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Sample records for rbc phytanic acid

  1. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. To investigate functional genomic consequences of these differences, we compared their physiological levels of phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid that can be derived from the microbial degradation of chlorophyll in ruminant guts. Humans who accumulate large stores of phytanic acid commonly develop cerebellar ataxia, peripheral polyneuropathy, and retinitis pigmentosa in addition to other medical conditions. Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism. Results Despite their trace dietary phytanic acid intake, all great ape species had elevated red blood cell (RBC phytanic acid levels relative to humans on diverse diets. Unlike humans, chimpanzees showed sexual dimorphism in RBC phytanic acid levels, which were higher in males relative to females. Cultured skin fibroblasts from all species had a robust capacity to degrade phytanic acid. We provide indirect evidence that great apes, in contrast to humans, derive significant amounts of phytanic acid from the hindgut fermentation of plant materials. This would represent a novel reduction of metabolic activity in humans relative to the great apes. Conclusion We identified differences in the physiological levels of phytanic acid in humans and great apes and propose this is causally related to their gut anatomies and microbiomes. Phytanic acid levels could contribute to cross-species and sex-specific differences in human and great ape transcriptomes, especially those related to lipid metabolism. Based on the medical conditions caused by phytanic acid accumulation, we suggest that differences in phytanic acid metabolism could influence the functions of human and great ape nervous, cardiovascular, and skeletal systems.

  2. Phytanic acid impairs mitochondrial respiration through protonophoric action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.C.; Distelmaier, F.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Wanders, R.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Willems, P.H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Refsum disease is a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of the dietary branched-chain fatty acid phytanic acid in plasma and tissues caused by a defect in the alphaoxidation pathway. The accumulation of phytanic acid is believed to be the main pathophysiological

  3. Phytanic acid impairs mitochondrial respiration through protonophoric action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J. C.; Distelmaier, F.; Koopman, W. J. H.; Wanders, R. J. A.; Smeitink, J.; Willems, P. H. M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Refsum disease is a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of the dietary branched-chain fatty acid phytanic acid in plasma and tissues caused by a defect in the alphaoxidation pathway. The accumulation of phytanic acid is believed to be the main pathophysiological

  4. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise B.; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations......, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human...... or high content of chlorophyll. RESULTS: There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730) concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24%) compared to phytanic acid group (15...

  5. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drachmann Tue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. Objective To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low or high content of chlorophyll. Results There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730 concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24% compared to phytanic acid group (15%. There were no significant effects of phytanic acid on risk markers for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The results indicate that increased intake of dairy fat modify the plasma phytanic acid concentration, regardless of cows feeding regime and the minor difference in dietary phytanic acid. Whether the phytanic acid has potential to affects the risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human still remain to be elucidated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343576

  6. Activation of Retinoid X Receptors by Phytanic Acid and Docohexaenoic Acid: Role in the Prevention and Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Xiao-Han

    2005-01-01

    .... Meanwhile, both phytanic acid and DHA inhibited the growth of Pc-3 and LNCaP cells. Phytanic acid and retinoic acid synergistically inhibited the growth of both of these prostate cancer cell lines...

  7. Phytanic acid-an overlooked bioactive fatty acid in dairy fat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    dissipation in skeletal muscles. Phytanic acid levels in serum are associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer, but the available data do not support a general causal link between circulating phytanic acid and prostate cancer risk. However, certain individuals, with specific single......Phytanic acid is a multibranched fatty acid with reported retinoid X receptor (RXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) agonist activity, which have been suggested to have preventive effects on metabolic dysfunctions. Serum level in man is strongly correlated...

  8. Phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase activity is induced by phytanic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, A. W.; Jansen, G. A.; van der Burg, B.; Verhoeven, N. M.; Jakobs, C.; van der Saag, P. T.; Wanders, R. J.; Poll-The, B. T.

    2000-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched-chain fatty acid present in various dietary products such as milk, cheese and fish. In patients with Refsum disease, accumulation of phytanic acid occurs due to a deficiency of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, a peroxisomal enzyme

  9. Diverse captive non-human primates with phytanic acid-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial phytanic acid levels in their red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Ann B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans and rodents with impaired phytanic acid (PA metabolism can accumulate toxic stores of PA that have deleterious effects on multiple organ systems. Ruminants and certain fish obtain PA from the microbial degradation of dietary chlorophyll and/or through chlorophyll-derived precursors. In contrast, humans cannot derive PA from chlorophyll and instead normally obtain it only from meat, dairy, and fish products. Results Captive apes and Old world monkeys had significantly higher red blood cell (RBC PA levels relative to humans when all subjects were fed PA-deficient diets. Given the adverse health effects resulting from PA over accumulation, we investigated the molecular evolution of thirteen PA metabolism genes in apes, Old world monkeys, and New world monkeys. All non-human primate (NHP orthologs are predicted to encode full-length proteins with the marmoset Phyh gene containing a rare, but functional, GA splice donor dinucleotide. Acox2, Scp2, and Pecr sequences had amino acid positions with accelerated substitution rates while Amacr had significant variation in evolutionary rates in apes relative to other primates. Conclusions Unlike humans, diverse captive NHPs with PA-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial RBC PA levels. The favored hypothesis is that NHPs can derive significant amounts of PA from the degradation of ingested chlorophyll through gut fermentation. If correct, this raises the possibility that RBC PA levels could serve as a biomarker for evaluating the digestive health of captive NHPs. Furthermore, the evolutionary rates of the several genes relevant to PA metabolism provide candidate genetic adaptations to NHP diets.

  10. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    The still growing obesity epidemic is a major risk for our society, as it is associated with the development of the so called metabolic syndrome, which is a clinical diagnosis correlated to development of metabolic disorders. Lack of physical activity, excess energy intake, and nutritional factors...... addition of phytanic acid. Third, we investigated butter and phytanic acid effects on human T-cell polarization, both by in vitro incubation with phytanic acid, and by a 12 weeks intervention with intake of butter. Finally, we performed two human interventions, first one with intake of butter and cheese...... fatty acids are raised in dairy fat along with the amount of green plant material intake of the cattle. Phytanic acid is one of these minor fatty acids, due to agonist activities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. To determine the effects of both...

  11. The metabolism of phytanic acid and pristanic acid in man: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, N. M.; Wanders, R. J.; Poll-The, B. T.; Saudubray, J. M.; Jakobs, C.

    1998-01-01

    The branched-chain fatty acid phytanic acid is a constituent of the diet, present in diary products, meat and fish. Degradation of this fatty acid in the human body is preceded by activation to phytanoyl-CoA and starts with one cycle of alpha-oxidation. Intermediates in this pathway are

  12. Diagnosis of Refsum's disease using [1-14C]phytanic acid as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulos, A.

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of using [1- 14 C]phytanic acid as a substrate for the diagnosis of Refsum's disease has been examined. Normal fibroblasts cultured in medium containing low concentrations of foetal calf serum (0.5%) oxidised added [1- 14 C]phytanic acid to 14 CO 2 only slowly up to about 2 days; byond this period a marked stimulation in oxidation was observed. Easily measurable conversion of the radiolabelled acid (from 1.5 to 5.0%) was obtaned by numbers of cells at least one order of magnitude fewer than previously described. Fibroblasts from adult patients with Refsum's disease displayed about 5-10% of the normal mean activity. Small differences in residual activity were observed in the different cell lines. However, no obvious relationship was found between the degree of residual activity, the level of plasma phytanate, and the patient's clinical condition and history. (author)

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of Zellweger syndrome and related disorders: impaired degradation of phytanic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulos, A.; van Crugten, C.; Sharp, P.; Carey, W. F.; Robertson, E.; Becroft, D. M.; Saudubray, J. M.; Poll-The, B. T.; Christensen, E.; Brandt, N.

    1986-01-01

    Normal amniocytes and chorionic villous cells in culture are able to produce 14CO2 from exogenous [1-14C] phytanic acid. In contrast, cells from four fetuses at risk for the cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome and related disorders showed a greatly reduced activity, indicating a block in

  14. Phytanic acid alpha-oxidation: decarboxylation of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA to pristanic acid in human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, N. M.; Wanders, R. J.; Schor, D. S.; Jansen, G. A.; Jakobs, C.

    1997-01-01

    The degradation of the first intermediate in the alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid, 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA, was investigated. Human liver homogenates were incubated with 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA or 2-hydroxyphytanic acid, after which formation of 2-ketophytanic acid and pristanic acid were studied.

  15. Content and distribution of phytanic acid diastereomers in organic milk as affected by feed composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Che, Brita Ngum; Kristensen, Troels; Nebel, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid (PA) is a bioactive compound found in milk that is derived from the phytol chain of chlorophyll, and the content of PA in milk fat depends on the availability of phytol from feed. In this study, the content of PA diastereomers was analyzed in milk sampled from five organic herds twice...... during the grazing season (May and September). The total content of PA was higher in September compared to May, but was not affected by breed (Danish Holstein or Danish Jersey). Total PA could not be directly related to intake of green feed items. The distribution between diastereomers was closely...

  16. Identification of long and very long chain fatty acids, plasmalogen-C16:0 and phytanic acid as new lipid biomarkers in Tunisian coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Ahmed, Samia; Koubaa, Nadia; Kharroubi, Wafa; Zarrouk, Amira; Mnari, Amira; Batbout, Fethi; Gamra, Habib; Hammami, Sonia; Lizard, Gérard; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Long and very long chain fatty acids (LCFAs and VLCFAs) may play an active role in coronary artery diseases (CAD) etiology. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between LCPUFAs (C20:4n-6; C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3) and VLCSFAs (C22:0, C24:0; and C26:0), as well as markers of peroxisomal integrity evaluated by phytanic acid and plasmalogen-C16:0 (PL-C16:0) in addition to the markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] and conjugated dienes [CD]) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) with vascular severity evaluated by Gensini score in order to determine their possible effects on CAD in Tunisian population. Lipidomic strategy based on GC/MS-SIM was used to quantify LCPUFAs, VLCSFAs, and PL-C16:0 in red blood cells of CAD patients, non-CAD patients, and controls. We observed a significant increase in phytanic acid, PL-C16:0 and VLCFAs, particularly C26:0, in CAD group compared to controls. Further our findings showed positive correlations of C26:0 with MDA and with vascular severity score (Gensini score). In addition, a significant negative correlation was shown between hs-CRP and C22:6 n-3 (r=-0.297; p=0.002) and a significant positive association was observed between hs-CRP and C20:4 n-6 levels (r=0.196; p=0.039). Our results show changes in LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs concentrations in RBC among study groups, and suggest alterations in fatty acids metabolism regulated by elongase and desaturase enzymes. The positive correlations of C20:4n-6 and the negative correlations of C22:6n-3, simultaneously with Gensini score and hs-CRP, suggest a link of both inflammation and vascular severity complication of CAD with LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs. Induction of lipid oxidation, can be one of the outcomes of LCFAs and VLCFAs accumulation in vascular tissues and, thus, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Quantification of LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs, phytanic acid and PL-C16:0 simultaneously, would be of great value for the screening of

  17. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of very long chain fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, phytanic acid and plasmalogen for the screening of peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Horibe, Ryoko; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Kondo, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), phytanic acid, and plasmalogens are usually measured individually. A novel method for the screening of peroxisomal disorders, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was developed. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,

  18. Effects of Low Phytanic Acid-Concentrated DHA on Activated Microglial Cells: Comparison with a Standard Phytanic Acid-Concentrated DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, María Belén; Olivares-Álvaro, Elena; Quintela, José Carlos; Ballesteros, Sandra; Espinosa-Parrilla, Juan F; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz

    2018-05-30

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) is an essential omega-3 (ω-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of neuronal membranes involved in normal growth, development, and function. DHA has been proposed to reduce deleterious effects in neurodegenerative processes. Even though, some inconsistencies in findings from clinical and pre-clinical studies with DHA could be attributed to the presence of phytanic acid (PhA) in standard DHA treatments. Thus, the aim of our study was to analyze and compare the effects of a low PhA-concentrated DHA with a standard PhA-concentrated DHA under different neurotoxic conditions in BV-2 activated microglial cells. To this end, mouse microglial BV-2 cells were stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and co-incubated with DHA 50 ppm of PhA (DHA (PhA:50)) or DHA 500 ppm of PhA (DHA (PhA:500)). Cell viability, superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production, Interleukin 6 (L-6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glutathione peroxidase (GtPx), glutathione reductase (GtRd), Caspase-3, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein expression were explored. Low PhA-concentrated DHA protected against LPS or H 2 O 2 -induced cell viability reduction in BV-2 activated cells and O 2 - production reduction compared to DHA (PhA:500). Low PhA-concentrated DHA also decreased COX-2, IL-6, iNOS, GtPx, GtRd, and SOD-1 protein expression when compared to DHA (PhA:500). Furthermore, low PhA-concentrated DHA increased BDNF protein expression in comparison to DHA (PhA:500). The study provides data supporting the beneficial effect of low PhA-concentrated DHA in neurotoxic injury when compared to a standard PhA-concentrated DHA in activated microglia.

  19. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  20. Phytanic acid alpha-oxidation: accumulation of 2-hydroxyphytanic acid and absence of 2-oxophytanic acid in plasma from patients with peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brink, H. J.; Schor, D. S.; Kok, R. M.; Poll-The, B. T.; Wanders, R. J.; Jakobs, C.

    1992-01-01

    A stable isotope dilution method was developed for the measurement of 2-hydroxyphytanic acid and 2-oxophytanic acid in plasma. In plasma from healthy individuals and from patients with Refsum's disease, 2-hydroxyphytanic acid was found at levels less than 0.2 mumol/l, whereas the acid accumulated in

  1. Lanthanide Phytanates: Liquid-Crystalline Phase Behavior, Colloidal Particle Dispersions, and Potential as Medical Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu; Weerawardena, Asoka; Waddington, Lynne J.; Kennedy, Danielle F.; Drummond, Calum J. (CSIRO/MHT); (CSIRO/MSE)

    2010-08-23

    Lanthanide salts of phytanic acid, an isoprenoid-type amphiphile, have been synthesized and characterized. Elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy were used to confirm the formed product and showed that three phytanate anions are complexed with one lanthanide cation. The physicochemical properties of the lanthanide phytanates were investigated using DSC, XRD, SAXS, and cross-polarized optical microscopy. Several of the hydrated salts form a liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar mesophase at room temperature, and samarium(III) phytanate forms this phase even in the absence of water. Select lanthanide phytanates were dispersed in water, and cryo-TEM images indicate that some structure has been retained in the dispersed phase. NMR relaxivity measurements were conducted on these systems. It has been shown that a particulate dispersion of gadolinium(III) phytanate displays proton relaxivity values comparable to those of a commercial contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and a colloidal dispersion of europium(III) phytanate exhibits the characteristics of a fluorescence imaging agent.

  2. Lanthanide Phytanates: Liquid-Crystalline Phase Behavior, Colloidal Particle Dispersions, and Potential as Medical Imaging Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu; Weerawardena, Asoka; Waddington, Lynne J.; Kennedy, Danielle F.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2010-01-01

    Lanthanide salts of phytanic acid, an isoprenoid-type amphiphile, have been synthesized and characterized. Elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy were used to confirm the formed product and showed that three phytanate anions are complexed with one lanthanide cation. The physicochemical properties of the lanthanide phytanates were investigated using DSC, XRD, SAXS, and cross-polarized optical microscopy. Several of the hydrated salts form a liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar mesophase at room temperature, and samarium(III) phytanate forms this phase even in the absence of water. Select lanthanide phytanates were dispersed in water, and cryo-TEM images indicate that some structure has been retained in the dispersed phase. NMR relaxivity measurements were conducted on these systems. It has been shown that a particulate dispersion of gadolinium(III) phytanate displays proton relaxivity values comparable to those of a commercial contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and a colloidal dispersion of europium(III) phytanate exhibits the characteristics of a fluorescence imaging agent.

  3. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This study explored whether increased red blood cell (RBC) swelling and/or plasma or urine amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge might be informative about relative chronic hyperosmotic stress in free-living men. Five healthy men (20–25 years) with baseline total water intake below 2 L/day participated in an 8-week clinical study: four 2-week periods in a U-shaped A-B-C-A design. Intake of drinking water was increased by +0.8 ± 0.3 L/day in period 2, and +1.5 ± 0.3 L/day in period 3, and returned to baseline intake (0.4 ± 0.2 L/day) in period 4. Each week, fasting blood and urine were collected after a 750 mL bolus of drinking water, following overnight water restriction. The periods of higher water intake were associated with significant decreases in RBC deformability (index of cell swelling), plasma histidine, urine arginine, and urine glutamic acid. After 4 weeks of higher water intake, four out of five participants had ½ maximal RBC deformability below 400 mmol/kg; plasma histidine below 100 μmol/L; and/or undetectable urine arginine and urine glutamic acid concentrations. Work is warranted to pursue RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge as possible biomarkers of chronic cell hydration. PMID:24303184

  4. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  5. Relationship between RBC Mercury Levels and Serum n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrations among Japanese Men and Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, M.; Ando, T.; Wakamiya, J.; Koriyama, Ch.; Akiba, S.; Kitano, T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate potential health risk and benefits of fish consumption, the association of fish consumption with total mercury levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations was examined. Subjects and Methods. Study subjects were 269 Japanese (98 men and 171 women) living in a remote island of Kagoshima, and their blood was drawn in 1994. Results. Total mercury levels were related to weekly fish consumption among women (P=0.035) but not among men (P=0.643). However, serum EPA levels were not related to fish consumption in both women and men. In contrast, EPA levels in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of the sera were significantly related to fish consumption (P values for men and women were 0.014 and 0.073, resp.). Interestingly, mercury levels were related to serum EPA levels and EPA in the HDL fraction of the sera (P=0.001) among women (P=0.005) but not among men. Sex differences in fish species consumed may be an explanation for the observed sex difference. Conclusion. Those findings suggest that the health benefit of fish consumption can be maximized by the careful selection of fish species consumed

  6. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    OpenAIRE

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This stu...

  7. A thermal and chemical degradation approach to decipher pristane and phytane precursors in sedimentary organic matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Klapwijk, M.M.; Lewan, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermal and chemical degradation approach was followed to determine the precursors of pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) in samples from the Gessoso-solfifera, Ghareb and Green River Formations. Hydrous pyrolysis of these samples yields large amounts of Pr and Ph carbon skeletons, indicating that

  8. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status

  9. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2015-12-01

    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  10. Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

  11. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions under flow. Role of RBC deformability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, 3-4 (2010), s. 45-52 ISSN 1313-2458 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : apparent viscosity * conductivity * RBC suspensions * dextran 70 * PEG 35 000 * glutaraldehyde Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  12. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 μCi of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 μCi Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 μCi In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 μCi of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 μCi is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results

  13. Rheological and electrical properties of polymeric nanoparticle solutions and their influence on RBC suspensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Koseva, N.; Kowalczyk, A.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2014), s. 35190 ISSN 1430-6395 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : nanoparticles and RBC suspensions * poly(acrylic acid) * rheology * electrical conductivity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2014 http://www.ar.ethz.ch/TMPPDF/24308140293.696/ApplRheol_24_35190.pdf

  14. 99mTc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1994-01-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author)

  15. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic

  16. Phytanic acid stimulates glucose uptake in a model of skeletal muscles, the primary porcine myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Che, Brita Ngum; Oksbjerg, Niels; Hellgren, Lars

    2013-01-01

    and tritiated 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) was used to measure glucose uptake, in relation to PA and 2-DOG exposure times and also in relation to PA and insulin concentrations. The MIXED procedure model of SAS was used for statistical analysis of data. RESULTS: PA increased glucose uptake by approximately 35...

  17. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-28

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.

  18. Antioxidant activity of citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in the RBC's of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallak, M.; Jaliah, B.I.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects in alloxan induced diabetes. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the mechanism of damage of red blood cells and anaemia in diabetic patients. So the current study was carried out to investigate the protective role of citrullus colocynthis against oxidative stress in the RBC's of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glibenclamide (a positive control) orally. Evaluations were made for haematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC's of all experimental rats. Results: The diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in total erythrocytes count and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and a normal Haemoglobin (Hb) value in the blood. They also showed decreased levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the RBC's hemolysate. On other hand, oral administration of citrullus colocynthis or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats, they resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in the in total erythrocytes count and PCV (Haematocrit) values in the blood and caused a significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT in the RBC's of those diabetic treated rats when compared to diabetic rats given normal saline. The effect was more profound in citrullus colocynthis treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a potent antioxidant property

  19. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP 2 ), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the β-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and β-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations

  20. Long-chain PUFA in Granulocytes, Mononuclear Cells, and RBC in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis: Relation to Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Marianne H.; Ott, Peter; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    -related liver disease were matched with 20 CF patients without. Blood samples were analysed for liver biochemistry and haematology. Granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and RBC were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography. Hepatic ultrasound...

  1. Strategi Perancangan Mutu Ripe Banana Chip (RBC Berbasis Harapan Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Herry P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ripe Banana Chip (RBC, merupakan salah satu jenis kripik yang dibuat dari pisang masak. RBC dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknologi penggorengan vakum (vacum frying ataupun pembekuan (freezing. RBC pisang mas cukup banyak memiliki keunggulan dari nilai gizinya. Produk ini masih belum diketahui tingkat kesesuain mutunya dengan keinginan konsumen dilihat dari aspek fisik ataupun organoleptik. Tujuan penelitian ini agar dapat mengetahui rancangan mutu yang tepat untuk produk RBC pisang mas. Penelitian ini menggunakan tiga metode, diantaranya metode skoring, Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI, dan metode diagram tulang ikan. Hasil dari penelitian, yaitu : warna RBC dengan intensitas 5,56 (kuning dan skor 3,862 (suka ; informasi kemasan dengan intensitas 4,5 (setuju dan skor 3,534 (suka ; kenyamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,58 (nyaman dan skor 4,155 (suka ; keamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,15 (sangat aman dan skor 4,086 (suka ; ketebalan dengan intensitas 8,31(sangat tebal dan skor 1,604 (sangat tidak suka ; Oil dengan intensitas 4,86 (banyak dan skor 2,483 (tidak suka ; kerenyahan dengan intensitas 7,32 (keras dan skor 2,843 (cukup suka ; Easy of breaking dengan intensitas 5,17 (mudah dipatahkan dan skor 3,158 (cukup suka ; rasa manis dengan intensitas 7,89 (manis dan skor 3,208 (cukup suka ; rasa asam dengan intensitas 4,84 (agak asam dan skor 3,309 (cukup suka. Nilai CSI yang dihasilkan, yaitu sebesar 64% (puas. Strategi untuk meningkatkan mutu RBC diantaranya: mengurangi ukuran ketebalan bahan baku sebelum diproses; lebih dipertimbangkan lagi tingkat kematangan pisang; memberi pengarahan dan motivasi kepada pekerja; melakukan pengawasan saat produksi berlangsung; lebih memperhatikan keseragaman ukuran pisang, dan menggunakan alternatif lain dalam penirisan minyak, misalnya sentrifuse agar keberadaan minyak berkurang.

  2. Placentography with technetium-99m labelled RBC - an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, C.A.; Benjamin, C.S.; Balakrishnan; Narasimhan

    1983-01-01

    During 1979-80, placentography was performed in 40 cases of pregnant women with third trimester bleeding. Random labelled RBC with sup(99m)Tc of activity 2-3 mci was used, depending upon the weight of the patient. In 98% of cases, the isotope finding was confirmed. (author)

  3. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions under flow. Role of RBC aggregating agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, 2-4 (2010), s. 253-261 ISSN 1386-0291 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : apparent viscosity * conductivity * unsteady flow * RBC suspensions * dextrans * PEG Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2010

  4. Arabidopsis Pol II-Dependent in Vitro Transcription System Reveals Role of Chromatin for Light-Inducible rbcS Gene Transcription1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Ayaka; Iwata, Shinya; Iwata, Yuka; Igarashi, Hisako; Hamada, Takahiro; Sonobe, Seiji; Sugiura, Masahiro; Yukawa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro transcription is an essential tool to study the molecular mechanisms of transcription. For over a decade, we have developed an in vitro transcription system from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-cultured cells (BY-2), and this system supported the basic activities of the three RNA polymerases (Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III). However, it was not suitable to study photosynthetic genes, because BY-2 cells have lost their photosynthetic activity. Therefore, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro transcription systems were developed from green and etiolated suspension cells. Sufficient in vitro Pol II activity was detected after the minor modification of the nuclear soluble extracts preparation method; removal of vacuoles from protoplasts and L-ascorbic acid supplementation in the extraction buffer were particularly effective. Surprisingly, all four Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit (rbcS-1A, rbcS-1B, rbcS-2B, and rbcS-3B) gene members were in vitro transcribed from the naked DNA templates without any light-dependent manner. However, clear light-inducible transcriptions were observed using chromatin template of rbcS-1A gene, which was prepared with a human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP1) and HeLa histones. This suggested that a key determinant of light-dependency through the rbcS gene transcription was a higher order of DNA structure (i.e. chromatin). PMID:26662274

  5. Molecular evolution of rbcL in three gymnosperm families: identifying adaptive and coevolutionary patterns

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sen, Lin

    2011-06-03

    Abstract Background The chloroplast-localized ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco), the primary enzyme responsible for autotrophy, is instrumental in the continual adaptation of plants to variations in the concentrations of CO2. The large subunit (LSU) of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene. Although adaptive processes have been previously identified at this gene, characterizing the relationships between the mutational dynamics at the protein level may yield clues on the biological meaning of such adaptive processes. The role of such coevolutionary dynamics in the continual fine-tuning of RbcL remains obscure. Results We used the timescale and phylogenetic analyses to investigate and search for processes of adaptive evolution in rbcL gene in three gymnosperm families, namely Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae. To understand the relationships between regions identified as having evolved under adaptive evolution, we performed coevolutionary analyses using the software CAPS. Importantly, adaptive processes were identified at amino acid sites located on the contact regions among the Rubisco subunits and on the interface between Rubisco and its activase. Adaptive amino acid replacements at these regions may have optimized the holoenzyme activity. This hypothesis was pinpointed by evidence originated from our analysis of coevolution that supported the correlated evolution between Rubisco and its activase. Interestingly, the correlated adaptive processes between both these proteins have paralleled the geological variation history of the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Conclusions The gene rbcL has experienced bursts of adaptations in response to the changing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. These adaptations have emerged as a result of a continuous dynamic of mutations, many of which may have involved innovation of functional Rubisco features. Analysis of the protein structure and the functional implications of such

  6. Penelitian penentuan konstanta saturasi (Ks pada rbc unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic of Rotating Biological Contractor have been investigated by manu researchers. In general the model emploued either saturation kinetic (following Monod equation or first order kinetic to describe substrate removal. In this experiment, saturation kinetic model was used to find out the saturation constant of the RBC unit. The influent fed into the unit was synthetic waste water with glucose as organic carbon sources. The flow was maintained constant at 20.4 1/d and COD influent resulted the saturation constant (Ks 11.17 mg/I with 20 hours of detention time.

  7. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  8. Health promoting factors from milk of cows fed green plant material-The role of phytanic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Che, Brita Ngum

    2012-01-01

    regulate these processes, in which case, it could be considered as a bioactive compound with health-improving properties that can be used to fight against the metabolic syndrome (MS). The objectives of this PhD study were to determine the impact of total PA on glucose uptake and FA β-oxidation in skeletal....... The distribution of the diastereomers was affected by feeding, as the content of the RRR PA was positively related to the intake of grazed legumes. This finding indicates that it is possible to manipulate the PA isomer distribution through strategic feeding. In conclusion, a concentration of 10 µM PA achievable...

  9. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-11-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  10. Discriminating plants using the DNA barcode rbcLb: an appraisal based on a large data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenpan; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Xu, Chao; Long, Ping; Chen, Chumming; Zhou, Shiliang

    2014-03-01

    The ideal DNA barcode for plants remains to be discovered, and the candidate barcode rbcL has been met with considerable skepticism since its proposal. In fact, the variability within this gene has never been fully explored across all plant groups from algae to flowering plants, and its performance as a barcode has not been adequately tested. By analysing all of the rbcL sequences currently available in GenBank, we attempted to determine how well a region of rbcL performs as a barcode in species discrimination. We found that the rbcLb region was more variable than the frequently used rbcLa region. Both universal and plant group-specific primers were designed to amplify rbcLb, and the performance of rbcLa and rbcLb was tested in several ways. Using blast, both regions successfully identified all families and nearly all genera; however, the successful species identification rates varied significantly among plant groups, ranging from 24.58% to 85.50% for rbcLa and from 36.67% to 90.89% for rbcLb. Successful species discrimination ranged from 5.19% to 96.33% for rbcLa and from 22.09% to 98.43% for rbcLb in species-rich families, and from 0 to 88.73% for rbcLa and from 2.04% to 100% for rbcLb in species-rich genera. Both regions performed better for lower plants than for higher plants, although rbcLb performed significantly better than rbcLa overall, particularly for angiosperms. Considering the applicability across plants, easy and unambiguous alignment, high primer universality, high sequence quality and high species discrimination power for lower plants, we suggest rbcLb as a universal plant barcode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Molecular cloning of RBCS genes in Selaginella and the evolution of the rbcS gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubisco small subunits (RBCS are encoded by a nuclear rbcS multigene family in higher plants and green algae. However, owing to the lack of rbcS sequences in lycophytes, the characteristics of rbcS genes in lycophytes is unclear. Recently, the complete genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii provided the first insight into the rbcS gene family in lycophytes. To understand further the characteristics of rbcS genes in other Selaginella, the full length of rbcS genes (rbcS1 and rbcS2 from two other Selaginella species were isolated. Both rbcS1 and rbcS2 genes shared more than 97% identity among three Selaginella species. RBCS proteins from Selaginella contained the Pfam RBCS domain F00101, which was a major domain of other plant RBCS proteins. To explore the evolution of the rbcS gene family across Selaginella and other plants, we identified and performed comparative analysis of the rbcS gene family among 16 model plants based on a genome-wide analysis. The results showed that (i two rbcS genes were obtained in Selaginella, which is the second fewest number of rbcS genes among the 16 representative plants; (ii an expansion of rbcS genes occurred in the moss Physcomitrella patens; (iii only RBCS proteins from angiosperms contained the Pfam PF12338 domains, and (iv a pattern of concerted evolution existed in the rbcS gene family. Our study provides new insights into the evolution of the rbcS gene family in Selaginella and other plants.

  12. The study of x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy of 99mTc-RBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chunyi

    1994-01-01

    99m Tc-RBC are widely used as visualization agents for a blood pool. In this research 99m Tc-RBC was prepared by in vivo labeling. The chemical state and changes of 99m Tc atoms in 99m Tc-RBC was determined by x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of 99m Tc-RBC is best shown by the determination of XPS at one hour or at two hours after labeling. There are two ways of coordination of bonding of RBC and 99m Tc: One is the coordination of 99m Tc with the oxygen atom which carries a negative charge of the carboxyl radical on the polypeptide bond, the other is the coordination of 99m Tc with a sulfur atom which caries the negative charge of cysteine. From the E b value of 99m Tc-RBC 99m Tc 3d5/2, it can be inferred that 99m Tc of 99m Tc-RBC is less than a trivalent. At the same time, the results of the determination by XPS with the compounds containing 99 TcO 4 - , 99 Tc(V), 99 Tc(IV) and 99 Tc(III) show that the chemical shift is lowered as the reduction state is lowered. Experimental results coincide with theoretical inferences

  13. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  14. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  15. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions in Dextran and PEG under flow II. Role of RBC deformability and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.; Gluhcheva, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, 1-4 (2011), s. 441-450 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC suspensions * conductivity * Dextran 70 * Polyethylene glycol 35 000 (PEG) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.398, year: 2011

  16. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions in Dextran and PEG under flow II. Role of RBC deformability and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.; Gluhcheva, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, 1-4 (2011), s. 441-450 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC suspensions * conductivity * Dextran 70 * Polyethylene glycol 35 000 ( PEG ) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.398, year: 2011

  17. Red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in confined microflows: Pressure-flow relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Hagit; Waisman, Dan; Korin, Netanel; Sznitman, Josué

    2017-10-01

    Microfluidic-based assays have become increasingly popular to explore microcirculation in vitro. In these experiments, blood is resuspended to a desired haematocrit level in a buffer solution, where frequent choices for preparing RBC suspensions comprise notably Dextran and physiological buffer. Yet, the rational for selecting one buffer versus another is often ill-defined and lacks detailed quantification, including ensuing changes in RBC flow characteristics. Here, we revisit RBC suspensions in microflows and attempt to quantify systematically some of the differences emanating between buffers. We measure bulk flow rate (Q) of RBC suspensions, using PBS- and Dextran-40, as a function of the applied pressure drop (ΔP) for two hematocrits (∼0% and 23%). Two distinct microfluidic designs of varying dimensions are employed: a straight channel larger than and a network array similar to the size of individual RBCs. Using the resulting pressure-flow curves, we extract the equivalent hydrodynamic resistances and estimate the relative viscosities. These efforts are a first step in rigorously quantifying the influence of the 'background' buffer on RBC flows within microfluidic devices and thereby underline the importance of purposefully selecting buffer suspensions for microfluidic in vitro assays. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Preoperative diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma: a 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Luca; Borsari, Giulia; Pichierri, Patrizia; Polito, Ennio; Toscano, Olga; Grassetto, Gaia; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico; Vattimo, Angelo Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to describe 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy as a diagnostic method for orbital cavernous hemangiomas and to evaluate this diagnostic tool according to surgical outcomes. Fifty-five patients with clinical and radiological (US, CT, and/or MRI) suspicion of unilateral cavernous hemangioma of the orbit underwent 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.Qualitative and semiquantitative evaluations were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. SPECT images showed focal uptake in the orbital mass in 36 of 55 patients. Nineteen patients had a negative scintigraphic pattern, with concordance of early and late absence of uptake of 99mTc-RBC.Our procedure showed 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for the diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma, with a positive predictive value of 90.9% and a negative predictive value of 100%. 99mTc-RBC imaging is safe, easy to perform, and highly accurate in providing adequate clinical and surgical management. As a noninvasive and highly specific method for diagnosing orbital hemangioma, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy can avoid more invasive imaging or biopsy.

  19. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  20. Oral supplementation of vitamin E reduces osmotic fragility of RBC in hemolytic anemic patients with G6PD deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, N.; Begum, S.; Begum, N.; Ali, T.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell member by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus protects cells from oxidative stress-induced lysis in G6PD deficiency. Changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH and MCHC may occur in haemolytic anaemic patients with G6PD deficiency. To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on these changes in order to evaluate the role of this anti-oxidant vitamin in reducing chronic haemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. A total number of 102 subjects with age ranged of 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (experimental group) and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group). The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children ?12 years (in a divided dose, i.e., 4 times daily). Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control) and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD) of Haematology, Banglabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2005 to June 2006 and all healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method. Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV. MCH, MCHC were significantly lower in patients suffering from

  1. Tc-99m Labeled Red Blood Cell by Ultra Tag RBC Kit in Patients Suspected of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusuwan, Pawana; Leaungwutiwong, Suraphong; Tocharoenchai, Chiraporn; Chaiwatanarat, Tawatchai; Sirisatipoch, Sasitorn; Rajadara, Samart; Naktong, Thanyada; Thanyarak, Sucheera

    2001-06-01

    Twenty patients suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent Tc-99m labeled red blood cell (RBC) by ultraTag RBC kit at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Bumrungrad Hospital between January 2000 and December 2002 were studied. The histories of patients together with either endoscopic results or angiographic findings or pathological reports were used as gold standards. Two by Two decision matrix was used for data analysis and the sensitivity together with specificity were calculated. The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit are 87.5% and 91.7%, respectively. We conclude that Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit gives high percentages of sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the image quality is improved because of the absence of free Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake in the stomach in all patients

  2. Haemostatic function and biomarkers of endothelial damage before and after RBC transfusion in patients with haematologic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A M; Leinøe, E B; Johansson, P I

    2015-01-01

    function and the endothelium) to RBC transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was sampled from patients with various transfusion-dependent haematologic diseases before 1 and 24 h after RBC transfusion. Primary and secondary haemostasis was evaluated by whole-blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate....... Compared to before transfusion, patients had slightly reduced coagulability 1 h after RBC transfusion, assessed by TEG. However, transfusion of older RBC products (>14 days) was associated with increased coagulability (all P level of syndecan-1 increased slightly 24 h after transfusion (median....... The changes observed were small to moderate and the clinical relevance of these findings should be investigated in larger studies....

  3. Estimation of adult and neonatal RBC lifespans in anemic neonates using RBCs labeled at several discrete biotin densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Denison J; Widness, John A; Nalbant, Demet; Schmidt, Robert L; Mock, Donald M; An, Guohua; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Prior conclusions that autologous neonatal red blood cells (RBC) have substantially shorter lifespans than allogeneic adult RBCs were not based on direct comparison of autologous neonatal vs. allogeneic adult RBCs performed concurrently in the same infant. Biotin labeling of autologous neonatal RBCs and allogeneic adult donor RBCs permits concurrent direct comparison of autologous vs. allogeneic RBC lifespan. RBCs from 15 allogeneic adult donors and from 15 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates were labeled at separate biotin densities and transfused simultaneously into the 15 neonates. Two mathematical models that account for the RBC differences were employed to estimate lifespans for the two RBC populations. Mean ± SD lifespan for adult allogeneic RBC was 70.1 ± 19.1 d, which is substantially shorter than the 120 d lifespan of both autologous and adult allogeneic RBC in healthy adults. Mean ± SD lifespan for neonatal RBC was 54.2 ± 11.3 d, which is only about 30% shorter than that of the adult allogeneic RBCs. This study provides evidence that extrinsic environmental factors primarily determine RBC survival (e.g., small bore of the capillaries of neonates, rate of oxygenation/deoxygenation cycles) rather than factors intrinsic to RBC.

  4. Efficient and Specific Analysis of Red Blood Cell Glycerophospholipid Fatty Acid Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Klem, Sabrina; Klingler, Mario; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) n-3 fatty acid status is related to various health outcomes. Accepted biological markers for the fatty acid status determination are RBC phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyletholamine. The analysis of these lipid fractions is demanding and time consuming and total phospholipid n-3 fatty acid levels might be affected by changes of sphingomyelin contents in the RBC membrane during n-3 supplementation. AIM: We developed a method for the specific a...

  5. Erythrocyte survival studies in lymphomas : a prognostic appraisal. [/sup 51/Cr-labelled RBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, B; Subrahmanyam, K; Pant, G C [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Inst. of Medical Sciences

    1977-08-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies using /sup 51/Cr-labelled RBC's were conducted using 20 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and 10 control subjects. Hepatic, splenic, and cardiac areas were monitored for rapid detection of hypersplenism. The findings are discussed in relation to the prognosis of the disease in the patients.

  6. Time dependent variation of human blood conductivity as a method for an estimation of RBC aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2008), s. 69-78 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC aggregation * blood conductivity * low shear rate viscometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.814, year: 2008

  7. 40 CFR 35.2035 - Rotating biological contractor (RBC) replacement grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works owner, the applicant, its engineers, contractors, equipment manufacturers or suppliers; (b) The RBC failure has significantly increased the project's capital or operation and maintenance costs; (c) The modification/replacement project meets all requirements of EPA's construction grant and other...

  8. A gene phylogeny of the red algae (Rhodophyta) based on plastid rbcL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, D W; Fredericq, S; Butler, B S; Hommersand, M H; Chase, M W

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny for the Rhodophyta has been inferred by parsimony analysis of plastid rbcL sequences representing 81 species, 68 genera, 38 families, and 17 orders of red algae; rbcL encodes the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Levels of sequence divergence among species, genera, and families are high in red algae, typically much greater than those reported for flowering plants. The Rhodophyta traditionally consists of one class, Rhodophyceae, and two subclasses, Bangiophycidae and Florideophycidae. The Bangiophycidae with three orders (Porphyridiales, Compsopogonales, and Bangiales) appears to be polyphyletic, and the Florideophycidae with 17 orders is monophyletic in this study. The current classification of the Florideophycidae based on ultrastructure of pit connections is supported. With the exception of the Rhodogorgonales, which appears to be misplaced, orders with one or two pit-plug cap layers (Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Acrochaetiales, Palmanales, Batrachospermales, and Nemaliales) terminate long branches of basal position within Florideophycidae in the most parsimonious rbcL tree. Orders that lack typical cap layers but possess a cap membrane are resolved as a monophyletic clade sister to the Ahnfeltiales. The large order Gigartinales, which is distributed among five rbcL clades, is polyphyletic. Families that possess typical carrageenan in their cell walls are resolved as a terminal clade containing two family complexes centered around the Solieriaceae and Gigartinaceae. PMID:8041781

  9. 77 FR 50487 - Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy Services LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-328-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  10. Measurement of blood coagulation with considering RBC aggregation through a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Nam, Jeonghun; Xue, Shubin; Shin, Sehyun

    2011-01-01

    Even though blood coagulation can be tested by various methods and techniques, the effect of RBC aggregation on blood coagulation is not fully understood. The present study monitored clot formation in a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer. Citrated blood samples with and without the addition of calcium ion solution were initially disaggregated by rotating a stirrer in the microchip. After abrupt stop of the rotating stirrer, the transmitted light intensity over time was recorded. The syllectogram (light intensity vs. time graph) manifested a rapid increase that is associated with RBC aggregation followed by a decrease that is associated with blood coagulation. The time to reach the peak point was used as a new index of coagulation time (CT) and ranged from 200 to 500 seconds in the present measurements. The CT was inversely proportional to the concentration of fibrinogen, which enhances RBC aggregation. In addition, the CT was inversely proportional to the hematocrit, which is similar to the case of the prothrombin time (PT), as measured by a commercial coagulometer. Thus, we carefully concluded that RBC aggregation should be considered in tests of blood coagulation.

  11. Development of a kit for RBC labelling with 99mTc and its clinic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marafuschi, A.M.; Nowotny, G.A.; Palcos, M.C.; Rotta, M. del C.

    1980-01-01

    A kit for labelling red blood cells (RBC) with 99m Tc based on a Tin Pyrophosphate mixture freeze-dried and a saline solution saturated with nitrogen has been prepared for spleen and placenta scanning, circulatory studies and blood volume determinations. The stannous tin is intended to reduce the 99m Tc pertechnetate, obtained either from generators or from solvent extraction, to the appropriate valence state suitable for labelling. The technique is as follows: Add to the heparinized blood sample the Tin-Pyrophosphate mixture dissolved in the saline solution. After five minutes incubation time at room temperature the plasma is discarded by centrifugation. Following the addition of the tracer activity to the separated RBC, the supernatant is discarded after a second centrifugation. Depending on the test to be performed, the RBC are either resuspended in saline solution for blood pool or circulation studies or denaturalized at 49.5 deg C for spleen scanning. The labelling yield (95-88%) and its stability has been checked by in vitro measurements, up to four hours after labelling. The biological distribution and spleen uptake have been determined in rats and rabbits. The developed method proved to be adequate for labelling RBC with good labelling retention. An interesting application is shown in babies with congenital cardiac defects and suspected absence of the spleen, where the scan gave a good image of the existing spleen. (author) [es

  12. Simulator for training operators of electric substation: an approach via RBC-Paraconsistent; Simulador para treinamento de operadores de subestacao eletrica: um enfoque via RBC-paraconsistente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert-Torres, G.; Martins, H.G.; Coutinho, M.P.; Goulart, J.D.C.; Soares, F.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: germanoltorres@gmail.com, helgagonzaga@gmail.com, maurilio.coutinho@gmail.com, janaina157@yahoo.com.br, francis.azevedo@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    This article presents a combination of two techniques applied artificial intelligence to solve problems to Restoration of an Electric Substation: Casebased Reasoning - CBR and the Four Values Annotated Paraconsistent Logic - 4vAPL. The process occurs in the connection functions of belief, disbelief, specialty and temporality to LPA4v in the retrieval of cases to determine process diagnostic of an RBC. The field of CBR is applied in a recovery of an electric substation. The LPA4v is the support applied in problems that have inconsistent information, partials and undefined. Thus this study is closer of the real situations.

  13. Rotational dynamics of C60 in Na2RbC60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christides, C.; Prassides, K.; Neumann, D.A.; Copley, J.R.D.; Mizuki, J.; Tanigaki, K.; Hirosawa, I.; Ebbesen, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the low-energy neutron inelastic-scattering (NIS) spectra of superconducting Na 2 RbC 60 in the temperature range 50-350 K. Well-defined librational peaks are observed at 50 K at 2.83(17) meV (FWHM = 1.7(5) meV). They soften and broaden with increasing temperature. Their behaviour mimics that found in solid C 60 and differs markedly from K 3 C 60 . The rotational barrier for C 60 reorientations in Na 2 RbC 60 is somewhat higher than in pristine C 60 and approximately half as large as in K 3 C 60 . An order-disorder transition is anticipated at a temperature higher than that found in C 60 . (orig.)

  14. rbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, M; Omori, T; Nakazawa, M; Sano, T; Kato, M; Iwatsuki, K

    1994-01-01

    Pteriodophytes have a longer evolutionary history than any other vascular land plant and, therefore, have endured greater loss of phylogenetically informative information. This factor has resulted in substantial disagreements in evaluating characters and, thus, controversy in establishing a stable classification. To compare competing classifications, we obtained DNA sequences of a chloroplast gene. The sequence of 1206 nt of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbc...

  15. Experimental method for the study of blood and RBC suspension conductivity under flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2014), s. 995-1004 ISSN 1310-1331 Grant - others:The Ministry of Education and Science of Bulgaria(BG) BG051PO001-3.3-05/0001; The Ministry of Education, Youth and Science of Bulgaria(BG) DO-805/2012 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : viscometric flow * conductivity * blood/RBC suspension microstructural changes Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2014

  16. Neem leaf extract as potential modifier of free radical interaction with RBC membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Shilpa M.; Kulkarni, Satish G.; Rane, Charusheela

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is well known as village pharmacy due to its multifaceted medicinal action in curing countless health problems. The leaf extract of Neem is known to purify blood by removing toxins and neutralizing free radicals. Using gamma irradiation as free radical generation process the efficacy of neem leaf extract in combating free radical attack on RBC membrane has been explored. The results narrating role of concentration and dose dependency in this radio modulation will be discussed

  17. Phylogeny and intraspecific variability of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from plastid rbcL sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manen, Jean-François; Habashi, Christine; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Park, Jeong-Mi; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2004-11-01

    The rbcL sequences of 106 specimens representing 28 species of the four recognized sections of Orobanche were analyzed and compared. Most sequences represent pseudogenes with premature stop codons. This study confirms that the American lineage (sects. Gymnocaulis and Myzorrhiza) contains potentially functional rbcL-copies with intact open reading frames and low rates of non-synonymous substitutions. For the first time, this is also shown for a member of the Eurasian lineage, O. coerulescens of sect. Orobanche, while all other investigated species of sects. Orobanche and Trionychon contain pseudogenes with distorted reading frames and significantly higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions. Phylogenetic analyses of the rbcL sequences give equivocal results concerning the monophyly of Orobanche, and the American lineage might be more closely related to Boschniakia and Cistanche than to the other sections of Orobanche. Additionally, species of sect. Trionychon phylogenetically nest in sect. Orobanche. This is in concordance with results from other plastid markers (rps2 and matK), but in disagreement with other molecular (nuclear ITS), morphological, and karyological data. This might indicate that the ancestor of sect. Trionychon has captured the plastid genome, or parts of it, of a member of sect. Orobanche. Apart from the phylogenetically problematic position of sect. Trionychon, the phylogenetic relationships within sect. Orobanche are similar to those inferred from nuclear ITS data and are close to the traditional groupings traditionally recognized based on morphology. The intraspecific variation of rbcL is low and is neither correlated with intraspecific morphological variability nor with host range. Ancestral character reconstruction using parsimony suggests that the ancestor of O. sect. Orobanche had a narrow host range.

  18. Effect of RBC concentrate transfusions on serum ferritin content in children with acute leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeshko, V G; Bruslova, E M; Tsvietkova, N M; Iatsemirskii, S M; Puchkareva, T I; Gonchar, L A; Krukovska, V V; Zelinska, A V; Mishchenko, L P

    2013-01-01

    To study the serum ferritin levels in children with acute leukemia, depending on the number of transfusions of RBC concentrate and period of disease. We studied the red blood count, serum iron and ferritin levels in 54 patients with acute leukemia before chemotherapy, at the time of a standardized treatment protocol, and after transfusions of RBC concentrates. In the debute of acute leukemia just before treatment lauch the serum ferritin in 81.5% of children was 2.3-2.5 higher than normal. The need for transfusion of RBC concentrates was higher under serum ferritin level exceeding 500 ng/mL. The association was established between ferritin content and age of the children, variant of acute leukemia and period of the disease. The level of serum ferritin can be used as a marker of ferrokinetic status for timely diagnosis of iron overload in children with acute leukemias and for application of treatment-and-prophylactic actions. Bebeshko V. G., Bruslova K. M., Cvjetkova N. M., Jacemyrskyj S. M., Pushkarova T. I., Gonchar L. O., Krukovska V. V., Zelinska A. V., Mishhenko L. P., 2013.

  19. The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes of lactating mothers and their infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.H.; Nielsen, P.K.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in breastmilk, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important for infant brain development. Accretion of DHA in the infant brain is dependent on DHA-status, intake and metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe changes in maternal...... and infant erythrocyte (RBC) DHA-status during the first four months of lactation. We examined 17 mothers and their term infants at 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Milk samples and RBC from the mothers and infants were obtained and analysed for fatty acid composition. Comparative analysis of the results showed...... that the content of DHA in maternal RBC-phosphatidylcholine (PE) decreased over the four month period and this was not accompanied by a decrease in DHA in infant RBC-PE (P = 0.005). The ratio of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA increased over time in maternal RBC-PE, but not in infant RBC-PE (P

  20. Multiple and Periodic Measurement of RBC Aggregation and ESR in Parallel Microfluidic Channels under On-Off Blood Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun Kang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC aggregation causes to alter hemodynamic behaviors at low flow-rate regions of post-capillary venules. Additionally, it is significantly elevated in inflammatory or pathophysiological conditions. In this study, multiple and periodic measurements of RBC aggregation and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are suggested by sucking blood from a pipette tip into parallel microfluidic channels, and quantifying image intensity, especially through single experiment. Here, a microfluidic device was prepared from a master mold using the xurography technique rather than micro-electro-mechanical-system fabrication techniques. In order to consider variations of RBC aggregation in microfluidic channels due to continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip, two indices (aggregation index (AI and erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate aggregation index (EAI are evaluated by using temporal variations of microscopic, image-based intensity. The proposed method is employed to evaluate the effect of hematocrit and dextran solution on RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. As a result, EAI displays a significantly linear relationship with modified conventional ESR measurement obtained by quantifying time constants. In addition, EAI varies linearly within a specific concentration of dextran solution. In conclusion, the proposed method is able to measure RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. Furthermore, the method provides multiple data of RBC aggregation and ESR through a single experiment. A future study will involve employing the proposed method to evaluate biophysical properties of blood samples collected from cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Efficient and specific analysis of red blood cell glycerophospholipid fatty acid composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Klem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC n-3 fatty acid status is related to various health outcomes. Accepted biological markers for the fatty acid status determination are RBC phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyletholamine. The analysis of these lipid fractions is demanding and time consuming and total phospholipid n-3 fatty acid levels might be affected by changes of sphingomyelin contents in the RBC membrane during n-3 supplementation. AIM: We developed a method for the specific analysis of RBC glycerophospholipids. The application of the new method in a DHA supplementation trial and the comparison to established markers will determine the relevance of RBC GPL as a valid fatty acid status marker in humans. METHODS: Methyl esters of glycerophospholipid fatty acids are selectively generated by a two step procedure involving methanolic protein precipitation and base-catalysed methyl ester synthesis. RBC GPL solubilisation is facilitated by ultrasound treatment. Fatty acid status in RBC glycerophospholipids and other established markers were evaluated in thirteen subjects participating in a 30 days supplementation trial (510 mg DHA/d. OUTCOME: The intra-assay CV for GPL fatty acids ranged from 1.0 to 10.5% and the inter-assay CV from 1.3 to 10.9%. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation significantly increased the docosahexaenoic acid contents in all analysed lipid fractions. High correlations were observed for most of the mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and for the omega-3 index (r = 0.924 between RBC phospholipids and glycerophospholipids. The analysis of RBC glycerophospholipid fatty acids yields faster, easier and less costly results equivalent to the conventional analysis of RBC total phospholipids.

  2. Tissue Characterization of Lemna gibba rbcS Promoter%浮萍rbcS启动子组织特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凤珍; 李倩; 王友如

    2015-01-01

    A new rbcS (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit) promoter with the size of 1 438 bp (named SSU5C promoter) was cloned from Lemna gibba. SSU5C promoter was fused with the GUS reporter gene to construct a plant binary vector (pSSU5C-IGUS), and introduced into duckweed by agrogacterium-mediated trans-formation. The transgenic plantlets were generated. This study was focused on the tissue characterization of SSU5C promoter. GUS staining showed that SSU5C promoter drove GUS to express in the green tissue in leaf, stem and petiole of T1 tobacco, whereas no GUS activity was observed in root. In reproductive organs, the GUS activity was observed in corolla lobes, anther and stigma, no GUS activity was observed in other parts. It was obvious that rbcS promoter can not only express in the green tissue, but also can express in reproductive organs. The results lay a good doundation for the application of SSU5C in plant genetic engineering.%SSU5C启动子(全长1438 bp)是从浮萍基因组中新克隆的一个rb c S (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carbo-xylase small subunit)启动子。本研究将 SSU5C 启动子与GUS基因融合,成功构建植物双元表达载p SSU5C-IGUS,并利用农杆菌介导法转化烟草,获得转基因植株,探究SSU5C启动子在烟草中的组织表达特点。GUS检测结果表明:在T1烟草的营养器官中,SSU5C启动子主要驱动GUS基因在烟草叶片和叶柄、茎等绿色组织中表达,而在根部不表达;在生殖器官中,GUS基因主要在花冠裂片以及花药和柱头中表达。本研究首次发现浮萍rb c S启动子不仅在绿色组织中表达,而且在生殖器官中的花冠裂片以及花药和柱头中表达,这一发现可为SSU5C启动子在植物基因工程中的应用奠定基础。

  3. Discriminatory power of rbcL barcode locus for authentication of some of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloukh, Lina; Kumarappan, Alagappan; Jarrar, Mohammad; Salehi, Jawad; El-Wakil, Houssam; Rajya Lakshmi, T V

    2017-06-01

    DNA barcoding of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants is of high practical and scientific value as the plants adapt to very harsh environmental conditions that challenge their identification. Fifty-one plant species belonged to 22 families, 2 monocots, and 20 eudicots; a maximum number of species being legumes and grasses were collected. To authenticate the morphological identification of the wild plant taxa, rbcL and matK regions were used in the study. The primer universality and discriminatory power of rbcL is 100%, while it is 35% for matK locus for these plant species. The sequences were submitted to GenBank; accession numbers were obtained for all the rbcL sequences and for 6 of matK sequences. We suggest rbcL as a promising barcode locus for the tested group of 51 plants. In the present study, an inexpensive, simple method of identification of rare desert plant taxa through rbcL barcode is being reported.

  4. [sup 99m]Tc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy; Assessmet of bleeding site and rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1994-03-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with [sup 99m]Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author).

  5. Physiologic Impact of Circulating RBC Microparticles upon Blood-Vascular Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Said

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review current data elucidating the role of red blood cell derived microparticles (RMPs in normal vascular physiology and disease progression. Microparticles (MPs are submicron-size, membrane-encapsulated vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to numerous stimuli that promote a sequence of cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes and resulting MP genesis. MPs were originally considered as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and more recently are recognized to have pleiotropic biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in initiating apoptosis. RMPs, specifically, form normally during RBC maturation in response to injury during circulation, and are copiously produced during processing and storage for transfusion. Notably, several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs markedly from that of intact RBCs and the nature/composition of RMP components are affected by the specific circumstances of RMP genesis. Described RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion as well as influence upon vasoregulation via influence upon nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Of particular relevance, RMPs scavenge NO more avidly than do intact RBCs; this physiology has been proposed to contribute to the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that may be observed following transfusion. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in normal and patho-physiology and in transfusion recipients is an area of continued investigation.

  6. Decision Tree Algorithm-Generated Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Barcodes of rbcL Genes for 38 Brassicaceae Species Tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Kuo-Chuan; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2018-01-01

    DNA barcode sequences are accumulating in large data sets. A barcode is generally a sequence larger than 1000 base pairs and generates a computational burden. Although the DNA barcode was originally envisioned as straightforward species tags, the identification usage of barcode sequences is rarely emphasized currently. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association studies provide us an idea that the SNPs may be the ideal target of feature selection to discriminate between different species. We hypothesize that SNP-based barcodes may be more effective than the full length of DNA barcode sequences for species discrimination. To address this issue, we tested a r ibulose diphosphate carboxylase ( rbcL ) S NP b arcoding (RSB) strategy using a decision tree algorithm. After alignment and trimming, 31 SNPs were discovered in the rbcL sequences from 38 Brassicaceae plant species. In the decision tree construction, these SNPs were computed to set up the decision rule to assign the sequences into 2 groups level by level. After algorithm processing, 37 nodes and 31 loci were required for discriminating 38 species. Finally, the sequence tags consisting of 31 rbcL SNP barcodes were identified for discriminating 38 Brassicaceae species based on the decision tree-selected SNP pattern using RSB method. Taken together, this study provides the rational that the SNP aspect of DNA barcode for rbcL gene is a useful and effective sequence for tagging 38 Brassicaceae species.

  7. rbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, M; Omori, T; Nakazawa, M; Sano, T; Kato, M; Iwatsuki, K

    1994-06-07

    Pteriodophytes have a longer evolutionary history than any other vascular land plant and, therefore, have endured greater loss of phylogenetically informative information. This factor has resulted in substantial disagreements in evaluating characters and, thus, controversy in establishing a stable classification. To compare competing classifications, we obtained DNA sequences of a chloroplast gene. The sequence of 1206 nt of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL) was determined from 58 species, representing almost all families of leptosporangiate ferns. Phlogenetic trees were inferred by the neighbor-joining and the parsimony methods. The two methods produced almost identical phylogenetic trees that provided insights concerning major general evolutionary trends in the leptosporangiate ferns. Interesting findings were as follows: (i) two morphologically distinct heterosporous water ferns, Marsilea and Salvinia, are sister genera; (ii) the tree ferns (Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae, and Metaxyaceae) are monophyletic; and (iii) polypodioids are distantly related to the gleichenioids in spite of the similarity of their exindusiate soral morphology and are close to the higher indusiate ferns. In addition, the affinities of several "problematic genera" were assessed.

  8. OpenRBC: Redefining the Frontier of Red Blood Cell Simulations at Protein Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Li, He; Grinberg, Leopold; Sachdeva, Vipin; Evangelinos, Constantinos; Karniadakis, George

    We present a from-scratch development of OpenRBC, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics code, which is capable of performing an unprecedented in silico experiment - simulating an entire mammal red blood cell lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton modeled by 4 million mesoscopic particles - on a single shared memory node. To achieve this, we invented an adaptive spatial searching algorithm to accelerate the computation of short-range pairwise interactions in an extremely sparse 3D space. The algorithm is based on a Voronoi partitioning of the point cloud of coarse-grained particles, and is continuously updated over the course of the simulation. The algorithm enables the construction of a lattice-free cell list, i.e. the key spatial searching data structure in our code, in O (N) time and space space with cells whose position and shape adapts automatically to the local density and curvature. The code implements NUMA/NUCA-aware OpenMP parallelization and achieves perfect scaling with up to hundreds of hardware threads. The code outperforms a legacy solver by more than 8 times in time-to-solution and more than 20 times in problem size, thus providing a new venue for probing the cytomechanics of red blood cells. This work was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Model- ing of Materials (CM4). YHT acknowledges partial financial support from an IBM Ph.D. Scholarship Award.

  9. DNA Barcoding the Canadian Arctic Flora: Core Plastid Barcodes (rbcL + matK) for 490 Vascular Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M.; Sokoloff, Paul C.; Gillespie, Lynn J.; Consaul, Laurie L.; Bull, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA–trnH, psbK–psbI, atpF–atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF–atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species. PMID

  10. Delimiting the species Neosiphonia yendoi (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) based on COI and rbcL genetic variation in Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongseok; Yang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Myung Sook

    2016-09-01

    Although the marine red algal genus Neosiphonia is well characterized, many species of Neosiphonia are poorly understood. To correctly define the species delimitation of Neosiphonia yendoi using genetic variation, owing to the confusion over identification with " N. sphaerocarpa" from Korea, we investigated intensively the haplotype network of the mitochondrial COI and the plastid rbcL genes of specimens collected from Korea and Japan. The molecular analyses indicated that specimens collected in different sites of Korea and Japan belong to the same species, Neosiphonia yendoi and " Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa" from Korea, which is distinguished from N. sphaerocarpa from Florida and is allied with N. yendoi collected from the type locality, Muroran of Japan. A total of 29 COI and 13 rbcL haplotypes were found and the COI haplotype network shows evidence of a clear break between specimens from Jeju Island and all other locations of Korea, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity within N. yendoi.

  11. Contínua evolução da RBC: um obrigado a todos os colaboradores!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Telles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde de seu nascimento, a RBC prima pela divulgação do conhecimento pericial tecnicamente validado e pela discussão de novos métodos e de casos. É o caminho que há de ser constantemente trilhado pelos profissionais da perícia para que não eivem seus laudos periciais e pareceres técnicos de vícios insanáveis cujas consequências seriam nefastas para a justiça. Não é à toa que o Corpo Editorial da RBC, com o imprescindível auxílio dos editores de sessão e dos avaliadores, não envida esforços na contínua evolução da revista em direção à qualidade. Prova disso é a permanente busca por indexação em vários meios e pela elevação dos índices de qualidade por qualificação externa. A RBC aparece no Latindex, no CrossRef, no Google Scholar, no Research Gate, no Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ, no Electronic Journal Library (EZ3, no Scilit, no Diadorim, na ABEC Brasil, na Universitäts Bibliothek UBL Leipzig e na Qualis/CAPES.

  12. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.

  13. Epidemiology of RBC Transfusions in Patients With Severe Acute Kidney Injury: Analysis From the Randomized Evaluation of Normal Versus Augmented Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Lo, Serigne; Gallagher, Martin; Cass, Alan; Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon

    2016-05-01

    To assess the epidemiology and outcomes associated with RBC transfusion in patients with severe acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty-five ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Cohort of 1,465 patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level replacement therapy study. Daily information on morning hemoglobin level and amount of RBC transfused were prospectively collected in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level study. We analyzed the epidemiology of such transfusions and their association with clinical outcomes. Overall, 977 patients(66.7%) received a total of 1,192 RBC units. By day 5, 785 of 977 transfused patients (80.4%) had received at least one RBC transfusion. Hemoglobin at randomization was lower in transfused than in nontransfused patients (94 vs 111 g/L; p regression analysis, RBC transfusion was independently associated with lower 90-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38-0.79). However, we found no independent association between RBC transfusions and mortality when the analyses were restricted to patients surviving at least 5 days (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.85). We found no independent association between RBC transfusion and renal replacement therapy-free days, mechanical ventilator-free days, or length of stay in ICU or hospital. In patients with severe acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, we found no association of RBC transfusion with 90-day mortality or other patient-centered outcomes. The optimal hemoglobin threshold for RBC transfusion in such patients needs to be determined in future randomized controlled trials.

  14. Reconstructing a herbivore's diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman A; McShea, William J; Ottesen, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbc L gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time-sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples ( F  = 1.73, P  = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4-12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed plants inventoried

  15. 浮萍中一个新rbcS基因启动子的克隆及分析%Analysis of a Novel rbcS Promoter Cloned in Duckweed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友如

    2010-01-01

    为了分离组织特异性、诱导性的启动子,本研究根据新克隆的浮萍rbcS基因序列设计引物,采用改进的5'walking技术从浮萍基因组中克隆了一个新的rbcS基因启动子,命名为SSU5C基因启动子.序列分析表明:SSU5C基因启动子长度为1 543 bp,含有保守性元件TATA和CAAT box,并且含有水杨酸、脱落酸、赤霉素、茉莉酸甲酯等植物激素和葡萄糖等的保守顺式作用元件.In silico分析初步推测SSU5C基因启动子受多种信号途径的协调调控.

  16. Determination of degree of RBC agglutination for blood typing using a small quantity of blood sample in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Zhou, Xin-Miao; Yen, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-04-15

    Blood typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This paper presents a microfluidic blood typing system using a small quantity of blood sample to determine the degree of agglutination of red blood cell (RBC). Two measuring methods were proposed: impedimetric measurement and electroanalytical measurement. The charge transfer resistance in the impedimetric measurement and the power parameter in the electroanalytical measurement were used for the analysis of agglutination level. From the experimental results, both measuring methods provide quantitative results, and the parameters are linearly and monotonically related to the degree of RBC agglutination. However, the electroanalytical measurement is more reliable than the impedimetric technique because the impedimetric measurement may suffer from many influencing factors, such as chip conditions. Five levels from non-agglutination (level 0) to strong agglutination (level 4+) can be discriminated in this study, conforming to the clinical requirement to prevent any risks in transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection of GP. Mur antigen-negative RBC for blood recipients with anti-'Mia ' records decreases transfusion reaction rates in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-A; Lin, J-A; Chang, C-W; Wu, K-H; Yeh, S-P; Ho, C-M; Chang, J-G

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of GP. Mur antigen-negative blood selection for transfusion in patients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The GP. Mur RBC phenotype is prevalent (7·3%) in Taiwan. Antibodies against GP. Mur (anti-'Mi a ') are identified in 1·24% of our population, and anti-'Mi a ' screening using GP. Mur RBC has been routine for Taiwan's blood banks. However, due to the lack of commercial antibodies, only cross-matching was used to prevent transfusion of GP. Mur-positive blood to patients with anti-'Mi a ' in most hospitals. There is still a risk of GP. Mur-positive RBC exposure and subsequent anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. Since February 2014, GP. Mur antigen-negative RBCs identified by reaction with anti-'Mi a '-positive serum were selected for blood recipients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The transfusion reactions between January 2013 and January 2014 were compared with those that occurred between February 2014 and July 2015. The transfusion reaction rate was significantly higher in anti-'Mi a '-positive blood recipients compared to total subjects receiving an RBC transfusion before GP. Mur-negative donor RBC selection. After antigen-negative RBC selection, the transfusion reaction frequency in subjects with anti-'Mi a ' became similar to total blood recipients. IgG form anti-'Mi a ' antibodies were present in all cases of probable anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. The time required for anti-'Mi a ' boosting after transfusion was around 4-21 days. Selection of GP. Mur-negative RBC for transfusion to patients with anti-'Mi a ' records could decrease the rate of transfusion reaction and antibody boosting. This procedure should be incorporated into blood bank routines in areas where anti-'Mi a ' is prevalent. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Reflexiones sobre la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC: la experiencia de un programa de RBC en Bolivia Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR: the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urko Díaz-Aristizabal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC es una estrategia de desarrollo comunitario avalada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO, que persigue la rehabilitación, la igualdad de oportunidades y la integración social de las Personas con Discapacidad (PD en sus entornos. Con este objetivo promueve la colaboración entre las PD, sus familias y los diferentes actores de la comunidad involucrados, así como el liderazgo comunitario y la participación de las PD mediante el impulso de la colaboración multisectorial. Este artículo expone los antecedentes históricos y las características fundamentales de la estrategia de RBC a partir de un programa llevado a cabo por una fundación del departamento de Cochabamba (Bolivia, para después incidir en algunos aspectos referentes al contexto sociocultural, que especialmente en situaciones de interculturalidad, pueden determinar que un programa de RBC tenga éxito o esté abocado al fracaso.Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO, the International Labor Office (ILO and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO. It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio

  19. Analysis of RBC-microparticles in stored whole blood bags - a promising marker to detect blood doping in sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sven Christian; Jaganjac, Morana; Al-Thani, Amna Mohamed; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Raynaud, Christophe Michel; Al-Jaber, Hind; Al-Menhali, Afnan Saleh; Merenkov, Zeyed Ahmad; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Latiff, Aishah; Georgakopoulos, Costas

    2017-11-01

    Blood doping in sports is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To find a possible biomarker for the detection of blood doping, we investigated the changes in blood stored in CPDA-1 blood bags of eight healthy subjects who donated one unit of blood. Aliquots were taken on days 0, 14, and 35. Platelet-free plasma was prepared and stored at -80°C until analysis on a flow cytometer dedicated for the analysis of microparticles (MPs). Changes in the number of red blood cell (RBC) -MPs were highly significant (p doping control but confirmation by a transfusion study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Brain energy metabolism spurns fatty acids as fuel due to their inherent mitotoxicity and potential capacity to unleash neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2017-10-01

    The brain uses long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to a negligible extent as fuel for the mitochondrial energy generation, in contrast to other tissues that also demand high energy. Besides this generally accepted view, some studies using cultured neural cells or whole brain indicate a moderately active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Here, we corroborate the conclusion that brain mitochondria are unable to oxidize fatty acids. In contrast, the combustion of liver-derived ketone bodies by neural cells is long-known. Furthermore, new insights indicate the use of odd-numbered medium-chain fatty acids as valuable source for maintaining the level of intermediates of the citric acid cycle in brain mitochondria. Non-esterified LCFAs or their activated forms exert a large variety of harmful side-effects on mitochondria, such as enhancing the mitochondrial ROS generation in distinct steps of the β-oxidation and therefore potentially increasing oxidative stress. Hence, the question arises: Why do in brain energy metabolism mitochondria selectively spurn LCFAs as energy source? The most likely answer are the relatively higher content of peroxidation-sensitive polyunsaturated fatty acids and the low antioxidative defense in brain tissue. There are two remarkable peroxisomal defects, one relating to α-oxidation of phytanic acid and the other to uptake of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) which lead to pathologically high tissue levels of such fatty acids. Both, the accumulation of phytanic acid and that of VLCFAs give an enlightening insight into harmful activities of fatty acids on neural cells, which possibly explain why evolution has prevented brain mitochondria from the equipment with significant β-oxidation enzymatic capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of fatty acid intakes estimated by a food frequency questionnaire using erythrocyte fatty acid profiling in the Montreal Heart Institute Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, V; Brunet, J; Daneault, C; Tardif, J C; Des Rosiers, C; Lettre, G

    2015-12-01

    To improve the prevention, treatment and risk prediction of cardiovascular diseases, genetic markers and gene-diet interactions are currently being investigated. The Montreal Heart Institute (MHI) Biobank is suitable for such studies because of its large sample size (currently, n = 17 000), the availability of biospecimens, and the collection of data on dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids estimated from a 14-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We tested the validity of the FFQ by correlating dietary intakes of these fatty acids with their red blood cell (RBC) content in MHI Biobank participants. Seventy-five men and 75 women were selected from the Biobank. We successfully obtained RBC fatty acids for 142 subjects using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to test whether SFA scores and daily intakes (g day(-1)) of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs correlate with their RBC content. Based on covariate-adjusted analyses, intakes of n-3 PUFAs from vegetable sources were significantly correlated with RBC α-linolenic acid levels (ρ = 0.23, P = 0.007), whereas n-3 PUFA intakes from marine sources correlated significantly with RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (ρ = 0.29, P = 0.0008) and docosahexaenoic acid (ρ = 0.41, P = 9.2 × 10(-7)) levels. Intakes of n-6 PUFAs from vegetable sources correlated with RBC linoleic acid (ρ = 0.18, P = 0.04). SFA scores were not correlated with RBC total SFAs. The MHI Biobank 14-item FFQ can appropriately estimate daily intakes of n-3 PUFAs from vegetable and marine sources, as well as vegetable n-6 PUFAs, which enables the possibility of using these data in future studies. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Noninvasive evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding: comparison between contrast-enhanced MDCT and 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Stephen I; Ohki, Stephen K; Stein, Barry; Zambuto, Domenic A; Rosenberg, Ronald J; Choi, Jenny J; Tubbs, Daniel S

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare contrast-enhanced MDCT and (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scanning for the evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Over 17 months, 55 patients (32 men, 23 women; age range, 21-92 years) were evaluated prospectively with contrast-enhanced MDCT using 100 mL of iopromide 300 mg I/mL. Technetium-99m-labeled RBC scans were obtained on 41 of 55 patients and select patients underwent angiography for attempted embolization. Each imaging technique was reviewed in a blinded fashion for sensitivity for detection of active bleeding as well as the active lower gastrointestinal bleeding location. Findings were positive on both examinations in eight patients and negative on both examinations in 20 patients. Findings were positive on contrast-enhanced MDCT and negative on (99m)Tc-labeled RBC in two patients; findings were negative on contrast-enhanced MDCT and positive on (99m)Tc-labeled RBC in 11 patients. Statistics showed significant disagreement, with simple agreement = 68.3%, kappa = 0.341, and p = 0.014. Sixteen of 60 (26.7%) contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were positive prospectively, with all accurately localizing the site of bleeding and identification of the underlying lesion in eight of 16 (50%). Nineteen of 41 (46.3%) (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scans were positive. Eighteen of 41 matched patients went on to angiography. In four of these 18 (22.2%) patients, the site of bleeding was confirmed by angiography, but in 14 of 18 (77.8%), the findings were negative. Contrast-enhanced MDCT and (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scanning show significant disagreement for evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Contrast-enhanced MDCT appears effective for detection and localization in cases of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding in which hemorrhage is active at the time of CT.

  3. RBC acetyl cholinesterase: A poor man′s early diagnostic biomarker for familial alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s disease dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmatrao Saluba Bawaskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of red blood cell acetyl cholinesterase (AChE in a familial Alzheimer′s diseases (AD Parkinson′s disease dementia (PDD and their first generation. Setting: General hospital, Mahad district, Raigad. Patients and Methods: Clinically diagnosed patients of AD and PDD and their asymptomatic relatives. Their blood was collected in EDTA tube and transferred to laboratory at Mumbai. Result: Median red blood cell (RBC cholinesterase levels amongst PDD, their first generation asymptomatic relatives, familial AD, asymptomatic relatives of AD, healthy controls, farmers exposed to pesticides (positive control and other neurological condition without dementia (hypertension with TIA 1, sub-dural hematoma 2, hypothyroid 1, non-familial unilateral parkinsonism without dementia 3, writers cramps 2, hyponitremia 1 and cerebral palsy with non-fluent aphasia 1. Median values of RBC AChE were 19086.78 U/L, 15666.05 U/L, 9013.11 U/L, 7806.19 U/L, 14334.57 U/L, 9785.05 U/L and 13162.60 U/L, respectively. As compared to controls, RBC AChE levels were statistically significant among PDD (P = 0.004 and significantly lowered among familial AD patients (P = 0.010, relatives of patients (P = 0.010. Interpretations: Below the normal RBC AChE level is a potential biomarker in asymptomatic relatives of familial AD patients. RBC AChE is raised than normal level in patients suffering from PDD, where AChE inhibitors are helpful. However, RBC AChE level below the normal where AChE inhibitor may not be effective.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  6. Infantile Refsum's disease: biochemical findings suggesting multiple peroxisomal dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-The, B. T.; Saudubray, J. M.; Ogier, H.; Schutgens, R. B.; Wanders, R. J.; Schrakamp, G.; van den Bosch, H.; Trijbels, J. M.; Poulos, A.; Moser, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    Infantile Refsum's disease was diagnosed in three male patients, presenting with facial dysmorphia, retinitis pigmentosa, neurosensory hearing loss, hepatomegaly, osteopenia and delayed growth and psychomotor development. An elevated plasma phytanic acid concentration and a deficient phytanic acid

  7. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  8. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  9. Taxonomy, phylogenetics and biogeography of Chesneya (Fabaceae), evidenced from data of three sequences, ITS, trnS-trnG, and rbcL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Xiao-Li Hao; Vyacheslav V. Byalt; Alexander P. Sukhorukov; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    Plants of Central Asia have played a significant role in the origin of floras of Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Chesneya, a small leguminous genus occurring in Central Asia, western Asia, and Tibet, is used to establish phylogenetic relationships and discuss the evolutionary and biogeographical history based on sequence data of ITS and trnS-trnG and rbcL.We...

  10. Use of rbcL and trnL-F as a two-locus DNA barcode for identification of NW-European ferns: an ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de G.A.; During, H.J.; Maas, J.W.; Schneider, H.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Although consensus has now been reached on a general two-locus DNA barcode for land plants, the selected combination of markers (rbcL + matK) is not applicable for ferns at the moment. Yet especially for ferns, DNA barcoding is potentially of great value since fern gametophytes—while playing an

  11. Studies on Dasyaceae. 3. Towards a phylogeny of the Dasyaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta), based on comparative rbcL gene sequences and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Y.S D M; van der Wurff, A.W G; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    Phylogenetic analyses of the Dasyaceae based on sequence analysis of the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and 42 morphological characters are presented. Comparative sequence analysis confirms the general view of the Ceramiaceae as a primitive, paraphyletic

  12. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstead, William M [U PENNSYLVANIA; Kiessling, J W [U PENNSYLVANIA; Chen, Xiao - Han [U PENNSYLVANIA; Smith, Douglas H [U PENNSYLVANA; Higazi, Abd Ar [U PENNSYLVANIA; Cines, Douglas B [U PENNSYLVANIA; Bdeir, Khalil [U PENNSYLVANIA; Zaitsev, Sergei [U PENNSYLVANIA; Muzykantov, Vladimir R [U PENNSYLVANIA

    2008-01-01

    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  13. Etiology of cardiogenic shock early after open-heart surgery: Assessment by Tc-99m RBC wall motion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, T.; Gray, R.; Chaux, A.; Lee, M.; Matloff, J.; Raymond, M.; Berman, D.

    1984-01-01

    When life-threatening cardiogenic shock (CI 1.8 1/min/m/sup 2/, elevated right and left-side filling pressures) occurs early (0-48 hrs) after open-heart surgery, routine approaches frequently cannot distinguish between expected etiologies: (1) transient systolic failure of the LV, RV, or both, common early postoperatively (postop); (2) perioperative infarct of the LV or RV; (3) myocardial restriction due to active pericardial bleeding or to accumulated clots and fluid; (4) diminished LV reserve from aneurysmectomy; and (5) residual valvular regurgitation. Distinction is critical, because (1), (2), and (4) will be treated by optimizing preload and afterload; (3) with urgent (if active bleeding) or semi-urgent surgery; and (5) with repeat valvular surgery. In 22 pts with unexpected early postop cardiogenic shock, Tc-99m-RBC equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography revealed: global LV (3 pts) or RV (3 pts) dysfunction, new segmental LV dysfunction (2 pts), active bleeding (5 pts) and/or accumulated pericardial fluid ( 8 pts) with hyperdynamic LV and RV, and a small hyperdynamic LV without effusion (1 pt), providing a specific etiologic diagnosis in all cases. In the Cardiac Surgical ICU, therapeutic decisions frequently await and depend on the results of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, now routinely performed in postop pts with unexpected cardiogenic shock

  14. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  15. RBC urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... measurement for a result of this test. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  16. Blood fatty acid composition of pregnant and nonpregnant Korean women: red cells may act as a reservoir of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for utilization by the developing fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremeskel, K; Min, Y; Crawford, M A; Nam, J H; Kim, A; Koo, J N; Suzuki, H

    2000-05-01

    Relative fatty acid composition of plasma and red blood cell (RBC) choline phosphoglycerides (CPG), and RBC ethanolamine phosphoglycerides (EPG) of pregnant (n = 40) and nonpregnant, nonlactating (n = 40), healthy Korean women was compared. The two groups were of the same ethnic origin and comparable in age and parity. Levels of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were lower (P mothers were mobilizing membrane AA and DHA to meet the high fetal requirement for these nutrients. It may also suggest that RBC play a role as a potential store of AA and DHA and as a vehicle for the transport of these fatty acids from maternal circulation to the placenta to be utilized by the developing fetus.

  17. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA, a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated.

  18. Reconstructing a herbivore’s diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman; McShea, William J.; Ottesen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbcL gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time—sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples (F = 1.73, P = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4–12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed behaviour may favour

  19. The Crossmatch/Issue Ratio:  Use of a Novel Quality Indicator and Results of an International Survey on RBC Crossmatching and Issuing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazer, Mark H; Alcantara, Ramir; Beizai, Pouneh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To understand the worldwide scope of RBC crossmatching and issuing practices and measure efficiency using a novel quality indicator, the crossmatch/issue (C/I) ratio. METHODS: An electronic survey was disseminated to hospital transfusion services collecting details about RBC...... crossmatching and issuing practices. Respondents were asked to enumerate the number of RBCs crossmatched and issued at their institutions during the 2014 calendar year to calculate the C/I ratio. RESULTS: Fifty-two survey responses were received, mostly from North American transfusion services (28/52, 54......%). The electronic crossmatch was the most common technique (n = 29), and most respondents performed the crossmatch at the time that an order for RBCs was received in the transfusion service (even if an order to issue the RBCs was not received). Data to calculate the C/I ratio were supplied by 22 respondents...

  20. R and G color component competition of RGB image decomposition as a criterion to register RBC agglutinates for blood group typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovski, Valeri A; Ganilova, Yuliya A; Zabenkov, Igor V

    2014-03-01

    A new approach of the criterion assignment for registration of erythrocyte agglutinates to instrumentally determine blood group type is suggested. The criterion is based on comparison of R and G components of RGB decomposition of microscopy digital image taken for the blood-serum mixture sample. For the chosen experimental conditions, the minimal size (area) of RBC agglutinate to be registered by the criterion suggested is estimated theoretically. The proposed method was tested experimentally on the example of monitoring agglutinates in flow. The encouraging experimental results were obtained for improvement of the resolving power of the method; the optimal experimental conditions were revealed for maximum resolution. Though the suggested method was realized for dynamic (flow) blood group determination, it could also be applied for diagnostics in a stationary environment. This approach increases the reliability of RBC agglutinates registration and, hence, blood group typing. The results may be used to develop the apparatus for automated determination of human blood group.

  1. Phylogeny of the Juncaceae based on rbcL sequences, with special emphasis on Luzula DC. and Juncus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drábková, L.; Kirschner, J.; Seberg, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Cladistic analysis of rbcL nucleotide sequences was applied to 58 taxa representing most subgenera and sections of Luzula and Juncus, chosen to reflect morphological and geographical diversity of both genera. Additionally, representatives of all other genera of the Juncaceae and two taxa from the......-supported clade is represented by an assemblage of representatives of five genera and species distributed in the Southern Hemisphere: Juncus capensis and J. lomatophyllus (both from section Graminifolii), Rostkovia, Distichia, Marsippospermum, and Patosia....

  2. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases.

  3. Reconstructing a herbivore’s diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman; McShea, William J.; Ottesen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbcL gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time—sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples (F = 1.73, P = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4–12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed <1 % of each

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid status at 9 months is inversely associated with communicative skills in 3-year-old girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tronhjem, Kathrine Marie Hagerup; Hellgren, Lars

    2013-01-01

    by the parents using third edition of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3). RBC DHA levels ranged from 2.2% to 12.6% of the RBC fatty acids. The age of reaching milestones correlated with psychomotor development, particularly with gross motor function at 3 years. An association between milestones and later...... personal and social skills was also observed, but only for girls. In girls, RBC-DHA was found to be inversely correlated with communication at 3 years of age (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.86, P = 0.001), but no other associations with psychomotor development or milestones were found....... The results from study indicate that DHA status at 9 months may not have a pronounced beneficial effect on psychomotor development in early childhood and that communicative skills at 3 years of age may even be inversely associated with early RBC-DHA levels in girls....

  5. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background:N-3 fatty acids are associated with favorable, and obesity with unfavorable, concentrations of chronic disease risk biomarkers.Objective:We examined whether high eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid intakes, measured as percentages of total red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid...

  6. Chlorophyll-derived fatty acids regulate expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in liver - a nutritional opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfrum Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids.

  7. A two-locus global DNA barcode for land plants: the coding rbcL gene complements the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, W John; Erickson, David L

    2007-06-06

    A useful DNA barcode requires sufficient sequence variation to distinguish between species and ease of application across a broad range of taxa. Discovery of a DNA barcode for land plants has been limited by intrinsically lower rates of sequence evolution in plant genomes than that observed in animals. This low rate has complicated the trade-off in finding a locus that is universal and readily sequenced and has sufficiently high sequence divergence at the species-level. Here, a global plant DNA barcode system is evaluated by comparing universal application and degree of sequence divergence for nine putative barcode loci, including coding and non-coding regions, singly and in pairs across a phylogenetically diverse set of 48 genera (two species per genus). No single locus could discriminate among species in a pair in more than 79% of genera, whereas discrimination increased to nearly 88% when the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer was paired with one of three coding loci, including rbcL. In silico trials were conducted in which DNA sequences from GenBank were used to further evaluate the discriminatory power of a subset of these loci. These trials supported the earlier observation that trnH-psbA coupled with rbcL can correctly identify and discriminate among related species. A combination of the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region and a portion of the coding rbcL gene is recommended as a two-locus global land plant barcode that provides the necessary universality and species discrimination.

  8. The influence of irradiation potential on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of two bulk-fill flowable RBC base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Leah; Palin, William M; Moskwa, Natalia; McGinley, Emma Louise; Fleming, Garry J P

    2013-08-01

    To assess the depth of cure claims of two bulk-fill flowable RBC bases (SDR and x-tra base) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, biaxial flexure strength (BFS), and Vickers hardness number (VHN) for specimen depths of 8mm (in 1mm increments). The degree of conversion (DC) was measured by monitoring the peak height (6164cm(-1)) of specimens (11.0±0.1mm diameter, 1.0±0.1mm thickness) during light irradiation for 20s using a quartz tungsten halogen light curing unit at 650±26mW/cm(2). DC was measured up to 120s post irradiation and repeated (n=3) for irradiation depths up to 8mm (in 1mm increments). Further series (n=20) of eight discs were prepared, stacked, light irradiated and numbered from one to eight (distance from the LCU). The specimens were stored at 37±1°C for 24h and BFS tested with the fracture fragments used to determine the VHN for each specimen. X-tra base can be irradiated to 8mm without a change in DC, something the SDR material cannot claim. However, the DC results confirm both bulk-fill flowable RBC bases have a depth of cure in excess of 4mm. One-way ANOVAs of BFS and VHN data showed significant differences between irradiation depths for x-tra base and SDR with increasing irradiation depth (4mm) resulting in significant reductions in mean BFS and VHN. The claims that the bulk-fill flowable RBC bases have a depth of cure in excess of 4mm can be confirmed but the differing chemistry of the resin formulations and filler characteristics contribute to significant differences in DC, BFS and VHN data between the two materials tested. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia; Measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with sup 99m Tc-RBC SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo (Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan)); Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi

    1990-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tests for selecting patients with hemodynamic compromise, measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in thirteen patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and was compared with results obtained by {sup 133}Xe SPECT and acetazolamide (Diamox) test. All patients in our study suffered TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery, although plain CT scan or MRI revealed no or, if any, only localized infarcted lesions. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with {sup 133}Xe SPECT before and after intravenous injection of 10 - 12 mg/kg acetazolamide (Diamox). Our results suggest that the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF (mean transit time) is a more sensitive index of the cerebral perfusion reserve than the use of only rCBV or rCBF of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Also, the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF is significantly correlated (r= -0.72) with the Diamox reactivity of rCBF, which is considered to represent the cerebral vasodilatory capacity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. Postoperative SPECT study revealed remarkable improvement of ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF and Diamox reactivity in four patients who underwent EC/IC bypass surgery to improve the hemodynamic compromise. In conclusion, our results suggest that the measurement of rCBV/rCBF with {sup 133}Xe SPECT and {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT is useful for detecting the hemodynamic compromise in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (author).

  10. Validation of the omega-3 fatty acid intake measured by a web-based food frequency questionnaire against omega-3 fatty acids in red blood cells in men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, J; Moreel, X; Labonté, M-È; Léger, C; Caron, A; Julien, P; Lamarche, B; Fradet, V

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a web-based self-administered food frequency questionnaire (web-FFQ) to assess the omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) intake of men affected with prostate cancer (PCa) against a biomarker. The study presented herein is a sub-study from a phase II clinical trial. Enrolled patients afflicted with PCa were included in the sub-study analysis if the FA profiles from the red blood cell (RBC) membranes and FA intakes at baseline were both determined at the time of the data analysis (n=60). Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to estimate the correlations between FA intakes and their proportions in the RBC membranes. Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were highly correlated with their respective proportions in the RBC membranes (both rs=0.593, Pstudies carried out in men with PCa.

  11. Red blood cell polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Luo, Juhua; Pottala, James V; Espeland, Mark A; Margolis, Karen L; Manson, Joann E; Wang, Lu; Brasky, Theodore M; Robinson, Jennifer G

    The prognostic value of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels is unclear. To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) PUFA levels and risk for death. This prospective cohort study included 6501 women aged 65 to 80 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (enrolment began 1996). RBC PUFA levels were measured at baseline and expressed as a percent of total RBC PUFAs. PUFAs of primary interest were the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and their sum (the Omega-3 Index). PUFAs of secondary interest included the 2 major n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, and the PUFA factor score (a calculated variable including 6 PUFAs that accounts for their intercorrelations). The primary outcome was total mortality through August 2014. After a median of 14.9 years of follow-up, 1851 women (28.5%) had died. RBC levels of EPA and DHA were higher in the survivors (P < .002 for each). In the fully adjusted models, the hazard ratios (99% confidence intervals) for mortality associated with a 1 standard deviation PUFA increase for total mortality were 0.92 (0.85, 0.98) for the Omega-3 Index, 0.89 (0.82, 0.96) for EPA, 0.93 (0.87, 1.0) for DHA, and 0.76 (0.64, 0.90) for the PUFA factor score. There were no significant associations of alpha-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid or linoleic acid with total mortality. Higher RBC levels of marine n-3 PUFAs were associated with reduced risk for all-cause mortality. These findings support the beneficial relationship between the Omega-3 Index and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of iron deficiency in the radiopharmaceutical behavior of red blood cells labeled with 99mTc(99mTC-RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmanovici, G.; Salgueiro, M.J.; Pernas, L.; Collia, N.; Leonardi, N.; Zubillaga, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with 99m Tc are commonly used in the evaluation of cardiac function, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, red blood cell volume or splenic sequestration. Generally stannous ion is used as reducing agent. A proposed mechanism is that once the stannous ion (Sn) and the pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) reach the interior of the RBC, the radionuclide is mainly house in the β-chain of hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to determine if hemoglobin content reduction, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, could affect the efficiency of RBC labeling and the biological distribution of this radiopharmaceutical. We studied 30 rats fed for 3 weeks after weaning with diets with iron contents of 6.5 ppm (group A), 18 ppm (group B) and 100 ppm (control). For all groups, the labeling yields were always higher than 97%; the percentage of radioactivity was mostly founded in blood with almost negligible radioactivity the rest of the studied organs. We can conclude that the decrease in hemoglobin content, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, does not interfere neither in the labeling nor in the biodistribution of red blood cells labeled with 99m Tc. (author)

  13. Implications of resin-based composite (RBC) restoration on cuspal deflection and microleakage score in molar teeth: Placement protocol and restorative material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Lauren E J; Politi, Ioanna; Al-Fodeh, Rami S; Fleming, Garry J P

    2017-09-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection of standardised large mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities in third molar teeth restored using conventional resin-based composite (RBC) or their bulk fill restorative counterparts compared with the unbound condition using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge. Following thermocycling, the cervical microleakage of the restored teeth was assessed to determine marginal integrity. Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in forty-eight sound third molar teeth and randomly allocated to six groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with (and without) a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a light-emitting-diode light-curing-unit. The dependent variable was the restoration protocol, eight oblique increments for conventional RBCs or two horizontal increments for the bulk fill resin restoratives. The cumulative buccal and palatal cuspal deflections from a twin channel deflection measuring gauge were summed, the restored teeth thermally fatigued, immersed in 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage score. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified third molar teeth restored using conventional RBC materials had significantly higher mean total cuspal deflection values compared with bulk fill resin restorative restoration (all pmaterial selection is vital in the absence of clinical data. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) from two sides of the Yellow Sea: analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and plastid rbcL sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Nan; Jiang, Peng; Boo, Sung Min; Lee, Wook Jae; Cui, Yulin; Lin, Hanzhi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Zhengyi; Qin, Song

    2010-07-01

    Ulvacean green seaweeds are common worldwide; they formed massive green tides in the Yellow Sea in recent years, which caused marine ecological problems as well as a social issue. We investigated two major genera of the Ulvaceae, Ulva and Enteromorpha, and collected the plastid rbcL and nuclear ITS sequences of specimens of the genera in two sides of the Yellow Sea and analyzed them. Phylogenetic trees of rbcL data show the occurrence of five species of Enteromorpha ( E. compressa, E. flexuosa, E. intestinalis, E. linza and E. prolifera) and three species of Ulva ( U. pertusa, U. rigida and U. ohnoi). However, we found U. ohnoi, which is known as a subtropical to tropical species, at two sites on Jeju Island, Korea. Four ribotypes in partial sequences of 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 from E. compressa were also found. Ribotype network analysis revealed that the common ribotype, occurring in China, Korea and Europe, is connected with ribotypes from Europe and China/Japan. Although samples of the same species were collected from both sides of the Yellow Sea, intraspecific genetic polymorphism of each species was low among samples collected worldwide.

  15. Dietary fat intake and red blood cell fatty acid composition of children and women from three different geographical areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Rosalyn; Faber, Mieke; Kunneke, Ernesta; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-06-01

    Dietary fat intake, particularly the type of fat, is reflected in the red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) profile and is vital in growth, development and health maintenance. The FA profile (%wt/wt) of RBC membrane phospholipids (as determined by gas chromatography) and dietary intake (as determined by 24h recall) was assessed in 2-6y old South African children and their caregivers randomly selected from three communities, i.e. an urban Northern Cape community (urban-NC; n=104), an urban coastal Western Cape community (urban-WC; n=93) and a rural Limpopo Province community (rural-LP; n=102). Mean RBC FA values across groups were compared using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test while controlling for age and gender (children); median dietary intake values were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Dietary intakes for total fat, saturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs were higher in the two urban areas compared to the rural area. Total fat intake in rural-LP, and omega-3 FA dietary intake in all three areas were lower than the South African adopted guidelines. Dietary SFA intake in both urban areas was higher than recommended by South African guidelines; this was reflected in the RBC membrane FA profile. Rural-LP children had the lowest intake of omega-3 and omega-6 FAs yet presented with the highest RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) profile and highest arachidonic acid percentage. Although differences observed in dietary fat intake between the two urban and the rural area were reflected in the RBC membrane total phospholipid FA profile, the lowest total fat and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake by rural children that presented with the highest RBC DHA profile warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical Transport Knockout for Oxidized Vitamin C, Dehydroascorbic Acid, Reveals Its Functions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its transport by glucose transporters (GLUTs in vitro, it is unknown whether dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized vitamin C, DHA has any in vivo function. To investigate, we created a chemical transport knockout model using the vitamin C analog 6-bromo-ascorbate. This analog is transported on sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters but its oxidized form, 6-bromo-dehydroascorbic acid, is not transported by GLUTs. Mice (gulo−/− unable to synthesize ascorbate (vitamin C were raised on 6-bromo-ascorbate. Despite normal survival, centrifugation of blood produced hemolysis secondary to near absence of red blood cell (RBC ascorbate/6-bromo-ascorbate. Key findings with clinical implications were that RBCs in vitro transported dehydroascorbic acid but not bromo-dehydroascorbic acid; RBC ascorbate in vivo was obtained only via DHA transport; ascorbate via DHA transport in vivo was necessary for RBC structural integrity; and internal RBC ascorbate was essential to maintain ascorbate plasma concentrations in vitro/in vivo.

  17. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häser, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae). Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae), a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women. PMID:27957401

  18. Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S Harris

    Full Text Available The relations between dietary and/or circulating levels of fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Protective associations with the marine omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid, and with a marker of fatty acid desaturase activity delta-5 desaturase (D5D ratio have been reported, as have adverse relations with saturated fatty acids and D6D ratio.To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC fatty acid distributions and incident type 2 diabetes.Prospective observational cohort study nested in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.General population.Postmenopausal women.Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes.There were 703 new cases of type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow up among 6379 postmenopausal women. In the fully adjusted models, baseline RBC D5D ratio was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [Hazard Ratio (HR 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.81-0.95 per 1 SD increase. Similarly, baseline RBC D6D ratio and palmitic acid were directly associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25; and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14-1.35, respectively. None of these relations were materially altered by excluding incident cases in the first two years of follow-up. There were no significant relations with eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic or linoleic acids.Whether altered fatty acid desaturase activities or palmitic acid levels are causally related to the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be determined from this study, but our findings suggest that proportions of certain fatty acids in RBC membranes are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes.

  19. Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Luo, Juhua; Pottala, James V; Margolis, Karen L; Espeland, Mark A; Robinson, Jennifer G

    2016-01-01

    The relations between dietary and/or circulating levels of fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Protective associations with the marine omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid, and with a marker of fatty acid desaturase activity delta-5 desaturase (D5D ratio) have been reported, as have adverse relations with saturated fatty acids and D6D ratio. To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid distributions and incident type 2 diabetes. Prospective observational cohort study nested in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. General population. Postmenopausal women. Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes. There were 703 new cases of type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow up among 6379 postmenopausal women. In the fully adjusted models, baseline RBC D5D ratio was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.95) per 1 SD increase. Similarly, baseline RBC D6D ratio and palmitic acid were directly associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25; and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14-1.35, respectively). None of these relations were materially altered by excluding incident cases in the first two years of follow-up. There were no significant relations with eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic or linoleic acids. Whether altered fatty acid desaturase activities or palmitic acid levels are causally related to the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be determined from this study, but our findings suggest that proportions of certain fatty acids in RBC membranes are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes.

  20. Use of Laser Assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer (LoRRca MaxSis in the Diagnosis of RBC Membrane Disorders, Enzyme Defects, and Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias: A Monocentric Study on 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zaninoni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hemolytic anemias are a group of heterogeneous diseases mainly due to abnormalities of red cell (RBC membrane and metabolism. The more common RBC membrane disorders, classified on the basis of blood smear morphology, are hereditary spherocytosis (HS, elliptocytosis, and hereditary stomatocytoses (HSt. Among RBC enzymopathies, the most frequent is pyruvate kinase (PK deficiency, followed by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, pyrimidine 5′ nucleotidase P5′N, and other rare enzymes defects. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, diagnosis may be often challenging despite the availability of a variety of laboratory tests. The ektacytometer laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyser (LoRRca MaxSis, able to assess the RBC deformability in osmotic gradient conditions (Osmoscan analysis, is a useful diagnostic tool for RBC membrane disorders and in particular for the identification of hereditary stomatocytosis. Few data are so far available in other hemolytic anemias. We evaluated the diagnostic power of LoRRca MaxSis in a large series of 140 patients affected by RBC membrane disorders, 37 by enzymopathies, and 16 by congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II. Moreover, nine patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH were also investigated. All the hereditary spherocytoses, regardless the biochemical defect, showed altered Osmoscan curves, with a decreased Elongation Index (EI max and right shifted Omin; hereditary elliptocytosis (HE displayed a trapezoidal curve and decreased EImax. Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHSt caused by PIEZO1 mutations was characterized by left-shifted curve, whereas KCNN4 mutations were associated with a normal curve. Congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II and RBC enzymopathies had Osmoscan curve within the normal range except for glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI deficient cases who displayed an enlarged curve associated with significantly increased Ohyper, offering a

  1. Postdelivery changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte fatty acids in 3 populations differing in fresh water fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Sango, Wicklif S.; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) are important during infant development. Mother-to-infant FA-transport occurs at the expense of the maternal status. Maternal and infant FA-status change rapidly after delivery. Methods: Comparison of maternal (mRBC) and infant

  2. Levels of Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids in Patients With Psychosis, Their Unaffected Siblings, and Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Suzanne; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Vaz, Frederic M.; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Kahn, Rene; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    Background: Two recent meta-analyses showed decreased red blood cell (RBC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in schizophrenia and related disorders. However, both these meta-analyses report considerable heterogeneity, probably related to differences in patient samples between studies. Here, we

  3. Evaluación de la estrategia de rehabilitación de base comunitaria (RBC desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guajardo Córdoba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A través de este proyecto de investigación se evalúo, desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación en Chile, los distintos niveles de intervención de la RBC. Así, el objetivo que guío esta investigación fue evaluar el impacto social percibido y la aceptabilidad social de la estrategia de Rehabilitación de Base Comunitaria (RBC desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación. El marco metodológico fue definido bajo los parámetros de una investigación cualitativa de carácter descriptivo y transversal. El universo de estudio correspondió a las comunas que contaban con programas de RBC que se desarrollan a nivel nacional como parte de la política nacional de discapacidad y rehabilitación en salud. Los criterios que guiaron el proceso de muestreo fueron los de pertinencia y suficiencia de la información, por lo que  se optó  por un muestreo estructural. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó mediante análisis de contenido semánticamente orientado, siguiendo una estratega intensiva, es decir, se analizó toda la información producida durante la fase de terreno. Los resultados dan cuenta de la RBC como una estrategia  con variadas formas de implementación y desarrollo que se relaciona con la historia local, el perfil de la comunidad, perfil del centro,  perfil de usuarias/ios y las características de vinculación municipal con el programa de rehabilitación. El estudio identifica en la estrategia de RBC tres modelos de acción: biomédico, biopsicosocial y comunitario.

  4. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta: A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1 thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2 cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3 the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  5. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): a new species from South China Sea based on morphological observation and rbcL gene sequences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

    2013-01-01

    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81-108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114-133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  6. Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from China based on morphological evidence and comparative rbcL sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cuicui; Liu, Miao; Guo, Shaoru; Zhao, Dan; Luan, Rixiao; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is newly described from Hainan Province, southern China. The organism has the following morphological features: (1) purplish red, cartilaginous and lubricous thalli 5-10 cm in height; (2) compressed percurrent axes bearing abundant branches with opposite arrangement; (3) claw-like apices on top, constricted to 2-4 cm at the base; (4) cortex consisting of 3-6 layers of elliptical or anomalous cells and a medulla covered by compact medullary filaments; (5) reproductive structures distributed throughout the thallus, especially centralized at the bottom of the end portion of the branches; and (6) 4-celled Carpogonial branches and 3-celled auxiliary-cell branches, both of the Grateloupia-type. The morphological diff erences were supported by molecular phylogenetics based on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbcL) gene sequence analysis. There was only a 1 bp divergence between specimens collected from Wenchang and Lingshui of Hainan province. The new species was embedded in the large Grateloupia clade of the Halymeniaceae. The pairwise distances between G. ramosa and other species within Grateloupia ranged from 26 to 105 bp, within pairwise distances of 13-111 bp between species of the large genus Grateloupia in Halymeniaceae. Thus, we propose this new species as G. ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov.

  7. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

    2013-01-01

    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia. PMID:24455703

  8. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA, phytochrome B, rbcL, atpB, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M P; Savolainen, V; Clevinger, C C; Archer, R H; Davis, J I

    2001-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within Celastraceae (spindle-tree family) were inferred from nucleotide sequence characters from the 5' end of 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (including expansion segments D1-D3; 84 species sampled), phytochrome B (58 species), rbcL (31 species), atpB (23 species), and morphology (94 species). Among taxa of questionable affinity, Forsellesia is a member of Crossosomataceae, and Goupia is excluded from Celastraceae. However, Brexia, Canotia, Lepuropetalon, Parnassia, Siphonodon, and Stackhousiaceae are supported as members of Celastraceae. Gymnosporia and Tricerma are distinct from Maytenus, Cassine is supported as distinct from Elaeodendron, and Dicarpellum is distinct from Salacia. Catha, Maytenus, and Pristimera are not resolved as natural genera. Hippocrateaceae (including Plagiopteron and Lophopetalum) are a clade nested within a paraphyletic Celastraceae. These data also suggest that the Loesener's classification of Celastraceae sensu stricto and Hallé's classification of Hippocrateaceae are artificial. The diversification of the fruit and aril within Celastraceae appears to be complex, with multiple origins of most fruit and aril forms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of 3H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral 3 H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided

  10. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  11. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  12. Population genetic structure and phylogeographical pattern of a relict tree fern, Alsophila spinulosa (Cyatheaceae), inferred from cpDNA atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Guopei; Gu, Hongya

    2004-11-01

    Sequences of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers of individuals of a tree fern species, Alsophila spinulosa, collected from ten relict populations distributed in the Hainan and Guangdong provinces, and the Guangxi Zhuang region in southern China, were determined. Sequence length varied from 724 bp to 731 bp, showing length polymorphism, and base composition was with high A+T content between 63.17% and 63.95%. Sequences were neutral in terms of evolution (Tajima's criterion D=-1.01899, P>0.10 and Fu and Li's test D*=-1.39008, P>0.10; F*=-1.49775, P>0.10). A total of 19 haplotypes were identified based on nucleotide variation. High levels of haplotype diversity (h=0.744) and nucleotide diversity (Dij=0.01130) were detected in A. spinulosa, probably associated with its long evolutionary history, which has allowed the accumulation of genetic variation within lineages. Both the minimum spanning network and neighbor-joining trees generated for haplotypes demonstrated that current populations of A. spinulosa existing in Hainan, Guangdong, and Guangxi were subdivided into two geographical groups. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variation (93.49%, P<0.001) was partitioned among regions. Wright's isolation by distance model was not supported across extant populations. Reduced gene flow by the Qiongzhou Strait and inbreeding may result in the geographical subdivision between the Hainan and Guangdong + Guangxi populations (FST=0.95, Nm=0.03). Within each region, the star-like pattern of phylogeography of haplotypes implied a population expansion process during evolutionary history. Gene genealogies together with coalescent theory provided significant information for uncovering phylogeography of A. spinulosa.

  13. Phylogeny of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) based on DNA sequence data from ITS, psbB-psbH, and rbcL, with emphasis on taxa of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Bin Wen; Ming-Li Zhang; Ge-Lin Zhu; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2010-01-01

    To reconstruct phylogeny and verify the monophyly of major subgroups, a total of 52 species representing almost all species of Salsoleae s.l. in China were sampled, with analysis based on three molecular markers (nrDNA ITS, cpDNA psbB-psbH and rbcL), using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Our molecular evidence provides strong...

  14. A randomized study of the effect of fish oil on n-3 fatty acid incorporation and nutritional status in lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Dannerfjord, Stina Hjerrild; Nørgaard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) have been proposed to have beneficial effect on cancer cachexia. The aims of the present study were to a) determine the incorporation of n-3 LCPUFA in erythrocytes (RBC) as a measurement of compliance to fish oil (FO)-supplement in lung cancer...

  15. The effect of fish oil supplementation on brain DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Kelly J; Pickens, C Austin; Wiesinger, Jason A; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2017-12-18

    Supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may improve cognitive performance and protect against cognitive decline. However, changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition after supplementation with n-3 fatty acids are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to feed increasing n-3 fatty acids and characterise the changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition and correlate the changes with red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma in mice. Increasing dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) did not alter brain DHA. Brain EPA increased and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased across treatment groups, and correlated with fatty acid changes in the RBC (r > 0.7). Brain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids oleic and nervonic acid (p acids arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acid (p acid changes upon increasing n-3 intake should be further investigated to determine their effects on cognition and neurodegenerative disease.

  16. EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium versus EE-drospirenone + folic acid: folate status during 24 weeks of treatment and over 20 weeks following treatment cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diefenbach K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Konstanze Diefenbach,1 Dietmar Trummer,1 Frank Ebert,1 Michael Lissy,2 Manuela Koch,2 Beate Rohde,1 Hartmut Blode3 1Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany; 2Nuvisan GmbH, Neu-Ulm, Germany; 3Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Global R&D Center, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: Adequate folate supplementation in the periconceptional phase is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Oral contraceptives may provide a reasonable delivery vehicle for folate supplementation before conception in women of childbearing potential. This study aimed to demonstrate that a fixed-dose combination of an oral contraceptive and levomefolate calcium leads to sustainable improvements in folate status compared with an oral contraceptive + folic acid. Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study in which 172 healthy women aged 18–40 years received ethinylestradiol (EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium or EE-drospirenone + folic acid for 24 weeks (invasion phase, and EE-drospirenone for an additional 20 weeks (folate elimination phase. The main objective of the invasion phase was to examine the area under the folate concentration time-curve for plasma and red blood cell (RBC folate, while the main objective of the elimination phase was to determine the duration of time for which RBC folate concentration remained ≥ 906 nmol/L after cessation of EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium. Results: Mean concentration-time curves for plasma folate, RBC folate, and homocysteine were comparable between treatment groups during both study phases. During the invasion phase, plasma and RBC folate concentrations increased and approached steady-state after about 8 weeks (plasma or 24 weeks (RBC. After cessation of treatment with levomefolate calcium, folate concentrations decreased slowly. The median time to RBC folate concentrations falling below 906 nmol/L was 10 weeks (95% confidence interval 8–12 weeks after cessation

  17. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast-milk and erythrocytes and neurodevelopmental outcomes in Danish late-preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Brøndum; Hellgren, Lars I; Larsen, Mette Krogh

    2015-01-01

    found that breast-milk content of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was similar to reported fatty acid compositions of term human milk. Infant RBC-AA decreased from 1 week to 1 month of age and the size of the decrease was associated with better NNNS-scores at 1 month, specifically......Background: The supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy and early lactation has been shown to affect cognitive development in preterm infants, but the effect on early neurodevelopment of late-preterm infants has not yet been examined. Aim: To examine the fatty...... acid composition of late-preterm human milk and identify possible associations between infant LC-PUFA status and perinatal as well as 1-year neurobehavioral outcomes. Methods: Mother’s milk and erythrocytes (RBC) were sampled from 53 Danish late-preterm infants (33-36 weeks of gestation) 1 week and 1...

  18. INFLUENCIA DE LA CARGA ORGÁNICA SOBRE LA EFICIENCIA DE REACTORES RBC DE TRES ETAPAS EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE UN EFLUENTE INDUSTRIAL SINTÉTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Behling de Calmón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo incluye el estudio de la influencia de la carga orgánica (CO sobre la eficiencia de reactores biológicos rotativos de contacto (RBC, aerobios de tres etapas, al tratar un efluente industrial sintético, con la finalidad de establecer la adecuación del efluente final con respecto a los límites de descarga establecidos en la normativa de Venezuela. Durante la experimentación, se evaluaron pH, alcalinidad total, oxígeno disuelto, demanda biológica de oxígeno (DBO, demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, sólidos suspendidos totales (SST, nitrógeno total Kjeldahl (NTK, NH 4 + , NO 2 - y NO 3 - , de acuerdo con los métodos estándares. La variación de la CO aplicada se obtuvo mediante modificación del tiempo de retención hidráulico (TRH, (24, 12 y 6 h, y se mantuvo constante la DQO de entrada (influente sintético de sacarosa+ urea. La mayor eficiencia de remoción de DQO se obtuvo para un CO global de 11,68 gDQO/m 2 .d (96,25%; TRH=12 h. Para los TRH 24 y 12 h, la eficiencia de remoción global de N-total fue de 66,92 y 62,95%, respectivamente. La mayor remoción de C y de N se obtuvo en la primera etapa de los reactores y se logró cumplir con el límite venezolano permisible de descarga para DQO (<350 mg/L. La posible ocurrencia del proceso de nitrificación repercutió sobre el aumento de las concentraciones de nitrógeno inorgánico en el efluente final.

  19. Evolution of RLSB, a nuclear-encoded S1 domain RNA binding protein associated with post-transcriptional regulation of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Stata, Matt; Siford, Rebecca; Sage, Tammy L; Sage, Rowan F; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A; Berry, James O

    2016-06-29

    RLSB, an S-1 domain RNA binding protein of Arabidopsis, selectively binds rbcL mRNA and co-localizes with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) within chloroplasts of C3 and C4 plants. Previous studies using both Arabidopsis (C3) and maize (C4) suggest RLSB homologs are post-transcriptional regulators of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA. While RLSB accumulates in all Arabidopsis leaf chlorenchyma cells, in C4 leaves RLSB-like proteins accumulate only within Rubisco-containing bundle sheath chloroplasts of Kranz-type species, and only within central compartment chloroplasts in the single cell C4 plant Bienertia. Our recent evidence implicates this mRNA binding protein as a primary determinant of rbcL expression, cellular localization/compartmentalization, and photosynthetic function in all multicellular green plants. This study addresses the hypothesis that RLSB is a highly conserved Rubisco regulatory factor that occurs in the chloroplasts all higher plants. Phylogenetic analysis has identified RLSB orthologs and paralogs in all major plant groups, from ancient liverworts to recent angiosperms. RLSB homologs were also identified in algae of the division Charophyta, a lineage closely related to land plants. RLSB-like sequences were not identified in any other algae, suggesting that it may be specific to the evolutionary line leading to land plants. The RLSB family occurs in single copy across most angiosperms, although a few species with two copies were identified, seemingly randomly distributed throughout the various taxa, although perhaps correlating in some cases with known ancient whole genome duplications. Monocots of the order Poales (Poaceae and Cyperaceae) were found to contain two copies, designated here as RLSB-a and RLSB-b, with only RLSB-a implicated in the regulation of rbcL across the maize developmental gradient. Analysis of microsynteny in angiosperms revealed high levels of conservation across eudicot species and for both paralogs in

  20. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protei...

  1. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  2. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  3. A reassessment of the in vitro RBC haemolysis assay with defibrinated sheep blood for the determination of the ocular irritation potential of cosmetic products: comparison with the in vivo Draize rabbit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eloísa Nunes; Presgrave, Rosaura de Farias; Presgrave, Octávio Augusto França; Sabagh, Fernanda Peres; de Freitas, João Carlos Borges Rolim; Corrado, Alexandre P

    2008-07-01

    We examined the correlation between results obtained from the in vivo Draize test for ocular irritation and in vitro results obtained from the sheep red blood cell (RBC) haemolytic assay, which assesses haemolysis and protein denaturation in erythrocytes, induced by cosmetic products. We sought to validate the haemolytic assay as a preliminary test for identifying highly-irritative products, and also to evaluate the in vitro test as alternative assay for replacement of the in vivo test. In vitro and in vivo analyses were carried out on 19 cosmetic products, in order to correlate the lesions in the ocular structures with three in vitro parameters: (i) the extent of haemolysis (H50); (ii) the protein denaturation index (DI); and (iii) the H50/DI ratio, which reflects the irritation potential (IP). There was significant correlation between maximum average scores (MAS) and the parameters determined in vitro (r = 0.752-0.764). These results indicate that the RBC assay is a useful and rapid test for use as a screening method to assess the IP of cosmetic products, and for predicting the IP value with a high level of concordance (94.7%). The assay showed high sensitivity and specificity rates of 91.6% and 100%, respectively.

  4. Fatty acid profiles among the Inuit of Nunavik: current status and temporal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Françoise; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The Inuit undergo substantial changes in their lifestyle, but few data exist on how these changes occur in biomarkers, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here, we report data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 among 861 representative Nunavik Inuit adults, in whom FAs were measured in red blood cells (RBCs). FAs were also measured in plasma phospholipids (n=452) to assess temporal trend by comparing plasma PUFAs measured in 1992. Food intakes were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In 2004, marine food intake was 84±4g/d (±SEM). Adjusted-mean of RBC omega-3 was significantly higher, and omega-6 lower, in older age groups (PtrendInuit adults still have high RBC omega-3, but show signs of nutritional transition - as indicated by lower omega-3 and higher trans-fats in RBCs of young compared to older. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine whether red blood cell (RBC membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, arachidonic acid (AA are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma (NTG.METHODS:This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification. Lipids were extracted from RBC membranes and plasma, and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.RESULTS:When RBC lipids were analyzed, the levels of EPA, the levels of DHA and the ratio of n3 to n6 were positively associated with the Humphrey Perimetry mean deviation (MD score (r=0.617, P<0.001; r=0.727, P<0.001 and r=0.720, P<0.001, respectively, while the level of AA was negatively associated with the MD score (r=-0.427, P=0.001. When plasma lipids were analyzed, there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of EPA and the MD score (r=0.648, P<0.001, and the levels of AA were inversely correlated with the MD score (r=-0.638, P<0.001.CONCLUSION:The levels of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in RBC membrane and plasma lipids were associated with severity of NTG.

  6. Correlation of Erythrocyte Trans Fatty Acids with Ovulatory Disorder Infertility in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisa Ghaffarzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acids are considered to be the important modifiable factor of the ovulatory infertility disorder. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher trans fatty acids of erythrocytes (RBC are associated with the risk of ovulatory infertility disorder in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Thirty five infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, defined by AES criteria and 29 age-matched healthy women as a control group were recruited for the study. After physical measurements and nutritional assessment, blood samples were collected. Fasting serum glucose and insulin were measured, and then insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. The patients group had higher waist circumference (WC, insulin levels, HOMA-IR than controls (p< 0.05. Also, case group had lower percentage of normal BMI (BMI<25, physical activity and education levels than healthy women (p< 0.05. Among RBC trans fatty acids only trans linoleate (18:2t were significantly higher in case group than control women (p= 0.019. PCOS group tended to consume more food rich in TFAs than the control group. Logistic regression analysis also showed that only 18:2t is positively associated with risk of ovulatory disorder infertility in PCOS (OR= 1.225, 95% CI. 1.024-1.465; P= 0.026, which was not affected after adjustment for BMI, physical activity and education levels. The results suggested that RBC trans fatty acids might be a predictor of increased risk for ovulatory infertility disorder in women with PCOS.

  7. Comparative scintigraphy in oleic acid pulmonary microvascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugerman, H.J.; Hirsch, J.I.; Tatum, J.L.; Strash, A.M.; Sharp, D.E.; Greenfield, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    Computerized gamma scintigraphy revealed a significant (p less than 0.001) rising lung:heart radioactivity ratio, which has been called ''slope of injury'' or ''slope index'', with both 99mTechnetium-tagged human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and 99mTechnetium-tagged red blood cells (99Tc-RBC) after 0.05 or 0.2 ml/kg iv oleic acid administration to dogs. This slope index was significantly greater with 99mTc-HSA than 99mTc-RBC (p less than 0.001). These findings verify that the scintigraphic 99mTc-HSA slope of injury is a result of a pulmonary capillary protein leak and not oleic acid induced changes in pulmonary blood or air volume. The leak of red blood cells noted with scintigraphy was confirmed by light microscopy and examination of the tracheal edema fluid. The leak of albumin, however, was much greater than the leak of red blood cells by microscopy and tracheal fluid examination, confirming the scintigraphic data. This study provides further evidence that computerized gamma scintigraphy will be of value for the diagnosis of permeability pulmonary edema and its response to treatment

  8. Neither folic acid supplementation nor pregnancy affects the distribution of folate forms in the red blood cells of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brenda A; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2014-09-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30-36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P methyl-THF [limit of detection (LOD) = 0.06 nmol/L] in all groups and tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.2 nmol/L) in most women regardless of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype. Most women consuming folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83-84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6-3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women. This trial was registered at

  9. A randomised trial of the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements on the human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Henry; Mitra, Suparna; Croden, Fiona C; Taylor, Morag; Wood, Henry M; Perry, Sarah L; Spencer, Jade A; Quirke, Phil; Toogood, Giles J; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise; Loadman, Paul M; Hull, Mark A

    2017-09-26

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anticolorectal cancer (CRC) activity. The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary omega-3 PUFAs alter the mouse intestinal microbiome compatible with antineoplastic activity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplements on the faecal microbiome in middle-aged, healthy volunteers (n=22). A randomised, open-label, cross-over trial of 8 weeks' treatment with 4 g mixed eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid in two formulations (soft-gel capsules and Smartfish drinks), separated by a 12-week 'washout' period. Faecal samples were collected at five time-points for microbiome analysis by 16S ribosomal RNA PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid analysis was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Both omega-3 PUFA formulations induced similar changes in RBC fatty acid content, except that drinks were associated with a larger, and more prolonged, decrease in omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid than the capsule intervention (p=0.02). There were no significant changes in α or β diversity, or phyla composition, associated with omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, a reversible increased abundance of several genera, including Bifidobacterium , Roseburia and Lactobacillus was observed with one or both omega-3 PUFA interventions. Microbiome changes did not correlate with RBC omega-3 PUFA incorporation or development of omega-3 PUFA-induced diarrhoea. There were no treatment order effects. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation induces a reversible increase in several short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, independently of the method of administration. There is no simple relationship between the intestinal microbiome and systemic omega-3 PUFA exposure. ISRCTN18662143. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation in pregnancy differentially modulates arachidonic acid and DHA status across FADS genotypes in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, S A; Kerling, E H; Shaddy, D J; Li, S; Thodosoff, J M; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-03-01

    Some FADS alleles are associated with lower DHA and ARA status assessed by the relative amount of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma and red blood cell (RBC) phospholipids (PL). We determined two FADS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cohort of pregnant women and examined the relationship of FADS1rs174533 and FADS2rs174575 to DHA and ARA status before and after supplementation with 600mg per day of DHA. The 205 pregnant women studied were randomly assigned to placebo (mixed soy and corn oil) (n=96) or 600mg algal DHA (n=109) in 3 capsules per day for the last two trimesters of pregnancy. Women homozygous for the minor allele of FADS1rs174533 (but not FADS2rs174575) had lower DHA and ARA status at baseline. At delivery, minor allele homozygotes of FADS1rs174533 in the placebo group had lower RBC-DHA compared to major-allele carriers (P=0.031), while in the DHA-supplemented group, all genotypes had higher DHA status compared to baseline (P=0.001) and status did not differ by genotype (P=0.941). Surprisingly, DHA but not the placebo decreased ARA status of minor allele homozygotes of both FADS SNPs but not major allele homozygotes at delivery. Any physiological effects of changing the DHA to ARA ratio by increasing DHA intake appears to be greater in minor allele homozygotes of some FADS SNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. iAB-RBC-283: A proteomically derived knowledge-base of erythrocyte metabolism that can be used to simulate its physiological and patho-physiological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Jamshidi, Neema; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2011-07-12

    The development of high-throughput technologies capable of whole cell measurements of genes, proteins, and metabolites has led to the emergence of systems biology. Integrated analysis of the resulting omic data sets has proved to be hard to achieve. Metabolic network reconstructions enable complex relationships amongst molecular components to be represented formally in a biologically relevant manner while respecting physical constraints. In silico models derived from such reconstructions can then be queried or interrogated through mathematical simulations. Proteomic profiling studies of the mature human erythrocyte have shown more proteins present related to metabolic function than previously thought; however the significance and the causal consequences of these findings have not been explored. Erythrocyte proteomic data was used to reconstruct the most expansive description of erythrocyte metabolism to date, following extensive manual curation, assessment of the literature, and functional testing. The reconstruction contains 281 enzymes representing functions from glycolysis to cofactor and amino acid metabolism. Such a comprehensive view of erythrocyte metabolism implicates the erythrocyte as a potential biomarker for different diseases as well as a 'cell-based' drug-screening tool. The analysis shows that 94 erythrocyte enzymes are implicated in morbid single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 142 pathologies. In addition, over 230 FDA-approved and experimental pharmaceuticals have enzymatic targets in the erythrocyte. The advancement of proteomic technologies and increased generation of high-throughput proteomic data have created the need for a means to analyze these data in a coherent manner. Network reconstructions provide a systematic means to integrate and analyze proteomic data in a biologically meaning manner. Analysis of the red cell proteome has revealed an unexpected level of complexity in the functional capabilities of human erythrocyte metabolism.

  12. iAB-RBC-283: A proteomically derived knowledge-base of erythrocyte metabolism that can be used to simulate its physiological and patho-physiological states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsson Bernhard O

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of high-throughput technologies capable of whole cell measurements of genes, proteins, and metabolites has led to the emergence of systems biology. Integrated analysis of the resulting omic data sets has proved to be hard to achieve. Metabolic network reconstructions enable complex relationships amongst molecular components to be represented formally in a biologically relevant manner while respecting physical constraints. In silico models derived from such reconstructions can then be queried or interrogated through mathematical simulations. Proteomic profiling studies of the mature human erythrocyte have shown more proteins present related to metabolic function than previously thought; however the significance and the causal consequences of these findings have not been explored. Results Erythrocyte proteomic data was used to reconstruct the most expansive description of erythrocyte metabolism to date, following extensive manual curation, assessment of the literature, and functional testing. The reconstruction contains 281 enzymes representing functions from glycolysis to cofactor and amino acid metabolism. Such a comprehensive view of erythrocyte metabolism implicates the erythrocyte as a potential biomarker for different diseases as well as a 'cell-based' drug-screening tool. The analysis shows that 94 erythrocyte enzymes are implicated in morbid single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 142 pathologies. In addition, over 230 FDA-approved and experimental pharmaceuticals have enzymatic targets in the erythrocyte. Conclusion The advancement of proteomic technologies and increased generation of high-throughput proteomic data have created the need for a means to analyze these data in a coherent manner. Network reconstructions provide a systematic means to integrate and analyze proteomic data in a biologically meaning manner. Analysis of the red cell proteome has revealed an unexpected level of complexity in

  13. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  14. Neither Folic Acid Supplementation nor Pregnancy Affects the Distribution of Folate Forms in the Red Blood Cells of Women1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Brenda A.; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoies...

  15. Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Devlin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers (n = 133 age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation, randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day and ARA (200 mg/day supplement (supplement or a corn oil supplement (control until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III cognitive and language composites and Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery VMI at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21–9.00, B (95% CI, p = 0.045 in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10–17.94, p < 0.001 and girls (11.19 (4.69–17.68, p = 0.001. These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months.

  16. Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Angela M.; Chau, Cecil M. Y.; Matheson, Julie; McCarthy, Deanna; Yurko-Mauro, Karin; Innis, Sheila M.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers (n = 133) age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation), randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day) and ARA (200 mg/day) supplement (supplement) or a corn oil supplement (control) until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) cognitive and language composites and Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery VMI) at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21–9.00), B (95% CI), p = 0.045) in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10–17.94), p < 0.001) and girls (11.19 (4.69–17.68), p = 0.001). These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months. PMID:28878181

  17. Discapacidad, pobreza y sus abordajes: Revisión de la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC Aproaches in disability and poverty: Review of community based rehabilitation strategy (CBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nabergoi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados de una revisión bibliográfica sobre la estrategia de Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC. El mismo fue elaborado en el marco de los proyectos de Beca de Doctorado UBACyT "Desempeño ocupacional y salud en personas con discapacidad motriz en situación de pobreza" y Proyecto UBACyT "Praxis Psicosocial Comunitaria en Salud". Se describen antecedentes, características de la propuesta original, su evolución y algunas experiencias relevadas en América Latina.The article presents the results of a literature review on Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR. It was written within the framework of the Doctorate UBACyT Scholarship Project "Occupational Performance and Health in Motor Disabled People in Poverty Situation" and the UBACyT Project "Psychosocial Community Praxis in Health". Background, characteristics, evolution and some experiences in Latin America are described.

  18. Neither Folic Acid Supplementation nor Pregnancy Affects the Distribution of Folate Forms in the Red Blood Cells of Women1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brenda A.; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30–36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P methyl-THF [limit of detection (LOD) = 0.06 nmol/L] in all groups and tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.2 nmol/L) in most women regardless of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype. Most women consuming folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83–84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6–3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women. This trial was registered

  19. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  20. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of important medicinal plant species in genus Paeonia based on rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL DNA barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Choi, G; Kang, Y M; Yang, S; Moon, B C

    2016-08-05

    This study was performed to identify and analyze the phylogenetic relationship among four herbaceous species of the genus Paeonia, P. lactiflora, P. japonica, P. veitchii, and P. suffruticosa, using DNA barcodes. These four species, which are commonly used in traditional medicine as Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex, are pharmaceutically defined in different ways in the national pharmacopoeias in Korea, Japan, and China. To authenticate the different species used in these medicines, we evaluated rDNA-internal transcribed spacers (ITS), matK and rbcL regions, which provide information capable of effectively distinguishing each species from one another. Seventeen samples were collected from different geographic regions in Korea and China, and DNA barcode regions were amplified using universal primers. Comparative analyses of these DNA barcode sequences revealed species-specific nucleotide sequences capable of discriminating the four Paeonia species. Among the entire sequences of three barcodes, marker nucleotides were identified at three positions in P. lactiflora, eleven in P. japonica, five in P. veitchii, and 25 in P. suffruticosa. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed four distinct clusters showing homogeneous clades with high resolution at the species level. The results demonstrate that the analysis of these three DNA barcode sequences is a reliable method for identifying the four Paeonia species and can be used to authenticate Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex at the species level. Furthermore, based on the assessment of amplicon sizes, inter/intra-specific distances, marker nucleotides, and phylogenetic analysis, rDNA-ITS was the most suitable DNA barcode for identification of these species.

  1. Enzymatic and free radical formation of cis- and trans- epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Theresa; Raccor, Brianne S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Gharib, Sina A; Xu, Libin; Totah, Rheem A

    2017-11-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) oxidation that have important cardioprotective and signaling properties. AA is an ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is prone to autoxidation. Although hydroperoxides and isoprostanes are major autoxidation products of AA, EETs are also formed from the largely overlooked peroxyl radical addition mechanism. While autoxidation yields both cis- and trans-EETs, cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases have been shown to exclusively catalyze the formation of all regioisomer cis-EETs, on each of the double bonds. In plasma and red blood cell (RBC) membranes, cis- and trans-EETs have been observed, and both have multiple physiological functions. We developed a sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) assay that separates cis- and trans- isomers of EETs and applied it to determine the relative distribution of cis- vs. trans-EETs in reaction mixtures of AA subjected to free radical oxidation in benzene and liposomes in vitro. We also determined the in vivo distribution of EETs in several tissues, including human and mouse heart, and RBC membranes. We then measured EET levels in heart and RBC of young mice compared to old. Formation of EETs in free radical reactions of AA in benzene and in liposomes exhibited time- and AA concentration-dependent increase and trans-EET levels were higher than cis-EETs under both conditions. In contrast, cis-EET levels were overall higher in biological samples. In general, trans-EETs increased with mouse age more than cis-EETs. We propose a mechanism for the non-enzymatic formation of cis- and trans-EETs involving addition of the peroxyl radical to one of AA's double bonds followed by bond rotation and intramolecular homolytic substitution (S H i). Enzymatic formation of cis-EETs by cytochrome P450 most likely occurs via a one-step concerted mechanism that does not allow bond rotation. The ability to accurately measure

  2. Infantile Refsum disease: an inherited peroxisomal disorder. Comparison with Zellweger syndrome and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-The, B. T.; Saudubray, J. M.; Ogier, H. A.; Odièvre, M.; Scotto, J. M.; Monnens, L.; Govaerts, L. C.; Roels, F.; Cornelis, A.; Schutgens, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Three patients affected by infantile Refsum disease are described with mental retardation, minor facial dysmorphia, chorioretinopathy, sensorineural hearing deficit, hepatomegaly, failure to thrive and hypocholesterolaemia. Initially, only an accumulation of phytanic acid was thought to be present.

  3. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia G. Walker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC, cholesteryl ester (CE and triglyceride (TAG and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC, red blood cells (RBC and platelets (PLAT. Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%–64% of placebo in the four portions group. We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

  4. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Celia G; West, Annette L; Browning, Lucy M; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2015-08-03

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0-4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

  5. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Kaitlin; Walton, Kathryn; Klingel, Shannon L.; Harnett, Amber; Subedi, Sanjeena; Haines, Jess; Mutch, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18–25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks). Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC) FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10−4) in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe. PMID:28272299

  6. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin Roke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1 gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA intake and blood levels in young female adults (18–25 years. Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention and Non-Genetic (control groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10−4 in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe.

  7. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  8. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  9. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  10. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  11. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  12. Sulfur amino acids metabolism in magnesium deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tojo, H.; Kosokawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of magnesium (Mg) deficiency on sulfur amino acid metabolism was investigated in rats. Young male rats were fed on the diet containing either 2.26 (deficient rats) or 63.18 mg Mg/100g diet (control and low protein rats) for 2 weeks. A remarkable decrease of body weight gain, serum Mg contents and a slight decreases in the hematological parameters such as Hb, Ht and RBC was observed, while the hepatic Mg and Ca was not significantly changed. Erythema and cramps were observed 5 days after feeding on the Mg-depleted diet. The hepatic glutathione and cysteine contents increased in Mg-deficient rats. However, no significant change of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) activity and taurine content in Mg-deficient rat liver was observed. These results suggest that Mg deficiency affects the utilization and biosynthesis of hepatic glutathione but not the cysteine catabolism.

  13. Plasma and erythrocyte uptake of omega-3 fatty acids from an intravenous fish oil based lipid emulsion in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltweri, A M; Thomas, A L; Fisk, H L; Arshad, A; Calder, P C; Dennison, A R; Bowrey, D J

    2017-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that short term intravenous (IV) administration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is more effective than oral supplementation at promoting incorporation of the bioactive omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into plasma, blood cells and tissues. The effect of repeated short term IV infusion of omega-3 PUFAs was investigated in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer during palliative chemotherapy. Patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer (n = 21) were recruited into a phase II pilot clinical trial. All patients were scheduled for an intravenous infusion of Omegaven ® (fish oil supplement containing EPA and DHA) at a rate of 2 ml/kg body weight for 4 h once a week for up to six months. Blood samples were collected to assess omega-3 PUFA uptake into plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and into red blood cell (RBC) membranes. Fatty acid profiles were analysed by gas chromatography. Twenty patients received at least one Omegaven ® treatment and were included in the analysis. Each infusion of omega-3 PUFAs resulted in increased EPA and DHA in plasma NEFAs, but there was little effect on PUFAs within plasma PC during the infusions. However, with repeated weekly infusion of omega-3 PUFAs, the EPA content of plasma PC and of RBC membranes increased. Repeated weekly omega-3 PUFA infusion is effective in enriching plasma PC and RBC membranes in EPA in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy. Clinical Trials.Gov NCT01870791. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Acid-citrate-dextrose compared with heparin in the preparation of in vivo/in vitro technetium-99m red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.C.; Dees, S.M.; Freitas, J.E.; Dworkin, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Red blood cells labeled in vivo/in vitro with Tc-99m (Tc-99m RBC) were prepared in a series of 21 patients and two normal volunteers. In each subject both heparin and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) solutions were used to label tandem blood samples. The immediate preinjection binding efficiency (BE) was then determined. In each of the 23 studies, the ACD preparation yielded superior BE. The average BE was 93.47% (+/- 3.78) with ACD and 87.23% (+/- 4.29) with heparin. With the ACD method the effect of carrier Tc-99 may be as great as a 24% reduction in BE observed when initial eluates from long-ingrowth-time generators were used. Improved image quality with minimal renal and urinary-bladder activity results with ACD labeling. It is concluded that the use of ACD results in superior RBC labeling with less nontarget activity relative to heparin and is preferred over heparin for preparing in vivo/in vitro Tc-99m RBC

  15. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  16. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  17. Polymorphism in the fatty acid desaturase genes and diet are important determinants of infant n-3 fatty acid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, L.B.S.; Larsen, L.H.; Ritz, C.

    and polymorphism in the genes that encodes the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has little effect on DHA-status in adults. It is however unclear to what extent endogenous DHA-synthesis contributes to infant DHA-status. Aim: To investigate the role of diet and FADS polymorphism on DHA-status at 9 months and 3 years...... breastfeeding was obtained by questionnaires and fish intake was assessed by 7-day pre-coded food diaries. Results: FADS-genotype, breastfeeding, and fish intake were found to explain 25% of the variation in infant RBC DHA-status (mean±SD: 6.6±1.9% of the fatty acids (FA%)). Breastfeeding was the most important......Background and objectives: Tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in early infancy has been shown to be supported by the DHA-content of breast-milk and thus may decrease once complementary feeding takes over. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from alpha-linolenic acid has been shown to be very low...

  18. Dairy fat blends high in α-linolenic acid are superior to n-3 fatty-acid-enriched palm oil blends for increasing DHA levels in the brains of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qin; Martin, Jean-Charles; Agnani, Genevieve; Pages, Nicole; Leruyet, Pascale; Carayon, Pierre; Delplanque, Bernadette

    2012-12-01

    Achieving an appropriate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status in the neonatal brain is an important goal of neonatal nutrition. We evaluated how different dietary fat matrices improved DHA content in the brains of both male and female rats. Forty rats of each gender were born from dams fed over gestation and lactation with a low α-linolenic acid (ALA) diet (0.4% of fatty acids) and subjected for 6 weeks after weaning to a palm oil blend-based diet (10% by weight) that provided either 1.5% ALA or 1.5% ALA and 0.12% DHA with 0.4% arachidonic acid or to an anhydrous dairy fat blend that provided 1.5% or 2.3% ALA. Fatty acids in the plasma, red blood cells (RBCs) and whole brain were determined by gas chromatography. The 1.5% ALA dairy fat was superior to both the 1.5% ALA palm oil blends for increasing brain DHA (14.4% increase, PDHA due to a gender-to-diet interaction, with dairy fats attenuating the gender effect. Brain DHA was predicted with a better accuracy by some plasma and RBC fatty acids when used in combination (R(2) of 0.6) than when used individually (R(2)=0.47 for RBC n-3 docosapentaenoic acid at best). In conclusion, dairy fat blends enriched with ALA appear to be an interesting strategy for achieving optimal DHA levels in the brain of postweaning rats. Human applications are worth considering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteomics--Part I: Proteomics and RBC physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Erica M; Lutz, Hans U; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W

    2010-01-03

    Membrane proteomics is concerned with accurately and sensitively identifying molecules involved in cell compartmentalisation, including those controlling the interface between the cell and the outside world. The high lipid content of the environment in which these proteins are found often causes a particular set of problems that must be overcome when isolating the required material before effective HPLC-MS approaches can be performed. The membrane is an unusually dynamic cellular structure since it interacts with an ever changing environment. A full understanding of this critical cell component will ultimately require, in addition to proteomics, lipidomics, glycomics, interactomics and study of post-translational modifications. Devoid of nucleus and organelles in mammalian species other than camelids, and constantly in motion in the blood stream, red blood cells (RBCs) are the sole mammalian oxygen transporter. The fact that mature mammalian RBCs have no internal membrane-bound organelles, somewhat simplifies proteomics analysis of the plasma membrane and the fact that it has no nucleus disqualifies microarray based methods. Proteomics has the potential to provide a better understanding of this critical interface, and thereby assist in identifying new approaches to diseases. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal and neonatal dietary intake of balanced n-6/n-3 fatty acids modulates experimental colitis in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-08-01

    The imbalance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the maternal diet impairs intestinal barrier development and sensitizes the colon response to inflammatory insults in the young rats. With a view to overcoming this issue, we designed this study to investigate the effect of maternal and neonatal intake of different proportions of n-6/n-3 fatty acids on colon inflammation in the young adult rats. Female Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, and each group fed one of four semisynthetic diets, namely n-6, low n-3, n-6/n-3 and n-3 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation periods. At weaning, the pups were separated from the dams and fed diet similar to the mothers. Colitis was induced on postnatal day 35, by administering 2 % dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 10 days. Colitis was assessed based on the clinical and inflammatory markers in the colon. Fatty acid analysis was done in liver, RBC, colon and spleen. A balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA diet significantly improved the body weight loss, rectal bleeding and mortality in rats. This was associated with lower myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α and IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and iNOS levels in the colon tissues. Fatty acid analysis has shown that the arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio was significantly lower in liver, RBC, colon and spleen in n-6/n-3 and n-3 diet groups. We demonstrate that balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation in maternal and neonatal diet alters systemic AA/DHA ratio and attenuates colon inflammation in the young adult rats.

  1. Formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1921-12-03

    The production of formic acid by the oxidation of methane with a metallic oxide or by the interaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor in the presence of a catalyst, preferably a metallic oxide, is described along with the destructive distillation of carbonaceous material in the preesnce of formic acid vapor for the purpose of increasing the yield of condensible hydrocarbons.

  2. Soy-based infant formula supplemented with DHA and ARA supports growth and increases circulating levels of these fatty acids in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Dennis; Ziegler, Ekhard; Mitmesser, Susan H; Harris, Cheryl L; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group trial to evaluate safety, benefits, and growth from 14 to 120 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age and 24-h dietary and tolerance recall were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Blood samples were drawn from subsets of 25 infants in each group. Capillary column gas chromatography was used to analyze the percentages of fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) lipids and plasma phospholipids. Compared with the control group, percentages of fatty acids such as DHA and ARA in total RBC and plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in infants in the DHA + ARA group at 120 days of age (P soy-based formula supplemented with DHA and ARA from single cell oil sources at concentrations similar to human milk significantly increased circulating levels of DHA and ARA when compared with the control group. Both formulas supported normal growth and were well tolerated.

  3. Does topical tranexamic acid reduce postcoronary artery bypass graft bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mirmohammadsadeghi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative bleeding is a common problem in cardiac surgery. We tried to evaluate the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TA on reducing postoperative bleeding of patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six isolated primary CABG patients were included in this clinical trial. They were divided blindly into two groups; Group 1, patients receiving 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline poured into mediastinal cavity before closing the chest and Group 2, patients receiving 100 ml normal saline at the end of operation. First 24 and 48 h chest tube drainage, hemoglobin decrease and packed RBC transfusion needs were compared. Results: Both groups were the same in baseline characteristics including gender, age, body mass index, ejection fraction, clamp time, bypass time, and operation length. During the first 24 h postoperatively, mean chest tube drainage in intervention group was 567 ml compared to 564 ml in control group (P = 0.89. Mean total chest tube drainage was 780 ml in intervention group and 715 ml in control group (P = 0.27. There was no significant difference in both mean hemoglobin decrease (P = 0.26 and packed RBC transfusion (P = 0.7. Topical application of 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline does not reduce postoperative bleeding of isolated on-pump CABG surgery. Conclusion: We do not recommend topical usage of 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline for decreasing blood loss in on-pump CABG patients.

  4. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Infants at High Genetic Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H. Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S.; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first five months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex Multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1μg/mL. RESULTS The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61–100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6 to 36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα or IL-12p40 at any of the 6 time points measured. The inflammatory marker, hsCRP, was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at age 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥ two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. PMID:25039804

  5. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on inflammatory cytokine levels in infants at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double-blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first 5 months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1 µg/mL. The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61-100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6-36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα, or IL-12p40 at any of the six timepoints measured. The inflammatory marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at the age of 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  7. Erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acids are inversely associated with incident dementia: Secondary analyses of longitudinal data from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Eric M; Pottala, James V; Robinson, Jennifer G; Espeland, Mark A; Harris, William S

    2017-06-01

    To assess whether red blood cell (RBC) docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA+EPA) levels have a protective association with the risk of dementia in older women. RBC DHA+EPA levels were assessed at baseline, and cognitive status was evaluated annually in a cohort of 6706 women aged ≥65 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). Cox regression was used to quantify the association between RBC DHA+EPA and the risk of probable dementia, independent of major dementia risk factors. During a median follow-up period of 9.8 years, 587 incident cases of probable dementia were identified. After adjusting for demographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors, a one standard deviation increase in DHA+EPA levels was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia (HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.00; p < 0.05). This effect estimate did not meaningfully change after further adjustment for baseline cognitive function and APOE genotype. For women with high DHA+EPA exposure (1SD above mean) compared to low exposure (1SD below mean), the adjusted 15-year absolute risk difference for dementia was 2.1% (95% CI: 0.2%, 4.0%). In secondary analyses, we also observed a protective association with longitudinal change in Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Exam scores, but no significant association with incident MCI, PD/MCI, or baseline 3MS scores. Higher levels of DHA+EPA may help protect against the development of dementia. Results from prospective randomized controlled trials of DHA+EPA supplementation are needed to help clarify whether this association is causal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  9. Acid rain. Les pluies acides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, T

    1979-11-28

    This report was produced for the use of Members of Parliament and House of Commons committees. The document describes the formation of acid rain, emissions of acidifying pollutants in North America, the growth of the problem and its environmental effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, human health and man-made structures. Areas of Canada which are most susceptible are identified. Actions taken by Parliament are given, including the formation of a sub-committee on acid rain and the passing of Bill C-51 in 1980 to amend the Clean Air Act, bringing it closer to a similar law in the U.S. A chronology of government responses to acid rain at the international, national and provincial level, is given. The most recent government actions included the passing of the US Clean Air Act by the Senate, the amending of the act into law, and commencement of negotiations to develop a Canada-US Air Quality Accord. 10 refs.

  10. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  11. Ferulic acid modification enhances the anti-oxidation activity of natural Hb in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Donglai; Li, Qian; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiang

    2018-03-13

    During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability. It was showed that Hb modified with FA (FA-Hb) had similar oxygen-binding capacity to natural Hb. Moreover, the anti-oxidant ability of FA-Hb in vitro in different systems was superior to natural Hb and in proportion to the degree of modification of FA. The results indicate that FA-Hb might have the potential to serve as a novel oxygen carrier with the capacity to reduce oxidative side reaction.

  12. Prevention of Ophthalmia Neonatorum Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae Using a Fatty Acid-Based Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin P. Churchward

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmia neonatorum, also called neonatal conjunctivitis, acquired during delivery can occur in the first 28 days of life. Commonly caused by the bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae, infection can lead to corneal scarring, perforation of the eye, and blindness. One approach that can be taken to prevent the disease is the use of an ophthalmic prophylaxis, which kills the bacteria on the surface of the eye shortly after birth. Current prophylaxes are based on antibiotic ointments. However, N. gonorrhoeae is resistant to many antibiotics and alternative treatments must be developed before the condition becomes untreatable. This study focused on developing a fatty acid-based prophylaxis. For this, 37 fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives were screened in vitro for fast antigonococcal activity. Seven candidates were identified as bactericidal at 1 mM. These seven were subjected to irritation testing using three separate methods: the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP test; the hen’s egg test—chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM; and the red blood cell (RBC lysis assay. The candidates were also tested in artificial tear fluid to determine whether they were effective in this environment. Four of the candidates remained effective. Among these, two lead candidates, monocaprin and myristoleic acid, displayed the best potential as active compounds in the development of a fatty acid-based prophylaxis for prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum.

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) balance in developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John; Jill Shaddy, D; Kerling, Elizabeth H; Gustafson, Kathleen M; Carlson, Susan E

    2017-06-01

    The DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development (DIAMOND) trial represents one of only a few studies of the long-term dose-response effects of LCPUFA-supplemented formula feeding during infancy. The trial contrasted the effects of four formulations: 0.00% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.00% arachidonic acid (ARA), 0.32% DHA/0.64% ARA, 0.64% DHA/0.64% ARA, and 0.96% DHA/0.64% ARA against a control condition (0.00% DHA/0.00% ARA). The results of this trial have been published elsewhere, and show improved cognitive outcomes for infants fed supplemented formulas, but a common finding among many of the outcomes show a reduction of benefit for the highest DHA dose (i.e., 0.96%DHA/0.64% ARA, that is, a DHA: ARA ratio 1.5:1.0). The current paper gathers and summarizes the evidence for the reduction of benefit at this dose, and in an attempt to account for this reduced benefit, presents for the first time data from infants' red blood cell (RBC) assays taken at 4 and 12 months of age. Those assays indicate that blood DHA levels generally rose with increased DHA supplementation, although those levels tended to plateau as the DHA-supplemented level exceeded 0.64%. Perhaps more importantly, ARA levels showed a strong inverted-U function in response to increased DHA supplementation; indeed, infants assigned to the formula with the highest dose of DHA (and highest DHA/ARA ratio) showed a reduction in blood ARA relative to more intermediate DHA doses. This finding raises the possibility that reduced ARA may be responsible for the reduction in benefit on cognitive outcomes seen at this dose. The findings implicate the DHA/ARA balance as an important variable in the contribution of LCPUFAs to cognitive and behavioral development in infancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential response to an algae supplement high in DHA mediated by maternal periconceptional diet: intergenerational effects of n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Edward H; Lamb, Tracy A; Refshauge, Gordon; Kerr, Matthew J; Bailes, Kristy L; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2014-08-01

    Algae high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may provide a source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) for inclusion in the diet of lambs to improve the LCn-3PUFA status of meat. The effect of background LCn-3PUFA status on the metabolism of high DHA algae is, however, unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the response to a high in DHA algae supplement fed to lambs for six weeks prior to slaughter was mediated by a maternal periconceptional diet. Forty Poll Dorset × Border Leicester × Merino weaner lambs were allocated to receive either a ration based on oat grain, lupin grain, and chopped lucerne (control) or the control ration with DHA-Gold™ algae included at 1.92 % DM (Algae) based on whether the dams of lambs had previously been fed a diet high in n-3 or n-6 around conception. LCn-3PUFA concentration was determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) prior to and following feeding. The concentrations of EPA and DHA in the plasma and RBC of lambs receiving the control ration were significantly (p DHA were also significantly (p DHA was, however, significantly (p DHA.

  15. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  16. Detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism in right ventricular hypertrophy. Assessment by I-123 {beta}-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-ih; Goto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Go [Nishiyodo Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Chiba, Hiroshi; Okada, Tomoya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1997-08-01

    The subjects consisted of 6 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 4 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 2 each with refractory pulmonary tuberculosis, tricuspid insufficiency, pulmonary embolism, 1 each with atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (Eisenmenger complex), Ebstein anomaly, and endocardial defect, and 7 healthy controls. SPECT imaging with Tl-201 (Tl) and I-123 BMIPP, and Tc-99m RBC first pass and gated blood pool scintigraphy were performed. Based on Tl planar images, the subjects were classified into 3 groups: 7 patients with no RV visualization (Group A), 11 with moderate RV visualization (Group B) and 9 with marked RV visualization (Group C). As a semi-quantitative evaluation by a myocardial SPECT, 3 regions in 3 representative short axial images were divided into 9 segments, each of which was graded from 0 to +3, and their sum was calculated as the RV score. The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and the left ventricular ejection fraction were obtained by Tc-99m RBC cardiac scintigraphy. The groups with marked visualization of the right ventricle had lower RVEF, and there was a good correlation between the RVEF and the RV score with both a and BMIPP. Although a good correlation was demonstrated between the RV score with Tl and BMIPP in Groups A and B, in Group C, in which there was marked RV Tl visualization, the RV score with BMIPP was significantly smaller than with Tl. These findings suggest that impaired fatty acid metabolism may exist in severely hypertrophic right ventricle due to RV overload. (K.H.)

  17. Detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism in right ventricular hypertrophy. Assessment by I-123 β-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-ih; Goto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Go; Chiba, Hiroshi; Okada, Tomoya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko.

    1997-01-01

    The subjects consisted of 6 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 4 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 2 each with refractory pulmonary tuberculosis, tricuspid insufficiency, pulmonary embolism, 1 each with atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (Eisenmenger complex), Ebstein anomaly, and endocardial defect, and 7 healthy controls. SPECT imaging with Tl-201 (Tl) and I-123 BMIPP, and Tc-99m RBC first pass and gated blood pool scintigraphy were performed. Based on Tl planar images, the subjects were classified into 3 groups: 7 patients with no RV visualization (Group A), 11 with moderate RV visualization (Group B) and 9 with marked RV visualization (Group C). As a semi-quantitative evaluation by a myocardial SPECT, 3 regions in 3 representative short axial images were divided into 9 segments, each of which was graded from 0 to +3, and their sum was calculated as the RV score. The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF and the left ventricular ejection fraction were obtained by Tc-99m RBC cardiac scintigraphy. The groups with marked visualization of the right ventricle had lower RVEF, and there was a good correlation between the RVEF and the RV score with both a and BMIPP. Although a good correlation was demonstrated between the RV score with Tl and BMIPP in Groups A and B, in Group C, in which there was marked RV Tl visualization, the RV score with BMIPP was significantly smaller than with Tl. These findings suggest that impaired fatty acid metabolism may exist in severely hypertrophic right ventricle due to RV overload. (K.H.)

  18. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  19. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    are the hallmark of phospholipidosis, a pathological condition characterized by lysosomal phospholipid accumulation. Phospholipidosis is observed in acquired lysosomal storage diseases and is induced by a large number of cationic amphiphilic drugs. Unlike the latter, however, OA does not act by accumulating...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...

  20. Identification of a Herbal Powder by Deoxyribonucleic Acid Barcoding and Structural Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Bhavisha P; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2015-10-01

    Authentic identification of plants is essential for exploiting their medicinal properties as well as to stop the adulteration and malpractices with the trade of the same. To identify a herbal powder obtained from a herbalist in the local vicinity of Rajkot, Gujarat, using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding and molecular tools. The DNA was extracted from a herbal powder and selected Cassia species, followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the rbcL barcode locus. Thereafter the sequences were subjected to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis, followed by the protein three-dimension structure determination of the rbcL protein from the herbal powder and Cassia species namely Cassia fistula, Cassia tora and Cassia javanica (sequences obtained in the present study), Cassia Roxburghii, and Cassia abbreviata (sequences retrieved from Genbank). Further, the multiple and pairwise structural alignment were carried out in order to identify the herbal powder. The nucleotide sequences obtained from the selected species of Cassia were submitted to Genbank (Accession No. JX141397, JX141405, JX141420). The NCBI BLAST analysis of the rbcL protein from the herbal powder showed an equal sequence similarity (with reference to different parameters like E value, maximum identity, total score, query coverage) to C. javanica and C. roxburghii. In order to solve the ambiguities of the BLAST result, a protein structural approach was implemented. The protein homology models obtained in the present study were submitted to the protein model database (PM0079748-PM0079753). The pairwise structural alignment of the herbal powder (as template) and C. javanica and C. roxburghii (as targets individually) revealed a close similarity of the herbal powder with C. javanica. A strategy as used here, incorporating the integrated use of DNA barcoding and protein structural analyses could be adopted, as a novel

  1. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  2. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  3. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  4. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  5. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  6. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  7. Resistance of essential fatty acid-deficient rats to endotoxin-induced increases in vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, E.J.; Cook, J.A.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Rokach, J.; Halushka, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Resistance to endotoxin in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats is associated with reduced synthesis of certain arachidonic acid metabolites. It was hypothesized that EFAD rats would manifest decreased vascular permeability changes during endotoxemia as a consequence of reduced arachidonic acid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, changes in hematocrit (HCT) and mesenteric localization rate of technetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) were assessed in EFAD and normal rats using gamma-camera imaging. Thirty minutes after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin, EFAD rats exhibited less hemoconcentration as determined by % HCT than normal rats. Endotoxin caused a less severe change in permeability index in the splanchnic region in EFAD rats than in normal rats (1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(-3)min-1 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(-3)min-1 respectively, P less than 0.05). In contrast to 99mTc-HSA, mesenteric localization of 99mTc-RBC was not changed by endotoxin in control or EFAD rats. Supplementation with ethyl-arachidonic acid did not enhance susceptibility of EFAD rats to endotoxin-induced splanchnic permeability to 99mTc-HSA. Leukotrienes have been implicated as mediators of increased vascular permeability in endotoxin shock. Since LTC3 formation has been reported to be increased in EFA deficiency, we hypothesized that LTC3 may be less potent than LTC4. Thus the effect of LTC3 on mean arterial pressure and permeability was compared to LTC4 in normal rats. LTC3-induced increases in peak mean arterial pressure were less than LTC4 at 10 micrograms/kg (39 +/- 5 mm Hg vs. 58 +/- 4 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05) and at 20 micrograms/kg (56 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 75 +/- 2 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05). LY171883 (30 mg/kg), an LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, attenuated the pressor effect of LTC4, LTD4, and LTC3

  8. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  9. Stiffness of RBC optical confinement affected by optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-03-01

    In vivo optical trapping is a novel applied direction of an optical manipulation, which enables one to noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of cells and tissues in living animals directly. But an application area of this direction is limited because strong scattering of many biological tissues. An optical clearing enables one to decrease the scattering and therefore increase a depth of light penetration, decrease a distortion of light beam, improve a resolution in imaging applications. Now novel methods had appeared for a measurement an optical clearing degree at a cellular level. But these methods aren't applicable in vivo. In this paper we present novel measurement method of estimate of the optical clearing, which are based on a measurement of optical trap stiffness. Our method may be applicable in vivo.

  10. Membrane fatty acid composition of different target populations: Importance of baseline on supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA supplementation has been widely used regardless the initial FA composition of the studied population. In this work we compared the red blood cell FA (RBC-FA composition in healthy and different diseased populations at baseline and show how this affects the incorporation of n-3 FA supplementation in ICU-trauma patients. Blood was drawn from Healthy (H, n = 22, Psoriasis (P, n = 13, Cancer(C, n = 81, Geriatric (G, n = 49, Social-phobia (SP, n = 27 and ICU-trauma (T, n = 40 patients before n-3 FA supplementation. For the T group blood was also drawn 8 days after receiving a formula with 4.1 g/L EPA and 5.5 g/L GLA (Oxepa, Abbott. RBC-FA was assessed by gas chromatography and the percentage of each FA was calculated in relation to the total identified FAs. Baseline RBC-FA profile was significantly different between groups (p < 0.0001 with subjects in the healthy group having higher n-3 FA status. H and SP showed the highest content in total n-3 FA (11.89 ± 0.22% H vs 7.45 ± 0.26% T and EPA (1.61 ± 0.03% H vs 0.41 ± 0.13% P. DHA was higher in C and H than in the other groups (6.15 ± 0.15% C vs 4.32 ± 0.11% T. ARA was highest in C (16.04 ± 0.20% C vs 14.85 ± 0.22% H and comparable in the rest of the groups. The n-6/n-3 ratio was lowest for H and highest for T (2.75 ± 0.07 vs 4.96 ± 0.13. Moreover, we showed that for the T group, the treatment-associated changes in the n-3 content are dependent on the initial n-3 FA status, since a negative correlation between the baseline omega 3 index (EPA + DHA and its change after supplementation was found (p = 0.002, r2 = 0.219. We conclude that RBC-FA profile should be evaluated and considered individually for each patient or groups before generalized supplementation schemes, strengthening the concept of personalized medicine.

  11. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  12. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  13. Peroxisomes, lipid metabolism, and human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the past few years, much has been learned about the metabolic functions of peroxisomes. These studies have shown that peroxisomes play a major role in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid beta-oxidation, etherphospholipid biosynthesis, and phytanic acid alpha-oxidation. This article describes

  14. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  15. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  16. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  17. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  18. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and Pregnancy Print ...

  19. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  20. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  1. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  2. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  3. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  4. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  5. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Prolonged maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid and adenosine triphosphate in red blood cells during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Dirk; Kleine, Mya; Korsten, Herbert G H; Verhoeven, Arthur J

    2008-06-01

    Current additive solutions (ASs) for red cells (RBCs) do not maintain a constant level of critical metabolites such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid (2,3-DPG) during cold storage. From the literature it is known that the intracellular pH is an important determinant of RBC metabolism. Therefore, a new, alkaline, AS was developed with the aim to allow cold storage of RBCs with stable product characteristics. Whole blood-derived RBCs (leukoreduced) were resuspended in experimental medium phosphate-adenine-guanosine-glucose-gluconate-mannitol (PAGGG-M; pH 8.2) with and without washing in the same medium. During cold storage several in vitro variables, such as intracellular pH, 2,3-DPG, ATP, and hemolysis, were analyzed. During cold storage, RBCs resuspended in PAGGG-M showed a constant ATP level (approx. 6 mumol/g Hb) and a very limited hemolysis (level), followed by a slow decrease, with at Day 35 still 100 percent of the initial level. RBCs washed in PAGGG-M even showed a continuous increase of 2,3-DPG during 35 days, with a maximum level of 200 percent of the initial value. The effect of PAGGG-M appears to be related to long-lasting effects of the initial intracellular pH shortly after production. Resuspension of RBCs in our alkaline medium PAGGG-M resulted in a RBC unit of high quality during storage for up to at least 35 days, with 2,3-DPG levels of higher than 10 mumol per g Hb, hemolysis of less than 0.2 percent, and ATP levels of higher than 5 mumol per g Hb.

  7. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  8. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  9. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  10. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  11. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  12. Influência de desproteinizantes ácidos na quantificação da glutationa reduzida eritrocitária por CLAE-UV Influence of deproteinizing acids in erythrocytic reduced glutathione quantification by HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Schott

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Large differences in reduced glutathione (GSH levels have been found in different investigations, also in healthy people. GSH oxidation in vitro has been associated with sample acidification in the presence of oxihemoglobin. In this work, the influence of different acids on GSH determination utilizing HPLC with UV detection was evaluated. The results showed that metaphosphoric acid and sulfosalicylic acid were inadequate for analysis, because metaphosphoric acid showed to be inefficient for deproteinization and with sulfosalicylic acid loss of GSH was observed. Trichloroacetic acid did not effect GSH quantification, since the deproteinized form was immediately derivatized with 5, 5´-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid. Methods with TCA deproteinization presented linear results from 0.5 to 3.0 mM. The correlation coefficient between aqueous curves and GSH spiked RBC exceeded 0.99. Precision calculations showed CV lower than 10% and bias within ± 10% for concentrations of 0.5; 1.5 and 3.0 mM GSH. The recovery was higher than 94%. Moreover, GSH blood concentrations were independent of hemoglobin concentrations.

  13. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  14. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  15. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids in the coastal Arabian Sea sediments: whereas amino acids content of fulvic acids was lower than that of humic acids in the coastal sediments of Bay of Bengal. Slope sedimentary humic acids were relatively enriched in amino acids as compared...

  16. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  17. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  18. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  19. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  20. Acidity of hydroxamic acids and amides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, S.; Exner, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 7 (2003), s. 1176-1180 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : hydroxamic acids * DFT calculations * isodesmic reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Original article. Mitigation of diazinon-induced cardiovascular and renal dysfunction by gallic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibade Temitayo Olabisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the link between environmental pollutants and cardiovascular dysfunction, neglected for decades, have recently provided new insights into the pathology and consequences of these killers. In this study, rats were divided into four groups, each containing 10 rats. The rats in group one served as controls and were administered normal saline, whereas the rats in group two were orally gavaged with 3 mg/kg of diazinon (DZN alone for twenty one consecutive days. The rats in groups 3 and 4 were administered respective 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg gallic acid (GA in addition to DZN for twenty one consecutive days. Exposure of rats to diazinon significantly (p<0.05 reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH content. Malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO contents were also significantly (p<0.05 elevated following DZN exposure. DZN further caused a significant (p<0.05 decrease of heart rate and QT interval prolongation. Hematologic analysis revealed significant reduction (p<0.05 in packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, red blood cell (RBC count, and total white blood cell count of rats administered only DZN. Observations in this study suggest a modulatory role of gallic acid in diazinon-induced anemia and associated cardiovascular dysfunction in rats. Treatment with gallic acid reversed the oxidative stress markers studied, increased the antioxidant defence system and reduced deleterious effects on hematological parameters in rats. Pathologic findings of the heart and kidney were also found to be lessened.

  2. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown goo...

  3. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  4. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  5. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  6. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  7. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  8. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  9. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regularly removed from the body through urine, so excess amounts do not build up in the body. You should not get more than 1000 mcg per day of folic acid. Using higher levels of folic acid can mask vitamin B12 deficiency.

  10. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  11. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  12. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  13. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  14. Phosphates and phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P [Compagnie Francaise de l' Azote, Paris (France)

    1983-01-01

    In chapter 8.5 the following aspects of uranium recovery are treated: basis of extraction process, extraction principle, solvents, strength of the acid to be treated, technology, main processes in use, impact of uranium recovery on phosphoric acid plants, and economics of uranium recovery plants.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  16. Disease-modifying effect of anthraquinone prodrug with boswellic acid on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaneshwar, Suneela; Dipmala, Patil; Abhay, Harsulkar; Prashant, Bhondave

    2013-08-01

    Diacerein and its active metabolite rhein are promising disease modifying agents for osteoarthritis (OA). Boswellic acid is an active ingredient of Gugglu; a herbal medicine commonly administered in osteoarthritis. Both of them possess excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities. It was thought interesting to conjugate rhein and boswellic acid into a mutual prodrug (DSRB) and evaluate its efficacy on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats wherein the conjugate, rhein, boswellic acid and their physical mixture, were tested based on various parameters. Oral administration of 3.85 mg of rhein, 12.36 mg of boswellic acid and 15.73 mg of DSRB which would release equimolar amounts of rhein and boswellic acid, exhibited significant restoration in rat body weight as compared to the untreated arthritic control group. Increase in knee diameter (mm), due to edema was observed in group injected with collagenase, which reduced significantly with the treatment of conjugate. The hematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR) and biochemical parameters (CRP, SALP, SGOT and SGPT) in the osteoarthritic rats were significantly brought back to normal values on treatment with conjugate. It also showed better anti-ulcer activity than rhein. Further the histopathological studies revealed significant anti-arthritic activity of conjugate when compared with the arthritic control group. In conclusion, the conjugate at the specified dose level of 15.73 mg/kg, p. o. (BID) showed reduction in knee diameter and it could significantly normalize the hematological and biochemical abnormalities in collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Further the histopathological studies confirmed the additive anti-arthritic effect of DSRB as compared to plain rhein.

  17. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  18. Enzymatic formation of hexadecenoic acid from palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masao; Fujino, Yasuhiko

    1975-01-01

    Desaturation of palmitic acid was investigated in an enzyme system prepared from rat liver. 2-trans-Hexadecenoic acid as well as 9-cis-gexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) were found to be formed as monoenoic acid in this system. (author)

  19. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  20. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  1. Red blood transfusion in preterm infants: changes in glucose, electrolytes and acid base balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelghaffar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm neonates comprise the most heavily transfused group of patients, and about 85% of extremely low birth weight newborns receive a transfusion by the end of their hospital stay. The aim of this study was to assess the possible metabolic effects of RBC transfusion on preterm infants, especially during the first 2 weeks of life, and its relation to blood volume. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 preterm neonates with gestational age of less than or equal to 34 weeks. They received RBCs transfusion during first 2 weeks of life. Venous blood samples of infants were collected 2 to 4 hours before and 1 hour after the end of transfusion to evaluate hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrit, acid-base, electrolytes, and glucose status. Then, infants were classified into two main groups: those who received RBCs volume less than or 20 ml/kg and those who received RBCs volume more than 20 ml/kg. Results: Infants received a mean volume of 20.38 ± 3.2 ml/kg RBCs (range, 10.9 - 26.6 ml/kg at a median age of 9.8 ± 3.6 days. After transfusion, a significant increase of mean Hb (P<0.001, mean Hct (P<0.001, pH (P<0.001, pO 2 (P<0.05, and a significant decrease of the pCO2 (41.46 ± 8.8torr vs 35.4 ± 9.34 torr; P<0.001 were observed. In addition, there was a significant increase of serum K + (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of Ca +2 (P<0.001. A positive correlation was found between the K + intake and the changes of kalemia (r = 0.99; P = 0.00. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between the patients′ calcium intake and the changes of calcemia (r = -0.35; P = 0.02. On comparing the changes in clinical and biochemical variables between two groups after transfusion, we observed a significant increase in mean Hb and Hct associated with a significant decrease in mean serum Ca +2 (P<0.001 in the group receiving the larger blood volume. Conclusion: RBC transfusion was effective in improving anemia, oxygenation, increasing

  2. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  3. Toxic effects on bioaccumulation and hematological parameters of juvenile rockfish Sebastes schlegelii exposed to dietary lead (Pb) and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2017-06-01

    Juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 11.3 ± 1.2 cm, and mean weight 32.5 ± 4.1 g) were exposed for four weeks to dietary lead (Pb 2+ ) at 0, 120, and 240 mg/L and ascorbic acid (AsA) at 100, 200, and 400 mg/L. The exposure concentrations and duration of significant Pb-induced accumulations in specific tissues of S. schlegelii were assessed. High levels of ascorbic acid significantly attenuated accumulations following exposure to dietary Pb. Dietary Pb exposure caused a significant increase in blood Pb concentrations, whereas red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were significantly decreased. Notable changes were also observed in plasma calcium, magnesium, glucose, cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT). The growth performance of S. schlegelii was significantly decreased. High doses AsA supplemention were effective in attenuating the changes brought about by dietary Pb exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  5. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE GLYCOSYLATING FLAVOKERMESIC ACID AND/OR KERMESIC ACID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  6. Waht is 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytko, K.H.; Baethe, G.; Mehmke, K.

    1987-01-01

    According to a comparative study of the literature, supplemented by well-aimed experimental investigations and equilibrium calculations, the terms 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid', used for many substances, species, or solutions in the literature, are applicable to a species, a solution, and two solids: a) The monomeric molybdic acid, most probably having the formula MoO 2 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (= H 2 MoO 4 , aq), exists in (aqueous) solution only and never exceeds a concentration of ∼ 10 -3 M since at higher concentrations it reacts with other monomeric molybdenum(VI) species to give anionic or cationic polymers. b) A concentrated (> 0.1 M Mo VI ) aqueous molybdate solution of degree of acidification P = 2 (realized, e.g., by a solution of one of the Mo VI oxides; by any molybdate solutions whose cations have been exchanged by H 2 O + on a cation exchanger; by suitable acidification of a molybdate solution) contains 8 H 3 O + and the well-known polyanion Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 8- exactly in the stoichiometric proportions. c) A glassy substance, obtained from an alkali metal salt-free solution prepared acording to (b), refers to the compound (H 3 O) 8 [Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 ] · xH 2 O, x = 25 - 29. d) A solid having the ideal composition [(H 3 O)Mo 5 O 15 (OH)H 2 O · H 2 O] ∞ consists of a polymolybdate skeleton (the well-known 'decamolybdate' structure), in the tunnels of which H 3 O + and H 2 O are intercalated. The structure is very unstable if only H 3 O + cations are present, but it is enormously stabilized by a partial exchange of H 3 O + by certain alkali or alkaline earth metal cations. For the compounds MoO 3 , MoO 3 ·H 2 O, and MoO 3 · 2 H 2 O the term 'molybdic acid' is unjustified. The commercial product 'molybdic acid, ∼ 85% MoO 3 ' is the well-known polymolybdate (NH 4 ) 2 O · 4 MoO 3 with a layer structure of the polyanion. 84 refs. (author)

  7. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  8. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  9. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  10. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  11. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or tenderness (8), chemical burns (6), and increased sunburn (3). The frequency of such reports for skin ... bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid ( ...

  12. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  13. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is possible. Studies have found that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual ... valproic acid to leave your body. Women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder who are planning a pregnancy ...

  14. Early infant adipose deposition is positively associated with the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in human milk independent of maternal BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M C; Young, B E; Lemas, D J; Palmer, C E; Hernandez, T L; Barbour, L A; Friedman, J E; Krebs, N F; MacLean, P S

    2017-04-01

    Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-month of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased threefold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBCs) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2 weeks and 4 months postpartum. Forty-eight infants from normal weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) mothers were exclusively or predominantly breastfed over the first 4 months of lactation. Mid-feed HM and maternal RBC were collected at either transitional (2 weeks) or established (4 months) lactation, along with infant body composition assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. The FA composition of HM and maternal RBC was measured quantitatively by lipid mass spectrometry. In transitional and established HM, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was lower (P=0.008; 0.005) and the arachidonic acid (AA)/DHA+eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio was higher (P=0.05; 0.02) in the OB relative to the NW group. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and AA/DHA+EPA ratios in transitional and established HM were moderately correlated (P=0.018; 0.001). Total infant fat mass was increased in the upper AA/DHA+EPA tertile of established HM relative to the lower tertile (P=0.019). The amount of changes in infant fat mass and percentage of body fat were predicted by AA/EPA+DHA ratios in established HM (P=0.038; 0.010). Perinatal infant exposures to a high AA/EPA+DHA ratio during the first 4 months of life, which is primarily reflective of maternal dietary FA, may significantly contribute to

  15. (n-3) Fatty acid content of red blood cells does not predict risk of future cardiovascular events following an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsetoey, Hildegunn; Pönitz, Volker; Grundt, Heidi; Staines, Harry; Harris, William S; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2009-03-01

    A reduced risk of fatal coronary artery disease has been associated with a high intake of (n-3) fatty acids (FA) and a direct cardioprotective effect by their incorporation into myocardial cells has been suggested. Based on these observations, the omega-3 index (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in cell membranes of RBC expressed as percent of total FA) has been suggested as a new risk marker for cardiac death. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the omega-3 index as a prognostic risk marker following hospitalization with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The omega-3 index was measured at admission in 460 patients with an ACS as defined by Troponin-T (TnT) > or = 0.02 microg/L. During a 2-y follow-up, recurrent myocardial infarctions (MI) (defined as TnT > 0.05 microg/L with a typical MI presentation) and cardiac and all-cause mortality were registered. Cox regression analyses were used to relate the risk of new events to the quartiles of the omega-3 index at inclusion. After correction for age, sex, previous heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, homocysteine, BMI, and medication, there was no significant reduction in risk for all-cause mortality, cardiac death, or MI with increasing values of the index. In conclusion, we could not confirm the omega-3 index as a useful prognostic risk marker following an ACS.

  16. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  17. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  18. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  19. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  20. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick

    2005-11-08

    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  1. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  2. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  3. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  4. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Gerard

    1972-01-01

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF 3 (CH 3 COOH) 2 . The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF 3 COOH and CH 3 COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation [fr

  5. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  6. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Angeline

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD. In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. Methods This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I Determination of rates of NTDs; II Dietary assessment; III Blood analysis; IV Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. Results The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34. The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86% after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35. The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. Conclusions Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the

  7. Citric acid by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, R M

    1978-11-30

    Citric acid is produced in 2 stages, in the first of which Escherichia coli KG93 F-is cultured on a substrate consisting of whey permeate to which phosphate and nitrate or urea is added. In the second stage, Hansenula wickerhamii CBS 4308 is cultured on the culture solution from the first stage and the citric acid isolated in the usual manner. Thus, a whey permeate comprising fat 0.20, protein 0.05, lactose 5.0, lactic acid 0.1, and salts 0.6% (Ca 0.06, P 0.06, K 0.16, N 0.03, and NaCl 0.3%) was amended with 1.2 g phosphate/L and 1.0 g NO/sub 3/sup -///L. After introducing the whey permeate into a continuous fermentor, it was inoculated with E. coli K693 F- and allowed to incubate at 37/sup 0/ and pH 7 (Maintained with NH/sub 3/ gas) for 12 h with aeration, thereby producing concentration pyruvic acid. After an additional 6 h cultivation without aeration, the broth was transferred to another fermentor and there inoculated with H. wickerhamii CBS 4308. The second cultivation step was carried out at 30/sup 0/ and a pH of 5 for 24 h with the pH stabilized by NH/sub 3/ gas. To the second stage culture, 0.3 g Fe(CN)/sup 4 -//L was added. The yield of pyruvic acid in the first stage was 32 g/L and the final yield of citric acid was 43 g/L.

  8. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  9. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  10. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria I; Mazzucco, Sara; Biolo, Gianni; Farcomeni, Alessio; Ramaccini, Cesarina; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Monti, Massimo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC) patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition. Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day). Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 10 days of supplementation (T1) to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in red blood cells (RBC) membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P -value DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls ( P DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03). No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as "good seafood consumers" showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to "low seafood consumers" ( P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively). After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was greater in "low seafood consumers" with respect to "good seafood consumers" ( P DHA supplementation was associated with increased DHA levels and omega-3 index in RBC membranes of BC cancer patients, independent of the type of BC presentation, and in controls. BRCA1/2 mutation, as well as low seafood consuming habits in both BC patients and healthy

  11. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition.Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 10 days of supplementation (T1 to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, in red blood cells (RBC membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Forty-three women were studied, divided into 4 groups: 11 patients with BRCA1/2 gene mutation (M group, 12 patients with familiar positive history for BC (F group, 10 patients with sporadic BC (S group, and 10 healthy controls (C group. DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls (P < 0.001. No difference was found in DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03. No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as “good seafood consumers” showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to “low seafood consumers” (P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively. After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was

  12. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  13. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  14. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  15. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  16. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  17. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  18. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  19. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  20. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  1. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  2. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  3. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  4. Nucleic acids in circulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders. In addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is ...

  5. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  6. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  7. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  8. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  9. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  10. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the body can't store them. If the body can't use all of the vitamin, the extra vitamins leave the body through the ...

  11. and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    P RABINDRA REDDY* and A MOHAN REDDY. Department of ... The mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with uridine and amino acids ..... Sabat M, Satyashur K A and Sundaralingam M 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc. ... Uemura T, Shimura T, Nakamishi H, Tomahiro T, Nagawa Y and Okuno (Yohmei) H 1991. Inorg.

  12. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a

  13. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  14. Ecotoxicological impacts of clofibric acid and diclofenac in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings: hematological, biochemical, ionoregulatory and enzymological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Manoharan; Karthika, Subramanian; Malarvizhi, Annamalai; Ramesh, Mathan

    2011-11-15

    Investigation on the toxic effects of pharmaceutical drugs namely clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) were studied in a common carp Cyprinus carpio at different concentrations such as 1, 10 and 100 μg L(-1) for a short-term period of 96 h under static bioassay method. At all concentrations, red blood cell (RBC), plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) levels were decreased in fish treated with CA and DCF. Contrastingly, white blood cell (WBC), plasma glucose, protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase level were increased. However, a mixed trend was observed in hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), plasma chloride (Cl(-)), mean cellular volume (MCV), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH), mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels. There was a significant (P<0.01 and P<0.05) change in all parameters measured in fish exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. In summary, the alterations in hematological, biochemical, ionoregulatory and enzymological parameters can be used as biomarkers in monitoring the toxicity of CA and DCF in aquatic environment. However, more detailed studies on using of specific biomarkers to monitor the human pharmaceuticals are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurocognitive effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and vitamins E+C in schizophrenia: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, H; Landrø, N I

    2017-10-16

    There is need for more efficient treatment of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In this 16 weeks randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we examined neurocognitive effects of adding ethyl-eicosapentaenoate 2g/day and/or vitamins E 364mg/day + C 1000mg/day to antipsychotics in 53 patients aged 18-39 years with acute schizophrenia. For the sake of validating neurocognitive tests, healthy subjects, not taking trial drugs, were also included in the study. Ethyl-EPA given alone to patients with low baseline RBC polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and Vitamins E+C given alone to high PUFA patients, impaired sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test, CPT-IP d prime score), standardised effect sizes d = 0.78 and d = 0.69, respectively. These adverse effects were paralleled by excessive increases in long-chain PUFA and serum alpha-tocopherol, respectively. They were counteracted by combining ethyl-EPA and vitamins, d = 0.80 and d = 0.74 in low and high PUFA patients, respectively. No other neurocognitive tests yielded significant results. Plausible mechanisms of harmful effects are oxidative stress and lipid raft disruption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  17. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  18. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  19. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  20. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  1. Radioimmunoassay for jasmonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoefel, H.D.; Brueckner, C.; Kramell, R.; Sembdner, G.; Schreiber, K. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1984-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the natural plant growth regulator jasmonic acid (JA) was developed. The antiserum was raised in rabbits against (+-)-JA linked to bovine serum albumin. As tracer tritium labelled (+-)-JA (spec. act. 7.4 x 10/sup 9/ Bq x mmol/sup -1/) was used. Cross-reactivity studies with compounds structurally related to JA demonstrated the antiserum to be specific for JA, abscisic acid normally present in the same extract does not interfer. The RIA has a detection limit of 2 ng (-)-JA methylester, a measuring range 2-200 ng, and no extensive purification is required prior to estimation. Therefore, in JA analysis the RIA described is superior to GC, HPLC, and bioassay. This new method has been employed for studies on the distribution of JA in different plant organs of the broad bean, Vicia faba L.

  2. Acid corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N G

    1964-04-28

    An acid corrosion inhibitor is prepared by a 2-stage vacuum evaporation of effluents obtained from the ammonia columns of the coking oven plant. The effluent, leaving a scrubber in which the phenols are removed at a temperature of 98$C, passes through a quartz filter and flows into a heated chamber in which it is used for preheating a solution circulating through a vacuum unit, maintaining the temperature of the solution at 55$ to 60$C. The effluent enters a large tank in which it is boiled at 55$ to 60$C under 635 to 640 mm Hg pressure. Double evaporation of this solution yields a very effective acid corrosion inhibitor. Its corrosion-preventing effect is 97.9% compared with 90.1% for thiourea and 88.5% for urotropin under identical conditions.

  3. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  4. N-(3-Chlorophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8ClNO3, the molecular conformation is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond which connects the amide group with the phenyl ring. The maleamic acid unit is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.044 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 15.2 (1° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(7 chains running [010].

  5. Mortar fights acid corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-14

    The burning of coal or oil to produce heat required to operate a power boiler also generates a severe corrosion problem within the interior of the duct and stacks used to emit the flue gas into the atmosphere. How can concrete and steel be protected from the effects of acid attack, when the acids are carried in a gas form, or come into direct contact with the steel or concrete from spillage or immersion conditions. Industry in North America has found that the solution to this problem is to build an outside concrete column, in this case of Portland cement, and inside that column, build a totally independent brick liner bonded with Sauereisen mortar.

  6. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  7. Acidity of Scandinavian precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E; Bordin, G

    1955-01-01

    Data on the pH of the total monthly precipitation at stations of a Swedish network for sampling and chemical analysis of precipitation and atmospheric aerosols during the year July 1953 to June 1954 are presented and discussed, together with the pH data from the first two months of operation of a large pan-Scandinavian net. It is found that well-defined regions of acidity and alkalinity relative to the pH of water in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide exist, and that these regions persist to such an extent that the monthly deviations from the pattern of the annual mean pH at stations unaffected by local pollution show persistently high acidity, while inland northern stations show equally persistent alkalinity. Some possible reasons for the observed distributions are considered.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  9. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  10. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  11. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  12. Sources of atmospheric acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of acid gases from anthropogenic sources and their impact on the environment are the main concern of this book. However, that impact can only be assessed if all the naturally occurring sources of these gases are also known and can be quantified. Given the widely dispersed nature of the natural sources and the problems of measurement of trace species at low concentrations, often in remote regions, the quantification is a very difficult task. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made over the last decade. In this chapter both man-made and natural sources of atmospheric acidity will be reviewed, but the emphasis will be placed not so much on the global balances as on the scale of the natural sources in relation to the man-made sources. This requires that the very uneven geographical distribution of emissions and the lifetime of individual chemical species be taken into account. The emissions considered are sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, chlorine compounds and organic acids. The anthropogenic sources discussed are the combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial processes. Emissions data for anthropogenic sources are given for the United Kingdom, Europe, USA and globally. A list of 95 references is given. (Author)

  13. Whence the acid raindrop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Absorption of NO 2 can cause damage in animals and plants and, if present trends for NO x emissions continue, their by-product nitric acid may soon overtake sulphuric acid as the main acidifying agent of 'acid' rain. In response to this problem the feasibility of reducing NO x emissions from power stations is being studied. Although there can be no doubt that these expensive controls are desirable, their benefits are difficult to predict for two reasons: NO x is not only emitted by fuel combustion and the degree to which an industrialised country benefits from the implementation of NO x emission controls depends on how much its pollutant 'fall out' is immediately returned from the atmosphere, and how much is exported to neighbouring countries. The above factors involve questions regarding the source and reaction mechanisms for nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Because stable isotope ratio analysis has proved to be of value in providing answers to such questions in other environments, an investigation of the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of atmospheric gases (NO x , NH 3 ) and their solution products in rain (NO 3 , NH + 4 ) seemed to be justified

  14. Hepatic Toxicity of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    1995). 3. N. V. Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n-octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate ...Artz, and B. M. Jarnot: "ILiver Phosphorous Metabolic Response to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Clofibrate in Rats and Guinea Pigs: A 31 P NMR Study...Peroxisome Induction by Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and Clofibrate in the Rat: Proliferation Versus Activity." International Society for the Study of

  15. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  16. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  17. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids. A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick. Medical Research Council Unit for the Study of the Molecular Structure of Biological. Systems, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. April 2. We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid ...

  18. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  19. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  20. Associations between omega-3 fatty acids and 25(OH)D and psychological distress among Inuit in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogli, Hans-Ragnar; Geoffroy, Dominique; Weiler, Hope A; Tell, Grethe S; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Egeland, Grace M

    2017-01-01

    fatty acids; PUFAs: polyunsaturated fatty acids; 25(OH)D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; IPY: International Polar Year; IHS : Inuit Health Survey; RBC: red blood cell; OR: odds ratio; K6: Kessler 6-item screening scale; SPD: serious psychological distress; EPA: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3); DHA: docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3); DPA n-3: docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3); n-3 LC-PUFAs: EPA (20:5 n-3) + DHA (22:6 n-3) + DPA (22:5 n-3); BMI: body mass index (kg m - 2 ).

  1. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  2. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  3. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  4. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  5. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  6. Folic Acid: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid in diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Folic Acid updates ... acid - test Folic acid in diet Related Health Topics Vitamins National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  7. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  8. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  9. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerello, Elisa

    2018-04-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  10. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  11. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2012-09-27

    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  12. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  13. Acidizing reservoirs while chelating iron with sulfosalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, W A; Berkshire, D C

    1980-09-30

    A well treating process is described in which an aqueous solution of a strong acid capable of dissolving solids in a manner increasing the permeability of a subterranean earth formation is injected into a subterranean reservoir that contains an asphaltenic oil. At least the first injected portion of the aqueous acid and a solution or homogeneous dispersion of at least enough 5-sulfosalicylic acid to chelate with and prevent the formation of iron-asphaltene solids are included with substantially all of the ferric ions that become dissolved within the strong acid solution that enters the earth formation. 10 claims.

  14. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  15. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  16. Does RBC Storage Age Effect Inflammation, Immune Function and Susceptibility to Transfusion Associated Microchimerism in Critically Ill Patients? Adverse Effects of RBC Storage in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Barnes S, Grizzle W, Miller D, Zhang H-G. A novel nanoparticle drug delivery system: The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin is enhanced when...Ultracentrifugatio remove impuritie including seru protein an othe solubl contaminant fro th plasma whic ca affec functiona experimenta outcomes...applications. EVs used in functional assays should be ultracentrifuged using the 3-step differential centrifugation protocol, since the soluble serum

  17. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  18. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  19. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Acid precipitation literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, H M; Andersen, B; Andersson, G; Hov, Oe; Kucera, V; Moseholm, L

    1986-01-01

    There is an increasing number of publications on acid deposition and related phenomena. Interest in these topics has also been reflected in a considerable number of meetings and conferences in this field. The largest of these in 1985 was the ''International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation'' (Muskoka, Ontario). Most work so far has been carried out in North America and Europe. There is, however, an increasing interest in obtaining a better picture of sensitive areas and possible acidification in other parts of the world. Anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions have been estimated to be (in TgSyr/sup -1/): 2.4 (Africa), 4.1 (South America), 0.7 (Ocenia), and 18.3 (Asia). The largest increase during the last decade has been in Asia. Based on Studies of precipitation in remote areas it has been suggested that the natural background concentration for sulphate in many areas should be about 6 ..mu..eq 1/sup -1/. A new study of sulphate and nitrate in Greenland snow showed that both ions increased by a factor of about 2 from 1895 to 1978. The concentrations of SO/sub 2/ at Norwegian rural sites show a decreasing trend since late 1970s, while concentrations of sulphate in air show no clear trend. More reliable models for transformation, transport and deposition of chemicals are being developed, including three-dimensional grid models to describe episodes of elevated pollution levels lasting for a few days. Model calculations indicate that control of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions is much more efficient in reducing the ozone level in southern Scandinavia in episodes influenced by long-range transported pollutants than NO/sub x/ control of combined NO/sub x/ and HC control. 36 refs. (EG).

  1. A radioimmunoassay for abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.; Dashek, W.; Galson, E.

    1979-01-01

    We have developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for abscisic acid (ABA) in the 0.1 ng to 2.5 ng range. Antibodies were obtained from rabbits immunized with ABA bound via its carboxyl group to bovine serum albumin. Cross-reactivity studies indicate that ABA esters are completely cross-reactive with ABA, while trans, trans abscisic acid (t-ABA) phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) have much lower but significant cross-reactivities. Purification methods which reduce the levels of cross-reacting substances are described. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  2. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  3. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M

    2000-01-01

    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  4. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  5. Zirconium for nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid has been known for over 30 years. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using zirconium for nitric acid services. Therefore, an extensive research effort has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion properties of zirconium in nitric acid. Particular attention is paid to the effect of concentration, temperature, structure, solution impurities, and stress. Immersion, autoclave, U-bend, and constant strain-rate tests were used in this study. Results of this study indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid is little affected by changes in temperature and concentration, and the presence of common impurities such as seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, iron, and stainless steel. Moreover, the presence of seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, and stainless steel has little effect on the stress corrosion craking (SCC) susceptibility of zirconium in 70% nitric acid at room temperatures. However, zirconium could be attacked by fluoride-containing nitric acid and the vapors of chloride-containing nitric acid. Also, high sustained tensile stresses should be avoided when zirconium is used to handle 70% nitric acid at elevated temperatures or > 70% nitric acid

  6. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanat, S.; Shahbaz, N.; Hassan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  7. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  8. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  9. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    While many features, like the phenanthrene-type of fusion of the three ... thought to contain the original ring A of abietic acid, retaining the. 'nuclear methyl .... Thinking that the anhydride he had obtained by the action of heat on the C-11 acid ...

  10. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  11. Application of citric acid in acid stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhaldi, M.H.; Sarma, H.K. [Adelaide Univ., Adelaide (Australia); Nasr-el-Din, H.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A rotating disk apparatus was used to investigate mass transfer during the reaction of citric acid with calcite. The study evaluated the effects of initial acid concentrations, temperature, and disk rotational speed on the effective diffusion coefficient of citric acid. The diffusion coefficient was calculated at 25, 40, and 50 degrees C using various citric acid concentrations. The study indicated that the coefficient was a function of the interactions between calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions. At high acid concentrations, the effects of calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions were significant. The calculated citric acid diffusion coefficients were not comparable with measured effective diffusion coefficients using the rotating disk. At lower initial citric acid concentrations, the effects of both calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions on citric acid diffusivity were minimal. It was concluded that temperature effects on the diffusion coefficient followed Arrhenius law. Activation energy was equal to 37.9 kJ/mol. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Bile acid analysis in human disorders of bile acid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  14. Biopropionic acid production via molybdenumcatalyzed deoxygenation of lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, T.J.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    As the search for non-fossil based building blocks for the chemical industry increases, new methods for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived substrates are required. Here we present the deoxygenation of lactic acid to propionic acid, using a catalyst based on the non-noble and abundant metal

  15. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid acetate (BAAC) was most effective than other betulinic acid derivatives. It had most ... blastoma (Schmidt et al., 1997), malignant brain tumor .... 96 well plate and incubated in 37oC, 5% CO2 and 90% humidity.

  16. Classifying Your Food as Acid, Low-Acid, or Acidified

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    As a food entrepreneur, you should be aware of how ingredients in your product make the food look, feel, and taste; as well as how the ingredients create environments for microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and molds to survive and grow. This guide will help you classifying your food as acid, low-acid, or acidified.

  17. Origin of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  18. Amelioration of radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations by Punica Granatum (L) extracts and synthetic ellagic acid in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar Bhandary, B.; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Vadisha Bhat, S.; Sherly, Sharmila; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used in cancer treatment for many decades; Although effective in killing tumor cells, ROS produced in radiotherapy threaten the integrity and survival of surrounding normal cells. ROS are scavenged by radioprotectors before they can interact with biochemical molecules, thus reducing harmful effects of radiation. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations in Swiss Albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and Ellagic acid for 15 days before exposure to 6 Gy of EBR. Radiation induced DNA damage was assessed by comet assay in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the serum and RBC lysate of the animals. The plant extracts and synthetic compound exhibited good radical scavenging and reducing properties.The pretreated animals before irradiation caused a reduction in the comet length, olive tail moment, % DNA in tail when compared to irradiated group. The biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation was significantly depleted in the treated groups when compared to irradiated group followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione. Our findings indicate the ameliorating effects of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant

  19. Preparation of fulvic acid and low-molecular organic acids by oxidation of weathered coal humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, T.; Ito, A.; Sasaki, O.; Yazawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Chiba Institute of Technolgy, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Weathered coal contains much humic acid and a little fulvic acid. Therefore, the production of fulvic acid, the most valuable humic substance because of its water-solubility, was examined by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation of humic acid extracted form Xinjiang (China) weathered coal. The resulting products of the oxidation were water soluble fulvic acid and organic acids, mainly formic acid and oxalic acid. The product yield of fulvic acid was 20 (C%) and that of organic acids were 39 (C%) for formic and acid 13 (C%) for oxalic acid. The formed fulvic acid showed a higher content of oxygen and carboxyl groups, than those of the extracted one from the original weathered coal.

  20. Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-23

    Apr 23, 1983 ... by comparing the pre-ascorbic acid results with those obtained 21/2 hours after the intravenous ... (ASO), C-reactive protein and antibodies to certain respiratory viruses. These investigations were ..... vitamin.6 However, other investigators were unable to detect any protective effects of ascorbic acid on the ...

  1. Chloroacetic acids in environmental processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Schröder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2003), s. 127-130 ISSN 1610-3653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Dichloroacetic acid * Trichloroacetic acid * Microbial degradation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  2. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  3. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  4. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  5. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo

    2017-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  6. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1978-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of adding methionine on the loss of amino acid by γ-irradiation in amino acid mixture, because methionine is one of the most radio-sensitive in amino acids, the remaining amino acids in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of amino acid mixture were studied by determining the total amount of each remaining amino acid. The mixture of 18 amino acids which contains methionine and that of 17 amino acids without methionine were used. Amino acids and the irradiation products were determined with an automatic amino acid analyzer. The total amount of remaining amino acids in the irradiated solution of 18 amino acid mixture was more than that of 17 amino acid mixture. The order of the total amount of each remaining amino acid by low-dose irradiation was Gly>Ala>Asp>Glu>Val>Ser, Pro>Ile, Leu>Thr>Lys>Tyr>Arg>His>Phe>Try>Cys>Met. In case of the comparison of amino acids of same kinds, the total remaining amount of each amino acid in amino acid mixture was more than that of individually irradiated amino acid. The total remaining amounts of glycine, alanine and aspartic acid in irradiated 17 amino acid mixture resulted in slight increase. Ninhydrin positive products formed from 18 amino acid mixture irradiated with 2.640 x 10 3 rad were ammonia, methionine sulfoxide and DOPA of 1.34, 0.001 and 0.25 μmoles/ml of the irradiated solution, respectively. (Kobake, H.)

  7. Role of Tc99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in diagnosis of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in Sudanese children patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu baker, S. E. E.

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric nuclear medicine, in order to survive, must be innovative in finding ways of competing with other pediatric imaging studies for better health care. In this study a group of thirty-one patients with urinary tract infection confirmed by clinical investigation, (fever, pain, ....ect), laboratory investigation (RBC and pus cell)and urine culture, were evaluate by nuclear medicine study. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic value of cortical scintigraphy using Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc 99m -DMSA), with two other routine investigations; the intravenous urographic (IVU), and ultrasonography (US), for diagnosis of renal parenchymal abnormality in children. The Tc 99m -DMSA renal scan was utilized as the gold standard test for renal involvement. All patients had Tc 99m -DMSA renal scan, and US, and only 22 patients had contrast IVU. The Tc 99m -DMSA renal scan showed abnormality renal scanning in about 94% of patients, US abnormalities were detected in about 81% of patient, while the IVU detected defects in about 87%. Because the prevalence of upper UTI in children is high, Tc 99m -DMSA renal scan is undoubtedly the available tool for pediatriacicians as a guide in giving appropriate antibiotic therapy and to prevent further renal damage. The study concludes that, the renal cortical scintigraphy with Tc 99m -DMSA has been reported to be a useful children diagnostic study of acute parenchymal renal infections, moreover, is presently the method of choice to detect acute parenchymal infection. (Author)

  8. Benzene Exposure Alters Expression of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Male C3H/He Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongli Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a well-known hematotoxic carcinogen that can cause leukemia and a variety of blood disorders. Our previous study indicated that benzene disturbs levels of metabolites in the fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO pathway, which is crucial for the maintenance and function of hematopoietic and leukemic cells. The present research aims to investigate the effects of benzene on changes in the expression of key enzymes in the FAO pathway in male C3H/He mice. Results showed that benzene exposure caused reduced peripheral white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC, platelet (Pit counts, and hemoglobin (Hgb concentration. Investigation of the effects of benzene on the expression of FA transport- and β-oxidation-related enzymes showed that expression of proteins Cpt1a, Crat, Acaa2, Aldh1l2, Acadvl, Crot, Echs1, and Hadha was significantly increased. The ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased in mice exposed to benzene. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were significantly increased in the benzene group. Our results indicate that benzene induces increased expression of FA transport and β-oxidation enzymes, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, which may play a role in benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

  9. Valproic Acid-induced Agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chuan Hsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is considered to be the most well-tolerated antiepileptic drug. However, few cases of neutropenia or leukopenia caused by valproic acid have been reported. We present a patient who took valproic acid to treat a complication of brain surgery and in whom severe agranulocytosis occurred after 2.5 months. Valproic acid was stopped immediately, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered for 2 days. The patient's white blood cell count returned to normal within 2 weeks. The result of bone marrow aspiration was compatible with drug-induced agranulocytosis. This case illustrates that patients who take valproic acid may need regular checking of complete blood cell count.

  10. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  11. Bioactive phenolic acids from Scorzonera radiata Fisch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tsevegsuren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Scorzonera radiata yielded five new dihydrostilbenes [4], two new flavonoids, one new quinic acid derivative, as well as twenty known compounds including eight quinic acid derivatives, four flavonoids, two coumarins, five simple benzoic acids, and one monoterpene glycoside. We present here results on isolation and structural identification some active phenolic compounds from the Scorzonera radiata - eight quinic acid derivatives (quinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (cis. Quinic acid derivatives exhibited antioxidative activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.177 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 78-84

  12. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  13. Evaluation of the toxic effect of peracetic acid on grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupani, Latifeh; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Zuskova, Eliska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of peracetic acid (PAA) on haematotological and biochemical indices, antioxidant status, micronucleus induction and histopathological alterations of liver and gill in grass carp. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles were exposed to therapeutic concentrations (1, and 3 mg x l(-1)) of PAA for a period of 10 days. Selected haematotological indices--the erythrocyte count (RBC), haematocrit (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and leukocyte count (WBC), and biochemical indices--glucose (Glu), total protein (TP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in plasma. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were assessed in gill and liver. Micronucleus frequency in peripheral erythrocytes was counted in control and experimental fish. Histological examinations of gill and liver were performed. No significant differences were found in haematological parameters measured. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) alterations in the activities of AST, CK and LDH were found in treated fish compared to control groups. Fish exposed to 1 mg x l(-1) of PAA showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) SOD activity in liver and gill while catalase activity indicated a significant decrease (p < 0.05) only in gill tissue. Other significant changes were observed in GR activity in gill in both PAA exposed groups, while GR activity in liver remained unchanged. There was no significant difference in the count of micronuclei between control and exposed fish. Haemorrhage, fusion of primary lamellae, degeneration of secondary lamellae, some clubbing on primary and secondary lamellae tips, and lifting of epithelial cells were found in

  14. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl Elmoula, Abd ELfatah Abdella

    2000-11-01

    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  15. Placement of acid spoil materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pionke, H B; Rogowski, A S

    1982-06-01

    Potentially there are several chemical and hydrologic problems associated with placement of acid spoil materials. The rationale for a deep placement well below the soil surface, and preferably below a water table, is to prevent or minimize oxidation of pyrite to sulfuric acid and associated salts by reducing the supply of oxygen. If, however, substantial sulfuric acid or associated salts are already contained within the spoil because of present or previous mining, handling and reclamation operations (or if large supplies of indigenous salts exist, placement below a water table) may actually increase the rate of acid and salt leaching. Specific placement of acid- and salt-containing spoil should be aimed at preventing contact with percolating water or rising water tables. We recommend placement based on chemical and physical spoil properties that may affect water percolation O/sub 2/ diffusion rates in the profile. Both the deeper placement of acid spoil and coarser particle size can substantially reduce the amount of acid drainage. Placement above the water table with emphasis on percolate control may be better for high sulfate spoils, while placement below the non-fluctuating water table may be better for pyritic spoils.

  16. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  17. catalyzed oxidation of some amino acids by acid bromate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: Kinetic investigations on Pd(II) catalyzed oxidation of dl-serine and dl- ... A suitable mechanism in agreement with observed kinetics has been ..... In acidic solution of potassium bromate quick .... Annual Review of Biochemistry.

  18. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid exerts a selective anti-tumor activity on cultured human melanoma .... percentage of proliferation was calculated by the following formula: Proliferation ..... artificially imposing the cell cycle checkpoint. Among.

  19. Influence of fluorozirconic acid on sulfuric acid anodizing of aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Elaish, R.; Curioni, M.; Gowers, K.; Kasuga, A.; Habazaki, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Skeldon, P.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of additions of fluorozirconic acid to sulfuric acid on the anodizing behavior of aluminum have been investigated under a constant voltage at temperatures of 0 and 20◦C. The fluoroacid increased the rate of film growth, with a dependence on the fluoroacid concentration, the electrolyte temperature and the anodizing time. Compositional analyses showed that fluorine species were present in the films. However, zirconium species were absent. The fluoroacid generally enhanced film diss...

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-01-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with [ 14 C]-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% and 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of [ 14 C]-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA

  1. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.

    1993-01-01

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  2. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  3. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  4. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  5. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  6. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1977-01-01

    In order to elucidate the radiolysis of amino acid, peptide, protein and enzyme, the radiolytic mechanisms of neutral amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-serine, and L-threonine) and acidic amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and DL-amino-n-adipic acid) were studied in the presence of air or in the atmosphere nitrogen. An aqueous solution of 1 mM. of each amino acid was sealed in a glass ampoule under air or nitrogen. Irradiation of amino acid solutions was carried out with γ-rays of 60 Co at doses of 4.4-2,640x10 3 rads. The amino acids and the radiolytic products formed were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. From the results of determining amino acids and the radiolytic products formed and their G-values, the radiolytic mechanisms of the amino acids were discussed. (auth.)

  7. Ectopic expression of Crambe abyssinica lysophosphatidic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase in transgenic rapeseed increases its oil .... pathway [fatty acid desaturase-2 (BnFAD2, AY577313), fatty acid desaturase-3 ..... Acyltransferases from basic science to modified seed oils.

  8. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  9. Transport of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by pancreatic islet cells from neonatal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, A; Farver, O; Thorn, N A

    1991-01-01

    . Dehydroascorbic acid was converted to ascorbic acid by an unknown mechanism after uptake. The uptake of both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid was inhibited by tri-iodothyronine, and uptake of ascorbic acid, but not of dehydroascorbic acid, was inhibited by glucocorticoids. Isolated secretory granules...

  10. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Impaired Bile Acid Transport in Human Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Camastra, Stefania; Nannipieri, Monica; Astiarraga, Brenno; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-01-01

    We measured plasma bile acids, markers of bile acid synthesis, and expression of bile acid transporters in obese and nonobese subjects. We found that obesity was associated with increased bile acid synthesis and 12-hydroxylation, blunted response of plasma bile acids to insulin infusion or a mixed meal, and decreased expression of liver bile acid transporters.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  12. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  13. Thermometric titration of acids in pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, R; Mukherjee, L M

    1974-04-01

    Thermometric titration of HClO(4), HI, HNO(3), HBr, picric acid o-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4- and 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid have been attempted in pyridine as solvent, using 1,3-diphenylguanidine as the base. Except in the case of 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid, the results are, in general, reasonably satisfactory. The approximate molar heats of neutralization have been calculated.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is...

  15. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  16. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen'eva, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, γ-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp 2 , VOCOR or CpV (OCOR) 2 type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented

  17. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, A.

    1983-05-01

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  18. Uronic acids in oligosaccharide synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Leendert Johannes van den

    2007-01-01

    This Thesis reports on research aimed at the assembly of acidic and zwitterionic polysaccharides of bacterial origin, using suitably protected 1-thioglycoside residues. Thioglycosides are attractive monosaccharide building blocks because of their high stability towards the diverse reaction

  19. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  20. N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.; Loberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of several new N-substituted iminodiacetic acid derivatives are described. These compounds when complexed with sup(99m)Tc provide useful radiopharmaceuticals for the external imaging of the hepatobiliary system. (U.K.)

  1. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  2. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization, and development of spherical nucleic acid constructs as effective nanotherapeutic, single-entity agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and prostate cancers.

  3. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  4. Structural features of lignohumic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František; Šestauberová, Martina; Hrabal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1093, August (2015), s. 179-185 ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-13 NMR * FTIR * humic acids * lignohumate * lignosulfonate * structure Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2015

  5. Biomaterials made of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JiaWei; ZHU XiaoXia

    2009-01-01

    The use of natural compounds in the preparation of new materials can improve the biocompatibility of the materials and avoid any potential toxicity of the degradation products when used for biomedical applications.Bile acids are amphiphilic molecules biosynthesized in the liver.They are used to prepare various polymers and oligomers.These polymers made of bile acids are promising materials in both biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  6. Biomaterials made of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The use of natural compounds in the preparation of new materials can improve the biocompatibility of the materials and avoid any potential toxicity of the degradation products when used for biomedical applications. Bile acids are amphiphilic molecules biosynthesized in the liver. They are used to prepare various polymers and oligomers. These polymers made of bile acids are promising materials in both biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  7. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  8. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  9. Ursodeoxycholic acid for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-di; Li, Lei; Wang, Ji-yao

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Databases, and article references were searched. We included randomized controlled trials using liver biopsy as a reference standard. We identified three eligible studies. Among histological responses, only lobular inflammation improved in the high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid subgroup compared with the control group [mean deviation (MD): -0.23 (-0.40, -0.06), P=0.008]. However, fibrosis may tend to increase [MD: 0.08 (-0.04, 0.20), P=0.17]. Among biochemical responses, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase reduction was significantly greater in the ursodeoxycholic acid group than in the placebo group, and the reduction tendency was only shown in the high-dose subgroup [MD: -35.58 (-52.60, -18.56), Pursodeoxycholic acid subgroup compared with the control group [MD: 0.43 (0.14, 0.72), P=0.004]. Ursodeoxycholic acid-treated patients did not differ significantly from control patients with regard to alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Adverse events were nonspecific and considered of no major clinical relevance. Ursodeoxycholic acid in monotherapy has no substantial positive effect on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  10. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  11. A novel expression platform for the production of diabetes-associated autoantigen human glutamic acid decarboxylase (hGAD65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Denis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (hGAD65 is a key autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, having much potential as an important marker for the prediction and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, and for the development of novel antigen-specific therapies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, recombinant production of hGAD65 using conventional bacterial or mammalian cell culture-based expression systems or nuclear transformed plants is limited by low yield and low efficiency. Chloroplast transformation of the unicellular eukaryotic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii may offer a potential solution. Results A DNA cassette encoding full-length hGAD65, under the control of the C. reinhardtii chloroplast rbcL promoter and 5'- and 3'-UTRs, was constructed and introduced into the chloroplast genome of C. reinhardtii by particle bombardment. Integration of hGAD65 DNA into the algal chloroplast genome was confirmed by PCR. Transcriptional expression of hGAD65 was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Immunoblotting verified the expression and accumulation of the recombinant protein. The antigenicity of algal-derived hGAD65 was demonstrated with its immunoreactivity to diabetic sera by ELISA and by its ability to induce proliferation of spleen cells from NOD mice. Recombinant hGAD65 accumulated in transgenic algae, accounts for approximately 0.25–0.3% of its total soluble protein. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential value of C. reinhardtii chloroplasts as a novel platform for rapid mass production of immunologically active hGAD65. This demonstration opens the future possibility for using algal chloroplasts as novel bioreactors for the production of many other biologically active mammalian therapeutic proteins.

  12. Aspartic acid functions as carbonyl trapper to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products by chemical chaperone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Govindarajan; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-05-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were implicated in pathology of numerous diseases. In this study, we present the bioactivity of aspartic acid (Asp) to inhibit the AGEs. Hemoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated with glucose, fructose, and ribose in the presence and absence of Asp (100-200 μM). HbA1c inhibition was investigated using human blood and characterized by micro-column ion exchange chromatography. The effect of methyl glyoxal (MG) on hemoglobin and BSA was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. The effect of MG on red blood cells morphology was characterized by scanning electron micrographs. Molecular docking was performed on BSA with Asp. Asp is capable of inhibiting the formation of fluorescent AGEs by reacting with the reducing sugars. The presence of Asp as supplement in whole blood reduced the HbA1c% from 8.8 to 6.1. The presence of MG showed an increase in fluorescence and the presence of Asp inhibited the glycation thereby the fluorescence was quenched. MG also affected the electrophoretic mobility of hemoglobin and BSA by forming high molecular weight aggregates. Normal RBCs showed typical biconcave shape. MG modified RBCs showed twisted and elongated shape whereas the presence of ASP tends to protect RBC from twisting. Asp interacted with arginine residues of bovine serum albumin particularly ARG 194, ARG 198, and ARG 217 thereby stabilized the protein complex. We conclude that Asp has dual functions as a chemical chaperone to stabilize protein and as a dicarbonyl trapper, and thereby it can prevent the complications caused by glycation.

  13. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  14. Specific bile acid radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of unconjugated cholic acid, conjugated cholic acid and conjugated deoxycholic acid in serum and their clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matern, S.; Gerok, W.

    1977-01-01

    Specific radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of serum unconjugated cholic, conjugated cholic and conjugated deoxycholic acids have been developed. Prior to the radioimmunoassay, extraction of serum bile acids was performed with Amberlite XAD-2. Unconjugated cholic acid was separated from glyco- and taurocholic acids by thin-layer chromatography. At 50% displacement of bound labeled glyco[ 3 H]cholic acid using antiserum obtained after immunization with cholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate the cross-reactivity of taurocholic acid was 100%, cholic acid 80%, glycochenodeoxycholic acid 10%, chenodeoxycholic acid 7%, conjugated deoxycholic acid 3%, and conjugated lithocholic acid 3 H]cholic acid was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 80 pmol of unlabeled glycocholic acid. Fasting serum conjugated cholic acid in healthy subjects was 0.68 +- 0.34 μmol/l. Unconjugated cholic acid was determined by a solid phase radioimmunoassay using the cholic acid antibody chemically bound to Sepharose. The displacement curve of [ 3 H]cholic acid in the solid phase radioimmunoassay was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 200 pmol of unlabeled cholic acid. The coefficient of variation between samples was 5%. Fasting serum conjugated deoxycholic acid concentrations in 10 healthy subjects ranged from 0.18 to 0.92 μmol/l determined by a radioimmunoassay using antiserum obtained after immunization with deoxycholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate. The clinical application of these bile acid radioimmunoassays is shown by an 'oral cholate tolerance test' as a sensitive indicator of liver function and by an 'oral cholyglycine tolerance test' as a useful test for bile acid absorption. (orig.) [de

  15. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Joana D; Viana, Ricardo J S; Ramalho, Rita M; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2009-09-01

    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases.

  16. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  17. Bile Acid Metabolism in Liver Pathobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.; Ferrell, Jessica M.

    2018-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism. The gut-to-liver axis plays a critical role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, bile acid pool size, and bile acid composition. Bile acids control gut bacteria overgrowth, and gut bacteria metabolize bile acids to regulate host metabolism. Alteration of bile acid metabolism by high-fat diets, sleep disruption, alcohol, and drugs reshapes gut microbiome and causes dysbiosis, obesity, and metabolic disorders. Gender differences in bile acid metabolism, FXR signaling, and gut microbiota have been linked to higher prevalence of fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in males. Alteration of bile acid homeostasis contributes to cholestatic liver diseases, inflammatory diseases in the digestive system, obesity, and diabetes. Bile acid-activated receptors are potential therapeutic targets for developing drugs to treat metabolic disorders. PMID:29325602

  18. Red Blood Cell Membrane-Cloaked Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Cody Westcott

    Herein we describe the development of the Red Blood Cell coated nanoparticle, RBC-NP. Purified natural erythrocyte membrane is used to coat drug-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Synthetic PLGA co-polymer is biocompatible and biodegradable and has already received US FDA approval for drug-delivery and diagnostics. This work looks specifically at the retention of immunosuppressive proteins on RBC-NPs, right-sidedness of natural RBC membranes interfacing with synthetic polymer nanoparticles, sustained and retarded drug release of RBC-NPs as well as further surface modification of RBC-NPs for increased targeting of model cancer cell lines.

  19. Determination of dissociation constants or propionic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid) by potentiometry and conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeeduddin; Khanzada, A.W.K.

    2004-01-01

    Dissociation constants of propionic acid and 2-hydroxypropionic acid (lactic acid) have been studied at different temperatures between 25 to 50 deg. C interval. Propionic acid is analyzed by conductometry while 2-hydroxypropionic acid is analyzed by potentiometry. Both investigated compounds are symmetrical carboxylic acids having same length of carbon chain but are markedly different in ionic behavior. We were interested to see how the hydroxyl group (-OH) induction in propionic acid affects on pKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid. We observed that as temperature increases pKa values increase. The increase is observed for both the investigated compounds. PKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid are lower as compared to propionic acid because of electron withdrawing (-OH). (author)

  20. 17,21-Secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids in source rocks and crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xueming Pan; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2006-09-15

    The presence of three families of hopanoic acids, 17,21-secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids, is discussed. Oils from West Siberia and tar balls from the Seychelles Islands were found to contain relatively high proportions of 17,21-secohopanoic acids. These acids have not been previously reported in any oils or source rocks. A heavily biodegraded West Siberian oil, was found to contain an homologous series of 25-norhopanoic acids co-occurring with the 25-norhopanes as previously reported in only a small number of oils from Campos Basin, Brazil. 28-Norhopanoic acids have been reported in various sediments and extracts of the Monterey Shale, but in this study their occurrence has been extended to oils, degraded oils, and tar balls sourced from the Monterey Shale. The primary purpose herein is to report the occurrence of these acids and possible relationships between the acids and corresponding hydrocarbons. (Author)

  1. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, J. A.; Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-01-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  2. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J. A., E-mail: jjaen@ancon.up.ac.p [Universidad de Panama, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama); Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G. [Universidad de Panama, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama)

    2003-06-15

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  3. The bile acids, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, regulate colonic epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Magdalena S; Lajczak, Natalia K; Goggins, Bridie J; Keely, Simon; Keely, Stephen J

    2018-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes an innate barrier which, upon injury, undergoes self-repair processes known as restitution. Although bile acids are known as important regulators of epithelial function in health and disease, their effects on wound healing processes are not yet clear. Here we set out to investigate the effects of the colonic bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on epithelial restitution. Wound healing in T 84 cell monolayers grown on transparent, permeable supports was assessed over 48 h with or without bile acids. Cell migration was measured in Boyden chambers. mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. DCA (50-150 µM) significantly inhibited wound closure in cultured epithelial monolayers and attenuated cell migration in Boyden chamber assays. DCA also induced nuclear accumulation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), whereas an FXR agonist, GW4064 (10 µM), inhibited wound closure. Both DCA and GW4064 attenuated the expression of CFTR Cl - channels, whereas inhibition of CFTR activity with either CFTR- inh -172 (10 µM) or GlyH-101 (25 µM) also prevented wound healing. Promoter/reporter assays revealed that FXR-induced downregulation of CFTR is mediated at the transcriptional level. In contrast, UDCA (50-150 µM) enhanced wound healing in vitro and prevented the effects of DCA. Finally, DCA inhibited and UDCA promoted mucosal healing in an in vivo mouse model. In conclusion, these studies suggest bile acids are important regulators of epithelial wound healing and are therefore good targets for development of new drugs to modulate intestinal barrier function in disease treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The secondary bile acid, deoxycholic acid, inhibits colonic epithelial wound healing, an effect which appears to be mediated by activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor, FXR, with subsequent downregulation of CFTR expression and activity. In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid promotes

  4. 15N NMR spectroscopic investigation of nitrous and nitric acids in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, G.K.S.; Heiliger, L.; Olah, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Both nitrous and nitric acids were studied in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acid strengths by 15 N NMR spectroscopy. The study gives new insights into the nature of intermediates present at different acid strengths. Furthermore, we have also discovered a novel redox reaction between NO 2 + and NO + ions involving the intermediacy of their respective acids. A mechanism is proposed to explain the observed results. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  6. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  7. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid ... Gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was ... Total amino acid analysis was done on acid hydrolysates of RJ samples by the ion-exchange ... The data of amino acids and protein content for all analyzed fresh and.

  9. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be...

  10. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  11. Influence of acidified acidity to uranium bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiang; Liu Yajie; Zheng Zhihong; Yuan Baohua; Shen Chuan; Shi Weijun

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the acidified acidity and the acid consumption and uranium leaching rate in the process of uranium bioleaching is investigated. Results indicate that higher uranium leaching rate is obtained when the relatively high acidity was applied at beginning. For different minerals, although the original acidity should be different, lower original acidity was not better for shortening leaching period and improving uranium leaching rate. It confirms 30-40 g/L sulfuric acid as the original acidity was more suitable and more than 30 g/ L should be applied if the mineral particle sizes were larger. (authors)

  12. Queensland Mines plant trials with Caro's acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.C.; Fulton, E.J.; Vautier, F.E.; Waters, D.J.; Ring, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory leach tests have been carried out to compare the effectiveness of Caro's acid (permonosulphuric acid) as an alternative oxidant to pyrolusite in the leaching of uranium ores. Results demonstrated that Caro's acid reduced acid consumption in leaching and the time required for neutralisation of tailings liquor. The uranium extraction was unaffected by choice of oxidant. A plant trial confirmed that significant savings in acid and lime usage can be achieved under plant conditions. Plant operations also demonstrated that Caro's acid has a number of significant operating advantages over pyrolusite. Queensland Mines Ltd. have recently decided to convert their leaching process from pyrolusite to Caro's acid

  13. Role of Tc-99m labeled RBC SPECT in haemangioma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddadi, Fariba; Kamali, Hosein; Faghihi, Amir Hosein; Shokouhizadeh, Reza

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Haemangioma of the liver must be included in the differential diagnosis of all focal hepatic lesions. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques continue to play a unique role in the evaluation of hepatic masses. Role of planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic haemangioma is already established although it has limitations, which can be significantly improved by means of SPECT studies. A prospective study was carried out to evaluate Tc-99m red blood cell SPECT imaging in liver haemangioma and compare it with CT findings. Radionuclide liver scan, both planar and SPECT was done in 10 patients who had 16 liver masses diagnosed as haemangiomas on their CT. The acquisition protocol was an immediate perfusion phase study in an anterior view followed by SPECT of the liver at 2 hours. A perfusion/blood-pool mismatch is the hallmark finding for hepatic haemangioma. The smallest haemangioma detected with isotope scan was of 1.55 cm size. Planar scintigraphy showed a sensitivity of 82% versus 94.2% for SPECT. It was mostly due to missing of lesions less than 2 cm in size on planar scans. For cavernous haemangioma (n=4) the specificity and positive predictive value was 100%. We believe that hepatic scintigraphy still continues to play an important role in the diagnosis of hepatic masses especially for liver haemangioma where Tc-99m labeled red blood cell scanning has considerably high specificity. However, planar imaging has poor sensitivity especially for the identification of smaller lesions. Hepatic scintigraphy is non-invasive, easy to perform and inexpensive. In our opinion, when a suspicion of hepatic haemangioma is raised on CT or other imaging modalities, it needs to be confirmed by radionuclide blood-pool study. (author)

  14. Study of RBC Efficiency in Aniline Removal by Increasing Contactor Specific Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Mousavi Aliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aniline is a first type amino aromatic compound and has various applications in different pharmaceutical, synthetic dye, plastic, and petrochemical industries. It is poisonous and its discharge into the environment causes serious hazards that warrant it removal by an efficient treatment process.  In this study, the efficiency of rotating biological contactors in aniline removal was investigated using four 3-liter parallel systems (in two series. Two reactors in the first series had 27 disks. The second series had 14 discs with packings in each reactor with the same specific surfaces as compared to the first system.Aniline concentrations from 100 to 1200 mg/L and hydraulic loading rates from 1.57 to 6.28 L/m2.d were used throughout the study period in two treatments. The effect of disc rotation speed on system efficiency was also investigated. The results indicated that COD removal efficiency decreased with increasing hydraulic loading rate but increased with increasing disc speed from 5 to 15 rpm. The best removal efficiencies of 88 and 86 percent for RBCI and RBCII, respectively, were obtained for an aniline concentration of 400 mg/L, a hydraulic loading rate of 1.57 L/m2.d, and a disc speed of 15 rpm. Based on the results, although both systems yield almost equal efficiencies, the start-up period was shorter in RBCII with a clearer effluent due to the lower quantity of suspended microorganisms in the reactor than that in RBCI. Use of packing may decrease energy consumption for disc rotation due to the overall weight reduction of the system.

  15. Gamma irradiation response of RBC in presence of Aloe vera leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, Charusheela C.; Patil, Shilpa M.; Kulkarni, Satish G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The components from fleshy leaves of Aloe vera have wide range of utility in treating human aliments owing to their medicinal property including antioxidant characteristic. During gamma irradiation, attack by free radicals is the prominent cause of damage to cell membrane. This action is modified to varied extent by several components from plants. A radio modulation effect of different dilutions of Aloe vera leave extract against gamma radiation has been evaluated by measuring percent haemolysis. The result obtained will be discussed to narrate influencing role of various factors in modulation

  16. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  17. Mine waters: Acidic to circumneutral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Acid mine waters, often containing toxic concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cr, can be produced from the mining of coal and metallic deposits. Values of pH for acid mine waters can range from –3.5 to 5, but even circumneutral (pH ≈ 7) mine waters can have high concentrations of As, Sb, Mo, U, and F. When mine waters are discharged into streams, lakes, and the oceans, serious degradation of water quality and injury to aquatic life can ensue, especially when tailings impoundments break suddenly. The main acid-producing process is the exposure of pyrite to air and water, which promotes oxidative dissolution, a reaction catalyzed by microbes. Current and future mining should plan for the prevention and remediation of these contaminant discharges by the application of hydrogeochemical principles and available technologies, which might include remining and recycling of waste materials.

  18. Preparation of deuterated succinic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Masashi; Tsuzuki, Hirohisa; Goto, Hideyuki; Ogasahara, Shoji; Mataka, Shuntaro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Yonemitsu, Tadashi (Kyushu Sangyo Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1991-04-01

    Succinic (2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})- and (2,2,3,3-{sup 2}H{sub 4})-acids were prepared from maleic anhydride and dimethyl fumarate, and acetylene dicarboxylic acid and its dimethyl ester by treatment with Cu-Al and Ni-Al alloys in 10% NaOD-D{sub 2}0 in 95% to 100% isotopic purity. The succinic {sup 2}H{sub 4} acid having high isotopic purity was also obtained on the hydrolysis of 1,2-ethanedinitrile with alkaline deuterium oxide. Based on the {sup 1}H({sup 2}H) spectra analysis of N-(o-biphenyl)(2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})succinimide, it was elucidated that the Raney alloy reduction with alkaline deuterium oxide proceeds stepwise. (author).

  19. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Giraldo, Maria Paulina; Quiceno Calderon, William de Jesus; Melo Arango Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  20. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author) [pt

  1. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  2. Identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2005-02-08

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  3. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  4. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. I...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Formic acid. 186.1316 Section 186.1316 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1316 Formic acid. (a) Formic acid (CH2O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-18-6) is also referred to as methanoic acid or hydrogen carboxylic acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17H31COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5...

  8. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  9. Nitrous Acid as an Oxidant in Acidic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-25

    current work is the account of Ogsts and Sawski3 who studied the oxidation of benzyl ethers at 90C in acidic, aqueous dioxane. They found an increase in...and G. Tobin, Chem. Com., 180 (1978); (b) J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, and K. Schofield, Chem. Comm., 605 (1969). 15. (a) B. Challis and A. Lawson. J. Chem

  10. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows first- ... amino acids by chloramines 7,8 while, little attention has been focused on ... in glass-stoppered pyrex boiling tubes whose outer surface was coated ... BAB in a measured aliquot (5 ml each) of the reaction mixture at different intervals of.

  11. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. salivarius alone showed relatively good assimilation of various amino acids that existed at only a little amounts in MRS media (Asn, Asp, Cit, Cys, Glu, His, Lys, Orn, Phe, Pro, Tyr, Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Ser, Thr, Trp and Val), whereas Ala and Gly accumulated in L. salivarius cultures. P. acidilactici, in contrast, hydrolyzed the ...

  12. Fatty acids and amino acids contents in Scomber scombrus fillets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, fats and amino acids of Atlantic Mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) from the South East of Tunisia in different seasons, were analyzed in order to assess nutritive characteristics of this species. Samples were collected monthly from Zarzis fishing port located in the South-East of Tunisia. Total fats and ...

  13. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible bo....... Evidence suggests that geometric and steric factors are key features for controlling the equilibria. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]...

  14. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asp)) by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide (bromamine-B or BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows firstorder dependence each on [BAB]o and [amino acid]o and inverse first-order on [H+]. At [H+] > ...

  15. Formic acid assisted hydrogenation of levulinic acid to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muppala Ashokraju

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... to γ-valerolactone over ordered mesoporous Cu/Fe2O3 catalyst ... Compared to the direct use of biomass as fuel, its con- ... still room for the design and development of an efficient. 1 ... advantages no necessity of separation of levulinic acid ... of catalyst was placed in a quartz reactor and pre-treated in.

  16. Effect of para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid on acid invertase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato cv. Liaoyuanduoli (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were cultivated in a greenhouse to allow sampling of the second fruit in the first cluster and comparison with tomato fruit that developed following para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (PCPA) treatment. Sugar content, activities of sugar related enzymes and the effects of ...

  17. Serum n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic Acid and Tetracosahexaenoic Acid Increase Following Higher Dietary α-Linolenic Acid but not Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Lin, Yu-Hong; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-02-01

    n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3, TPAn-3) and tetracosahexaenoic acid (24:6n-3, THA) are believed to be important intermediates to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis. The purpose of this study is to report for the first time serum concentrations of TPAn-3 and THA and their response to changing dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and DHA. The responses will then be used in an attempt to predict the location of these fatty acids in relation to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway. Male Long Evans rats (n = 6 per group) were fed either a low (0.1% of total fatty acids), medium (3%) or high (10%) ALA diet with no added DHA, or a low (0%), medium (0.2%) or high (2%) DHA diet with a background of 2% ALA for 8 weeks post-weaning. Serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations (nmol/mL ± SEM) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum THA increases from low (0.3 ± 0.1) to medium (5.8 ± 0.7) but not from medium to high (4.6 ± 0.9) dietary ALA, while serum TPAn-3 increases with increasing dietary ALA from 0.09 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.09 to 1.23 ± 0.14 nmol/mL. Following DHA feeding, neither TPAn-3 or THA change across all dietary DHA intake levels. Serum TPAn-3 demonstrates a similar response to dietary DHA. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that increases in dietary ALA but not DHA increase serum TPAn-3 and THA in rats, suggesting that both fatty acids are precursors to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway.

  18. Acid precipitation and forest vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, C O; Cowling, E B

    1977-04-01

    Effects of acidic precipitation on forest vegetation may be classified as being either direct or indirect. Among the most important direct effects are damage to protective cuticular layers, interference with normal functioning of guard cells, poisoning of plant cells after diffusion of acidic substances through stomata or cuticle and interference with reproductive processes. Indirect effects include accelerated leaching of substances from foliar organs, increased susceptibility to drought and other environmental stress factors, and alteration of symbiotic associations and host-parasite interactions. The potential importance of nutrient uptake through foliage and the need to understand atmosphere-plant-soil interactions are stressed.

  19. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  20. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.