of an Individualized…

  4. Developmental specialization of the left parietal cortex for the semantic representation of Arabic numerals: An fMR-adaptation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan E. Vogel


    Full Text Available The way the human brain constructs representations of numerical symbols is poorly understood. While increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies has indicated that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS becomes increasingly specialized for symbolic numerical magnitude representation over developmental time, the extent to which these changes are associated with age-related differences in symbolic numerical magnitude representation or with developmental changes in non-numerical processes, such as response selection, remains to be uncovered. To address these outstanding questions we investigated developmental changes in the cortical representation of symbolic numerical magnitude in 6- to 14-year-old children using a passive functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation design, thereby mitigating the influence of response selection. A single-digit Arabic numeral was repeatedly presented on a computer screen and interspersed with the presentation of novel digits deviating as a function of numerical ratio (smaller/larger number. Results demonstrated a correlation between age and numerical ratio in the left IPS, suggesting an age-related increase in the extent to which numerical symbols are represented in the left IPS. Brain activation of the right IPS was modulated by numerical ratio but did not correlate with age, indicating hemispheric differences in IPS engagement during the development of symbolic numerical representation.

  5. How specialized are writing-specific brain regions? An fMRI study of writing, drawing and oral spelling. (United States)

    Planton, Samuel; Longcamp, Marieke; Péran, Patrice; Démonet, Jean-François; Jucla, Mélanie


    Several brain imaging studies identified brain regions that are consistently involved in writing tasks; the left premotor and superior parietal cortices have been associated with the peripheral components of writing performance as opposed to other regions that support the central, orthographic components. Based on a meta-analysis by Planton, Jucla, Roux, and Demonet (2013), we focused on five such writing areas and questioned the task-specificity and hemispheric lateralization profile of the brain response in an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment where 16 right-handed participants wrote down, spelled out orally object names, and drew shapes from object pictures. All writing-related areas were activated by drawing, and some of them by oral spelling, thus questioning their specialization for written production. The graphemic/motor frontal area (GMFA), a subpart of the superior premotor cortex close to Exner's area (Roux et al., 2009), was the only area with a writing-specific lateralization profile, that is, clear left lateralization during handwriting, and bilateral activity during drawing. Furthermore, the relative lateralization and levels of activation in the superior parietal cortex, ventral premotor cortex, ventral occipitotemporal cortex and right cerebellum across the three tasks brought out new evidence regarding their respective contributions to the writing processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a Specialized Yoga Program for Persons Admitted to a Complex Continuing Care Hospital: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Curtis


    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a specialized yoga intervention for inpatients in a rehabilitation and complex continuing care hospital. Design. Single-cohort repeated measures design. Methods. Participants (N=10 admitted to a rehabilitation and complex continuing care hospital were recruited to participate in a 50–60 min Hatha Yoga class (modified for wheelchair users/seated position once a week for eight weeks, with assigned homework practice. Questionnaires on pain (pain, pain interference, and pain catastrophizing, psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and experiences with injustice, mindfulness, self-compassion, and spiritual well-being were collected at three intervals: pre-, mid-, and post-intervention. Results. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed a significant main effect of time indicating improvements over the course of the yoga program on the (1 anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, F(2,18 = 4.74, p<.05, and ηp2 = .35, (2 Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, F(2,18 = 3.71, p<.05, and ηp2 = .29, and (3 Magnification subscale of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, F(2,18 = 3. 66, p<.05, and ηp2 = .29. Discussion. The results suggest that an 8-week Hatha Yoga program improves pain-related factors and psychological experiences in individuals admitted to a rehabilitation and complex continuing care hospital.

  7. Resonance Frequency Breathing Biofeedback to Reduce Symptoms of Subthreshold PTSD with an Air Force Special Tactics Operator: A Case Study. (United States)

    Petta, Lorene M


    The prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been estimated to be several times higher in military populations compared to the national average. Special Tactics operators are a group that is more likely to avoid seeking psychological care due to the stigma and other consequences the diagnosis may have on their military careers. There is a need for more effective and less stigmatizing interventions to treat this population. Psychophysiological methods have been proven to be efficacious in treating PTSD, yet have received less attention as an adjunctive intervention. Resonance frequency (RF) biofeedback is a form of cardiorespiratory intervention that has shown promise as an effective treatment. The current case study examined the use of RF biofeedback in combination with other physiological and evidence-based methods as part of a comprehensive treatment approach. The client showed a significant drop from his initial scores on a screening assessment by the end of treatment, and demonstrated continued progress despite a 3-month break from the therapy. This author proposed that the synergistic effects of the multi-phased treatment approach contributed to the client's progress. Furthermore, a case was made for using multiple techniques when treating subthreshold PTSD and related symptoms within a treatment resistant population.

  8. A comprehensive special educational diagnostic assessment of five-year-old children with developmental coordination disorder (case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjasa Filipcic


    Full Text Available Developmental coordination disorder (DCD is a neurodevelopmental disorder which affects different areas of an individual's everyday living and learning. Children with DCD are often diagnosed late, at school age, when difficulties with writing, organization and executive functions arise, even though one could have seen signs of probable DCD very early in childhood. The aim of this study was to further assess five-year-old, preschool children recognized as children with DCD, and develop a model for a comprehensive special educational diagnostic assessment of abilities and skills in five-year-old children with DCD. The comprehensive diagnostic assessment comprised observations and assessments of children’s everyday skills in their kindergartens. It also included semi-structured interviews with children, their parents and their preschool teachers. Further, children’s skills and abilities in all developmental domains (sensory and motor skills, cognitive abilities, social and emotional development, speech and language development, including emerging literacy skills, and early maths skills were assessed. A qualitative analysis was undertaken to compare individual children’s comprehensive assessments. The developed model included both the strengths and weaknesses of the assessed children.

  9. A Comparative Study of Emotional Stability of Visually Impaired Students Studying at Secondary Level in Inclusive Setup and Special Schools (United States)

    Pant, Pankaj; Joshi, P. K.


    Visual impairment as an umbrella term includes all levels of vision loss. Researches in the field of visual disability are far from satisfactory in India. Some attempts have been made to study different aspects of the lives of visually disabled children. Such attempts help, revealing the facts of their life, characteristics, activities,…

  10. Communicating the risks of bioterrorism and other emergencies in a diverse society: a case study of special populations in North Dakota. (United States)

    McGough, Marty; Frank, Loreeta Leer; Tipton, Stacia; Tinker, Tim L; Vaughan, Elaine


    In the event that terrorists use air, water, or food to deliver destructive agents to civilian populations, some groups and populations may be disproportionately at risk and have unique communications needs. Bioterrorism represents an even greater national public health threat if the nation's preparedness and readiness plans do not address the needs and perspectives of, for example, low-income residents, racially and ethnically diverse communities, and other "special populations". The objective of this study was to develop communications strategies to reach special populations in North Dakota before, during, and after a bioterrorism attack or other crisis. To achieve the study objectives, the investigators used telephone interviews and telephone focus groups with organizations that represented special populations. Areas of inquiry included attitudes and concerns about crises, sources of information used and those identified as most credible, methods to reach people during a crisis event, and awareness of and attitudes about the agencies and organizations that affect risk communications.

  11. Metagenomic Study Suggests That the Gut Microbiota of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca May Not Be Specialized for Fiber Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo


    Full Text Available Bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies. We found that the giant panda hosts a bear-like gut microbiota distinct from those of herbivores indicated by the metabolic potential of the microbiome in the gut of giant pandas and other mammals. Furthermore, the relative abundance of genes involved in cellulose- and hemicellulose-digestion, and enrichment of enzymes associated with pathways of amino acid degradation and biosynthetic reactions in giant pandas echoed a carnivore-like microbiome. Most significantly, the enzyme assay of the giant panda's feces indicated the lowest cellulase and xylanase activity among major herbivores, shown by an in-vitro experimental assay of enzyme activity for cellulose and hemicellulose-degradation. All of our results consistently indicate that the giant panda is not specialized to digest cellulose and hemicellulose from its bamboo diet, making the giant panda a good mammalian model to study the unusual link between the gut microbiome and diet. The increased food intake of the giant pandas might be a strategy to compensate for the gut microbiome functions, highlighting a strong need of conservation of the native bamboo forest both in high- and low-altitude ranges to meet the great demand of bamboo diet of giant pandas.

  12. Metagenomic Study Suggests That the Gut Microbiota of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) May Not Be Specialized for Fiber Fermentation. (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Mishra, Sudhanshu; Zhao, Jiangchao; Tang, Jingsi; Zeng, Bo; Kong, Fanli; Ning, Ruihong; Li, Miao; Zhang, Hengzhi; Zeng, Yutian; Tian, Yuanliangzi; Zhong, Yihang; Luo, Hongdi; Liu, Yunhan; Yang, Jiandong; Yang, Mingyao; Zhang, Mingwang; Li, Yan; Ni, Qingyong; Li, Caiwu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Hemin; Zuo, Zhili; Li, Ying


    Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies. We found that the giant panda hosts a bear-like gut microbiota distinct from those of herbivores indicated by the metabolic potential of the microbiome in the gut of giant pandas and other mammals. Furthermore, the relative abundance of genes involved in cellulose- and hemicellulose-digestion, and enrichment of enzymes associated with pathways of amino acid degradation and biosynthetic reactions in giant pandas echoed a carnivore-like microbiome. Most significantly, the enzyme assay of the giant panda's feces indicated the lowest cellulase and xylanase activity among major herbivores, shown by an in-vitro experimental assay of enzyme activity for cellulose and hemicellulose-degradation. All of our results consistently indicate that the giant panda is not specialized to digest cellulose and hemicellulose from its bamboo diet, making the giant panda a good mammalian model to study the unusual link between the gut microbiome and diet. The increased food intake of the giant pandas might be a strategy to compensate for the gut microbiome functions, highlighting a strong need of conservation of the native bamboo forest both in high- and low-altitude ranges to meet the great demand of bamboo diet of giant pandas.

  13. Study protocol: evaluation of specialized outpatient palliative care (SOPC) in the German state of Hesse (ELSAH study) - work package II: palliative care for pediatric patients. (United States)

    Ulrich, Lisa-R; Gruber, Dania; Hach, Michaela; Boesner, Stefan; Haasenritter, Joerg; Kuss, Katrin; Seipp, Hannah; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje


    In 2007, the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) provided a comprehensive set of recommendations and standards for the provision of adequate pediatric palliative care. A number of studies have shown deficits in pediatric palliative care compared to EAPC standards. In Germany, pediatric palliative care patients can be referred to specialized outpatient palliative care (SOPC) services, which are known to enhance quality of life, e.g. by avoiding hospitalization. However, current regulations for the provision of SOPC in Germany do not account for the different circumstances and needs of children and their families compared to adult palliative care patients. The "Evaluation of specialized outpatient palliative care (SOPC) in the German state of Hesse (ELSAH)" study aims to perform a needs assessment for pediatric patients (children, adolescents and young adults) receiving SOPC. This paper presents the study protocol for this assessment (work package II). The study uses a sequential mixed-methods study design with a focus on qualitative research. Data collection from professional and family caregivers and, as far as possible, pediatric patients, will involve both a written questionnaire based on European recommendations for pediatric palliative care, and semi-structured interviews. Additionally, professional caregivers will take part in focus group discussions and participatory observations. Interviews and focus groups will be tape- or video-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed in accordance with the principles of grounded theory (interviews) and content analysis (focus groups). A structured field note template will be used to record notes taken during the participatory observations. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 22 or higher) will be used for descriptive statistical analyses. The qualitative data analyses will be software-assisted by MAXQDA (version 12 or higher). This study will provide important information on what matters

  14. Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from China based on morphological evidence and comparative rbcL sequences (United States)

    Cao, Cuicui; Liu, Miao; Guo, Shaoru; Zhao, Dan; Luan, Rixiao; Wang, Hongwei


    Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is newly described from Hainan Province, southern China. The organism has the following morphological features: (1) purplish red, cartilaginous and lubricous thalli 5-10 cm in height; (2) compressed percurrent axes bearing abundant branches with opposite arrangement; (3) claw-like apices on top, constricted to 2-4 cm at the base; (4) cortex consisting of 3-6 layers of elliptical or anomalous cells and a medulla covered by compact medullary filaments; (5) reproductive structures distributed throughout the thallus, especially centralized at the bottom of the end portion of the branches; and (6) 4-celled Carpogonial branches and 3-celled auxiliary-cell branches, both of the Grateloupia-type. The morphological diff erences were supported by molecular phylogenetics based on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbcL) gene sequence analysis. There was only a 1 bp divergence between specimens collected from Wenchang and Lingshui of Hainan province. The new species was embedded in the large Grateloupia clade of the Halymeniaceae. The pairwise distances between G. ramosa and other species within Grateloupia ranged from 26 to 105 bp, within pairwise distances of 13-111 bp between species of the large genus Grateloupia in Halymeniaceae. Thus, we propose this new species as G. ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov.

  15. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA, phytochrome B, rbcL, atpB, and morphology. (United States)

    Simmons, M P; Savolainen, V; Clevinger, C C; Archer, R H; Davis, J I


    Phylogenetic relationships within Celastraceae (spindle-tree family) were inferred from nucleotide sequence characters from the 5' end of 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (including expansion segments D1-D3; 84 species sampled), phytochrome B (58 species), rbcL (31 species), atpB (23 species), and morphology (94 species). Among taxa of questionable affinity, Forsellesia is a member of Crossosomataceae, and Goupia is excluded from Celastraceae. However, Brexia, Canotia, Lepuropetalon, Parnassia, Siphonodon, and Stackhousiaceae are supported as members of Celastraceae. Gymnosporia and Tricerma are distinct from Maytenus, Cassine is supported as distinct from Elaeodendron, and Dicarpellum is distinct from Salacia. Catha, Maytenus, and Pristimera are not resolved as natural genera. Hippocrateaceae (including Plagiopteron and Lophopetalum) are a clade nested within a paraphyletic Celastraceae. These data also suggest that the Loesener's classification of Celastraceae sensu stricto and Hallé's classification of Hippocrateaceae are artificial. The diversification of the fruit and aril within Celastraceae appears to be complex, with multiple origins of most fruit and aril forms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. A molecular phylogeny of the heterokont algae based on analyses of choroplast-encoded rbcL sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Niels; Andersen, Robert A.


    of heterokont algae. The Eustigmatophyceae were the most basal group, and the Dictyochophyceae branched off as the second most basal group. The branching pattern for the other classes was well supported in terms of bootstrap values in the weightedparsimony analysis but was weakly supported in the maximum......-likelihood analysis (branch containing the Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae. This clade, charactetized by siliceous structures (frustules, cysts, scales), was the sister group to the Pelagophyceae/Sarcinochrysidales and Phaeo....... The branch lengths in the maximum-likelihood reconstruction suggest that these two classes have evolved at an accelerated rate. Six major carotenoids were analyzed cladistically to study the usefulness of carotenoid pigmentation as a class-level character in the heterokont algae. In addition, each carotenoid...

  17. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel


    Special discount to the members of the Staff Association Aquaparc Discounted prices on admission of whole day. Children from 5 to 15 years: 26.– CHF instead of 35.– CHF; Adults from 16 years: 32.– CHF instead of 43.– CHF.Tickets on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. BCGE Account management on salary account and annual subscription to credit cards free of charge. Other benefits on mortgage loan and financial planning. Comédie de Genève 20% off on full price tickets (also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. Ezee Suisse 15% off on the range of electric bikes upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. FNAC 5% discount on gifts card available in four Swiss shops without any restriction. Gifts card on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. FutureKids 15% off for the Staff Association members who enrol their children of 5 to 16 years old in ...

  18. [Heel pressure ulcers. Comparative study between heel protective bandage and hydrocellular dressing with special form for the heel]. (United States)

    Torra i Bou, Joan-Enric; Rueda López, Justo; Camañes, Gemma; Herrero Narváez, Elias; Blanco Blanco, Joan; Martínez-Esparza, Elvira Hernández; Aneas Alcántara, Jesús; Verdú Soriano, José


    The heels, together with the sacra area, are one of the most frequent spots where pressure sores appear here in Spain. Any preventive measure against pressure sores on heels needs be oriented towards two main objectives: effective relief of pressure and its compatibility with localized care and skin inspection in order to detect lesions early on at least once a day. The authors planned a comparative, multi-centered, open, labeled and controlled study in which patients were assigned to two groups receiving these treatments: one received traditional preventive pressure sore treatment and a protective bandage on their heels while the other used a special Allevyn Heel hydrocellular dressing to protect their heels. The patients took part in this study over an eight week period. The response variable used to determine the effectiveness of the preventive measure in this study was the appearance of pressure sores. At the beginning, 130 patients were included in this study, 65 in each one of the treatment groups. In the bandage group, 50 patients finished this study while 61 in the dressing group finished this study. The appearance of pressure sores in the protective bandage group occurred in 44% of the patients, 22 out of 50, while in the dressing group, the occurrence rate was 3.3%, 2 out of 61 patients with a value of "ji" squared p pressure sore brought us a value of relative risk of 13.42 (IC 95%: 3.31-54.3) in the group wearing the protective bandage compared to the group wearing the dressing. The results of this study allow us to accept as valid the alternate hypothesis that there exist significant statistical differences between both treatment methods in favor of the Allevyn Heel dressing instead of the protective heel bandage. The use of this dressing, even though it is more expensive a priori than the protective bandage, in terms of unit cost for the product, has proven to be more effective in preventing pressure sores, and cheaper than the protective bandage if

  19. Relationship between RBC Mercury Levels and Serum n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrations among Japanese Men and Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, M.; Ando, T.; Wakamiya, J.; Koriyama, Ch.; Akiba, S.; Kitano, T.


    Aims. To evaluate potential health risk and benefits of fish consumption, the association of fish consumption with total mercury levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations was examined. Subjects and Methods. Study subjects were 269 Japanese (98 men and 171 women) living in a remote island of Kagoshima, and their blood was drawn in 1994. Results. Total mercury levels were related to weekly fish consumption among women (P=0.035) but not among men (P=0.643). However, serum EPA levels were not related to fish consumption in both women and men. In contrast, EPA levels in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of the sera were significantly related to fish consumption (P values for men and women were 0.014 and 0.073, resp.). Interestingly, mercury levels were related to serum EPA levels and EPA in the HDL fraction of the sera (P=0.001) among women (P=0.005) but not among men. Sex differences in fish species consumed may be an explanation for the observed sex difference. Conclusion. Those findings suggest that the health benefit of fish consumption can be maximized by the careful selection of fish species consumed


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safarkhanlou


    Full Text Available To study the effects of rumen-protected methionine and vitamin B12 as well as their interactions on the parameters of red blood cells of dairy cows in early lactation, 16 Holstein cows in early lactation in experiment with randomized complete block design with the 2×2 factorial arrangement used for 42 days. In this experiment, there were four treatments, which in each treatment is placed two cows primi-parous and two cows multi-parous. Treatments included: 1 The group receiving the basal diet, 2 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections, 3 The group receiving the basal diet with rumen-protected methionine, 4 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections and rumen-protected methionine. The results showed that in the use of vitamin B12 and rumen-protected methionine, there is no significant difference between the experimental groups in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels and blood hematocrit. Mean corpuscular (cell volume and mean corpuscular (cell hemoglobin did increase with vitamin B12 supplementation. In a general conclusion, it seems that increasing MCV and MCH may result in improvement in oxygenation and in turn lead to improvement on dry matter intake and milk production.

  1. Study of the Knowledge, Attitude and Experience of Medical Tourism Among Target Groups with Special Emphasis on South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev A


    Full Text Available Medical tourism aims at providing cost-effective customized health care in collaboration with the tourism industry in distant locations wherein the hospitality component is handled efficiently so that fixing appointments, making arrangements for accommodation and other logistics become hassle-free for the patient. This allows more concentration on the procedure at hand and the interaction between the medical fraternity and the patient becomes smoother. More and more hospitals in India are gearing up to provide such services to neighbouring countries and even to the developed nations across the world. The purpose of this study was to study the knowledge, attitude and experiences of the population of a suitable cross-section regarding the emerging scenario of medical tourism with special interest vis-à-vis Non Resident Indians (NRIs specifically to the state of Karnataka and Mangalore in particular. It was found that compared to the locals (kannadigas or non-kannadigas, the Non-resident Indians were more dissatisfied with the health care facilities available in their proximity. Though a majority of them do have medical insurance, it still looks as if the care is more cost-effective when sourced to India. NRIs are more aware of the potential of medical tourism through their communication with the medical fraternity as well as the general public and 11.1% of NRIs have really utilized the services of medical tourism. An e-mail survey which was also conducted among a number of foreigners yielded the interesting fact that they indeed had a greater awareness regarding medical tourism with an emphasis on health tourism. The reason why these foreigners opted for medical tourism was due to the substandard medical care available in their locality, rather than due to the cost of medical care as such.

  2. Economic impact of interventional study on rational use of antiseptics and disinfectants in Super Speciality Hospital of Nagpur. (United States)

    Agarwal, Vandana; Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Makhija, Sushil; Thakur, Anita; Powar, Rajaram


    To measure the impact of interventions on rational use of antiseptics and disinfectants (A and D) for cost containment in Super Speciality Hospital (SSH) of Government Medical College, Nagpur (GMCN), India. This study was conducted from October 2003 to March 2007 in SSH of GMCN. In the pre-interventional phase (Phase-I), purchase, stocking and distribution of A and D was studied to find problem areas. Based on this formative data an intervention was planned (Phase-II) during which rationing of the A and D was done. Rational quantities needed for different A and D procedures were calculated based on recommendations of National Aids Control Organization (NACO) with modifications to suit our hospital setup. Detailed information, education, communication and training about rational use of A and D were provided to the hospital staff. In the post-interventional phase (Phase-III), the use of A and D was rationalized at the distribution level and the efficacy of in-use A and D was tested at user sites. Data about medicine expenditure, patient record and A and D usage in various departments was obtained from hospital records. Savings on A and D as against total annual medicine expenditure was calculated taking the cost of A and D in the post-intervention period. The expenditure on A and D as a result of intervention decreased by 20.7%. Out of the total medicine expenditure, the expenditure on A and D which accounted for 6.2% before intervention, decreased to 1.95% after the intervention. The information, education and communication (IEC) interventions attempted by us resulted in significant decrease in the use and expenditure of A and D.

  3. Utility of single-energy and dual-energy computed tomography in clot characterization: An in-vitro study. (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Michalak, Gregory; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Dai, Daying; Gilvarry, Michael; Duffy, Sharon; Kallmes, David F; McCollough, Cynthia; Leng, Shuai


    Background and purpose Because computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke patients, developing CT-based techniques for improving clot characterization could prove useful. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine which single-energy or dual-energy CT techniques provided optimum discrimination between red blood cell (RBC) and fibrin-rich clots. Materials and methods Seven clot types with varying fibrin and RBC densities were made (90% RBC, 99% RBC, 63% RBC, 36% RBC, 18% RBC and 0% RBC with high and low fibrin density) and their composition was verified histologically. Ten of each clot type were created and scanned with a second generation dual source scanner using three single (80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV) and two dual-energy protocols (80/Sn 140 kV and 100/Sn 140 kV). A region of interest (ROI) was placed over each clot and mean attenuation was measured. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated at each energy level to determine the accuracy at differentiating RBC-rich clots from fibrin-rich clots. Results Clot attenuation increased with RBC content at all energy levels. Single-energy at 80 kV and 120 kV and dual-energy 80/Sn 140 kV protocols allowed for distinguishing between all clot types, with the exception of 36% RBC and 18% RBC. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the 80/Sn 140 kV dual-energy protocol had the highest area under the curve for distinguishing between fibrin-rich and RBC-rich clots (area under the curve 0.99). Conclusions Dual-energy CT with 80/Sn 140 kV had the highest accuracy for differentiating RBC-rich and fibrin-rich in-vitro thrombi. Further studies are needed to study the utility of non-contrast dual-energy CT in thrombus characterization in acute ischemic stroke.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Surzhik


    Full Text Available Nutrition of children of the second and third years of life is a topical problem nowadays. The significance of this age period for the health level formation is very high. The authors show the method and analyze the first results of the epidemiological study of nutrition character and special features of 12–36 months old children in different regions of Russian Federation. The nutrition structure of such children demands a special attention from pediatricians. The received data require the further analysis and establishment of correlations between the disturbances in nutrition structure and estimated indicators of the main nutrients, energy, minerals and vitamins intake.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin D. STĂNESCU


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors shows the research made for improving high-power audio speaker devices performance using permanent NdFeB magnets special technology. Magnetic losses inside these audio devices are due to mechanical system frictions and to thermal effect of Joules eddy currents. In this regard, by special technology, were made conical surfaces at top plate and center pin. Analysing results obtained by modelling the magnetic circuit finite element method using electronic software package,was measured increase efficiency by over 10 %, from 1,136T to13T.

  6. Special protective concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouniol, P.


    Concrete is the most convenient material when large-scale radiation protection is needed. Thus, special concretes for nuclear purposes are used in various facilities like reactors, reprocessing centers, storage sites, accelerators, hospitals with nuclear medicine equipment, food ionization centers etc.. The recent advances made in civil engineering for the improvement of concrete durability and compactness are for a large part transposable to protection concretes. This article presents the basic knowledge about protection concretes with the associated typological and technological aspects. A large part is devoted to the intrinsic properties of concretes and to their behaviour in irradiation and temperature conditions: 1 - definition and field of application of special protective concretes; 2 - evolution of concepts and technologies (durability of structures, techniques of formulation, new additives, market evolution); 3 - design of protective structures (preliminary study, radiation characteristics, thermal constraints, damping and dimensioning, mechanical criteria); 4 - formulation of special concretes (general principles, granulates, hydraulic binders, pulverulent additives, water/cement ratio, reference composition of some special concretes); 5 - properties of special concretes (damping and thermo-mechanical properties); 6 - induced-irradiation and temperature phenomena (activation, radiolysis, mineralogical transformations, drying, shrinking, creep, corrosion of reinforcement). (J.S.)

  7. Conceptual and applied study of Snigdha and Ruksa Guna with special reference to Rasa-raktagata Sneha (hyperlipidemia). (United States)

    Mishra, Sangram; Dwivedi, R R; Ravishankar, B


    Ayurveda as well as Philosophy accepted the Guna as the basic entity of the Sristi. The Maha Gunas, i.e., Sattva, Raja, and Tama are the prime energy, from where the universe evolves, along with human beings. Dravya and Guna both have a Samavayi relationship in which Gunas reside in Dravya and have a secondary place to it. Guna has multifold meanings according to its use, in social, cultural, philosophical, and literary fields. The concepts of Ayurveda are expressed with Gunas. Samanya and Visesa are usually expressed in terms of Gunas; the classification, description, and function of Dravyas depends upon Guna; Karmas are manifested forms of Guna and Samavaya is the eternal, intimate relation of Dravya and Guna. The principles like Triskandha (Hetu, linga, ousadhi) of Ayurveda also narrated by Gunas, Hetus are narrated in the terms of Guna; the Laksanas are the reflections in the status of Gunas of bodily elements, and Cikitsa is in the form of administration of Viparita Gunas. The increased elements are treated by opposite Guna. So if Ruksa Guna is increased then it is to be managed by Snigdha Guna and vice-versa. So diseases can be treated by applying the Gunas, and drugs for the required patient can be selected by applying these Gunas. In support of the above concept, a study on the persons of Rasa-raktagata Sneha (hyperlipidemia) has been carried out assuming that the condition is an increased state of Snigdha Guna and treatment is done using Ruksa property drugs. Patients were divided into two groups, i.e., treatment group (Ruksa Guna drugs) and control group (placebo). The results were assessed after 45 days with the help of a specially prepared pro forma. All the important hematological, biochemical, and urine investigations were done. According to subjective and objective criteria, significant results were found for Group A as compared to Group B.

  8. More co-morbid depression in patients with Type 2 diabetes with multiple complications. An observational study at a specialized outpatient clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steenbergen-Weijenburg, K.M.; van Puffelen, A.L.; Horn, E.K.; v.d. Nuyen, J.; van Dam, P.S.; van Benthem, T.B.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Rutten, F.F.H.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.


    Aims: The impact of depression on patients with chronic medical illnesses such as diabetes is well documented. Depression is relatively common in diabetes patients with diabetes-related complications and they are more likely to be referred to specialized outpatient facilities. Only a few studies

  9. The Impact of Fostering Relationships through Music within a Special School Classroom for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Action Research Study (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Thompson, Grace; Bolger, Lucy


    Music therapists have been working in special education contexts for many decades, utilising research and case studies to inform practice. Growing interest in the link between the creative arts and well-being has led music therapists to consider what aspects of their knowledge others could feasibly appropriate in the school system. An action…

  10. Using an Augmented Reality Enhanced Tabletop System to Promote Learning of Mathematics: A Case Study with Students with Special Educational Needs (United States)

    Cascales-Martínez, Antonia; Martínez-Segura, María-José; Pérez-López, David; Contero, Manuel


    The main objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of using a multi touch tabletop system for applied mathematics learning in primary education with students with special needs (SEN). The instructional content designed on the tabletop focuses on understanding and managing money, coins, and banknotes. The study also analyzes the…

  11. Special-Study Modules in a Problem-Based Learning Medical Curriculum: An Innovative Laboratory Research Practice Supporting Introduction to Research Methodology in the Undergraduate Curriculum (United States)

    Guner, Gul Akdogan; Cavdar, Zahide; Yener, Nilgun; Kume, Tuncay; Egrilmez, Mehtap Yuksel; Resmi, Halil


    We describe the organization of wet-lab special-study modules (SSMs) in the Central Research Laboratory of Dokuz Eylul Medical School, Izmir, Turkey with the aim of discussing the scientific, laboratory, and pedagogical aspects of this educational activity. A general introduction to the planning and functioning of these SSMs is given, along with…

  12. Vocational and Special Education. Program Review. A Study Conducted on Behalf of the State of Alaska Department of Education--Dr. Marshall Lind, Commissioner. (United States)

    Martini and Associates, Ltd., Anchorage, AK.

    The State of Alaska Department of Education, through management consultants, conducted a study in eight selected school districts to ascertain the following: (1) effectiveness of vocational education programs offered at the secondary level, (2) adequacy of special education services provided to exceptional children at all levels, and (3)…

  13. Art Is Not Special

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Martin; Nadal, Marcos


    The assumption that human cognition requires exceptional explanations holds strong in some domains of behavioral and brain sciences. Scientific aesthetics in general, and neuroaesthetics in particular, abound with claims for art-specific cognitive or neural processes. This assumption fosters...... a conceptual structure disconnected from other fields and biases the sort of processes to be studied. More generally, assuming that art is special is to cling to the idea that some aspect of our species’ mental constitution makes us unique, special, and meaningful. This assumption continues to relegate...... scientific aesthetics to the periphery of science and hampers a naturalized view of the human mind....

  14. Specialization, Outsourcing and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan


    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. By using a simple theoretical model, we argue that, if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains...... arising from an increase in the extent of the market for intermediate goods, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsurcing affect wages as predicted...... by the theory.Keywords: Outsourcing, Comparative advantage, Specialization, Wages.JEL Classification: F16, J31, C23....

  15. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of important medicinal plant species in genus Paeonia based on rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL DNA barcode sequences. (United States)

    Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Choi, G; Kang, Y M; Yang, S; Moon, B C


    This study was performed to identify and analyze the phylogenetic relationship among four herbaceous species of the genus Paeonia, P. lactiflora, P. japonica, P. veitchii, and P. suffruticosa, using DNA barcodes. These four species, which are commonly used in traditional medicine as Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex, are pharmaceutically defined in different ways in the national pharmacopoeias in Korea, Japan, and China. To authenticate the different species used in these medicines, we evaluated rDNA-internal transcribed spacers (ITS), matK and rbcL regions, which provide information capable of effectively distinguishing each species from one another. Seventeen samples were collected from different geographic regions in Korea and China, and DNA barcode regions were amplified using universal primers. Comparative analyses of these DNA barcode sequences revealed species-specific nucleotide sequences capable of discriminating the four Paeonia species. Among the entire sequences of three barcodes, marker nucleotides were identified at three positions in P. lactiflora, eleven in P. japonica, five in P. veitchii, and 25 in P. suffruticosa. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed four distinct clusters showing homogeneous clades with high resolution at the species level. The results demonstrate that the analysis of these three DNA barcode sequences is a reliable method for identifying the four Paeonia species and can be used to authenticate Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex at the species level. Furthermore, based on the assessment of amplicon sizes, inter/intra-specific distances, marker nucleotides, and phylogenetic analysis, rDNA-ITS was the most suitable DNA barcode for identification of these species.

  16. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 17, 2017 ... Perak, Malaysia was observed under ral waste in powder and xtract generated optimum produce highest length of fectively improved shoot ed faster effect on C. ed positive result for the shed light on how the Z. C. nutans. This study ld application. pagation; Zea mays stem. Research Article. Special Issue ...

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 15, 2016 ... International License. ... confirmatory factor analysis which is a technique to study the structure of a ... School as a social institution is part of a special community that has ... specifies the amount of support that teacher thinks that students ..... social adjustment and academic performance in third grade female ...

  18. Learnt and perceived professional roles of a new type of nurse specialized in Gerontology and Geriatrics, a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, Petra; Finnema, Evelyn; Roodbol, Petrie

    Aim. To gain insight into a new type of nurse specialized in gerontology and geriatrics, how they find meaning in the care of older persons and how this relates to the seven professional roles derived from the CanMEDS theoretical framework. Background. To promote the quality of care for older

  19. What's Our Position? A Critical Media Literacy Study of Popular Culture Websites with Eighth-Grade Special Education Students (United States)

    Kesler, Ted; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Nolan, Brian T.


    This article reports on an action research project with 9 eighth-grade special education students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. The 1st author, in collaboration with the classroom teacher (3rd author), taught the students a critical media literacy framework to explore popular culture websites. Students learned to analyze…

  20. Promoting Inclusive Schools: A Case Study of Leadership Experiences of the Middle School Chairpersons for Special Education Service (United States)

    Baylis, Juvinell


    Federal and state guidelines direct students with disabilities to the least restrictive environment (LRE). The inclusion of students with disabilities in the LRE (general education) has been an issue for many public schools. In an effort to promote inclusive education for students with disabilities, many special education teacher-chairpersons…

  1. The Relationship Between Attitudes Toward the Handicapped and Nonverbal Behavior with Educators of Special Needs Students: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; And Others

    Examined were the relationships between attitudes toward the handicapped and nonverbal behavior of 60 special education teachers involved in inservice or preservice coursework. Ss were administered the Attitudes Toward Handicapped Individuals (ATHI) Scale and the Nonverbal Behavior Characteristics Scale (NBCS). Analysis of the data indicated a…

  2. Are the Keys loved to death? A study of diver specialization levels and preferences in the Florida Keys (United States)

    Shona Paterson; David K. Loomis


    This paper presents research conducted for the Florida Reef Resilience Program on nonresident recreational SCUBA divers in three zones of the Florida Keys. When divers were segmented into specialization subgroups for analysis, divers in different subgroups tended to use different geographic locations. These results suggest differences in user preferences; yet when...

  3. A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Parents of Young Children with Autism Receiving Special Education Services (United States)

    Barrow, Donna Marie


    Over the past two decades reported rates of autism have steadily risen. The current incidence is 1 in 68 children. While autism can be reliably diagnosed at 18 months in most children with the condition, specialized autism treatment rarely begins before a child's third or fourth birthday. As screening and diagnosis procedures improve so does the…

  4. Work-Experience and Work-Study Programs for Students with Special Needs: Quality Indicators of Transition Services. (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech A.; And Others


    This article proposes a continuum of employment training options for students with special needs and identifies program quality indicators in the areas of assessment and the Individual Education Plan; the employment training program; community-based settings; provisions for on-site training and evaluation; and interagency cooperation. (DB)

  5. Promoting Special Educator Teacher Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. Vittek


    Full Text Available This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensive administrative support to improve job satisfaction and the likelihood a special educator will remain in their job.

  6. "NeuroStem Chip": a novel highly specialized tool to study neural differentiation pathways in human stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia-Yi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human stem cells are viewed as a possible source of neurons for a cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Several protocols that generate different types of neurons from human stem cells (hSCs have been developed. Nevertheless, the cellular mechanisms that underlie the development of neurons in vitro as they are subjected to the specific differentiation protocols are often poorly understood. Results We have designed a focused DNA (oligonucleotide-based large-scale microarray platform (named "NeuroStem Chip" and used it to study gene expression patterns in hSCs as they differentiate into neurons. We have selected genes that are relevant to cells (i being stem cells, (ii becoming neurons, and (iii being neurons. The NeuroStem Chip has over 1,300 pre-selected gene targets and multiple controls spotted in quadruplicates (~46,000 spots total. In this study, we present the NeuroStem Chip in detail and describe the special advantages it offers to the fields of experimental neurology and stem cell biology. To illustrate the utility of NeuroStem Chip platform, we have characterized an undifferentiated population of pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, cell line SA02. In addition, we have performed a comparative gene expression analysis of those cells versus a heterogeneous population of hESC-derived cells committed towards neuronal/dopaminergic differentiation pathway by co-culturing with PA6 stromal cells for 16 days and containing a few tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopaminergic neurons. Conclusion We characterized the gene expression profiles of undifferentiated and dopaminergic lineage-committed hESC-derived cells using a highly focused custom microarray platform (NeuroStem Chip that can become an important research tool in human stem cell biology. We propose that the areas of application for NeuroStem microarray platform could be the following: (i characterization of the

  7. Population genetic structure and phylogeographical pattern of a relict tree fern, Alsophila spinulosa (Cyatheaceae), inferred from cpDNA atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers. (United States)

    Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Guopei; Gu, Hongya


    Sequences of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers of individuals of a tree fern species, Alsophila spinulosa, collected from ten relict populations distributed in the Hainan and Guangdong provinces, and the Guangxi Zhuang region in southern China, were determined. Sequence length varied from 724 bp to 731 bp, showing length polymorphism, and base composition was with high A+T content between 63.17% and 63.95%. Sequences were neutral in terms of evolution (Tajima's criterion D=-1.01899, P>0.10 and Fu and Li's test D*=-1.39008, P>0.10; F*=-1.49775, P>0.10). A total of 19 haplotypes were identified based on nucleotide variation. High levels of haplotype diversity (h=0.744) and nucleotide diversity (Dij=0.01130) were detected in A. spinulosa, probably associated with its long evolutionary history, which has allowed the accumulation of genetic variation within lineages. Both the minimum spanning network and neighbor-joining trees generated for haplotypes demonstrated that current populations of A. spinulosa existing in Hainan, Guangdong, and Guangxi were subdivided into two geographical groups. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variation (93.49%, P<0.001) was partitioned among regions. Wright's isolation by distance model was not supported across extant populations. Reduced gene flow by the Qiongzhou Strait and inbreeding may result in the geographical subdivision between the Hainan and Guangdong + Guangxi populations (FST=0.95, Nm=0.03). Within each region, the star-like pattern of phylogeography of haplotypes implied a population expansion process during evolutionary history. Gene genealogies together with coalescent theory provided significant information for uncovering phylogeography of A. spinulosa.

  8. Factors That Drive Youth Specialization. (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Popkin, Charles A; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Ahmad, Christopher S

    Specialization in young athletes has been linked to overuse injuries, burnout, and decreased satisfaction. Despite continued opposition from the medical community, epidemiological studies suggest the frequency is increasing. Extrinsic pressures in addition to individual aspirations drive this national trend in sports specialization. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A novel instrument assessing the driving factors behind youth specialization was generated by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals. Surveys were administered to patients and athletes in the department's sports medicine clinic. The survey was completed by 235 athletes between 7 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 13.8 ± 3.0 years. Athletes specialized at a mean age of 8.1 years, and 31% of athletes played a single sport while 58% played multiple sports but had a preferred sport. More than 70% of athletes had collegiate or professional ambitions, and 60% played their primary sport for 9 or more months per year, with players who had an injury history more likely to play year-round ( P specialized athletes reporting this significantly more often ( P = 0.04). Half of the athletes reported that sports interfered with their academic performance, with older players stating this more frequently ( P specializing in a single sport before starting high school. While intrinsic drive may identify healthy aspirations, extrinsic influences are prevalent in specialized athletes. Extrinsic factors contributing to youth specialization were identified and compounded the deleterious sequelae of youth athlete specialization.

  9. Obstetric factors and different causes of special educational need: retrospective cohort study of 407,503 schoolchildren. (United States)

    Mackay, D F; Smith, G C S; Dobbie, R; Cooper, S-A; Pell, J P


    To determine whether relationships with gestational age and birthweight centile vary between specific causes of special educational need (SEN). Retrospective cohort study. Scotland. A cohort of 407,503 schoolchildren. Polytomous logistic regression was used to examine the risk of each cause of SEN across the spectrum of gestation at delivery and birthweight centile, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and confidence intervals. Of the 19,821 children with SEN, 557 (2.8%) had sensory impairments, 812 (4.1%) had physical or motor disabilities, 876 (4.4%) had language impairments, 2823 (14.2%) had social, emotional, or behavioural problems, 7018 (35.4%) had intellectual disabilities, 4404 (22.2%) had specific learning difficulties, and 1684 (8.5%) autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Extreme preterm delivery (at 24-27 weeks of gestation) was a strong predictor of sensory (adjusted OR 23.64, 95% CI 12.03-46.45), physical or motor (adjusted OR 29.69, 95% CI 17.49-50.40), and intellectual (adjusted OR 11.67, 95% CI 8.46-16.10) impairments, with dose relationships across the range of gestation. Similarly, birthweight below the third centile was associated with sensory (adjusted OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.04-3.99), physical or motor (adjusted OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.82-3.37), and intellectual (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% CI 2.41-2.96) impairments. Together, gestation and birthweight centile accounted for 24.0% of SEN arising from sensory impairment, 34.3% arising from physical or motor disabilities, and 26.6% arising from intellectual disabilities. Obstetric factors were less strongly associated with specific learning difficulties and social or emotional problems, and there were no significant associations with ASD. The association between gestation and birthweight centile and overall risk of SEN is largely driven by very strong associations with sensory, physical or motor impairments, and intellectual impairments. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International

  10. Counteracting Domain Loss and Epistemicide in Specialized Discourse: A Case Study on the Translation of Anglophone Metaphors to French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Bordet


    Full Text Available The dominance of English as the world language of publication has had a decisive impact on the dissemination of information and innovation across cultures, with a resulting tendency to a standardization of scientific conceptualization. This dominance does not only impact scientific and academic discourse, but also the whole range of professional and technical texts representative of various specialized discourses. This paper advocates engaging in the practice of dynamic translation to keep non-English specialized languages alive. Advanced students’ analysis of translation projects yields revealing examples of conflicting views of the world, between English and French, in emerging and controversial fields such as “shadow banking” or “human branding”. The students’ evaluation of alternative solutions to problems of equivalence highlights the cultural gaps which exist within global fields of knowledge and can be interpreted in terms of the intercultural and interlinguistic transfer of specialized metaphor. It is shown that the practice and analysis of translation provide an appropriate approach for a better understanding of languages for specific purposes (LSP and the development of awareness of domain loss and epistemicide.

  11. Phylogeny of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) based on DNA sequence data from ITS, psbB-psbH, and rbcL, with emphasis on taxa of northwestern China (United States)

    Zhi-Bin Wen; Ming-Li Zhang; Ge-Lin Zhu; Stewart C. Sanderson


    To reconstruct phylogeny and verify the monophyly of major subgroups, a total of 52 species representing almost all species of Salsoleae s.l. in China were sampled, with analysis based on three molecular markers (nrDNA ITS, cpDNA psbB-psbH and rbcL), using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Our molecular evidence provides strong...

  12. Habitat specialization through germination cueing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen; Bruun, Hans Henrik


    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently...

  13. Promoting Special Educator Teacher Retention


    Jeremy E. Vittek


    This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensi...

  14. Public Relations in Special Libraries. (United States)

    Rutkowski, Hollace Ann; And Others


    This theme issue includes 11 articles on public relations (PR) in special libraries. Highlights include PR at the Special Libraries Association (SLA); sources for marketing research for libraries; developing a library image; sample PR releases; brand strategies for libraries; case studies; publicizing a consortium; and a bibliography of pertinent…

  15. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B


    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  16. Evaluation of the quality of foods for special diets produced in a school catering facility within a HACCP-based approach: a case study. (United States)

    Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Foglini, Martina; Paolini, Francesca; Framboas, Marisa; Serena Altissimi, M; Naceur Haouet, M; Mangili, Piermario; Osimani, Andrea; Clementi, Francesca; Cenci, Telemaco; Tonucci, Franco


    A study was carried out to verify the appropriateness of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan adopted in a school catering facility. To that end, the microbiological quality of foods, the correct implementation of special diets (lactose- and gluten-free) and the nutritional value of foods were assessed. Thirty-six samples of lactose-free and 87 samples of gluten-free special diet food preparations were subjected to microbiological, chemical, and nutritional analyses. The data collected demonstrate the effectiveness of the HACCP plan in reducing the occurrence of microbial and chemical (lactose and gluten) cross-contamination. The data obtained from the nutritional analyses showed that the dietary intake provided by the meals under study was satisfactory.

  17. Sports Specialization, Part II (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.


    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  18. A Study on How Industrial Pharmacists Rank Competences for Pharmacy Practice: A Case for Industrial Pharmacy Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson


    Full Text Available This paper looks at the way in which industrial pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European industrial pharmacists (n = 135 ranked 68 competences for practice, arranged into 13 clusters of two types (personal and patient care. Results show that, compared to community pharmacists (n = 258, industrial pharmacists rank competences centering on research, development and production of drugs higher, and those centering on patient care lower. Competences centering on values, communication skills, etc. were ranked similarly by the two groups of pharmacists. These results are discussed in the light of the existence or not of an “industrial pharmacy” specialization.

  19. Study of reverse Brayton cryocooler with Helium-Neon mixture for HTS cable (United States)

    Dhillon, A. K.; Ghosh, P.


    As observed in the earlier studies, helium is more efficient than neon as a refrigerant in a reverse Brayton cryocooler (RBC) from the thermodynamic point of view. However, the lower molecular weight of helium leads to higher refrigerant inventory as compared to neon. Thus, helium is suitable to realize the high thermodynamic efficiency of RBC whereas neon is appropriate for the compactness of the RBC. A binary mixture of helium and neon can be used to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency in the compact reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) based cryocooler. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the thermodynamic performance of the RBC with a binary mixture of helium and neon as the working fluid to provide 1 kW cooling load for high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cables working with a temperature range of 50 K to 70 K. The basic RBC is simulated using Aspen HYSYS V8.6®, a commercial process simulator. Sizing of each component based on the optimized process parameters for each refrigerant is performed based on a computer code developed using Engineering Equation Solver (EES-V9.1). The recommendation is provided for the optimum mixture composition of the refrigerant based on the trade-off factors like thermodynamic efficiency such as the exergy efficiency and equipment considerations. The outcome of this study may be useful for recommending a suitable refrigerant for the RBC operating at a temperature level of 50 K to 70 K.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Behling de Calmón


    Full Text Available El presente artículo incluye el estudio de la influencia de la carga orgánica (CO sobre la eficiencia de reactores biológicos rotativos de contacto (RBC, aerobios de tres etapas, al tratar un efluente industrial sintético, con la finalidad de establecer la adecuación del efluente final con respecto a los límites de descarga establecidos en la normativa de Venezuela. Durante la experimentación, se evaluaron pH, alcalinidad total, oxígeno disuelto, demanda biológica de oxígeno (DBO, demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, sólidos suspendidos totales (SST, nitrógeno total Kjeldahl (NTK, NH 4 + , NO 2 - y NO 3 - , de acuerdo con los métodos estándares. La variación de la CO aplicada se obtuvo mediante modificación del tiempo de retención hidráulico (TRH, (24, 12 y 6 h, y se mantuvo constante la DQO de entrada (influente sintético de sacarosa+ urea. La mayor eficiencia de remoción de DQO se obtuvo para un CO global de 11,68 gDQO/m 2 .d (96,25%; TRH=12 h. Para los TRH 24 y 12 h, la eficiencia de remoción global de N-total fue de 66,92 y 62,95%, respectivamente. La mayor remoción de C y de N se obtuvo en la primera etapa de los reactores y se logró cumplir con el límite venezolano permisible de descarga para DQO (<350 mg/L. La posible ocurrencia del proceso de nitrificación repercutió sobre el aumento de las concentraciones de nitrógeno inorgánico en el efluente final.

  1. Special Education and ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas


    Full Text Available Recent development in special education includes the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs to assist students during their lifetime. ICT is now also recognized as a tool which ensures access to knowledge and learning resources. In this paper we present an overview of the most representative studies of the last decade (2001-2010 which deal with the two important issues in the field of special education, diagnosis and intervention. One important advantage of these tools is that they can be employed by teachers and parents as well, to adapt education to the needs and abilities of pupils. The studies chosen will be classified according to the areas of needs they serve.

  2. State of the art in educational journals on studies of families of children with special educational needs in the period from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Mendes Ferroni


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is mapping studies indexed between the years of 2002 and 2011 in the educational field and evaluated like A1 or A2 by the database Qualis Capes, in the three years 2010-2012, in order to research ways that studies with families of children with special educational needs have been made. For this, we analyze elements such as: annual evolution of the studies, subjects analyzed, adopted and thematic instruments used to collect data from database searches “Scielo” and “Capes Journal” and a multitude of descriptors combined. The criterion for considering the family was that the research should contain the following keywords: family, family relationships, parental relationships, parents and siblings crisscrossing: special education, people with special educational needs, inclusive education, inclusion, autism, autistic, gifted, high ability, cerebral palsy, low vision, blindness, deafness, pervasive developmental disorder, Down Syndrome, disability, intellectual disability, physical disability, visual impairment, hearing impairment and multiple disabilities. Thus, the papers were obtained by intercrossing these descriptors, but it was selected those containing one of these words. With this, we found a total of 36 papers in national journals indexed in the area of Education. The data showed that there was a growing body of empirical research in this area.

  3. Vitamin D status of gastrostomy-fed children with special needs: a cross-sectional pilot study. (United States)

    Kuter, Hayley; Das, Geeta; Mughal, M Zulf


    To assess the vitamin D status of gastrostomy-fed children. Vitamin D status was measured in 32 children aged five to 16 years recruited from special schools in Manchester, UK (53° 48 ' N). All children were receiving a nutritionally complete, commercially prepared enteral feed via gastrostomy, and had been established on this regimen for over 12 months. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured at the end of winter. Children with serum concentrations of 25OHD >50 nmol/L were considered to be sufficient, and those with concentrations 50 nmol/L). One subject was vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD vitamin D insufficient (serum 25OHD >25 nmol/L - vitamin D derived from enteral feeds was 9.45 μg/day; range 3.5-30; 13 children (41%) received less than 10 μg of vitamin D per day from their enteral feed. Nutritionally complete gastrostomy feeds may be protective against vitamin D deficiency in the majority of children with special needs. We recommend that all children over 1 year of age receive 10 μg (400 IU) of vitamin D, as recommended by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Academic attainment and special educational needs in extremely preterm children at 11 years of age: the EPICure study. (United States)

    Johnson, S; Hennessy, E; Smith, R; Trikic, R; Wolke, D; Marlow, N


    To assess academic attainment and special educational needs (SEN) in extremely preterm children in middle childhood. Of 307 extremely preterm (special school. In mainstream schools, 105 (57%) extremely preterm children had SEN (OR 10; 6 to 18) and 103 (55%) required SEN resource provision (OR 10; 6 to 18). Teachers rated 50% of extremely preterm children as having below average attainment compared with 5% of classmates (OR 18; 8 to 41). Extremely preterm children who entered compulsory education an academic year early due to preterm birth had similar academic attainment but required more SEN support (OR 2; 1.0 to 3.6). Extremely preterm survivors remain at high risk for learning impairments and poor academic attainment in middle childhood. A significant proportion require full-time specialist education and over half of those attending mainstream schools require additional health or educational resources to access the national curriculum. The prevalence and impact of SEN are likely to increase as these children approach the transition to secondary school.

  5. Specialization, outsourcing and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose


    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. We argue that if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains arising from an increase in the division...... of labor, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsourcing affect wages as predicted....

  6. [Studies on the factors responsible for low erythrocyte alpha-tocopherol concentrations in patients on maintenance hemodialysis]. (United States)

    Mori, K


    The present study was undertaken to clarify the low erythrocyte (RBC) alpha-tocopherol (TOC) concentrations in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) using in vivo and in vitro experiments. 15 age-matched male controls and HD patients were evaluated. The experimental designs and the results were as follows: 1) Changes in fasting stage; TOC levels of plasma, high density lipoproteins (HDL) and RBC, especially RBC, were lower in HD-patients than in controls. The ratio of RBC to plasma and HDL showed more significant changes between HD-patients and controls. In controls, RBC-TOC was noted to have a positive correlation with HDL-TOC and a negative correlation with non HDL-(plasma--HDL)-TOC, whereas a reverse correlation was observed in HD-patients. 2) In vivo experiments: Each 7 of HD-patients and controls were orally given TOC 600 mg after meal at early morning; the blood was sampled at 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hr. Poor increase of RBC-TOC in HD-patients was observed. In contrast, HDL-TOC was significantly higher at all measurement times than in controls. The change of plasma-TOC was similar to that of non HDL-TOC. 3) In vitro experiment:RBC from patients or controls showing various concentrations of RBC-TOC and plasma from controls were incubated at 37 degrees C or 4 degrees C. The inactivated plasma from controls was prepared by incubation at 56 degrees C, 30 min or by supplement of 2 mM parachloromerucuric benzonic sulfonate. The ratio of RBC and plasma was at 2:3 close to physiological conditions. No difference between patient and control RBCs as an acceptor of TOC and no appreciable transfer of TOC between RBC to plasma at 4 degrees C were observed. When RBC-TOC was low, transfer volume of TOC from plasma to RBC was increased and TOC was supplied from mainly non HDL fractions; in contrast, when it was high, the main source of TOC was due to the transfer from HDL fractions which was reduced when lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) reaction was inhibited

  7. Are the special educational needs of children in their first year in primary school in Ireland being identified: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Curtin, Margaret; Baker, Denise; Staines, Anthony; Perry, Ivan J


    If the window of opportunity presented by the early years is missed, it becomes increasingly difficult to create a successful life-course. A biopsychosocial model of special educational need with an emphasis on participation and functioning moves the frame of reference from the clinic to the school and the focus from specific conditions to creating supportive environments cognisant of the needs of all children. However, evidence suggests that an emphasis on diagnosed conditions persists and that the needs of children who do not meet these criteria are not identified.The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a well-validated, teacher-completed population-level measure of five domains of child development. It is uniquely placed, at the interface between health and education, to explore the developmental status of children with additional challenges within a typically developing population. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which the special educational needs of children in their first year of formal education have been identified. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ireland in 2011. EDI (teacher completed) scores were calculated for 1344 children. Data were also collected on special needs and on children identified by the teacher as needing assessment. Mean developmental scores were compared using one-way ANOVA. Eighty-three children in the sample population (6.2%) had identified special educational needs. A further 132 children were judged by the teacher as needing assessment. Children with special needs had lower mean scores than typically developing children, in all five developmental domains. Children considered by the teacher as needing assessment also had lower scores, which were not significantly different from those of children with special needs. Speech, emotional or behavioural difficulties were the most commonly reported problems among children needing further assessment. There was also a social gradient among this group. A small

  8. Study on the Delimitation of the Urban Development Boundary in a Special Economic Zone: A Case Study of the Central Urban Area of Doumen in Zhuhai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zheng


    Full Text Available Since it implemented open-door policies, China has become the fastest growing economy in the world, and its urbanization level has steadily improved. Taking a special economic zone as the object of study, this paper delineates the urban development boundary of the Central Urban Area of Doumen. Using multiple models and methods, the urban development rigid and elastic boundaries are delineated separately, with the rigid boundary serving as the premise and foundation for delineating the elastic boundary. The results are as follows. First, the scale of the urban development rigid boundary is 79.60 km². Moreover, the scales of the urban development elastic boundaries in 2020 and 2026 are 24.51 km² and 28.53 km², respectively. Second, by delimiting the urban development elastic boundary, the compactness of urban land will be improved. Third, the urban development boundary of this paper is reasonable in theory. This paper suggests that the urban development boundary can curb urban sprawl and guide rational urban development, which is conducive to optimizing an urban spatial layout.

  9. The overall situation of female street children (11-18 years) engaged in commercial sex work in Dire Dawa - Ethiopia : survey in case study with special reference to child prostitution


    Mekuria, Melkem Lengereh



  10. Editorial: Special issue on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masal Ercan


    Full Text Available This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. In sum the results of studies will contribute to the field.

  11. Principals' and Special Education Teachers' Perceptions of Special Education Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities (United States)

    Mott, Japhia


    This explanatory mixed methods study focuses on the perceptions of principals and special education teachers about special education teachers' roles and responsibilities. An online survey was conducted with 11 principals and 41 special education teachers (Resource Specialists and Special Day Class teachers). Independent semi-structured interviews…

  12. Is memory for music special? (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D


    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Mukhlis


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kelekatan tempat (attachment place pada anak usia dini. Berbeda dengan penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya, penelitian ini memfokuskan kajiannya pada tempat-tempat yang dianggap spesial (special place oleh anak di lingkungan rumah mereka. Metodologi fenomenologi dipilih untuk mengeksplorasi tujuan penelitian dalam dua tahap. Tahap pertama dilkaukan di sekolah dengan mendiskusikan buku dengan 13 peserta didik. Tiga anak yang paling aktif dan mampu berkomunikasi dengan baik diminta untuk menjadi partisipan pada tahap kedua yaitu kunjungan rumah. Dua tahapan penggalian data menemukan bahwa anak-anak memiliki banyak tempat yang dianggap spesial. Keberadaan tempat-tempat tersebut biasa digunakan untuk bersembunyi, meredakan emosi, bermain dan mengembangkan rasa otonomi diri.

  14. HERCULES Specialized Course on Synchrotron radiation and neutrons for extreme conditions studies - HSC12 - slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, I.; Itie, J.P.; Meersman, F.; Jacobs, J.; Hantsetters, K. de; Syassen, K.; Krisch, M.; Mezouar, M.; Mac Millan, P.F.; Salmon, P.; Klotz, S.; Pascarelli, S.; Hansen, T.C.


    The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course (HSC12) is to give the participants an introduction to high pressure research at large experimental facilities such as the synchrotron and the neutron reactor. The basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutrons techniques at extreme conditions of pressure have been illustrated. Cross-disciplinary examples in a representative range of scientific areas, covering fundamental physics, earth and planetary science, chemistry and material science have been dealt with. Most presentations are dedicated to X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption and neutron scattering of materials (solids, liquids or glasses) at high pressure. Several presentations deal with the experimental set-up and especially the preparation of the diamond anvil. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations. (A.C.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBU Marius


    Full Text Available Whereas formerly metallic materials were used extensively and for various purposes in the machines manufacturing industry, nowadays new materials are sought that can replace the "conventional" machines manufacturing materials with new ones. This is especially challenging in areas where parts need to be able to withstand very tough conditions, such as high temperatures or large forces applied to them. The current paper intends to analyze some of the most widely used materials for high-strength applications. A special focus in this regard is on the one hand in fiber-reinforced composite materials with the polymer matrix and on the other hand on basalt. The most important properties, processing technologies and applications of these materials are analyzed and discussed and conclusions are drawn regarding their compatibility with the intended purpose.

  16. Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome in the Emergency Department: How Can a Specialized Addiction Team Be Useful? A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Pélissier, Fanny; Claudet, Isabelle; Gandia-Mailly, Peggy; Benyamina, Amine; Franchitto, Nicolas


    Chronic cannabis users may experience cyclical episodes of nausea and vomiting and learned behavior of hot bathing. This clinical condition, known as cannabis hyperemesis syndrome, was first reported in 2004. Our aim was to promote early recognition of this syndrome in emergency departments (EDs) and to increase referral to addiction specialists. Cannabis abusers were admitted to the ED for vomiting or abdominal pain from June 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015 and diagnosed with cannabis hyperemesis syndrome by a specialized addiction team. Then, medical records were examined retrospectively. Seven young adults were included. Their mean age was 24.7 years (range 17-39 years) and the majority were men (male-to-female ratio 1.2). Biological and toxicological blood samples were taken in all patients. Tetrahydrocannabinol blood level was measured in 4 patients, with a mean blood concentration of 11.6 ng/mL. Radiographic examination including abdominal computed tomography and brain imaging were negative, as was upper endoscopy. Five patients compulsively took hot baths in an attempt to decrease the symptoms. Treatment was symptomatic. Five patients have started follow-up with the specialized addiction team. Cannabis hyperemesis syndrome is still under-diagnosed 10 years after it was first described. Physicians should be aware of this syndrome to avoid repeated hospitalizations or esophageal complications. Greater awareness should lead to prompt treatment and prevention of future recurrence through cannabis cessation. Addiction specialists, as well as medical toxicologists, are experts in the management of cannabis abusers and can help re-establish the role of medical care in this population in collaboration with emergency physicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsafi TIMOR


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to explore the similarities and differences in the attitudes of two groups of student-teachers from different cultures: a group of Israelis and a group of Slovaks.The two groups were divided into pairs who carried out an e-mail correspondence on the topic The Inclusion of Students with Special Needs in Mainstream Education. The content analysis of the posts addressed three categories: Theoretical and practical knowledge of special needs, Attitudes towards special needs and inclusion, Strategies for coping with differences in heterogeneous classes. The findings yielded a similarity in the positive attitudes towards inclusion between the two groups. However, the groups differed in their theoretical and practical knowledge because the Slovak group had limited teaching experience and no academic courses on inclusive education. The findings break the existing link between academic courses/teaching experience, and positive attitudes towards inclusion, and suggest a different way of thinking. They also highlight the need to explore conceptual differences between cultures.

  18. Editorial: Special issue on education


    Masal Ercan; Önder İsmail; Çalışkan Hüseyin; Beşoluk Şenol; Demirhan Eda


    This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. I...

  19. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation and infants' growth and health: a multisite surveillance study. (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Cutts, Diana B; Frank, Deborah A; Geppert, Joni; Skalicky, Anne; Levenson, Suzette; Casey, Patrick H; Berkowitz, Carol; Zaldivar, Nieves; Cook, John T; Meyers, Alan F; Herren, Tim


    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the largest food supplement program in the United States, serving almost 7 500 000 participants in 2002. Because the program is a grant program, rather than an entitlement program, Congress is not mandated to allocate funds to serve all eligible participants. Little is known about the effects of WIC on infant growth, health, and food security. To examine associations between WIC participation and indicators of underweight, overweight, length, caregiver-perceived health, and household food security among infants 95th percentile, varied from 7% to 9% and did not differ among the 3 groups but were higher than the 5% expected from national growth charts. Rates of food insecurity were consistent with national data for minority households with children. Families that did not receive WIC assistance because of access problems had higher rates of food insecurity (28%) than did WIC participants (23%), although differences were not significant after covariate control. Caregivers who did not perceive a need for WIC services had more economic and personal resources than did WIC participants and were less likely to be food-insecure, but there were no differences in infants' weight-for-age, perceived health, or overweight between families that did not perceive a need for WIC services and those that received WIC assistance. Infants participation. Health care providers should promote WIC utilization for eligible families and advocate that WIC receive support to reduce waiting lists and eliminate barriers that interfere with access.

  20. Study of the prompt gamma ray signal from fissions in special nuclear materials induced using an associated particle neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltick, D. S.; Kane, S. Z.


    More than 42 million cargo containers entered the United States in 2005. To search for a few kilograms of special nuclear material (SNM) within this vast stream of cargo, an inspection system based on neutron-induced fission followed by the coincident detection of multiple prompt fission gamma rays is investigated using MCNP-Polimi code. The system utilizes two deuterium-tritium (DT) associated particle neutron generators, each capable of 10 9 neutrons/s at 14.1 MeV, with sub-nanosecond timing resolution ZnO:Ga alpha detectors internal to the generator. Because prompt fission signals are approximately 100 times stronger than the delayed signals, the neutron flux is greatly reduced compared to 10 11-12 neutrons/s required for systems based on delayed signals such as the 'nuclear car wash' [4]. In addition the system utilizes 30 cm deep liquid krypton (LKr) noble gas detectors having 94% detection efficiency for 1 MeV gamma rays, high solid angle coverage (∼ 50% of the total solid angle), and sub-nanosecond timing resolution (∼ 600 ps). An algorithm for distinguishing U-235 from U-238 is presented. (authors)

  1. Bovine serum albumin bioconjugated graphene oxide: Red blood cell adhesion and hemolysis studied by QCM-D (United States)

    Cai, Bing; Hu, Kebang; Li, Chunming; Jin, Jing; Hu, Yuexin


    Graphene oxide (GO) had great potential in various applications especial biomedical materials. In this study, we improved the hemocompatibility especial hemolysis properties of GO nanosheets by grafting bovine serum albumin (BSA). The hemocompatibility of GO-g-BSA was improved. The hemolysis ratio of GO-g-BSA was lower than 0.2% and no visible hemoglobin release was observed. In a flowed condition, the interaction between GO and RBC was monitored real time by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and the hemolysis rates of eluted RBC solution was determined. The balance between the adsorption and degradation of RBC on the surface of GO was a linear process. The GO-g-BSA surface decreased the adhesion of RBC in a flowed condition, maintained the morphology of RBC and reduced the hemolysis rate in the most effective manner. The inert of BSA resisted GO interacting with the lipid bilayers of RBC and the negative charge on the surface of BSA repelled the approach of negative charged RBC. The excellent hemocompatibility of the BSA modified GO might confer its great potentials for various biomedical applications.

  2. Reading Intervention and Special Education Referrals (United States)

    Polcyn, Dawn M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Perfect, Michelle M.; Obrzut, John E.


    This study examined whether consistently implementing reading fluency interventions prior to referring students for a special education evaluation led to fewer overall special education referrals, as well as more accurate special education referrals. Results indicated that the implementation of a peer-mediated reading fluency intervention…

  3. A rational-emotive stress management intervention for reducing job burnout and dysfunctional distress among special education teachers: An effect study. (United States)

    Ugwoke, Samuel C; Eseadi, Chiedu; Onuigbo, Liziana N; Aye, Eucharia N; Akaneme, Immaculata N; Oboegbulem, Angie I; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa O; Nwobi, Anthonia U; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O; Ezegbe, Bernedeth N; Ede, Moses O; Orji, Chibueze T; Onuoha, Joseph C; Onu, Eucharia A; Okeke, Francisca; Agu, Patricia; Omeje, Joachim C; Omeke, Faith; Ugwu, Romanus; Arumede, Florence; Eneh, Annastasia


    Job-related burnout and distress are adverse stress responses which affect individuals in their occupational environment. This study aimed at investigating the effect of a rational-emotive stress management program on job burnout and dysfunctional distress among special education teachers in Nigeria. A pretest-posttest randomized control group design was used. The participants in the study were 54 special education teachers. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. Participants were allocated to either the treatment group (n = 28 [59.1%]) or the waitlist control group (n = 26 [48.1%]), respectively. A rational-emotive stress management manual was used to deliver the intervention. We statistically analyzed the data collected at three-time points with repeated-measures analysis of variance. At baseline, the job-related burnout symptoms and distress scores of participants were high. However, an intention-to-treat analysis showed that the rational-emotive stress management intervention program was efficacious in reducing the levels of job-related burnout symptoms and dysfunctional distress among participants assigned to the treatment group, compared to a waitlisted group at post-treatment and follow-up meetings. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of a rational-emotive stress management intervention in reducing the level of job-related burnout and distress in a sample of special education teachers in Nigeria. Occupational health counsellors and other clinicians with sufficient knowledge of rational-emotive behavior therapy framework are urged to employ this approach in assisting other employees in managing job burnout symptoms, and distress.

  4. Preliminary ecological study of plant species of Lokame Natural Forest (Nord Ubangi Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo): A special emphasis on Non-timber Forest Products


    Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua,


    A preliminary ecological study with a special emphasis on Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was conducted between 2014 and 2015 on both anks of Lokame River in Lokame forest. The results showed that the Lokame natural forest has a very rich and diversified in NTFPs. Data collected over a total area of 2 ha identified 20 families and 25 different plant species producing NTFPs and 914 individuals, of which 39% are food, 38% for different uses, 14% for aphrodisiacs and 9% as medicinal. A compar...

  5. Special aspects of the indirect radiotracer technique when used to study the adsorption and electrochemical reactions of organic substances at solid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.N.; Horanyi, G.; Kazarinov, V.E.


    This paper analyzes the possibilities and special aspects of the indirect radiotracer technique with a number of examples. Data are presented concerning the effects of acetic and oxalic acid on chloride ion adsorption on platinized platinum electrodes at a potential E = 0.2 V. The effect on chloride ion adsorption is much larger in the case of oxalic acid, which is evidence for its higher adsorbability on platinum at E = 0.2 V. It is shown that the indirect radiotracer technique offers significant possibilities for studying the electrochemical properties of adsorption products of organic substances

  6. National Medical Care System May Impede Fostering of True Specialization of Radiation Oncologists: Study Based on Structure Survey in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)


    Purpose: To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. Methods and Materials: In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). Results: The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences in the average practice index for patients by ROs working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: ROs working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists.

  7. Reliability study of a special decay heat removal system of a gas-cooled fast reactor demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgazzi, Luciano, E-mail:


    The European roadmap toward the development of generation IV concepts addresses the safety and reliability assessment of the special system designed for decay heat removal of a gas-cooled fast reactor demonstrator (GFRD). The envisaged system includes the combination of both active and passive means to accomplish the fundamental safety function. Failure probabilities are calculated on various system configurations, according to either pressurized or depressurized accident events under investigation, and integrated with probabilities of occurrence of corresponding hardware components and natural circulation performance assessment. The analysis suggests the improvement of measures against common cause failures (CCF), in terms of an appropriate diversification among the redundant systems, to reduce the system failure risk. Particular emphasis is placed upon passive system reliability assessment, being recognized to be still an open issue, and the approach based on the functional reliability is adopted to address the point. Results highlight natural circulation as a challenging factor for the decay heat removal safety function accomplishment by means of passive devices. With the models presented here, the simplifying assumptions and the limited scenarios considered according to the level of definition of the design, where many systems are not yet established, one can conclude that attention has to be paid to the functional aspects of the passive system, i.e. the ones not pertaining to the “hardware” of the system. In this article the results of the analysis are discussed, where the effects of the analytical assumptions, design options, accident managements on the reliability are examined. The design diversity of the components undergoing CCFs can be effective for the improvement and some accident management measures are also possible by making use of the long grace period in GFRD.

  8. National medical care system may impede fostering of true specialization of radiation oncologists: study based on structure survey in Japan. (United States)

    Numasaki, Hodaka; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishio, Masamichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Koizumi, Masahiko; Tago, Masao; Ando, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Terahara, Atsuro; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Mitsumori, Michihide; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Hareyama, Masato; Teshima, Teruki


    To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An observational study of complications in chickenpox with special reference to unusual complications in an apex infectious disease hospital, Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Kole


    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox can cause serious complications and even death in persons without any risk factors. Aims: To observe the different complications with special reference to unusual complications of chickenpox and their outcomes. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective observational study where 300 patients suffering from chickenpox were evaluated with special reference to unusual complications and outcomes. Results: The usual complications of chickenpox commonly observed were acute hepatitis in 30 (10% and cerebellar ataxia in 22 patients (7.3%, whereas common unusual complications were acute pancreatitis in 45 (15%, hemorrhagic rash in 10 (3.3%, Guillain-Barrι syndrome in 4 (1.3%, disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 (1.3%, necrotizing fasciitis in 4 (1.3%, and acute renal failure in 3 patients (1%. It had been observed that most of these unusual complications occurred in patients without any risk factor. A total of 18 patients (6% died in this study and of them 12 patients (4% died due to unusual complications. Conclusions: Compulsory childhood varicella vaccination including vaccination of risk groups and susceptible individuals are all essential to reduce the incidence of chickenpox, associated complications, and subsequent death.

  10. Special Education in Nigeria. (United States)

    Abang, Theresa B.


    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 7, 2018 ... characterized by historically developed specialization, a special geographical location ... We are listed under Research Associations category. ... product, service or technology providing economic and/or public benefit, additional in ...... the region's competitiveness // International Business Management.

  12. Special polynomials associated with some hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.


    Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of a hierarchy of equations of Painleve type are introduced. The hierarchy arises by similarity reduction from the Fordy-Gibbons hierarchy of partial differential equations. Some relations for these special polynomials are given. Differential-difference hierarchies for finding special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to obtain special polynomials associated with the hierarchy studied. It is shown that rational solutions of members of the Schwarz-Sawada-Kotera, the Schwarz-Kaup-Kupershmidt, the Fordy-Gibbons, the Sawada-Kotera and the Kaup-Kupershmidt hierarchies can be expressed through special polynomials of the hierarchy studied

  13. Study on 99Tcm-DTPA-HSA as a new blood pool scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yunzhong; Zhang Zheng; Wu Qingwen


    The biological behavior of 99 Tc m -DTPA-HSA, 99 Tc m -RBC(in vivo) and 99 Tc m -HSA are studied in rabbits. Excellent cardiac blood-pool images are obtained by 99 Tc m -DTPT-HSA and 99 Tc m -RBC. Biodistribution studies show that 99 Tc m -DTPA-HSA has less accumulation than 99 Tc m -RBC in lungs and liver. They have similar count ratio of the cardiac blood pool to whole body. Ratio of heart/liver is 0.85 for 99 Tc m -DTPA-HSA, 0.95 for 99 Tc m -RBC and 0.62 for 99 Tc m -HSA. 99 Tc m -DTPA-HSA is a promising agent. It is readily performed only by single in vivo injection

  14. Atendimento educacional especializado para alunos com surdocegueira: um estudo de caso no espaço da escola regular Specialized educational support for deafblind students: a case study in a regular school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma de Cássia Silva Sandes Galvão


    Full Text Available This article examines and discusses the different forms of Specialized Educational Support offered to students with deafblindness, in Basic Education, in regular schools of the city of Salvador, Bahia, pointing out significant aspects, highlighted the barriers and opportunities to meet the special needs of these students . This work is part of a doctorate research in education and has a qualitative approach, the case study, taking as sample, four deafblind students, three of them are in elementary school, and one in a high school. The instrument for colect the information was an interview with the professionals and the data were organized using three categories: the dynamics of the Specialized Educational Support, the action of the professional development in the Specialized Educational Support and the connection between the Specialized Educational Support and the special needs of students with deafblindness. The results indicated: the absence of a planned action, leading an improvisations and fragmentation of the Specialized Educational Support; isolation of professionals. This situation originates in pedagogical actions disjointed between the regular classroom teachers and specialists; ignore the special educational needs of students with deafblindness with consequent invisibility of these students in school.

  15. A reassessment of the in vitro RBC haemolysis assay with defibrinated sheep blood for the determination of the ocular irritation potential of cosmetic products: comparison with the in vivo Draize rabbit test. (United States)

    Alves, Eloísa Nunes; Presgrave, Rosaura de Farias; Presgrave, Octávio Augusto França; Sabagh, Fernanda Peres; de Freitas, João Carlos Borges Rolim; Corrado, Alexandre P


    We examined the correlation between results obtained from the in vivo Draize test for ocular irritation and in vitro results obtained from the sheep red blood cell (RBC) haemolytic assay, which assesses haemolysis and protein denaturation in erythrocytes, induced by cosmetic products. We sought to validate the haemolytic assay as a preliminary test for identifying highly-irritative products, and also to evaluate the in vitro test as alternative assay for replacement of the in vivo test. In vitro and in vivo analyses were carried out on 19 cosmetic products, in order to correlate the lesions in the ocular structures with three in vitro parameters: (i) the extent of haemolysis (H50); (ii) the protein denaturation index (DI); and (iii) the H50/DI ratio, which reflects the irritation potential (IP). There was significant correlation between maximum average scores (MAS) and the parameters determined in vitro (r = 0.752-0.764). These results indicate that the RBC assay is a useful and rapid test for use as a screening method to assess the IP of cosmetic products, and for predicting the IP value with a high level of concordance (94.7%). The assay showed high sensitivity and specificity rates of 91.6% and 100%, respectively.

  16. Developments in special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen


    We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  17. Effectiveness of a transdiagnostic internet-based protocol for the treatment of emotional disorders versus treatment as usual in specialized care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    González-Robles, Alberto; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa; Riera, Antonio; Llorca, Ginés; Traver, Francisco; Haro, Gonzalo; Palop, Vicente; Lera, Guillem; Romeu, José Enrique; Botella, Cristina


    Emotional disorders (depression and anxiety disorders) are highly prevalent mental health problems. Although evidence showing the effectiveness of disorder-specific treatments exists, high comorbidity rates among emotional disorders limit the utility of these protocols. This has led some researchers to focus their interest on transdiagnostic interventions, a treatment perspective that might be more widely effective across these disorders. Also, the current way of delivering treatments makes it difficult provide assistance to all of the population in need. The use of the Internet in the delivery of evidence-based treatments may help to disseminate treatments among the population. In this study, we aim to test the effectiveness of EmotionRegulation, a new transdiagnostic Internet-based protocol for unipolar mood disorders, five anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified), and obsessive-compulsive disorder in comparison to treatment as usual as provided in Spanish public specialized mental health care. We will also study its potential impact on basic temperament dimensions (neuroticism/behavioral inhibition and extraversion/behavioral activation). Expectations and opinions of patients about this protocol will also be studied. The study is a randomized controlled trial. 200 participants recruited in specialized care will be allocated to one of two treatment conditions: a) EmotionRegulation or b) treatment as usual. Primary outcome measures will be the BAI and the BDI-II. Secondary outcomes will include a specific measure of the principal disorder, and measures of neuroticism/behavioral inhibition and extraversion/behavioral activation. Patients will be assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Intention to treat and per protocol analyses will be performed. Although the effectiveness of face-to-face transdiagnostic protocols has been

  18. Merging Regular and Special Education Teacher Preparation Programs: The Integrated Special Education-English Project (ISEP). (United States)

    Miller, Darcy E.


    Describes the Integrated Special Education-English Project (ISEP) which facilitated the gradual integration of special education and English teacher preparation programs. A description of the ISEP model and a case study are included. The case study indicated student teachers who participated in the ISEP improved special education and English…

  19. Prospective Special Education Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions on the Concept of Special Education Teacher (United States)

    Deniz, Levent


    The aim of this research is to define the perceptions of prospective special education teachers regarding special education teacher through metaphors. Phenomenology design was used in this research. The study group comprised 116 third year prospective special education teachers studying at Marmara University, Ataturk Faculty of Education, Special…

  20. Taxonomical, anatomical and chemotaxonomical studies of mosses from Jebel Marra (Darfur State, Sudan), with special reference to their localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.M.


    This research represents taxonomical, anatomical, and chemotaxonomical studies of mosses of Jebel Marra, Darfour State, Sudan. This study and for the first time includes the bryoflora checklist of the Sudan which is gathered from many previous studies, in addition to the present study. The fully identified mosses for the study area are 12 species belonging to 8 different families and 10 different genera. Three genera from the family Bottiaceae, 2 from the family Bartramiaceae,2 from Funariaceae, and one genus recorded for each of the families: Ditrichaceae, Bryaceae,Thuidiaceae and Polytrichaceae. Key to the studied genera is constructed and full species description and illustrations of the most taxonomically important characters are included. In this study the genus Ceratodon Brid. Is recorded for the first time in Sudan, and to the specific level, 5 species are encountered for the time: Barbula Ehenbergii, Philonotis tenuis, Philonotis longiseta, Ceratodon Purpureus, and Thuidium furfurosum. For each species determination of the levels of the heavy metal: sodium, potassium, zinc, cobalt, copper, manganese and iron are studied, in addition to nitrogen and chlorophyll content. ( Author)

  1. How Physics Teachers Approach Innovation: An Empirical Study for Reconstructing the Appropriation Path in the Case of Special Relativity (United States)

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia


    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…

  2. Quality-assurance study of the special - purpose finite-element program - SPECTROM: I. Thermal, thermoelastic, and viscoelastic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.A.


    This comparison study involves a preliminary verification of finite element calculations. The methodology of the comparison study consists of solving four example problems with both the SPECTROM finite element program and the MARC-CDC general purpose finite element program. The results show close agreement for all example problems

  3. The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study


    Scaglia, N?ris; Chatkin, Jos?; Chapman, Kenneth R.; Ferreira, Ivone; Wagner, Mario; Selby, Peter; Allard, Johane; Zamel, Noe


    Background Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of ni...

  4. Use of stable isotopes method in hydrological investigations with special reference to studies in Lower Maner Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.; Athavale, R.N.; Sahay, K.S.N.


    The study of variations of stable isotope ratios in water is becoming increasingly important in hydrological investigations and is being widely used for: (i) characterizing water masses and indicating their origin, (ii) finding interconnection of water bodies, (iii) estimating leakages for reservoirs, (iv) water balances studies of lakes, (v) glaciological studies, etc. This paper briefly describes the principle of the method and details of isotope ratio measurement techniques used at the National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad. Integrated geohydrological investigations comprising photogeological, hydrogeochemical, geophysical, nuclear and modelling studies have been carried out in the Lower Maner Basin, A.P., under an Indo-German collaboration project. As a part of this programme,, precipitation, surface and sub-surface water samples from the basin were analysed for their D:H and O 18 :O 16 ratios. The results of these measurements are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Modernism and Postmodernism: A Study of the Islamic Teachings with Special Reference to the Related Issues of Pakistani Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdul Muhaimin


    Full Text Available Abstract This study elaborates the difference and connection between modernism and postmodernism eras while highlighting their backgrounds. The research highlights the teachings of Islam in terms of modernism and postmodernism. The research brings to light the influence of modernism and postmodernism on Muslim societies. What are the far reaching impacts of the modernism and postmodernism eras of Muslim societies and how well a common Muslim is equipped to address the issues related to postmodernism. The study primarily focuses on the related issues in Pakistani society and explains the role and the influence of religious scholars of their understanding of the terms modernism and postmodernism. The study focuses on the awareness of the ’Ulamā in addressing these global challenges and subsequently the future of Pakistani society. The study has an element of quantitative research and it indicates towards the on ground realities on the issue with the help of a latest survey on modernism and postmodernism.

  6. Some reproductive health indicators in Ukraine : A study with special emphasis on factors behind induced aboartion and perinatal mortality


    Mogilevkina, Iryna


    Objectives: To study indicators specifically reflecting the reproductive health of Ukrainian women and to analyse factors behind the indicators. Methods: Induced abortion and maternal mortality were studied in some countries/regions of the former Soviet Union, using official statistics. Abortion rates, contraceptive practices and intentions in Ukrainian women were analysed by a large self-completion survey in 1996, and by a classroom questionnaire to first year medical students in 1999 in Do...

  7. Exercise effects on bone mineral density in older men: a systematic review with special emphasis on study interventions. (United States)

    Kemmler, W; Shojaa, M; Kohl, M; von Stengel, S


    This systematic review detected only limited positive effects of exercise on bone mineral density in older men. Further, based on the present literature, we were unable to suggest dedicated exercise prescriptions for this male cohort that might differ from recommendations based on studies with postmenopausal women. The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine the effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy older men. A systematic review of the literature according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement included only randomized or non-randomized controlled trials of exercise training ≥ 6 months with study groups of ≥ eight healthy men aged 50 years or older, not using bone-relevant pharmacological therapy, that determined BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, Science Direct, and Eric up to November 2016. Risk of bias was assessed using the PEDro scale. We identified eight trials with 789 participants (PEDro-score, mean value 6 of 10) which satisfied our eligibility criteria. Studies vary considerably with respect to type and composition of exercise. Study interventions of six trials were considered to be appropriate for successfully addressing BMD in this cohort. Between-group differences were not or not consistently reported by three studies. Three studies reported significant exercise effects on BMD for proximal femur; one of them determined significant differences between the exercise groups. None of the exercise trials determined significant BMD effects at the lumbar spine. Based on the present studies, there is only limited evidence for a favorable effect of exercise on BMD in men. More well-designed and sophisticated studies on BMD in healthy older men have to address this topic. Further, there is a need to define intervention quality standards and implement a universal scoring system that allows this pivotal determinant

  8. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the banana family (Musaceae) inferred from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA fragments, with a special reference to the genus Musa. (United States)

    Li, Lin-Feng; Häkkinen, Markku; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun


    Musaceae is a small paleotropical family. Three genera have been recognised within this family although the generic delimitations remain controversial. Most species of the family (around 65 species) have been placed under the genus Musa and its infrageneric classification has long been disputed. In this study, we obtained nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast (atpB-rbcL, rps16, and trnL-F) DNA sequences of 36 species (42 accessions of ingroups representing three genera) together with 10 accessions of ingroups retrieved from GenBank database and 4 accessions of outgroups, to construct the phylogeny of the family, with a special reference to the infrageneric classification of the genus Musa. Our phylogenetic analyses elaborated previous results in supporting the monophyly of the family and suggested that Musella and Ensete may be congeneric or at least closely related, but refuted the previous infrageneric classification of Musa. None of the five sections of Musa previously defined based on morphology was recovered as monophyletic group in the molecular phylogeny. Two infrageneric clades were identified, which corresponded well to the basic chromosome numbers of x=11 and 10/9/7, respectively: the former clade comprises species from the sections Musa and Rhodochlamys while the latter contains sections of Callimusa, Australimusa, and Ingentimusa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonlinear effects in evolution - an ab initio study: A model in which the classical theory of evolution occurs as a special case. (United States)

    Clerc, Daryl G


    An ab initio approach was used to study the molecular-level interactions that connect gene-mutation to changes in an organism׳s phenotype. The study provides new insights into the evolutionary process and presents a simplification whereby changes in phenotypic properties may be studied in terms of the binding affinities of the chemical interactions affected by mutation, rather than by correlation to the genes. The study also reports the role that nonlinear effects play in the progression of organs, and how those effects relate to the classical theory of evolution. Results indicate that the classical theory of evolution occurs as a special case within the ab initio model - a case having two attributes. The first attribute: proteins and promoter regions are not shared among organs. The second attribute: continuous limiting behavior exists in the physical properties of organs as well as in the binding affinity of the associated chemical interactions, with respect to displacements in the chemical properties of proteins and promoter regions induced by mutation. Outside of the special case, second-order coupling contributions are significant and nonlinear effects play an important role, a result corroborated by analyses of published activity levels in binding and transactivation assays. Further, gradations in the state of perfection of an organ may be small or large depending on the type of mutation, and not necessarily closely-separated as maintained by the classical theory. Results also indicate that organs progress with varying degrees of interdependence, the likelihood of successful mutation decreases with increasing complexity of the affected chemical system, and differences between the ab initio model and the classical theory increase with increasing complexity of the organism. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for post-ICU red blood cell transfusion: a prospective study (United States)

    Marque, Sophie; Cariou, Alain; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Mallet, Vincent Olivier; Pene, Frédéric; Mira, Jean-Paul; Dhainaut, Jean-François; Claessens, Yann-Erick


    Introduction Factors predictive of the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in the intensive care unit (ICU) have been identified, but risk factors for transfusion after ICU discharge are unknown. This study aims identifies risk factors for RBC transfusion after discharge from the ICU. Methods A prospective, monocentric observational study was conducted over a 6-month period in a 24-bed medical ICU in a French university hospital. Between June and December 2003, 550 critically ill patients were consecutively enrolled in the study. Results A total of 428 patients survived after treatment in the ICU; 47 (11% of the survivors, 8.5% of the whole population) required RBC transfusion within 7 days after ICU discharge. Admission for sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 341.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20.35–5734.51), presence of an underlying malignancy (OR 32.6, 95%CI 3.8–280.1), female sex (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.2–24.9), Logistic Organ Dysfunction score at ICU discharge (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.1–1.9) and age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.12) were independently associated with RBC transfusion after ICU stay. Haemoglobin level at discharge predicted the need for delayed RBC transfusion. Use of vasopressors (OR 0.01, 95%CI 0.001–0.17) and haemoglobin level at discharge from the ICU (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.007–0.09; P < 0.001) were strong independent predictors of transfusion of RBC 1 week after ICU discharge. Conclusion Sepsis, underlying conditions, unresolved organ failures and haemoglobin level at discharge were related to an increased risk for RBC transfusion after ICU stay. We suggest that strategies to prevent transfusion should focus on homogeneous subgroups of patients and take into account post-ICU needs for RBC transfusion. PMID:16965637

  11. Technical conservatisms in NWTS repository conceptual designs. National Waste Terminal Storage Repository No. 1: special study No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Prior studies have developed conceptual designs for National Waste Terminal Storage Repositories 1 and 2. Due to the considerable detail and volume of the documents describing these designs, it is often difficult to identify and comprehend the substantial conservatisms contained within them. This study identifies and explains the major technical conservatisms in these two conceptual designs in a concise and readily understandable format. The areas discussed include thermal loading of the geologic structure, rock mechanics and underground design, waste throughput capacity, hoisting systems, nuclear criticality safety, confinement of radioactive materials, occupational exposure and health physics, environmental effects, and cost estimates. Conservatisms are described in detail, quantified where possible, and compared to appropriate criteria

  12. Granite metallogenic specialization study based on RS information model-A case of hydrothermal uranium and tungsten deposits in Nanling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongye; Qin Qiming


    According to the granite hydrothermal metallogenic principle, metallogenic specialization information model for uranium producing and tungsten producing granites in Nanling region is built up and the group factor system of granite metallogenic specialization is initially proposed by using RS information model. On the basis of the above aspects, the geographical index and coefficients of information model of granite metallogenic specialization are respectively analyzed, metallogenic specialization discrimination criterion is built up. After the non-discriminatory massif is forecasted, the results are basically accordant with geological fact, at the same time they are used in the geological metallogenic research, which indicates that metallogenic specialization information model is objective and operative, realizes quantitative appraisal on metallogenic specialization and provides a scientific basis for further discriminating the ore-forming massif. (authors)


    This article is the preface or editors note to the dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association for a selection of scientific papers from the specialty conference entitled, "Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies," that was...

  14. Functional Genomic Approaches for the Study of Fetal/Placental Development in Swine with Special Emphasis on Imprinted Genes (United States)

    The overall focus of this chapter will be the application of functional genomic approaches for the study of the imprinted gene family in swine. While there are varied definitions of “functional genomics” in general they focus on the application of genomic approaches such as DNA microarrays, single n...

  15. Special report on the political and social contexts of health: Part I. Introduction: objectives and purposes of the study. (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente


    This article introduces a series of research projects (carried out by the International Network on Social Inequalities and Health) focused on the impact of politics on policy and the consequences for health and quality of life, an area that has been understudied in the social science literature. The introduction describes the conceptual model that guided the research, centered on the study of how political parties and social agents (such as trade unions) affect social inequalities and mortality indicators through labor market and welfare state policies. The major theme of this research is whether political and social interventions matter in health policy and health outcomes. The introduction also describes the different types of research projects carried out by the International Network at the national levels (among OECD countries) and at the regional and local levels (in the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Spain, and Sweden). This Journal issue presents the multinational study and the U.K. case study; the next issue will include the Italian, German, Spanish, and Swedish case studies and the summary and conclusions.

  16. Culture and Poverty: A Case Study of a Girl with Special Educational Needs from a Poor Community in South India (United States)

    Philip, Neetha


    Girls with disabilities from lower economic homes are disadvantaged (in terms of gender, disability and poverty) in India, and are often regarded as useless by their communities. There is a need to improve and provide a chance for self-sufficiency among women with disabilities in India. The purpose of this study was to examine the life-chances…

  17. Drinking water studies: a review on heavy metal, application of biomarker and health risk assessment (a special focus in Malaysia). (United States)

    Ab Razak, Nurul Hafiza; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Hashim, Zailina


    Malaysia has abundant sources of drinking water from river and groundwater. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Malaysia. Heavy metal studies in terms of drinking water, applications of health risk assessment and bio-monitoring in Malaysia were reviewed from 2003 to 2013. Studies on heavy metal in drinking water showed the levels are under the permissible limits as suggested by World Health Organization and Malaysian Ministry of Health. Future studies on the applications of health risk assessment are crucial in order to understand the risk of heavy metal exposure through drinking water to Malaysian population. Among the biomarkers that have been reviewed, toenail is the most useful tool to evaluate body burden of heavy metal. Toenails are easy to collect, store, transport and analysed. This review will give a clear guidance for future studies of Malaysian drinking water. In this way, it will help risk managers to minimize the exposure at optimum level as well as the government to formulate policies in safe guarding the population. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of Research Self-Efficacy with Medical Student Career Interests, Specialization, and Scholarship: A Case Study (United States)

    Bierer, S. Beth; Prayson, Richard A.; Dannefer, Elaine F.


    This study used variables proposed in social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to focus the evaluation of a research curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM). Eight cohorts of CCLCM medical students completed a web-based version of the six-scale Clinical Research Appraisal…

  19. Comparative leaf morpho-anatomical studies of two South American species of Cardiospermum (Sapindaceae) with special reference to adaxial domatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solís, S.M.; Ferrucci, M.S.


    Morphological and anatomical studies of leaves of two closely related Cardiospermum species from South America, C. procumbens and C. pterocarpum, were assayed. Both species have amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, non-glandular and glandular trichomes, secretory cells present in the epidermis

  20. Decision making under risk : a study of models and measurement procedures with special reference to the farmer's marketing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidts, A.


    The objectives of the study were: a) to review, discuss and test a number of theories on individual decision making under risk; much attention is specifically given to the definition and empirical testing of the concept of relative risk attitude, b) to investigate in a large scale survey