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Sample records for rbc mass concentrations

  1. Effect of RBC concentrate transfusions on serum ferritin content in children with acute leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeshko, V G; Bruslova, E M; Tsvietkova, N M; Iatsemirskii, S M; Puchkareva, T I; Gonchar, L A; Krukovska, V V; Zelinska, A V; Mishchenko, L P

    2013-01-01

    To study the serum ferritin levels in children with acute leukemia, depending on the number of transfusions of RBC concentrate and period of disease. We studied the red blood count, serum iron and ferritin levels in 54 patients with acute leukemia before chemotherapy, at the time of a standardized treatment protocol, and after transfusions of RBC concentrates. In the debute of acute leukemia just before treatment lauch the serum ferritin in 81.5% of children was 2.3-2.5 higher than normal. The need for transfusion of RBC concentrates was higher under serum ferritin level exceeding 500 ng/mL. The association was established between ferritin content and age of the children, variant of acute leukemia and period of the disease. The level of serum ferritin can be used as a marker of ferrokinetic status for timely diagnosis of iron overload in children with acute leukemias and for application of treatment-and-prophylactic actions. Bebeshko V. G., Bruslova K. M., Cvjetkova N. M., Jacemyrskyj S. M., Pushkarova T. I., Gonchar L. O., Krukovska V. V., Zelinska A. V., Mishhenko L. P., 2013.

  2. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  3. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  4. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This study explored whether increased red blood cell (RBC) swelling and/or plasma or urine amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge might be informative about relative chronic hyperosmotic stress in free-living men. Five healthy men (20–25 years) with baseline total water intake below 2 L/day participated in an 8-week clinical study: four 2-week periods in a U-shaped A-B-C-A design. Intake of drinking water was increased by +0.8 ± 0.3 L/day in period 2, and +1.5 ± 0.3 L/day in period 3, and returned to baseline intake (0.4 ± 0.2 L/day) in period 4. Each week, fasting blood and urine were collected after a 750 mL bolus of drinking water, following overnight water restriction. The periods of higher water intake were associated with significant decreases in RBC deformability (index of cell swelling), plasma histidine, urine arginine, and urine glutamic acid. After 4 weeks of higher water intake, four out of five participants had ½ maximal RBC deformability below 400 mmol/kg; plasma histidine below 100 μmol/L; and/or undetectable urine arginine and urine glutamic acid concentrations. Work is warranted to pursue RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge as possible biomarkers of chronic cell hydration. PMID:24303184

  5. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  6. Relationship between RBC Mercury Levels and Serum n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrations among Japanese Men and Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, M.; Ando, T.; Wakamiya, J.; Koriyama, Ch.; Akiba, S.; Kitano, T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate potential health risk and benefits of fish consumption, the association of fish consumption with total mercury levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations was examined. Subjects and Methods. Study subjects were 269 Japanese (98 men and 171 women) living in a remote island of Kagoshima, and their blood was drawn in 1994. Results. Total mercury levels were related to weekly fish consumption among women (P=0.035) but not among men (P=0.643). However, serum EPA levels were not related to fish consumption in both women and men. In contrast, EPA levels in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of the sera were significantly related to fish consumption (P values for men and women were 0.014 and 0.073, resp.). Interestingly, mercury levels were related to serum EPA levels and EPA in the HDL fraction of the sera (P=0.001) among women (P=0.005) but not among men. Sex differences in fish species consumed may be an explanation for the observed sex difference. Conclusion. Those findings suggest that the health benefit of fish consumption can be maximized by the careful selection of fish species consumed

  7. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    OpenAIRE

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This stu...

  8. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  9. Direct gravimetric determination of aerosol mass concentration in central antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In Antarctica, experimental difficulties due to extreme conditions have meant that aerosol mass has rarely been measured directly by gravimetry, and only in coastal areas where concentrations were in the range of 1-7 μg m(-3). The present work reports on a careful differential weighing methodology carried out for the first time on the plateau of central Antarctica (Dome C, East Antarctica). To solve problems of accurate aerosol mass measurements, a climatic room was used for conditioning and weighing filters. Measurements were carried out in long stages of several hours of readings with automatic recording of temperature/humidity and mass. This experimental scheme allowed us to sample from all the measurements (up to 2000) carried out before and after exposure, those which were recorded under the most stable humidity conditions and, even more importantly, as close to each other as possible. The automatic reading of the mass allowed us in any case to obtain hundreds of measurements from which to calculate average values with uncertainties sufficiently low to meet the requirements of the differential weighing procedure (±0.2 mg in filter weighing, between ±7% and ±16% both in aerosol mass and concentration measurements). The results show that the average summer aerosol mass concentration (aerodynamic size ≤10 μm) in central Antarctica is about 0.1 μg m(-3), i.e., about 1/10 of that of coastal Antarctic areas. The concentration increases by about 4-5 times at a site very close to the station.

  10. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions under flow. Role of RBC deformability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, 3-4 (2010), s. 45-52 ISSN 1313-2458 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : apparent viscosity * conductivity * RBC suspensions * dextran 70 * PEG 35 000 * glutaraldehyde Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 μCi of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 μCi Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 μCi In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 μCi of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 μCi is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results

  12. Preoperative diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma: a 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Luca; Borsari, Giulia; Pichierri, Patrizia; Polito, Ennio; Toscano, Olga; Grassetto, Gaia; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico; Vattimo, Angelo Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to describe 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy as a diagnostic method for orbital cavernous hemangiomas and to evaluate this diagnostic tool according to surgical outcomes. Fifty-five patients with clinical and radiological (US, CT, and/or MRI) suspicion of unilateral cavernous hemangioma of the orbit underwent 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.Qualitative and semiquantitative evaluations were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. SPECT images showed focal uptake in the orbital mass in 36 of 55 patients. Nineteen patients had a negative scintigraphic pattern, with concordance of early and late absence of uptake of 99mTc-RBC.Our procedure showed 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for the diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma, with a positive predictive value of 90.9% and a negative predictive value of 100%. 99mTc-RBC imaging is safe, easy to perform, and highly accurate in providing adequate clinical and surgical management. As a noninvasive and highly specific method for diagnosing orbital hemangioma, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy can avoid more invasive imaging or biopsy.

  13. 99mTc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1994-01-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author)

  14. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SAREF) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SAPSD) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SAINV1) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SAINV2) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SAPSD was 0.7-1.8 times higher and SAINV1 and SAINV2 were 2.2-8 times higher than SAREF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SAREF. However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SAREF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SAPSD) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  15. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SA REF ) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SA PSD ) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SA INV1 ) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SA INV2 ) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SA PSD was 0.7–1.8 times higher and SA INV1 and SA INV2 were 2.2–8 times higher than SA REF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SA REF . However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SA REF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SA PSD ) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  16. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic

  17. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-28

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.

  18. Particulate matter mass concentrations produced from pavement surface abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullova Dasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest findings particulate matter belong to the most significant pollutants in Europe together with ground-level ozone O3 and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter. Traffic volume has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and also on the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The paper deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The paper offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  19. Measurement of blood coagulation with considering RBC aggregation through a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Nam, Jeonghun; Xue, Shubin; Shin, Sehyun

    2011-01-01

    Even though blood coagulation can be tested by various methods and techniques, the effect of RBC aggregation on blood coagulation is not fully understood. The present study monitored clot formation in a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer. Citrated blood samples with and without the addition of calcium ion solution were initially disaggregated by rotating a stirrer in the microchip. After abrupt stop of the rotating stirrer, the transmitted light intensity over time was recorded. The syllectogram (light intensity vs. time graph) manifested a rapid increase that is associated with RBC aggregation followed by a decrease that is associated with blood coagulation. The time to reach the peak point was used as a new index of coagulation time (CT) and ranged from 200 to 500 seconds in the present measurements. The CT was inversely proportional to the concentration of fibrinogen, which enhances RBC aggregation. In addition, the CT was inversely proportional to the hematocrit, which is similar to the case of the prothrombin time (PT), as measured by a commercial coagulometer. Thus, we carefully concluded that RBC aggregation should be considered in tests of blood coagulation.

  20. Multiple and Periodic Measurement of RBC Aggregation and ESR in Parallel Microfluidic Channels under On-Off Blood Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun Kang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC aggregation causes to alter hemodynamic behaviors at low flow-rate regions of post-capillary venules. Additionally, it is significantly elevated in inflammatory or pathophysiological conditions. In this study, multiple and periodic measurements of RBC aggregation and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are suggested by sucking blood from a pipette tip into parallel microfluidic channels, and quantifying image intensity, especially through single experiment. Here, a microfluidic device was prepared from a master mold using the xurography technique rather than micro-electro-mechanical-system fabrication techniques. In order to consider variations of RBC aggregation in microfluidic channels due to continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip, two indices (aggregation index (AI and erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate aggregation index (EAI are evaluated by using temporal variations of microscopic, image-based intensity. The proposed method is employed to evaluate the effect of hematocrit and dextran solution on RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. As a result, EAI displays a significantly linear relationship with modified conventional ESR measurement obtained by quantifying time constants. In addition, EAI varies linearly within a specific concentration of dextran solution. In conclusion, the proposed method is able to measure RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. Furthermore, the method provides multiple data of RBC aggregation and ESR through a single experiment. A future study will involve employing the proposed method to evaluate biophysical properties of blood samples collected from cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Tremendous Mass Concentration in Strange Galaxy Revealed by VLBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A dense whirling mass orbiting what almost certainly is a black hole of truly Brobdingnagian proportions has been discovered at the heart of an active galaxy some 21 million light years from Earth. The astronomical observations were made by an international team of Japanese and American astronomers using a continent-wide radio telescope funded by the National Science Foundation. The work is reported in the January 12th issue of Nature. The tremendous concentration of mass, equivalent to 40 million suns, in the center of the galaxy NGC4258 in the constellation Canes Venatici, was revealed by the apparent rotation of a molecular disk that surrounds it. The observations showed that the disk of dense material is orbiting within the galaxy's nucleus at velocities -- up to 650 miles per second -- that require the gravitational pull of such a massive object. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the Very Long Baseline Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory allowed precise measurements of the differential rotation of the material in the disk, which provides the most direct and definitive evidence to date for the presence of a supermassive black hole in the center of another galaxy. Black holes, so dense that nothing -- not even light -- can escape their gravitational fields, have long been thought to be present in the centers of active galaxies, where they would act as central engines driving a variety of exotic and energetic phenomena that are seen on much larger scales, such as jets and powerful X ray emission. NGC 4258, a spiral some 90,000 light-years across, is known to have jets of gas that are twisted into the shape of a helix emerging from the nucleus at speeds of 400 miles per second. Makoto Miyoshi of Japan's Mizusawa Astrogeodymanics Observatory; James Moran, James Herrnstein and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Naomasa Nakai of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory; Philip Diamond of the

  2. Neem leaf extract as potential modifier of free radical interaction with RBC membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Shilpa M.; Kulkarni, Satish G.; Rane, Charusheela

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is well known as village pharmacy due to its multifaceted medicinal action in curing countless health problems. The leaf extract of Neem is known to purify blood by removing toxins and neutralizing free radicals. Using gamma irradiation as free radical generation process the efficacy of neem leaf extract in combating free radical attack on RBC membrane has been explored. The results narrating role of concentration and dose dependency in this radio modulation will be discussed

  3. Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

  4. Strategi Perancangan Mutu Ripe Banana Chip (RBC Berbasis Harapan Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Herry P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ripe Banana Chip (RBC, merupakan salah satu jenis kripik yang dibuat dari pisang masak. RBC dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknologi penggorengan vakum (vacum frying ataupun pembekuan (freezing. RBC pisang mas cukup banyak memiliki keunggulan dari nilai gizinya. Produk ini masih belum diketahui tingkat kesesuain mutunya dengan keinginan konsumen dilihat dari aspek fisik ataupun organoleptik. Tujuan penelitian ini agar dapat mengetahui rancangan mutu yang tepat untuk produk RBC pisang mas. Penelitian ini menggunakan tiga metode, diantaranya metode skoring, Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI, dan metode diagram tulang ikan. Hasil dari penelitian, yaitu : warna RBC dengan intensitas 5,56 (kuning dan skor 3,862 (suka ; informasi kemasan dengan intensitas 4,5 (setuju dan skor 3,534 (suka ; kenyamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,58 (nyaman dan skor 4,155 (suka ; keamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,15 (sangat aman dan skor 4,086 (suka ; ketebalan dengan intensitas 8,31(sangat tebal dan skor 1,604 (sangat tidak suka ; Oil dengan intensitas 4,86 (banyak dan skor 2,483 (tidak suka ; kerenyahan dengan intensitas 7,32 (keras dan skor 2,843 (cukup suka ; Easy of breaking dengan intensitas 5,17 (mudah dipatahkan dan skor 3,158 (cukup suka ; rasa manis dengan intensitas 7,89 (manis dan skor 3,208 (cukup suka ; rasa asam dengan intensitas 4,84 (agak asam dan skor 3,309 (cukup suka. Nilai CSI yang dihasilkan, yaitu sebesar 64% (puas. Strategi untuk meningkatkan mutu RBC diantaranya: mengurangi ukuran ketebalan bahan baku sebelum diproses; lebih dipertimbangkan lagi tingkat kematangan pisang; memberi pengarahan dan motivasi kepada pekerja; melakukan pengawasan saat produksi berlangsung; lebih memperhatikan keseragaman ukuran pisang, dan menggunakan alternatif lain dalam penirisan minyak, misalnya sentrifuse agar keberadaan minyak berkurang.

  5. Placentography with technetium-99m labelled RBC - an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, C.A.; Benjamin, C.S.; Balakrishnan; Narasimhan

    1983-01-01

    During 1979-80, placentography was performed in 40 cases of pregnant women with third trimester bleeding. Random labelled RBC with sup(99m)Tc of activity 2-3 mci was used, depending upon the weight of the patient. In 98% of cases, the isotope finding was confirmed. (author)

  6. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions under flow. Role of RBC aggregating agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, 2-4 (2010), s. 253-261 ISSN 1386-0291 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : apparent viscosity * conductivity * unsteady flow * RBC suspensions * dextrans * PEG Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2010

  7. Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkkönen, P; Pai, P; Maynard, A; Lehtinen, K E J; Hämeri, K; Rechkemmer, P; Ramachandran, G; Prasad, B; Kulmala, M

    2005-07-15

    Fine particle number concentration (D(p)>10 nm, cm(-3)), mass concentrations (approximation of PM(2.5), microg m(-3)) and indoor/outdoor number concentration ratio (I/O) measurements have been conducted for the first time in 11 urban households in India, 2002. The results indicate remarkable high indoor number and mass concentrations and I/O number concentration ratios caused by cooking. Besides cooking stoves that used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene as the main fuel, high indoor concentrations can be explained by poor ventilation systems. Particle number concentrations of more than 300,000 cm(-3) and mass concentrations of more than 1000 microg m(-3) were detected in some cases. When the number and mass concentrations during cooking times were statistically compared, a correlation coefficient r>0.50 was observed in 63% of the households. Some households used other fuels like wood and dung cakes along with the main fuel, but also other living activities influenced the concentrations. In some areas, outdoor combustion processes had a negative impact on indoor air quality. The maximum concentrations observed in most cases were due to indoor combustion sources. Reduction of exposure risk and health effects caused by poor indoor air in urban Indian households is possible by improving indoor ventilation and reducing penetration of outdoor particles.

  8. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  9. Molecular evolution of rbcL in three gymnosperm families: identifying adaptive and coevolutionary patterns

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sen, Lin

    2011-06-03

    Abstract Background The chloroplast-localized ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco), the primary enzyme responsible for autotrophy, is instrumental in the continual adaptation of plants to variations in the concentrations of CO2. The large subunit (LSU) of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene. Although adaptive processes have been previously identified at this gene, characterizing the relationships between the mutational dynamics at the protein level may yield clues on the biological meaning of such adaptive processes. The role of such coevolutionary dynamics in the continual fine-tuning of RbcL remains obscure. Results We used the timescale and phylogenetic analyses to investigate and search for processes of adaptive evolution in rbcL gene in three gymnosperm families, namely Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae. To understand the relationships between regions identified as having evolved under adaptive evolution, we performed coevolutionary analyses using the software CAPS. Importantly, adaptive processes were identified at amino acid sites located on the contact regions among the Rubisco subunits and on the interface between Rubisco and its activase. Adaptive amino acid replacements at these regions may have optimized the holoenzyme activity. This hypothesis was pinpointed by evidence originated from our analysis of coevolution that supported the correlated evolution between Rubisco and its activase. Interestingly, the correlated adaptive processes between both these proteins have paralleled the geological variation history of the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Conclusions The gene rbcL has experienced bursts of adaptations in response to the changing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. These adaptations have emerged as a result of a continuous dynamic of mutations, many of which may have involved innovation of functional Rubisco features. Analysis of the protein structure and the functional implications of such

  10. Pushing down the low-mass halo concentration frontier with the Lomonosov cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo

    2017-12-01

    We introduce the Lomonosov suite of high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations covering a full box of size 32 h-1 Mpc with low-mass resolution particles (2 × 107 h-1 M⊙) and three zoom-in simulations of overdense, underdense and mean density regions at much higher particle resolution (4 × 104 h-1 M⊙). The main purpose of this simulation suite is to extend the concentration-mass relation of dark matter haloes down to masses below those typically available in large cosmological simulations. The three different density regions available at higher resolution provide a better understanding of the effect of the local environment on halo concentration, known to be potentially important for small simulation boxes and small halo masses. Yet, we find the correction to be small in comparison with the scatter of halo concentrations. We conclude that zoom simulations, despite their limited representativity of the volume of the Universe, can be effectively used for the measurement of halo concentrations at least at the halo masses probed by our simulations. In any case, after a precise characterization of this effect, we develop a robust technique to extrapolate the concentration values found in zoom simulations to larger volumes with greater accuracy. Altogether, Lomonosov provides a measure of the concentration-mass relation in the halo mass range 107-1010 h-1 M⊙ with superb halo statistics. This work represents a first important step to measure halo concentrations at intermediate, yet vastly unexplored halo mass scales, down to the smallest ones. All Lomonosov data and files are public for community's use.

  11. Penelitian penentuan konstanta saturasi (Ks pada rbc unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic of Rotating Biological Contractor have been investigated by manu researchers. In general the model emploued either saturation kinetic (following Monod equation or first order kinetic to describe substrate removal. In this experiment, saturation kinetic model was used to find out the saturation constant of the RBC unit. The influent fed into the unit was synthetic waste water with glucose as organic carbon sources. The flow was maintained constant at 20.4 1/d and COD influent resulted the saturation constant (Ks 11.17 mg/I with 20 hours of detention time.

  12. Size resolved mass concentration and elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Smolík

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A Berner low pressure impactor was used to collect size-segregated aerosol samples at Finokalia, located on the north-eastern coast of Crete, Greece during July 2000 and January 2001. Several samples were also collected during the summer campaign aboard the research vessel "AEGAIEO" in the Aegean Sea. Gravimetric analysis and inversion techniques yielded daily PM1 and PM10 mass concentrations. The samples were also analysed by PIXE giving the elemental size distributions of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sr, S, Cl, Ni, V, Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb. The crustal elements and sea-salt had a unimodal supermicron size distribution. Sulphur was found predominantly in submicron fractions. K, V, and Ni exhibited a bimodal distribution with a submicron mode produced by forest fires and oil combustion. The anthropogenic elements had broad and not well-defined distributions. The time series for PM1 and PM10 mass and elemental concentrations showed both daily and seasonal variation. Higher mass concentrations were observed during two incursions of Saharan dust, whilst higher concentrations of S, Cu, Zn, and Pb were encountered in samples collected in air masses arriving from northern Greece or the western coast of Turkey. Elevated concentrations of chlorine were found in samples with air masses either originating above the Atlantic Ocean and arriving at Finokalia via western Europe or recirculating over the western coast of the Black Sea.

  13. A free vibration of beams carrying a concentrated mass under distributed axial forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Ken-ichi; Nagaya, Kosuke; Takeda, Sadahiko; Arai, Noriyuki.

    1988-01-01

    The free bending vibrations of beams with a concentrated mass subjected to axial forces caused by axial acceleration are analyzed by the Galerkin method, introducing the mode shape functions which are the sum of the products of the finite power series and the trigonometrical function. This analytical method makes it easy to construct the equations of motion in each boundary condition only by exchanging the coefficients of the finite power series. Numerical calculations are carried out under four sets of boundary conditions combined with simply supported and clamped edges. The natural frequencies and the corresponding modes of vibration are determined under both various locations of the concentrated mass and axial forces. it is found that the transverse inertia force and the axial force, due to the concentrated mass, have significant effects on the change of the natural frequencies for beams. Furthermore the distinction of boundary conditions gives predominant influence to the variation of natural frequencies. (author)

  14. Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

  15. Mass transfer during sulfuric acid concentration by evaporation into the air flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Lukashov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the results of the study of mass transfer under periodic concentration of sulfuric acid by evaporation inthe gas flow, neutral with respect to the components of acid.Used mathematical model for mass transferbases on the proposed simplified physical representations.This model has allowed to construct an algorithm for calculation the coefficient of mass transfer from the liquid phase into the gas flow. The algorithm uses the experimental data of change the amount of acid and concentration of the water taken from the laboratory tests. Time-based Nusselt diffusion criterion represent the results of the study at different modes of the evaporation process.It has been found that the character of the influence of temperature and initial acid concentration on Nusselt diffusion criterion depends on the variation range of the mass fraction of water in the acid.It is shown that these dependences are well approximated by an exponential function from the dimensionless parameters of the process. This allows usingthem for calculation the mass transfer coefficient into the gas phase in a batch process of concentrating in the range of investigated modes.

  16. ACCURATE UNIVERSAL MODELS FOR THE MASS ACCRETION HISTORIES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D. H.; Jing, Y. P.; Mo, H. J.; Boerner, G.

    2009-01-01

    A large amount of observations have constrained cosmological parameters and the initial density fluctuation spectrum to a very high accuracy. However, cosmological parameters change with time and the power index of the power spectrum dramatically varies with mass scale in the so-called concordance ΛCDM cosmology. Thus, any successful model for its structural evolution should work well simultaneously for various cosmological models and different power spectra. We use a large set of high-resolution N-body simulations of a variety of structure formation models (scale-free, standard CDM, open CDM, and ΛCDM) to study the mass accretion histories, the mass and redshift dependence of concentrations, and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos. We find that there is significant disagreement between the much-used empirical models in the literature and our simulations. Based on our simulation results, we find that the mass accretion rate of a halo is tightly correlated with a simple function of its mass, the redshift, parameters of the cosmology, and of the initial density fluctuation spectrum, which correctly disentangles the effects of all these factors and halo environments. We also find that the concentration of a halo is strongly correlated with the universe age when its progenitor on the mass accretion history first reaches 4% of its current mass. According to these correlations, we develop new empirical models for both the mass accretion histories and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos, and the latter can also be used to predict the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. These models are accurate and universal: the same set of model parameters works well for different cosmological models and for halos of different masses at different redshifts, and in the ΛCDM case the model predictions match the simulation results very well even though halo mass is traced to about 0.0005 times the final mass, when

  17. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghetti, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Rasia, E. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, 450 Church Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F. [Departamento de Fsica Terica, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Merten, J.; Ettori, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Postman, M.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Balestra, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Benítez, N. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Biviano, A. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Bradley, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); De Petris, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universit di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-12-10

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  18. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Merten, J.; Ettori, S.; Postman, M.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; De Petris, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  19. The MUSIC of CLASH: Predictions on the Concentration-Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Merten, J.; Postman, M.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Donahue, M.; Ettori, S.; Umetsu, K.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Czakon, N.; De Petris, M.; Ford, H.; Giocoli, C.; Gottlöber, S.; Grillo, C.; Infante, L.; Jouvel, S.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Lahav, O.; Lemze, D.; Medezinski, E.; Melchior, P.; Mercurio, A.; Molino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Monna, A.; Moustakas, J.; Moustakas, L. A.; Nonino, M.; Rhodes, J.; Rosati, P.; Sayers, J.; Seitz, S.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ~11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  20. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  1. Contribution of creatine kinase MB mass concentration at admission to early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A. J.; Gorgels, J. P.; van Vlies, B.; Koelemay, M. J.; Smits, R.; Tijssen, J. G.; Haagen, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value at admission of creatine kinase MB mass concentration, alone or in combination with electrocardiographic changes, in suspected myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Prospective study of all consecutive patients admitted within 12 hours after onset of chest pain to

  2. PM mass and elemental species concentration data for I-96 monitoring sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PM2.5 (fine) and PM10-2.5 (coarse) mass concentrations for monitoring sites located 10 m, 100 m and 300 m north of Interstate I-96 in Detroit, the water-soluble and...

  3. Application research of computational mass-transfer differential equation in MBR concentration field simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqing; Tie, Xiaobo; Liang, Kai; Ji, Chanjuan

    2016-01-01

    After conducting the intensive research on the distribution of fluid's velocity and biochemical reactions in the membrane bioreactor (MBR), this paper introduces the use of the mass-transfer differential equation to simulate the distribution of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in MBR membrane pool. The solutions are as follows: first, use computational fluid dynamics to establish a flow control equation model of the fluid in MBR membrane pool; second, calculate this model by adopting direct numerical simulation to get the velocity field of the fluid in membrane pool; third, combine the data of velocity field to establish mass-transfer differential equation model for the concentration field in MBR membrane pool, and use Seidel iteration method to solve the equation model; last but not least, substitute the real factory data into the velocity and concentration field model to calculate simulation results, and use visualization software Tecplot to display the results. Finally by analyzing the nephogram of COD concentration distribution, it can be found that the simulation result conforms the distribution rule of the COD's concentration in real membrane pool, and the mass-transfer phenomenon can be affected by the velocity field of the fluid in membrane pool. The simulation results of this paper have certain reference value for the design optimization of the real MBR system.

  4. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-11-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  5. Aerosol concentration measurements and correlations with air mass trajectories at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, M. I.; Louedec, K.; Freire, M.; Vitale, P.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2017-06-01

    Aerosols play an important role in radiative transfer processes involved in different fields of study. In particular, their influence is crucial in the attenuation of light at astronomical and astrophysical observatories, and has to be taken into account in light transfer models employed to reconstruct the signals. The Andean Argentinean region is increasingly being considered as a good candidate to host such facilities, as well as the ones for solar-energy resources, and an adequate knowledge of aerosols characteristics there is needed, but it is not always possible due to the vast area involved and the scarce atmospheric data at ground. The aim of this work is to find correlations between aerosol data and particle trajectories that can give an insight into the origin and behaviour of aerosols in this zone and can be employed in situations in which one does not have local aerosol measurements. For this purpose, an aerosol spectrometer and dust monitor (Grimm 1.109) was installed at the Pierre Auger Observatory of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, to record aerosol concentrations in different size intervals, at surface level. These measurements are analysed and correlated with air mass trajectories obtained from HYSPLIT (NOAA) model calculations. High aerosol concentrations are registered predominantly when air masses have travelled mostly over continental areas, mainly from the NE direction, while low aerosol concentrations are found in correspondence with air masses coming from the Pacific Ocean, from the NW direction. Different size distribution patterns were found for the aerosols depending on their origin: marine or continental. This work shows for the first time the size distribution of aerosols registered at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The correlations found between mass and particle concentrations (total and for different size ranges) and HYSPLIT air mass trajectories, confirm that the latter can be employed as a useful tool to infer the sources, evolution

  6. Variations of PM2.5, PM10 mass concentration and health assessment in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memhood, Tariq; Tianle, Z.; Ahmad, I.; Li, X.; Shen, F.; Akram, W.; Dong, L.

    2018-04-01

    Sparse information appears in lack of awareness among the people regarding the linkage between particulate matter (PM) and mortality in Pakistan. The current study is aimed to investigate the seasonal mass concentration level of PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air of Islamabad to assess the health risk of PM pollution. The sampling was carried out with two parallel medium volume air samplers on Whatman 47 mm quartz filter at a flow rate of 100L/min. Mass concentration was obtained by gravimetric analysis. A noticeable seasonal change in PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration was observed. In case of PM2.5, the winter was a most polluted and spring was the cleanest season of 2017 in Islamabad with 69.97 and 40.44 μgm‑3 mean concentration. Contrary, highest (152.42 μgm‑3) and lowest (74.90 μgm‑3) PM10 mass concentration was observed in autumn and summer respectively. Air Quality index level for PM2.5 and PM10 was remained moderated to unhealthy and good to sensitive respectively. Regarding health risk assessment, using national data for mortality rates, the excess mortality due to PM2.5 and PM10 exposure has been calculated and amounts to over 198 and 98 deaths annually for Islamabad. Comparatively estimated lifetime risk for PM2.5 (1.16×10-6) was observed higher than PM10 (7.32×10-8).

  7. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.

  8. Measurement of particle size distribution and mass concentration of nuclear fuel aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.

    1982-01-01

    The particle size distribution and particle mass concentration of a nuclear fuel aerosol is measured by admitting the aerosol into a vertically-extending container, positioning an alpha particle detector within the container so that its window is horizontal and directed vertically, stopping the admission of aerosol into the container, detecting the alpha-activity of the particles of the aerosol sedimenting onto the detector window (for example in a series of equal time intervals until a constant level is reached), and converting the alpha-activity measurements into particle size distribution and/or particle mass concentration measurements. The detector is attached to a pivotted arm and by raising a counterweight can be lowered from the container for cleaning. (author)

  9. Influence of structural parameter included in nonlocal rock mass model on stress concentration around circular tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrikov, SV; Mikenina, OA; Revuzhenko, AF

    2018-03-01

    A model of elastic body, including local curvature of elementary volume, is matched with a nonlocal model with a linear structural parameter in the differential approximation. The problem on deformation of rock mass around a circular cross section tunnel is solved numerically. The contours of the calculated stresses are plotted. It is shown that inclusion of local bends in the model results in expansion of influence zone of the tunnel and reduces stress concentration factor at the tunnel boundary.

  10. Submicron particle mass concentrations and sources in the Amazonian wet season (AMAZE-08)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Rizzo, L. V.; Pauliqueivis, T.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Karl, Thomas G.; Guenther, Alex B.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Andreae, M. O.; Poeschl, U.; Jiminez, J. L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot T.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time mass spectra of non-refractory component of submicron aerosol particles were recorded in a tropical rainforest in the central Amazon basin during the wet season of 2008, as a part of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08). Organic components accounted on average for more than 80% of the non-refractory submicron particle mass concentrations during the period of measurements. Ammonium was present in sufficient quantities to halfway neutralize sulfate. In this acidic, isoprene-dominated, low-NOx environment the high-resolution mass spectra as well as mass closures with ion chromatography measurements did not provide evidence for significant contributions of organosulfate species, at least at concentrations above uncertainty levels. Positive-matrix factorization of the time series of particle mass spectra identified four statistical factors to account for the variance of the signal intensities of the organic constituents: a factor HOA having a hydrocarbon-like signature and identified as regional emissions of primary organic material, a factor OOA-1 associated with fresh production of secondary organic material by a mechanism of BVOC oxidation followed by gas-to-particle conversion, a factor OOA-2 consistent with reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially epoxydiols by acidic particles, and a factor OOA-3 associated with long range transport and atmospheric aging. The OOA-1, -2, and -3 factors had progressively more oxidized signatures. Diameter-resolved mass spectral markers also suggested enhanced reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products to the accumulation mode for the OOA-2 factor, and such size partitioning can be indicative of in-cloud process. The campaign-average factor loadings were in a ratio of 1.1:1.0 for the OOA-1 compared to the OOA-2 pathway, suggesting the comparable importance of gas-phase compared to particle-phase (including cloud waters) production pathways of secondary organic material during

  11. Influences mass concentration of P3HT and PCBM to application of organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyanto, A.; Maya; Iriani, Y.; Ramelan, A. H.; Nurosyid, F; Rosa, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6] -phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are used for the organic solar cell applications. P3HT and PCBM act as donors and acceptors, respectively. In this study the efficiency of the P3HT: PCBM organic solar cells as function of the mass concentration of the blend P3HT: PCBM with 1, 2, 8, 16 mg/ml. Deposition P3HT:PCBM film using spin coating with a rotary speed of 2500 rpm for 10 seconds. Optical properties of absorption spectra characteristic using a UV-Visible Spectrometer Lambda 25 and electrical properties of I-V characteristic using Keithley 2602 instrument. The results of absoption spectra for P3HT:PCBM within different mass concentration obtained 500-600 nm wavelengths. The Energy-gap obtained about 1.9eV. The organic solar cells device performance were investigated using I-V cahractyeristic. For mass concentration of 1, 2, 8 and 16 mg/ml P3HT:PCBM were obtained 0.5×10 -3 %, 2.2×10 -3 %, 5.9×10 -3 %, and 6.1×10 -3 % efficiency of organics solar cells respectively. (paper)

  12. Aquatic Exposure Predictions of Insecticide Field Concentrations Using a Multimedia Mass-Balance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knäbel, Anja; Scheringer, Martin; Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Highly complex process-driven mechanistic fate and transport models and multimedia mass balance models can be used for the exposure prediction of pesticides in different environmental compartments. Generally, both types of models differ in spatial and temporal resolution. Process-driven mechanistic fate models are very complex, and calculations are time-intensive. This type of model is currently used within the European regulatory pesticide registration (FOCUS). Multimedia mass-balance models require fewer input parameters to calculate concentration ranges and the partitioning between different environmental media. In this study, we used the fugacity-based small-region model (SRM) to calculate predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) for 466 cases of insecticide field concentrations measured in European surface waters. We were able to show that the PECs of the multimedia model are more protective in comparison to FOCUS. In addition, our results show that the multimedia model results have a higher predictive power to simulate varying field concentrations at a higher level of field relevance. The adaptation of the model scenario to actual field conditions suggests that the performance of the SRM increases when worst-case conditions are replaced by real field data. Therefore, this study shows that a less complex modeling approach than that used in the regulatory risk assessment exhibits a higher level of protectiveness and predictiveness and that there is a need to develop and evaluate new ecologically relevant scenarios in the context of pesticide exposure modeling.

  13. Direct Analysis of Proteins from Solutions with High Salt Concentration Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Sistani, Habiballah; Levis, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    The detection of lysozyme, or a mixture of lysozyme, cytochrome c, and myoglobin, from solutions with varying salt concentrations (0.1 to 250 mM NaCl) is compared using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Protonated protein peaks were observed up to a concentration of 250 mM NaCl in the case of LEMS. In the case of ESI-MS, a protein solution with salt concentration > 0.5 mM resulted in predominantly salt-adducted features, with suppression of the protonated protein ions. The constituents in the mixture of proteins were assignable up to 250 mM NaCl for LEMS and were not assignable above a NaCl concentration of 0.5 mM for ESI. The average sodium adducts () bound to the 7+ charge state of lysozyme for LEMS measurements from salt concentrations of 2.5, 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl are 1.71, 5.23, 5.26, and 5.11, respectively. The conventional electrospray measurements for lysozyme solution containing salt concentrations of 0.1, 1, 2, and 5 mM NaCl resulted in of 2.65, 6.44, 7.57, and 8.48, respectively. LEMS displays an approximately two orders of magnitude higher salt tolerance in comparison with conventional ESI-MS. The non-equilibrium partitioning of proteins on the surface of the charged droplets is proposed as the mechanism for the high salt tolerance phenomena observed in the LEMS measurements. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. The time series variations of tritium concentration in precipitation and its relationships to the rainfall-inducing air mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Jun

    1978-01-01

    The author measured the tritium concentration in precipitation of Tokyo for every ten-day period from August 1972 to May 1974. Judging from the daily synoptic weather chart, the rainfall-inducing air masses in Japan were classified into five types; polar maritime air mass (Pm), polar continental air mass (Pc), tropical maritime air mass (Tm), tropical continental air mass (Tc), and equatorial maritime air mass (Em). And the precipitation for every ten-day period sampled for tritium measurement were classified into these five types. Based on this classification, it is confirmed that there exist clear difference in the tritium concentration between the rainfall from the continental air mass and ones from the maritime air mass. It is characteristic that the tritium concentration in rainfall induced by equatorial maritime air mass such as typhoon in summer and early fall season is very low whereas the tritium concentration in rainfall and snowfall induced directly by the polar continental air mass in late winter season is very high. The regional difference of the tritium concentration in intermonthly precipitation could considerably be explained by this synoptic meteological classification of rainfall-inducing air mass. In spite of these regional difference of tritium concentration in precipitation, use of the tritium concentration of Tokyo as a representative value of Japan may be allowed because of the similarities of the changing pattern and annual mean tritium concentration. The time series variations of tritium concentration in precipitation of Tokyo from August 1972 to December 1977, Tsukuba from December 1976 to April 1978, and Nagaoka from April 1977 to March 1978 are listed. (author)

  15. EFFECT OF CENTRAL MASS CONCENTRATION ON THE FORMATION OF NUCLEAR SPIRALS IN BARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Parijat; Jiang, I.-G.; Ann, H. B.

    2009-01-01

    We have performed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to study the response of the central kiloparsec region of a gaseous disk to the imposition of nonaxisymmetric bar potentials. The model galaxies are composed of three axisymmetric components (halo, disk, and bulge) and a nonaxisymmetric bar. These components are assumed to be invariant in time in the frame corotating with the bar. The potential of spherical γ-models of Dehnen is adopted for the bulge component whose density varies as r -γ near the center and r -4 at larger radii and, hence, possesses a central density core for γ = 0 and cusps for γ>0. Since the central mass concentration of the model galaxies increases with the cusp parameter γ, we have examined here the effect of the central mass concentration by varying the cusp parameter γ on the mechanism responsible for the formation of the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in barred galaxies. Our simulations show that the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals are formed by hydrodynamic spiral shocks driven by the gravitational torque of the bar for the models with γ = 0 and 0.5. On the other hand, the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in the models with γ = 1 and 1.5 are explained by gas density waves. Thus, we conclude that the mechanism responsible for the formation of symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in barred galaxies changes from hydrodynamic shocks to gas density waves as the central mass concentration increases from γ = 0 to 1.5.

  16. Different top-down approaches to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood tacrolimus mass concentration values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Blanco-Font, Aurora; Canalias, Francesca

    2018-05-08

    Values of mass concentration of tacrolimus in whole blood are commonly used by the clinicians for monitoring the status of a transplant patient and for checking whether the administered dose of tacrolimus is effective. So, clinical laboratories must provide results as accurately as possible. Measurement uncertainty can allow ensuring reliability of these results. The aim of this study was to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values obtained by UHPLC-MS/MS using two top-down approaches: the single laboratory validation approach and the proficiency testing approach. For the single laboratory validation approach, we estimated the uncertainties associated to the intermediate imprecision (using long-term internal quality control data) and the bias (utilizing a certified reference material). Next, we combined them together with the uncertainties related to the calibrators-assigned values to obtain a combined uncertainty for, finally, to calculate the expanded uncertainty. For the proficiency testing approach, the uncertainty was estimated in a similar way that the single laboratory validation approach but considering data from internal and external quality control schemes to estimate the uncertainty related to the bias. The estimated expanded uncertainty for single laboratory validation, proficiency testing using internal and external quality control schemes were 11.8%, 13.2%, and 13.0%, respectively. After performing the two top-down approaches, we observed that their uncertainty results were quite similar. This fact would confirm that either two approaches could be used to estimate the measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Discriminating plants using the DNA barcode rbcLb: an appraisal based on a large data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenpan; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Xu, Chao; Long, Ping; Chen, Chumming; Zhou, Shiliang

    2014-03-01

    The ideal DNA barcode for plants remains to be discovered, and the candidate barcode rbcL has been met with considerable skepticism since its proposal. In fact, the variability within this gene has never been fully explored across all plant groups from algae to flowering plants, and its performance as a barcode has not been adequately tested. By analysing all of the rbcL sequences currently available in GenBank, we attempted to determine how well a region of rbcL performs as a barcode in species discrimination. We found that the rbcLb region was more variable than the frequently used rbcLa region. Both universal and plant group-specific primers were designed to amplify rbcLb, and the performance of rbcLa and rbcLb was tested in several ways. Using blast, both regions successfully identified all families and nearly all genera; however, the successful species identification rates varied significantly among plant groups, ranging from 24.58% to 85.50% for rbcLa and from 36.67% to 90.89% for rbcLb. Successful species discrimination ranged from 5.19% to 96.33% for rbcLa and from 22.09% to 98.43% for rbcLb in species-rich families, and from 0 to 88.73% for rbcLa and from 2.04% to 100% for rbcLb in species-rich genera. Both regions performed better for lower plants than for higher plants, although rbcLb performed significantly better than rbcLa overall, particularly for angiosperms. Considering the applicability across plants, easy and unambiguous alignment, high primer universality, high sequence quality and high species discrimination power for lower plants, we suggest rbcLb as a universal plant barcode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Molecular cloning of RBCS genes in Selaginella and the evolution of the rbcS gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubisco small subunits (RBCS are encoded by a nuclear rbcS multigene family in higher plants and green algae. However, owing to the lack of rbcS sequences in lycophytes, the characteristics of rbcS genes in lycophytes is unclear. Recently, the complete genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii provided the first insight into the rbcS gene family in lycophytes. To understand further the characteristics of rbcS genes in other Selaginella, the full length of rbcS genes (rbcS1 and rbcS2 from two other Selaginella species were isolated. Both rbcS1 and rbcS2 genes shared more than 97% identity among three Selaginella species. RBCS proteins from Selaginella contained the Pfam RBCS domain F00101, which was a major domain of other plant RBCS proteins. To explore the evolution of the rbcS gene family across Selaginella and other plants, we identified and performed comparative analysis of the rbcS gene family among 16 model plants based on a genome-wide analysis. The results showed that (i two rbcS genes were obtained in Selaginella, which is the second fewest number of rbcS genes among the 16 representative plants; (ii an expansion of rbcS genes occurred in the moss Physcomitrella patens; (iii only RBCS proteins from angiosperms contained the Pfam PF12338 domains, and (iv a pattern of concerted evolution existed in the rbcS gene family. Our study provides new insights into the evolution of the rbcS gene family in Selaginella and other plants.

  19. Mass concentration coupled with mass loading rate for evaluating PM_2_._5 pollution status in the atmosphere: A case study based on dairy barns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, HungSoo; Park, Kihong; Lee, Kwangyul; Ndegwa, Pius M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated particulate matter (PM) loading rates and concentrations in ambient air from naturally ventilated dairy barns and also the influences of pertinent meteorological factors, traffic, and animal activities on mass loading rates and mass concentrations. Generally, relationships between PM_2_._5 concentration and these parameters were significantly poorer than those between the PM loading rate and the same parameters. Although ambient air PM_2_._5 loading rates correlated well with PM_2_._5 emission rates, ambient air PM_2_._5 concentrations correlated poorly with PM_2_._5 concentrations in the barns. A comprehensive assessment of PM_2_._5 pollution in ambient air, therefore, requires both mass concentrations and mass loading rates. Emissions of PM_2_._5 correlated strongly and positively with wind speed, temperature, and solar radiation (R"2 = 0.84 to 0.99) and strongly but negatively with relative humidity (R"2 = 0.93). Animal activity exhibited only moderate effect on PM_2_._5 emissions, while traffic activity did not significantly affect PM_2_._5 emissions. - Highlights: • Sink PM_2_._5 loading rates correlate well with source PM_2_._5 emission rates. • Sink PM_2_._5 concentrations correlate poorly with source PM_2_._5 concentrations. • Mass loading rate complements mass concentration in appraising sink PM_2_._5 status. • PM_2_._5 emissions is dependent on wind speed, temp, solar strength, and RH. • Cow traffic activity affects PM_2_._5 emissions, while traffic activity does not. - Both PM mass loading rate and concentrations are required for comprehensive assessment of pollution potential of PM released into the atmosphere.

  20. The study of x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy of 99mTc-RBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chunyi

    1994-01-01

    99m Tc-RBC are widely used as visualization agents for a blood pool. In this research 99m Tc-RBC was prepared by in vivo labeling. The chemical state and changes of 99m Tc atoms in 99m Tc-RBC was determined by x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of 99m Tc-RBC is best shown by the determination of XPS at one hour or at two hours after labeling. There are two ways of coordination of bonding of RBC and 99m Tc: One is the coordination of 99m Tc with the oxygen atom which carries a negative charge of the carboxyl radical on the polypeptide bond, the other is the coordination of 99m Tc with a sulfur atom which caries the negative charge of cysteine. From the E b value of 99m Tc-RBC 99m Tc 3d5/2, it can be inferred that 99m Tc of 99m Tc-RBC is less than a trivalent. At the same time, the results of the determination by XPS with the compounds containing 99 TcO 4 - , 99 Tc(V), 99 Tc(IV) and 99 Tc(III) show that the chemical shift is lowered as the reduction state is lowered. Experimental results coincide with theoretical inferences

  1. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  2. Mass concentrations of BTEX inside air environment of buses in Changsha, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaokai; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Quan [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Chen, Hong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)

    2011-02-15

    In order to estimate the mass concentrations of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E) and xylenes (X) inside air environment of buses and to analyze the influencing factors of the BTEX pollution levels, 22 public buses were investigated in Changsha, China. The interior air was collected through activated charcoal adsorption tubes and then the air samples were analyzed with thermally desorbed gas chromatograph. The mass concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 106.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for benzene, from 53.5 to 266.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for toluene, from 19.6 to 95.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for ethylbenzene and from 46.9 to 234.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for xylenes. Their mean values were 68.7, 179.7, 62.5 and 151.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. The rates of buses tested where the interior concentrations exceeded the limit levels of Chinese Indoor Air Quality Standard were 45.5% for toluene and 13.6% for xylenes. The BTEX levels increased when in-car temperature or relative humidity rose, and decreased when car age or travel distance increased. The BTEX concentrations were higher in leather trims buses than in non-leather trims ones, in air-conditioned buses than in non-air-conditioned ones, and in high-grade buses than in low-grade ones. According to the analysis of multiple linear regression equation, car age and in-car temperature were two most important factors influencing the BTEX pollution levels in the cabins of public buses. (author)

  3. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rondo, L.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosolnucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detectionof gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased inthe presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was setup at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection ofH2SO4in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time inthe CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF(Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutralsulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presenceof dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS...

  4. Effect of rotary inertia of concentrated masses on the natural vibration of fluid conveying pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    1999-01-01

    Effects of the rotary inertia of concentrated masses on the natural vibrations of fluid conveying pipes have been studied by theoretical modeling and computer simulation. For analysis, two boundary conditions for pipe ends, simply supported and clamped-clamped, are assumed and Galerkin's method is used for transformation of the governing equation to the eigenvalues problem and the natural frequencies and mode shapes for the system have been calculated by using the newly developed computer code. Moreover, the critical velocities related to a system instability have been investigated. The main conclusions for the present study are (1) rotary inertia gives much change on the higher natural frequencies and mode shapes and its effect is visible when it has small value, (2) The number and location of nodes can be changed by rotary inertia, (3) By introducing rotary inertia, the second natural frequency approaches to the first as the location of the concentrated mass approaches to the midspan of the pipe, and (4) The critical fluid velocities to initiate the system unstable are unchanged by introduction of rotary inertia and the first three velocities are π, 2π, and 3π for the simply supported pipe and 2π, 8.99 and 12.57 for the clamped-clamped pipe. (author). 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikavska, T; Brucknerova, I

    2014-01-01

    Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns: case reports. Folates are a group of water soluble compounds, which are important for metabolic processes in human body. These are important during periods of rapid cell growth. The most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body is the determination of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations. The optimal level of RBC folate is not known in neonatal period. Authors discuss the reasons for extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations. In our work we present the cases of two premature newborns with extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations, which were analyzed immunochemically on the first day of life and after six weeks of life. In both cases we measured RBC folate concentrations on the 1st day of life. After 6 weeks we found extremely high RBC folate concentration level (5516.67 ng/ml) in the first case after RBC transfusions. In second case after two months of life the RBC folate concentration level was doubled (2335.1 ng/ml) until 24 hours after RBC transfusion compared to levels after birth. The normal range of RBC folate values vary in newborns. The upper limit of daily dose of folic acid in pregnancy and neonatal period is not known. On the other hand it is an easily excreted water-soluble vitamin but in premature newborn it can lead to the disruption of metabolic balance and slow its degradation. Some factors can have an impact on RBC folate concentration. Blood transfusion can be one of the main influences on RBC folate concentration. To clarify these mechanisms further studies are required (Ref. 29).

  6. Active renin mass concentration to determine aldosterone-to-renin ratio in screening for primary aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available François Corbin1, Pierre Douville2, Marcel Lebel3 1Division of Biochemistry, l'Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; 2Division of Biochemistry; 3Division of Nephrology, L'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec Hospital and l'Université Laval, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Active renin mass concentration (ARC is independent of the endogenous level of angiotensinogen, and less variable and more reproducible than plasma renin activity. Reference values for the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR using ARC are still undefined. The objective of the present study was to determine the threshold of ARR using ARC measurement to screen for primary aldosteronism.Methods: A total of 211 subjects were included in the study, comprising 78 healthy normotensive controls, 95 patients with essential hypertension, and 38 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism (20 with surgery-confirmed aldosterone-producing adenoma and 18 with idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia. Blood samples were drawn from ambulatory patients and volunteers in the mid-morning without specific dietary restriction for measuring plasma aldosterone concentration, ARC, and serum potassium.Results: Most normotensive controls and essential hypertension patients had ARR results below 100 pmol/ng, a value which corresponded to 3.3 times the median of these two groups.Conclusion: Patients with ARR values above this level should be considered for further investigation (confirmatory tests or for repeat testing should ARR values be borderline. This study indicates that ARC can be used reliably in determining ARR for primary aldosteronism screening.Keywords: primary aldosteronism, active renin mass concentration, aldosterone-to-renin ratio

  7. Quantitation of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in human serum samples by using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki; Shiraishi, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of human pharmacokinetics is important for development of new drugs. Microdosing studies have been proposed as means of obtaining human pharmacokinetics information at early stages of drug development. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has high detection sensitivity and is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we used the AMS microdosing facility at Yamagata University to measure the concentration of 14 C in 14 C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum samples. The calibration curve of 14 C concentration in serum was linear, and the correlation coefficient was 0.9994. The precision, accuracy, and stability values obtained (freeze and thaw cycles, and short- and long-term stability) satisfied the criteria. The mean background 14 C concentrations in samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers were 1.635dpm/mL in blood and 0.56dpm/mL in plasma. These results suggest the suitability of AMS-based quantitation for analyzing samples from microdosing studies. (author)

  8. Online sample concentration in partial-filling chiral electrokinetic chromatography – mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Alain; Haddad, Paul R; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-11-01

    The concentration sensitivity of a racemic drug (chlorpheniramine maleate) in chiral capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization – mass spectrometric detection was improved ~500-fold via stacking. Enantiomeric separation was achieved through the use of a neutral chiral pseudostationary phase (2-hydroxpropyl-β-cyclodextrin), untreated fused-silica capillaries, and the application of a partial-filling technique to prevent the pseudostationary phase from entering the detector. A concentration factor of 50 resulted from field-enhanced sample injection(FESI). However, the higher concentration factor was achieved by combining FESI with micelle-to-solvent stacking (MSS) to increase sample load and focus the analyte band. MSS was achieved by injection of an ammonium lauryl sulfate micellar plug prior to sample injection. The sample diluent was a 20-fold dilution of the background electrolyte (50 mM ammonium acetate, pH 3.5) with 60% acetonitrile. This methodology provided a limit of detection (LOD) of as low as 5 ng/ml of the racemate.

  9. Monitoring salivary melatonin concentrations in children with sleep disorders using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sohil A; George, Rani; Charles, Bruce G; Taylor, Paul J; Heussler, Helen S; Cooper, David M; McGuire, Treasure M; Pache, David; Norris, Ross L G

    2013-06-01

    Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and is an important circadian phase marker, especially in the determination of sleep patterns. Both temporary and permanent abnormal sleep patterns occur in children; therefore, it is desirable to have methods for monitoring melatonin in biological fluids in the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders. The objective of the study is to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of melatonin in saliva and to apply it to monitoring salivary concentrations in children with sleep disorders. A deuterated internal standard (d7-melatonin) was added to a diluted saliva sample (20 µL) in an autosampler vial insert, and 50 µL were injected. Plasticware was strictly avoided, and all glassware was scrupulously cleaned and then baked at 120°C for at least 48 hours to obtain satisfactory performance. Reverse-phase chromatography was performed on a C8 column using a linear gradient elution profile comprising mobile phases A (0.1% aqueous formic acid) and B (15% methanol in acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid), pumped at a total flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The run time was 8 minutes. After atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, mass spectrometric detection was in positive ion mode. Mass detection was by selected reaction monitoring mode with the following mass transitions used for quantification: melatonin, m/z 233.0 → 173.8 and d7-melatonin, m/z 240.0 → 178.3. Linearity (r > 0.999) was established from 3.9 to 1000 pg/mL. Imprecision (coefficient of variation percent) was less than 11%, and accuracy was 100-105% (7.0-900 pg/mL). The method was selective, and the mean (range) ratio of the slopes of calibrations in water to those in daytime saliva samples collected from 10 healthy adult subjects was 0.989 (0.982-0.997), indicating negligible matrix effects. The application of the assay was demonstrated in healthy adults and in children being clinically investigated for sleep

  10. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  11. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2015-12-01

    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  12. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions in Dextran and PEG under flow II. Role of RBC deformability and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.; Gluhcheva, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, 1-4 (2011), s. 441-450 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC suspensions * conductivity * Dextran 70 * Polyethylene glycol 35 000 (PEG) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.398, year: 2011

  13. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions in Dextran and PEG under flow II. Role of RBC deformability and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.; Gluhcheva, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, 1-4 (2011), s. 441-450 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC suspensions * conductivity * Dextran 70 * Polyethylene glycol 35 000 ( PEG ) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.398, year: 2011

  14. Association of urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Parastar, Saeed; Ebrahimpour, Karim; Shoshtari-Yeganeh, Bahareh; Hashemi, Majid; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the association of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years living in Isfahan, Iran. Urinary concentration of mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethyl-5-exohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) metabolites were determined. For comparison of means, t test and to evaluate the association of analytes in different groups according to weight ANOVA was used. The correlation was applied to determine the association between phthalate metabolites with age, sex, WC, BMI, and BMI z-score. The univariate and multivariate regression models were used to determine the association of metabolites concentration with BMI z-score and WC. Mean (SD) BMI, BMI z-score and WC were 23.89 (4.41) kg/m 2 , 1.37 (1.3), and 82.37 (12.71) cm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between boys' age with BMI z-score (p value = 0.03) and WC (p value = 0.01), while the corresponding figures were not statistically significant in girls (p value = 0.48, and 0.4, respectively). Of the total population, 37 participants (15.3%) were obese. MMP, MBP, and MBzP metabolites were observed in all samples while MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP in 99.6, 95.86, and 96.28% of the studied population. Mean concentration of MMP (64.38 μg/L) and MBzP (268 μg/L) had the lowest and highest concentrations of metabolites, respectively. A significant relationship was observed among all studied metabolites and weight groups (p value ≤ 0.02). After adjustment for potential confounders, all metabolites (except MMP) showed a low-to-moderate positive and significant relationship with BMI z-score (β = 0.17-0.3). A weak to moderate positive and significant relationship was observed between all phthalate metabolites and WC (

  15. Pretreatment Red Blood Cell Total Folate Concentration Is Associated With Response to Pemetrexed in Stage IV Nonsquamous Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L; Alley, Evan W; Cohen, Roger B; Langer, Corey J; Blair, Ian A; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2017-03-01

    Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Previous studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic, marker of cellular folate status was associated with the response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. The pretreatment RBC total folate level was quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We then compared the objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations greater than and less than an optimal cutoff value determined from the receiver operating characteristic curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab. The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and nonresponders. Patients with RBC total folate  364.5 nM (P = .01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.57; P = .01). A low pretreatment RBC total folate was associated with an inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stellar Mass-gap as a Probe of Halo Assembly History and Concentration: Youth Hidden among Old Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, A. J.; Conroy, C.; Wetzel, A. R.; Tinker, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the use of the halo mass-gap statistic—defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo—as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ~ 25, 000 group/cluster-sized halos in the mass range 1012.5 time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger halo mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite subhalo population, which limits the use of the halo mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large halo mass-gap systems (akin to "fossil groups") are young and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite subhalo and the central subhalo. We relate halo mass-gap to the observable stellar mass-gap via abundance matching. Using a galaxy group catalog constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we find that the star formation and structural properties of galaxies at fixed mass show no trend with stellar mass-gap. This is despite a variation in halo age of ≈2.5 Gyr over ≈1.2 dex in stellar mass-gap. Thus, we find no evidence to suggest that the halo formation history significantly affects galaxy properties.

  17. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2008-09-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  18. Resin bead-thermal ionization mass spectrometry for determination of plutonium concentration in irradiated fuel dissolver solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sumana; Shah, R.V.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Pandey, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Determination of isotopic composition (IC) and concentration of plutonium (Pu) is necessary at various stages of nuclear fuel cycle which involves analysis of complex matrices like dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, nuclear waste stream etc. Mass spectrometry, e.g. thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are commonly used for determination of IC and concentration of plutonium. However, to circumvent matrix interferences, efficient separation as well as preconcentration of Pu is required prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Purification steps employing ion-exchange resins are widely used for the separation of Pu from dissolver solution or from mixture of other actinides e.g. U, Am. However, an alternative way is to selectively preconcentrate Pu on a resin bead, followed by direct loading of the bead on the filament of thermal ionization mass spectrometer

  19. Simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot particles and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingxun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Tiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Besides gas species concentrations, soot volume fractions are also important data in the study of flames. This work describes the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames by in situ sampling and mass spectrometry (MS).The reaction medium was frozen by sampling into a very low-pressure tube, and the soot selectivity (proportion of carbon atoms in the reactant converted to soot) was determined from the C and H mass balances using the measured concentrations of the gas species and the mass of soot present per unit gas volume. The H/C ratio of the soot was measured by a thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry combination. The soot volume fraction was calculated from the soot selectivity and density of the soot. The soot selectivity measured by this reduced pressure sampling mass spectrometry (RPSMS) method was verified by measurements using the gravimetric sampling technique where the mass of soot collected in a volume of gas was weighed by a high precision balance. For most of the measurements, the uncertainty in the soot volume fraction was ±5%, but this would be larger when the soot volume fractions are less than 1 ppm. For demonstration, the RPSMS method was used to study a methane fuel-rich flame where the soot volume fractions were 1–5 ppm. The simultaneous measurement of concentrations of soot and gas species is useful for the quantitative study of flames. (paper)

  20. Red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in confined microflows: Pressure-flow relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Hagit; Waisman, Dan; Korin, Netanel; Sznitman, Josué

    2017-10-01

    Microfluidic-based assays have become increasingly popular to explore microcirculation in vitro. In these experiments, blood is resuspended to a desired haematocrit level in a buffer solution, where frequent choices for preparing RBC suspensions comprise notably Dextran and physiological buffer. Yet, the rational for selecting one buffer versus another is often ill-defined and lacks detailed quantification, including ensuing changes in RBC flow characteristics. Here, we revisit RBC suspensions in microflows and attempt to quantify systematically some of the differences emanating between buffers. We measure bulk flow rate (Q) of RBC suspensions, using PBS- and Dextran-40, as a function of the applied pressure drop (ΔP) for two hematocrits (∼0% and 23%). Two distinct microfluidic designs of varying dimensions are employed: a straight channel larger than and a network array similar to the size of individual RBCs. Using the resulting pressure-flow curves, we extract the equivalent hydrodynamic resistances and estimate the relative viscosities. These efforts are a first step in rigorously quantifying the influence of the 'background' buffer on RBC flows within microfluidic devices and thereby underline the importance of purposefully selecting buffer suspensions for microfluidic in vitro assays. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  2. The determination of carbon dioxide concentration using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopic dilution and errors in concentration measurements caused by dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLacy, Brendan G; Bandy, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopically labeled standard (APIMS/ILS) method has been developed for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration. Descriptions of the instrumental components, the ionization chemistry, and the statistics associated with the analytical method are provided. This method represents an alternative to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) technique, which is currently used in the atmospheric community to determine atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The APIMS/ILS and NDIR methods exhibit a decreased sensitivity for CO(2) in the presence of water vapor. Therefore, dryers such as a nafion dryer are used to remove water before detection. The APIMS/ILS method measures mixing ratios and demonstrates linearity and range in the presence or absence of a dryer. The NDIR technique, on the other hand, measures molar concentrations. The second half of this paper describes errors in molar concentration measurements that are caused by drying. An equation describing the errors was derived from the ideal gas law, the conservation of mass, and Dalton's Law. The purpose of this derivation was to quantify errors in the NDIR technique that are caused by drying. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the errors created solely by the dryer in CO(2) concentration measurements post-dryer. The laboratory experiments verified the theoretically predicted errors in the derived equations. There are numerous references in the literature that describe the use of a dryer in conjunction with the NDIR technique. However, these references do not address the errors that are caused by drying.

  3. Tc-99m Labeled Red Blood Cell by Ultra Tag RBC Kit in Patients Suspected of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusuwan, Pawana; Leaungwutiwong, Suraphong; Tocharoenchai, Chiraporn; Chaiwatanarat, Tawatchai; Sirisatipoch, Sasitorn; Rajadara, Samart; Naktong, Thanyada; Thanyarak, Sucheera

    2001-06-01

    Twenty patients suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent Tc-99m labeled red blood cell (RBC) by ultraTag RBC kit at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Bumrungrad Hospital between January 2000 and December 2002 were studied. The histories of patients together with either endoscopic results or angiographic findings or pathological reports were used as gold standards. Two by Two decision matrix was used for data analysis and the sensitivity together with specificity were calculated. The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit are 87.5% and 91.7%, respectively. We conclude that Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit gives high percentages of sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the image quality is improved because of the absence of free Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake in the stomach in all patients

  4. Genotoxic effects of daily personal exposure to particle mass and number concentrations on buccal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Daniela S.; da Costa, Silvano César; Ribeiro, Marcos; Moreira, Camila A. B.; Beal, Alexandra; Squizzato, Rafaela; Rudke, Anderson Paulo; Rafee, Sameh Adib Abou; Martins, Jorge A.; Palioto, Graciana Freitas; Kumar, Prashant; Martins, Leila D.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess personal exposure to Particle Number Concentrations (PNC) in four size ranges between 0.3 and 10 μm, and particulate matter (PM1; PM2.5; PM4; PM10) in order to evaluate possible genotoxic effects through a comet assay in buccal cells. A convenience cohort of 30 individuals from a Brazilian medium-sized city was selected. These individuals aged between 20 and 61 and worked in typical job categories (i.e., administrative, commerce, education, general services and transport). They were recruited to perform personal exposure measurements during their typical daily routine activities, totaling 240 h of sampling. The 8-h average mass concentrations in air for volunteers ranged from 2.4 to 31.8 μg m-3 for PM1, 4.2-45.1 μg m-3 for PM2.5, 7.9-66.1 μg m-3 for PM4 and from 23.1 to 131.7 μg m-3 for PM10. The highest PNC variation was found for 0.3-0.5 range, between 14 and 181 particles cm-3, 1 to 14 particles cm-3 for the 0.5-1.0 range, 0.2 to 2 particles cm-3 for the 1.0-2.5 range, and 0.06 to 0.7 particles cm-3 for the 2.5-10 range. Volunteers in the 'education' category experienced the lowest inhaled dose of PM2.5, as opposed to those involved in 'commercial' activities with the highest doses for PM10 (1.63 μg kg-1 h-1) and PM2.5 (0.61 μg kg-1 h-1). The predominant cause for these high doses was associated with the proximity of the workplace to the street and vehicle traffic. The comet assay performed in buccal cells indicated that the volunteers in 'commerce' category experienced the highest damage to their DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) compared with the control category (i.e. 'education'). These results indicate the variability in personal exposure of the volunteers in different groups, and the potential damage to DNA was much higher for those spending time in close proximity to the vehicle sources (e.g. commercial services) leading to exposure to a higher fraction of fine particles. This study builds understanding on the exposure

  5. Influence of concentration and hydrodynamic factors in sorption of iodine by anion-exchangers of the mass-transfer rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Smirnov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the joint influence of hydrodynamic and concentration factors in sorption of iodine by AV-17-8 and anion exchange resins on the mass-transfer coefficient is the subject of this report. The method of central composite rotatable experimental design was used for quantitative assessment and derivation of the appropriate equations. The investigation yielded the necessary regression equations satisfactorily describing the influence of all the factors in the mass-transfer coefficient. the optimal mass-transfer conditions were determined. On the basis of the values obtained, recommendations are made on the optimal hydrodynamic conditions of operation of equipment with pneumatic circulation of the ion-exchanger

  6. Haemostatic function and biomarkers of endothelial damage before and after RBC transfusion in patients with haematologic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A M; Leinøe, E B; Johansson, P I

    2015-01-01

    function and the endothelium) to RBC transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was sampled from patients with various transfusion-dependent haematologic diseases before 1 and 24 h after RBC transfusion. Primary and secondary haemostasis was evaluated by whole-blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate....... Compared to before transfusion, patients had slightly reduced coagulability 1 h after RBC transfusion, assessed by TEG. However, transfusion of older RBC products (>14 days) was associated with increased coagulability (all P level of syndecan-1 increased slightly 24 h after transfusion (median....... The changes observed were small to moderate and the clinical relevance of these findings should be investigated in larger studies....

  7. Estimation of adult and neonatal RBC lifespans in anemic neonates using RBCs labeled at several discrete biotin densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Denison J; Widness, John A; Nalbant, Demet; Schmidt, Robert L; Mock, Donald M; An, Guohua; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Prior conclusions that autologous neonatal red blood cells (RBC) have substantially shorter lifespans than allogeneic adult RBCs were not based on direct comparison of autologous neonatal vs. allogeneic adult RBCs performed concurrently in the same infant. Biotin labeling of autologous neonatal RBCs and allogeneic adult donor RBCs permits concurrent direct comparison of autologous vs. allogeneic RBC lifespan. RBCs from 15 allogeneic adult donors and from 15 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates were labeled at separate biotin densities and transfused simultaneously into the 15 neonates. Two mathematical models that account for the RBC differences were employed to estimate lifespans for the two RBC populations. Mean ± SD lifespan for adult allogeneic RBC was 70.1 ± 19.1 d, which is substantially shorter than the 120 d lifespan of both autologous and adult allogeneic RBC in healthy adults. Mean ± SD lifespan for neonatal RBC was 54.2 ± 11.3 d, which is only about 30% shorter than that of the adult allogeneic RBCs. This study provides evidence that extrinsic environmental factors primarily determine RBC survival (e.g., small bore of the capillaries of neonates, rate of oxygenation/deoxygenation cycles) rather than factors intrinsic to RBC.

  8. Air mass origins by back trajectory analysis for evaluating atmospheric 210Pb concentrations at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, N.; Kawabata, H.; Hasegawa, H.; Kondo, K.; Chikuchi, Y.; Hisamatsu, S.; Inaba, J.; Sato, T.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of 210 Pb change with various factors such as meso-scale meteorological conditions. We have already reported the biweekly atmospheric 210 Pb concentrations in Rokkasho, Japan for 5 years and found that they had clear seasonal variations: low concentrations in summer and high values in winter to spring. To study the reasons for the seasonal variations, the origins of the air mass flowing to Rokkasho were analyzed by 3-D backward air mass trajectory analysis. Routes of the calculated trajectories were classified into four regions: northeastern and southeastern Asian Continent, sea and other regions. The atmospheric 210 Pb concentrations were well correlated with the frequency of the routes through the northeastern Asian Continent. A non-linear multiple regression analysis of the 210 Pb concentrations and the relative frequencies of the four routes showed good fitting of the predicted values to the observed ones, and indicated that the atmospheric 210 Pb concentrations in Rokkasho depended on the frequency of the air mass from the northeastern Asian Continent. (author)

  9. In Situ Measurements of Aerosol Mass Concentration and Spectral Absorption at Three Location in and Around Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Z.; Martins, V.; Li, Z.

    2006-12-01

    As a result of population growth and increasing industrialization, air pollution in heavily populated urban areas is one of the central environmental problems of the century. As a part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) study, Nuclepore filters were collected in two size ranges (PM10 and PM2.5) at 12 hour intervals at three location in Mexico during March, 2006. Sampling stations were located at the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (T0), at the Rancho La Bisnago in the State of Hidalgo (T2) and along the Gulf Coast in Tampico (Tam). Each filter was analyzed for mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption efficiencies. Mass concentrations at T0 ranged from 47 to 179 μg/m3 for PM10 with an average concentration of 96 μg/m3, and from 20 to 93 μg/m3 for PM2.5 with an average concentration of 41 μg/m3. Mass concentrations at T2 ranged from 12 to 154 μg/m3 for PM10 with an average concentration of 51 μg/m3, and from 7 to 50 μg/m3 for PM2.5 with an average concentration of 25 μg/m3. Mass concentrations at Tam ranged from 34 to 80 μg/m3 for PM10 with an average concentration of 52 μg/m3, and from 8 to 23 μg/m3 for PM2.5 with an average concentration of 13 μg/m3. While some of the extreme values are likely linked to local emissions, regional air pollution episodes also played important roles. Each of the sampling stations experienced a unique atmospheric condition. The site at T0 was influenced by urban air pollution and dust storms, the site at T2 was significantly less affected by air pollution but more affected by regional dust storms and local dust devils while Tam was influenced by air pollution, dust storms and the natural marine environment. The spectral mass absorption efficiency was measured from 350 to 2500 nm and shows large differences between the absorption properties of soil dust, black carbon, and organic aerosols. The strong spectral differences observed can be related to differences in

  10. Erythrocyte survival studies in lymphomas : a prognostic appraisal. [/sup 51/Cr-labelled RBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, B; Subrahmanyam, K; Pant, G C [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Inst. of Medical Sciences

    1977-08-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies using /sup 51/Cr-labelled RBC's were conducted using 20 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and 10 control subjects. Hepatic, splenic, and cardiac areas were monitored for rapid detection of hypersplenism. The findings are discussed in relation to the prognosis of the disease in the patients.

  11. Time dependent variation of human blood conductivity as a method for an estimation of RBC aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2008), s. 69-78 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC aggregation * blood conductivity * low shear rate viscometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.814, year: 2008

  12. 40 CFR 35.2035 - Rotating biological contractor (RBC) replacement grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works owner, the applicant, its engineers, contractors, equipment manufacturers or suppliers; (b) The RBC failure has significantly increased the project's capital or operation and maintenance costs; (c) The modification/replacement project meets all requirements of EPA's construction grant and other...

  13. A gene phylogeny of the red algae (Rhodophyta) based on plastid rbcL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, D W; Fredericq, S; Butler, B S; Hommersand, M H; Chase, M W

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny for the Rhodophyta has been inferred by parsimony analysis of plastid rbcL sequences representing 81 species, 68 genera, 38 families, and 17 orders of red algae; rbcL encodes the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Levels of sequence divergence among species, genera, and families are high in red algae, typically much greater than those reported for flowering plants. The Rhodophyta traditionally consists of one class, Rhodophyceae, and two subclasses, Bangiophycidae and Florideophycidae. The Bangiophycidae with three orders (Porphyridiales, Compsopogonales, and Bangiales) appears to be polyphyletic, and the Florideophycidae with 17 orders is monophyletic in this study. The current classification of the Florideophycidae based on ultrastructure of pit connections is supported. With the exception of the Rhodogorgonales, which appears to be misplaced, orders with one or two pit-plug cap layers (Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Acrochaetiales, Palmanales, Batrachospermales, and Nemaliales) terminate long branches of basal position within Florideophycidae in the most parsimonious rbcL tree. Orders that lack typical cap layers but possess a cap membrane are resolved as a monophyletic clade sister to the Ahnfeltiales. The large order Gigartinales, which is distributed among five rbcL clades, is polyphyletic. Families that possess typical carrageenan in their cell walls are resolved as a terminal clade containing two family complexes centered around the Solieriaceae and Gigartinaceae. PMID:8041781

  14. 77 FR 50487 - Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy Services LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-328-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  15. Rheological and electrical properties of polymeric nanoparticle solutions and their influence on RBC suspensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Koseva, N.; Kowalczyk, A.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2014), s. 35190 ISSN 1430-6395 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : nanoparticles and RBC suspensions * poly(acrylic acid) * rheology * electrical conductivity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2014 http://www.ar.ethz.ch/TMPPDF/24308140293.696/ApplRheol_24_35190.pdf

  16. Development of a kit for RBC labelling with 99mTc and its clinic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marafuschi, A.M.; Nowotny, G.A.; Palcos, M.C.; Rotta, M. del C.

    1980-01-01

    A kit for labelling red blood cells (RBC) with 99m Tc based on a Tin Pyrophosphate mixture freeze-dried and a saline solution saturated with nitrogen has been prepared for spleen and placenta scanning, circulatory studies and blood volume determinations. The stannous tin is intended to reduce the 99m Tc pertechnetate, obtained either from generators or from solvent extraction, to the appropriate valence state suitable for labelling. The technique is as follows: Add to the heparinized blood sample the Tin-Pyrophosphate mixture dissolved in the saline solution. After five minutes incubation time at room temperature the plasma is discarded by centrifugation. Following the addition of the tracer activity to the separated RBC, the supernatant is discarded after a second centrifugation. Depending on the test to be performed, the RBC are either resuspended in saline solution for blood pool or circulation studies or denaturalized at 49.5 deg C for spleen scanning. The labelling yield (95-88%) and its stability has been checked by in vitro measurements, up to four hours after labelling. The biological distribution and spleen uptake have been determined in rats and rabbits. The developed method proved to be adequate for labelling RBC with good labelling retention. An interesting application is shown in babies with congenital cardiac defects and suspected absence of the spleen, where the scan gave a good image of the existing spleen. (author) [es

  17. Accurate determination of 41Ca concentrations in spent resins from the nuclear industry by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bourlès, Didier; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2013-01-01

    The radiological characterisation of nuclear waste is essential for managing storage sites. Determining the concentration of Long‐Lived RadioNuclides (LLRN) is fundamental for their long-term management. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 41 Ca concentrations in ions exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). 41 Ca concentrations were successfully measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) after the acid digestion of resin samples, followed by radioactive decontamination and isobaric suppression through successive hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate and final CaF 2 precipitations. Measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 ng/g, i.e. from 0.06 to 0.09 Bq/g. The 41 Ca/ 60 Co activity ratios obtained were remarkably reproducible and in good agreement with the current ratio used for resins management. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 41 Ca in spent resins using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. • A chemical treatment procedure was developed to quantitatively recover calcium in solution and selectively extract it. • Developed firstly on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • Accelerator mass spectrometry allowed measuring concentrations of 41 Ca in spent resins as low as 0.02 ng/g of dry resin. • Final results are in agreement with current data used for spent resins management

  18. Studying the microlenses mass function from statistical analysis of the caustic concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, T; Ariza, O [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad de Cadiz, Avda de Ramon Puyol, s/n 11202 Algeciras (Spain); Mediavilla, E [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Avda Via Lactea s/n, La Laguna (Spain); Munoz, J A, E-mail: teresa.mediavilla@ca.uca.es, E-mail: octavio.ariza@uca.es, E-mail: emg@iac.es [Departamento de Astrofisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-22

    The statistical distribution of caustic crossings by the images of a lensed quasar depends on the properties of the distribution of microlenses in the lens galaxy. We use a procedure based in Inverse Polygon Mapping to easily identify the critical and caustic curves generated by a distribution of stars in the lens galaxy. We analyze the statistical distributions of the number of caustic crossings by a pixel size source for several projected mass densities and different mass distributions. We compare the results of simulations with theoretical binomial distributions. Finally we apply this method to the study of the stellar mass distribution in the lens galaxy of QSO 2237+0305.

  19. Antioxidant activity of citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in the RBC's of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallak, M.; Jaliah, B.I.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects in alloxan induced diabetes. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the mechanism of damage of red blood cells and anaemia in diabetic patients. So the current study was carried out to investigate the protective role of citrullus colocynthis against oxidative stress in the RBC's of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glibenclamide (a positive control) orally. Evaluations were made for haematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC's of all experimental rats. Results: The diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in total erythrocytes count and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and a normal Haemoglobin (Hb) value in the blood. They also showed decreased levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the RBC's hemolysate. On other hand, oral administration of citrullus colocynthis or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats, they resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in the in total erythrocytes count and PCV (Haematocrit) values in the blood and caused a significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT in the RBC's of those diabetic treated rats when compared to diabetic rats given normal saline. The effect was more profound in citrullus colocynthis treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a potent antioxidant property

  20. Simulator for training operators of electric substation: an approach via RBC-Paraconsistent; Simulador para treinamento de operadores de subestacao eletrica: um enfoque via RBC-paraconsistente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert-Torres, G.; Martins, H.G.; Coutinho, M.P.; Goulart, J.D.C.; Soares, F.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: germanoltorres@gmail.com, helgagonzaga@gmail.com, maurilio.coutinho@gmail.com, janaina157@yahoo.com.br, francis.azevedo@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    This article presents a combination of two techniques applied artificial intelligence to solve problems to Restoration of an Electric Substation: Casebased Reasoning - CBR and the Four Values Annotated Paraconsistent Logic - 4vAPL. The process occurs in the connection functions of belief, disbelief, specialty and temporality to LPA4v in the retrieval of cases to determine process diagnostic of an RBC. The field of CBR is applied in a recovery of an electric substation. The LPA4v is the support applied in problems that have inconsistent information, partials and undefined. Thus this study is closer of the real situations.

  1. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  2. The measurement of the isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using double isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhongguo

    1994-01-01

    The isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc are measured by silicagel-thermal ionization mass spectrometry using the double isotope spikers. The double isotope spikers ( 70 Zn and 67 Zn-enriched isotopes) are used to correct the isotope mass fractionation for the zinc isotope ratios, and to certify the zinc concentrations in the unknown samples. The zinc concentrations of these double isotope spikers are surveyed by a spiker made of pure (99.99%) natural zinc metal powder. The correcting factors (f a , f t and f n ) of the zinc isotope ratios in the spiked mixture, spike and unspiked samples for the isotope mass fractionation, and the spike-to-unspiked ratios (X r ) of the zinc isotope r in the spiked mixture samples can be obtained to solve the matrix equations by numerical approximation. The natural zinc isotope ratios are: 64 Zn/ 67 Zn = 11.8498, 66 Zn/ 67 Zn = 6.7977, 68 Zn/ 67 Zn = 4.5730 and 70 Zn/ 67 Zn = 0.1520. The uncertainties determined of the isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc are +- 0.16% and +-0.31%, respectively

  3. Comparison of Respirable Mass Concentrations Measured by a Personal Dust Monitor and a Personal DataRAM to Gravimetric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Andrew; Sousan, Sinan; Peters, Thomas M

    2017-12-15

    In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 mg m-3. For all aerosols except coal dust, strong, near-one-to-one, linear relationships were observed between mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and gravimetrically (diesel fume, slope = 0.99, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.98, R2 = 0.99; and NaCl, slope = 0.95, R2 = 0.99). The slope deviated substantially from unity for coal dust (slope = 0.55; R2 = 0.99). Linear relationships were also observed between mass concentrations measured with the pDR-1500 and gravimetrically, but one-to-one behavior was not exhibited (diesel fume, slope = 0.23, R2 = 0.76; coal dust, slope = 0.54, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.61, R2 = 0.99; NaCl, slope = 1.14, R2 = 0.98). Unlike the pDR-1500, mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 appear independent of refractive index and density, suggesting that it could have applications in a variety of occupational settings. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Glucose and glycerol concentrations and their tracer enrichment measurements using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; Foged, Lene; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes a new liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for high-throughput quantification of glucose and glycerol in human plasma using stable isotopically labeled internal standards and is suitable for simultaneous measurements of glucose and glycerol enrichments...... of variation were 2.0% and 9.7%, respectively. After derivatization, plasma samples were stable for at least 14 days. In conclusion, we have developed and validated a novel, accurate, and sensitive high-throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of glucose...

  5. Mass and elemental concentrations of air bone particles at Kuala Lumpur site in 2000 to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Wood; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric Pollution due to air bone particle is a major concern to many cities in the Southeast Asian region, including Kuala Lumpur. Within the last six years air particulate samples have been collected from a site in Kuala Lumpur and measured for their PM10, PM2.5 and elemental concentrations. The results showed that the daily PM10 (<10μ diameter) concentrations were generally acceptable but the values occasionally very high, especially during the haze episodes. The PM10 annual average values were just below the national set standard and these values were mostly contributed by the fine particles (<2μ diameter) concentration. The annual average for PM2.5 (fine particle) concentrations over the past few years were considerably high where elemental carbon, sulfur and potassium were the main components. (Author)

  6. Fine and Coarse Particle Mass Concentrations and Emission Rates in the Workplace of a Detergent Industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glytsos, T.; Ondráček, Jakub; Džumbová, Lucie; Eleftheriadis, K.; Lazaridis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2014), s. 881-889 ISSN 1420-326X Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : emission rates * PM 10 * PM2,5 * mass balance model Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2014

  7. Winter mass concentrations of carbon species in PM10, PM 2.5 and PM1 in Zagreb air, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Ranka; Čačković, Mirjana; Šega, Krešimir; Bešlić, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine the mass concentrations of EC, OC and TC (EC + OC) in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) particle fractions. Daily PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) samples were collected at an urban background monitoring site in Zagreb during winter 2009. Average OC and EC mass concentrations were 11.9 and 1.8 μg m(-3) in PM(10), 9.0 and 1.4 μg m(-3) in PM(2.5), and 5.5 and 1.1 μg m(-3) in PM(1). Average OC/EC ratios in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were 7.4, 6.9 and 5.4, respectively.

  8. Determinants of black carbon, particle mass and number concentrations in London transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ioar; Kumar, Prashant; Hagen-Zanker, Alex; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Slovic, Anne Dorothee; Pritchard, John P.; Geurs, Karst T.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the determinants of personal exposure concentrations of commuters' to black carbon (BC), ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC), and particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) in different travel modes. We quantified the contribution of key factors that explain the variation of the previous pollutants in four commuting routes in London, each covered by four transport modes (car, bus, walk and underground). Models were performed for each pollutant, separately to assess the effect of meteorology (wind speed) or ambient concentrations (with either high spatial or temporal resolution). Concentration variations were mainly explained by wind speed or ambient concentrations and to a lesser extent by route and period of the day. In multivariate models with wind speed, the wind speed was the common significant predictor for all the pollutants in the above-ground modes (i.e., car, bus, walk); and the only predictor variable for the PM fractions. Wind speed had the strongest effect on PM during the bus trips, with an increase in 1 m s-1 leading to a decrease in 2.25, 2.90 and 4.98 μg m-3 of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in car trips were better explained by ambient concentrations with high temporal resolution although from a single monitoring station. On the other hand, ambient concentrations with high spatial coverage but lower temporal resolution predicted better the concentrations in bus trips, due to bus routes passing through streets with a high variability of traffic intensity. In the underground models, wind speed was not significant and line and type of windows on the train explained 42% of the variation of PNC and 90% of all PM fractions. Trains in the district line with openable windows had an increase in concentrations of 1 684 cm-3 for PNC and 40.69 μg m-3 for PM2.5 compared with trains that had non-openable windows. The results from this work can be used to target efforts to reduce personal exposures of

  9. Changes in ground-level PM mass concentration and column aerosol optical depth over East Asia during 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, R.; Yoon, S. C.; Sugimoto, N.; Park, J. S.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-year records of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), ground-level particulate matter (PM) mass concentration, cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP), and ground-level lidar were analyzed to investigate seasonal and annual changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM mass concentration over East Asia. Least mean square fit method is applied to detect the trends and their magnitudes for each selected regions and stations. Eleven-year MODIS measurements show generally increasing trends in both AOD (1.18 % yr-1) and Ångström exponent (0.98 % yr-1), especially over the east coastal industrialized region in China. Monthly variation of AOD show maximum value at April-July, which were related to the progress of summer monsoon rain band and stationary continental air mass on the northeast of Asia. Increasing trends of AOD were found for eight cites in China (0.80 % yr-1) and Seoul site, Korea (0.40 % yr-1), whereas no significant change were shown in Gosan background site (0.04 % yr-1) and decreasing trend at five background sites in Japan (-0.42 % yr-1). Contrasting to AOD trend, all fifteen sites in China (-1.28 % yr-1), Korea (-2.77 % yr-1), and Japan (-2.03 % yr-1) showed decreasing trend of PM10 mass concentration. Also, PM2.5 mass concentration at Beijing, Seoul, Rishiri, and Oki show significant decreasing trend of -1.16 % yr-1. To further discuss the opposite trend of surface PM mass concentration and column AOD, we investigate vertical aerosol profile from lidar measurements. AOD estimated for planetary boundary layer (surface~1.5 km altitude; AODPBL) from CALIOP measurements over East China show decreasing trend of -1.71 % yr-1 over the period of 2007-2014, wherever AOD estimated for free troposphere (1.5 km~5 km altitude; AODFT) show increasing trend of 2.92 % yr-1. In addition, ground-level lidar measurements in Seoul show decreasing AODPBL trend of -2.57 % yr-1, whereas, AODFT show no significant change (-0.44 % yr

  10. Characterisation of particle mass and number concentration on the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula during the northeast monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Doreena; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Khan, Md Firoz; Amil, Norhaniza; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Moi, Phang Siew; Samah, Azizan Abu; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Sturges, William T.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Robinson, Andrew D.; Pyle, John A.

    2015-09-01

    Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and particle number concentration ((PNC); 0.27 μm ≤ Dp ≤ 34.00 μm) were measured in the tropical coastal environment of Bachok, Kelantan on the Malaysian Peninsula bordering the southern edge of the South China Sea. Statistical methods were applied on a three-month hourly data set (9th January to 24th March 2014) to study the influence of north-easterly winds on the patterns of particle mass and PNC size distributions. The 24-h concentrations of particle mass obtained in this study were below the standard values detailed by the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG), United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Union (EU) except for PM2.5, which recorded a 24-h average of 30 ± 18 μg m-3 and exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold value (25 μg m-3). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PNC with smaller diameter sizes (0.27-4.50 μm) showed a stronger influence, accounting for 57.6% of the variability in PNC data set. Concentrations of both particle mass and PNC increased steadily in the morning with a distinct peak observed at around 8.00 h, related to a combination of dispersion of accumulated particles overnight and local traffic. In addition to local anthropogenic, agricultural burning and forest fire activities, long-range transport also affects the study area. Hotspot and backward wind trajectory observations illustrated that the biomass burning episode (around February-March) significantly influenced PNC. Meteorological parameters influenced smaller size particles (i.e. PM1 and Dp (0.27-0.43 μm)) the most.

  11. Contribution from indoor sources to particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; Gilbert, Dale

    As part of a large study investigating indoor air in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia, the purpose of this work was to quantify emission characteristics of indoor particle sources in 15 houses. Submicrometer particle number and approximation of PM 2.5 concentrations were measured simultaneously for more than 48 h in the kitchen of all the houses by using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a photometer (DustTrak), respectively. In addition, characterizations of particles resulting from cooking conducted in an identical way in all the houses were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a DustTrak. All the events of elevated particle concentrations were linked to indoor activities using house occupants diary entries, and catalogued into 21 different types of indoor activities. This enabled quantification of the effect of indoor sources on indoor particle concentrations as well as quantification of emission rates from the sources. For example, the study found that frying, grilling, stove use, toasting, cooking pizza, cooking, candle vaporizing eucalyptus oil and fan heater use, could elevate the indoor submicrometer particle number concentration levels by more than five times, while PM 2.5 concentrations could be up to 3, 30 and 90 times higher than the background levels during smoking, frying and grilling, respectively.

  12. Rotational dynamics of C60 in Na2RbC60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christides, C.; Prassides, K.; Neumann, D.A.; Copley, J.R.D.; Mizuki, J.; Tanigaki, K.; Hirosawa, I.; Ebbesen, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the low-energy neutron inelastic-scattering (NIS) spectra of superconducting Na 2 RbC 60 in the temperature range 50-350 K. Well-defined librational peaks are observed at 50 K at 2.83(17) meV (FWHM = 1.7(5) meV). They soften and broaden with increasing temperature. Their behaviour mimics that found in solid C 60 and differs markedly from K 3 C 60 . The rotational barrier for C 60 reorientations in Na 2 RbC 60 is somewhat higher than in pristine C 60 and approximately half as large as in K 3 C 60 . An order-disorder transition is anticipated at a temperature higher than that found in C 60 . (orig.)

  13. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP 2 ), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the β-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and β-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations

  14. The relationship of endogenous plasma concentrations of β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) to age and total appendicular lean mass in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; Selvam, Sumithra; Jayakumar, J; Philip, Mamatha G; Shreeram, Sathyavageeswaran; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-08-01

    The maintenance of muscle mass and muscle strength is important for reducing the risk of chronic diseases. The age- related loss of muscle mass and strength is associated with adverse outcomes of physical disability, frailty and death. β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has beneficial effects on muscle mass and strength under various catabolic conditions. The objectives of the present study were to determine if age- related differences existed in endogenous plasma HMB levels, and to assess if HMB levels correlated to total appendicular lean mass and forearm grip strength. Anthropometry, dietary and physical activity assessment, and the estimation of fasting plasma HMB concentrations and handgrip strength were performed on the 305 subjects (children, young adults and older adults). Lean mass, which serves as a surrogate for muscle mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Mean plasma HMB concentrations were significantly lower with increasing age groups, with children having highest mean HMB concentration (pHMB concentrations. A significant positive correlation between HMB concentrations and appendicular lean mass normalized for body weight (%), appendicular lean mass (r=0.37; pHMB concentrations in young adults (r=0.58; pHMB concentrations in humans and the HMB concentrations were positively correlated with appendicular lean mass and hand grip strength in young adults and older adults group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. rbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, M; Omori, T; Nakazawa, M; Sano, T; Kato, M; Iwatsuki, K

    1994-01-01

    Pteriodophytes have a longer evolutionary history than any other vascular land plant and, therefore, have endured greater loss of phylogenetically informative information. This factor has resulted in substantial disagreements in evaluating characters and, thus, controversy in establishing a stable classification. To compare competing classifications, we obtained DNA sequences of a chloroplast gene. The sequence of 1206 nt of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbc...

  16. Experimental method for the study of blood and RBC suspension conductivity under flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2014), s. 995-1004 ISSN 1310-1331 Grant - others:The Ministry of Education and Science of Bulgaria(BG) BG051PO001-3.3-05/0001; The Ministry of Education, Youth and Science of Bulgaria(BG) DO-805/2012 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : viscometric flow * conductivity * blood/RBC suspension microstructural changes Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2014

  17. Phylogeny and intraspecific variability of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from plastid rbcL sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manen, Jean-François; Habashi, Christine; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Park, Jeong-Mi; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2004-11-01

    The rbcL sequences of 106 specimens representing 28 species of the four recognized sections of Orobanche were analyzed and compared. Most sequences represent pseudogenes with premature stop codons. This study confirms that the American lineage (sects. Gymnocaulis and Myzorrhiza) contains potentially functional rbcL-copies with intact open reading frames and low rates of non-synonymous substitutions. For the first time, this is also shown for a member of the Eurasian lineage, O. coerulescens of sect. Orobanche, while all other investigated species of sects. Orobanche and Trionychon contain pseudogenes with distorted reading frames and significantly higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions. Phylogenetic analyses of the rbcL sequences give equivocal results concerning the monophyly of Orobanche, and the American lineage might be more closely related to Boschniakia and Cistanche than to the other sections of Orobanche. Additionally, species of sect. Trionychon phylogenetically nest in sect. Orobanche. This is in concordance with results from other plastid markers (rps2 and matK), but in disagreement with other molecular (nuclear ITS), morphological, and karyological data. This might indicate that the ancestor of sect. Trionychon has captured the plastid genome, or parts of it, of a member of sect. Orobanche. Apart from the phylogenetically problematic position of sect. Trionychon, the phylogenetic relationships within sect. Orobanche are similar to those inferred from nuclear ITS data and are close to the traditional groupings traditionally recognized based on morphology. The intraspecific variation of rbcL is low and is neither correlated with intraspecific morphological variability nor with host range. Ancestral character reconstruction using parsimony suggests that the ancestor of O. sect. Orobanche had a narrow host range.

  18. Accurate determination of 129I concentrations and 129I/137Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-01-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 129 I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 129 I in spent resins using accelerator mass spectrometry. • The treatment procedure included microwave acid digestion of samples, iodine extraction by CL resins and AgI precipitation. • Developed first on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g of dry resin. • Results are in agreement with previous measurements and support reference values currently used for nuclear resin management

  19. Comparison of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay techniques on concentrations of atrazine in storm runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydy, Michael J.; Carter, D.S.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1996-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to measure concentrations of dissolved atrazine in 149 surface-water samples. Samples were collected during May 1992–September 1993 near the mouth of the White River (Indiana) and in two small tributaries of the river. GC/MS was performed on a Hewlett-Packard 5971 A, with electron impact ionization and selected ion monitoring of filtered water samples extracted by C-18 solid phase extraction; ELISA was performed with a magnetic-particle-based assay with photometric analysis. ELISA results compared reasonably well to GC/MS measurements at concentrations below the Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (3.0 μg/L), but a systematic negative bias was observed at higher concentrations. When higher concentration samples were diluted into the linear range of calibration, the relation improved. A slight positive bias was seen in all of the ELISA data compared to the GC/MS results, and the bias could be partially explained by correcting the ELISA data for cross reactivity with other triazine herbicides. The highest concentrations of atrazine were found during the first major runoff event after the atrazine was applied. Concentrations decreased throughout the rest of the sampling period even though large runoff events occurred during this time, indicating that most atrazine loading to surface waters in the study area occurs within a few weeks after application.

  20. Serum Vaspin Concentration in Elderly Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Differing Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study was to evaluate the association of serum vaspin concentrations with body mass index (BMI among elderly patients (>60 years old. Methods. A total of 227 elderly individuals included 76 healthy with normal glucose tolerance, which divided into normal weight control (BMI BMI ≥ 25, n=52, and obese diabetes (BMI ≥ 30, n=43 subgroups. Relevant parameters were matched for age and gender ratio. Serum vaspin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Serum vaspin concentration was significantly higher in the T2DM than the healthy (451.9±32.6 versus 284.2±21.7, P<0.01. In the diabetic patients, the vaspin concentration was significantly higher in the obese group than the normal weight group (498.2±17.1 versus 382.1±21.3, P<0.05. In addition, the concentration of vaspin in normal weight T2DM was higher than in healthy control group with normal weight (382.1±21.3 versus 192.5±45.2, P<0.05. Multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI was independent factors influencing the serum vaspin concentration in all participants. Conclusion. Vaspin may play an important compensatory role in obesity and insulin resistance in elderly people. The clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-OPC-14005698.

  1. Effects of Center Offset and Noise on Weak-Lensing Derived Concentration-Mass Relation of Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Fan, Zuhui

    2014-04-01

    With the halo catalog from the Millennium Simulation, we analyze the weak-lensing measured density profiles for clusters of galaxies, paying attention to the determination of the concentration-mass (c-M) relation, which can be biased by the center offset, selection effect, and shape noise from intrinsic ellipticities of background galaxies. Several different methods of locating the center of a cluster from weak-lensing effects alone are explored. We find that, for intermediate redshift clusters, the highest peak from our newly proposed two-scale smoothing method applied to the reconstructed convergence field, first with a smoothing scale of 2' and then 0.'5, corresponds best to the true center. Assuming the parameterized Navarro-Frenk-White profile, we fit the reduced tangential shear signals around different centers identified by different methods. It is shown that, for the ensemble median values, a center offset larger than one scale radius rs can bias the derived mass and concentration significantly lower than the true values, especially for low-mass halos. However, the existence of noise can compensate for the offset effect and reduce the systematic bias, although the scatter of mass and concentration becomes considerably larger. Statistically, the bias effect of center offset on the c-M relation is insignificant if an appropriate center finding method is adopted. On the other hand, noise from intrinsic ellipticities can bias the c-M relation derived from a sample of weak-lensing analyzed clusters if a simple χ2 fitting method is used. To properly account for the scatter and covariance between c and M, we apply a Bayesian method to improve the statistical analysis of the c-M relation. It is shown that this new method allows us to derive the c-M relation with significantly reduced biases.

  2. Effects of center offset and noise on weak-lensing derived concentration-mass relation of dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wei; Fan, Zuhui

    2014-01-01

    With the halo catalog from the Millennium Simulation, we analyze the weak-lensing measured density profiles for clusters of galaxies, paying attention to the determination of the concentration-mass (c-M) relation, which can be biased by the center offset, selection effect, and shape noise from intrinsic ellipticities of background galaxies. Several different methods of locating the center of a cluster from weak-lensing effects alone are explored. We find that, for intermediate redshift clusters, the highest peak from our newly proposed two-scale smoothing method applied to the reconstructed convergence field, first with a smoothing scale of 2' and then 0.'5, corresponds best to the true center. Assuming the parameterized Navarro-Frenk-White profile, we fit the reduced tangential shear signals around different centers identified by different methods. It is shown that, for the ensemble median values, a center offset larger than one scale radius r s can bias the derived mass and concentration significantly lower than the true values, especially for low-mass halos. However, the existence of noise can compensate for the offset effect and reduce the systematic bias, although the scatter of mass and concentration becomes considerably larger. Statistically, the bias effect of center offset on the c-M relation is insignificant if an appropriate center finding method is adopted. On the other hand, noise from intrinsic ellipticities can bias the c-M relation derived from a sample of weak-lensing analyzed clusters if a simple χ 2 fitting method is used. To properly account for the scatter and covariance between c and M, we apply a Bayesian method to improve the statistical analysis of the c-M relation. It is shown that this new method allows us to derive the c-M relation with significantly reduced biases.

  3. HO2 measurements at atmospheric concentrations using a chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S.; Novelli, A.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Kang, S.; Baker, Y.; Mentel, T. F.; Fuchs, H.

    2017-12-01

    Correct and precise measurements of atmospheric radical species are necessary for a better understanding of the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Due to the reactivity of radicals, and their consequent low concentrations, direct measurements of these species are particularly challenging and have been proven in the past to be affected by interfering species. Here we present a chemical ionization source coupled to an APi-HR-TOF-MS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), which has a limit of detection for HO2 radicals well below its atmospheric concentrations ( 1 x 108 molecules cm-3). The instrument was calibrated with a well-established and characterized HO2 calibration source in use for the laser induced fluorescence instrument in the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Within the source, a well characterized amount of HO2 radicals is produced after photolysis of water by a mercury lamp. In addition, several experiments were performed in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR at the Forschungszentrum Jülich to test for potential interferences. Measurements of HO2 radicals were concurrently detected by a laser induced fluorescence instrument allowing for the comparison of measurements within the two different and independent techniques for various atmospheric conditions regarding concentrations of O3, NOx and VOCs. Results from the intercomparison together with the calibration procedure of the instrument and laboratory characterization will be presented.

  4. Mass concentration of Hirnantian cephalopods from the Siljan District, Sweden; taxonomy, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeographic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kröger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hirnantian Glisstjärn Formation (Normalograptus persculptus graptolite Biozone is a succession of limestones and shales onlapping the Katian Boda Limestone in the Siljan District, Sweden. It contains a conspicuous, up to several decimeter thick bed densely packed with bipolarly oriented, orthoconic cephalopod conchs that can reach lengths of more than 120 cm. Conch fragmentation, bioereosion and the generally poor preservation of the conchs indicate time averaging and the conchs are tentatively interpreted as beached, and a result of winnowing. Ten nautiloid species were collected from the Glisstjärn Formation of which five are new: Dawsonoceras gregarium n. sp., Discoceras siljanense n. sp., Isorthoceras dalecarlense n. sp., Retizitteloceras rarum gen. et sp. n., and Transorthoceras osmundsbergense gen. et sp. n. The non-endemic taxa in most cases are known from elsewhere in Baltoscandia, except one species which is known from Siberia, and North America respectively. Proteocerid orthoceridans dominate the association, of which T. osmundsbergense is the predominant species. Oncocerids are diverse but together with tarphycerids very rare. Notable is the lack of many higher taxa, that are typical for other Late Ordovician shallow water depositional settings. Based on the taxonomical composition of the cephalopod mass occurrence it is interpreted as an indicator of eutrophication of the water masses in the area. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000014

  5. In situ measurement of the mass concentration of flame-synthesized nanoparticles using quartz-crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevroni, A; Golan, H; Fialkov, A; Tsionsky, V; Markovich, G; Cheskis, S; Rahinov, I

    2011-01-01

    A novel in situ method for measurement of mass concentration of nanoparticles (NPs) formed in flames is proposed. In this method, the deposition rate of NPs collected by a molecular beam sampling system is measured by quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). It is the only existing method which allows direct measurement of NP mass concentration profiles in flames. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by studying iron oxide NP formation in low-pressure methane/oxygen/nitrogen flames doped with iron pentacarbonyl. The system was tested under fuel-lean and fuel-rich flame conditions. Good agreement between measured QCM deposition rates and their estimations obtained by the transmission electron microscopy analysis of samples collected from the molecular beam has been demonstrated. The sensitivity of the method is comparable to that of particle mass spectrometry (PMS). Combination of the QCM technique with PMS and/or optical measurements can provide new qualitative information which is important for elucidation of the mechanisms governing the NP flame synthesis

  6. Plutonium and polonium concentrations in the different water masses crossing the Strait of Gibraltar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper total Pu and Po concentrations in the water column are presented as part of a study to determine the exchange fluxes and overall budget of these selected nuclides within the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins. Polonium is a natural radionuclide continuously input to the sea via atmospheric deposition from the radon existing in the air. Plutonium is a man-made radionuclide that was mostly introduced in the atmosphere during the 60's nuclear testing. Since then, it has been gradually disappearing due to fallout and the banning of nuclear atmospheric explosions

  7. [On-line analysis and mass concentration characters of the alkali metal ions of PM10 in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yue-Si; Wen, Tian-Xue; Liu, Guang-Ren; Hu, Bo; Zhao, Ya-Nan

    2008-01-01

    The mass concentration characters and the sources of water-soluble alkali metal ions in PM10 in 2004 and 2005 in Beijing were analyzed by using the system of rapid collection of particles. The result showed that the average concentration of Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ was 0.5-1.4, 0.5-2.5, 0.1-0.5 and 0.6-5.8 microg/m3, respectively. The highest and lowest concentration appeared in different seasons for the alkali metal ions, which was related to the quality and source. The concentration of alkali metal ions was no difference between the heating period and no heating period, which meant the heating was not the main source. Sea salt and soil were the important sources of Na+. The source of K+ came from biomass burning and vegetation. Soil was the large source of Mg2+ and Ca2+. The alkali metal ions appeared different daily variation in different seasons. Precipitation could decrease the concentration of Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, which was 10%-70%, 20%-80%, 10%-77%, 5%-80% respectively.

  8. Determination of breath isoprene and acetone concentration with a needle-type extraction device in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Okamoto, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Masahiko; Ishiguro, Motoyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-20

    Isoprene in human breath is said to be related to cholesterol metabolism, and the possibility of the correlations with some clinical parameters has been studied. However, at this stage, no clear benefit of breath isoprene has been reported for clinical diagnosis. In this work, isoprene and acetone concentrations were measured in the breath of healthy and obese subjects using a needle-type extraction device for subsequent analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the possibility of these compounds as an indicator of possible diseases. After measuring intraday and interday variations of isoprene and acetone concentrations in breath samples of healthy subjects, their concentrations were also determined in 80 healthy and 17 obese subjects. In addition, correlation between these breath concentrations and the blood tests result was studied for these healthy and obese subjects. The results indicated successful determination of breath isoprene and acetone in this work, however, no clear correlation was observed between these measured values and the blood test results. Breath isoprene concentration may not be a useful indicator for obesity or hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of digital image processing to a β-gauge for determining mass concentration of suspending particulate matter in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Takao

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional image of the mass concentration of suspending particulate matter (SPM) collected on Millipore filter paper was photographed with Ultrofilm- 3 H. The printed paper image was transformed into a digital image (256 x 256 pixels) with 256 gray levels. Two results were obtained. The averaged values of gray level over all pixels of the digital image was found to correlate with the mass value measured by a β-gauge. The characteristic range of the digital image which was transformed to frequency by two-dimensional fast fourier transformation was found in the low frequency. It was presumed to relate to SPM from anthropogenic sources because the SPMs usually show higher density and smaller particle size than SPMs from natural sources. (author)

  10. Comparison of the performance of masterbatch and liquid color concentrates for mass coloration of polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Yu, Donghong; Broch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The properties of polypropylene (PP) mixed with masterbatch (MB) and liquid color concentrates (LCC), respectively, were compared by preparing samples of PP with MB and PP with LCC and neat PP as a reference material using 1–4 extrusion cycles. Two colors were examined, i.e., a white color...... consisting of pigment white 6, and a green color consisting of pigment white 6, pigment blue 15:3, and pigment green 7. The color difference between PP prepared with MB and LCC was determined and the mechanical, rheological, and crystalline properties of PP prepared with MB and LCC were found to be generic....... The color of PP obtained from MB and LCC were comparable. Further, it was found that the tensile strength, the viscosity, and the crystal structure obtained were similar when using LCC instead of MB. The viscosity of the treated PP generally decreased with increasing extruder retention time due to thermal...

  11. Capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry detects low concentration host cell impurities in monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guijie; Sun, Liangliang; Heidbrink-Thompson, Jennifer; Kuntumalla, Srilatha; Lin, Hung-yu; Larkin, Christopher J.; McGivney, James B.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2016-01-01

    We have evaluated capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS/MS) for detection of trace amounts of host cell protein impurities in recombinant therapeutics. Compared to previously published procedures, we have optimized the buffer pH used in the formation of a pH junction to increase injection volume. We also prepared a five-point calibration curve by spiking twelve standard proteins into a solution of a human monoclonal antibody. A custom CZE-MS/MS system was used to analyze the tryptic digest of this mixture without depletion of the antibody. CZE generated a ~70 min separation window (~90 min total analysis duration) and ~300 peak capacity. We also analyzed the sample using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS. CZE-MS/MS generated ~five times higher base peak intensity and more peptide identifications for low-level spiked proteins. Both methods detected all proteins spiked at the ~100 ppm level with respect to the antibody. PMID:26530276

  12. Vertical profiles of aerosol mass concentration derived by unmanned airborne in situ and remote sensing instruments during dust events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Dimitra; Marinou, Eleni; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Kottas, Michael; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Keleshis, Christos; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Ansmann, Albert; Amiridis, Vassilis; Russchenberg, Herman; Biskos, George

    2018-05-01

    In situ measurements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensing observations can independently provide dense vertically resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols, information which is strongly required in climate models. In both cases, inverting the recorded signals to useful information requires assumptions and constraints, and this can make the comparison of the results difficult. Here we compare, for the first time, vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) observations and in situ measurements using an optical particle counter on board a UAV during moderate and weak Saharan dust episodes. Agreement between the two measurement methods was within experimental uncertainty for the coarse mode (i.e. particles having radii > 0.5 µm), where the properties of dust particles can be assumed with good accuracy. This result proves that the two techniques can be used interchangeably for determining the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations, bringing them a step closer towards their systematic exploitation in climate models.

  13. Red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and in vivo P50 during early critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ezz el din S; McLellan, Stuart A; Walsh, Timothy S

    2005-10-01

    To measure red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (RBC 2,3-DPG) concentrations in early critical illness; to investigate factors associated with high or low RBC 2,3-DPG levels; to calculate in vivo P50 in patients with early critical illness; and to explore the relationship between RBC 2,3-DPG and intensive care mortality. Prospective cohort study. General medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a major Scottish teaching hospital. One-hundred eleven critically ill patients during the first 24 hrs in the ICU with no history of chronic hematologic disorders or RBC transfusion within 24 hrs and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy reference subjects. None. We measured RBC 2,3-DPG concentration, plasma biochemistry values, and arterial blood gas parameters. On average, RBC 2,3-DPG was lower among critically ill patients than controls (mean [sd], 14.1 [6.3] vs. 16.7 [3.7] mumol/g hemoglobin; p = .004) and had a wider range of values (patients, 3.2-32.5 mumol/g hemoglobin; reference group, 9.1-24.3). Regression analysis indicated a strong independent association between plasma pH and RBC 2,3-DPG (B, 32.15 [95% confidence interval, 19.07-46.22], p level was normal (3.8 kPa) but varied widely among patients (range, 2.0-5.5 kPa). RBC 2,3-DPG concentration was similar for ICU survivors and nonsurvivors. RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations vary widely among critically ill patients. Acidosis is associated with lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations, but anemia is not associated with a compensatory increase in RBC 2,3-DPG early in critical illness. Lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations during the first 24 hrs of intensive care are not associated with higher ICU mortality.

  14. Simulating Aerosol Size Distribution and Mass Concentration with Simultaneous Nucleation, Condensation/Coagulation, and Deposition with the GRAPES-CUACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhong; Shen, Xiaojing; Liu, Zirui; Zhang, Yangmei; Xin, Jinyuan

    2018-04-01

    A coupled aerosol-cloud model is essential for investigating the formation of haze and fog and the interaction of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. One of the key tasks of such a model is to produce correct mass and number size distributions of aerosols. In this paper, a parameterization scheme for aerosol size distribution in initial emission, which took into account the measured mass and number size distributions of aerosols, was developed in the GRAPES-CUACE [Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System-China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment model]—an online chemical weather forecast system that contains microphysical processes and emission, transport, and chemical conversion of sectional multi-component aerosols. In addition, the competitive mechanism between nucleation and condensation for secondary aerosol formation was improved, and the dry deposition was also modified to be in consistent with the real depositing length. Based on the above improvements, the GRAPES-CUACE simulations were verified against observational data during 1-31 January 2013, when a series of heavy regional haze-fog events occurred in eastern China. The results show that the aerosol number size distribution from the improved experiment was much closer to the observation, whereas in the old experiment the number concentration was higher in the nucleation mode and lower in the accumulation mode. Meanwhile, the errors in aerosol number size distribution as diagnosed by its sectional mass size distribution were also reduced. Moreover, simulations of organic carbon, sulfate, and other aerosol components were improved and the overestimation as well as underestimation of PM2.5 concentration in eastern China was significantly reduced, leading to increased correlation coefficient between simulated and observed PM2.5 by more than 70%. In the remote areas where bad simulation results were produced previously, the correlation coefficient

  15. Fully developed natural convection heat and mass transfer in a vertical annular porous medium with asymmetric wall temperatures and concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the effects of the modified Darcy number, the buoyancy ratio and the inner radius-gap ratio on the fully developed natural convection heat and mass transfer in a vertical annular non-Darcy porous medium with asymmetric wall temperatures and concentrations. The exact solutions for the important characteristics of fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are derived by using a non-Darcy flow model. The modified Darcy number is related to the flow resistance of the porous matrix. For the free convection heat and mass transfer in an annular duct filled with porous media, increasing the modified Darcy number tends to increase the volume flow rate, total heat rate added to the fluid, and the total species rate added to the fluid. Moreover, an increase in the buoyancy ratio or in the inner radius-gap ratio leads to an increase in the volume flow rate, the total heat rate added to the fluid, and the total species rate added to the fluid

  16. International system of units traceable results of Hg mass concentration at saturation in air from a newly developed measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétel, Christophe R; Zampella, Mariavittoria; Brown, Richard J C; Ent, Hugo; Horvat, Milena; Paredes, Eduardo; Tunc, Murat

    2014-08-05

    Data most commonly used at present to calibrate measurements of mercury vapor concentrations in air come from a relationship known as the "Dumarey equation". It uses a fitting relationship to experimental results obtained nearly 30 years ago. The way these results relate to the international system of units (SI) is not known. This has caused difficulties for the specification and enforcement of limit values for mercury concentrations in air and in emissions to air as part of national or international legislation. Furthermore, there is a significant discrepancy (around 7% at room temperature) between the Dumarey data and data calculated from results of mercury vapor pressure measurements in the presence of only liquid mercury. As an attempt to solve some of these problems, a new measurement procedure is described for SI traceable results of gaseous Hg concentrations at saturation in milliliter samples of air. The aim was to propose a scheme as immune as possible to analytical biases. It was based on isotope dilution (ID) in the liquid phase with the (202)Hg enriched certified reference material ERM-AE640 and measurements of the mercury isotope ratios in ID blends, subsequent to a cold vapor generation step, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The process developed involved a combination of interconnected valves and syringes operated by computer controlled pumps and ensured continuity under closed circuit conditions from the air sampling stage onward. Quantitative trapping of the gaseous mercury in the liquid phase was achieved with 11.5 μM KMnO4 in 2% HNO3. Mass concentrations at saturation found from five measurements under room temperature conditions were significantly higher (5.8% on average) than data calculated from the Dumarey equation, but in agreement (-1.2% lower on average) with data based on mercury vapor pressure measurement results. Relative expanded combined uncertainties were estimated following a model based approach. They ranged from 2

  17. On the Control of Solute Mass Fluxes and Concentrations Below Fields Irrigated With Low-Quality Water: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, David

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of this study was to test the capability of irrigation water-based and soil-based approaches to control nitrate and chloride mass fluxes and concentrations below the root zone of agricultural fields irrigated with treated waste water (TWW). Using numerical simulations of flow and transport in relatively a fine-textured, unsaturated, spatially heterogeneous, flow domain, scenarios examined include: (i) irrigating with TWW only (REF); (ii) irrigation water is substituted between TWW and desalinized water (ADW); (iii) soil includes a capillary barrier (CB) and irrigating with TWW only (CB + TWW); and (iv) combination of (ii) and a CB (CB + ADW). Considering groundwater quality protection, plausible goals are: (i) to minimize solute discharges leaving the root zone, and, (ii) to maximize the probability that solute concentrations leaving the root zone will not exceed a prescribed, critical value. Results of the analyses suggest that in the case of a seasonal crop (a corn field) subject to irrigations only, with respect to the first goal, the CB + TWW and CB + ADW scenarios provide similar, excellent results, better than the ADW scenario; with respect to the second goal, however, the CB + ADW scenario gave substantially better results than the CB + TWW scenario. In the case a multiyear, perennial crop (a citrus orchard), subject to a sequence of irrigation and rainfall periods, for both solutes, and, particularly, nitrate, with respect to the two goals, both the ADW and CB + ADW scenarios perform better than the CB + TWW scenario. As compared with the REF and CB + TWW scenarios, the ADW and CB + ADW scenarios substantially reduce nitrogen mass fluxes to the groundwater and to the atmosphere, and, essentially, did not reduce nitrogen mass fluxes to the trees. Similar results, even better, were demonstrated for a relatively coarse-textured, spatially heterogeneous soil.

  18. Comparison of the multicomponent mass transfer models for the prediction of the concentration overpotential for solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vural, Yasemin; Ma, Lin; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed [Centre for Computational Fluid Dynamics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    In this study, multicomponent mass diffusion models, namely the Stefan-Maxwell model (SMM), the Dusty Gas model (DGM) and the Binary Friction model (BFM) have been compared in terms of their predictive capabilities of the concentration polarization of an anode supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode. The results show that other than the pore diameter, current density and concentration of reactants, which have a high importance in concentration polarization predictions, the tortuosity (or porosity/tortuosity) term, has a substantial effect on the model predictions. Contrary to the previous discussions in the literature, for the fitted value of tortuosities, SMM and DGM predictions are similar, even for an average pore radius as small as 2.6e-07 and current density as high as 1.5 A cm{sup -2}. Also it is shown that the BFM predictions are similar to DGM for the case investigated in this study. Moreover, in this study, the effect of the pressure gradient term in the DGM and the BFM has been investigated by including and excluding this term from the model equations. It is shown that for the case investigated and model assumptions used in this study, the terms including the pressure coefficient have an insignificant effect on the predictions of both DGM and BFM and therefore they can be neglected. (author)

  19. Measurement of total and free docetaxel concentration in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Cobo-Sacristán, Sara; Gonzalo-Diego, Núria; Colom, Helena; Muñoz-Sánchez, Carmen; Urruticoechea, Ander; Falo, Catalina; Alía, Pedro

    2016-01-05

    Docetaxel is a semi-synthetic taxane with cytotoxic anti-neoplastic activity and, currently used as anticancer agent in several types of cancer. Docetaxel is highly bound to plasma proteins, and this significantly determines its clearance and activity. Therefore, measurement of free docetaxel in plasma is pharmacologically important when pharmacokinetics is investigated. We developed and validated chromatographic methods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure total and free docetaxel concentration in human plasma. The final validated methods involved liquid-liquid extraction followed by dryness under nitrogen evaporation. To measure free docetaxel concentration, sample preparation was preceded by ultrafiltration. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity(®) UPLC(®) BEH™ (2.1×100 mm id, 1.7 μm) reverse-phase C18 column at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, using isocratic elution mode containing ammonium acetate/formic acid in water/methanol (30:70 v/v) as mobile phase. Docetaxel and its internal standard (paclitaxel) were detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode using mass-to-charge (m/z) transitions of 808.3→527.0 (quantifier) and 808.3→509.0 (qualifier); and 854.3→569.0 (quantifier) and 854,3→509,0 (qualifier), respectively. The run time per sample was 3.5 min. The limits of quantification were 1,95 and 0.42 μg/L and linearity was observed between 1.95 and 1000 and 0.42-100 μg/L for total and free docetaxel, respectively. Coefficients of variation and absolute relative biases were less than 13.8% and 10.0%. Recovery values were greater than 79.4%. Evaluation of the matrix effect showed ion suppression and no carry-over was observed. The validated methods could be useful for both therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies. They could be applied to daily clinical laboratory practice to measure the concentration of total and free

  20. Radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container for an inventory-limited and a constant concentration source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeNeveu, D.M.

    1996-03-01

    Analytical solutions for transient and steady state diffusive mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container are developed for constant concentration and inventory-limited source conditions. Mass transport in three media are considered, inside the pinhole (medium 2), outside the container (medium 3) and inside the container (medium 1). Simple equations are developed for radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole. It is shown that the medium with the largest mass transfer resistance need only be considered to provide a conservative estimate of mass transfer rates. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  1. Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in Yerba mate commercialized in Southern Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisia Maria Gobbo dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: “Mate” or “Yerba Mate” (Ilex paraguariensis is a native South American plant, commonly consumed in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil. Recent research has detected the presence of many vitamins and metals in this plant. Theses metals are also part of yerba mate’s mineral composition, due to soil and water contamination by pesticides and fertilizers, coal and oil combustion, vehicle emissions, mining, smelting, refining and the incineration of urban and industrial waste. Regardless of their origin, some inorganic elements, such as arsenic, cadmium and lead, are considered toxic, since they accumulate in all plant tissues and are, thus, introduced into the food chain. In this context, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare arsenic, cadmium, lead concentrations in 104 samples of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis marketed, and consumed in three southern Brazilian States, namely Paraná (PR, Santa Catarina (SC and Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Each element was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, on a Nexion 300D equipment (Perkin Elmer. As, Cd and Pb concentrations in yerba mate leaves ranged from 0.015 to 0.15mg kg-1, 0.18 to 1.25mg kg-1 and 0.1 to 1.20mg kg-1, respectively. Regarding Cd, 84% of the samples from RS, 63% from PR and 75% from SC showed higher concentrations than the maximum permissible limit of 0.4mg kg-1 established by the Brazilian National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, while 7% of the samples from RS and 5% from PR were unsatisfactory for Pb. Concentrations were below the established ANVISA limit of 0.6mg kg-1 for all samples.

  2. Determination of long-lived radionuclide (10Be, 41Ca, 129I) concentrations in nuclear waste by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bertaux, Maite; Bourles, Didier; Arnold, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste is essential for storage sites management. However, most of Long-Lived Radionuclides (LLRN), important for long-term management, are difficult to measure since concentration levels are very low and waste matrices generally complex. In an industrial approach, LLRN concentrations are not directly measured in waste samples but assessed from scaling factors with respect to easily measured gamma emitters. Ideally, the key nuclide chosen ( 60 Co, 137 Cs) should be produced by a similar mechanism (fission or activation) as the LLRN of interest and should have similar physicochemical properties. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factors, determined from experimental and/or calculation data, can be quite important. Consequently, studies are performed to develop analytical procedures which would lead to determine precisely the concentration of LLRN in nuclear waste. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of three LLRN: 129 I (T 1/2 = 15.7*10 6 a), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 9.94*10 4 a) and 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.387*10 6 a) in spent resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurized Water Reactors using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for measurement. The AMS technique combined mass spectrometry and nuclear physics to achieve highly efficient molecular and elemental isobars separation. Energies of several Million Electron-Volt transferred to the ions in the first accelerating part of specifically developed tandem accelerators lead to molecular isobars destruction through interaction with the argon gas used to strip the injected negative ions to positive ones. At the exit of the tandem accelerator, the energy acquired in both accelerating parts allows an elemental isobars separation based on their significantly different energy loss (dE) while passing through a thickness of matter dx that is proportional to their atomic number (Z) and inversely proportional to ions velocity (v) according to the

  3. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Petersen, Camilla Tang; Eriksson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet...... to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during...... morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely...

  4. The Potential of The Synergy of Sunphotometer and Lidar Data to Validate Vertical Profiles of The Aerosol Mass Concentration Estimated by An Air Quality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomos N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by the Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC, that uses combined sunphotometer and lidar data, were used in order to validate the aerosol mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. Lidar and CIMEL measurements performed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5N, 22.9E from the period 2013-2014 were used in this study.

  5. Tissue Characterization of Lemna gibba rbcS Promoter%浮萍rbcS启动子组织特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凤珍; 李倩; 王友如

    2015-01-01

    A new rbcS (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit) promoter with the size of 1 438 bp (named SSU5C promoter) was cloned from Lemna gibba. SSU5C promoter was fused with the GUS reporter gene to construct a plant binary vector (pSSU5C-IGUS), and introduced into duckweed by agrogacterium-mediated trans-formation. The transgenic plantlets were generated. This study was focused on the tissue characterization of SSU5C promoter. GUS staining showed that SSU5C promoter drove GUS to express in the green tissue in leaf, stem and petiole of T1 tobacco, whereas no GUS activity was observed in root. In reproductive organs, the GUS activity was observed in corolla lobes, anther and stigma, no GUS activity was observed in other parts. It was obvious that rbcS promoter can not only express in the green tissue, but also can express in reproductive organs. The results lay a good doundation for the application of SSU5C in plant genetic engineering.%SSU5C启动子(全长1438 bp)是从浮萍基因组中新克隆的一个rb c S (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carbo-xylase small subunit)启动子。本研究将 SSU5C 启动子与GUS基因融合,成功构建植物双元表达载p SSU5C-IGUS,并利用农杆菌介导法转化烟草,获得转基因植株,探究SSU5C启动子在烟草中的组织表达特点。GUS检测结果表明:在T1烟草的营养器官中,SSU5C启动子主要驱动GUS基因在烟草叶片和叶柄、茎等绿色组织中表达,而在根部不表达;在生殖器官中,GUS基因主要在花冠裂片以及花药和柱头中表达。本研究首次发现浮萍rb c S启动子不仅在绿色组织中表达,而且在生殖器官中的花冠裂片以及花药和柱头中表达,这一发现可为SSU5C启动子在植物基因工程中的应用奠定基础。

  6. Discriminatory power of rbcL barcode locus for authentication of some of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloukh, Lina; Kumarappan, Alagappan; Jarrar, Mohammad; Salehi, Jawad; El-Wakil, Houssam; Rajya Lakshmi, T V

    2017-06-01

    DNA barcoding of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants is of high practical and scientific value as the plants adapt to very harsh environmental conditions that challenge their identification. Fifty-one plant species belonged to 22 families, 2 monocots, and 20 eudicots; a maximum number of species being legumes and grasses were collected. To authenticate the morphological identification of the wild plant taxa, rbcL and matK regions were used in the study. The primer universality and discriminatory power of rbcL is 100%, while it is 35% for matK locus for these plant species. The sequences were submitted to GenBank; accession numbers were obtained for all the rbcL sequences and for 6 of matK sequences. We suggest rbcL as a promising barcode locus for the tested group of 51 plants. In the present study, an inexpensive, simple method of identification of rare desert plant taxa through rbcL barcode is being reported.

  7. Evolution of size-segregated aerosol mass concentration during the Antarctic summer at Northern Foothills, Victoria Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Silvia; Bau, Sébastien; Annibaldi, Anna; Mantini, Caterina; Libani, Giulia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Italian National Programm for Antarctic Research (PNRA), the first direct gravimetric measurements of size-segregated aerosol fractions were carried out at Faraglione Camp, ˜3-km far from the Italian station "M. Zucchelli" (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea), during the 2014-2015 austral summer. A six-stage high-volume cascade impactor with size classes between 10 μm and 0.49 μm, and, in parallel, for comparison purposes, a PM10 high-volume sampler (50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm) were used. A 10-day sampling strategy was adopted. Aerosol mass measurements were carried out before and after exposure by using a microbalance specifically designed for the filter weight and placed inside a glove bag in order to maintain stable temperature and humidity conditions during weighing sessions. Measured atmospheric concentrations (referred to the "actual air conditions" of mean temperature of 268 K and mean pressure of 975 hPa) of size-segregated aerosol fractions showed the following values, given as size range, means (interquartile range): Dp range 0.1-1.0 μm) and two coarse modes (CM1 in the range 1.0-3.0 μm, and CM2 in the range 3.0-10 μm). From 50% to 90% of the PM10 mass comes from particles of a size smaller than 1.0 μm. The two coarse modes represented from ˜5% to ˜35% of the PM10, showing opposite seasonal trends (CM1 decreased while CM2 increased). During summer, PM10 mass concentration increased to a maximum of ˜1.6 μg m-3 at mid-December, while in January it decreased to values that are typical of November. Both accumulation and upper super-micron fractions showed a maximum in the same period contributing to the PM10 peak of mid-summer.

  8. The Dependence of CNT Aerogel Synthesis on Sulfur-driven Catalyst Nucleation Processes and a Critical Catalyst Particle Mass Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoecker, Christian; Smail, Fiona; Pick, Martin; Weller, Lee; Boies, Adam M

    2017-11-06

    The floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) process permits macro-scale assembly of nanoscale materials, enabling continuous production of carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogels. Despite the intensive research in the field, fundamental uncertainties remain regarding how catalyst particle dynamics within the system influence the CNT aerogel formation, thus limiting effective scale-up. While aerogel formation in FC-CVD reactors requires a catalyst (typically iron, Fe) and a promotor (typically sulfur, S), their synergistic roles are not fully understood. This paper presents a paradigm shift in the understanding of the role of S in the process with new experimental studies identifying that S lowers the nucleation barrier of the catalyst nanoparticles. Furthermore, CNT aerogel formation requires a critical threshold of Fe x C y  > 160 mg/m 3 , but is surprisingly independent of the initial catalyst diameter or number concentration. The robustness of the critical catalyst mass concentration principle is proved further by producing CNTs using alternative catalyst systems; Fe nanoparticles from a plasma spark generator and cobaltocene and nickelocene precursors. This finding provides evidence that low-cost and high throughput CNT aerogel routes may be achieved by decoupled and enhanced catalyst production and control, opening up new possibilities for large-scale CNT synthesis.

  9. Simultaneous Assay of Isotopic Enrichment and Concentration of Guanidinoacetate and Creatine by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumov, Takhar; Gruca, Lourdes L.; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Kalhan, Satish C.

    2012-01-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for the simultaneous measurement of isotopic enrichment and concentration of guanidinoacetic acid and creatine in plasma sample for kinetic studies is reported. The method, based on preparation of the bis(trifluoromethyl)-pyrimidine methyl ester derivatives of guanidinoacetic acid and creatine, is robust and sensitive. The lowest measurable m1 and m3 enrichment for guanidinoacetic acid and creatine, respectively, was 0.3%. The calibration curves for measurements of concentration were linear over a range of 0.5-250 μM guanidinoacetic acid and 2-500 μM for creatine. The method was reliable for inter-assay and intra-assay precision, accuracy and linearity. The technique was applied in a healthy adult to determine in vivo fractional synthesis rate of creatine using primed- constant rate infusion of [1-13C]glycine. It was found that isotopic enrichment of guanidinoacetic acid reached plateau by 30 min of infusion of [1-13C]glycine, indicating either a small pool size or a rapid turnover rate or both, of guanidinoacetic acid. In contrast, tracer appearance in creatin was slow (slope: 0.00097), suggesting a large pool size and a slow rate of synthesis of creatine. This method can be used to estimate rate of synthesis of creatine in-vivo in human and animal studies. PMID:19646413

  10. [sup 99m]Tc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy; Assessmet of bleeding site and rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1994-03-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with [sup 99m]Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author).

  11. Physiologic Impact of Circulating RBC Microparticles upon Blood-Vascular Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Said

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review current data elucidating the role of red blood cell derived microparticles (RMPs in normal vascular physiology and disease progression. Microparticles (MPs are submicron-size, membrane-encapsulated vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to numerous stimuli that promote a sequence of cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes and resulting MP genesis. MPs were originally considered as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and more recently are recognized to have pleiotropic biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in initiating apoptosis. RMPs, specifically, form normally during RBC maturation in response to injury during circulation, and are copiously produced during processing and storage for transfusion. Notably, several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs markedly from that of intact RBCs and the nature/composition of RMP components are affected by the specific circumstances of RMP genesis. Described RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion as well as influence upon vasoregulation via influence upon nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Of particular relevance, RMPs scavenge NO more avidly than do intact RBCs; this physiology has been proposed to contribute to the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that may be observed following transfusion. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in normal and patho-physiology and in transfusion recipients is an area of continued investigation.

  12. Serum leptin concentrations in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: relationship to body mass index, insulin dose, and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf T; Omar, Magdi; Assem, Hala M; Nasr, Ibrahim S; Rizk, Mohamed M; El Matary, Wael; El Alaily, Rania K

    2002-03-01

    Although obesity is a frequent feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), many patients with type 1 DM are prone to high body mass index (BMI). We measured serum leptin concentrations in a cohort of children (n = 55) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), as well as their anthropometric parameters including BMI, skin fold thickness at multiple sites, and midarm circumference. Glycemic control was assessed by blood glucose (BG) monitoring before meals, and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and insulin dose/kg/d was recorded. Dietary evaluation and assessment of caloric intake (kg/d) was performed by an expert dietitian. In the newly diagnosed children (n = 10) before initiation of insulin therapy, circulating leptin concentration was significantly lower (1.1 +/- 0.8 ng/dL) versus 5 days after insulin therapy (1.45 +/- 0.7 ng/dL). The decreased leptin level appears to be related to insulinopenia in these patients. In 45 children with type 1 DM on conventional therapy (2 doses of insulin mixture (NPH and regular) subcutaneous (SC) before breakfast and dinner for more than 2 years), serum leptin concentration was significantly higher (2.15 +/- 1 ng/dL) compared with age-matched normal children (1.3 +/- 1 ng/dL). Diabetic children were further divided into 2 groups according to their HbA1c level: group 1 with HbA1C less than 7.5% (less than 2 SD above the mean for normal population) (n = 29) and group 2 with HbA1c greater than 7.5%. (greater than 2 SD above the mean for normal population) (n = 16). Patients with a higher HbA1c level (group 2) had a higher leptin concentration (2.3 +/- 0.8 ng/dL), higher BMI (17.8 +/- 1.7), and were receiving higher insulin dose/kg (0.92 +/- 0.2 U/kg/d) compared with group 1 (lower HbA1c) (1.78 +/- 0.8 ng/dL, 16.7 +/- 1.5, and 0.59 +/- 0.2 U/kg/d, respectively). Group 2 patients had a higher incidence of late morning hypoglycemia (9/29) versus group 1 patients (2/16). Analysis of dietary intake showed that patients with a higher Hb

  13. Concentration determination of urinary metabolites of N,N-dimethylacetamide by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinobu; Matsumoto, Akiko; Yui, Yuko; Miyazaki, Shota; Kumagai, Shinji; Hori, Hajime; Ichiba, Masayoshi

    2018-03-27

    N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) is widely used in industry as a solvent. It can be absorbed through human skin. Therefore, it is necessary to determine exposure to DMAC via biological monitoring. However, the precision of traditional gas chromatography (GC) is low due to the thermal decomposition of metabolites in the high-temperature GC injection port. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new method for the simultaneous separation and quantification of urinary DMAC metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Urine samples were diluted 10-fold in formic acid, and 1-μl aliquots were injected into the LC-MS/MS equipment. A C18 reverse-phase Octa Decyl Silyl (ODS) column was used as the analytical column, and the mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol and aqueous formic acid solution. Urinary concentrations of DMAC and its known metabolites (N-hydroxymethyl-N-methylacetamide (DMAC-OH), N-methylacetamide (NMAC), and S- (acetamidomethyl) mercapturic acid (AMMA) ) were determined in a single run. The dynamic ranges of the calibration curves were 0.05-5 mg/l (r≥0.999) for all four compounds. The limits of detection for DMAC, DMAC-OH, NMAC, and AMMA in urine were 0.04, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.02 mg/l, respectively. Within-run accuracies were 96.5%-109.6% with relative standard deviations of precision being 3.43%-10.31%. The results demonstrated that the proposed method could successfully quantify low concentrations of DMAC and its metabolites with high precision. Hence, this method is useful for evaluating DMAC exposure. In addition, this method can be used to examine metabolite behaviors in human bodies after exposure and to select appropriate biomarkers.

  14. Determination of Se at low concentration in coal by collision/reaction cell technology inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Alessandra S.; Rondan, Filipe S.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Mello, Paola A.; Perez, Magali; Armstrong, Joseph; Bullock, Liam A.; Parnell, John; Feldmann, Joerg; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2018-05-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of selenium at low concentration in coal by collision/reaction cell technology inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS). Samples were decomposed by high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) using 250 mg of coal, a mixture of 5 mL of 14.4 mol L-1 HNO3 and 1 mL of 40% HF and 70 min of heating program (200 °C and 40 bar). Hydrogen gas used in the collision/reaction cell was investigated to minimize the argon-based interferences at m/z 77, 78 and 80. The rejection parameter (RPq) and the H2 gas flow rate were set to 0.45 and 4.8 mL min-1, respectively. The use of H2 in the cell resulted in other polyatomic interferences, such as 76Ge1H+, 79Br1H+ and 81Br1H+, which impaired Se determination using 77Se, 80Se and 82Se isotopes, thus Se determination was carried out by monitoring only 78Se isotope. Selenium was determined in certified reference materials of coal (NIST 1635 and SARM 20) and an agreement better than 95% was observed between the results obtained by CRC-ICP-MS and the certified values. Under optimized conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.01 μg L-1 and the method limit of detection was 0.01 μg g-1, which was suitable for Se determination at very low concentration in coal.

  15. Concentration determination of urinary metabolites of N,N-dimethylacetamide by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinobu; Matsumoto, Akiko; Yui, Yuko; Miyazaki, Shota; Kumagai, Shinji; Hori, Hajime; Ichiba, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) is widely used in industry as a solvent. It can be absorbed through human skin. Therefore, it is necessary to determine exposure to DMAC via biological monitoring. However, the precision of traditional gas chromatography (GC) is low due to the thermal decomposition of metabolites in the high-temperature GC injection port. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new method for the simultaneous separation and quantification of urinary DMAC metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Methods: Urine samples were diluted 10-fold in formic acid, and 1-μl aliquots were injected into the LC-MS/MS equipment. A C18 reverse-phase Octa Decyl Silyl (ODS) column was used as the analytical column, and the mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol and aqueous formic acid solution. Results: Urinary concentrations of DMAC and its known metabolites (N-hydroxymethyl-N-methylacetamide (DMAC-OH), N-methylacetamide (NMAC), and S- (acetamidomethyl) mercapturic acid (AMMA) ) were determined in a single run. The dynamic ranges of the calibration curves were 0.05-5 mg/l (r≥0.999) for all four compounds. The limits of detection for DMAC, DMAC-OH, NMAC, and AMMA in urine were 0.04, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.02 mg/l, respectively. Within-run accuracies were 96.5%-109.6% with relative standard deviations of precision being 3.43%-10.31%. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that the proposed method could successfully quantify low concentrations of DMAC and its metabolites with high precision. Hence, this method is useful for evaluating DMAC exposure. In addition, this method can be used to examine metabolite behaviors in human bodies after exposure and to select appropriate biomarkers. PMID:29213009

  16. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  17. Estimation of atmospheric columnar organic matter (OM) mass concentration from remote sensing measurements of aerosol spectral refractive indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Zhengqiang; Sun, Yele; Lv, Yang; Xie, Yisong

    2018-04-01

    Aerosols have adverse effects on human health and air quality, changing Earth's energy balance and lead to climate change. The components of aerosol are important because of the different spectral characteristics. Based on the low hygroscopic and high scattering properties of organic matter (OM) in fine modal atmospheric aerosols, we develop an inversion algorithm using remote sensing to obtain aerosol components including black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), ammonium nitrate-like (AN), dust-like (DU) components and aerosol water content (AW). In the algorithm, the microphysical characteristics (i.e. volume distribution and complex refractive index) of particulates are preliminarily separated to fine and coarse modes, and then aerosol components are retrieved using bimodal parameters. We execute the algorithm using remote sensing measurements of sun-sky radiometer at AERONET site (Beijing RADI) in a period from October of 2014 to January of 2015. The results show a reasonable distribution of aerosol components and a good fit for spectral feature calculations. The mean OM mass concentration in atmospheric column is account for 14.93% of the total and 56.34% of dry and fine-mode aerosol, being a fairly good correlation (R = 0.56) with the in situ observations near the surface layer.

  18. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mondragón-Ceballos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs and body mass indices (BMIs. Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6 mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b±s.e.=-0.000003±0.000001; t94=-2.12, adjusted R2=-0.008, P=0.03. Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days.

  19. Antibiotics in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta and Pearl River Estuary, China: Concentrations, mass loading and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weihai; Yan, Wen; Li, Xiangdong; Zou, Yongde; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Huang, Weixia; Miao, Li; Zhang, Ruijie; Zhang, Gan; Zou, Shichun

    2013-01-01

    Ten antibiotics belonging to three groups (macrolides, fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) were investigated in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China for assessing the importance of riverine runoff in the transportation of contaminants from terrestrial sources to the open ocean. All antibiotics were detected in the eight outlets with concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 127 ng L −1 . The annual mass loadings of antibiotics from the PRD to the PRE and coast were 193 tons with 102 tons from the fluoroquinolone group. It showed that antibiotics decreased from the riverine outlets to the PRE and open ocean. Risk assessment showed that most of these antibiotics showed various ecological risks to the relevant aquatic organisms, in which ofloxacin (OFL), erythromycin (ETM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) posed high ecological risks to the studied aquatic environments. -- Highlights: •Antibiotics were ubiquitous in the river water and costal water in the Pearl River Delta. •Antibiotics exhibited distinct temporal and spatial trends in the riverine runoff outlets. •Annual outflows of antibiotics were 193 tons from the Pearl River to coastal ocean. •Some antibiotics posed high risks to some organisms in the PRD environments. -- Antibiotics were ubiquitous in the river and coastal water in the Pearl River Delta and posed various ecological risks to the relevant aquatic organisms

  20. Association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Murata, Miho; Otani, Taeko; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-e

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in 130 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-18, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured. Percentage body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured by abdominal CT. HS-CRP had significant positive correlations with percentage body fat and subcutaneous fat area, and a particularly significant positive correlation with visceral fat area. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with the subcutaneous and visceral fat areas, with the strongest correlation with the visceral fat area. Similar results were obtained for HMW adiponectin. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with a visceral fat area 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 . In contrast, serum HS-CRP showed a positive correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area 2 . These findings indicate that an increased visceral fat area is associated with inflammatory changes, and that inflammatory reactions may alter the functional properties of visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  1. Decision Tree Algorithm-Generated Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Barcodes of rbcL Genes for 38 Brassicaceae Species Tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Kuo-Chuan; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2018-01-01

    DNA barcode sequences are accumulating in large data sets. A barcode is generally a sequence larger than 1000 base pairs and generates a computational burden. Although the DNA barcode was originally envisioned as straightforward species tags, the identification usage of barcode sequences is rarely emphasized currently. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association studies provide us an idea that the SNPs may be the ideal target of feature selection to discriminate between different species. We hypothesize that SNP-based barcodes may be more effective than the full length of DNA barcode sequences for species discrimination. To address this issue, we tested a r ibulose diphosphate carboxylase ( rbcL ) S NP b arcoding (RSB) strategy using a decision tree algorithm. After alignment and trimming, 31 SNPs were discovered in the rbcL sequences from 38 Brassicaceae plant species. In the decision tree construction, these SNPs were computed to set up the decision rule to assign the sequences into 2 groups level by level. After algorithm processing, 37 nodes and 31 loci were required for discriminating 38 species. Finally, the sequence tags consisting of 31 rbcL SNP barcodes were identified for discriminating 38 Brassicaceae species based on the decision tree-selected SNP pattern using RSB method. Taken together, this study provides the rational that the SNP aspect of DNA barcode for rbcL gene is a useful and effective sequence for tagging 38 Brassicaceae species.

  2. Long-chain PUFA in Granulocytes, Mononuclear Cells, and RBC in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis: Relation to Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Marianne H.; Ott, Peter; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    -related liver disease were matched with 20 CF patients without. Blood samples were analysed for liver biochemistry and haematology. Granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and RBC were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography. Hepatic ultrasound...

  3. Validated assay for the simultaneous quantification of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human EDTA plasma and of vincristine concentrations in human plasma ultrafiltrate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Carola W. N.; Israëls, Trijn; Caron, Huib N.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive, specific and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay for the simultaneous determination of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human plasma and an assay for the determination of unbound vincristine are presented.

  4. rbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, M; Omori, T; Nakazawa, M; Sano, T; Kato, M; Iwatsuki, K

    1994-06-07

    Pteriodophytes have a longer evolutionary history than any other vascular land plant and, therefore, have endured greater loss of phylogenetically informative information. This factor has resulted in substantial disagreements in evaluating characters and, thus, controversy in establishing a stable classification. To compare competing classifications, we obtained DNA sequences of a chloroplast gene. The sequence of 1206 nt of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL) was determined from 58 species, representing almost all families of leptosporangiate ferns. Phlogenetic trees were inferred by the neighbor-joining and the parsimony methods. The two methods produced almost identical phylogenetic trees that provided insights concerning major general evolutionary trends in the leptosporangiate ferns. Interesting findings were as follows: (i) two morphologically distinct heterosporous water ferns, Marsilea and Salvinia, are sister genera; (ii) the tree ferns (Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae, and Metaxyaceae) are monophyletic; and (iii) polypodioids are distantly related to the gleichenioids in spite of the similarity of their exindusiate soral morphology and are close to the higher indusiate ferns. In addition, the affinities of several "problematic genera" were assessed.

  5. OpenRBC: Redefining the Frontier of Red Blood Cell Simulations at Protein Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Li, He; Grinberg, Leopold; Sachdeva, Vipin; Evangelinos, Constantinos; Karniadakis, George

    We present a from-scratch development of OpenRBC, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics code, which is capable of performing an unprecedented in silico experiment - simulating an entire mammal red blood cell lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton modeled by 4 million mesoscopic particles - on a single shared memory node. To achieve this, we invented an adaptive spatial searching algorithm to accelerate the computation of short-range pairwise interactions in an extremely sparse 3D space. The algorithm is based on a Voronoi partitioning of the point cloud of coarse-grained particles, and is continuously updated over the course of the simulation. The algorithm enables the construction of a lattice-free cell list, i.e. the key spatial searching data structure in our code, in O (N) time and space space with cells whose position and shape adapts automatically to the local density and curvature. The code implements NUMA/NUCA-aware OpenMP parallelization and achieves perfect scaling with up to hundreds of hardware threads. The code outperforms a legacy solver by more than 8 times in time-to-solution and more than 20 times in problem size, thus providing a new venue for probing the cytomechanics of red blood cells. This work was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Model- ing of Materials (CM4). YHT acknowledges partial financial support from an IBM Ph.D. Scholarship Award.

  6. Indices to screen for grain yield and grain-zinc mass concentrations in aerobic rice at different soil-Zn levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.; Zhao, M.; Keulen, van H.; Fan, T.Q.; Stomph, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Zinc is an important micronutrient for both crop growth and human nutrition. In rice production, yields are often reduced and Zn mass concentrations in the grains are often low when Zn is in short supply to the crop. This may result in malnutrition of people dependent on a rice-based diet. Plant

  7. Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of buried wood as a function of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control in a regenerating oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; John M. Kabrick; Mary Beth Adams; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Marty F. Jurgensen

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) wood stakes were measured 30 months after their burial in the upper 10 cm of soil in a regenerating forest after harvesting and soil disturbance. Disturbance treatments were two levels of organic matter (OM) removal (only...

  8. DNA Barcoding the Canadian Arctic Flora: Core Plastid Barcodes (rbcL + matK) for 490 Vascular Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M.; Sokoloff, Paul C.; Gillespie, Lynn J.; Consaul, Laurie L.; Bull, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA–trnH, psbK–psbI, atpF–atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF–atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species. PMID

  9. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex , and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munjal S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sagar Munjal,1 Anirudh Gautam,2 Alan M Rapoport,3 Dennis M Fisher4 1Department of Neurology Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Pharmacokinetics, Modeling and Simulation & Bioanalysis, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Hyderabad, India; 3Department of Neurology, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, 4P Less Than, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective/background: Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI], age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods: We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL; or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL. Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax, area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2, and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞ were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others. Results: Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex

  10. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Clements

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coarse (PM10−2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10−2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH study measured PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10−2.5, from 2009 to early 2012 in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10−2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10−2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 µg m−3 and mean PM10−2.5 ∕ PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10−2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10−2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10−2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10−2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s−1. Little wind speed dependence was

  11. Delimiting the species Neosiphonia yendoi (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) based on COI and rbcL genetic variation in Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongseok; Yang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Myung Sook

    2016-09-01

    Although the marine red algal genus Neosiphonia is well characterized, many species of Neosiphonia are poorly understood. To correctly define the species delimitation of Neosiphonia yendoi using genetic variation, owing to the confusion over identification with " N. sphaerocarpa" from Korea, we investigated intensively the haplotype network of the mitochondrial COI and the plastid rbcL genes of specimens collected from Korea and Japan. The molecular analyses indicated that specimens collected in different sites of Korea and Japan belong to the same species, Neosiphonia yendoi and " Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa" from Korea, which is distinguished from N. sphaerocarpa from Florida and is allied with N. yendoi collected from the type locality, Muroran of Japan. A total of 29 COI and 13 rbcL haplotypes were found and the COI haplotype network shows evidence of a clear break between specimens from Jeju Island and all other locations of Korea, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity within N. yendoi.

  12. Absolute analysis of uranium isotopic concentrations with a gas ion source mass spectrometer; Analyses absolues des concentrations isotopiques de l'uranium par spectrometre de masse equipe d'une source a gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaussy, L.; Boyer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France)

    1969-07-01

    Mass spectrometer with electronic bombardment ions source for routine uranium isotopic analysis are used like relative measurements apparatus. We show that such mass spectrometers can be used for absolute measurements with a very high sensitivity and precision which are ten times better than theses of thermo-ionic ions source mass spectrometer. We examine the causes of systematic errors and we give experimental data. In particular natural uranium sample used as reference give: U{sub 5} = 0.7202 {+-} 0.0005 atoms per cent; U{sub 4} = 0.00552 {+-} 0.0003 atoms per cent. The use of this method is justified for standards control. (authors) [French] Les spectrometres de masse a source par bombardement electronique pour l'analyse de l'uranium sous forme d'hexafluorure, sont utilises en routine comme des appareils de mesure relative. On montre que l'on peut utiliser de tels appareils pour effectuer des mesures absolues avec une excellente sensibilite et reproductibilite, dix fois superieure a celle des spectrometres a source thermoionique. On examine en detail les causes d'erreurs systematiques et on donne des resultats experimentaux. En particulier, l'analyse d'un echantillon d'uranium naturel donne: U{sub 5} = 0.7202 {+-} 0.0005 atomes pour cent; U{sub 4} = 0.00552 {+-} 0.0003 atomes pour cent. La technique de mesure est utile pour le controle d'etalons isotopiques. (auteurs)

  13. Contínua evolução da RBC: um obrigado a todos os colaboradores!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Telles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde de seu nascimento, a RBC prima pela divulgação do conhecimento pericial tecnicamente validado e pela discussão de novos métodos e de casos. É o caminho que há de ser constantemente trilhado pelos profissionais da perícia para que não eivem seus laudos periciais e pareceres técnicos de vícios insanáveis cujas consequências seriam nefastas para a justiça. Não é à toa que o Corpo Editorial da RBC, com o imprescindível auxílio dos editores de sessão e dos avaliadores, não envida esforços na contínua evolução da revista em direção à qualidade. Prova disso é a permanente busca por indexação em vários meios e pela elevação dos índices de qualidade por qualificação externa. A RBC aparece no Latindex, no CrossRef, no Google Scholar, no Research Gate, no Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ, no Electronic Journal Library (EZ3, no Scilit, no Diadorim, na ABEC Brasil, na Universitäts Bibliothek UBL Leipzig e na Qualis/CAPES.

  14. Genetic variations in the androgen receptor are associated with steroid concentrations and anthropometrics but not with muscle mass in healthy young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène De Naeyer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between serum testosterone (T levels, muscle mass and muscle force in eugonadal men is incompletely understood. As polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR gene cause differences in androgen sensitivity, no straightforward correlation can be observed between the interindividual variation in T levels and different phenotypes. Therefore, we aim to investigate the relationship between genetic variations in the AR, circulating androgens and muscle mass and function in young healthy male siblings. DESIGN: 677 men (25-45 years were recruited in a cross-sectional, population-based sibling pair study. METHODS: Relations between genetic variation in the AR gene (CAGn, GGNn, SNPs, sex steroid levels (by LC-MS/MS, body composition (by DXA, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA (by pQCT, muscle force (isokinetic peak torque, grip strength and anthropometrics were studied using linear mixed-effect modelling. RESULTS: Muscle mass and force were highly heritable and related to age, physical activity, body composition and anthropometrics. Total T (TT and free T (FT levels were positively related to muscle CSA, whereas estradiol (E2 and free E2 (FE2 concentrations were negatively associated with muscle force. Subjects with longer CAG repeat length had higher circulating TT, FT, and higher E2 and FE2 concentrations. Weak associations with TT and FT were found for the rs5965433 and rs5919392 SNP in the AR, whereas no association between GGN repeat polymorphism and T concentrations were found. Arm span and 2D:4D finger length ratio were inversely associated, whereas muscle mass and force were not associated with the number of CAG repeats. CONCLUSIONS: Age, physical activity, body composition, sex steroid levels and anthropometrics are determinants of muscle mass and function in young men. Although the number of CAG repeats of the AR are related to sex steroid levels and anthropometrics, we have no evidence that these variations in the AR

  15. Direct sampling of sub-µm atmospheric particulate organic matter in sub-ng m-3 mass concentrations by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armin, W.; Mueller, M.; Klinger, A.; Striednig, M.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative characterization of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter is still challenging. Herein we present the novel modular "Chemical Analysis of Aerosol Online" (CHARON) particle inlet system coupled to a new-generation proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 6000 X2, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) that quantitatively detects organic analytes in real-time and sub-pptV levels by chemical ionization with hydronium reagent ions. CHARON consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes (efficiency > 99.999%), an aerodynamic lens for particle collimation combined with an inertial sampler for the particle-enriched flow and a thermodesorption unit for particle volatilization prior to chemical analysis. With typical particle enrichment factors of around 30 for particle diameters (DP) between 120 nm and 1000 nm (somewhat reduced enrichment for 60 nm 6000) and excellent mass accuracies (< 10 ppm) chemical compositions can be assigned and included in further analyses. In addition to a detailed characterization of the CHARON PTR-TOF 6000 X2 we will present first results on the chemical composition of sub-µm particulate organic matter in the urban atmosphere in Innsbruck (Austria).

  16. Epidemiology of RBC Transfusions in Patients With Severe Acute Kidney Injury: Analysis From the Randomized Evaluation of Normal Versus Augmented Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Lo, Serigne; Gallagher, Martin; Cass, Alan; Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon

    2016-05-01

    To assess the epidemiology and outcomes associated with RBC transfusion in patients with severe acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty-five ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Cohort of 1,465 patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level replacement therapy study. Daily information on morning hemoglobin level and amount of RBC transfused were prospectively collected in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level study. We analyzed the epidemiology of such transfusions and their association with clinical outcomes. Overall, 977 patients(66.7%) received a total of 1,192 RBC units. By day 5, 785 of 977 transfused patients (80.4%) had received at least one RBC transfusion. Hemoglobin at randomization was lower in transfused than in nontransfused patients (94 vs 111 g/L; p regression analysis, RBC transfusion was independently associated with lower 90-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38-0.79). However, we found no independent association between RBC transfusions and mortality when the analyses were restricted to patients surviving at least 5 days (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.85). We found no independent association between RBC transfusion and renal replacement therapy-free days, mechanical ventilator-free days, or length of stay in ICU or hospital. In patients with severe acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, we found no association of RBC transfusion with 90-day mortality or other patient-centered outcomes. The optimal hemoglobin threshold for RBC transfusion in such patients needs to be determined in future randomized controlled trials.

  17. Reconstructing a herbivore's diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman A; McShea, William J; Ottesen, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbc L gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time-sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples ( F  = 1.73, P  = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4-12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed plants inventoried

  18. Sensitivity analysis of the effect of various key parameters on fission product concentration (mass number 120 to 126)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, A.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical sensitivity analysis has been made of the effect of various parameters on the evaluation of fission product concentration. Such parameters include cross sections, decay constants, branching ratios, fission yields, flux and time. The formulae are applied to isotopes of the Tin, Antimony and Tellurium series. The agreement between analytically obtained data and that derived from a computer evaluated model is good, suggesting that the analytical representation includes all the important parameters useful to the evaluation of the fission product concentrations

  19. Hydrodynamic characteristics of steady magnetic fluid flow in a straight tube by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of mass concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuchi, S.; Shimada, K.; Kamiyama, S.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2002-01-01

    We clarify numerically the wall friction coefficient, the distributions of velocity and shear rate, and the number of aggregated particles on steady magnetic fluid flow in a straight tube by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of mass concentration (DMC). Also the effect of DMC is clarified under the uniform and non-uniform transverse steady magnetic field. In comparison with the published data, the numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data

  20. Constraining dark matter halo profiles and galaxy formation models using spiral arm morphology. II. Dark and stellar mass concentrations for 13 nearby face-on galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  1. Quantitative detection of mass concentration of sand-dust storms via wind-profiling radar and analysis of Z- M relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minzhong; Ming, Hu; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Lianhui; Yang, Di

    2018-02-01

    With the aim to achieve quantitative monitoring of sand-dust storms in real time, wind-profiling radar is applied to monitor and study the process of four sand-dust storms in the Tazhong area of the Taklimakan Desert. Through evaluation and analysis of the spatial-temporal distribution of reflectivity factor, it is found that reflectivity factor ranges from 2 to 18 dBz under sand-dust storm weather. Using echo power spectrum of radar vertical beams, sand-dust particle spectrum and sand-dust mass concentration at the altitude of 600 ˜ 1500 m are retrieved. This study shows that sand-dust mass concentration reaches 700 μg/m3 under blowing sand weather, 2000 μg/m3 under sand-dust storm weather, and 400 μg/m3 under floating dust weather. The following equations are established to represent the relationship between the reflectivity factor and sand-dust mass concentration: Z = 20713.5 M 0.995 under floating dust weather, Z = 22988.3 M 1.006 under blowing sand weather, and Z = 24584.2 M 1.013 under sand-dust storm weather. The retrieval results from this paper are almost consistent with previous monitoring results achieved by former researchers; thus, it is implied that wind-profiling radar can be used as a new reference device to quantitatively monitor sand-dust storms.

  2. PM 2.5 mass concentrations in comparison with aerosol optical depths over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean during winter monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S.

    An analysis of PM 2.5 mass concentrations and 0.5 μm aerosol optical depths (AODs) during the Northeast winter monsoon seasons of 1996-2000 is performed and intercompared. AODs are found to show diurnal variations over Coastal India (CI) (west coast) while they are relatively smooth over the Arabian Sea (AS) (5-20°N) and tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) (5°N-20°S). PM 2.5, PM 10 and total mass concentrations show less variations in a day over these oceanic regions. Columnar AODs are found to increase with an increase in the marine boundary layer aerosol concentrations over CI and AS while an opposite trend is seen over TIO. The yearly-mean AODs and mass concentrations are found to increase over CI and AS, over TIO the mass concentrations increased while the AODs decreased during 1996-2000. It is found from the 7-days air back trajectory analyses that at different altitudes air masses can originate from different source regions leading to changes in chemical, physical and optical characteristics of the aerosol between the surface and column. The differences in the surface and columnar measurements could also occur due to changes in the meteorological conditions, wind patterns, in addition to changes in production and subsequently the transport of aerosols. Least-squares fits to the above intercomparison resulted in intercepts of 0.24 and 0.22 over CI and AS indicating that the background AODs over these oceanic regions are higher. An examination of the daily-mean wind speeds and PM 2.5 mass concentrations yielded an index of wind dependence of 0.04 for AS and 0.07 for TIO. The background PM 2.5 mass concentrations are also found to be high at 36 and 25 μg m -3 over AS and TIO, respectively, indicating a stronger influence from the continent. Frequency distribution figures show that 28% of the PM 2.5 values over CI lie in the 60-80 μg m -3 range. Over AS the dominant mode of distribution is 40-60 μg m -3 with a peak value of 42%. Over TIO PM 2.5 values are found to

  3. Sensibility analysis of the effect of various key parameters on fission product concentration (Mass Number 133 to 138)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, A.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical sensitivity analysis has been made of the effect of various parameters on the evaluation of fission product concentration. Such parameters include cross-sections, decay constants, branching ratios, fission yields, flux and time. The formulae are applied to isotopes of the iodine, xenon, caesium and barium series. The agreement between analytically obtained data and that derived from a computer-evaluated model is good, suggesting that the analytical representation includes all the important parameters useful to the evaluation of the fission product concentrations

  4. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houde, Damian; Esmail Nazari, Zeinab; Bou-Assaf, George M

    2016-01-01

    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause fo...... in industry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ....

  5. Comparison of Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particle Data with Modelled Atmospheric Black Carbon Concentration and Deposition and Air Mass Sources in Northern Europe, 1850–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Ruppel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCP are a well-defined fraction of black carbon (BC, produced only by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Their past concentrations have been studied using environmental archives, but, additionally, historical trends of BC concentration and deposition can be estimated by modelling. These models are based on BC emission inventories, but actual measurements of BC concentration and deposition play an essential role in their evaluation and validation. We use the chemistry transport model OsloCTM2 to model historical time series of BC concentration and deposition from energy and industrial sources and compare these to sedimentary measurements of SCPs obtained from lake sediments in Northern Europe from 1850 to 2010. To determine the origin of SCPs we generated back trajectories of air masses to the study sites. Generally, trends of SCP deposition and modelled results agree reasonably well, showing rapidly increasing values from 1950, to a peak in 1980, and a decrease towards the present. Empirical SCP data show differences in deposition magnitude between the sites that are not captured by the model but which may be explained by different air mass transport patterns. The results highlight the need for numerous observational records to reliably validate model results.

  6. Evaluation of Glass Density to Support the Estimation of Fissile Mass Loadings from Iron Concentrations in SB6 Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Peeler, D.

    2010-12-15

    The Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) previously provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of the guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 glass based on the Fe concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that SRNL provide the necessary information to allow SRR to update the Excel spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes a bounding density for SB6-based glasses. Based on the measured density data of select SB6 variability study glasses, SRNL recommends that SRR utilize the 99/99 Upper Tolerance Limit (UTL) density value at 38% WL (2.823 g/cm{sup 3}) as a bounding density for SB6 glasses to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. That is, the 2.823 g/cm{sup 3} is recommended as a key (and fixed) input into the fissile concentration spreadsheet for SB6 processing. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB6. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample. The purpose of this technical report is to present the density measurements that were determined for the SB6 variability study glasses and to conduct a statistical evaluation of these measurements to provide a bounding density value that may be used as input to the Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet to be employed by SRR to maintain the

  7. Mass concentration, optical depth and carbon composition of particulate matter in the major southern West African cities of Cotonou (Benin) and Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djossou, Julien; Léon, Jean-François; Barthélemy Akpo, Aristide; Liousse, Cathy; Yoboué, Véronique; Bedou, Mouhamadou; Bodjrenou, Marleine; Chiron, Christelle; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Gardrat, Eric; Abbey, Marcellin; Keita, Sékou; Bahino, Julien; Touré N'Datchoh, Evelyne; Ossohou, Money; Awanou, Cossi Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Air quality degradation is a major issue in the large conurbations on the shore of the Gulf of Guinea. We present for the first time PM2.5 time series collected in Cotonou, Benin, and Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, from February 2015 to March 2017. Measurements were performed in the vicinity of major combustion aerosol sources: Cotonou/traffic (CT), Abidjan/traffic (AT), Abidjan/landfill (AL) and Abidjan/domestic fires (ADF). We report the weekly PM2.5 mass and carbonaceous content as elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon concentrations. We also measure the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the Ångström exponent in both cities. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 32 ± 32, 32 ± 24 and 28 ± 19 µg m-3 at traffic sites CT and AT and landfill site AL, respectively. The domestic fire site shows a concentration of 145 ± 69 µg m-3 due to the contribution of smoking and roasting activities. The highest OC and EC concentrations were also measured at ADF at 71 ± 29 and 15 ± 9 µg m-3, respectively, while the other sites present OC concentration between 8 and 12 µg m-3 and EC concentrations between 2 and 7 µg m-3. The OC / EC ratio is 4.3 at CT and 2.0 at AT. This difference highlights the influence of two-wheel vehicles using gasoline in Cotonou compared to that of four-wheel vehicles using diesel fuel in Abidjan. AOD was rather similar in both cities, with a mean value of 0.58 in Cotonou and of 0.68 in Abidjan. The seasonal cycle is dominated by the large increase in surface mass concentration and AOD during the long dry season (December-February) as expected due to mineral dust advection and biomass burning activities. The lowest concentrations are observed during the short dry season (August-September) due to an increase in surface wind speed leading to a better ventilation. On the other hand, the high PM2.5 / AOD ratio in the short wet season (October-November) indicates the stagnation of local pollution.

  8. Mass concentration, optical depth and carbon composition of particulate matter in the major southern West African cities of Cotonou (Benin and Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Djossou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality degradation is a major issue in the large conurbations on the shore of the Gulf of Guinea. We present for the first time PM2.5 time series collected in Cotonou, Benin, and Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, from February 2015 to March 2017. Measurements were performed in the vicinity of major combustion aerosol sources: Cotonou/traffic (CT, Abidjan/traffic (AT, Abidjan/landfill (AL and Abidjan/domestic fires (ADF. We report the weekly PM2.5 mass and carbonaceous content as elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon concentrations. We also measure the aerosol optical depth (AOD and the Ångström exponent in both cities. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 32 ± 32, 32 ± 24 and 28 ± 19 µg m−3 at traffic sites CT and AT and landfill site AL, respectively. The domestic fire site shows a concentration of 145 ± 69 µg m−3 due to the contribution of smoking and roasting activities. The highest OC and EC concentrations were also measured at ADF at 71 ± 29 and 15 ± 9 µg m−3, respectively, while the other sites present OC concentration between 8 and 12 µg m−3 and EC concentrations between 2 and 7 µg m−3. The OC ∕ EC ratio is 4.3 at CT and 2.0 at AT. This difference highlights the influence of two-wheel vehicles using gasoline in Cotonou compared to that of four-wheel vehicles using diesel fuel in Abidjan. AOD was rather similar in both cities, with a mean value of 0.58 in Cotonou and of 0.68 in Abidjan. The seasonal cycle is dominated by the large increase in surface mass concentration and AOD during the long dry season (December–February as expected due to mineral dust advection and biomass burning activities. The lowest concentrations are observed during the short dry season (August–September due to an increase in surface wind speed leading to a better ventilation. On the other hand, the high PM2.5 ∕ AOD ratio in the short wet season (October–November indicates the

  9. The associations between metals/metalloids concentrations in blood plasma of Hong Kong residents and their seafood diet, smoking habit, body mass index and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan Yan; Leung, Clement Kai Man; Lin, Che Kit; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-09-01

    The concentrations of metals/metalloids in blood plasma collected from 111 healthy residents (51 female, 60 male) in Hong Kong (obtained from the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, from March to April 2008) were quantified by means of a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Results showed that concentrations of these toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb in Hong Kong residents were not serious when compared with other countries. Males accumulated significantly higher (p diet habit, body mass index (BMI), and age. More intensive studies involving more samples are needed before a more definite conclusion can be drawn, especially on the causal relationships between concentrations of metals/metalloids with dietary preference and lifestyle of the general public.

  10. An intercomparison experiment on isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using plutonium-239 spike for the determination of plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Shah, P.M.; Saxena, M.K.; Jain, H.C.; Gurba, P.B.; Babbar, R.K.; Udagatti, S.V.; Moorthy, A.D.; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of plutonium concentration in the dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is one of the key measurements in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of an intercomparison experiment performed between Fuel Chemistry Division (FCD) at BARC and PREFRE, Tarapur for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel using 239 Pu spike in isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). The 239 Pu spike method was previously established at FCD as viable alternative to the imported enriched 242 Pu or 244 Pu; the spike used internationally for plutonium concentration determination by IDMS in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel. Precision and accuracy achievable for determining plutonium concentration are compared under the laboratory and the plant conditions using 239 Pu spike in IDMS. For this purpose, two different dissolver solutions with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of about 0.3 and 0.07 corresponding, respectively, to high and low burn-up fuels, were used. The results of the intercomparison experiment demonstrate that there is no difference in the precision values obtained under the laboratory and the plant conditions; with mean precision values of better than 0.2%. Further, the plutonium concentration values determined by the two laboratories agreed within 0.3%. This exercise, therefore, demonstrates that ID-TIMS method using 239 Pu spike can be used for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, under the plant conditions. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  11. Accurate determination of 129I, 41Ca and 10Be long-lived radionuclides concentrations in spent resins from the nuclear industry by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli-Lepage, E.

    2013-01-01

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste is essential for the management of storage sites. More particularly, determining the concentration of Long-Lived Radionuclides (LLRN) is fundamental for their long term management. This study focuses on the determination of three LLRN concentrations, i.e. 129 I (T 1/2 = 15.7*10 6 a), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 9.94*10 4 a) and 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.387*10 6 a), in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). To benefit from the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique allowing to measure extremely low levels of nuclide concentrations, analytical procedures including: 1) sample dissolution; 2) selective and quantitative extraction of the analyte; and, 3) analyte conditioning for AMS measurements, were developed. Applied on spent resin samples collected at a 900 MW PWR, the procedures developed for each studied LLRN allowed their quantitative recovery and their selective extraction from β-γ emitters and isobars. The concentration measurements of the LLRN of interest were then performed on the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry national facility ASTER housed by the Centre Europeen de Recherche et d'Enseignement des Geosciences de l'Environnement (CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence). 129 I, 41 Ca and 10 Be concentrations in spent resins were measured to be about 10 ng/g, 20 pg/g and 4 ng/g of dry resin, respectively. Considering 129 I and 41 Ca, the measured concentrations agree with those assessed from scaling factors established relatively to easily measured gamma emitters ( 137 Cs and 60 Co). For 10 Be, the presented results are significantly different from expected values but are in agreement with previous ICP-MS results. (author) [fr

  12. Plasma osmolyte concentrations and rectal gland mass of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas, captured along a salinity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillans, Richard D; Franklin, Craig E

    2004-07-01

    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) were captured across a salinity gradient from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW). Across all salinities, C. leucas were hyperosmotic to the environment. Plasma osmolarity in FW-captured animals (642 +/- 7 mosM) was significantly reduced compared to SW-captured animals (1067 +/- 21 mosM). In FW animals, sodium, chloride and urea were 208 +/- 3, 203 +/- 3 and 192 +/- 2 mmol l(-1), respectively. Plasma sodium, chloride and urea in SW-captured C. leucas were 289 +/- 3, 296 +/- 6 and 370 +/- 10 mmol l(-1), respectively. The increase in plasma osmolarity between FW and SW was not linear. Between FW (3 mosM) and 24 per thousand SW (676 mosM), plasma osmolarity increased by 22% or 0.92% per 1 per thousand rise in salinity. Between 24 per thousand and 33 per thousand, plasma osmolarity increased by 33% or 4.7% per 1 per thousand rise in salinity, largely due to a sharp increase in plasma urea between 28 per thousand and 33 per thousand. C. leucas moving between FW and SW appear to be faced with three major osmoregulatory challenges, these occur between 0-10 per thousand, 11-20 per thousand and 21-33 per thousand. A comparison between C. leucas captured in FW and estuarine environments (20-28 per thousand ) in the Brisbane River revealed no difference in the mass of rectal glands between these animals. However, a comparison of rectal gland mass between FW animals captured in the Brisbane River and Rio San Juan/Lake Nicaragua showed that animals in the latter system had a significantly smaller rectal gland mass at a given length than animals in the Brisbane River. The physiological challenges and mechanisms required for C. leucas moving between FW and SW, as well as the ecological implications of these data are discussed.

  13. Determination of low specific activity iodine-129 off-gas concentrations by GC separation and negative ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Rankin, R.A.; McManus, G.J.; Nielsen, R.A.; Delmore, J.E.; Hohorst, F.A.; Murphy, L.P.

    1983-09-01

    This document is the final report of the laboratory development of a method for determining the specific activity of the /sup 129/I emitted from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The technique includes cryogenic sample collection, chemical form separation, quantitation by gas chromatography, and specific activity measurement of each chemical species by negative ionization mass spectrometry. The major conclusions were that both organic and elemental iodine can be quantitatively collected without fractionation and that specific activity measurements as low as one atom of /sup 129/I per 10/sup 5/ atoms of /sup 127/I are possible.

  14. Determination of low specific activity iodine-129 off-gas concentrations by GC separation and negative ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Rankin, R.A.; McManus, G.J.; Nielsen, R.A.; Delmore, J.E.; Hohorst, F.A.; Murphy, L.P.

    1983-09-01

    This document is the final report of the laboratory development of a method for determining the specific activity of the 129 I emitted from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The technique includes cryogenic sample collection, chemical form separation, quantitation by gas chromatography, and specific activity measurement of each chemical species by negative ionization mass spectrometry. The major conclusions were that both organic and elemental iodine can be quantitatively collected without fractionation and that specific activity measurements as low as one atom of 129 I per 10 5 atoms of 127 I are possible

  15. A high precision mass spectrometry method for measuring O2/N2 ratios and CO2 concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marca, A.D.; Dennis, P.F.; Etchells, A.

    2002-01-01

    A full, detailed understanding of the global carbon budget is needed for robust modelling of global climate and environmental change. Since the industrial revolution the carbon cycle has been shifted from a steady state in which removal of CO 2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis is balanced by its addition through respiration. Currently increased respiration due to deforestation, modern agricultural practises and the burning of fossil fuels dominates photosynthesis resulting in modern atmospheric CO 2 concentrations some 32% higher than the year 1800 levels. However, the CO 2 concentration rises are lower than expected from known fossil fuel combustion inventories. A significant proportion of the excess CO 2 is taken up by the oceans, however a missing carbon sink must still be invoked to account for the difference between measured and expected CO 2 rises. A global greening as a result of increased photosynthesis is required to close the circle

  16. Arabidopsis Pol II-Dependent in Vitro Transcription System Reveals Role of Chromatin for Light-Inducible rbcS Gene Transcription1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Ayaka; Iwata, Shinya; Iwata, Yuka; Igarashi, Hisako; Hamada, Takahiro; Sonobe, Seiji; Sugiura, Masahiro; Yukawa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro transcription is an essential tool to study the molecular mechanisms of transcription. For over a decade, we have developed an in vitro transcription system from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-cultured cells (BY-2), and this system supported the basic activities of the three RNA polymerases (Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III). However, it was not suitable to study photosynthetic genes, because BY-2 cells have lost their photosynthetic activity. Therefore, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro transcription systems were developed from green and etiolated suspension cells. Sufficient in vitro Pol II activity was detected after the minor modification of the nuclear soluble extracts preparation method; removal of vacuoles from protoplasts and L-ascorbic acid supplementation in the extraction buffer were particularly effective. Surprisingly, all four Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit (rbcS-1A, rbcS-1B, rbcS-2B, and rbcS-3B) gene members were in vitro transcribed from the naked DNA templates without any light-dependent manner. However, clear light-inducible transcriptions were observed using chromatin template of rbcS-1A gene, which was prepared with a human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP1) and HeLa histones. This suggested that a key determinant of light-dependency through the rbcS gene transcription was a higher order of DNA structure (i.e. chromatin). PMID:26662274

  17. Picomolar concentrations of morphine in human urine determined by dansyl derivatization and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamshöft, Marc; Grobe, Nadja; Spiteller, Michael

    2011-04-15

    Morphine is present in varying amounts as an endogenous product in human urine. Derivatization of morphine contained in urine with dansyl chloride yields a known product, which can be quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with high selectivity and sensitivity. Urine samples of 51 healthy individuals were spiked with stable-isotope labeled morphine, hydrolyzed and subjected to solid phase extraction followed by derivatization of morphine with dansyl chloride. The dansyl derivatives of naturally occurring morphine and deuterated internal standard were then detected by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Using the [N-CD(3)]-labeled internal standard and solid-phase extraction, a limit of detection of 35 fmol/ml (10 pg/ml) and a limit of quantification of 87.5 fmol/ml (25 pg/ml) was determined for morphine in human urine. This new LC-MS/MS method allowed the detection of endogenous morphine in human urine of 51 volunteers with an average value of 156.4 fmol/ml (44.7 ng/ml). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Contribution of Black Carbon to Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations from Prescribed Burns and Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, G. P.; DeMott, P. J.; Suski, K. J.; Emerson, E. W.; Rauker, A. M.; Kodros, J.; Levin, E. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Farmer, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been implicated as a potential immersion-mode ice nucleating particle (INP) because of its relative abundance in the upper troposphere. Furthermore, several field and aircraft measurements have observed positive correlations between BC and INP concentrations. Despite this, the efficiency of BC to act as an immersion-mode INP is poorly constrained. Indeed, previous results from laboratory studies are in conflict, with estimates of BC's impact on INP ranging from no impact to being efficient enough to rival the well-known INP mineral dust. It is, however, becoming clear that the ice nucleation activity of BC may depend on both its fuel type and combustion conditions. For example, previous work has shown that diesel exhaust BC is an extremely poor immersion-mode INP, but laboratory burns of biomass fuels indicate that BC can contribute up to 70% of all INP for some fuel types. Given these dependencies, we propose that sampling from real-world biomass burning sources would provide the most useful new information on the contribution of BC to atmospheric INP. In this work, we will present recent results looking at the sources of INP from prescribed burns and wildfires. To determine the specific contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to INP concentrations, we utilized a new technique that couples the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to the Colorado State University Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). The SP2 utilizes laser-induced incandescence to quantify rBC mass on a particle-by-particle basis; in doing so, it also selectively destroys rBC particles by heating them to their vaporization temperature. Thus, the SP2 can be used as a selective pre-filter for rBC into the CFDC. Furthermore, we have also used a filter-based technique for measuring INP, the Ice Spectrometer, which can employ pretreatments such as heating and digestion by H2O2 to determine the contribution of heat-labile and organic particles, respectively.

  19. Influence of air mass origins on optical properties and PM concentrations measured at a high mountain station located in the southwestern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, R.; Nicolás, J. F.; Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Galindo, N.; Caballero, S.; Pastor, C.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of air mass origins on aerosol optical properties and particulate matter (PM) concentrations measured from January 2014 to December 2015 at a high mountain station in the southwestern Mediterranean was analyzed. Mean values of extensive aerosol optical properties (scattering, backscattering and absorption coefficients) and PM mass fractions: σsp (30.7 ± 1.1 Mm- 1), σbsp (3.9 ± 0.1 Mm- 1), σap (2.4 ± 0.1 Mm- 1), PM10 (13.1 ± 0.6 μg·m- 3) and PM1 (4.0 ± 0.1 μg·m- 3) were in the range of values reported in most studies carried out at high altitude locations. Nevertheless, a significant variation of these concentrations according to the air mass origin has been noticed. Transport from North Africa (NAF back-trajectories) and regional recirculations (REG) were the two air mass types in which the highest values of PM concentrations and optical properties were registered. Alternatively, the lowest values were recorded under Atlantic advections. Noticeable differences between NAF and REG categories were observed when intensive optical properties of aerosols were analyzed. During NAF scenarios the lowest value of SAE (0.91 ± 0.06) was obtained as well as the greatest AAE value (1.30 ± 0.02), with daily levels higher than 1.90. This result suggests that OC and hematite compounds were relevant in the absorption process during NAF events. However, during REG episodes the AAE mean value declined to 1.18 ± 0.01, since the highest mean concentration of BC was recorded under this category, and the SAE value was maximum (1.70 ± 0.05) due to the smaller size of PM. It has also been documented that during the study period a great number of REG back-trajectories occurred just after the transport of air masses from North Africa. In these situations, AAE and SAE values showed slight variations due to the persistence of mineral dust in the local atmosphere.

  20. Simultaneous determination of picogram per gram concentrations of Ba, Pb and Pb isotopes in Greenland ice by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimi, Salah I.; Rosman, Kevin J.R.; Candelone, Jean-Pierre; Burn, Laurie J. [Curtin University of Technology, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Perth (Australia); Hong, Sungmin [Polar Research Centre, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan, P.O. Box 29, Seoul (Korea); Boutron, Claude F. [Domaine Universitaire, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique du l' Environnement, 54 rue Moliere, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); UFR de Mecanique, Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble (Institut Universitaire de France), Domaine Universitaire, Grenoble (France)

    2008-01-15

    A technique has been developed to simultaneously measure picogram per gram concentrations of Ba and Pb by isotope dilution mass spectrometry, as well as Pb isotopic ratios in polar ice by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. BaPO{sup +}{sub 2} and Pb{sup +} ions were employed for these determinations. A calibrated mixture of enriched {sup 205}Pb and {sup 137}Ba was added to the samples providing an accuracy of better than approximately 2% for Pb/Ba element ratio determinations. Interference by molecular ions in the Pb mass spectrum occurred only at {sup 204}Pb and {sup 205}Pb, but these contributions were negligible in terms of precisions expected on picogram-sized Pb samples. The technique is illustrated with measurements on Greenland firn, using a drill-core section that includes the Laki volcanic eruption of 1783-1784. The data show deviations from the element concentrations indicating volatile metal enrichments, but the Pb isotopic signature of the Laki lava could not be identified. (orig.)

  1. Size-resolved mass concentrations of iron oxide aerosols and size-resolved number concentrations of iron oxide aerosols collected from King Air aircraft in Yellow Sea and East China Sea from 2013-02-14 to 2013-03-10 (NCEI Accession 0162201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains size-resolved mass concentrations of iron oxide aerosols and size-resolved number concentrations of iron oxide aerosols, measured using the...

  2. 浮萍中一个新rbcS基因启动子的克隆及分析%Analysis of a Novel rbcS Promoter Cloned in Duckweed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友如

    2010-01-01

    为了分离组织特异性、诱导性的启动子,本研究根据新克隆的浮萍rbcS基因序列设计引物,采用改进的5'walking技术从浮萍基因组中克隆了一个新的rbcS基因启动子,命名为SSU5C基因启动子.序列分析表明:SSU5C基因启动子长度为1 543 bp,含有保守性元件TATA和CAAT box,并且含有水杨酸、脱落酸、赤霉素、茉莉酸甲酯等植物激素和葡萄糖等的保守顺式作用元件.In silico分析初步推测SSU5C基因启动子受多种信号途径的协调调控.

  3. Mass concentration, composition and sources of fine and coarse particulate matter in Tijuana, Mexico, during Cal-Mex campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Campos, Arturo Alberto; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Blanco, Salvador; Molina, Luisa T.; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the Cal-Mex project, which focuses on investigating the atmosphere along Mexico-California border region. Sampling was carried out at two sites located in Tijuana urban area: Parque Morelos and Metales y Derivados. PM2.5 and PM10 24 h samples were collected every three days from 17th May 2010 to 27th June 2010, and were used for gravimetric and chemical analyses (major and minor elements, inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon) of PM. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations during Cal-Mex were relatively lower compared to usual annual averages. Trace elements concentrations recorded in the present study were lower than those recorded in Mexico City in 2006, with the exception of Pb at Metales y Derivados, attributed to the influence of a specific industrial source, which also includes As, Cd and Tl. Apart from this industrial source, both urban sites were found to be affected by similar sources with respect to bulk PM. Fine PM (PM2.5) was mainly apportioned by fueloil and biomass combustion and secondary aerosols, and road traffic. Coarse PM (PM2.5-10) was mainly apportioned by a mineral source (sum of road dust resuspension, construction emissions and natural soil) and fresh and aged sea salt. The road traffic was responsible for more than 60% of the fine elemental carbon and almost 40% of the fine organic matter.

  4. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  5. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA, a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated.

  6. Erythrocyte sodium concentration and 86Rb uptake in weanling Dahl rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, C.P.; Hennessy, J.F.; Rauch, A.L.; Buckalew, V.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Alterations in Na, K ATPase pump activity as well as erythrocyte (RBC) intracellular sodium concentration (Nai) have been demonstrated in humans and rats with established hypertension. The contribution of hypertension itself to these changes is unclear. Accordingly, we investigated RBC ion transport and plasma ouabain-like factor (OLF) in four- to five-week old normotensive Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant (DR) rats on low salt diet. Although both strains were normotensive, systolic blood pressure (SBP) of DS (123 ± 2 mm Hg) was higher than that of DR (116 ± 1 mm Hg). No interstrain difference was evident in RBC pump activity measured as ouabain-sensitive 86rubidium ( 86 Rb) uptake (DS = 0.277 ± .030 and DR = 0.271 ± .029 mumol/10(9)RBC/h) even though RBC Nai was greater in DS than DR (14.9 ± 2.0 v 10.7 ± 1.0 mEq/L; P less than 0.05). Plasma OLF was higher in DS than DR (28.9 ± 4.7 v 16.5 ± 2.3 pmol/mL; P less than 0.05), but did not correlate with RBC pump activity in either strain. RBC Nai was directly correlated with pump activity in DS (r = 0.84, P less than 0.01) and demonstrated a trend to correlate in DR (r = 0.71, P = 0.07). RBC Nai was also directly correlated with SBP in DR (r = 0.73, P less than 0.05) and DS (r = 0.70, P = 0.05). We conclude that RBC Nai is genetically determined in Dahl rats and is elevated in normotensive DS who are at risk for hypertension development

  7. Determination of degree of RBC agglutination for blood typing using a small quantity of blood sample in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Zhou, Xin-Miao; Yen, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-04-15

    Blood typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This paper presents a microfluidic blood typing system using a small quantity of blood sample to determine the degree of agglutination of red blood cell (RBC). Two measuring methods were proposed: impedimetric measurement and electroanalytical measurement. The charge transfer resistance in the impedimetric measurement and the power parameter in the electroanalytical measurement were used for the analysis of agglutination level. From the experimental results, both measuring methods provide quantitative results, and the parameters are linearly and monotonically related to the degree of RBC agglutination. However, the electroanalytical measurement is more reliable than the impedimetric technique because the impedimetric measurement may suffer from many influencing factors, such as chip conditions. Five levels from non-agglutination (level 0) to strong agglutination (level 4+) can be discriminated in this study, conforming to the clinical requirement to prevent any risks in transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mass flows in N2 - Ar - O2 mixture for a temperature range of 80 K to 100 K in presence of concentration gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, I.; Peculea, M.; Serban, I.

    1992-01-01

    In separation processes of multicomponent mixtures by cryogenic distillation, out of mass transfer at liquid-vapor interface, an essential part is played by Fick diffusion of the two phases. In the present study we have developed a calculus of the generalized diffusion coefficients based on the Chapman-Cowling theory, and we applied it for the N 2 - Ar - O 2 mixture in vapor phase. After computing Fick's law of diffusion for a tri-component nonreactive mixture in which diffusion is occurring in x -direction only, under constant pressure, we have established the time variation of the N 2 , Ar, and O 2 concentrations, taking into account the initial distribution of concentrations and boundary conditions. (Author)

  9. Oral supplementation of vitamin E reduces osmotic fragility of RBC in hemolytic anemic patients with G6PD deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, N.; Begum, S.; Begum, N.; Ali, T.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell member by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus protects cells from oxidative stress-induced lysis in G6PD deficiency. Changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH and MCHC may occur in haemolytic anaemic patients with G6PD deficiency. To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on these changes in order to evaluate the role of this anti-oxidant vitamin in reducing chronic haemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. A total number of 102 subjects with age ranged of 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (experimental group) and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group). The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children ?12 years (in a divided dose, i.e., 4 times daily). Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control) and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD) of Haematology, Banglabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2005 to June 2006 and all healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method. Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV. MCH, MCHC were significantly lower in patients suffering from

  10. Selection of GP. Mur antigen-negative RBC for blood recipients with anti-'Mia ' records decreases transfusion reaction rates in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-A; Lin, J-A; Chang, C-W; Wu, K-H; Yeh, S-P; Ho, C-M; Chang, J-G

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of GP. Mur antigen-negative blood selection for transfusion in patients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The GP. Mur RBC phenotype is prevalent (7·3%) in Taiwan. Antibodies against GP. Mur (anti-'Mi a ') are identified in 1·24% of our population, and anti-'Mi a ' screening using GP. Mur RBC has been routine for Taiwan's blood banks. However, due to the lack of commercial antibodies, only cross-matching was used to prevent transfusion of GP. Mur-positive blood to patients with anti-'Mi a ' in most hospitals. There is still a risk of GP. Mur-positive RBC exposure and subsequent anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. Since February 2014, GP. Mur antigen-negative RBCs identified by reaction with anti-'Mi a '-positive serum were selected for blood recipients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The transfusion reactions between January 2013 and January 2014 were compared with those that occurred between February 2014 and July 2015. The transfusion reaction rate was significantly higher in anti-'Mi a '-positive blood recipients compared to total subjects receiving an RBC transfusion before GP. Mur-negative donor RBC selection. After antigen-negative RBC selection, the transfusion reaction frequency in subjects with anti-'Mi a ' became similar to total blood recipients. IgG form anti-'Mi a ' antibodies were present in all cases of probable anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. The time required for anti-'Mi a ' boosting after transfusion was around 4-21 days. Selection of GP. Mur-negative RBC for transfusion to patients with anti-'Mi a ' records could decrease the rate of transfusion reaction and antibody boosting. This procedure should be incorporated into blood bank routines in areas where anti-'Mi a ' is prevalent. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. [Studies on the factors responsible for low erythrocyte alpha-tocopherol concentrations in patients on maintenance hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K

    1989-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the low erythrocyte (RBC) alpha-tocopherol (TOC) concentrations in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) using in vivo and in vitro experiments. 15 age-matched male controls and HD patients were evaluated. The experimental designs and the results were as follows: 1) Changes in fasting stage; TOC levels of plasma, high density lipoproteins (HDL) and RBC, especially RBC, were lower in HD-patients than in controls. The ratio of RBC to plasma and HDL showed more significant changes between HD-patients and controls. In controls, RBC-TOC was noted to have a positive correlation with HDL-TOC and a negative correlation with non HDL-(plasma--HDL)-TOC, whereas a reverse correlation was observed in HD-patients. 2) In vivo experiments: Each 7 of HD-patients and controls were orally given TOC 600 mg after meal at early morning; the blood was sampled at 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hr. Poor increase of RBC-TOC in HD-patients was observed. In contrast, HDL-TOC was significantly higher at all measurement times than in controls. The change of plasma-TOC was similar to that of non HDL-TOC. 3) In vitro experiment:RBC from patients or controls showing various concentrations of RBC-TOC and plasma from controls were incubated at 37 degrees C or 4 degrees C. The inactivated plasma from controls was prepared by incubation at 56 degrees C, 30 min or by supplement of 2 mM parachloromerucuric benzonic sulfonate. The ratio of RBC and plasma was at 2:3 close to physiological conditions. No difference between patient and control RBCs as an acceptor of TOC and no appreciable transfer of TOC between RBC to plasma at 4 degrees C were observed. When RBC-TOC was low, transfer volume of TOC from plasma to RBC was increased and TOC was supplied from mainly non HDL fractions; in contrast, when it was high, the main source of TOC was due to the transfer from HDL fractions which was reduced when lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) reaction was inhibited

  12. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Moussas, Panagiotis; Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    The mass concentration and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured in 40 rooms (mainly offices or mixed office-lab rooms, and photocopying places) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. A total of 27 major, minor and trace elements were determined by ED-XRF analysis. The PM 2.5/PM 10 concentration ratios averaged 0.8±0.2, while the corresponding elemental ratios ranged between 0.4±0.2 and 0.9±0.2. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were significantly higher (by 70% and 50%, respectively) in the smokers' rooms compared to the non-smokers' places. The total elemental concentrations were also higher in the smokers' rooms (11.5 vs 8.2 μg m -3 for PM 2.5, and 10.3 vs 7.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5-10). Fine particle concentrations (PM 2.5) were found to be quite proportional to smoking strength. On the contrary, the two environments exhibited similar coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle fractions not related to the number of cigarettes smoked. A slight decrease of particle concentrations with increasing the floor level was also observed, particularly for PM 2.5, suggesting that high-level floors are less impacted by near ground-level sources like traffic emissions. Finally, the removal efficiency of air purification systems was evaluated.

  13. Reflexiones sobre la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC: la experiencia de un programa de RBC en Bolivia Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR: the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urko Díaz-Aristizabal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC es una estrategia de desarrollo comunitario avalada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO, que persigue la rehabilitación, la igualdad de oportunidades y la integración social de las Personas con Discapacidad (PD en sus entornos. Con este objetivo promueve la colaboración entre las PD, sus familias y los diferentes actores de la comunidad involucrados, así como el liderazgo comunitario y la participación de las PD mediante el impulso de la colaboración multisectorial. Este artículo expone los antecedentes históricos y las características fundamentales de la estrategia de RBC a partir de un programa llevado a cabo por una fundación del departamento de Cochabamba (Bolivia, para después incidir en algunos aspectos referentes al contexto sociocultural, que especialmente en situaciones de interculturalidad, pueden determinar que un programa de RBC tenga éxito o esté abocado al fracaso.Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO, the International Labor Office (ILO and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO. It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio

  14. Effect of mass concentration of composite phase change material CA-DE on HCFC-141b hydrate induction time and system stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Sun, Zhigao; Liu, Chenggang; Zhu, Minggui

    2018-03-01

    HCFC-141b hydrate is a new type of environment-friendly cold storage medium which may be adopted to balance energy supply and demand, achieve peak load shifting and energy saving, wherein the hydrate induction time and system stability are key factors to promote and realize its application in industrial practice. Based on step cooling curve measurement, two kinds of aliphatic hydrocarbon organics, n-capric acid (CA) and lauryl alcohol (DE), were selected to form composite phase change material and to promote the generation of HCFC-141b hydrate. Five kinds of CA-DE mass concentration were chosen to compare the induction time and hydration system stability. In order to accelerate temperature reduction rate, the metal Cu with high heat conductivity performance was adopted to conduct out the heat generated during phase change. Instability index was introduced to appraise system stability. Experimental results show that phase change temperature and sub-cooling degree of CA-DE is 11.1°C and 3.0°C respectively, which means it is a preferable medium for HCFC-141b hydrate formation. For the experimental hydration systems, segmented emulsification is achieved by special titration manner to avoid rapid layering under static condition. Induction time can achieve up to 23.3min with the densest HCFC-141b hydrate and the lowest instability index, wherein CA-DE mass concentration is 3%.

  15. Determination of total concentration of chemically labeled metabolites as a means of metabolome sample normalization and sample loading optimization in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiman; Li, Liang

    2012-12-18

    For mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics, it is important to use the same amount of starting materials from each sample to compare the metabolome changes in two or more comparative samples. Unfortunately, for biological samples, the total amount or concentration of metabolites is difficult to determine. In this work, we report a general approach of determining the total concentration of metabolites based on the use of chemical labeling to attach a UV absorbent to the metabolites to be analyzed, followed by rapid step-gradient liquid chromatography (LC) UV detection of the labeled metabolites. It is shown that quantification of the total labeled analytes in a biological sample facilitates the preparation of an appropriate amount of starting materials for MS analysis as well as the optimization of the sample loading amount to a mass spectrometer for achieving optimal detectability. As an example, dansylation chemistry was used to label the amine- and phenol-containing metabolites in human urine samples. LC-UV quantification of the labeled metabolites could be optimally performed at the detection wavelength of 338 nm. A calibration curve established from the analysis of a mixture of 17 labeled amino acid standards was found to have the same slope as that from the analysis of the labeled urinary metabolites, suggesting that the labeled amino acid standard calibration curve could be used to determine the total concentration of the labeled urinary metabolites. A workflow incorporating this LC-UV metabolite quantification strategy was then developed in which all individual urine samples were first labeled with (12)C-dansylation and the concentration of each sample was determined by LC-UV. The volumes of urine samples taken for producing the pooled urine standard were adjusted to ensure an equal amount of labeled urine metabolites from each sample was used for the pooling. The pooled urine standard was then labeled with (13)C-dansylation. Equal amounts of the (12)C

  16. Standard test method for determination of uranium or plutonium isotopic composition or concentration by the total evaporation method using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This method describes the determination of the isotopic composition and/or the concentration of uranium and plutonium as nitrate solutions by the thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) total evaporation method. Purified uranium or plutonium nitrate solutions are loaded onto a degassed metal filament and placed in the mass spectrometer. Under computer control, ion currents are generated by heating of the filament(s). The ion beams are continually measured until the sample is exhausted. The measured ion currents are integrated over the course of the run, and normalized to a reference isotope ion current to yield isotopic ratios. 1.2 In principle, the total evaporation method should yield isotopic ratios that do not require mass bias correction. In practice, some samples may require this bias correction. When compared to the conventional TIMS method, the total evaporation method is approximately two times faster, improves precision from two to four fold, and utilizes smaller sample sizes. 1.3 The tot...

  17. Alterations in vitamin D metabolite, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations in sclerostin-deficient mice permit the maintenance of a high bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Zachary C; Craig, Theodore A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-04-01

    Humans with mutations of the sclerostin (SOST) gene, and knockout animals in which the Sost gene has been experimentally deleted, exhibit an increase in bone mass. We review the mechanisms by which Sost knockout mice are able to accrete increased amounts of calcium and phosphorus required for the maintenance of a high bone mass. Recently published information from our laboratory, shows that bone mass is increased in Sost-deficient mice through an increase in osteoblast and a decrease in osteoclast activity, which is mediated by activation of β-catenin and an increase in prostacyclin synthesis in osteocytes and osteoblasts. The increases in calcium and phosphorus retention required for enhanced bone mineral accretion are brought about by changes in the vitamin D endocrine system, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). Thus, in Sost knockout mice, concentrations of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) are increased and concentrations of FGF-23 are decreased thereby allowing a positive calcium and phosphorus balance. Additionally, in the absence of Sost expression, urinary calcium is decreased, either through a direct effect of sclerostin on renal calcium handling, or through its effect on the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. Adaptations in vitamin D, PTH and FGF-23 physiology occur in the absence of sclerostin expression and mediate increased calcium and phosphorus retention required for the increase in bone mineralization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concentrations and dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil, determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Jia, Chunhong; Zhao, Ercheng; Chen, Li; Yu, Pingzhong; Jing, Junjie; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-03-01

    A new combined difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad fungicide formulation, as an 11.7 % suspension concentrate (SC), has been introduced as part of a resistance management strategy. The dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad applied to apples and the residues remaining in the apples were determined. The 11.7 % SC was sprayed onto apple trees and soil in Beijing, Shandong, and Anhui provinces, China, at an application rate of 118 g a.i. ha(-1), then the dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad was monitored. The residual difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad concentrations were determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The difenoconazole half-lives in apples and soil were 6.2-9.5 and 21.0-27.7 days, respectively. The fluxapyroxad half-lives in apples and soil were 9.4-12.6 and 10.3-36.5 days, respectively. Difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil after the 11.7 % SC had been sprayed twice and three times, with 10 days between applications, at 78 and 118 g a.i. ha(-1) were measured. Representative apple and soil samples were collected after the last treatment, at preharvest intervals of 14, 21, and 28 days. The difenoconazole residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.052 and 0.002-0.298 mg kg(-1), respectively. The fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.093 and 0.008-1.219 mg kg(-1), respectively. The difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples were lower than the maximum residue limits (0.5 and 0.8 mg kg(-1), respectively). An application rate of 78 g a.i. ha(-1) is therefore recommended to ensure that treated apples can be considered safe for humans to consume.

  19. Improved Technique for the Determination of Uranium Minor Isotopes Concentrations in Microparticles by Using Secondary Ion Mass-Spectrometer in Multicollection Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, M.; Elantyev, I.; Stebelkov, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional method of the analysis implies simultaneous measuring of secondary ion currents of isotopes 234U + , 235U + , 238U + , ions with mass 236 amu (236U + and 235UH + ) and hydride ions 238UH + by using mass-spectrometer Cameca IMS1280 in multicollection mode. Calculating of uranium isotopic composition is performed using the results of 40 successive measurements of those currents (cycles). Duration of each measurement is 8 s. Small amounts of uranium minor isotopes are limitation for precise determination of their concentrations. To prevent the damage of the secondary ions detector the intensity of ion current should be no more than 5 x 10 5 s -1 . This limitation does not allow setting a higher primary ion current for the increasing of minor uranium isotopes ions emission because of the signal of ions 238U + gets too high. New technique is developed to improve the accuracy of determination of uranium minor isotopes concentrations. Process of measurement is divided on two steps. First step is a measurement of ion currents during 20 cycles by five detectors. The second step implies the elimination of ions 238U + hitting to the detector and 10 times increasing of primary ion current. The ratio 235U/238U is calculated from the first step results, so uncertainty of determination of this value is 1.4 times bigger than with duration of 40 cycles of the measurement. The ratios 234U/235U and 236U/235U are calculated during the second step. This technique allows to determine content of 234U and 236U with 3 and 5 times less uncertainties respectively, but with different degree of the sputtering particles. Moreover the duration of each cycle was set less (1 second) to use data more efficient. The technique accordingly with every second counting provides uncertainty of determination 236U concentration 4 times less than traditional method at the same degree of sputtering particles. (author)

  20. Role of Tc-99m labeled RBC SPECT in haemangioma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddadi, Fariba; Kamali, Hosein; Faghihi, Amir Hosein; Shokouhizadeh, Reza

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Haemangioma of the liver must be included in the differential diagnosis of all focal hepatic lesions. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques continue to play a unique role in the evaluation of hepatic masses. Role of planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic haemangioma is already established although it has limitations, which can be significantly improved by means of SPECT studies. A prospective study was carried out to evaluate Tc-99m red blood cell SPECT imaging in liver haemangioma and compare it with CT findings. Radionuclide liver scan, both planar and SPECT was done in 10 patients who had 16 liver masses diagnosed as haemangiomas on their CT. The acquisition protocol was an immediate perfusion phase study in an anterior view followed by SPECT of the liver at 2 hours. A perfusion/blood-pool mismatch is the hallmark finding for hepatic haemangioma. The smallest haemangioma detected with isotope scan was of 1.55 cm size. Planar scintigraphy showed a sensitivity of 82% versus 94.2% for SPECT. It was mostly due to missing of lesions less than 2 cm in size on planar scans. For cavernous haemangioma (n=4) the specificity and positive predictive value was 100%. We believe that hepatic scintigraphy still continues to play an important role in the diagnosis of hepatic masses especially for liver haemangioma where Tc-99m labeled red blood cell scanning has considerably high specificity. However, planar imaging has poor sensitivity especially for the identification of smaller lesions. Hepatic scintigraphy is non-invasive, easy to perform and inexpensive. In our opinion, when a suspicion of hepatic haemangioma is raised on CT or other imaging modalities, it needs to be confirmed by radionuclide blood-pool study. (author)

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of "1"4C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and "1"4C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the "1"4C concentration in "1"4C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of "1"4C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a "1"4C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. "1"4C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean "1"4C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of "1"4C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, "1"4C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. "1"4C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; "1"4C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and {sup 14}C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko, E-mail: tteiko@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the {sup 14}C concentration in {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of {sup 14}C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a {sup 14}C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. {sup 14}C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean {sup 14}C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of {sup 14}C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, {sup 14}C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. {sup 14}C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; {sup 14}C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  4. Analysis of RBC-microparticles in stored whole blood bags - a promising marker to detect blood doping in sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sven Christian; Jaganjac, Morana; Al-Thani, Amna Mohamed; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Raynaud, Christophe Michel; Al-Jaber, Hind; Al-Menhali, Afnan Saleh; Merenkov, Zeyed Ahmad; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Latiff, Aishah; Georgakopoulos, Costas

    2017-11-01

    Blood doping in sports is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To find a possible biomarker for the detection of blood doping, we investigated the changes in blood stored in CPDA-1 blood bags of eight healthy subjects who donated one unit of blood. Aliquots were taken on days 0, 14, and 35. Platelet-free plasma was prepared and stored at -80°C until analysis on a flow cytometer dedicated for the analysis of microparticles (MPs). Changes in the number of red blood cell (RBC) -MPs were highly significant (p doping control but confirmation by a transfusion study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Routine determination of sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Gates, Paul M.; Werner, S.L.; Battaglin, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), imidazolinone (IMI), and sulfonamide (SA) herbicides are new classes of low-application-rate herbicides increasingly used by farmers. Some of these herbicides affect both weed and crop species at low dosages and must be carefully used. Less is known about the effect of these compounds on non-crop plant species, but a concentration of 100 ng/l in water has been proposed as the threshold for possible plant toxicity for most of these herbicides. Hence, analytical methods must be capable of detecting SUs, IMIs, and SAs at concentrations less than 100 ng/l in ambient water samples. The authors developed a two-cartridge, solid-phase extraction method for isolating 12 SU, 3 IMI, and 1 SA herbicides by using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) to identify and quantify these herbicides to 10 ng/l. This method was used to analyze 196 surface- and ground-water samples collected from May to August 1998 throughout the Midwestern United States, and more than 100 quality-assurance and quality-control samples. During the 16 weeks of the study, the HPLC/ESI-MS maintained excellent calibration linearity across the calibration range from 5 to 500 ng/l, with correlation coefficients of 0.9975 or greater. Continuing calibration verification standards at 100-ng/l concentration were analyzed throughout the study, and the average measured concentrations for individual herbicides ranged from 93 to 100 ng/l. Recovery of herbicides from 27 reagent-water samples spiked at 50 and 100 ng/l ranged from 39 to 92%, and averaged 73%. The standard deviation of recoveries ranged from 14 to 26%, and averaged 20%. This variability reflects multiple instruments, operators, and the use of automated and manual sample preparation. Spiked environmental water samples had similar recoveries, although for some herbicides, the sample matrix enhanced recoveries by as much as 200% greater than the spiked concentration. This matrix

  6. Indoor and outdoor sources of size-resolved mass concentration of particulate matter in a school gym-implications for exposure of exercising children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Safránek, Jiří; Hytychová, Adéla

    2011-05-01

    It has been noticed many times that schools are buildings with high levels of particulate matter concentrations. Several authors documented that concentrations of particulate matter in indoor school microenvironments exceed limits recommended by WHO namely when school buildings are situated near major roads with high traffic densities. In addition, exercise under conditions of high particulate concentrations may increase the adverse health effects, as the total particle deposition increases in proportion to minute ventilation, and the deposition fraction nearly doubles from rest to intense exercise. Mass concentrations of size-segregated aerosol were measured simultaneously in an elementary school gym and an adjacent outdoor site in the central part of Prague by two pairs of collocated aerosol monitors-a fast responding photometer DusTrak and a five stage cascade impactor. To encompass seasonal and annual differences, 89 days of measurements were performed during ten campaigns between 2005 and 2009. The average (all campaigns) outdoor concentration of PM(2.5) (28.3 μg m(-3)) measured by the cascade impactors was higher than the indoor value (22.3 μg m(-3)) and the corresponding average from the nearest fixed site monitor (23.6 μg m(-3)). Indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the WHO recommended 24-h limit in 42% and 49% of the days measured, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between corresponding outdoor and indoor aerosol sizes increased with decreasing aerodynamic diameter of the collected particles (r = 0.32-0.87), suggesting a higher infiltration rate of fine and quasi-ultrafine particles. Principal component analysis revealed five factors explaining more than 82% of the data variability. The first two factors reflected a close association between outdoor and indoor fine and quasi-ultrafine particles confirming the hypothesis of high infiltration rate of particles from outdoors. The third factor indicated that human

  7. Noninvasive evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding: comparison between contrast-enhanced MDCT and 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Stephen I; Ohki, Stephen K; Stein, Barry; Zambuto, Domenic A; Rosenberg, Ronald J; Choi, Jenny J; Tubbs, Daniel S

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare contrast-enhanced MDCT and (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scanning for the evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Over 17 months, 55 patients (32 men, 23 women; age range, 21-92 years) were evaluated prospectively with contrast-enhanced MDCT using 100 mL of iopromide 300 mg I/mL. Technetium-99m-labeled RBC scans were obtained on 41 of 55 patients and select patients underwent angiography for attempted embolization. Each imaging technique was reviewed in a blinded fashion for sensitivity for detection of active bleeding as well as the active lower gastrointestinal bleeding location. Findings were positive on both examinations in eight patients and negative on both examinations in 20 patients. Findings were positive on contrast-enhanced MDCT and negative on (99m)Tc-labeled RBC in two patients; findings were negative on contrast-enhanced MDCT and positive on (99m)Tc-labeled RBC in 11 patients. Statistics showed significant disagreement, with simple agreement = 68.3%, kappa = 0.341, and p = 0.014. Sixteen of 60 (26.7%) contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were positive prospectively, with all accurately localizing the site of bleeding and identification of the underlying lesion in eight of 16 (50%). Nineteen of 41 (46.3%) (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scans were positive. Eighteen of 41 matched patients went on to angiography. In four of these 18 (22.2%) patients, the site of bleeding was confirmed by angiography, but in 14 of 18 (77.8%), the findings were negative. Contrast-enhanced MDCT and (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scanning show significant disagreement for evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Contrast-enhanced MDCT appears effective for detection and localization in cases of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding in which hemorrhage is active at the time of CT.

  8. RBC acetyl cholinesterase: A poor man′s early diagnostic biomarker for familial alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s disease dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmatrao Saluba Bawaskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of red blood cell acetyl cholinesterase (AChE in a familial Alzheimer′s diseases (AD Parkinson′s disease dementia (PDD and their first generation. Setting: General hospital, Mahad district, Raigad. Patients and Methods: Clinically diagnosed patients of AD and PDD and their asymptomatic relatives. Their blood was collected in EDTA tube and transferred to laboratory at Mumbai. Result: Median red blood cell (RBC cholinesterase levels amongst PDD, their first generation asymptomatic relatives, familial AD, asymptomatic relatives of AD, healthy controls, farmers exposed to pesticides (positive control and other neurological condition without dementia (hypertension with TIA 1, sub-dural hematoma 2, hypothyroid 1, non-familial unilateral parkinsonism without dementia 3, writers cramps 2, hyponitremia 1 and cerebral palsy with non-fluent aphasia 1. Median values of RBC AChE were 19086.78 U/L, 15666.05 U/L, 9013.11 U/L, 7806.19 U/L, 14334.57 U/L, 9785.05 U/L and 13162.60 U/L, respectively. As compared to controls, RBC AChE levels were statistically significant among PDD (P = 0.004 and significantly lowered among familial AD patients (P = 0.010, relatives of patients (P = 0.010. Interpretations: Below the normal RBC AChE level is a potential biomarker in asymptomatic relatives of familial AD patients. RBC AChE is raised than normal level in patients suffering from PDD, where AChE inhibitors are helpful. However, RBC AChE level below the normal where AChE inhibitor may not be effective.

  9. A novel ion-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry method to measure concentrations and cycling rates of carbohydrates and amino sugars in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horňák, Karel; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2014-10-24

    The concentrations of free neutral carbohydrates and amino sugars were determined in freshwater samples of distinct matrix complexity, including meso-, eu- and dystrophic lakes and ponds, using high-performance ion-exclusion chromatography (HPIEC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). In contrast to other methods, our approach allowed the quantification of free neutral carbohydrates and amino sugars at low nM concentrations without derivatization, de-salting or pre-concentration. New sample preparation procedures were applied prior to injection employing syringe and hollow fiber filtration. Analytes were separated on a strong cation exchange resin under 100% aqueous conditions using 0.1% formic acid as a mobile phase. To minimize background noise in MS, analytes were detected in a multiple reaction monitoring scan mode with double ion filtering. Detection limits of carbohydrates and amino sugars ranged between 0.2 and 2nM at a signal-to-noise ratio >5. Error ranged between 1 and 12% at 0.5-500nM levels. Using a stable isotope dilution approach, both the utilization and recycling of glucose in Lake Zurich was observed. In contrast, N-acetyl-glucosamine was equally rapidly consumed but there was no visible de novo production. The simple and rapid sample preparation makes our protocol suitable for routine analyses of organic compounds in freshwater samples. Application of stable isotope tracers along with accurate measures of carbohydrate and amino sugar concentrations enables novel insights into the compound in situ dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Concentrations of Semivolatile Organic Compounds Associated with African Dust Air Masses in Mali, Cape Verde, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mohammed, Azad; Simonich, Staci Massey

    2011-01-01

    Every year, billions of tons of fine particles are eroded from the surface of the Sahara Desert and the Sahel of West Africa, lifted into the atmosphere by convective storms, and transported thousands of kilometers downwind. Most of the dust is carried west to the Americas and the Caribbean in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Dust air masses predominately impact northern South America during the Northern Hemisphere winter and the Caribbean and Southeastern United States in summer. Dust concentrations vary considerably temporally and spatially. In a dust source region (Mali), concentrations range from background levels of 575 micrograms per cubic meter (mu/u g per m3) to 13,000 mu/u g per m3 when visibility degrades to a few meters (Gillies and others, 1996). In the Caribbean, concentrations of 200 to 600 mu/u g per m3 in the mid-Atlantic and Barbados (Prospero and others, 1981; Talbot and others, 1986), 3 to 20 mu/u g per m3 in the Caribbean (Prospero and Nees, 1986; Perry and others, 1997); and >100 mu/u g per m3 in the Virgin Islands (this dataset) have been reported during African dust conditions. Mean dust particle size decreases as the SAL traverses from West Africa to the Caribbean and Americas as a result of gravitational settling. Mean particle size reaching the Caribbean is <1 micrometer (mu/u m) (Perry and others, 1997), and even finer particles are carried into Central America, the Southeastern United States, and maritime Canada. Particles less than 2.5 mu/u m diameter (termed PM2.5) can be inhaled deeply into human lungs. A large body of literature has shown that increased PM2.5 concentrations are linked to increased cardiovascular/respiratory morbidity and mortality (for example, Dockery and others, 1993; Penn and others, 2005).

  11. Investigating the influence of standard staining procedures on the copper distribution and concentration in Wilson's disease liver samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmöller, Oliver; Aichler, Michaela; Schwamborn, Kristina; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Sperling, Michael; Walch, Axel; Karst, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    The influence of rhodanine and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining on the copper distribution and concentration in liver needle biopsy samples originating from patients with Wilson's disease (WD), a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder of the copper metabolism, is investigated. In contemporary diagnostic of WD, rhodanine staining is used for histopathology, since rhodanine and copper are forming a red to orange-red complex, which can be recognized in the liver tissue using a microscope. In this paper, a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method is applied for the analysis of eight different WD liver samples. Apart from a spatially resolved elemental detection as qualitative information, this LA-ICP-MS method offers also quantitative information by external calibration with matrix-matched gelatine standards. The sample set of this work included an unstained and a rhodanine stained section of each WD liver sample. While unstained sections of WD liver samples showed very distinct structures of the copper distribution with high copper concentrations, rhodanine stained sections revealed a blurred copper distribution with significant decreased concentrations in a range from 20 to more than 90%. This implies a copper removal from the liver tissue by complexation during the rhodanine staining. In contrast to this, a further HE stained sample of one WD liver sample did not show a significant decrease in the copper concentration and influence on the copper distribution in comparison to the unstained section. Therefore, HE staining can be combined with the analysis by means of LA-ICP-MS in two successive steps from one thin section of a biopsy specimen. This allows further information to be gained on the elemental distribution by LA-ICP-MS additional to results obtained by histological staining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Using precursor ion scan of 184 with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for concentration normalization in cellular lipidomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsi-Chun; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Yang, Sin-Yu; Wang, San-Yuan; Li, Yu-Liang; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2017-06-08

    Cellular lipidomic studies have been favored approaches in many biomedical research areas. To provide fair comparisons of the studied cells, it is essential to perform normalization of the determined concentration before lipidomic analysis. This study proposed a cellular lipidomic normalization method by measuring the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) contents in cell extracts. To provide efficient analysis of PC and SM in cell extracts, flow injection analysis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-MS/MS) with a precursor ion scan (PIS) of m/z 184 was used, and the parameters affecting the performance of the method were optimized. Good linearity could be observed between the cell extract dilution factor and the reciprocal of the total ion chromatogram (TIC) area in the PIS of m/z 184 within the dilution range of 1- to 16-fold (R 2  = 0.998). The calibration curve could be used for concentration adjustment of the unknown concentration of a cell extract. The intraday and intermediate precisions were below 10%. The accuracy ranged from 93.0% to 105.6%. The performance of the new normalization method was evaluated using different numbers of HCT-116 cells. Sphingosine, ceramide (d18:1/18:0), SM (d18:1/18:0) and PC (16:1/18:0) were selected as the representative test lipid species, and the results showed that the peak areas of each lipid species obtained from different cell numbers were within a 20% variation after normalization. Finally, the PIS of 184 normalization method was applied to study ischemia-induced neuron injury using oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) on primary neuronal cultured cells. Our results showed that the PIS of 184 normalization method is an efficient and effective approach for concentration normalization in cellular lipidomic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics of Agave Sap (Agave salmiana after Its Inoculation with Microorganisms Isolated from Agave Sap Concentrate Selected to Enhance Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Figueroa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been correlated with the reduction of cancer cell growth and the apoptotic effect of agave sap concentrate. Empirical observations of this artisanal Mexican food have shown that fermentation occurs after agave sap is concentrated, but little is known about the microorganisms that survive after cooking, or their effects on saponins and other metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in metabolites found in agave (A. salmiana sap after its fermentation with microorganisms isolated from agave sap concentrate, and demonstrate its potential use to enhance anticancer activity. Microorganisms were isolated by dilution plating and identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Isolates were used to ferment agave sap, and their corresponding butanolic extracts were compared with those that enhanced the cytotoxic activity on colon (Caco-2 and liver (Hep-G2 cancer cells. Metabolite changes were investigated by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Among 69 isolated microorganisms, the actinomycetes Arthrobacter globiformis and Gordonia sp. were used to analyze the metabolites, along with bioactivity changes. From the 939 ions that were mainly responsible for variation among fermented samples at 48 h, 96 h, and 192 h, four were correlated to anticancer activity. It was shown that magueyoside B, a kammogenin glycoside, was found at higher intensities in the samples fermented with Gordonia sp. that reduced Hep-G2 viability better than controls. These findings showed that microorganisms from agave sap concentrate change agave sap metabolites such as saponins. Butanolic extracts obtained after agave sap fermentation with Arthrobacter globiformis or Gordonia sp. increased the cancer cell growth inhibitory effect on colon or liver cancer cells, respectively.

  14. Determination of Zidovudine Triphosphate Intracellular Concentrations in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Eva; Rosario, Osvaldo; Santana, Jorge; García, Hermes; Sommadossi, Jean-Pierre; Rodriguez, Jose F.

    1999-01-01

    Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) used against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) need to be activated intracellularly to their triphosphate moiety to inhibit HIV replication. Intracellular concentrations of these NRTI triphosphates, especially zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP), are relatively low (low numbers of femtomoles per 106 cells) in HIV-infected patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recently, several methods have used either high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with radioimmunoassay to obtain in vivo measurements of ZDV-TP. The limit of detection (LOD) by these methods ranged from 20 to 200 fmol/106 cells. In this report, we describe the development of a method to determine intracellular ZDV-TP concentrations in HIV-infected patients using SPE and HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry for analysis. The LOD by this method is 4.0 fmol/106 cells with a linear concentration range of at least 4 orders of magnitude from 4.0 to 10,000 fmol/106 cells. In hispanic HIV-infected patients, ZDV-TP was detectable even when the sampling time after drug administration was 15 h. Intracellular ZDV-TP concentrations in these patients ranged from 41 to 193 fmol/106 cells. The low LOD obtained with this method will provide the opportunity for further in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of intracellular ZDV-TP in different HIV-infected populations. Furthermore, this methodology could be used to perform simultaneous detection of two or more NRTIs, such as ZDV-TP and lamivudine triphosphate. PMID:10582890

  15. GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data, VIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB), MODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night, NWS surface meteorological data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data descriptions are provided at the following urls: GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data - https://aqs.epa.gov/aqsweb/documents/data_mart_welcome.html...

  16. Implementation of gas concentration measurement systems using mass spectrometry in containment thermal-hydraulics test facilities: different approaches for calibration and measurement with steam/air/helium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auban, O.; Malet, J.; Brun, P.; Brinster, J.; Quillico, J. J.; Studer, E.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic test facilities are used to investigate various containment phenomena such as, for example, mixing and stratification of gases or steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable. Experiments are also required for validation of codes possessing capabilities for modelling such three-dimensional effects. The need for advanced instrumentation allowing to measure gas concentration in such conditions (typically: 100-180 .deg. C; 1-10 bar) and to get sufficiently refined information about spatial distribution of the different gas species has become apparent. This paper deals with the implementation of gas analysis systems using some commercial Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers (QMS) that have been recently added to the basic instrumentation in three thermal-hydraulics test facilities namely MISTRA (CEA, France), TOSQAN (IRSN, France) and PANDA (PSI, Switzerland). In recent years, QMS have increasingly been selected for various applications because of attractive metrological characteristics (sensibility, span of concentration range, response time, stability, etc.), relatively compact size and low cost. Although commercial QMS are sold as 'turnkey' systems, these instruments are delicate to bring into operation. As QMS are not absolute instruments, reliable calibration procedures are required for quantitative measurements. A mass spectrometer can be regarded as an ionisation gauge with subsequent separation system for the different ion species. The calculation of gas concentrations considers the partial pressure of a particular gas species to be proportional to the ion current it generates. Anyway, one must know the QMS sensitivity to the gases of interest and the only practical method is to use calibration gases. Calibration must be carried out using mixtures whose compositions are close to any possible sample compositions and the procedure selected should duplicate as closely as possible the measurement conditions established during the real experiment

  17. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  18. Determination of Low Concentrations of Acetochlor in Water by Automated Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography with Mass-Selective Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, C.E.; Stewart, J.T.; Sandstrom, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method for determining acetochlor in environmental water samples was developed. The method involves automated extraction of the herbicide from a filtered 1 L water sample through a C18 solid-phase extraction column, elution from the column with hexane-isopropyl alcohol (3 + 1), and concentration of the extract with nitrogen gas. The herbicide is quantitated by capillary/column GC/MS with selected-ion monitoring of 3 characteristic ions. The single-operator method detection limit for reagent water samples is 0.0015 ??g/L. Mean recoveries ranged from about 92 to 115% for 3 water matrixes fortified at 0.05 and 0.5 ??g/L. Average single-operator precision, over the course of 1 week, was better than 5%.

  19. Estimating representative background PM2.5 concentration in heavily polluted areas using baseline separation technique and chemical mass balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yanling; Mao, Jian; Ma, Zhenxing; Cong, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xian; Tian, Shasha; Azzi, Merched; Chen, Li; Bai, Zhipeng

    2018-02-01

    The determination of background concentration of PM2.5 is important to understand the contribution of local emission sources to total PM2.5 concentration. The purpose of this study was to exam the performance of baseline separation techniques to estimate PM2.5 background concentration. Five separation methods, which included recursive digital filters (Lyne-Hollick, one-parameter algorithm, and Boughton two-parameter algorithm), sliding interval and smoothed minima, were applied to one-year PM2.5 time-series data in two heavily polluted cities, Tianjin and Jinan. To obtain the proper filter parameters and recession constants for the separation techniques, we conducted regression analysis at a background site during the emission reduction period enforced by the Government for the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in Beijing. Background concentrations in Tianjin and Jinan were then estimated by applying the determined filter parameters and recession constants. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was also applied to ascertain the effectiveness of the new approach. Our results showed that the contribution of background PM concentration to ambient pollution was at a comparable level to the contribution obtained from the previous study. The best performance was achieved using the Boughton two-parameter algorithm. The background concentrations were estimated at (27 ± 2) μg/m3 for the whole year, (34 ± 4) μg/m3 for the heating period (winter), (21 ± 2) μg/m3 for the non-heating period (summer), and (25 ± 2) μg/m3 for the sandstorm period in Tianjin. The corresponding values in Jinan were (30 ± 3) μg/m3, (40 ± 4) μg/m3, (24 ± 5) μg/m3, and (26 ± 2) μg/m3, respectively. The study revealed that these baseline separation techniques are valid for estimating levels of PM2.5 air pollution, and that our proposed method has great potential for estimating the background level of other air pollutants.

  20. Evaluation of cannabinoids concentration and stability in standardized preparations of cannabis tea and cannabis oil by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Roberta; Marchei, Emilia; Salvatore, Francesco; Guandalini, Luca; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Pichini, Simona

    2017-08-28

    Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting. The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone. The Italian National Institute of Health sought to establish conditions and indications on how to correctly use nationally produced cannabis to guarantee therapeutic continuity in individuals treated with medical cannabis. The evaluation of cannabinoids concentration and stability in standardized preparations of cannabis tea and cannabis oil was conducted using an easy and fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay. Extraction efficiency of oil was significantly higher than that of water with respect to the different cannabinoids. This was especially observed in the case of the pharmacologically active THC, CBD and their acidic precursors. Fifteen minutes boiling was sufficient to achieve the highest concentrations of cannabinoids in the cannabis tea solutions. At ambient temperature, a significant THC and CBD decrease to 50% or less of the initial concentration was observed over 3 and 7 days, respectively. When refrigerated at 4 °C, similar decreasing profiles were observed for the two compounds. The cannabinoids profile in cannabis oil obtained after pre-heating the flowering tops at 145 °C for 30 min in a static oven resulted in a complete decarboxylation of cannabinoid acids CBDA and THCA-A. Nevertheless, it was apparent that heat not only decarboxylated acidic compounds, but also significantly increased the final concentrations of cannabinoids in oil. The stability of cannabinoids in oil samples was higher than that in tea samples since the maximum decrease (72% of initial concentration) was observed in THC coming from unheated flowering

  1. On-line monitoring of benzene air concentrations while driving in traffic by means of isotopic dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, E; Cappellini, L; Moggi, M; Ferrari, S; Fanelli, R

    1996-01-01

    There is no shortage of information about the average benzene concentrations in urban air, but there is very little about microenvironmental exposure, such as in-vehicle concentrations while driving in various traffic conditions, while refuelling, or while in a parking garage. The main reason for this lack of data is that no analytical instrumentation has been available to measure on-line trace amounts of benzene in such situations. We have recently proposed a highly accurate, high-speed cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system for monitoring benzene concentrations in air. Accuracy of the analytical data is achieved by enrichment of the air sample before trapping, with a stable isotope permeation tube system. The same principles have been applied to a new instrument, specifically designed for operation on an electric vehicle (Ducato Elettra, Fiat). The zero emission vehicle and the fully transportable, battery-operated GC/MS system provide a unique possibility of monitoring benzene exposure in real everyday situations such as while driving, refuelling, or repairing a car. All power consumptions have been reduced so as to achieve a battery-operated GC/MS system. Liquid nitrogen cryofocusing has been replaced by a packed, inductively heated, graphitized charcoal microtrap. The instrument has been mounted on shock absorbers and installed in the van. The whole system has been tested in both fixed and mobile conditions. The maximum monitoring period without external power supply is 6 h. The full analytical cycle is 4 min, allowing close to real-time monitoring, and the minimum detectable level is 1 microgram/m3 for benzene. In-vehicle monitoring showed that, when recirculation was off and ventilation on, i.e., air from outside the vehicle was blown inside, concentrations varied widely in different driving conditions: moving from a parking lot into normal traffic on an urban traffic condition roadway yielded an increase in benzene concentration

  2. Study of RBC Efficiency in Aniline Removal by Increasing Contactor Specific Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Mousavi Aliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aniline is a first type amino aromatic compound and has various applications in different pharmaceutical, synthetic dye, plastic, and petrochemical industries. It is poisonous and its discharge into the environment causes serious hazards that warrant it removal by an efficient treatment process.  In this study, the efficiency of rotating biological contactors in aniline removal was investigated using four 3-liter parallel systems (in two series. Two reactors in the first series had 27 disks. The second series had 14 discs with packings in each reactor with the same specific surfaces as compared to the first system.Aniline concentrations from 100 to 1200 mg/L and hydraulic loading rates from 1.57 to 6.28 L/m2.d were used throughout the study period in two treatments. The effect of disc rotation speed on system efficiency was also investigated. The results indicated that COD removal efficiency decreased with increasing hydraulic loading rate but increased with increasing disc speed from 5 to 15 rpm. The best removal efficiencies of 88 and 86 percent for RBCI and RBCII, respectively, were obtained for an aniline concentration of 400 mg/L, a hydraulic loading rate of 1.57 L/m2.d, and a disc speed of 15 rpm. Based on the results, although both systems yield almost equal efficiencies, the start-up period was shorter in RBCII with a clearer effluent due to the lower quantity of suspended microorganisms in the reactor than that in RBCI. Use of packing may decrease energy consumption for disc rotation due to the overall weight reduction of the system.

  3. The bone mass density in men aged over 50 and its relation to the concentration of free and total testosterone in the blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purzycka-Jazdon, A.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Manysiak, S.

    2003-01-01

    As the mean length of life increases, osteoporosis affects a growing number of men and women, thus becoming an important medical and socioeconomic problem in many countries. Pathogenesis and the prevalence of the osteoporosis in women are well established, however, in men, they are still controversial. In this study, the bone mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was determined in 100 healthy men age 50-83, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Also, the total serum and free testosterone was measured. The mean BMD was 123.1I39.3 mg/cm 3 , and the values below a fracture threshold were noted in 39% of subjects. The mean concentration of total and free serum testosterone was 4.3I1.7 ng/ml and 6.2I3.7 pg/ml, respectively. There was a significant (p 3 , respectively). There was no correlation found between total testosterone and BMD. Results indicate that reduced bone mass density in males over 50 is as frequent as recently reported in females. Moreover, sex hormones seem to be related to osteoporosis development in men as well. (author)

  4. Measurements of total lead concentrations and of lead isotope ratios in whole blood by use of inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delves, H.T.; Campbell, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for the accurate and precise determination of total lead and its isotopic composition in whole blood using inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sensitivities of up to 3 x 10 6 counts s -1 for 208 Pb at a total lead concentration of 5 μmol l -1 (1 μg ml -1 ) enabled total blood lead levels to be measured in 4 min per sample, with a detection limit of 0.072 μmol l -1 (15 μg l -1 ). The agreement between ICP-MS and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for this analysis was excellent: ICP-MS 0.996 x AAS -0.0165 μmol l -1 ; r 0.994. Isotope ratio measurements required 15 min to achieve the required accuracy and precision both of which were generally better than 0.5% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb and 208 Pb: 206 Pb isotopic lead ratios. The ICP-MS data for these ratios in ten quality control blood specimens has a mean bias relative to isotope dilution mass spectrometry of -0.412% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb ratios and of +0.055% for the 208 Pb: 206 Pb ratios. This level of accuracy and that of the total blood lead measurements is sufficient to permit application of these ICP-MS methods to environmental studies. (author)

  5. Single-step transesterification with simultaneous concentration and stable isotope analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Robert J; Jahren, A Hope

    2011-05-30

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is increasingly applied to food and metabolic studies for stable isotope analysis (δ(13) C), with the quantification of analyte concentration often obtained via a second alternative method. We describe a rapid direct transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAGs) for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by GC-C-IRMS demonstrating robust simultaneous quantification of amount of analyte (mean r(2) =0.99, accuracy ±2% for 37 FAMEs) and δ(13) C (±0.13‰) in a single analytical run. The maximum FAME yield and optimal δ(13) C values are obtained by derivatizing with 10% (v/v) acetyl chloride in methanol for 1 h, while lower levels of acetyl chloride and shorter reaction times skewed the δ(13) C values by as much as 0.80‰. A Bland-Altman evaluation of the GC-C-IRMS measurements resulted in excellent agreement for pure oils (±0.08‰) and oils extracted from French fries (±0.49‰), demonstrating reliable simultaneous quantification of FAME concentration and δ(13) C values. Thus, we conclude that for studies requiring both the quantification of analyte and δ(13) C data, such as authentication or metabolic flux studies, GC-C-IRMS can be used as the sole analytical method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Sampling strategy and analysis of trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on medieval human bones--the concept of chemical life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund

    2013-07-30

    Medieval human bones have the potential to reveal diet, mobility and treatment of diseases in the past. During the last two decades trace element chemistry has been used extensively in archaeometric investigations revealing such data. Many studies have reported the trace element inventory in only one sample from each skeleton - usually from the femur or a tooth. It cannot a priori be assumed that all bones or teeth in a skeleton will have the same trace element concentrations. Six different bone and teeth samples from each individual were carefully decontaminated by mechanical means. Following dissolution of ca. 20 mg sample in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide the assays were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) with quadropole detection. We describe the precise sampling technique as well as the analytical methods and parameters used for the ICPMS analysis. The places of sampling in the human skeleton did exhibit varying trace element concentrations. Although the samples are contaminated by Fe, Mn and Al from the surrounding soil where the bones have been residing for more than 500 years, other trace elements are intact within the bones. It is shown that the elemental ratios Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca can be used as indicators of provenance. The differences in trace element concentrations can be interpreted as indications of varying diet and provenance as a function of time in the life of the individual - a concept which can be termed chemical life history. A few examples of the results of such analyses are shown, which contains information about provenance and diagenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  8. Taxonomy, phylogenetics and biogeography of Chesneya (Fabaceae), evidenced from data of three sequences, ITS, trnS-trnG, and rbcL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Xiao-Li Hao; Vyacheslav V. Byalt; Alexander P. Sukhorukov; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    Plants of Central Asia have played a significant role in the origin of floras of Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Chesneya, a small leguminous genus occurring in Central Asia, western Asia, and Tibet, is used to establish phylogenetic relationships and discuss the evolutionary and biogeographical history based on sequence data of ITS and trnS-trnG and rbcL.We...

  9. Use of rbcL and trnL-F as a two-locus DNA barcode for identification of NW-European ferns: an ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de G.A.; During, H.J.; Maas, J.W.; Schneider, H.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Although consensus has now been reached on a general two-locus DNA barcode for land plants, the selected combination of markers (rbcL + matK) is not applicable for ferns at the moment. Yet especially for ferns, DNA barcoding is potentially of great value since fern gametophytes—while playing an

  10. Studies on Dasyaceae. 3. Towards a phylogeny of the Dasyaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta), based on comparative rbcL gene sequences and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Y.S D M; van der Wurff, A.W G; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    Phylogenetic analyses of the Dasyaceae based on sequence analysis of the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and 42 morphological characters are presented. Comparative sequence analysis confirms the general view of the Ceramiaceae as a primitive, paraphyletic

  11. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstead, William M [U PENNSYLVANIA; Kiessling, J W [U PENNSYLVANIA; Chen, Xiao - Han [U PENNSYLVANIA; Smith, Douglas H [U PENNSYLVANA; Higazi, Abd Ar [U PENNSYLVANIA; Cines, Douglas B [U PENNSYLVANIA; Bdeir, Khalil [U PENNSYLVANIA; Zaitsev, Sergei [U PENNSYLVANIA; Muzykantov, Vladimir R [U PENNSYLVANIA

    2008-01-01

    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  12. Pre-emptive treatment with fibrinogen concentrate for postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, A J; Edwards, H M; Afshari, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In early postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), a low concentration of fibrinogen is associated with excessive subsequent bleeding and blood transfusion. We hypothesized that pre-emptive treatment with fibrinogen concentrate reduces the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in patients...... and the fibrinogen concentration at inclusion. The primary outcome was RBC transfusion up to 6 weeks postpartum. Secondary outcomes were total blood loss, total amount of blood transfused, occurrence of rebleeding, haemoglobin ... concentrate, thereby significantly increasing fibrinogen concentration compared with placebo by 0.40 g litre(-1) (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.65; P=0.002). Postpartum blood transfusion occurred in 25 (20%) of the fibrinogen group and 26 (22%) of the placebo group (relative risk, 0.95; 95% confidence...

  13. Reductions in red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration during continuous renal replacment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpa; Brugnara, Carlo; Betensky, Rebecca A; Waikar, Sushrut S

    2015-01-07

    Hypophosphatemia is a frequent complication during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), a dialytic technique used to treat AKI in critically ill patients. This study sought to confirm that phosphate depletion during CRRT may decrease red blood cell (RBC) concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), a crucial allosteric effector of hemoglobin's (Hgb's) affinity for oxygen, thereby leading to impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Phosphate mass balance studies were performed in 20 patients with severe AKI through collection of CRRT effluent. RBC concentrations of 2,3-DPG, venous blood gas pH, and oxygen partial pressure required for 50% hemoglobin saturation (P50) were measured at CRRT initiation and days 2, 4, and 7. Similar measurements were obtained on days 0 and 2 in a reference group of 10 postsurgical patients, most of whom did not have AKI. Associations of 2,3-DPG with laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes were examined using mixed-effects and Cox regression models. Mean 2,3-DPG levels decreased from a mean (±SD) of 13.4±3.4 µmol/g Hgb to 11.0±3.1 µmol/g Hgb after 2 days of CRRT (Plevels decreased from 29.7±4.4 mmHg to 26.7±4.0 mmHg (Plevels after 2 days of CRRT were not significantly lower than those in the reference group on day 2. Among patients receiving CRRT, 2,3-DPG decreased by 0.53 µmol/g Hgb per 1 g phosphate removed (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.68 µmol/g Hgb; P<0.001). Greater reductions in 2,3-DPG were associated with higher risk for death (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.88; P=0.01). CRRT-induced phosphate depletion is associated with measurable reductions in RBC 2,3-DPG concentration and a shift in the O2:Hgb affinity curve even in the absence of overt hypophosphatemia. 2,3-DPG reductions may be associated with higher risk for in-hospital death and represent a potentially avoidable complication of CRRT. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Sequencing analysis of ghrelin gene 5' flanking region: relations between the sequence variants, fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations, and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Johanna; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Ukkola, Olavi

    2006-10-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide with several functions linked to energy metabolism. Low ghrelin plasma concentrations are associated with obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas high concentrations reflect states of negative energy balance. Several studies addressing the hormonal and neural regulation of ghrelin gene expression have been carried out, but the role of genetic factors in the regulation of ghrelin plasma levels remains unclear. To elucidate the role of genetic factors in the regulation of ghrelin expression, we screened 1657 nucleotides of the ghrelin gene 5' flanking region (promoter and possible regulatory sites) for new sequential variations from patient samples with low (n = 50) and high (n = 50) fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations (low- and high-ghrelin groups). Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3 of which were rare variants (allelic frequency less than 1%) were found in our population. The genotype distribution patterns of the SNPs did not differ between the study groups, except for SNP-501A>C (P = .039). In addition, the SNP-01A>C was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = .018). This variant was studied further in our large and well-defined Oulu Project Elucidating Risk for Atherosclerosis (OPERA) cohort (n = 1045) by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. No significant association of SNP-501A>C genotypes with fasting ghrelin plasma concentrations was found in the whole OPERA population. However, the association of this SNP with BMI and with waist circumference reached statistical significance in OPERA (P = .047 and .049, respectively), remaining of borderline significance for BMI after adjustments (P = .055). The results indicate that factors other than the 11 SNPs found in this study in the 5' flanking region of ghrelin gene are the main determinants of ghrelin plasma levels. However, SNP-501 A>C genotype distribution seems to be different in subjects having the highest

  15. Stability Performance of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-Phenotyped Kernel Minerals Concentration and Grain Yield in Maize in Different Agro-Climatic Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna, Mallana Gowdra; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Hossain, Firoz; Bhat, Jayant S; Jha, Shailendra K; Rathore, Abhishek; Agrawal, Pawan Kumar; Pattanayak, Arunava; Reddy, Sokka S; Gularia, Satish Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru; Manjaiah, Kanchikeri Math; Gupta, Hari Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency of iron and zinc causes micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger, which severely affects ~25% of global population. Genetic biofortification of maize has emerged as cost effective and sustainable approach in addressing malnourishment of iron and zinc deficiency. Therefore, understanding the genetic variation and stability of kernel micronutrients and grain yield of the maize inbreds is a prerequisite in breeding micronutrient-rich high yielding hybrids to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. We report here, the genetic variability and stability of the kernel micronutrients concentration and grain yield in a set of 50 maize inbred panel selected from the national and the international centres that were raised at six different maize growing regions of India. Phenotyping of kernels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) revealed considerable variability for kernel minerals concentration (iron: 18.88 to 47.65 mg kg(-1); zinc: 5.41 to 30.85 mg kg(-1); manganese: 3.30 to 17.73 mg kg(-1); copper: 0.53 to 5.48 mg kg(-1)) and grain yield (826.6 to 5413 kg ha(-1)). Significant positive correlation was observed between kernel iron and zinc within (r = 0.37 to r = 0.52, p kernel minerals concentration and grain yield. Most of the variation was contributed by genotype main effect for kernel iron (39.6%), manganese (41.34%) and copper (41.12%), and environment main effects for both kernel zinc (40.5%) and grain yield (37.0%). Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot identified several mega environments for kernel minerals and grain yield. Comparison of stability parameters revealed AMMI stability value (ASV) as the better representative of the AMMI stability parameters. Dynamic stability parameter GGE distance (GGED) showed strong and positive correlation with both mean kernel concentrations and grain yield. Inbreds (CM-501, SKV-775, HUZM-185) identified from the present investigation will be useful in

  16. Stability Performance of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-Phenotyped Kernel Minerals Concentration and Grain Yield in Maize in Different Agro-Climatic Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna

    Full Text Available Deficiency of iron and zinc causes micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger, which severely affects ~25% of global population. Genetic biofortification of maize has emerged as cost effective and sustainable approach in addressing malnourishment of iron and zinc deficiency. Therefore, understanding the genetic variation and stability of kernel micronutrients and grain yield of the maize inbreds is a prerequisite in breeding micronutrient-rich high yielding hybrids to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. We report here, the genetic variability and stability of the kernel micronutrients concentration and grain yield in a set of 50 maize inbred panel selected from the national and the international centres that were raised at six different maize growing regions of India. Phenotyping of kernels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS revealed considerable variability for kernel minerals concentration (iron: 18.88 to 47.65 mg kg(-1; zinc: 5.41 to 30.85 mg kg(-1; manganese: 3.30 to 17.73 mg kg(-1; copper: 0.53 to 5.48 mg kg(-1 and grain yield (826.6 to 5413 kg ha(-1. Significant positive correlation was observed between kernel iron and zinc within (r = 0.37 to r = 0.52, p < 0.05 and across locations (r = 0.44, p < 0.01. Variance components of the additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI model showed significant genotype and genotype × environment interaction for kernel minerals concentration and grain yield. Most of the variation was contributed by genotype main effect for kernel iron (39.6%, manganese (41.34% and copper (41.12%, and environment main effects for both kernel zinc (40.5% and grain yield (37.0%. Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE biplot identified several mega environments for kernel minerals and grain yield. Comparison of stability parameters revealed AMMI stability value (ASV as the better representative of the AMMI stability parameters. Dynamic stability

  17. Investigation of the CCN Activity, BC and UVBC Mass Concentrations of Biomass Burning Aerosols during the 2013 BASELInE Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chen, Wei-Nai; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chantara, Somporn

    2015-01-01

    Biomass-burning (BB) aerosols, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), can influence cloud microphysical and radiative properties. In this study, we present CCN measured near the BB source regions over northern Southeast Asia (Doi Ang Khang, Thailand) and at downwind receptor areas (Lulin Atmospheric Background Station, Taiwan), focusing exclusively on 13-20 March 2013 as part of 2013 spring campaign of the Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) intensive observation. One of the campaigns objectives is to characterize BB aerosols serving as CCN in SouthEast Asia (SEA). CCN concentrations were measured by a CCN counter at 5 supersaturation (SS) levels: 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, 0.60%, and 0.75%. In addition, PM2.5 and black carbon mass concentrations were analyzed by using a tapered element oscillating microbalance and an aethalometer. It was found the number-size distributions and the characteristics of hygroscopicity (e.g., activation ratio and k) of BB aerosols in SEA have a strong diurnal pattern, and different behaviors of patterns were characterized under two distinct weather systems. The overall average value was low (0.05-0.1) but comparable with previous CCN studies in other BB source regions. Furthermore, a large fraction of UV-absorbing organic material (UVBC) and high Delta-C among BB aerosols were also observed, which suggest the existence of substantial particulate organic matter in fresh BB aerosols. These data provide the most extensive characterization of BB aerosols in SEA until now.

  18. On the water-soluble organic nitrogen concentration and mass size distribution during the fog season in the Po Valley, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Martínez, Guillermo; Rinaldi, Matteo; Gilardoni, Stefania; Giulianelli, Lara; Paglione, Marco; Decesari, Stefano; Fuzzi, Sandro; Facchini, Maria Cristina

    2014-07-01

    The study of organic nitrogen gained importance in recent decades due to its links with acid rain, pollution, and eutrophication. In this study, aerosol and fog water samples collected from two sites in Italy during November 2011 were analyzed to characterize their organic nitrogen content. Organic nitrogen contributed 19-25% of the total soluble nitrogen in the aerosol and around 13% in fog water. The largest water soluble organic nitrogen concentrations in the PM1.2 fraction occurred during the diurnal period with mean values of 2.03 and 2.16 μg-N m(-3) (154 and 145 nmol-N m(-3)) at Bologna and San Pietro Capofiume (SPC), respectively. The mean PM10 WSON concentration during diurnal periods at SPC was 2.30 μg-N m(-3) (164 nmol-N m(-3)) while it was 1.34 and 0.82 μg-N m(-3) (95.7 and 58.5 nmol-N m(-3)) in the night and fog water samples, respectively. Aerosol mass distribution profiles obtained during fog changed significantly with respect to those estimated in periods without fog periods due to fog scavenging, which proved to be over 80% efficient. Linear correlations suggested secondary processes related to combustion and, to a lesser extent, biomass burning, as plausible sources of WSON. Regarding the inorganic nitrogen fraction, the results showed that ammonium was the largest soluble inorganic nitrogen component in the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Etiology of cardiogenic shock early after open-heart surgery: Assessment by Tc-99m RBC wall motion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, T.; Gray, R.; Chaux, A.; Lee, M.; Matloff, J.; Raymond, M.; Berman, D.

    1984-01-01

    When life-threatening cardiogenic shock (CI 1.8 1/min/m/sup 2/, elevated right and left-side filling pressures) occurs early (0-48 hrs) after open-heart surgery, routine approaches frequently cannot distinguish between expected etiologies: (1) transient systolic failure of the LV, RV, or both, common early postoperatively (postop); (2) perioperative infarct of the LV or RV; (3) myocardial restriction due to active pericardial bleeding or to accumulated clots and fluid; (4) diminished LV reserve from aneurysmectomy; and (5) residual valvular regurgitation. Distinction is critical, because (1), (2), and (4) will be treated by optimizing preload and afterload; (3) with urgent (if active bleeding) or semi-urgent surgery; and (5) with repeat valvular surgery. In 22 pts with unexpected early postop cardiogenic shock, Tc-99m-RBC equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography revealed: global LV (3 pts) or RV (3 pts) dysfunction, new segmental LV dysfunction (2 pts), active bleeding (5 pts) and/or accumulated pericardial fluid ( 8 pts) with hyperdynamic LV and RV, and a small hyperdynamic LV without effusion (1 pt), providing a specific etiologic diagnosis in all cases. In the Cardiac Surgical ICU, therapeutic decisions frequently await and depend on the results of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, now routinely performed in postop pts with unexpected cardiogenic shock

  20. Boundary layer aerosol size distribution, mass concentration and mineralogical composition in Morocco and at Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM I-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is dedicated to the understanding of the radiative effects of mineral dust. Two major field experiments were performed: A first joint field campaign took place at Ouarzazate and near Zagora, southern Morocco, from May 13 to June 7, 2006. Aircraft and ground based measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out to collect a data set of surface and atmospheric columnar information within a major dust source. This data set combined with satellite data provides the base of the first thorough columnar radiative closure tests in Saharan dust. A second field experiment was conducted during January-February 2008, in the Cape Verde Islands region, where about 300 Tg of mineral dust are transported annually from Western Africa across the Atlantic towards the Caribbean Sea and the Amazon basin. Along its transport path, the mineral dust is expected to influence significantly the radiation budget - by direct and indirect effects - of the subtropical North Atlantic. We are lacking a radiative closure in the Saharan air plume. One focus of the investigation within the trade wind region is the spatial distribution of mixed dust/biomass/sea salt aerosol and their physical and chemical properties, especially with regard to radiative effects. We report on measurements of size distributions, mass concentrations and mineralogical composition conducted at the Zagora (Morocco) and Praia (Cape Verde islands) ground stations. The aerosol size distribution was measured from 20 nm to 500

  1. Comparison of dialysis and solid-phase extraction for isolation and concentration of dissolved organic matter prior to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Cooper, William T. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hodgkins, Suzanne; Chanton, Jeffrey P. [Florida State University, Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Podgorski, David C. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Florida State University, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We compare two methods, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and dialysis, commonly used for extraction and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) prior to molecular characterization by electrospray ionization (ESI) and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Spectra of DOM samples from Minnesota and Sweden peatlands that were extracted with styrene divinyl benzene polymer SPE sorbents included ions with formulas that had higher oxygen to carbon (O/C) ratios than spectra of DOM from the same samples after de-salting by dialysis. The SPE method was not very effective in extracting several major classes of DOM compounds that had high ESI efficiencies, including carboxylic acids and organo-sulfur compounds, and that out-competed other less-functionalized compounds (e.g., carbohydrates) for charge in the ESI source. The large abundance of carboxylic acids in the dialysisextracted DOM, likely the result of in situ microbial production, makes it difficult to see other (mainly hydrophilic) compounds with high O/C ratios. Our results indicate that, while dialysis is generally preferable for the isolation of DOM, for samples with high microbial inputs, the use of both isolation methods is recommended for a more accurate molecular representation. (orig.)

  2. Detection, concentrations and distribution of paxilline, an animal neurotoxin, in mouse brain: an application of ultra-high sensitivity detection of 14C by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.; Kim, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Paxilline is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of lolitrem neurotoxins that cause the disorder rye grass staggers in livestock grazing on pastures infected with certain fungi. Paxilline itself produces similar symptoms and the 14 C-labelled compound has been produced bio-synthetically at low specific activity. Using conventional liquid scintillation counting it was not possible to detect the labelled compound in the brain of mice sacrificed at the time they displayed physiological symptoms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) counts 14 C atoms, not decays, and provides sensitivity 10,000-100,000 times greater than conventional scintillation counting of radioactive decays. Measurements are easily obtained at the level of the natural abundance of 14 C in living tissue of 6fCi or 10 -16 moles 14 C per mg total carbon. Extraction of the labelled compound from the tissue is unnecessary and sample size can be 0.01-10mg. Paxilline (8mg/kg ip) was given to 25g mice. The total activity injected was 11,000 dpm though the results showed that 1,000dpm would have been sufficient. The concentration of paxilline in homogenised whole brain was determined to be 985 pg or 0.0075 dpm mg dry tissue. The concentration in the major brain segments ranged from 893-1137 pgmg dry tissue. The spinal cord contained 719 pg/mg dry tissue. Our results suggest that toxicologists and pharmacologists should consider what new information may be obtained by combining tracer studies with the power of AMS detection. The AMS method makes possible great reductions in the amount of label and sample sizes, plus wider ranges in concentration/time course studies. In particular, it opens up new possibilities such as: studies at true dietary or environmental levels; tracer studies in large animal or plant systems; field trials; human studies where radiation dose must be considered; and studies with compounds that can only be synthesised with low specific activity. Copyright (1999) Australasian

  3. Characterizing concentrations of diethylene glycol and suspected metabolites in human serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples from the Panama DEG mass poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, J G; Hunt, D R; Perala, A; McMartin, K E; Bartels, M J; Lewis, L S; McGeehin, M A; Flanders, W D

    2013-12-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) mass poisoning is a persistent public health problem. Unfortunately, there are no human biological data on DEG and its suspected metabolites in poisoning. If present and associated with poisoning, the evidence for use of traditional therapies such as fomepizole and/or hemodialysis would be much stronger. To characterize DEG and its metabolites in stored serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens obtained from human DEG poisoning victims enrolled in a 2006 case-control study. In the 2006 study, biological samples from persons enrolled in a case-control study (42 cases with new-onset, unexplained AKI and 140 age-, sex-, and admission date-matched controls without AKI) were collected and shipped to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta for various analyses and were then frozen in storage. For this study, when sufficient volume of the original specimen remained, the following analytes were quantitatively measured in serum, urine, and CSF: DEG, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), diglycolic acid, ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. Analytes were measured using low resolution GC/MS, descriptive statistics calculated and case results compared with controls when appropriate. Specimens were de-identified so previously collected demographic, exposure, and health data were not available. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (with exact p-values) and bivariable exact logistic regression were used in SAS v9.2 for data analysis. The following samples were analyzed: serum, 20 case, and 20 controls; urine, 11 case and 22 controls; and CSF, 11 samples from 10 cases and no controls. Diglycolic acid was detected in all case serum samples (median, 40.7 mcg/mL; range, 22.6-75.2) and no controls, and in all case urine samples (median, 28.7 mcg/mL; range, 14-118.4) and only five (23%) controls (median, urine diglycolic acid (both OR > 999; exact p sample results were excluded and two from the same case were averaged, yielding

  4. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  5. RBC urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... measurement for a result of this test. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  6. Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurrens, Julie; Steiner, Thomas; Ponette, Jonathan; Janssen, Hans Antonius; Ramaekers, Monique; Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial endurance capacity and hematological parameters after each donation. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects were randomly divided in a donation (n = 16) and a placebo (n = 8) group. Each of the three donations was interspersed by 3 months, and the recovery of endurance capacity and hematological parameters was monitored up to 1 month after donation. Maximal power output, peak oxygen consumption, and hemoglobin mass decreased (p donation with a maximal decrease of 4, 10, and 7%, respectively. Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, ferritin, and red blood cell count (RBC), all key hematological parameters for oxygen transport, were lowered by a single donation (p donations (p donation was 11% for hematocrit, 10% for hemoglobin concentration, 50% for ferritin, and 12% for RBC (p donation group. Maximal, but not submaximal, endurance capacity was altered after blood donation in moderately trained people and the expected increase in capacity after multiple maximal exercise tests was not present when repeating whole blood donations.

  7. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-07-08

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues.

  8. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Jan; Bergman, Ann-Charlotte; Adamson, Ulf; Blombäck, Margareta; Wallén, Håkan; Jörneskog, Gun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. ► Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. ► The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. ► No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent – a phenomenon called “aspirin resistance”. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to “aspirin resistance” in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5–10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the α-chain: αK191, αK208, αK224, αK429, αK457, αK539, αK562, in the β-chain: βK233, and in the γ-chain: γK170 and γK273. Glycations were found at βK133 and γK75, alternatively γK85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [ 14 C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [ 14 C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013–0.084 and 0.12–0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9–100 μM aspirin) and physiologically (2–8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of fibrinogen. This may mechanistically explain why aspirin facilitates fibrin degradation. We find no support for the idea that glycation of fibrin(ogen) interferes with acetylation of

  9. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Jan, E-mail: jan.svensson@ki.se [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergman, Ann-Charlotte [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamson, Ulf [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Blombaeck, Margareta [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Wallen, Hakan; Joerneskog, Gun [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent - a phenomenon called 'aspirin resistance'. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to 'aspirin resistance' in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5-10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the {alpha}-chain: {alpha}K191, {alpha}K208, {alpha}K224, {alpha}K429, {alpha}K457, {alpha}K539, {alpha}K562, in the {beta}-chain: {beta}K233, and in the {gamma}-chain: {gamma}K170 and {gamma}K273. Glycations were found at {beta}K133 and {gamma}K75, alternatively {gamma}K85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [{sup 14}C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [{sup 14}C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013-0.084 and 0.12-0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9-100 {mu}M aspirin) and physiologically (2-8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of

  10. Reconstructing a herbivore’s diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman; McShea, William J.; Ottesen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbcL gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time—sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples (F = 1.73, P = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4–12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed behaviour may favour

  11. Highly time-resolved urban aerosol characteristics during springtime in Yangtze River Delta, China: insights from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Yanfang; Shen, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Yele; Xu, Jianzhong; Ge, Shun; Yu, Huan; Chen, Mindong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the Aerodyne soot particle - aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was deployed for the first time during the spring of 2015 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China, for online characterization of the submicron aerosols (PM1). The SP-AMS enables real-time and fast quantification of refractory black carbon (rBC) simultaneously with other non-refractory species (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and organics). The average PM1 concentration was found to be 28.2 µg m-3, with organics (45 %) as the most abundant component, following by sulfate (19.3 %), nitrate (13.6 %), ammonium (11.1 %), rBC (9.7 %), and chloride (1.3 %). These PM1 species together can reconstruct ˜ 44 % of the light extinction during this campaign based on the IMPROVE method. Chemically resolved mass-based size distributions revealed that small particles especially ultrafine ones (cooking-related OA (COA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Overall, secondary organic aerosol (SOA, equal to the sum of SV-OOA and LV-OOA) dominated the total OA mass (55.5 %), but primary organic aerosol (POA, equal to the sum of HOA and COA) can outweigh SOA in the early morning and evening due to enhanced human activities. High OA concentrations were often associated with high mass fractions of POA and rBC, indicating the important role of anthropogenic emissions during heavy pollution events. The diurnal cycles of nitrate, chloride, and SV-OOA both showed good anti-correlations with air temperatures, suggesting their variations were likely driven by thermodynamic equilibria and gas-to-particle partitioning. On the other hand, in contrast to other species, sulfate, and LV-OOA concentrations increased in the afternoon, and showed no positive correlations with relative humidity (RH), likely indicating the contribution from photochemical oxidation is dominant over that of aqueous-phase processing for their formations. The

  12. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry vs. commercial immunoassay for determination of vancomycin plasma concentration in children. Possible implications for everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Sebastiano; Castagnola, Elio; Gennai, Iulian; Barbagallo, Laura; Loy, Anna; Tripodi, Gino; Cangemi, Giuliana

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is necessary for effective and safetherapy. The aim of the this paper was to develop a specific and robust ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for vancomycin quantification starting from low plasma volumes to be applied for the routine TDM in children. Samples from children receiving intravenous vancomycin were analysed using a TSQ Quantum Access MAX Triple Quadrupole system coupled with an Accela 1250 UHPLC system after a rapid protein precipitation. Gradient separation chromatography was carried out using a Hypersil GOLD aQ C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, particle size 1.9 μm). Method performance was validated following international guidelines. UHPLC-MS/MS allowed a rapid and specific quantification of vancomycin over the range 0.1-128 μg/mL from 50 μL of plasma with high reproducibility and accuracy in the absence of matrix effect. The comparison with the commercial immunoassay performed on 138 samples demonstrated the presence of a proportional bias. The concentrations of vancomycin measured with immunoassay were found to be 4.5% (95% CI: 1.3-7.7) higher than those determined with UHPLC-MS/MS. Importantly, a clinical discordance was found in about 10% of samples analysed. This new UHPLC-MS/MS method is accurate and specific for the measurement of vancomycin starting from small (50 μL) plasma volumes. The use of UHPLC-MS/MS is recommended to prevent a misclassification of therapeutic or toxic vancomycin levels in paediatrics.

  13. Elevated metallothionein-bound cadmium concentrations in urine from bladder carcinoma patients, investigated by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Christian [Department of Molecular Trace Element Research in the Life Sciences, Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: wolf@helmholtz-berlin.de; Strenziok, Romy [Department of Urology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Kyriakopoulos, Antonios [Department of Molecular Trace Element Research in the Life Sciences, Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-12

    Cadmium is discussed as being involved in the development of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and can be observed in urine of these patients. Investigations of urinary samples from bladder cancer patients and normal controls were carried out with special emphasis on metallothionein (MT)-bound cadmium. Compounds that are constituents of urine were separated in urine samples by means of size exclusion chromatography and cadmium was monitored continuously with a hyphenated inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system. MT-bound cadmium was quantified by peak area integration, taking into account the intensity of the rhodium signal which was added continuously before ICP-MS detection. The obtained results show that urinary cadmium is predominantly bound to the observed MT-fraction. The median of the MT-bound cadmium concentration in the control group was found to be 0.8 {mu}g L{sup -1} whereas the cancer group has a median of 1.8 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The variance of the data in the cancer group is much higher than in the controls. However, the urinary MT-bound cadmium is significantly elevated in the cancer group; odds-ratio test: 7.11 (95% C.I.: 1.89-26.80), taking into account the total protein content. Due to the fact that only one main cadmium-containing fraction was observed, there is no necessity to separate the MT-fraction before cadmium determination in urine samples in future studies.

  14. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of raltegravir, dolutegravir and elvitegravir concentrations in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Ohuchi, Mayu; Yamane, Naoe; Aikawa, Hiroaki; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi; Hamada, Akinobu

    2018-02-01

    A simple sample treatment procedure and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method were developed for the simultaneous quantification of the concentrations of human immunodeficiency virus-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitors - raltegravir, dolutegravir and elvitegravir - in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Plasma and CSF samples (20 μL each) were deproteinized with acetonitrile. Raltegravir-d 3 was used as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an XBridge C 18 column (50 × 2.1 mm i.d., particle size 3.5 μm) using acetonitrile-water (7:3, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The run time was 5 min. Calibration curves for all three drugs were linear in the range 5-1500 ng/mL for plasma and 1-200 ng/mL for CSF. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of all three drugs in plasma were coefficient of variation (CV) <12.9% and 100.0 ± 12.2%, respectively, while those in CSF were CV <12.3% and 100.0 ± 7.9%, respectively. Successful validation under the same LC-MS/MS conditions for both plasma and CSF indicates this analytical method is useful for monitoring the levels of these integrase strand transfer inhibitors in the management of treatment of HIV-1 carriers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Crossmatch/Issue Ratio:  Use of a Novel Quality Indicator and Results of an International Survey on RBC Crossmatching and Issuing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazer, Mark H; Alcantara, Ramir; Beizai, Pouneh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To understand the worldwide scope of RBC crossmatching and issuing practices and measure efficiency using a novel quality indicator, the crossmatch/issue (C/I) ratio. METHODS: An electronic survey was disseminated to hospital transfusion services collecting details about RBC...... crossmatching and issuing practices. Respondents were asked to enumerate the number of RBCs crossmatched and issued at their institutions during the 2014 calendar year to calculate the C/I ratio. RESULTS: Fifty-two survey responses were received, mostly from North American transfusion services (28/52, 54......%). The electronic crossmatch was the most common technique (n = 29), and most respondents performed the crossmatch at the time that an order for RBCs was received in the transfusion service (even if an order to issue the RBCs was not received). Data to calculate the C/I ratio were supplied by 22 respondents...

  16. R and G color component competition of RGB image decomposition as a criterion to register RBC agglutinates for blood group typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovski, Valeri A; Ganilova, Yuliya A; Zabenkov, Igor V

    2014-03-01

    A new approach of the criterion assignment for registration of erythrocyte agglutinates to instrumentally determine blood group type is suggested. The criterion is based on comparison of R and G components of RGB decomposition of microscopy digital image taken for the blood-serum mixture sample. For the chosen experimental conditions, the minimal size (area) of RBC agglutinate to be registered by the criterion suggested is estimated theoretically. The proposed method was tested experimentally on the example of monitoring agglutinates in flow. The encouraging experimental results were obtained for improvement of the resolving power of the method; the optimal experimental conditions were revealed for maximum resolution. Though the suggested method was realized for dynamic (flow) blood group determination, it could also be applied for diagnostics in a stationary environment. This approach increases the reliability of RBC agglutinates registration and, hence, blood group typing. The results may be used to develop the apparatus for automated determination of human blood group.

  17. Phylogeny of the Juncaceae based on rbcL sequences, with special emphasis on Luzula DC. and Juncus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drábková, L.; Kirschner, J.; Seberg, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Cladistic analysis of rbcL nucleotide sequences was applied to 58 taxa representing most subgenera and sections of Luzula and Juncus, chosen to reflect morphological and geographical diversity of both genera. Additionally, representatives of all other genera of the Juncaceae and two taxa from the......-supported clade is represented by an assemblage of representatives of five genera and species distributed in the Southern Hemisphere: Juncus capensis and J. lomatophyllus (both from section Graminifolii), Rostkovia, Distichia, Marsippospermum, and Patosia....

  18. The effect of long-range air mass transport pathways on PM10 and NO2 concentrations at urban and rural background sites in Ireland: Quantification using clustering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Aoife A; Broderick, Brian M; Misstear, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) quantify the effects of various long range transport pathways nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with diameter less than 10μm (PM10) concentrations in Ireland and identify air mass movement corridors which may lead to incidences poor air quality for application in forecasting; (ii) compare the effects of such pathways at various sites; (iii) assess pathways associated with a period of decreased air quality in Ireland. The origin of and the regions traversed by an air mass 96h prior to reaching a receptor is modelled and k-means clustering is applied to create air-mass groups. Significant differences in air pollution levels were found between air mass cluster types at urban and rural sites. It was found that easterly or recirculated air masses lead to higher NO2 and PM10 levels with average NO2 levels varying between 124% and 239% of the seasonal mean and average PM10 levels varying between 103% and 199% of the seasonal mean at urban and rural sites. Easterly air masses are more frequent during winter months leading to higher overall concentrations. The span in relative concentrations between air mass clusters is highest at the rural site indicating that regional factors are controlling concentration levels. The methods used in this paper could be applied to assist in modelling and forecasting air quality based on long range transport pathways and forecast meteorology without the requirement for detailed emissions data over a large regional domain or the use of computationally demanding modelling techniques.

  19. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases.

  20. Concentration characteristics of VOCs and acids/bases in the gas phase and water-soluble ions in the particle phase at an electrical industry park during construction and mass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun H; Huang, Yao S; Shieh, Zhu X; Chiang, Hung L

    2011-01-01

    The electronics industry is a major business in the Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP). Particulate samples and 11 water-soluble ionic species in the particulate phase were measured by ionic chromatography (IC). Additionally, acid and base gases were sampled by denuder absorption and analyzed by IC. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in stainless-steel canisters four times daily and analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ozone formation potential (OFP) was measured using maximum increment reactivity. In addition, airborne pollutants during (1) construction and (2) mass production were measured. Particulate matter concentration did not increase significantly near the optoelectronic plant during construction, but it was higher than during mass production. SO(2), HNO(2) and NH(3) were the dominant gases in the denuder absorption system. Nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium ions predominated both in PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5); but calcium ion concentration was significantly higher in PM(10-2.5) samples during construction. Toluene, propane, isopentane, and n-butane may have come from vehicle exhaust. Construction equipment emitted high concentrations of ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and toluene. During mass production, methyl ethyl ketone), acetone and ethyl acetate were significantly higher than during construction, although there was continuous rain. The aromatic group constituted >50% of the VOC concentration totals and contributed >70% of OFP.

  1. Reconstructing a herbivore’s diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman; McShea, William J.; Ottesen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbcL gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time—sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples (F = 1.73, P = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4–12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed <1 % of each

  2. Graphite powder as an alternative or supplement to reversed-phase material for desalting and concentration of peptide mixtures prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cordwell, Stuart J; Roepstorff, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The success attributed to identification and characterization of gel separated proteins by mass spectrometry (MS) is highly dependent on the percentage of an entire sequence covered by matching peptides derived from enzymatic digestion. Desalting and concentration of peptide mixtures on reversed......-phase (RP) microcolumns prior to mass spectrometric analysis have resulted in increased signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity, and consequently higher sequence coverage. A large proportion of peptides, however, remains undetected by MS presumably because they are lost during sample preparation...

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for analysis of iodine concentration in vitro in benign and malignant thyroid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Marie; Berg, Gertrud; Ericsson, Lars; Grunditz, Torsten; Isaksson, Mats; Jansson, Svante; Nystrom, Ernst; Sodervall, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The thyroid ability to store and concentrate iodine is of importance for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. It is known that a normal thyroid contains 2-20 mg iodine while the information regarding malignant thyroid tissue is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iodine concentration in benign compared to malignant tissue. Methods: Thyroid tissue samples from healthy patients and from patients with papillary cancer were collected and frozen in connection with surgery. For the thyroid cancer patients, tissue was taken from both benign and malignant tissue. The iodine concentration was analysed with an XRF system consisting of a 241-Am source and an HPGe detector. When irradiating iodine containing tissue, characteristic X-rays are emitted. That radiation is detected with the strength of the detected signal being proportional to the amount of iodine in the sample. SIMS was used on glutaraldehyde fixed tissue as a histological tool for quantification and localization of iodine by sputtering and analysis of secondary ions. Results: The iodine concentration in benign tissue is considerably higher than in malignant samples. XRF measurements showed a medium iodine concentration in healthy thyroid tissue of 0.5 mg/mL. For the cancer patients, the iodine concentration was 0.3 mg/mL in benign tissue while no iodine could be detected in the malignant samples. These findings were consistent with the results from the SIMS investigation that gave a 100 times lower iodine concentration in malignant than in benign tissue. SIMS also showed that the iodine in benign tissue was predominantly located in the follicle lumen, while in the cancer cells low iodine concentration was found intra cellular as well as in the lumen. Conclusion: Iodine concentration in tissue from papillary cancer can be 100 times lower than in normal thyroid tissue. This is in accordance with the empirical knowledge that thyroid cancer should need about 100 times higher activity

  4. A two-locus global DNA barcode for land plants: the coding rbcL gene complements the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, W John; Erickson, David L

    2007-06-06

    A useful DNA barcode requires sufficient sequence variation to distinguish between species and ease of application across a broad range of taxa. Discovery of a DNA barcode for land plants has been limited by intrinsically lower rates of sequence evolution in plant genomes than that observed in animals. This low rate has complicated the trade-off in finding a locus that is universal and readily sequenced and has sufficiently high sequence divergence at the species-level. Here, a global plant DNA barcode system is evaluated by comparing universal application and degree of sequence divergence for nine putative barcode loci, including coding and non-coding regions, singly and in pairs across a phylogenetically diverse set of 48 genera (two species per genus). No single locus could discriminate among species in a pair in more than 79% of genera, whereas discrimination increased to nearly 88% when the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer was paired with one of three coding loci, including rbcL. In silico trials were conducted in which DNA sequences from GenBank were used to further evaluate the discriminatory power of a subset of these loci. These trials supported the earlier observation that trnH-psbA coupled with rbcL can correctly identify and discriminate among related species. A combination of the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region and a portion of the coding rbcL gene is recommended as a two-locus global land plant barcode that provides the necessary universality and species discrimination.

  5. The influence of irradiation potential on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of two bulk-fill flowable RBC base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Leah; Palin, William M; Moskwa, Natalia; McGinley, Emma Louise; Fleming, Garry J P

    2013-08-01

    To assess the depth of cure claims of two bulk-fill flowable RBC bases (SDR and x-tra base) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, biaxial flexure strength (BFS), and Vickers hardness number (VHN) for specimen depths of 8mm (in 1mm increments). The degree of conversion (DC) was measured by monitoring the peak height (6164cm(-1)) of specimens (11.0±0.1mm diameter, 1.0±0.1mm thickness) during light irradiation for 20s using a quartz tungsten halogen light curing unit at 650±26mW/cm(2). DC was measured up to 120s post irradiation and repeated (n=3) for irradiation depths up to 8mm (in 1mm increments). Further series (n=20) of eight discs were prepared, stacked, light irradiated and numbered from one to eight (distance from the LCU). The specimens were stored at 37±1°C for 24h and BFS tested with the fracture fragments used to determine the VHN for each specimen. X-tra base can be irradiated to 8mm without a change in DC, something the SDR material cannot claim. However, the DC results confirm both bulk-fill flowable RBC bases have a depth of cure in excess of 4mm. One-way ANOVAs of BFS and VHN data showed significant differences between irradiation depths for x-tra base and SDR with increasing irradiation depth (4mm) resulting in significant reductions in mean BFS and VHN. The claims that the bulk-fill flowable RBC bases have a depth of cure in excess of 4mm can be confirmed but the differing chemistry of the resin formulations and filler characteristics contribute to significant differences in DC, BFS and VHN data between the two materials tested. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia; Measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with sup 99m Tc-RBC SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo (Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan)); Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi

    1990-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tests for selecting patients with hemodynamic compromise, measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in thirteen patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and was compared with results obtained by {sup 133}Xe SPECT and acetazolamide (Diamox) test. All patients in our study suffered TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery, although plain CT scan or MRI revealed no or, if any, only localized infarcted lesions. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with {sup 133}Xe SPECT before and after intravenous injection of 10 - 12 mg/kg acetazolamide (Diamox). Our results suggest that the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF (mean transit time) is a more sensitive index of the cerebral perfusion reserve than the use of only rCBV or rCBF of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Also, the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF is significantly correlated (r= -0.72) with the Diamox reactivity of rCBF, which is considered to represent the cerebral vasodilatory capacity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. Postoperative SPECT study revealed remarkable improvement of ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF and Diamox reactivity in four patients who underwent EC/IC bypass surgery to improve the hemodynamic compromise. In conclusion, our results suggest that the measurement of rCBV/rCBF with {sup 133}Xe SPECT and {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT is useful for detecting the hemodynamic compromise in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (author).

  7. Clinical relevance of the discrepancy in phenylalanine concentrations analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry compared with ion-exchange chromatography in phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Use of DBS analyzed using MS/MS to monitor blood phe concentrations in individuals with PKU yields significantly lower phe levels compared to plasma phe levels analyzed using IEC. Optimization of current testing methodologies for measuring phe in DBS, along with patient education regarding the appropriate technique for spotting blood on filter paper is needed to improve the accuracy of using DBS to measure phe concentrations in PKU management.

  8. Sensibility analysis of the effect of various key parameters on fission product concentration mass number 127 to 132 and Xe - 133 m)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, A.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical sensitivity analysis has been made of the effect' of various parameters on the evaluation of fission product concentration. Such parameters include cross sections, decay constants, branching ratios, fission yields, flux and time. The formulae are applied to isotopes of the Antimony, Tellurium, Iodine and Xenon series. The agreement between analytically obtained data and that derived from a computer evaluated model is good, suggesting that the analytical representation includes all the important parameters useful to the evaluation of the fission product concentrations

  9. Application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure the concentrations and study the synthesis of short chain fatty acids following stable isotope infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, R.J.W.; Eijk, H.M.H. van; Have, G.A.M. ten; Graaf, A.A. de; Venema, K.; Rossum, B.E.J. van; Deutz, N.E.P.

    2007-01-01

    A new method involving zinc sulphate deproteinization was developed to study short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production in the colon and subsequent occurrence of SCFA in blood. SCFA were baseline separated in a 30 min cycle using ion-exclusion chromatography and detected by mass spectrometry.

  10. A general method for the calculation of absolute trace gas concentrations in air and breath from selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, D.

    249-250, - (2006), s. 230-239 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : selected ion flow tube * mass spectrometry * SIFT-MS * trace gas analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2006

  11. Water vapor concentration dependence and temperature dependence of Li mass loss from Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} with excess Li and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimozori, Motoki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Katayama, Kazunari, E-mail: kadzu@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuch, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ushida, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Ryotaro; Fukada, Satoshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Li mass loss from Li{sub 2.11}TiO{sub 3} increased proportionally to water vapor pressure. • Li mass loss from Li{sub 2.11}TiO{sub 3} at 600 °C was significantly smaller than expected. • Differences of Li mass loss behavior from Li{sub 2.11}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} were shown. - Abstract: In this study, weight reduction of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} with excess Li and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} at elevated temperatures under hydrogen atmosphere or water vapor atmosphere was investigated. The Li mass loss for the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} at 900 °C was 0.4 wt% under 1000 Pa H{sub 2} atmosphere and 1.5 wt% under 50 Pa H{sub 2}O atmosphere. The Li mass loss for the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} increased proportionally to the water vapor pressure in the range from 50 to 200 Pa at 900 °C and increased with increasing temperature from 700 to 900 °C although Li mass loss at 600 °C was significantly smaller than expected. It was found that water vapor concentration dependence and temperature dependence of Li mass loss for the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} used in this work were quite different. Water vapor is released from the ceramic breeder materials into the purge gas due to desorption of adsorbed water and water formation reaction. The released water vapor possibly promotes Li mass loss with the formation of LiOH on the surface.

  12. Monitoring and assessment of heavy metal/metalloid concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method in Gonyeli Lake, Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkas, Fehmi Burak; Shaban, Jehad Abdullah; Sukuroglu, Ayca Aktas; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Battal, Dilek; Saygi, Sahan

    2017-09-22

    The presence of heavy metals/metalloids in the ecosystem has been an increasing ecological and global public health concern due to their potential to cause adverse health effects. For this reason, the accumulation of some heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Pb was assessed by way of ICP-MS in water, sediment and fish (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from Gonyeli Lake, North Cyprus. The results showed that these metals/metalloids are found widespread throughout the study area. In water, most concentrated element was manganese with 92.1 ppb and least concentrated was lead with 0.914 ppb. In sediment, copper had the highest concentration with 613 ppm, and cadmium the lowest with 1.57 ppm. In fish tissues (muscle and gills), the most concentrated element was manganese with 12.5 ppm and the least concentrated cadmium with 0.017 ppm. These results indicate that future remediation efforts are indispensable for the rehabilitation of the lake.

  13. Influence of iron deficiency in the radiopharmaceutical behavior of red blood cells labeled with 99mTc(99mTC-RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmanovici, G.; Salgueiro, M.J.; Pernas, L.; Collia, N.; Leonardi, N.; Zubillaga, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with 99m Tc are commonly used in the evaluation of cardiac function, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, red blood cell volume or splenic sequestration. Generally stannous ion is used as reducing agent. A proposed mechanism is that once the stannous ion (Sn) and the pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) reach the interior of the RBC, the radionuclide is mainly house in the β-chain of hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to determine if hemoglobin content reduction, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, could affect the efficiency of RBC labeling and the biological distribution of this radiopharmaceutical. We studied 30 rats fed for 3 weeks after weaning with diets with iron contents of 6.5 ppm (group A), 18 ppm (group B) and 100 ppm (control). For all groups, the labeling yields were always higher than 97%; the percentage of radioactivity was mostly founded in blood with almost negligible radioactivity the rest of the studied organs. We can conclude that the decrease in hemoglobin content, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, does not interfere neither in the labeling nor in the biodistribution of red blood cells labeled with 99m Tc. (author)

  14. Implications of resin-based composite (RBC) restoration on cuspal deflection and microleakage score in molar teeth: Placement protocol and restorative material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Lauren E J; Politi, Ioanna; Al-Fodeh, Rami S; Fleming, Garry J P

    2017-09-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection of standardised large mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities in third molar teeth restored using conventional resin-based composite (RBC) or their bulk fill restorative counterparts compared with the unbound condition using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge. Following thermocycling, the cervical microleakage of the restored teeth was assessed to determine marginal integrity. Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in forty-eight sound third molar teeth and randomly allocated to six groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with (and without) a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a light-emitting-diode light-curing-unit. The dependent variable was the restoration protocol, eight oblique increments for conventional RBCs or two horizontal increments for the bulk fill resin restoratives. The cumulative buccal and palatal cuspal deflections from a twin channel deflection measuring gauge were summed, the restored teeth thermally fatigued, immersed in 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage score. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified third molar teeth restored using conventional RBC materials had significantly higher mean total cuspal deflection values compared with bulk fill resin restorative restoration (all pmaterial selection is vital in the absence of clinical data. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) from two sides of the Yellow Sea: analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and plastid rbcL sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Nan; Jiang, Peng; Boo, Sung Min; Lee, Wook Jae; Cui, Yulin; Lin, Hanzhi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Zhengyi; Qin, Song

    2010-07-01

    Ulvacean green seaweeds are common worldwide; they formed massive green tides in the Yellow Sea in recent years, which caused marine ecological problems as well as a social issue. We investigated two major genera of the Ulvaceae, Ulva and Enteromorpha, and collected the plastid rbcL and nuclear ITS sequences of specimens of the genera in two sides of the Yellow Sea and analyzed them. Phylogenetic trees of rbcL data show the occurrence of five species of Enteromorpha ( E. compressa, E. flexuosa, E. intestinalis, E. linza and E. prolifera) and three species of Ulva ( U. pertusa, U. rigida and U. ohnoi). However, we found U. ohnoi, which is known as a subtropical to tropical species, at two sites on Jeju Island, Korea. Four ribotypes in partial sequences of 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 from E. compressa were also found. Ribotype network analysis revealed that the common ribotype, occurring in China, Korea and Europe, is connected with ribotypes from Europe and China/Japan. Although samples of the same species were collected from both sides of the Yellow Sea, intraspecific genetic polymorphism of each species was low among samples collected worldwide.

  16. Untreated diabetes mellitus, but not impaired fasting glucose, is associated with increased left ventricular mass and concentric hypertrophy in an elderly, healthy, Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Pareek

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Subjects with untreated DM had higher values of LVMI and a greater prevalence of concentric LVH, but the associations were not independent of other risk factors. NT-proBNP was primarily associated with greater LV size in subjects with IFG or DM.

  17. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. II. Growth of foals, body mass of mares and serum protein concentration of mares during the anovulatory, transitional and pregnant periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 4 different diets, in terms of protein quantity and quality, on total serum protein (TSP, albumin and globulin was investigated. Non-pregnant mares that were not lactating (n = 36, pregnant mares that had foaled (n = 24 and their foals (n = 24 were used in this study. Daily total protein intake had no effect on blood protein concentrations in the mares. Total protein intake and quality (available essential amino-acids did affect the body mass of mares during lactation. When mares were fed the minimum recommended (National Research Council 1989 total daily protein, foal mass decreased by approximately 25 % at weaning compared to the foals whose dams were on a higher level of protein intake. The TSP concentrations of foals at birth were on average 10 g/ℓ lower than those of the mares. Albumin concentrations of foals during the first 60 days of life were on average 2-3 g/ℓ lower than those of the mares. Globulin concentrations of foals were approximately 5 g/ℓ lower than those of mares at weaning.

  18. Natural convection heat and mass transfer in MHD fluid flow past a moving vertical plate with variable surface temperature and concentration in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Javaherdeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of two-dimensional steady laminar free convection flow with heat and mass transfer past a moving vertical plate in a porous medium subjected to a transverse magnetic field is carried out. The temperature and concentration level at the plate surface are assumed to follow a power-law type of distribution. The governing non-linear set of equations is solved numerically employing a fully implicit finite difference method. Results are presented to illustrate the influence of different parameters such as Grashof number (Gr, porosity parameter (Kp, magnetic field parameter (Mn and exponents in the power law variation of the surface temperature and concentration, m and n. The dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed and numerical data for the local Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented. The study accentuates the significance of the relevant parameters.

  19. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-07

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial and indoor/outdoor gradients in urban concentrations of ultrafine particles and PM2.5 mass and chemical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Trentini, Arianna; Bacco, Dimitri; Maccone, Claudio; Castellazzi, Silvia; Lauriola, Paolo; Poluzzi, Vanes; Harrison, Roy M.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate relationships between outdoor air pollution and concentrations indoors, a novel design of experiment has been conducted at two sites, one heavily trafficked and the other residential. The novel design aspect involves the introduction of air directly to the centre of an unoccupied room by use of a fan and duct giving a controlled air exchange rate and allowing an evaluation of particle losses purely due to uptake on indoor surfaces without the losses during penetration of the building envelope which affect most measurement programmes. The rooms were unoccupied and free of indoor sources, and consequently reductions in particle concentration were due to deposition processes within the room alone. Measurements were made of indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5, major chemical components and particle number size distributions. Despite the absence of penetration losses, indoor to outdoor ratios were very similar to those in other studies showing that deposition to indoor surfaces is likely to be the major loss process for indoor air. The results demonstrated a dramatic loss of nitrate in the indoor atmosphere as well as a selective loss of particles in the size range below 50 nm, in comparison to coarser particles. Depletion of indoor particles was greater during a period of cold weather with higher outdoor concentrations probably due to an enhancement of semi-volatile materials in the outdoor particulate matter. Indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 were generally higher at the trafficked site than the residential site, but for particle number were generally lower, reflecting the different chemical composition and size distributions of particles at the two sites.

  1. Highly time-resolved urban aerosol characteristics during springtime in Yangtze River Delta, China: insights from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Aerodyne soot particle – aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS was deployed for the first time during the spring of 2015 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD of China, for online characterization of the submicron aerosols (PM1. The SP-AMS enables real-time and fast quantification of refractory black carbon (rBC simultaneously with other non-refractory species (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and organics. The average PM1 concentration was found to be 28.2 µg m−3, with organics (45 % as the most abundant component, following by sulfate (19.3 %, nitrate (13.6 %, ammonium (11.1 %, rBC (9.7 %, and chloride (1.3 %. These PM1 species together can reconstruct ∼ 44 % of the light extinction during this campaign based on the IMPROVE method. Chemically resolved mass-based size distributions revealed that small particles especially ultrafine ones (< 100 nm vacuum aerodynamic diameter were dominated by organics and rBC, while large particles had significant contributions from secondary inorganic species. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA yielded four OA subcomponents, including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking-related OA (COA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA. Overall, secondary organic aerosol (SOA, equal to the sum of SV-OOA and LV-OOA dominated the total OA mass (55.5 %, but primary organic aerosol (POA, equal to the sum of HOA and COA can outweigh SOA in the early morning and evening due to enhanced human activities. High OA concentrations were often associated with high mass fractions of POA and rBC, indicating the important role of anthropogenic emissions during heavy pollution events. The diurnal cycles of nitrate, chloride, and SV-OOA both showed good anti-correlations with air temperatures, suggesting their variations were likely driven by thermodynamic equilibria and gas-to-particle partitioning. On the other hand

  2. Source apportionment of speciated PM2.5 and non-parametric regressions of PM2.5 and PM(coarse) mass concentrations from Denver and Greeley, Colorado, and construction and evaluation of dichotomous filter samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, Ricardo A.

    The Denver Aerosol Sources and Health study (DASH) was a long-term study of the relationship between the variability in fine particulate mass and chemical constituents (PM2.5, particulate matter less than 2.5mum) and adverse health effects such as cardio-respiratory illnesses and mortality. Daily filter samples were chemically analyzed for multiple species. We present findings based on 2.8 years of DASH data, from 2003 to 2005. Multilinear Engine 2 (ME-2), a receptor-based source apportionment model was applied to the data to estimate source contributions to PM2.5 mass concentrations. This study relied on two different ME-2 models: (1) a 2-way model that closely reflects PMF-2; and (2) an enhanced model with meteorological data that used additional temporal and meteorological factors. The Coarse Rural Urban Sources and Health study (CRUSH) is a long-term study of the relationship between the variability in coarse particulate mass (PMcoarse, particulate matter between 2.5 and 10mum) and adverse health effects such as cardio-respiratory illnesses, pre-term births, and mortality. Hourly mass concentrations of PMcoarse and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are measured using tapered element oscillating microbalances (TEOMs) with Filter Dynamics Measurement Systems (FDMS), at two rural and two urban sites. We present findings based on nine months of mass concentration data, including temporal trends, and non-parametric regressions (NPR) results, which were used to characterize the wind speed and wind direction relationships that might point to sources. As part of CRUSH, 1-year coarse and fine mode particulate matter filter sampling network, will allow us to characterize the chemical composition of the particulate matter collected and perform spatial comparisons. This work describes the construction and validation testing of four dichotomous filter samplers for this purpose. The use of dichotomous splitters with an approximate 2.5mum cut point, coupled with a 10mum cut

  3. Development of a method to measure the concentration of 14C in the stack air of nuclear power plants by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, K.; Erlandsson, B.; Hellborg, R.; Haakansson, K.; Wiebert, A.; Skog, G.

    1993-04-01

    C-14, a pure low-energetic beta-emitter, is produced through various nuclear reactions in nuclear power plants. Some of this C-14 is air-borne and is transported via the ventilation system through the stack of the power station and is integrated in living matter in the surroundings of the plant. The long half-life of the isotope (T1/2=5730 years) and the biological importance of carbon may lead to a not negligible contribution of the radiation dose for those living in the neighbourhood of nuclear power plants. C-14 has earlier been measured radiometrically with mainly two different methods, using proportional counters or liquid scintillators. In this report a new method is described, using an accelerator based technique. accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This technique has at least three advantages over the radiometrical methods. It requires only a few litres of gas per sample, which is 100-1000 times less compared to the radiometrical methods. It is insensitive to the beta and gamma rays from other radioactive isotopes in the stack air. The measuring time with AMS, about 20 minutes per sample, is considerably shorter compared to the radiometrical methods, which demand several hours per sample. The integrity of the AMS method is high and it might be convenient for regulatory supervision. (22 refs.)

  4. Medicinal cannabis: Principal cannabinoids concentration and their stability evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, Cinzia; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Braghiroli, Daniela; Parenti, Carlo; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2016-09-05

    In the last few years, there has been a boost in the use of cannabis-based extracts for medicinal purposes, although their preparation procedure has not been standardized but rather decided by the individual pharmacists. The present work describes the development of a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection (HPLC-UV) for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the principal cannabinoids (CBD-A, CBD, CBN, THC and THC-A) that could be applied to all cannabis-based medicinal extracts (CMEs) and easily performed by a pharmacist. In order to evaluate the identity and purity of the analytes, a high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF) analysis was also carried out. Full method validation has been performed in terms of specificity, selectivity, linearity, recovery, dilution integrity and thermal stability. Moreover, the influence of the solvent (ethyl alcohol and olive oil) was evaluated on cannabinoids degradation rate. An alternative extraction method has then been proposed in order to preserve cannabis monoterpene component in final CMEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Terrestrial Water Storage in African Hydrological Regimes Derived from GRACE Mission Data: Intercomparison of Spherical Harmonics, Mass Concentration, and Scalar Slepian Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rateb, Ashraf; Kuo, Chung-Yen; Imani, Moslem; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Lan, Wen-Hau; Ching, Kuo-En; Tseng, Tzu-Pang

    2017-03-10

    Spherical harmonics (SH) and mascon solutions are the two most common types of solutions for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mass flux observations. However, SH signals are degraded by measurement and leakage errors. Mascon solutions (the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) release, herein) exhibit weakened signals at submascon resolutions. Both solutions require a scale factor examined by the CLM4.0 model to obtain the actual water storage signal. The Slepian localization method can avoid the SH leakage errors when applied to the basin scale. In this study, we estimate SH errors and scale factors for African hydrological regimes. Then, terrestrial water storage (TWS) in Africa is determined based on Slepian localization and compared with JPL-mascon and SH solutions. The three TWS estimates show good agreement for the TWS of large-sized and humid regimes but present discrepancies for the TWS of medium and small-sized regimes. Slepian localization is an effective method for deriving the TWS of arid zones. The TWS behavior in African regimes and its spatiotemporal variations are then examined. The negative TWS trends in the lower Nile and Sahara at -1.08 and -6.92 Gt/year, respectively, are higher than those previously reported.

  6. Terrestrial Water Storage in African Hydrological Regimes Derived from GRACE Mission Data: Intercomparison of Spherical Harmonics, Mass Concentration, and Scalar Slepian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Rateb

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spherical harmonics (SH and mascon solutions are the two most common types of solutions for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mass flux observations. However, SH signals are degraded by measurement and leakage errors. Mascon solutions (the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL release, herein exhibit weakened signals at submascon resolutions. Both solutions require a scale factor examined by the CLM4.0 model to obtain the actual water storage signal. The Slepian localization method can avoid the SH leakage errors when applied to the basin scale. In this study, we estimate SH errors and scale factors for African hydrological regimes. Then, terrestrial water storage (TWS in Africa is determined based on Slepian localization and compared with JPL-mascon and SH solutions. The three TWS estimates show good agreement for the TWS of large-sized and humid regimes but present discrepancies for the TWS of medium and small-sized regimes. Slepian localization is an effective method for deriving the TWS of arid zones. The TWS behavior in African regimes and its spatiotemporal variations are then examined. The negative TWS trends in the lower Nile and Sahara at −1.08 and −6.92 Gt/year, respectively, are higher than those previously reported.

  7. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the assessment of the contamination caused by small concentrations of nitrophenols in soils and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Juan-Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Nitrophenols (NPs) are widely distributed environmental contaminants that can be present in soils and sediments due to the degradation of some pesticides (parathion and fenitrothion) or by accidental spilling in ammunition plants or storage places. This communication reports a rapid and sensitive procedure for the determination of the most common NPs in soils by using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as the analytical technique. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was employed for the extraction of the NPs from the soil samples to an organic solvent. Next, the resulting UAE extracts were submitted to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for achieving an effective preconcentration. DLLME is an easy-to-carry out, environmentally friendly separation technique involving minimal amounts of organic solvents. Since the volatility of NPs is low, as a previous stage to the GC-MS measurement the compounds were derivatized using a simple "in-situ" acetylation procedure. The main parameters affecting the UAE stage, as well as the DLLME and derivatization steps, were investigated looking for maximum analytical signals. The optimized procedure provided extraction recoveries in the 72-86% range, with precision values (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD) ≤ 12%, and detection limits ranging from 1.3 and 3.3 ng g-1, depending on the compound. 20 soil and sediment samples, from military, industrial and agricultural areas were analyzed by the studied procedure in order to check its applicability.

  8. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häser, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae). Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae), a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women. PMID:27957401

  9. Application of Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry To Determine Urinary Concentrations of Five Commonly Used Low-Calorie Sweeteners: A Novel Biomarker Approach for Assessing Recent Intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Caomhan; Dowey, Le Roy C; Strain, J J; Verhagen, Hans; McClean, Stephen; Gallagher, Alison M

    2017-06-07

    Although the use of low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) is widespread, methods of assessing consumption within free-living populations have inherent limitations. Five commonly consumed LCSs, namely, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, and steviol glycosides, are excreted via the urine, and therefore a urinary biomarker approach may provide more objective LCS intake data. A LC-ESI-MS/MS method of simultaneously determining acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, and the excretory metabolite of steviol glycosides, steviol glucuronide, in human urine was developed and validated. Linearity was observed over a concentration range of 10-1000 ng/mL with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.9969 to 0.9997. Accuracy ranged from 92 to 104%, and intrabatch and interday precisions were within acceptable limits with %CV below 8% for all compounds. A double-blind, randomized crossover dose-response study was conducted to assess the usefulness of urinary LCS excretions (from both fasting spot and a full 24-h urine collection) for investigating recent intakes. Both modes of sampling were useful for distinguishing between the three short-term intakes of acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamates, and steviol glycosides (p biomarker approach may be useful for assessing intakes of five commonly consumed LCSs.

  10. Effect of pentachlorophenol and chemical oxygen demand mass concentrations in influent on operational behaviors of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; He, Ruo; Liu, Xin-Wen; Long, Yan

    2006-08-25

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor that was seeded with anaerobic sludge acclimated to chlorophenols was used to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic biotreatment of synthetic wastewater containing pentachlorophenol (PCP) with additional sucrose as carbon source. Two sets of UASB reactors were operated at one time. But the seeded sludge for the two reactors was different and Reactor I was seeded with the sludge that was acclimated to PCP completely for half a year, and Reactor II was seeded with the mixed sludge that was acclimated for half a year to PCP, 4-CP, 3-CP or 2-CP, respectively. The degradation of PCP and the operation fee treating the wastewater are affected by the concentration of MEDS (microorganism easily degradable substrate). So the confirmation of the suitable ratio of [COD] and [PCP] was the key factor of treating the wastewater containing PCP economically and efficiently. During the experiment, the synthetic wastewater with 180.0 mg L(-1) PCP and 1250-10000 mg L(-1) COD could be treated steadily in the experimental Reactor I. The removal efficiency of PCP was more than 99.5% and the removal efficiency of COD was up to 90%. [PCP] (concentration of PCP) in effluent was less than 0.5 mg L(-1). [PCP] in influent could affect proper [COD] (concentration of COD) range in influent that was required for maintenance of steady running of the experimental reactor with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 20 to 22 h. [PCP] in influent would directly affect the necessary [COD] in influent when the UASB reactor ran normally and treated the wastewater containing PCP. When [PCP] was 100.4, 151.6 and 180.8 mg L(-1) in influent, respectively, [COD] in influent had to be controlled about 1250-7500, 2500-5000 and 5000 mg L(-1) to maintain the UASB reactor steady running normally and contemporarily ensure that [COD] and [PCP] in effluent were less than 300 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively. With the increase of [PCP] in influent, the range of variation

  11. Relations of Visceral and Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference to Serum Concentrations of Parameters of Chronic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schlecht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different measures of body fat composition may vary in their relations to parameters of chronic inflammation. Methods: We assessed the relations of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, BMI, and waist circumference (WC to serum concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin in 97 healthy adults using multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, menopausal status, and use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Parameters of chronic inflammation were mutually adjusted. Results: VAT (β = 0.34, SAT (β = 0.43, BMI (β = 0.40, and WC (β = 0.47 were all significantly associated with hs-CRP. BMI was additionally inversely related to adiponectin (β = -0.29. In exploratory subgroup analyses defined by gender, BMI, smoking, and use of aspirin or NSAIDs, VAT was the strongest indicator for increased levels of IL-6, SAT was the most consistent indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP, and BMI was the most consistent indicator for decreased levels of adiponectin. WC showed to be a weak indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP and decreased levels of adiponectin. Conclusion: VAT, SAT, BMI, and WC show distinct associations with parameters of chronic inflammation. Whether these differences reflect differential metabolic risks requires clarification by longitudinal studies.

  12. Effect of pentachlorophenol and chemical oxygen demand mass concentrations in influent on operational behaviors of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Dongsheng; He Ruo; Liu Xinwen; Long Yan

    2006-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor that was seeded with anaerobic sludge acclimated to chlorophenols was used to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic biotreatment of synthetic wastewater containing pentachlorophenol (PCP) with additional sucrose as carbon source. Two sets of UASB reactors were operated at one time. But the seeded sludge for the two reactors was different and Reactor I was seeded with the sludge that was acclimated to PCP completely for half a year, and Reactor II was seeded with the mixed sludge that was acclimated for half a year to PCP, 4-CP, 3-CP or 2-CP, respectively. The degradation of PCP and the operation fee treating the wastewater are affected by the concentration of MEDS (microorganism easily degradable substrate). So the confirmation of the suitable ratio of [COD] and [PCP] was the key factor of treating the wastewater containing PCP economically and efficiently. During the experiment, the synthetic wastewater with 180.0 mg L -1 PCP and 1250-10000 mg L -1 COD could be treated steadily in the experimental Reactor I. The removal efficiency of PCP was more than 99.5% and the removal efficiency of COD was up to 90%. [PCP] (concentration of PCP) in effluent was less than 0.5 mg L -1 . [PCP] in influent could affect proper [COD] (concentration of COD) range in influent that was required for maintenance of steady running of the experimental reactor with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 20 to 22 h. [PCP] in influent would directly affect the necessary [COD] in influent when the UASB reactor ran normally and treated the wastewater containing PCP. When [PCP] was 100.4, 151.6 and 180.8 mg L -1 in influent, respectively, [COD] in influent had to be controlled about 1250-7500, 2500-5000 and 5000 mg L -1 to maintain the UASB reactor steady running normally and contemporarily ensure that [COD] and [PCP] in effluent were less than 300 and 0.5 mg L -1 , respectively. With the increase of [PCP] in influent, the range of variation of

  13. Long-term exposure to gold nanoparticles accelerates larval metamorphosis without affecting mass in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Peter P; Thompson, Lucas B; Carfagno, Gerardo L F; Sitton, Andrea J

    2016-09-01

    Nanoparticles are environmental contaminants of emerging concern. Exposure to engineered nanoparticles has been shown to have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms. The authors synthesized gold nanoparticles (18.1 ± 3.5 nm) and tested their effects on time to and weight at metamorphosis in wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles, a species known to be sensitive to environmental stressors. Continuous exposure to all concentrations of gold nanoparticles (0.05 pM, 0.5 pM, and 5 pM in particles) for up to 55 d significantly reduced time to metamorphosis by as much as an average of 3 d (p metamorphosis. The approximately 18-nm gold nanoparticles used were metastable in dechlorinated tap water, resulting in a change in surface charge and aggregation over time, leading to negatively charged aggregates that were on the order of 60 nm to 110 nm. Nanoparticle aggregation could exacerbate the effect on time to metamorphosis. To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first report on the effect of engineered nanoparticles of any kind on life-history variables in an amphibian, a taxonomic group that has been declining globally for at least 25 yr. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2304-2310. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Martha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP, mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP, mono-n-butyl (MBP, and mono-benzyl (MBzP phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP phthalate (2001–2002. Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002, and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03, and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02 and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02. There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different

  15. Investigating the size, shape and surface roughness dependence of polarization lidars with light-scattering computations on real mineral dust particles: Application to dust particles' external mixtures and dust mass concentration retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Tahar; Kemppinen, Osku; David, Grégory; Lindqvist, Hannakaisa; Tyynelä, Jani; Nousiainen, Timo; Rairoux, Patrick; Miffre, Alain

    2018-05-01

    Our understanding of the contribution of mineral dust to the Earth's radiative budget is limited by the complexity of these particles, which present a wide range of sizes, are highly-irregularly shaped, and are present in the atmosphere in the form of particle mixtures. To address the spatial distribution of mineral dust and atmospheric dust mass concentrations, polarization lidars are nowadays frequently used, with partitioning algorithms allowing to discern the contribution of mineral dust in two or three-component particle external mixtures. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of the retrieved dust backscattering (βd) vertical profiles with the dust particle size and shape. For that, new light-scattering numerical simulations are performed on real atmospheric mineral dust particles, having determined mineralogy (CAL, DOL, AGG, SIL), derived from stereogrammetry (stereo-particles), with potential surface roughness, which are compared to the widely-used spheroidal mathematical shape model. For each dust shape model (smooth stereo-particles, rough stereo-particles, spheroids), the dust depolarization, backscattering Ångström exponent, lidar ratio are computed for two size distributions representative of mineral dust after long-range transport. As an output, two Saharan dust outbreaks involving mineral dust in two, then three-component particle mixtures are studied with Lyon (France) UV-VIS polarization lidar. If the dust size matters most, under certain circumstances, βd can vary by approximately 67% when real dust stereo-particles are used instead of spheroids, corresponding to variations in the dust backscattering coefficient as large as 2 Mm- 1·sr- 1. Moreover, the influence of surface roughness in polarization lidar retrievals is for the first time discussed. Finally, dust mass-extinction conversion factors (ηd) are evaluated for each assigned shape model and dust mass concentrations are retrieved from polarization lidar measurements. From

  16. Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kouyoumdjian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of coarse (PM10-2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particles were determined between February 2004 and January 2005 in the city of Beirut, Lebanon. While low PM mass concentrations were measured in the rainy season, elevated levels were detected during sand storms originating from Arabian desert and/or Africa. Using ATR-FTIR and IC, it was shown that nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and chloride were the main anionic constituents of the coarse particles, whereas sulfate was mostly predominant in the fine particles in the form of (NH42SO4. Ammonium nitrate was not expected to be important because the medium was defined as ammonium poor. In parallel, the cations Ca2+ and Na+ dominated in the coarse, and NH4+, Ca2+ and Na+ in the fine particles. Coarse nitrate and sulfate ions resulted from the respective reactions of nitric and sulfuric acid with a relatively high amount of calcium carbonate. Both CaCO3 and Ca(NO32 crystals identified by ATR-FTIR in the coarse particles were found to be resistant to soaking in water for 24 h but became water soluble when they were formed in the fine particles suggesting, thereby, different growth and adsorption phenomena. The seasonal variational study showed that nitrate and sulfate ion concentrations increased in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions which facilitated the conversion of NO2 and SO2 gases into NO3- and SO42-, respectively. While nitrate was mainly due to local heavy traffic, sulfates were due to local and long-range transport phenomena. Using the air mass trajectory HYSPLIT model, it was found that the increase in the sulfate concentration correlated with wind vectors coming from Eastern and Central Europe. Chloride levels, on the other hand, were high when wind originated from the sea and low during sand storms. In addition to sea salt, elevated levels of chloride were also attributed to waste mass burning in proximity to the site. In comparison to other neighboring Mediterranean

  17. Identification of V-type nerve agents in vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator and fluoridating conversion tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrui, Y; Nagoya, T; Kurimata, N; Sodeyama, M; Seto, Y

    2017-07-01

    A field-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system (Hapsite ER) was evaluated for the detection of nonvolatile V-type nerve agents (VX and Russian VX (RVX)) in the vapor phase. The Hapsite ER system consists of a Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler, a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary GC column and a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump. The GC-MS system was attached to a VX-G fluoridating conversion tube containing silver nitrate and potassium fluoride. Sample vapors of VX and RVX were converted into O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (EtGB) and O-isobutyl methylphosphonofluoridate (iBuGB), respectively. These fluoridated derivatives were detected within 10 min. No compounds were detected when the VX and RVX samples were analyzed without the conversion tube. A vapor sample of tabun (GA) was analyzed, in which GA and O-ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate were detected. The molar recovery percentages of EtGB and iBuGB from VX and RVX vapors varied from 0.3 to 17%, which was attributed to variations in the vaporization efficiency of the glass vapor container. The conversion efficiencies of the VX-G conversion tube for VX and RVX to their phosphonate derivatives were estimated to be 40%. VX and RVX vapors were detected at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg m -3 . Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the analyses of VX and RVX. In the presence of 160 mg m -3 gasoline, the detection limits of VX and RVX vapor were increased to 20 mg m -3 . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Use of Laser Assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer (LoRRca MaxSis in the Diagnosis of RBC Membrane Disorders, Enzyme Defects, and Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias: A Monocentric Study on 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zaninoni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hemolytic anemias are a group of heterogeneous diseases mainly due to abnormalities of red cell (RBC membrane and metabolism. The more common RBC membrane disorders, classified on the basis of blood smear morphology, are hereditary spherocytosis (HS, elliptocytosis, and hereditary stomatocytoses (HSt. Among RBC enzymopathies, the most frequent is pyruvate kinase (PK deficiency, followed by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, pyrimidine 5′ nucleotidase P5′N, and other rare enzymes defects. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, diagnosis may be often challenging despite the availability of a variety of laboratory tests. The ektacytometer laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyser (LoRRca MaxSis, able to assess the RBC deformability in osmotic gradient conditions (Osmoscan analysis, is a useful diagnostic tool for RBC membrane disorders and in particular for the identification of hereditary stomatocytosis. Few data are so far available in other hemolytic anemias. We evaluated the diagnostic power of LoRRca MaxSis in a large series of 140 patients affected by RBC membrane disorders, 37 by enzymopathies, and 16 by congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II. Moreover, nine patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH were also investigated. All the hereditary spherocytoses, regardless the biochemical defect, showed altered Osmoscan curves, with a decreased Elongation Index (EI max and right shifted Omin; hereditary elliptocytosis (HE displayed a trapezoidal curve and decreased EImax. Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHSt caused by PIEZO1 mutations was characterized by left-shifted curve, whereas KCNN4 mutations were associated with a normal curve. Congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II and RBC enzymopathies had Osmoscan curve within the normal range except for glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI deficient cases who displayed an enlarged curve associated with significantly increased Ohyper, offering a

  19. Determination of osmium concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high-pressure, high-temperature digestion with sparging OsO(4) into a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2014-03-18

    The (187)Os/(188)Os ratio that is based on the β(-)-decay of (187)Re to (187)Os (t1/2 = 41.6 billion years) is widely used to investigate petroleum system processes. Despite its broad applicability to studies of hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, a suitable matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis does not exist. In this study, a method that enables Os isotope measurement of crude oil with in-line Os separation and purification from the sample matrix is proposed. The method to analyze Os concentration and (187)Os/(187)Os involves sample digestion under high pressure and high temperature using a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar), sparging of volatile osmium tetroxide from the sample solution, and measurements using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This methods significantly reduced the total procedural time compared to conventional Carius tube digestion followed by Os separation and purification using solvent extraction, microdistillation and N-TIMS analysis. The method yields Os concentration (28 ± 4 pg g(-1)) and (187)Os/(188)Os (1.62 ± 0.15) of commercially available crude oil reference material NIST 8505 (1 S.D., n = 6). The reference material NIST 8505 is homogeneous with respect to Os concentration at a test portion size of 0.2 g. Therefore, (187)Os/(188)Os composition and Os concentration of NIST 8505 can serve as a matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis. Data quality was assessed by repeated measurements of the USGS shale reference material SCo-1 (sample matrix similar to petroleum source rock) and the widely used Liquid Os Standard solution (LOsSt). The within-laboratory reproducibility of (187)Os/(188)Os for a 5 pg of LOsSt solution, analyzed with this method over a period of 12 months was ∼1.4% (1 S.D., n = 26), respectively.

  20. Evaluación de la estrategia de rehabilitación de base comunitaria (RBC desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guajardo Córdoba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A través de este proyecto de investigación se evalúo, desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación en Chile, los distintos niveles de intervención de la RBC. Así, el objetivo que guío esta investigación fue evaluar el impacto social percibido y la aceptabilidad social de la estrategia de Rehabilitación de Base Comunitaria (RBC desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación. El marco metodológico fue definido bajo los parámetros de una investigación cualitativa de carácter descriptivo y transversal. El universo de estudio correspondió a las comunas que contaban con programas de RBC que se desarrollan a nivel nacional como parte de la política nacional de discapacidad y rehabilitación en salud. Los criterios que guiaron el proceso de muestreo fueron los de pertinencia y suficiencia de la información, por lo que  se optó  por un muestreo estructural. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó mediante análisis de contenido semánticamente orientado, siguiendo una estratega intensiva, es decir, se analizó toda la información producida durante la fase de terreno. Los resultados dan cuenta de la RBC como una estrategia  con variadas formas de implementación y desarrollo que se relaciona con la historia local, el perfil de la comunidad, perfil del centro,  perfil de usuarias/ios y las características de vinculación municipal con el programa de rehabilitación. El estudio identifica en la estrategia de RBC tres modelos de acción: biomédico, biopsicosocial y comunitario.

  1. Effects of four additive solutions on canine leukoreduced red cell concentrate quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Luciana A; Hlavac, Nicole R C; Terra, Silvia R; Back, Franciele P; Jane Wardrop, K; González, Félix H D

    2014-09-01

    Additive solutions (AS) and prestorage leukoreduction (LR) are important tools used to maintain erythrocyte viability during storage and avoid transfusion reactions in recipients, respectively. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of a WBC filter (Immugard IIIRC) and compare the effect of 4 AS (phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-gluconate-mannitol [PAGGGM], saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol [SAGM], Adsol, Optisol) on the in vitro quality of canine leukoreduced packed RBC units (pRBC) stored for 41 days. Five hundred milliliters of blood were collected from 8 healthy dogs each into 70 mL of citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) solution, and were leukoreduced by a polyurethane filter. pRBC of each dog were divided equally into 4 bags containing a different AS. Bags were stored for 41 days at 4°C and evaluated every 10 days. Variables analyzed included pH, PCV, and% hemolysis, and lactate, glucose, potassium, sodium, ATP, and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations. The LR resulted in residual WBC counts comparable to human standards. During storage, pH, and glucose, 2,3-DPG, and ATP concentrations decreased, and hemolysis, and lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations increased (P 2,3-DPG concentrations. When compared with day 1 values, significant changes were seen in these variables by day 31 with all AS. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. MASS CONCENTRATIONS AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    3Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, OH. 45268, USA ... the air quality in pollution control policy. .... houses, commercial firms, fuel depot, Addis Ababa cement factory and Moha Nefas Silk Soft ... practice of the site is dominated by manufacturing and processing industries.

  3. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta: A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1 thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2 cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3 the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  4. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): a new species from South China Sea based on morphological observation and rbcL gene sequences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

    2013-01-01

    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81-108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114-133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  5. Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from China based on morphological evidence and comparative rbcL sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cuicui; Liu, Miao; Guo, Shaoru; Zhao, Dan; Luan, Rixiao; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is newly described from Hainan Province, southern China. The organism has the following morphological features: (1) purplish red, cartilaginous and lubricous thalli 5-10 cm in height; (2) compressed percurrent axes bearing abundant branches with opposite arrangement; (3) claw-like apices on top, constricted to 2-4 cm at the base; (4) cortex consisting of 3-6 layers of elliptical or anomalous cells and a medulla covered by compact medullary filaments; (5) reproductive structures distributed throughout the thallus, especially centralized at the bottom of the end portion of the branches; and (6) 4-celled Carpogonial branches and 3-celled auxiliary-cell branches, both of the Grateloupia-type. The morphological diff erences were supported by molecular phylogenetics based on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbcL) gene sequence analysis. There was only a 1 bp divergence between specimens collected from Wenchang and Lingshui of Hainan province. The new species was embedded in the large Grateloupia clade of the Halymeniaceae. The pairwise distances between G. ramosa and other species within Grateloupia ranged from 26 to 105 bp, within pairwise distances of 13-111 bp between species of the large genus Grateloupia in Halymeniaceae. Thus, we propose this new species as G. ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov.

  6. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

    2013-01-01

    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia. PMID:24455703

  7. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA, phytochrome B, rbcL, atpB, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M P; Savolainen, V; Clevinger, C C; Archer, R H; Davis, J I

    2001-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within Celastraceae (spindle-tree family) were inferred from nucleotide sequence characters from the 5' end of 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (including expansion segments D1-D3; 84 species sampled), phytochrome B (58 species), rbcL (31 species), atpB (23 species), and morphology (94 species). Among taxa of questionable affinity, Forsellesia is a member of Crossosomataceae, and Goupia is excluded from Celastraceae. However, Brexia, Canotia, Lepuropetalon, Parnassia, Siphonodon, and Stackhousiaceae are supported as members of Celastraceae. Gymnosporia and Tricerma are distinct from Maytenus, Cassine is supported as distinct from Elaeodendron, and Dicarpellum is distinct from Salacia. Catha, Maytenus, and Pristimera are not resolved as natural genera. Hippocrateaceae (including Plagiopteron and Lophopetalum) are a clade nested within a paraphyletic Celastraceae. These data also suggest that the Loesener's classification of Celastraceae sensu stricto and Hallé's classification of Hippocrateaceae are artificial. The diversification of the fruit and aril within Celastraceae appears to be complex, with multiple origins of most fruit and aril forms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  9. New liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for routine TDM of vancomycin in patients with both normal and impaired renal functions and comparison with results of polarization fluoroimmunoassay in light of varying creatinine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozmanová, Hana; Kacířová, Ivana; Uřinovská, Romana; Šištík, Pavel; Grundmann, Milan

    2017-06-01

    A new LC-MS/MS method with simple sample extraction and a relatively short period of vancomycin analysis for routine therapeutic drug monitoring was developed and validated. 50μL serum was precipitated using 20μL 33% trichloroacetic acid and 0.5mol/L NH 4 OH was added to increase pH before analysis. A RP BEH C18, 1.7μm, 2.1×50mm column maintained at 30°C and tobramycin as internal standard were used. Mass detection was performed in positive electrospray mode. The results obtained with LC-MS/MS method were correlated with an FPIA assay (Abbott AxSYM) using mouse monoclonal antibody. Subjects were divided into three groups according to creatinine levels (53.5±19.1, 150.2±48.4, 471.7±124.7μmol/L) and Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare vancomycin concentrations. The results of subjects with both normal and higher creatinine levels correlated very well and the linear regression model equations were near ideal (LC-MS VAN =0.947×Abbott VAN +0.192 and LC-MS VAN =0.973×Abbott VAN -0.411 respectively). Dialyzed patients with the highest creatinine levels showed about 14% greater vancomycin concentration with the FPIA assay (LC-MS VAN =0.866×Abbott VAN +2.127). This overestimation probably due to the presence of the metabolite CDP ought not to be of clinical relevance owing to the wide range of recommended vancomycin concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  11. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  12. Population genetic structure and phylogeographical pattern of a relict tree fern, Alsophila spinulosa (Cyatheaceae), inferred from cpDNA atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Guopei; Gu, Hongya

    2004-11-01

    Sequences of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers of individuals of a tree fern species, Alsophila spinulosa, collected from ten relict populations distributed in the Hainan and Guangdong provinces, and the Guangxi Zhuang region in southern China, were determined. Sequence length varied from 724 bp to 731 bp, showing length polymorphism, and base composition was with high A+T content between 63.17% and 63.95%. Sequences were neutral in terms of evolution (Tajima's criterion D=-1.01899, P>0.10 and Fu and Li's test D*=-1.39008, P>0.10; F*=-1.49775, P>0.10). A total of 19 haplotypes were identified based on nucleotide variation. High levels of haplotype diversity (h=0.744) and nucleotide diversity (Dij=0.01130) were detected in A. spinulosa, probably associated with its long evolutionary history, which has allowed the accumulation of genetic variation within lineages. Both the minimum spanning network and neighbor-joining trees generated for haplotypes demonstrated that current populations of A. spinulosa existing in Hainan, Guangdong, and Guangxi were subdivided into two geographical groups. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variation (93.49%, P<0.001) was partitioned among regions. Wright's isolation by distance model was not supported across extant populations. Reduced gene flow by the Qiongzhou Strait and inbreeding may result in the geographical subdivision between the Hainan and Guangdong + Guangxi populations (FST=0.95, Nm=0.03). Within each region, the star-like pattern of phylogeography of haplotypes implied a population expansion process during evolutionary history. Gene genealogies together with coalescent theory provided significant information for uncovering phylogeography of A. spinulosa.

  13. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  14. Phylogeny of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) based on DNA sequence data from ITS, psbB-psbH, and rbcL, with emphasis on taxa of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Bin Wen; Ming-Li Zhang; Ge-Lin Zhu; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2010-01-01

    To reconstruct phylogeny and verify the monophyly of major subgroups, a total of 52 species representing almost all species of Salsoleae s.l. in China were sampled, with analysis based on three molecular markers (nrDNA ITS, cpDNA psbB-psbH and rbcL), using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Our molecular evidence provides strong...

  15. GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data, VIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB), MODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night, NWS surface meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data descriptions are provided at the following urls:GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data - https://aqs.epa.gov/aqsweb/documents/data_mart_welcome.htmlhttps://www3.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/pm25/qa/QA-Handbook-Vol-II.pdfVIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB) http://www.class.ngdc.noaa.gov/saa/products/search?datatype_family=VIIRS_SDRMODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night -MOD0&_L2; http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/MOD07_L2/index.html NWS surface meteorological data - https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/isdThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Wang, J., C. Aegerter, and J. Szykman. Potential Application of VIIRS Day/Night Band for Monitoring Nighttime Surface PM2.5 Air Quality From Space. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 124(0): 55-63, (2016).

  16. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  17. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Karessa L.; Dolislager, Fredrick G.; Bellamy, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  18. Mass spectrometry in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2000-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an important role in oceanography for various applications. Different types of inorganic as well as organic mass spectrometric techniques are being exploited world-wide to understand the different aspects of marine science, for palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology, for isotopic composition and concentrations of different elements as well as for speciation studies. The present paper reviews some of the applications of atomic mass spectrometric techniques in the area of oceanography

  19. INFLUENCIA DE LA CARGA ORGÁNICA SOBRE LA EFICIENCIA DE REACTORES RBC DE TRES ETAPAS EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE UN EFLUENTE INDUSTRIAL SINTÉTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Behling de Calmón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo incluye el estudio de la influencia de la carga orgánica (CO sobre la eficiencia de reactores biológicos rotativos de contacto (RBC, aerobios de tres etapas, al tratar un efluente industrial sintético, con la finalidad de establecer la adecuación del efluente final con respecto a los límites de descarga establecidos en la normativa de Venezuela. Durante la experimentación, se evaluaron pH, alcalinidad total, oxígeno disuelto, demanda biológica de oxígeno (DBO, demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, sólidos suspendidos totales (SST, nitrógeno total Kjeldahl (NTK, NH 4 + , NO 2 - y NO 3 - , de acuerdo con los métodos estándares. La variación de la CO aplicada se obtuvo mediante modificación del tiempo de retención hidráulico (TRH, (24, 12 y 6 h, y se mantuvo constante la DQO de entrada (influente sintético de sacarosa+ urea. La mayor eficiencia de remoción de DQO se obtuvo para un CO global de 11,68 gDQO/m 2 .d (96,25%; TRH=12 h. Para los TRH 24 y 12 h, la eficiencia de remoción global de N-total fue de 66,92 y 62,95%, respectivamente. La mayor remoción de C y de N se obtuvo en la primera etapa de los reactores y se logró cumplir con el límite venezolano permisible de descarga para DQO (<350 mg/L. La posible ocurrencia del proceso de nitrificación repercutió sobre el aumento de las concentraciones de nitrógeno inorgánico en el efluente final.

  20. Effect of Mg2+ and Fe2+ Concentrations in Culture Medium on CGF Formation from Microalgae Chlorella Pyrenoidosa Ink and Analysis of Amino Acids by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiati Kusmiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa contains Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF, which consists of proteins and polysaccharides. CGF is located inside the nucleus of cells and is beneficial to humans as a food supplement, an immunity booster, and an antioxidant. CGF formation of C. pyrenoidosa is influenced by medium composition. C. pyrenoidosa INK was cultured in a modified basal medium (MBM with various concentrations of Mg2+ (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g/L and Fe2+ (3.5×10-4 and 5.0×10-4 g/L. The experiments were performed and analyzed under a completely randomized design using a 2-L bottle with three replications. The results showed that MBM with 1.0 g/L of Mg2+ and 3.5×10-4 g/L of Fe2+ yielded the optimal growth curve for C. pyrenoidosa. Analysis of protein content was carried out using the Lowry method with a spectrophotometer at λ=750 nm, and the obtained results were 0.0974 mg/mL (extract and 6.4097 mg/ml (supernatant. Furthermore, analysis of glucose content was carried out using the phenol sulfate method (λ = 490 nm, and the obtained results were 49.331 ppm (extract and 1566.911 ppm (supernatant. Analysis of amino acids in CGF using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS indicated the presence of tyrosine, proline, glutamate, alanine, valine, tryptopan, phenylalanine, methionine, and leucine-isoleucine.

  1. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  2. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description is given of the functional elements of a mass spectrometer and of some currently employed mass spectrometric techniques, such as combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass chromatography, and selected ion monitoring. Various areas of application of mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry are discussed, such as inborn errors of metabolism and other metabolic disorders, intoxications, quantitative determinations of drugs, hormones, gases, and trace elements, and the use of isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a definitive method for the establishment of true values for concentrations of various compounds in reference sera. It is concluded that mass spectrometry is of great value in clinical chemistry. (Auth.)

  3. Evolution of RLSB, a nuclear-encoded S1 domain RNA binding protein associated with post-transcriptional regulation of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Stata, Matt; Siford, Rebecca; Sage, Tammy L; Sage, Rowan F; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A; Berry, James O

    2016-06-29

    RLSB, an S-1 domain RNA binding protein of Arabidopsis, selectively binds rbcL mRNA and co-localizes with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) within chloroplasts of C3 and C4 plants. Previous studies using both Arabidopsis (C3) and maize (C4) suggest RLSB homologs are post-transcriptional regulators of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA. While RLSB accumulates in all Arabidopsis leaf chlorenchyma cells, in C4 leaves RLSB-like proteins accumulate only within Rubisco-containing bundle sheath chloroplasts of Kranz-type species, and only within central compartment chloroplasts in the single cell C4 plant Bienertia. Our recent evidence implicates this mRNA binding protein as a primary determinant of rbcL expression, cellular localization/compartmentalization, and photosynthetic function in all multicellular green plants. This study addresses the hypothesis that RLSB is a highly conserved Rubisco regulatory factor that occurs in the chloroplasts all higher plants. Phylogenetic analysis has identified RLSB orthologs and paralogs in all major plant groups, from ancient liverworts to recent angiosperms. RLSB homologs were also identified in algae of the division Charophyta, a lineage closely related to land plants. RLSB-like sequences were not identified in any other algae, suggesting that it may be specific to the evolutionary line leading to land plants. The RLSB family occurs in single copy across most angiosperms, although a few species with two copies were identified, seemingly randomly distributed throughout the various taxa, although perhaps correlating in some cases with known ancient whole genome duplications. Monocots of the order Poales (Poaceae and Cyperaceae) were found to contain two copies, designated here as RLSB-a and RLSB-b, with only RLSB-a implicated in the regulation of rbcL across the maize developmental gradient. Analysis of microsynteny in angiosperms revealed high levels of conservation across eudicot species and for both paralogs in

  4. Managing the surge in demand for blood following mass casualty events: Early automatic restocking may preserve red cell supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Simon; Vasilakis, Christos; Perkins, Zane; Brundage, Susan; Tai, Nigel; Brohi, Karim

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic hemorrhage is a leading preventable cause of mortality following mass casualty events (MCEs). Improving outcomes requires adequate in-hospital provision of high-volume red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. This study investigated strategies for optimizing RBC provision to casualties in MCEs using simulation modeling. A computerized simulation model of a UK major trauma center (TC) transfusion system was developed. The model used input data from past MCEs and civilian and military trauma registries. We simulated the effect of varying on-shelf RBC stock hold and the timing of externally restocking RBC supplies on TC treatment capacity across increasing loads of priority one (P1) and two (P2) casualties from an event. Thirty-five thousand simulations were performed. A casualty load of 20 P1s and P2s under standard TC RBC stock conditions left 35% (95% confidence interval, 32-38%) of P1s and 7% (4-10%) of P2s inadequately treated for hemorrhage. Additionally, exhaustion of type O emergency RBC stocks (a surrogate for reaching surge capacity) occurred in a median of 10 hours (IQR, 5 to >12 hours). Doubling casualty load increased this to 60% (57-63%) and 30% (26-34%), respectively, with capacity reached in 2 hours (1-3 hours). The model identified a minimum requirement of 12 U of on-shelf RBCs per P1/P2 casualty received to prevent surge capacity being reached. Restocking supplies in an MCE versus greater permanent on-shelf RBC stock holds was considered at increasing hourly intervals. T-test analysis showed no difference between stock hold versus supply restocking with regard to overall outcomes for MCEs up to 80 P1s and P2s in size (p < 0.05), provided the restock occurred within 6 hours. Even limited-sized MCEs threaten to overwhelm TC transfusion systems. An early-automated push approach to restocking RBCs initiated by central suppliers can produce equivocal outcomes compared with holding excess stock permanently at TCs. Therapeutic/care management study

  5. Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; O'Connell, Stella L; Mundell, Niamh L; Grimes, Carley A; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A

    2014-04-01

    Physical inactivity, inadequate dietary protein, and low-grade systemic inflammation contribute to age-related muscle loss, impaired function, and disability. We assessed the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) combined with a protein-enriched diet facilitated through lean red meat on lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle size, strength and function, circulating inflammatory markers, blood pressure, and lipids in elderly women. In a 4-mo cluster randomized controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 y who were residing in 15 retirement villages were allocated to receive PRT with lean red meat (∼160 g cooked) to be consumed 6 d/wk [resistance training plus lean red meat (RT+Meat) group; n = 53] or control PRT [1 serving pasta or rice/d; control resistance training (CRT) group; n = 47)]. All women undertook PRT 2 times/wk and received 1000 IU vitamin D3/d. The mean (± SD) protein intake was greater in the RT+Meat group than in the CRT group throughout the study (1.3 ± 0.3 compared with 1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, respectively; P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group experienced greater gains in total body LTM (0.45 kg; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.84 kg), leg LTM (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.42 kg), and muscle strength (18%; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.34) than did the CRT group (all P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group also experienced a 10% greater increase in serum insulin-like growth factor I (P < 0.05) and a 16% greater reduction in the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05) after 4 mo. There were no between-group differences for the change in blood lipids or blood pressure. A protein-enriched diet equivalent to ∼1.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹ achieved through lean red meat is safe and effective for enhancing the effects of PRT on LTM and muscle strength and reducing circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000223235.

  6. Comparison of the platelet-rich plasma and buffy coat protocols for preparation of canine platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoareau, Guillaume L; Jandrey, Karl E; Burges, Julie; Bremer, Daphne; Tablin, Fern

    2014-12-01

    Platelet (PLT) concentrates (PC) can be produced via the buffy coat (BC) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) protocols. The 2 methods have not been compared with canine blood. The aims of the study were to compare the PLT, WBC, and RBC concentrations, in vitro PLT function, and markers of platelet storage lesion (PSL) in canine PC generated by 2 different protocols, and determine microbial growth throughout storage. PC from 8 healthy donor dogs were produced using 2 standard protocols, PRP and BC. PLT, WBC, and RBC counts, optical aggregometry assays, and PSL markers (pH, pCO2 , HCO3 , lactate and glucose concentrations, and LDH activity) were determined on storage days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were also performed. Mean PLT counts were comparable between protocols and remained stable throughout storage up to day 7, while median WBC and RBC counts on day 0 were significantly higher in the BC-PC group (17,800 WBCs/μL; 195,000 RBCs/μL) than in the PRP-PC group (200 WBCs/μL; 10,000 RBCs/μL) (P = .012). In PRP-PC aggregometry, the median slope and amplitude in response to γ-thrombin and convulxin (+ ADP) were significantly decreased, and virtually absent in BC-PC during storage. PSL markers (lactate, LDH activity) were higher in BC-PC. Aerobic bacterial growth was observed in 2 PRP-PC and 1 BC-PC. This in vitro study suggests that PRP-PC had lesser WBC and RBC contamination and superior PLT function compared with BC-PC. In vivo studies are required to address safety and efficacy of PRP-PC. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Effect of secondary organic aerosol coating thickness on the real-time detection and characterization of biomass-burning soot by two particle mass spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Ahern

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a large source of light-absorbing refractory black carbon (rBC particles with a wide range of morphologies and sizes. The net radiative forcing from these particles is strongly dependent on the amount and composition of non-light-absorbing material internally mixed with the rBC and on the morphology of the mixed particles. Understanding how the mixing state and morphology of biomass-burning aerosol evolves in the atmosphere is critical for constraining the influence of these particles on radiative forcing and climate. We investigated the response of two commercial laser-based particle mass spectrometers, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV ablation LAAPTOF and the IR vaporization SP-AMS, to monodisperse biomass-burning particles as we sequentially coated the particles with secondary organic aerosol (SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis. We studied three mobility-selected soot core sizes, each with a number of successively thicker coatings of SOA applied. Using IR laser vaporization, the SP-AMS had different changes in sensitivity to rBC compared to potassium as a function of applied SOA coatings. We show that this is due to different effective beam widths for the IR laser vaporization region of potassium versus black carbon. The SP-AMS's sensitivity to black carbon (BC mass was not observed to plateau following successive SOA coatings, despite achieving high OA : BC mass ratios greater than 9. We also measured the ion fragmentation pattern of biomass-burning rBC and found it changed only slightly with increasing SOA mass. The average organic matter ion signal measured by the LAAPTOF demonstrated a positive correlation with the condensed SOA mass on individual particles, despite the inhomogeneity of the particle core compositions. This demonstrates that the LAAPTOF can obtain quantitative mass measurements of aged soot-particle composition from realistic biomass-burning particles with complex morphologies and composition.

  8. Implementation of suitable flow injection/sequential-sample separation/preconcentration schemes for determination of trace metal concentrations using detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Various preconditioning procedures encomprising appropriate separation/preconcentration schemes in order to obtain optimal sensitivity and selectivity characteristics when using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS...

  9. A reassessment of the in vitro RBC haemolysis assay with defibrinated sheep blood for the determination of the ocular irritation potential of cosmetic products: comparison with the in vivo Draize rabbit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eloísa Nunes; Presgrave, Rosaura de Farias; Presgrave, Octávio Augusto França; Sabagh, Fernanda Peres; de Freitas, João Carlos Borges Rolim; Corrado, Alexandre P

    2008-07-01

    We examined the correlation between results obtained from the in vivo Draize test for ocular irritation and in vitro results obtained from the sheep red blood cell (RBC) haemolytic assay, which assesses haemolysis and protein denaturation in erythrocytes, induced by cosmetic products. We sought to validate the haemolytic assay as a preliminary test for identifying highly-irritative products, and also to evaluate the in vitro test as alternative assay for replacement of the in vivo test. In vitro and in vivo analyses were carried out on 19 cosmetic products, in order to correlate the lesions in the ocular structures with three in vitro parameters: (i) the extent of haemolysis (H50); (ii) the protein denaturation index (DI); and (iii) the H50/DI ratio, which reflects the irritation potential (IP). There was significant correlation between maximum average scores (MAS) and the parameters determined in vitro (r = 0.752-0.764). These results indicate that the RBC assay is a useful and rapid test for use as a screening method to assess the IP of cosmetic products, and for predicting the IP value with a high level of concordance (94.7%). The assay showed high sensitivity and specificity rates of 91.6% and 100%, respectively.

  10. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  11. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  12. Insulin, androgen, and gonadotropin concentrations, body mass index, and waist to hip ratio in the first years after menarche in girls with regular menstrual cycles, irregular menstrual cycles, or oligomenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.H.A. van; Voorhorst, F.J.; Kaptein, M.B.H.; Hirasing, R.A.; Koppenaal, C.; Schoemaker, J.

    2000-01-01

    Data on changes in hormone concentrations during the first years after menarche are scarce. We studied the relation between gynecological age (age minus age at menarche), hormone concentrations, and body measurements from the 1st to the 6th yr after menarche in 229 observations of girls with regular

  13. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. The rise and fall of red cell mass measurement in polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefferi, Ayalew

    2005-05-01

    The total blood volume (BV) consists of the part occupied by red blood cells (RBC), which is referred to as red cell mass (RCM), and that occupied by plasma (ie, plasma volume). Quantitative laboratory measurements that are pertinent to RBC, including RBC count, hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hgb) are expressed in reference to a given volume of whole blood and are therefore influenced by plasma volume. Consequently, a "direct" RCM measurement has been promoted as a more accurate indicator of the body's red cell content. In accordance with this view, an international group of investigators, then identified as the Polycythemia Vera Study Group (PVSG), recommended that RCM be measured and only if elevated should a patient be considered for participation in a series of clinical trials in PV that were conducted more than 30 years ago. By default, the 'study eligibility' criteria used in these studies became 'diagnostic' criteria without any systematic evaluation for diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, over the years, it has become evident that RCM measurement is a cumbersome and costly test that is also suboptimal in its diagnostic accuracy. As a result, the specific procedure has been abandoned by the majority of hematologists in certain countries and instead physicians are increasingly using bone marrow histology, serum erythropoietin level, and other disease-characteristic biologic markers as diagnostic tools.

  15. Masses of supernova progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The possible nature and masses of supernovae progenitors, and the bearing of empirical results on some unsolved theoretical problems concerning the origin of supernovae, are discussed. The author concentrates on two main questions: what is the lower mass limit for stars to die explosively and what stars initiate type I supernovae. The evidence considered includes local supernova rates, empirical estimates of msub(w) (the upper mass limit for death as a white dwarf), the distributions of supernovae among stellar populations in galaxies and the colors of supernova producing galaxies. (B.D.)

  16. A robust mass spectrometry method for rapid profiling of erythrocyte ghost membrane proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fye, Haddy K S; Mrosso, Paul; Bruce, Lesley; Thézénas, Marie-Laëtitia; Davis, Simon; Fischer, Roman; Rwegasira, Gration L; Makani, Julie; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) physiology is directly linked to many human disorders associated with low tissue oxygen levels or anemia including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, sleep apnea and sickle cell anemia. Parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and phylum Apicomplexa directly target RBCs, and surface molecules within the RBC membrane are critical for pathogen interactions. Proteomics of RBC membrane 'ghost' fractions has therefore been of considerable interest, but protocols described to date are either suboptimal or too extensive to be applicable to a larger set of clinical cohorts. Here, we describe an optimised erythrocyte isolation protocol from blood, tested for various storage conditions and explored using different fractionation conditions for isolating ghost RBC membranes. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis on a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument was used to profile proteins isolated from the comparative conditions. Data analysis was run on the MASCOT and MaxQuant platforms to assess their scope and diversity. The results obtained demonstrate a robust method for membrane enrichment enabling consistent MS based characterisation of > 900 RBC membrane proteins in single LC-MS/MS analyses. Non-detergent based membrane solubilisation methods using the tissue and supernatant fractions of isolated ghost membranes are shown to offer effective haemoglobin removal as well as diverse recovery including erythrocyte membrane proteins of high and low abundance. The methods described in this manuscript propose a medium to high throughput framework for membrane proteome profiling by LC-MS of potential applicability to larger clinical cohorts in a variety of disease contexts.

  17. Direct gas injection method: A simple modification to an elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometer for stable isotope analysis of N and C from N2O and CO2 gases in nanomolar concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple modification to the Elemental Analyzer coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer (EA-IRMS) setup is described. This modification allows the users to measure nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) by injecting the gases directly into an online injector placed befor...

  18. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  19. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  20. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  1. Technical note: development and validation of a method using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of vitamin B12 concentrations in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zironi, E; Gazzotti, T; Barbarossa, A; Devicienti, C; Scardilli, M; Pagliuca, G

    2013-05-01

    A method using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed to measure cobalamins in naturally enriched raw milk and to evaluate their fate during thermal treatments and along the process of cheese making. After addition of methotrexate as internal standard, samples were submitted to heat treatment in the presence of cyanide, which converts all the less-stable cobalamins into cyanocobalamin; then, purification was performed by a solid-phase extraction step. Reverse-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry provided a fast and reliable determination. Mass spectrometric analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The monitored transitions were m/z 678.36 → 147.10 and 678.36 → 359.30 for vitamin B12 and m/z 455.22 → 175.13 and 455.22 → 308.22 for methotrexate (internal standard). The limit of quantification was 2 ng/g. The method showed good linearity from 2 to 20 ng/g (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and intra- and interday precisions were always less than 19%. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  3. Cobalamin Concentrations in Fetal Liver Show Gender Differences: A Result from Using a High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry as an Ultratrace Cobalt Speciation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosle, Janine; Goetz, Sven; Raab, Andrea; Krupp, Eva M; Scheckel, Kirk G; Lombi, Enzo; Meharg, Andrew A; Fowler, Paul A; Feldmann, Jörg

    2016-12-20

    Maternal diet and lifestyle choices may affect placental transfer of cobalamin (Cbl) to the fetus. Fetal liver concentration of Cbl reflects nutritional status with regards to vitamin B12, but at these low concentration current Cbl measurement methods lack robustness. An analytical method based on enzymatic extraction with subsequent reversed-phase-high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) separation and parallel ICPMS and electrospray ionization (ESI)-Orbitrap-MS to determine specifically Cbl species in liver samples of only 10-50 mg was developed using 14 pig livers. Subsequently 55 human fetal livers were analyzed. HPLC-ICPMS analysis for cobalt (Co) and Cbl gave detection limits of 0.18 ng/g and 0.88 ng/g d.m. in liver samples, respectively, with a recovery of >95%. Total Co (Co t ) concentration did not reflect the amount of Cbl or vitamin B12 in the liver. Cbl bound Co contributes only 45 ± 15% to Co t . XRF mapping and μXANES analysis confirmed the occurrence of non-Cbl cobalt in pig liver hot spots indicating particular Co. No correlations of total cobalt nor Cbl with fetal weight or weeks of gestation were found for the human fetal livers. Although no gender difference could be identified for total Co concentration, female livers were significantly higher in Cbl concentration (24.1 ± 7.8 ng/g) than those from male fetuses (19.8 ± 7.1 ng/g) (p = 0.04). This HPLC-ICPMS method was able to quantify total Co t and Cbl in fetus liver, and it was sensitive and precise enough to identify this gender difference.

  4. Determination of low concentrations of iron, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and other trace elements in natural samples using an octopole collision/reaction cell equipped quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Angela R; Misra, Sambuddha; Landing, William M

    2015-04-30

    Accurate determination of trace metals has many applications in environmental and life sciences, such as constraining the cycling of essential micronutrients in biological production and employing trace metals as tracers for anthropogenic pollution. Analysis of elements such as Fe, As, Se, and Cd is challenged by the formation of polyatomic mass spectrometric interferences, which are overcome in this study. We utilized an Octopole Collision/Reaction Cell (CRC)-equipped Quadrupole-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer for the rapid analysis of small volume samples (~250 μL) in a variety of matrices containing HNO3 and/or HCl. Efficient elimination of polyatomic interferences was demonstrated by the use of the CRC in Reaction Mode (RM; H2 gas) and in Collision-Reaction Mode (CRM; H2 and He gas), in addition to hot plasma (RF power 1500 W) and cool plasma (600 W) conditions. It was found that cool plasma conditions with RM achieved the greatest signal sensitivity while maintaining low detection limits (i.e. (56) Fe in 0.44 M HNO3 has a sensitivity of 160,000 counts per second (cps)-per-1 µg L(-1) and a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.86 ng L(-1) ). The average external precision was ≤ ~10% for minor (≤10 µg L(-1) ) elements measured in a 1:100 dilution of NIST 1643e and for iron in rainwater samples under all instrumental operating conditions. An improved method has been demonstrated for the rapid multi-element analysis of trace metals that are challenged by polyatomic mass spectrometric interferences, with a focus on (56) Fe, (75) As, (78) Se and (111) Cd. This method can contribute to aqueous environmental geochemistry and chemical oceanography, as well as other fields such as forensic chemistry, agriculture, food chemistry, and pharmaceutical sciences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mass hysteria

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Considerable research is being undertaken to identify the Higgs particle that is believed to give things their mass. According to the standard model, what we call mass is really an indication of how strongly particles interact with an invisible syrupy substance called the Higgs field. Quantum mechanics say that the mass-giving field can also be thought of as a sea of electrically neutral Higgs particles that should be dislodged in collisions between subatomic particles with high enough energies. Particle physicists expect the Higgs to exist only for a fleeting moment before decaying into other particles, which are caught in a detector. (Edited abstract).

  6. Mass-selective Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants by GC/MS Isolation, Concentration, Identification and Determination of Isomeric Spesific Composition of PCB in Natural and Drinking Waters of Dnieper River Basin in Kiev Region

    OpenAIRE

    Milyukin, Mikhail V.

    2002-01-01

    In concentrates of natural and drinking waters of Dnieper river basin in Kiev region with enrichment factor of 2,0⋅105–4,0⋅105 PCB (PCB524, PCB664, PCB1015, PCB1185, PCB1055, PCB1536, PCB1386, PCB1807, PCB2008) have been identified and their isomeric-specific composition (tetrachloro- – heptachloroisomers) has been determined at MDL level as low as 10–400 pg/L

  7. Assessing the association between natural food folate intake and blood folate concentrations: a systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis of trials and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetta, Claire M; Devine, Owen J; Crider, Krista S; Tsang, Becky L; Cordero, Amy M; Qi, Yan Ping; Guo, Jing; Berry, Robert J; Rosenthal, Jorge; Mulinare, Joseph; Mersereau, Patricia; Hamner, Heather C

    2015-04-10

    Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992-3 2014) with both natural food folate intake alone and blood folate concentration among females aged 12-49 years. Bayesian methods were used to estimate regression model parameters describing the association between natural food folate intake and subsequent blood folate concentration. Seven controlled trials and 29 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. For the six studies using microbiologic assay (MA) included in the meta-analysis, we estimate that a 6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI): 4%, 9%) increase in red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration and a 7% (95% CrI: 1%, 12%) increase in serum/plasma folate concentration can occur for every 10% increase in natural food folate intake. Using modeled results, we estimate that a natural food folate intake of ≥ 450 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day could achieve the lower bound of an RBC folate concentration (~ 1050 nmol/L) associated with the lowest risk of a neural tube defect. Natural food folate intake affects blood folate concentration and adequate intakes could help women achieve a RBC folate concentration associated with a risk of 6 neural tube defects/10,000 live births.

  8. Assessing the Association between Natural Food Folate Intake and Blood Folate Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Trials and Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Marchetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992–3 2014 with both natural food folate intake alone and blood folate concentration among females aged 12–49 years. Bayesian methods were used to estimate regression model parameters describing the association between natural food folate intake and subsequent blood folate concentration. Seven controlled trials and 29 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. For the six studies using microbiologic assay (MA included in the meta-analysis, we estimate that a 6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI: 4%, 9% increase in red blood cell (RBC folate concentration and a 7% (95% CrI: 1%, 12% increase in serum/plasma folate concentration can occur for every 10% increase in natural food folate intake. Using modeled results, we estimate that a natural food folate intake of ≥450 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE/day could achieve the lower bound of an RBC folate concentration (~1050 nmol/L associated with the lowest risk of a neural tube defect. Natural food folate intake affects blood folate concentration and adequate intakes could help women achieve a RBC folate concentration associated with a risk of 6 neural tube defects/10,000 live births.

  9. Genetics, Diet, and Season Are Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Concentration in a Yup’ik Study Population from Southwestern Alaska123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohner, Alison E; Wang, Zhican; Yracheta, Joseph; O’Brien, Diane M; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Black, Jynene; Philip, Jacques; Wiener, Howard W; Tiwari, Hemant K; Stapleton, Patricia L; Tsai, Jesse M; Thornton, Timothy A; Boyer, Bert B; Thummel, Kenneth E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low blood vitamin D concentration is a concern for people living in circumpolar regions, where sunlight is insufficient for vitamin D synthesis in winter months and the consumption of traditional dietary sources of vitamin D is decreasing. Objective: The objective was to characterize the effects of diet, genetic variation, and season on serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] concentrations in Yup’ik Alaska Native people living in rural southwest Alaska. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional design that assessed the associations of traditional diet (via a biomarker, the RBC δ15N value), age, gender, body mass index (BMI), community location, and genotype of select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily R, peptide 1 (CYP2R1), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), and vitamin D binding protein (GC) with serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in 743 Yup’ik male and female participants, aged 14–93 y, recruited between September 2009 and December 2013. Results: Yup’ik participants, on average, had adequate concentrations of serum 25(OH)D3 (31.1 ± 1.0 ng/mL). Variations in diet, BMI, age, gender, season of sample collection, and inland or coastal community geography were all significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3 concentration. In models not adjusting for other covariates, age, diet, and seasonal effects explained 33.7%, 20.7%, and 9.8%, respectively, of variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Of the 8 SNPs interrogated in CYP2R1 and DHCR7, only rs11023374 in CYP2R1 was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3, explaining 1.5% of variability. The GC haplotype explained an additional 2.8% of variability. Together, age, diet, gender, season of sample collection, BMI, geography of the community, and genotype at rs11023374 explained 52.5% of the variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Conclusions: Lower consumption of the traditional diet was associated with lower serum concentrations of 25(OH

  10. Genetics, Diet, and Season Are Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Concentration in a Yup'ik Study Population from Southwestern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohner, Alison E; Wang, Zhican; Yracheta, Joseph; O'Brien, Diane M; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Black, Jynene; Philip, Jacques; Wiener, Howard W; Tiwari, Hemant K; Stapleton, Patricia L; Tsai, Jesse M; Thornton, Timothy A; Boyer, Bert B; Thummel, Kenneth E

    2016-02-01

    Low blood vitamin D concentration is a concern for people living in circumpolar regions, where sunlight is insufficient for vitamin D synthesis in winter months and the consumption of traditional dietary sources of vitamin D is decreasing. The objective was to characterize the effects of diet, genetic variation, and season on serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] concentrations in Yup'ik Alaska Native people living in rural southwest Alaska. This study was a cross-sectional design that assessed the associations of traditional diet (via a biomarker, the RBC δ(15)N value), age, gender, body mass index (BMI), community location, and genotype of select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily R, peptide 1 (CYP2R1), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), and vitamin D binding protein (GC) with serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in 743 Yup'ik male and female participants, aged 14-93 y, recruited between September 2009 and December 2013. Yup'ik participants, on average, had adequate concentrations of serum 25(OH)D3 (31.1 ± 1.0 ng/mL). Variations in diet, BMI, age, gender, season of sample collection, and inland or coastal community geography were all significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3 concentration. In models not adjusting for other covariates, age, diet, and seasonal effects explained 33.7%, 20.7%, and 9.8%, respectively, of variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Of the 8 SNPs interrogated in CYP2R1 and DHCR7, only rs11023374 in CYP2R1 was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3, explaining 1.5% of variability. The GC haplotype explained an additional 2.8% of variability. Together, age, diet, gender, season of sample collection, BMI, geography of the community, and genotype at rs11023374 explained 52.5% of the variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Lower consumption of the traditional diet was associated with lower serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3. Younger adults and youth in this community may be at

  11. The circulating concentration and ratio of total and high molecular weight adiponectin in post-menopausal women with and without osteoporosis and its association with body mass index and biochemical markers of bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, R; Hazell, M J; Durham, B H; Rees, C; Ranganath, L R; Fraser, W D

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. This was a cross-sectional study of 34 post-menopausal women with and 37 without osteoporosis. All subjects had body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), total-, high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and their ratio, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a marker of bone resorption (betaCTX) and formation (P1NP) measured. We observed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD (r=0.44, plean subjects but there was no difference between those with or without osteoporosis. There were significant negative correlations between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and BMI (r=-0.27, p=0.030) and with OPG (r=-0.44, pproduction of OPG thereby affecting osteoclasts mediated bone resorption.

  12. CERTIFICATION REPORT The certification of the mass concentration of immunoglobulin G proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (IgG PR3 ANCA) in human serum: ERM® - DA483/IFCC

    OpenAIRE

    MONOGIOUDI EVANTHIA; HUTU DANA PETRONELA; CHAROUD-GOT JEAN; SHELDON JOANNA; SCHIMMEL HEINZ; TRAPMANN STEFANIE; MERONI PIERLUIGI; EMONS HENDRIK; ZEGERS INGRID

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the production and certification of ERM-DA483/IFCC, a serum protein reference material intended for the standardisation of measurements of immunoglobulin G proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (IgG PR3 ANCA). The material was produced according to ISO Guide 34:2009 [ ] and is certified in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006. The raw material used to prepare ERM-DA483/IFCC was a plasmapheresis material containing a high concentration of IgG PR3 ANCA. A...

  13. Computational algorithm for molybdenite concentrate annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkatseva, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    Computational algorithm is presented for annealing of molybdenite concentrate with granulated return dust and that of granulated molybdenite concentrate. The algorithm differs from the known analogies for sulphide raw material annealing by including the calculation of return dust mass in stationary annealing; the latter quantity varies form the return dust mass value obtained in the first iteration step. Masses of solid products are determined by distribution of concentrate annealing products, including return dust and benthonite. The algorithm is applied to computations for annealing of other sulphide materials. 3 refs

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations and congener composition in masu salmon from Japan: A study of all 209 PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Reiko; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Haruta, Shinsuke; Kawano, Masahide; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two subspecies of masu salmon collected from central to northern Japan were examined. • All 209 PCB congeners in the fish were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS with δ 15 N and δ 13 C determinations. • ∑ PCBs was highest in fish that had upstreamed from Ise Bay, which is close to a heavy industrial area. • However, TEQ dl-PCBs values were highest in fish from southern part of the Sea of Japan. - Abstract: We collected two subspecies of masu salmon: Oncorhynchus masou masou from four localities (southern Sea of Japan northward to Hokkaido) and O. masou ishikawae from upstream from Ise Bay close to a heavy industrial area. All 209 PCB congeners were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. PCA ordination of congener concentrations divided data into three groups: (i) ssp. masou from Hokkaido, (ii) ssp. masou from the other regions and (iii) ssp. ishikawae. The highest ∑ PCB concentration (40.39 ng/wet wt) was in ssp. ishikawae followed by ssp. masou from southern waters; however the TEQ dioxin-like PCBs was highest in ssp. masou from southern water (1.96 pg-TEQ dioxin-like PCBs /g wet wt.) due to the high proportion of congener #126 in its complement (#126 has the highest toxic equivalency factor among congeners). There is likely a contamination source offshore in the southern Sea of Japan and/or along the migratory route of ssp. masou

  15. Toward understanding atmospheric physics impacting the relationship between columnar aerosol optical depth and near-surface PM2.5 mass concentrations in Nevada and California, U.S.A., during 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Panorska, Anna; Arnott, W. Patrick; Barnard, James C.; Boehmler, Jayne M.; Holmes, Heather A.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the relationship between columnar aerosol optical depth (τext) and surface particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5) is desired to estimate surface aerosol concentrations over broad spatial and temporal scales using satellite remote sensing. However, remote sensing studies incur challenges when surface aerosol pollution (i.e. PM2.5) is not correlated with columnar conditions (i.e., τext). PM2.5 data fusion models that rely on satellite data and statistical relationships of τext and PM2.5 may not be able to capture the physical conditions impacting the relationships that cause columnar and surface aerosols to not be correlated in the western U.S. Therefore, an extensive examination of the atmospheric conditions is required to improve surface estimates of PM2.5 that rely on columnar aerosol measurements. This investigation uses datasets from both routine monitoring networks and models of meteorological variables and aerosol physical parameters to understand the atmospheric conditions under which surface aerosol pollution can be explained by column measurements in California and Nevada during 2013. A novel quadrant method, that utilizes statistical analysis, was developed to investigate the relationship between τext and PM2.5. The results from this investigation show that τext and PM2.5 had a positive association (τext and PM2.5 increase together) when local sources of pollution or wildfires dominated aerosol pollution in the presence of a deep and well-mixed planetary boundary layer (PBL). Moreover, τext and PM2.5 had no association (where the variables are not related) when stable conditions, long-range transport, or entrainment of air from above the PBL were observed. It was found that seasonal categorization of the relationship between τext and PM2.5, an approach commonly used in statistical models to estimate surface concentrations with satellite remote sensing, may not be enough to account for the atmospheric conditions that drive the

  16. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Development of a system for simultaneous - sequential determinations of major and minor actinides (Th, Np, U, Pu, Am, Cm) by on-line extraction chromatography - ion concentration - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivellone, E.; Mariani, M.; Carlos-Marquez, R.; Aldave de las Heras, L.; Betti, M.; )

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Because of the great complexity and time consuming of traditional methods for actinides determination, a procedure for their simultaneous and sequential separation and quantification was developed. A complete circuit constituted by three analytical chromatographic columns packed with TEVA, UTEVA and TRU resins (Eichrom Inc) for retention of tetra-, hexa- and tri-valent actinides and three cation concentrator columns TCC-II (from Dionex Corporation) connected by six (4-way and 6-way) valves is coupled on-line to an ICPMS detector. The use of TCC-II columns just prior of the ICPMS determination allows to improve sensitivity and detection limits down to the ng/l level. The use of a coupled HPLC to an ICPMS system enables the complete analysis of all the six actinides in almost 2 hours. (author)

  18. Red Tides: Mass casualty and whole blood at sea Red Tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin T; Lin, Andrew H; Clark, Susan C; Cap, Andrew P; Dubose, Joseph J

    2018-02-13

    The U.S. Navy's casualty-receiving ships provide remote damage control resuscitation (RDCR) platforms to treat injured combatants deployed afloat and ashore. We report a significant mass casualty incident aboard the USS Bataan, and the most warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) transfused at sea for traumatic hemorrhagic shock since the Vietnam War. Casualty-receiving ships have robust medical capabilities, including a frozen blood bank with packed red blood cells (pRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). The blood supply can be augmented with WFWB collected from a "walking blood bank" (WBB). Following a helicopter crash, six patients were transported by MV-22 Osprey to the USS Bataan. Patient 1 had a pelvic fracture, was managed with a pelvic binder, and received 4 units of pRBC, 2 units of FFP, and 6 units of WFWB. Patient 2, with a comminuted tibia and fibula fracture, underwent lower extremity four-compartment fasciotomy, and received 4 units of WFWB. Patient 3 underwent several procedures, including left anterior thoracotomy, aortic cross-clamping, exploratory laparotomy, small bowel resection, and tracheostomy. He received 8 units of pRBC, 8 units of FFP, and 28 units of WFWB. Patients 4 and 5 had suspected spine injuries and were managed non-operatively. Patient 6, with open tibia and fibula fractures, underwent lower extremity four-compartment fasciotomy with tibia external fixation and received 1 unit of WFWB. All patients survived aeromedical evacuation to a Role 4 medical facility and subsequent transfer to local hospitals. Maritime military mass casualty incidents are challenging, but the U.S. Navy's casualty-receiving ships are ready to perform RDCR at sea. Activation of the ship's WBB to transfuse WFWB is essential for hemostatic resuscitations afloat. V STUDY TYPE: Case series.

  19. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  20. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  1. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained...

  2. Discapacidad, pobreza y sus abordajes: Revisión de la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC Aproaches in disability and poverty: Review of community based rehabilitation strategy (CBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nabergoi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados de una revisión bibliográfica sobre la estrategia de Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC. El mismo fue elaborado en el marco de los proyectos de Beca de Doctorado UBACyT "Desempeño ocupacional y salud en personas con discapacidad motriz en situación de pobreza" y Proyecto UBACyT "Praxis Psicosocial Comunitaria en Salud". Se describen antecedentes, características de la propuesta original, su evolución y algunas experiencias relevadas en América Latina.The article presents the results of a literature review on Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR. It was written within the framework of the Doctorate UBACyT Scholarship Project "Occupational Performance and Health in Motor Disabled People in Poverty Situation" and the UBACyT Project "Psychosocial Community Praxis in Health". Background, characteristics, evolution and some experiences in Latin America are described.

  3. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  4. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  5. Mass Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.

  6. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  7. Relative effects of plasma, fibrinogen concentrate, and factor XIII on ROTEM coagulation profiles in an in vitro model of massive transfusion in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David E; Halmin, Märit; Wikman, Agneta; Östlund, Anders; Ågren, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Massive traumatic haemorrhage is aggravated through the development of trauma-induced coagulopathy, which is managed by plasma transfusion and/or fibrinogen concentrate administration. It is yet unclear whether these treatments are equally potent in ensuring adequate haemostasis, and whether additional factor XIII (FXIII) administration provides further benefits. In this study, we compared ROTEM whole blood coagulation profiles after experimental massive transfusion with different transfusion regimens in an in vitro model of dilution- and transfusion-related coagulopathy. Healthy donor blood was mixed 1 + 1 with six different transfusion regimens. Each regimen contained RBC, platelet concentrate, and either fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or Ringer's acetate (RA). The regimens were further augmented through addition of a low- or medium-dose fibrinogen concentrate and FXIII. Transfusion with FFP alone was insufficient to maintain tissue-factor activated clot strength, coincidental with a deficiency in fibrin-based clot strength. Fibrinogen concentrate conserved, but did not improve coagulation kinetics and overall clot strength. Only combination therapy with FFP and low-dose fibrinogen concentrate improved both coagulation kinetics and fibrin-based clot strength. Administration of FXIII did not result in an improvement of clot strength. In conclusion, combination therapy with both FFP and low-dose fibrinogen concentrate improved clotting time and produced firm clots, representing a possible preferred first-line regimen to manage trauma-induced coagulopathy when RBC and platelets are also transfused. Further research is required to identify optimal first-line transfusion fluids for massive traumatic haemorrhage.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of optical glucose sensing in red cell concentrations using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Maruo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Alice W.; Shimogaki, Kazushige; Ogawa, Hideto; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products is one of the most frequent infectious complications of transfusion. Since glucose levels in blood supplies decrease as bacteria proliferate, it should be possible to detect the presence of bacterial contamination by measuring the glucose concentrations in the blood components. Hence this study is aimed to serve as a preliminary study for the nondestructive measurement of glucose level in transfusion blood. The glucose concentrations in red blood cell (RBC) samples were predicted using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in the 1350 to 1850 nm wavelength region. Furthermore, the effects of donor, hematocrit level, and temperature variations among the RBC samples were observed. Results showed that the prediction performance of a dataset which contained samples that differed in all three parameters had a standard error of 29.3 mg/dL. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) preprocessing method was also found to be effective in minimizing the variations in scattering patterns created by various sample properties. The results suggest that the diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy may provide another avenue for the detection of bacterial contamination in red cell concentrations (RCC) products.

  9. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  10. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of important medicinal plant species in genus Paeonia based on rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL DNA barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Choi, G; Kang, Y M; Yang, S; Moon, B C

    2016-08-05

    This study was performed to identify and analyze the phylogenetic relationship among four herbaceous species of the genus Paeonia, P. lactiflora, P. japonica, P. veitchii, and P. suffruticosa, using DNA barcodes. These four species, which are commonly used in traditional medicine as Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex, are pharmaceutically defined in different ways in the national pharmacopoeias in Korea, Japan, and China. To authenticate the different species used in these medicines, we evaluated rDNA-internal transcribed spacers (ITS), matK and rbcL regions, which provide information capable of effectively distinguishing each species from one another. Seventeen samples were collected from different geographic regions in Korea and China, and DNA barcode regions were amplified using universal primers. Comparative analyses of these DNA barcode sequences revealed species-specific nucleotide sequences capable of discriminating the four Paeonia species. Among the entire sequences of three barcodes, marker nucleotides were identified at three positions in P. lactiflora, eleven in P. japonica, five in P. veitchii, and 25 in P. suffruticosa. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed four distinct clusters showing homogeneous clades with high resolution at the species level. The results demonstrate that the analysis of these three DNA barcode sequences is a reliable method for identifying the four Paeonia species and can be used to authenticate Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex at the species level. Furthermore, based on the assessment of amplicon sizes, inter/intra-specific distances, marker nucleotides, and phylogenetic analysis, rDNA-ITS was the most suitable DNA barcode for identification of these species.

  11. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  12. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.

  13. Effects of therapeutic plasma exchange on serum immunoglobulin concentrations in a dog with refractory immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagnelli, Alyssa M; Walton, Stuart A; Liu, Chin-Chi; Acierno, Mark J

    2018-05-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old 8.3-kg (18.3-lb) neutered male Miniature Schnauzer was referred for diagnosis and treatment of a sudden onset of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and pallor. CLINICAL FINDINGS On physical examination, the dog was lethargic with pale mucous membranes and a capillary refill time ≥ 2 seconds. Skin and sclera were mildly icteric. Signs of pain were elicited during abdominal palpation, and an enlarged spleen was noted. Results of agglutination testing and cytologic findings were consistent with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). No contributing factors for development of IMHA were identified. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial treatment included management with immunosuppressant medications. Three packed RBC transfusions were administered, but clinical signs continued to progress. Therefore, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was performed 5 and 9 days after admission. Following each TPE procedure, the dog had an appreciable clinical improvement and decrease in RBC autoagglutination, and the Hct stabilized. Serum IgG and IgM concentrations were measured during and after both TPE procedures. Despite anticoagulative treatment, the dog developed a thrombus in the splenic vein, necessitating a splenectomy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The decrease and rebound in serum IgG and IgM concentrations following TPE provided evidence that TPE may have the same immunomodulatory effects in dogs as have been proposed to occur in people. Further, findings suggested that TPE may be a useful alternative in dogs with refractory IMHA when traditional treatments fail.

  14. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for [Na+]i. Five rat RBC specimens had [Na+]i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [6,6-2H2]glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in [Na+]i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in [Na+]i in the two groups of patients. The [Na+]i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the [Na+]i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism

  15. Study of relationship of selenium concentration in blood components and tumor tissues of breast and GI tract cancers using neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Bakir, M. A.; Yassine, T.; Sarhel, A.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between selenium (Se) concentration in blood components and tumour tissues of breast and GI tract cancers using neutron activation analysis. red blood cell (RBC) and serum Se concentrations were determined in 50 healthy volunteers aged 25-84 years, 70 breast cancer patients aged 25-70 years and 34 GI tract cancer patients aged 31-85 years, Se levels were also determined in malignant and adjacent normal tissues from breast cancer and GI tract cancer patients. The results showed that Se concentrations in serum and RBC were significantly lower among breast and GI cancer compared to healthy volunteers. The results also showed that Se concentrations were significantly higher in the cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. These data have shown a relationship between selenium status in blood components and both cancer. selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumours. (author)

  16. Measurements of natural 41Ca concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhof, A.

    1989-05-01

    Atomic mass spectroscopic examinations on 41 Ca were carried out in the UNILAC accelerator. A sensitivity of about 10 -15 was achieved. This would allow the measurement of present natural 41 Ca concentrations as soon as the problem of the transmission determination is solved. In this respect suggestions were worked out and their feasibility discussed. The detection of 41 Ca-ions is especially free of background when high UNILAC-energies are applied. An estimation showed a background level corresponding with a 41 Ca concentration of less then 10 -17 referred to 40 Ca. Besides an independent concept for the electromagnetic concentration of 41 Ca with variable concentration factors was developed. After being concentrated up to 50 respectively 25 times the initial concentration in the GSI mass separator, the 41 Ca concentration of three recent deer bones found in the Odenwald was measured by atomic mass spectroscopy in the 14UD-Pelletron Tandem in Rehovot (Israel). The measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged between 10 -14 to 10 -13 with consideration of the concentration factor. A theoretical study of the 41 Ca production in the earth's surface based on cosmic radiation illustrates the influence of trace elements on the neutron flux and thus on the 41 Ca production. This influence might be a possible explanation for the observed amplitude of variation of the 41 Ca concentration in recent bones which are of decisive importance for the feasibility of 41 Ca-related dating. In this work a method is suggested that does not depend on the amplitude of variation mentioned above and which would allow the determination of the erosion rate of rocks by its 41 Ca concentrations. (orig./HP) [de

  17. A discussion about maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution of U3O8 type uranium ore concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dechang; Liu Chao

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of discussing the influence of single factor on maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution,the influence degree of some factors such as U content, H 2 O content, mass ratio of P and U was compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the relationship between U content and maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution was direct ratio, while the U content increases by 1%, the maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution increases by 4.8%-5.7%. The relationship between H 2 O content and maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution was inverse ratio, the maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution decreases by 46.1-55.2 g/L while H 2 O content increases by 1%. The relationship between mass ratio of P and U and maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution was inverse ratio, the maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution decreases by 116.0-181.0 g/L while the mass ratio of P and U increase 0.1%. When U content equals 62.5% and the influence of mass ratio of P and U is no considered, the maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution equals 1 578 g/L; while mass ratio of P and U equals 0.35%, the maximum uranium concentration decreases to 716 g/L, the decreased rate is 54.6%, so the mass ratio of P and U in U 3 O 8 type uranium ore concentrate is the main controlling factor. (authors)

  18. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  19. Transvaginal sonographic appearance of cystic adnexal masses in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyeun Cha; Lee, Myung Sook

    2000-01-01

    To Analyze the transvaginal ultrasonographic(TVUS)findings of the cystic adnexal masses in postmenopausal women for differentiation of benign and malignant masses. We retrospectively reviewed the TVUS images of surgically proven 142 cystic adnexal masses in 125 patients. The masses were classified according to the pathologic findings. The size, the internal echogenicity, the internal septation, the external wall of the masses on US were analyzed and scored using Multicenter scoring system. Serum CA-125 concentration was also recorded. At surgery of 142 masses, 125 benign (88%), and 17 borderline/malignant masses (12%) were found. Among 125 benign masses, 88 masses were larger than 5 cm, 125 had smooth external wall, 109 had absence or thin internal septation, and 107 had anechoic or homogenous low internal echogenicity. Of the 17 borderline/malignant masses, there were 17 masses larger than 5 cm, 2 with smooth external wall, 12 without or with thin internal septation, and 7 with anechoic or homogenous low internal echogenicity. Multicenter score was below 8 in all benign masses, and in 4 borderline/malignant masses. Serum CA-125 concentration with normal range was in 90 patients with benign masses, and in 2 patients with borderline/malignant masses. Cystic adnexal masses with smooth external wall and internal septation, internal echogenic portion less than 10%, score below 8 on TVUS would be diagnosed as benign masses in postmenopausal women with normal serum CA-125 concentration.

  20. Inorganic mass spectrometry of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Vertes, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this review some recent developments in the field of inorganic mass spectrometry of solids are described with special emphasis on the actual state of understanding of the ionization processes. It concentrates on the common characteristics of methods such as spark source-, laser-, secondary ion-, inductively coupled plasma- and glow discharge mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  1. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    drugs alone.16. After a single oral dose of 120–800 mg of NTB in healthy sub- jects in a fasting state the peak plasma NTB concentration (tmax) was found to be 4–7 h, with a half-life of approximately 9–17 h.17 ... performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass .... to the likely biological plasma constituents.

  2. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  3. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  4. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  5. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  6. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteomics--Part I: Proteomics and RBC physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Erica M; Lutz, Hans U; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W

    2010-01-03

    Membrane proteomics is concerned with accurately and sensitively identifying molecules involved in cell compartmentalisation, including those controlling the interface between the cell and the outside world. The high lipid content of the environment in which these proteins are found often causes a particular set of problems that must be overcome when isolating the required material before effective HPLC-MS approaches can be performed. The membrane is an unusually dynamic cellular structure since it interacts with an ever changing environment. A full understanding of this critical cell component will ultimately require, in addition to proteomics, lipidomics, glycomics, interactomics and study of post-translational modifications. Devoid of nucleus and organelles in mammalian species other than camelids, and constantly in motion in the blood stream, red blood cells (RBCs) are the sole mammalian oxygen transporter. The fact that mature mammalian RBCs have no internal membrane-bound organelles, somewhat simplifies proteomics analysis of the plasma membrane and the fact that it has no nucleus disqualifies microarray based methods. Proteomics has the potential to provide a better understanding of this critical interface, and thereby assist in identifying new approaches to diseases. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  8. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  9. How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Lisa A; Sherwood, Kelly L; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2007-10-25

    In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate. The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 +/- 4 yr) at 4-(n = 53) and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55). Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively) and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L). Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P consuming 151-410 microg/d of synthetic folate (2nd quartile of intake) did not differ from that of women consuming >410 microg/d (3rd and 4th quartile). Folate intakes, estimated by food composition tables, and blood folate concentrations are not predictive of each other in Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate. Synthetic intakes > 151-410 microg/d in these women produced little additional benefit in terms of maximizing RBC

  10. How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Kelly L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate. Methods The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 ± 4 yr at 4-(n = 53 and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55. Results Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L. Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P P nd quartile of intake did not differ from that of women consuming >410 μg/d (3rd and 4th quartile. Conclusion Folate intakes, estimated by food composition tables, and blood folate concentrations are not predictive of each other in Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate. Synthetic intakes > 151–410 μg/d in these women produced little additional benefit in terms of maximizing

  11. Food Mass Reduction Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Stoklosa, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable, and nutritious while efficiently balancing appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, power, water, and crewtime. Often, this presents a challenge since maintaining the quality of the food system can result in a higher mass and volume. The Orion vehicle is significantly smaller than the Shuttle vehicle and the International Space Station and the mass and volume available for food is limited. Therefore, the food team has been challenged to reduce the mass of the packaged food from 1.82 kg per person per day to 1.14 kg per person per day. Past work has concentrated on how to reduce the mass of the packaging which contributes to about 15% of the total mass of the packaged food system. Designers have also focused on integrating and optimizing the Orion galley equipment as a system to reduce mass. To date, there has not been a significant effort to determine how to reduce the food itself. The objective of this project is to determine how the mass and volume of the packaged food can be reduced while maintaining caloric and hydration requirements. The following tasks are the key elements to this project: (1) Conduct further analysis of the ISS Standard Menu to determine moisture, protein, carbohydrate, and fat levels. (2) Conduct trade studies to determine how to bring the mass of the food system down. Trade studies may include removing the water of the total food system and/or increasing the fat content. (3) Determine the preferred method for delivery of the new food (e.g. bars, or beverages) and the degree of replacement. (4) Determine whether there are commercially available products that meet the requirements. By the end of this study, an estimate of the mass and volume savings will be provided to the Constellation Program. In addition, if new technologies need to be developed to achieve the mass savings, the technologies, timeline, and

  12. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS): what, how and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) is one of the oldest mass spectrometric techniques, which has been used for determining the isotopic composition and concentration of different elements using isotope dilution. In spite of the introduction of many other inorganic mass spectrometric techniques like spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the TIMS technique plays the role of a definitive analytical methodology and still occupies a unique position in terms of its capabilities with respect to precision and accuracy as well as sensitivity

  13. Galaxy Masses : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courteau, Stephane; Cappellari, Michele; Jong, Roelof S. de; Dutton, Aaron A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The dierent sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and

  14. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  15. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  16. Overall mass-transfer coefficients in non-linear chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen; Hansen, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    In case of mass transfer where concentration differences in both phases must be taken into account, one may define an over-all mass-transfer coefficient basd on the apparent over-all concentration difference. If the equilibrium relationship is linear, i.e. in cases where a Henry´s law relationshi...

  17. The Origin of Mass

    OpenAIRE

    森岡, 達史

    2013-01-01

    The quark-lepton mass problem and the ideas of mass protection are reviewed. The hierarchy problem and suggestions for its resolution, including Little Higgs models, are discussed. The Multiple Point Principle is introduced and used within the Standard Model to predict the top quark and Higgs particle masses. Mass matrix ans\\"{a}tze are considered; in particular we discuss the lightest family mass generation model, in which all the quark mixing angles are successfully expressed in terms of si...

  18. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  19. Neutrino masses and oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A Yu

    1996-11-01

    New effects related to refraction of neutrinos in different media are reviewed and implication of the effects to neutrino mass and mixing are discussed. Patterns of neutrino masses and mixing implied by existing hints/bounds are described. Recent results on neutrino mass generation are presented. They include neutrino masses in SO(10) GUT`s and models with anomalous U(1), generation of neutrino mass via neutrino-neutralino mixing, models of sterile neutrino. (author). 95 refs, 9 figs.

  20. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  1. CMAQ predicted concentration files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — model predicted concentrations. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Muñiz-Unamunzaga, M., R. Borge, G. Sarwar, B. Gantt, D. de la Paz, C....

  2. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  3. Concentrations of Indicator Organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...

  4. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  5. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  6. Industrialisation et concentration urbaine

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal , Abdelhak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the determinants of the urban concentration and their effect at different levels of development. The empirical analysis focuses on the developing countries over the period 1950-2000 grouped by level of per capita income. The results confirm the existence of specific trajectories of urbanization rate and urban primacy which differs meaningfully according to the stage of development considered. Certain factors encourage urbanization and its concentration in ...

  7. Solar concentrators. Concentradores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, R.; Valdes, A.; Lopez, S.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents different types of geometries used in concentrators. Some comments are made on the theoretical and experimental analysis necessary to evaluate the geometries and on the type of laboratory equipment needed to obtain experimental data. At the end of the report a description of how to build parabolic trough mirrors is made. The experience gained by the authors, who have been working in this subject for the past five years, is summarized, showing some of the problems related with such concentrators.

  8. Concentration factors for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.; Lauer, R.; Melzer, M.; Siebert, W.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration factors are defined as operators allowing to calculate the specific activity of fish meat from a given concentration of an element in the water. This parameter depends among others from the content of stable isotopes and homologues in the different waters. If this parameter is reasonably to be used for model calculations it must be referred to water with all of its content substances, these calculations also being based on this type of 'water'. (orig.) [de

  9. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  10. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  11. Modelling baryonic effects on galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  12. Modelling Baryonic Effects on Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  13. Low maternal folate concentrations and maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism are associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects in offspring: a case-control study among Pakistani case and control mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Nuzhat; Jalali, Samina; Shami, Sajjad; Rafiq, Shireen; Große, Greta; Hilger, Alina C; Zhang, Rhong; Mansoor, Saira; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko

    2018-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that periconceptional maternal folate deficiency and coding variants in maternal genes coding for critical enzymes in the folate pathway are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. In a case-control study we investigated C677T polymorphism in the 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in case and control mothers of Pakistani origin, and compared these with the respective maternal folate concentrations measured at the time of delivery. A case-control study was conducted among 109 case and 100 control mothers identified through the Holy Family Hospital Rawalpindi, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate concentrations and MTHFRC677T polymorphism were compared between case and control mothers. Mean RBC folate and serum folate concentrations were significantly lower in cases compared with control mothers (pcases compared with control mothers (CC vs TT pcases compared with control mothers (C vs T pCase mothers with 677CT or 677TT genotypes had significantly lower serum (pstudy provides further evidence that maternal folate deficiency and MTHFRC677T polymorphism might be associated with an increased risk for NTDs in offspring. Our results are limited by the fact that maternal folate concentrations were not obtained during the periconceptional period, but at delivery. Further analyses, including maternal folate levels during the periconceptional period, are warranted.

  14. Characterization of high concentration dust generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Toichiro; Yokochi, Akira

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development of fluidized bed type high concentration dust generator that keeps for long period dust concentration range of about 10 mg/m 3 for the study of working place monitoring system and evaluation of respirator. The generator is keeping constant powder in fluidized bed for keeping the dust concentration. It is necessary to keep constant feeding rate of powder in order to keep the quantity of dust in the fluidized bed. Our generator enables to obtain constant feeding rate by a screw feeder and by using mixed powder with fluidising particles (glass beads) before feeding. The generator produces high concentration dust of 11.3 mg/m 3 ± 1.0 mg/m 3 for about 5 hours and keeps the dust size 4.2-4.6 μm in mass median aerodynamic diameter with reasonable reproducibility. (author)

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  17. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  18. RX: a nonimaging concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, J C; Benítez, P; González, J C

    1995-05-01

    A detailed description of the design procedure for a new concentrator, RX, and some examples of it's use are given. The method of design is basically the same as that used in the design of two other concentrators: the RR and the XR [Appl. Opt. 31, 3051 (1992)]. The RX is ideal in two-dimensional geometry. The performance of the rotational RX is good when the average angular spread of the input bundle is small: up to 95% of the power of the input bundle can be transferred to the output bundle (with the assumption of a constant radiance for the rays of the input bundle).

  19. Some mass measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Concerning the problem of determining the thickness of a target, an uncomplicated approach is to measure its mass and area and take the quotient. This paper examines the mass measurement aspect of such an approach. (author)

  20. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  1. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  2. Radiative Majorana Neutrino Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Wong, Gwo-Guang

    1994-01-01

    We present new radiative mechanisms for generating Majorana neutrino masses, within an extension of the standard model that successfully generates radiative charged lepton masses, order by order, from heavy sequential leptons. Only the new sequential neutral lepton has a right-handed partner, and its Majorana mass provides the seed for Majorana neutrino mass generation. Saturating the cosmological bound of $50$ eV with $m_{\

  3. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  4. The concentrations of uranium in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Laboratory for Radioecology

    2000-07-01

    Determination of uranium in sixty-one species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to obtain concentration factors and to estimate the internal radiation dose. The concentrations of uranium in soft tissues of marine animals were ranged from 0.077 to 5040 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of uranium. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 1.6 x 10{sup 3}, comparing with that (3.1 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of uranium in hard tissues of marine invertebrates such as clam and sea urchin were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of uranium than soft tissues like muscle. The concentrations of uranium of twenty-two species of algae were ranged from 2 to 310 ng/g wet wt. Particularly, the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest value of the uranium content in the algae and its concentration factor was calculated to be 10{sup 2}. (author)

  5. The concentrations of uranium in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki

    2000-01-01

    Determination of uranium in sixty-one species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to obtain concentration factors and to estimate the internal radiation dose. The concentrations of uranium in soft tissues of marine animals were ranged from 0.077 to 5040 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of uranium. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 1.6 x 10 3 , comparing with that (3.1 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of uranium in hard tissues of marine invertebrates such as clam and sea urchin were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of uranium than soft tissues like muscle. The concentrations of uranium of twenty-two species of algae were ranged from 2 to 310 ng/g wet wt. Particularly, the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest value of the uranium content in the algae and its concentration factor was calculated to be 10 2 . (author)

  6. Asteroids mass determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Basic methods for asteroid mass determinations and their errors are discussed. New results and some current developments in the astrometric method are reviewed. New methods and techniques, such as electronic imaging, radar ranging and space probes are becoming important for asteroid mass determinations. Mass and density estimations on rotational properties and possible satelites are also discussed

  7. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  8. Scalar quarkonium masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.; Weingarten, D.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate the valence approximation to the mass of scalar quarkonium for a range of different parameters. Our results strongly suggest that the infinite volume continuum limit of the mass of ss scalar quarkonium lies well below the mass of f J (1710). The resonance f 0 (1500) appears to the best candidate for ss scalar quarkonium. (orig.)

  9. What masses for Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    To understand the evolution of giant stars, it is important to pin down the masses for Cepheids. The 7- to 10-day bump Cepheids imply lower than evolutionary mass (60%). Recent theoretical work, though, indicates that for Cepheids with periods of 15 to 16 days, the best understanding of the light curves results from using evolutionary masses

  10. Parabolic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Tellez-Alanis, F.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J.

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present the basis of the solar concentrator design, which has is located at Temixco, Morelos, Mexico. For this purpose, this place is ideal due to its geographic and climatic conditions, and in addition, because it accounts with the greatest constant illumination in Mexico. For the construction of the concentrator we use a recycled parabolic plate of a telecommunications satellite dish (NEC). This plate was totally covered with Aluminum. The opening diameter is of 332 cm, the focal length is of 83 cm and the opening angle is of 90°. The geometry of the plate guaranties that the incident beams, will be collected at the focus. The mechanical treatment of the plate produces an average reflectance of 75% in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and of 92% for wavelengths up to 3μm in the infrared region. We obtain up to 2000°C of temperature concentration with this setup. The reflectance can be greatly improved, but did not consider it as typical practical use. The energy obtained can be applied to conditions that require of those high calorific energies. In order to optimize the operation of the concentrator we use a control circuit designed to track the apparent sun position.

  11. A Microfluidic Cell Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jay; Casavant, Ben; Frisk, Megan; Beebe, David

    2010-01-01

    Cell concentration via centrifugation is a ubiquitous step in many cell culture procedures. At the macroscale, centrifugation suffers from a number of limitations particularly when dealing with small numbers of cells (e.g., less than 50,000). On the other hand, typical microscale methods for cell concentration can affect cell physiology and bias readouts of cell behavior and function. In this paper, we present a microfluidic concentrator device that utilizes the effects of gravity to allow cells to gently settle out of a suspension into a collection region without the use of specific adhesion ligands. Dimensional analysis was performed to compare different device designs and was verified with flow modeling to optimize operational parameters. We are able to concentrate low-density cell suspensions in a microfluidic chamber, achieving a cell loss of only 1.1 ± 0.6% (SD, n=7) with no observed loss during a subsequent cell staining protocol which incorporates ~36 complete device volume replacements. This method provides a much needed interface between rare cell samples and microfluidic culture assays. PMID:20843010

  12. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  13. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...

  14. The Handling of Constant Volumes of Various Concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Handling of Constant Volumes of Various Concentrations of Seawater by the Jackass Penguin Spheniscus Demersus. T Erasmus. Abstract. This paper reports on the effects of varying the concentration of sea water dosed at a rate of 10% of body mass on the handling of fluid and solutes by jackass penguins ...

  15. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  16. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  17. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  18. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  19. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  20. Constraining the Stellar Mass Function in the Galactic Center via Mass Loss from Stellar Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense concentration of stars and high-velocity dispersions in the Galactic center imply that stellar collisions frequently occur. Stellar collisions could therefore result in significant mass loss rates. We calculate the amount of stellar mass lost due to indirect and direct stellar collisions and find its dependence on the present-day mass function of stars. We find that the total mass loss rate in the Galactic center due to stellar collisions is sensitive to the present-day mass function adopted. We use the observed diffuse X-ray luminosity in the Galactic center to preclude any present-day mass functions that result in mass loss rates >10-5M⨀yr−1 in the vicinity of ~1″. For present-day mass functions of the form, dN/dM∝M-α, we constrain the present-day mass function to have a minimum stellar mass ≲7M⨀ and a power-law slope ≳1.25. We also use this result to constrain the initial mass function in the Galactic center by considering different star formation scenarios.

  1. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  2. Tritium concentration monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    A device for measuring the concentration of tritium in gaseous wastes in a power plant and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is reduced in the size and improved in performance. The device of the present invention pressurizes a sampling gas and cools it to a dew point. Water content in the sampling gas cooled to the dew point is condensated and recovered to a fine tube-like water content recovering container. The concentration of the recovered condensates is measured by a tritium density analyzer. With such procedures, since the specimen is pressurized, the dew point can be elevated. Accordingly, the size of the cooling device can be decreased, enabling to contribute to the reduction of the size of the entire device. Further, since the water content recovering device is formed as a fine tube, the area of contact between the specimen gas and the liquid condensated water can be reduced. Accordingly, evaporation of the liquid condensates can be prevented. (I.S.)

  3. Zirconia concentrate chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.; Albuquerque Brocchi, E. de

    1990-01-01

    Chlorination experiments were conducted in order to study the kinetics of gasification of the zirconium oxide present in the zirconia concentrate. The variables studied are temperature (1173 to 1373 K), percentage of reducing agent (12 to 36%) and porosity (22 to 30%). The results indicated a greater influence of temperature and percentage of reducing agent as well as allowed the conclusion that a balance between the levels of these variables is an important factor in the appropriate chlorination conditions. (author)

  4. Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.

  5. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  6. Chlorination of zirconyte concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chlorination experiments with zirconyte concentrate were carried out in order to study the effects of temperature, percentage of reducing agent and porosity on the gasification of ZrO 2 for 10 and 20 minutes of reaction. Factorial analysis was applied and the results indicated that temperature and percentage of reducing agent were the two only variables effecting the ZrO 2 gasification. (author) [pt

  7. Mass transfer in nano-fluids: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafmansouri, Seyedeh-Saba; Esfahany, Mohsen Nasr

    2014-01-01

    Growing attention has been recently paid to nano-fluids because of their potential for augmenting transfer processes - i.e., heat and mass transfer. Conflicting results have been reported in the literature on mass transfer in nano-fluids. The aim of this paper is to summarize the literature on mass transfer in nano-fluids stating the conflicts and possible reasons. Literature on mass transfer in nano-fluids has been reviewed in two sections. The first section concentrates on surveying mass diffusivity in nano-fluids while the second section focuses on convective mass transfer in nano-fluids. In each section, published articles, type of nano-fluids used, size and concentration range of nanoparticles, measurement methods, maximum observed enhancement, and suggested mass transport mechanisms are summarized. (authors)

  8. Comparison between polluted and clean air masses over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    Clean and polluted air masses, advected over Lake Michigan, were studied using instrumental aircraft during the summers of 1976 and 1978. The results show that regardless of the degree of pollution, the particle size distribution is bimodal. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and trace metals in a clean air mass are more than an order of magnitude lower than those in polluted air masses. Furthermore, these concentrations are comparable with those measured in remote areas of the world. In clean air the ratio of the total light scattering to Rayleigh scattering is very close to one, indicating very low concentrations of particulates in the optically active size classes

  9. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  10. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  11. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  12. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  13. Censored correlated cytokine concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jørgensen, Mathias J

    2013-01-01

    ) can be used to describe the relative concentration between two cytokines, and the GMR ratio (GMRR) can be used to compare two groups. The problem is how to estimate GMRRs from censored distributions.We evaluated methods, including simple deletion and substitution, in simulated and real data. One...... stacking method that uses clustered variance-covariance estimation allowing homogeneous (Stackc) or inhomogeneous (Stackh) variances. We compare it with direct estimation of the bivariate Tobit likelihood function (Bitobit) and multiple imputation. We assess sensitivity to inhomogeneity and non...

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  15. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...... models of vortex structures used for interpretation of experimental data which serve as a ground for development of theoretical and numerical approaches to vortex investigation. Achievements in the fields of stability analysis, waves on vortices and vortex breakdown are also presented....

  16. MassTRIX: mass translator into pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhre, Karsten; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2008-07-01

    Recent technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have brought the field of metabolomics to a point where large numbers of metabolites from numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms can now be easily and precisely detected. The challenge today lies in the correct annotation of these metabolites on the basis of their accurate measured masses. Assignment of bulk chemical formula is generally possible, but without consideration of the biological and genomic context, concrete metabolite annotations remain difficult and uncertain. MassTRIX responds to this challenge by providing a hypothesis-driven approach to high precision MS data annotation. It presents the identified chemical compounds in their genomic context as differentially colored objects on KEGG pathway maps. Information on gene transcription or differences in the gene complement (e.g. samples from different bacterial strains) can be easily added. The user can thus interpret the metabolic state of the organism in the context of its potential and, in the case of submitted transcriptomics data, real enzymatic capacities. The MassTRIX web server is freely accessible at http://masstrix.org.

  17. Glycomics using mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wuhrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an increasingly important role in structural glycomics. This review provides an overview on currently used mass spectrometric approaches such as the characterization of glycans, the analysis of glycopeptides obtained by proteolytic cleavage of proteins and the analysis of glycosphingolipids. The given examples are demonstrating the application of mass spectrometry to study glycosylation changes associated with congenital disorders of glycosylation, lysosomal storage di...

  18. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  19. The origin of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashmore, R.; Sutton, C.

    1992-01-01

    The existence of mass in the Universe remains unexplained but recent high-energy experiments, described in this article, are close to testing the most plausible explanation for the masses of fundamental particles, which may, in turn, lead to a clearer understanding of mass on the macro-scale. The Standard Model includes the concept of the Higgs mechanism which endows particles with mass. Actual evidence for the existence of the postulated particle known as the Higgs boson would lead to confirmation of the theory and efforts to detect it at CERN are complex and determined. (UK)

  20. MassAI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX.......A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX....

  1. Masses of Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    About ten years ago it became apparent that the masses of Cepheids predicted from the theory of stellar evolution were larger than those predicted by pulsation theory. This mass anomaly for the classical Cepheids was displayed by Christy (1968) and Stobie (1969a,b,c) using nonlinear hydrodynamic calculations and by Cogan (1970) using linear theory. Rodgers (1970) has also discussed the several mass anomalies in some detail. These mass anomalies, and some others to be discussed, have not yet been completely resolved, but many of the discrepancies have been alleviated mostly by an increase in the Cepheid luminosities and a decrease in their surface temperatures

  2. Guideline on Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Amy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is used to determine the concentration of an element of interest in a bulk sample. It is a destructive analysis technique that is applicable to a wide range of analytes and bulk sample types. With this method, a known amount of a rare isotope, or ‘spike’, of the element of interest is added to a known amount of sample. The element of interest is chemically purified from the bulk sample, the isotope ratio of the spiked sample is measured by mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the element of interest is calculated from this result. This method is widely used, although a mass spectrometer required for this analysis may be fairly expensive.

  3. THE PSEUDO-EVOLUTION OF HALO MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-01-01

    A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z = 1 and 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M 200ρ-bar ≲ 10 12 h -1 M ☉ and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low-mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.

  4. Complex concentrate pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Scheele, R.D.; Strachan, D.M.; Toste, A.P.

    1991-03-01

    After removal of the transuranics (TRU) by the TRUEX process, complex concentrate waste will be grouted for final storage. The purpose of this project, conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to support a future decision to grout the complexant waste without destruction of the organic contents. It has been demonstrated that grouts with acceptable parameters for the Transportable Grout Facility can be made using actual waste. The acceptability of these grouts from a regulatory view seems to be less of a problem than previously. None of the organics found in the waste have been found on the EPA hazardous chemicals list. Two potential problems with the processing of the complex concentrate wastes were identified during the use of the TRUEX process on samples of several milliliters. One was the amount of foam that is generated during acid addition to the alkaline waste. Some of this foam appears to be of a waxy nature but does redissolve when the waste is strongly acid. The second potential problem is that noticeable amounts of NO x gases are generated. No quantitative measure of the NO x gas generation was made. The problem relates to processing the waste in B-plant where there are no facilities to handle NO x gases. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Dual temperature concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  6. Luminescent solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Tosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC is a device that has luminescent molecules embedding or topping polymeric or glass waveguide to generate electricity from sunlight with a photovoltaic cell attachment. LSCs can be employed both in small and large scale projects, independent on the direction or angle of the surface with respect to the sun, promising more freedom for integration in urban environments compared to the traditional PV systems. The aim of the SEB&C PDEng project is to investigate the applicability of this innovative technology in the built environment and to bridge the gap of knowledge linking societal, design and technological aspects. The final goal is to exhibit potential application concepts of LSC developed by co-creative methods at SPARK campus which is a hub for open innovation in built environment. Necessity of a paradigm shift towards sustainable and smart cities came into being due to the significant increase in energy demand of the buildings. The challenge is to increase renewable sources in the energy mix while designing aesthetic environments. Thus, building integrated renewable energy technologies represent a great opportunity to help overcome this current challenge. Smart energy, energy efficiency and use of renewable sources are key aspects to be considered nowadays and many innovative technologies need further exploitation to be commercially viable, such as luminescent solar concentrator.

  7. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  8. Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2010-04-26

    We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun- earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator