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Sample records for rbc gpx-1 activity

  1. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking, and risk of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Krath, Britta N.; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    polymorphism and several lifestyle factors predict GPX activity in erythrocytes. The present study was nested within the prospective “Diet, Cancer and Health” study of 57,053 Danes including 375 colorectal cancer cases and a comparison group of 779 individuals matched on gender. Biomaterial was sampled...... and information on lifestyle factors was obtained from questionnaires filled in at enrolment in 1993–1997. GPX1 Pro198Leu, hOGG1 Ser326Cys and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We observed a higher risk associated with alcohol consumption and smoking among......198Leu genotype, gender, smoking intensity, and intake of fruits and vegetables. Our results indicate that lifestyle-related oxidative stress may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer among subjects with a lowered defence....

  2. Associations between GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Olsen, A.; Tjonneland, A.

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer may be related to oxidative stress. Breast cancer patients have been reported to have lower antioxidant enzyme activity than healthy controls and the polymorphism GPX1 Pro198Leu has been associated with risk of lung and breast cancer. The purpose of the present nested case...

  3. Reduced Utilization of Selenium by Naked Mole Rats Due to a Specific Defect in GPx1 Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaikina, Marina V.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Malinouski, Mikalai Y.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Seravalli, Javier; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Turanov, Anton A.; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Park, Thomas J.; Miller, Richard A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase activities were similar in mice and MR. However, glutathione peroxidase activity was an order of magnitude lower in MR liver and kidney than in mouse tissues. In addition, metabolic labeling of MR cells with 75Se revealed a loss of the abundant glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) band, whereas other selenoproteins were preserved. To characterize the MR selenoproteome, we sequenced its liver transcriptome. Gene reconstruction revealed standard selenoprotein sequences except for GPx1, which had an early stop codon, and SelP, which had low selenocysteine content. When expressed in HEK 293 cells, MR GPx1 was present in low levels, and its expression could be rescued neither by removing the early stop codon nor by replacing its SECIS element. In addition, GPx1 mRNA was present in lower levels in MR liver than in mouse liver. To determine if GPx1 deficiency could account for the reduced selenium content, we analyzed GPx1 knock-out mice and found reduced selenium levels in their livers and kidneys. Thus, MR is characterized by the reduced utilization of selenium due to a specific defect in GPx1 expression. PMID:21372135

  4. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  5. Antioxidant activity of citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in the RBC's of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallak, M.; Jaliah, B.I.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects in alloxan induced diabetes. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the mechanism of damage of red blood cells and anaemia in diabetic patients. So the current study was carried out to investigate the protective role of citrullus colocynthis against oxidative stress in the RBC's of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glibenclamide (a positive control) orally. Evaluations were made for haematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC's of all experimental rats. Results: The diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in total erythrocytes count and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and a normal Haemoglobin (Hb) value in the blood. They also showed decreased levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the RBC's hemolysate. On other hand, oral administration of citrullus colocynthis or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats, they resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in the in total erythrocytes count and PCV (Haematocrit) values in the blood and caused a significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT in the RBC's of those diabetic treated rats when compared to diabetic rats given normal saline. The effect was more profound in citrullus colocynthis treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a potent antioxidant property

  6. ANALISIS SEKUEN GEN GLUTATION PEROKSIDASE (GPX1 SEBAGAI DETEKSI STRES OKSIDATIF AKIBAT INFEKSI MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Yuniastuti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutation merupakan antioksidan yang berperan dalam fungsi imun, dan diekspresikan secara genetik oleh urutan gen yang membentuk protein enzim Glutation Peroxidase (GPx1. Bila ekspresi gen berubah maka terjadi perubahan fungsi glutation dan kerentanan terhadap stress oksidatif. Metode yang digunakan adalah Kasus-kontrol. Sampel yang digunakan adalah sampel darah. Kelompok kasus adalah sampel darah pasien tuberkulosis paru sedangkan kelompok kontrol adalah sampel darah orang sehat. Pemeriksaan gen Glutation peroxidase (GPx1 menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR untuk melihat pita DNA pada pasien tuberkulosis par serta elektroforesis produk PCR-RFLP gen GPx1 kelompok sampel tuberkulosis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara polimorfisme gen GPx1 (p=0,365 pasein tuberkulois dengan individu sehat, sehingga tidak dapat digunakan sebagai alat deteksi kerentanan terhadap stress oksidatif pada pasien tuberkulosis. Perlu penelitian lanjutan yang menggunakan sampel lebih besar dan populasi etnik yang berbeda.

  7. Association of GPX1 and GPX4 polymorphisms with episodic memory and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Tatiane Jacobsen; Silva Alves, Mônica; Guisso, Carolina Campelo; de Andrade, Fabiana Michelsen; Camozzato, Analuiza; de Oliveira, Alcyr Alves; Fiegenbaum, Marilu

    2018-02-14

    It is well established that healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with substantial declines in episodic memory. However, there is still debate about the roles of GPX1 and GPX4 polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of rs1050450 and rs713041 polymorphisms with memory. This research was composed of a cross-sectional study (334 subjects) and a case-control study (108 healthy controls and 103 with AD-NINCDS/ARDA, DSM-IV-TR criteria). For the association of the genetic polymorphisms with memory or cognitive loss, the phenotypes were analyzed as follows: 1) each memory as a quantitative trait; 2) presence of deficit on a specific memory; 3) presence of MCI; 4) presence of AD. To assess verbal learning and the ability to store new information, we used the Rey Verbal Learning Test. Scores were recorded as a function of age as in the WMS-R testing battery. DNA was obtained from whole blood, and genotypes for GPX1 (rs1050450) and GPX4 (rs713041) were detected by allelic discrimination assay using TaqMan ® MGB probes on a real-time PCR system. GPX1 TT homozygotes had lower long-term visual memory scores than CC/CT group (-0.28 ± 1.03 vs. 0.13 ± 1.03, respectively, p = 0.017). For the GPX4 rs713041, the frequency of the TT genotype was higher in the group with normal scores than in the group with long-term visual memory deficits (p = 0.025). In a multivariate logistic regression, GPX1 CC homozygotes had a 2.85 higher chance of developing AD (OR = 2.85, CI95% = 1.04-7.78, p = 0.041) in comparison to the reference genotype. No significant differences were observed regarding the MCI group between genetic variants. This study is one of the first to show that polymorphisms in GPX1 and GPX4 are significantly associated with episodic memory and AD in a South Brazilian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  9. The impact of GPX1 on the association of groundwater selenium and depression: a project FRONTIER study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Leigh A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior animal model and human-based studies have linked selenium concentrations to decreased risk for depression; however, this work has not focused on household groundwater levels or specific depressive symptoms. The current study evaluated the link between groundwater selenium levels and depression. We also sought to determine if a functional polymorphism in the glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1 gene impacted this link. Methods We used a cross-sectional design to analyze data from 585 participants (183 men and 402 women from Project FRONTIER, a study of rural health in West Texas. Residential selenium concentrations were estimated using Geospatial Information System (GIS analyses. Linear regression models were created using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30 total and subfactor scores as outcome variables and selenium concentrations as predictor variables. Analyses were re-run after stratification of the sample on GPX1 Pro198Leu genotype (rs1050454. Results Selenium levels were significantly and negatively related to all GDS and subfactor scores accounting for up to 17% of the variance beyond covariates. Selenium was most strongly protective against depression among homozygous carriers of the C allele at the Pro198Leu polymorphism of the GPX1 gene. Analyses also point towards a gene-environmental interaction between selenium exposure and GPX1 polymorphism. Conclusion Our results support the link between groundwater selenium levels and decreased depression symptoms. These findings also highlight the need to consider the genetics of the glutathione peroxidase system when examining this relationship, as variation in the GPX1 gene is related to depression risk and significantly influences the protective impact of selenium, which is indicative of a gene-environment interaction.

  10. Noninvasive evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding: comparison between contrast-enhanced MDCT and 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Stephen I; Ohki, Stephen K; Stein, Barry; Zambuto, Domenic A; Rosenberg, Ronald J; Choi, Jenny J; Tubbs, Daniel S

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare contrast-enhanced MDCT and (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scanning for the evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Over 17 months, 55 patients (32 men, 23 women; age range, 21-92 years) were evaluated prospectively with contrast-enhanced MDCT using 100 mL of iopromide 300 mg I/mL. Technetium-99m-labeled RBC scans were obtained on 41 of 55 patients and select patients underwent angiography for attempted embolization. Each imaging technique was reviewed in a blinded fashion for sensitivity for detection of active bleeding as well as the active lower gastrointestinal bleeding location. Findings were positive on both examinations in eight patients and negative on both examinations in 20 patients. Findings were positive on contrast-enhanced MDCT and negative on (99m)Tc-labeled RBC in two patients; findings were negative on contrast-enhanced MDCT and positive on (99m)Tc-labeled RBC in 11 patients. Statistics showed significant disagreement, with simple agreement = 68.3%, kappa = 0.341, and p = 0.014. Sixteen of 60 (26.7%) contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were positive prospectively, with all accurately localizing the site of bleeding and identification of the underlying lesion in eight of 16 (50%). Nineteen of 41 (46.3%) (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scans were positive. Eighteen of 41 matched patients went on to angiography. In four of these 18 (22.2%) patients, the site of bleeding was confirmed by angiography, but in 14 of 18 (77.8%), the findings were negative. Contrast-enhanced MDCT and (99m)Tc-labeled RBC scanning show significant disagreement for evaluation of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Contrast-enhanced MDCT appears effective for detection and localization in cases of active lower gastrointestinal bleeding in which hemorrhage is active at the time of CT.

  11. Antiatherosclerotic and renoprotective effects of ebselen in the diabetic apolipoprotein E/GPx1-double knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Phyllis; Yuen, Derek Y C; Stefanovic, Nada; Pete, Josefa; Coughlan, Melinda T; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A; Thomas, Merlin C; Rosenfeldt, Franklin; Cooper, Mark E; de Haan, Judy B

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the GPx1-mimetic ebselen on diabetes-associated atherosclerosis and renal injury in a model of increased oxidative stress. The study was performed using diabetic apolipoprotein E/GPx1 (ApoE(-/-)GPx1(-/-))-double knockout (dKO) mice, a model combining hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia with increased oxidative stress. Mice were randomized into two groups, one injected with streptozotocin, the other with vehicle, at 8 weeks of age. Groups were further randomized to receive either ebselen or no treatment for 20 weeks. Ebselen reduced diabetes-associated atherosclerosis in most aortic regions, with the exception of the aortic sinus, and protected dKO mice from renal structural and functional injury. The protective effects of ebselen were associated with a reduction in oxidative stress (hydroperoxides in plasma, 8-isoprostane in urine, nitrotyrosine in the kidney, and 4-hydroxynonenal in the aorta) as well as a reduction in VEGF, CTGF, VCAM-1, MCP-1, and Nox2 after 10 weeks of diabetes in the dKO aorta. Ebselen also significantly reduced the expression of proteins implicated in fibrosis and inflammation in the kidney as well as reducing related key intracellular signaling pathways. Ebselen has an antiatherosclerotic and renoprotective effect in a model of accelerated diabetic complications in the setting of enhanced oxidative stress. Our data suggest that ebselen effectively repletes the lack of GPx1, and indicate that ebselen may be an effective therapeutic for the treatment of diabetes-related atherosclerosis and nephropathy. Furthermore, this study highlights the feasibility of addressing two diabetic complications with one treatment regimen through the unifying approach of targeted antioxidant therapy.

  12. Glutathione peroxidase-1 gene (GPX1) variants, oxidative stress and risk of kidney complications in people with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedi, Kamel; Patente, Thiago A; Bellili-Muñoz, Naima; Driss, Fathi; Le Nagard, Hervé; Fumeron, Frédéric; Roussel, Ronan; Hadjadj, Samy; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Marre, Michel; Velho, Gilberto

    2016-02-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) is a class of antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water. GPX1 is the most abundant isoform and is expressed in all kidney cells. Isoprostane and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were identified as markers of oxidative stress in patients with kidney disease. We investigated associations of GPX1 genotypes with kidney complications, and with plasma concentrations of isoprostane and AOPP in type 1 diabetic patients. Four SNPs in the GPX1 gene region were genotyped in SURGENE (n=340; 10-year follow-up); GENEDIAB (n=461) and GENESIS (n=584) cohorts of type 1 diabetic patients. Subsets of GENEDIAB (n=237) and GENESIS (n=466) participants were followed up for 9 and 5years, respectively. Plasma concentrations of isoprostane and AOPP were measured at baseline in GENEDIAB. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for incidence of kidney complications. In SURGENE, 98 renal events (new cases of microalbuminuria or progression to more severe stage of diabetic nephropathy) occurred during follow-up. The minor T-allele of rs3448 was associated with the incidence of renal events (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.16-2.84, p=0.008). In GENESIS/GENEDIAB pooled study, end stage renal disease (ESRD) occurred during follow-up in 52 individuals. The same variant was associated with the incidence of ESRD (HR 3.34, 95% CI, 1.69-6.98, p=0.0004). The variant was also associated with higher plasma isoprostane concentration in GENEDIAB cohort: 2.02±0.12 (TT+CT) vs 1.75±0.13 (CC) ng/mL (p=0.009), and with higher plasma AOPP in the subset of participants with the baseline history of ESRD (TT+CT 67±6 vs CC 48±6μmol/L, p=0.006). The minor T-allele of rs3448 was associated with kidney complications (incidences of microalbuminuria, renal events and ESRD) in patients with type 1 diabetes. The risk allele was associated with higher plasma concentrations of isoprostane and AOPP. Our results are consistent with the implication of GPX1 in the

  13. The modified selenenyl amide, M-hydroxy ebselen, attenuates diabetic nephropathy and diabetes-associated atherosclerosis in ApoE/GPx1 double knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sih Min Tan

    Full Text Available Seleno-organic glutathione peroxidase (GPx mimetics, including ebselen (Eb, have been tested in in vitro studies for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. In this study, we investigated the efficacies of two Eb analogues, m-hydroxy ebselen (ME and ethanol-ebselen (EtE and compared these with Eb in cell based assays. We found that ME is superior in attenuating the activation of hydrogen peroxide-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, ERK and P38 in human aortic endothelial cells. Consequently, we investigated the effects of ME in an in vivo model of diabetes, the ApoE/GPx1 double knockout (dKO mouse. We found that ME attenuates plaque formation in the aorta and lesion deposition within the aortic sinus of diabetic dKO mice. Oxidative stress as assessed by 8-OHdG in urine and nitrotyrosine immunostaining in the aortic sinus and kidney tubules, was reduced by ME in diabetic dKO mice. ME also attenuated diabetes-associated renal injury which included tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Furthermore, the bioactivity of the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β as assessed by phospho-Smad2/3 immunostaining was attenuated after treatment with ME. TGF-β-stimulated increases in collagen I and IV gene expression and protein levels were attenuated by ME in rat kidney tubular cells. However, in contrast to the superior activity of ME in in vitro and cell based assays, ME did not further augment the attenuation of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis and renal injury in our in vivo model when compared with Eb. In conclusion, this study strengthens the notion that bolstering GPx-like activity using synthetic mimetics may be a useful therapeutic strategy in lessening the burden of diabetic complications. However, these studies highlight the importance of in vivo analyses to test the efficacies of novel Eb analogues, as in vitro and cell based assays are

  14. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 μCi of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 μCi Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 μCi In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 μCi of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 μCi is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results

  15. Placentography with technetium-99m labelled RBC - an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, C.A.; Benjamin, C.S.; Balakrishnan; Narasimhan

    1983-01-01

    During 1979-80, placentography was performed in 40 cases of pregnant women with third trimester bleeding. Random labelled RBC with sup(99m)Tc of activity 2-3 mci was used, depending upon the weight of the patient. In 98% of cases, the isotope finding was confirmed. (author)

  16. Dietary carotenoid-rich oil supplementation improves exercise-induced anisocytosis in runners: influences of haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms in dilutional pseudoanemia (sports anemia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Akimoto, Arthur K; Alves, Penha C Z; Pereira, Luiz C S; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria N; Grisolia, Cesar K

    2010-04-01

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptation, whereas exhaustive exercises increase reactive oxygen-species generation, thereby causing oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, fractions susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) is a Brazilian Cerrado fruit containing a carotenoid-rich oil. The aim was to investigate the effects of pequi-oil on exercise-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, after running in the same environment and undergoing weekly training under the same conditions as to type, intensity and length. Evaluations were accomplished after outdoor running on flat land before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi-oil capsules for 14 days. Blood samples were taken after running and submitted to TBARS assay and erythrogram analysis. Haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms were priorly investigated, so as to estimate genetic influence The reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit after pequi-oil treatment was notably associated with higher plasma expansion. Except for MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and RDW (red cell distribution width), the results were influenced by the polymorphisms studied. The best response to pequi-oil was presented by MnSOD Val/Val, CAT AA or AT genotypes and the GPX1 Pro allele. The significantly lower RDW and higher MHCH values were related to pequi-oil protective effects. Pequi oil, besides possessing other nutritional properties, showed protective blood effects.

  17. Dietary carotenoid-rich oil supplementation improves exercise-induced anisocytosis in runners: influences of haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala, CAT (21A/T and GPX1 (Pro198Leu gene polymorphisms in dilutional pseudoanemia ("sports anemia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Miranda-Vilela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical training induces beneficial adaptation, whereas exhaustive exercises increase reactive oxygen-species generation, thereby causing oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, fractions susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. is a Brazilian Cerrado fruit containing a carotenoid-rich oil. The aim was to investigate the effects of pequi-oil on exercise-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, after running in the same environment and undergoing weekly training under the same conditions as to type, intensity and length. Evaluations were accomplished after outdoor running on flat land before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi-oil capsules for 14 days. Blood samples were taken after running and submitted to TBARS assay and erythrogram analysis. Haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala, CAT (21A/T and GPX1 (Pro198Leu gene polymorphisms were priorly investigated, so as to estimate genetic influence The reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit after pequi-oil treatment was notably associated with higher plasma expansion. Except for MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and RDW (red cell distribution width, the results were influenced by the polymorphisms studied. The best response to pequi-oil was presented by MnSOD Val/Val, CAT AA or AT genotypes and the GPX1 Pro allele. The significantly lower RDW and higher MHCH values were related to pequi-oil protective effects. Pequi oil, besides possessing other nutritional properties, showed protective blood effects.

  18. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2015-12-01

    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  19. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions under flow. Role of RBC deformability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, 3-4 (2010), s. 45-52 ISSN 1313-2458 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : apparent viscosity * conductivity * RBC suspensions * dextran 70 * PEG 35 000 * glutaraldehyde Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  20. 99mTc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1994-01-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author)

  1. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic

  2. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-28

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.

  3. Development of a kit for RBC labelling with 99mTc and its clinic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marafuschi, A.M.; Nowotny, G.A.; Palcos, M.C.; Rotta, M. del C.

    1980-01-01

    A kit for labelling red blood cells (RBC) with 99m Tc based on a Tin Pyrophosphate mixture freeze-dried and a saline solution saturated with nitrogen has been prepared for spleen and placenta scanning, circulatory studies and blood volume determinations. The stannous tin is intended to reduce the 99m Tc pertechnetate, obtained either from generators or from solvent extraction, to the appropriate valence state suitable for labelling. The technique is as follows: Add to the heparinized blood sample the Tin-Pyrophosphate mixture dissolved in the saline solution. After five minutes incubation time at room temperature the plasma is discarded by centrifugation. Following the addition of the tracer activity to the separated RBC, the supernatant is discarded after a second centrifugation. Depending on the test to be performed, the RBC are either resuspended in saline solution for blood pool or circulation studies or denaturalized at 49.5 deg C for spleen scanning. The labelling yield (95-88%) and its stability has been checked by in vitro measurements, up to four hours after labelling. The biological distribution and spleen uptake have been determined in rats and rabbits. The developed method proved to be adequate for labelling RBC with good labelling retention. An interesting application is shown in babies with congenital cardiac defects and suspected absence of the spleen, where the scan gave a good image of the existing spleen. (author) [es

  4. Strategi Perancangan Mutu Ripe Banana Chip (RBC Berbasis Harapan Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Herry P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ripe Banana Chip (RBC, merupakan salah satu jenis kripik yang dibuat dari pisang masak. RBC dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknologi penggorengan vakum (vacum frying ataupun pembekuan (freezing. RBC pisang mas cukup banyak memiliki keunggulan dari nilai gizinya. Produk ini masih belum diketahui tingkat kesesuain mutunya dengan keinginan konsumen dilihat dari aspek fisik ataupun organoleptik. Tujuan penelitian ini agar dapat mengetahui rancangan mutu yang tepat untuk produk RBC pisang mas. Penelitian ini menggunakan tiga metode, diantaranya metode skoring, Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI, dan metode diagram tulang ikan. Hasil dari penelitian, yaitu : warna RBC dengan intensitas 5,56 (kuning dan skor 3,862 (suka ; informasi kemasan dengan intensitas 4,5 (setuju dan skor 3,534 (suka ; kenyamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,58 (nyaman dan skor 4,155 (suka ; keamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,15 (sangat aman dan skor 4,086 (suka ; ketebalan dengan intensitas 8,31(sangat tebal dan skor 1,604 (sangat tidak suka ; Oil dengan intensitas 4,86 (banyak dan skor 2,483 (tidak suka ; kerenyahan dengan intensitas 7,32 (keras dan skor 2,843 (cukup suka ; Easy of breaking dengan intensitas 5,17 (mudah dipatahkan dan skor 3,158 (cukup suka ; rasa manis dengan intensitas 7,89 (manis dan skor 3,208 (cukup suka ; rasa asam dengan intensitas 4,84 (agak asam dan skor 3,309 (cukup suka. Nilai CSI yang dihasilkan, yaitu sebesar 64% (puas. Strategi untuk meningkatkan mutu RBC diantaranya: mengurangi ukuran ketebalan bahan baku sebelum diproses; lebih dipertimbangkan lagi tingkat kematangan pisang; memberi pengarahan dan motivasi kepada pekerja; melakukan pengawasan saat produksi berlangsung; lebih memperhatikan keseragaman ukuran pisang, dan menggunakan alternatif lain dalam penirisan minyak, misalnya sentrifuse agar keberadaan minyak berkurang.

  5. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP 2 ), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the β-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and β-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations

  6. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions under flow. Role of RBC aggregating agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, 2-4 (2010), s. 253-261 ISSN 1386-0291 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : apparent viscosity * conductivity * unsteady flow * RBC suspensions * dextrans * PEG Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2010

  7. Arabidopsis Pol II-Dependent in Vitro Transcription System Reveals Role of Chromatin for Light-Inducible rbcS Gene Transcription1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Ayaka; Iwata, Shinya; Iwata, Yuka; Igarashi, Hisako; Hamada, Takahiro; Sonobe, Seiji; Sugiura, Masahiro; Yukawa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro transcription is an essential tool to study the molecular mechanisms of transcription. For over a decade, we have developed an in vitro transcription system from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-cultured cells (BY-2), and this system supported the basic activities of the three RNA polymerases (Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III). However, it was not suitable to study photosynthetic genes, because BY-2 cells have lost their photosynthetic activity. Therefore, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro transcription systems were developed from green and etiolated suspension cells. Sufficient in vitro Pol II activity was detected after the minor modification of the nuclear soluble extracts preparation method; removal of vacuoles from protoplasts and L-ascorbic acid supplementation in the extraction buffer were particularly effective. Surprisingly, all four Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit (rbcS-1A, rbcS-1B, rbcS-2B, and rbcS-3B) gene members were in vitro transcribed from the naked DNA templates without any light-dependent manner. However, clear light-inducible transcriptions were observed using chromatin template of rbcS-1A gene, which was prepared with a human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP1) and HeLa histones. This suggested that a key determinant of light-dependency through the rbcS gene transcription was a higher order of DNA structure (i.e. chromatin). PMID:26662274

  8. Penelitian penentuan konstanta saturasi (Ks pada rbc unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic of Rotating Biological Contractor have been investigated by manu researchers. In general the model emploued either saturation kinetic (following Monod equation or first order kinetic to describe substrate removal. In this experiment, saturation kinetic model was used to find out the saturation constant of the RBC unit. The influent fed into the unit was synthetic waste water with glucose as organic carbon sources. The flow was maintained constant at 20.4 1/d and COD influent resulted the saturation constant (Ks 11.17 mg/I with 20 hours of detention time.

  9. Molecular evolution of rbcL in three gymnosperm families: identifying adaptive and coevolutionary patterns

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sen, Lin

    2011-06-03

    Abstract Background The chloroplast-localized ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco), the primary enzyme responsible for autotrophy, is instrumental in the continual adaptation of plants to variations in the concentrations of CO2. The large subunit (LSU) of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene. Although adaptive processes have been previously identified at this gene, characterizing the relationships between the mutational dynamics at the protein level may yield clues on the biological meaning of such adaptive processes. The role of such coevolutionary dynamics in the continual fine-tuning of RbcL remains obscure. Results We used the timescale and phylogenetic analyses to investigate and search for processes of adaptive evolution in rbcL gene in three gymnosperm families, namely Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae. To understand the relationships between regions identified as having evolved under adaptive evolution, we performed coevolutionary analyses using the software CAPS. Importantly, adaptive processes were identified at amino acid sites located on the contact regions among the Rubisco subunits and on the interface between Rubisco and its activase. Adaptive amino acid replacements at these regions may have optimized the holoenzyme activity. This hypothesis was pinpointed by evidence originated from our analysis of coevolution that supported the correlated evolution between Rubisco and its activase. Interestingly, the correlated adaptive processes between both these proteins have paralleled the geological variation history of the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Conclusions The gene rbcL has experienced bursts of adaptations in response to the changing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. These adaptations have emerged as a result of a continuous dynamic of mutations, many of which may have involved innovation of functional Rubisco features. Analysis of the protein structure and the functional implications of such

  10. Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

  11. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-11-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  12. Discriminating plants using the DNA barcode rbcLb: an appraisal based on a large data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenpan; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Xu, Chao; Long, Ping; Chen, Chumming; Zhou, Shiliang

    2014-03-01

    The ideal DNA barcode for plants remains to be discovered, and the candidate barcode rbcL has been met with considerable skepticism since its proposal. In fact, the variability within this gene has never been fully explored across all plant groups from algae to flowering plants, and its performance as a barcode has not been adequately tested. By analysing all of the rbcL sequences currently available in GenBank, we attempted to determine how well a region of rbcL performs as a barcode in species discrimination. We found that the rbcLb region was more variable than the frequently used rbcLa region. Both universal and plant group-specific primers were designed to amplify rbcLb, and the performance of rbcLa and rbcLb was tested in several ways. Using blast, both regions successfully identified all families and nearly all genera; however, the successful species identification rates varied significantly among plant groups, ranging from 24.58% to 85.50% for rbcLa and from 36.67% to 90.89% for rbcLb. Successful species discrimination ranged from 5.19% to 96.33% for rbcLa and from 22.09% to 98.43% for rbcLb in species-rich families, and from 0 to 88.73% for rbcLa and from 2.04% to 100% for rbcLb in species-rich genera. Both regions performed better for lower plants than for higher plants, although rbcLb performed significantly better than rbcLa overall, particularly for angiosperms. Considering the applicability across plants, easy and unambiguous alignment, high primer universality, high sequence quality and high species discrimination power for lower plants, we suggest rbcLb as a universal plant barcode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Molecular cloning of RBCS genes in Selaginella and the evolution of the rbcS gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubisco small subunits (RBCS are encoded by a nuclear rbcS multigene family in higher plants and green algae. However, owing to the lack of rbcS sequences in lycophytes, the characteristics of rbcS genes in lycophytes is unclear. Recently, the complete genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii provided the first insight into the rbcS gene family in lycophytes. To understand further the characteristics of rbcS genes in other Selaginella, the full length of rbcS genes (rbcS1 and rbcS2 from two other Selaginella species were isolated. Both rbcS1 and rbcS2 genes shared more than 97% identity among three Selaginella species. RBCS proteins from Selaginella contained the Pfam RBCS domain F00101, which was a major domain of other plant RBCS proteins. To explore the evolution of the rbcS gene family across Selaginella and other plants, we identified and performed comparative analysis of the rbcS gene family among 16 model plants based on a genome-wide analysis. The results showed that (i two rbcS genes were obtained in Selaginella, which is the second fewest number of rbcS genes among the 16 representative plants; (ii an expansion of rbcS genes occurred in the moss Physcomitrella patens; (iii only RBCS proteins from angiosperms contained the Pfam PF12338 domains, and (iv a pattern of concerted evolution existed in the rbcS gene family. Our study provides new insights into the evolution of the rbcS gene family in Selaginella and other plants.

  14. The study of x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy of 99mTc-RBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chunyi

    1994-01-01

    99m Tc-RBC are widely used as visualization agents for a blood pool. In this research 99m Tc-RBC was prepared by in vivo labeling. The chemical state and changes of 99m Tc atoms in 99m Tc-RBC was determined by x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of 99m Tc-RBC is best shown by the determination of XPS at one hour or at two hours after labeling. There are two ways of coordination of bonding of RBC and 99m Tc: One is the coordination of 99m Tc with the oxygen atom which carries a negative charge of the carboxyl radical on the polypeptide bond, the other is the coordination of 99m Tc with a sulfur atom which caries the negative charge of cysteine. From the E b value of 99m Tc-RBC 99m Tc 3d5/2, it can be inferred that 99m Tc of 99m Tc-RBC is less than a trivalent. At the same time, the results of the determination by XPS with the compounds containing 99 TcO 4 - , 99 Tc(V), 99 Tc(IV) and 99 Tc(III) show that the chemical shift is lowered as the reduction state is lowered. Experimental results coincide with theoretical inferences

  15. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  16. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstead, William M [U PENNSYLVANIA; Kiessling, J W [U PENNSYLVANIA; Chen, Xiao - Han [U PENNSYLVANIA; Smith, Douglas H [U PENNSYLVANA; Higazi, Abd Ar [U PENNSYLVANIA; Cines, Douglas B [U PENNSYLVANIA; Bdeir, Khalil [U PENNSYLVANIA; Zaitsev, Sergei [U PENNSYLVANIA; Muzykantov, Vladimir R [U PENNSYLVANIA

    2008-01-01

    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  17. Tissue Characterization of Lemna gibba rbcS Promoter%浮萍rbcS启动子组织特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凤珍; 李倩; 王友如

    2015-01-01

    A new rbcS (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit) promoter with the size of 1 438 bp (named SSU5C promoter) was cloned from Lemna gibba. SSU5C promoter was fused with the GUS reporter gene to construct a plant binary vector (pSSU5C-IGUS), and introduced into duckweed by agrogacterium-mediated trans-formation. The transgenic plantlets were generated. This study was focused on the tissue characterization of SSU5C promoter. GUS staining showed that SSU5C promoter drove GUS to express in the green tissue in leaf, stem and petiole of T1 tobacco, whereas no GUS activity was observed in root. In reproductive organs, the GUS activity was observed in corolla lobes, anther and stigma, no GUS activity was observed in other parts. It was obvious that rbcS promoter can not only express in the green tissue, but also can express in reproductive organs. The results lay a good doundation for the application of SSU5C in plant genetic engineering.%SSU5C启动子(全长1438 bp)是从浮萍基因组中新克隆的一个rb c S (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carbo-xylase small subunit)启动子。本研究将 SSU5C 启动子与GUS基因融合,成功构建植物双元表达载p SSU5C-IGUS,并利用农杆菌介导法转化烟草,获得转基因植株,探究SSU5C启动子在烟草中的组织表达特点。GUS检测结果表明:在T1烟草的营养器官中,SSU5C启动子主要驱动GUS基因在烟草叶片和叶柄、茎等绿色组织中表达,而在根部不表达;在生殖器官中,GUS基因主要在花冠裂片以及花药和柱头中表达。本研究首次发现浮萍rb c S启动子不仅在绿色组织中表达,而且在生殖器官中的花冠裂片以及花药和柱头中表达,这一发现可为SSU5C启动子在植物基因工程中的应用奠定基础。

  18. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  19. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions in Dextran and PEG under flow II. Role of RBC deformability and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.; Gluhcheva, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, 1-4 (2011), s. 441-450 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC suspensions * conductivity * Dextran 70 * Polyethylene glycol 35 000 (PEG) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.398, year: 2011

  20. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions in Dextran and PEG under flow II. Role of RBC deformability and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.; Gluhcheva, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, 1-4 (2011), s. 441-450 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC suspensions * conductivity * Dextran 70 * Polyethylene glycol 35 000 ( PEG ) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.398, year: 2011

  1. Red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in confined microflows: Pressure-flow relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Hagit; Waisman, Dan; Korin, Netanel; Sznitman, Josué

    2017-10-01

    Microfluidic-based assays have become increasingly popular to explore microcirculation in vitro. In these experiments, blood is resuspended to a desired haematocrit level in a buffer solution, where frequent choices for preparing RBC suspensions comprise notably Dextran and physiological buffer. Yet, the rational for selecting one buffer versus another is often ill-defined and lacks detailed quantification, including ensuing changes in RBC flow characteristics. Here, we revisit RBC suspensions in microflows and attempt to quantify systematically some of the differences emanating between buffers. We measure bulk flow rate (Q) of RBC suspensions, using PBS- and Dextran-40, as a function of the applied pressure drop (ΔP) for two hematocrits (∼0% and 23%). Two distinct microfluidic designs of varying dimensions are employed: a straight channel larger than and a network array similar to the size of individual RBCs. Using the resulting pressure-flow curves, we extract the equivalent hydrodynamic resistances and estimate the relative viscosities. These efforts are a first step in rigorously quantifying the influence of the 'background' buffer on RBC flows within microfluidic devices and thereby underline the importance of purposefully selecting buffer suspensions for microfluidic in vitro assays. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Preoperative diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma: a 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Luca; Borsari, Giulia; Pichierri, Patrizia; Polito, Ennio; Toscano, Olga; Grassetto, Gaia; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico; Vattimo, Angelo Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to describe 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy as a diagnostic method for orbital cavernous hemangiomas and to evaluate this diagnostic tool according to surgical outcomes. Fifty-five patients with clinical and radiological (US, CT, and/or MRI) suspicion of unilateral cavernous hemangioma of the orbit underwent 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.Qualitative and semiquantitative evaluations were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. SPECT images showed focal uptake in the orbital mass in 36 of 55 patients. Nineteen patients had a negative scintigraphic pattern, with concordance of early and late absence of uptake of 99mTc-RBC.Our procedure showed 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for the diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma, with a positive predictive value of 90.9% and a negative predictive value of 100%. 99mTc-RBC imaging is safe, easy to perform, and highly accurate in providing adequate clinical and surgical management. As a noninvasive and highly specific method for diagnosing orbital hemangioma, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy can avoid more invasive imaging or biopsy.

  3. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  4. Tc-99m Labeled Red Blood Cell by Ultra Tag RBC Kit in Patients Suspected of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusuwan, Pawana; Leaungwutiwong, Suraphong; Tocharoenchai, Chiraporn; Chaiwatanarat, Tawatchai; Sirisatipoch, Sasitorn; Rajadara, Samart; Naktong, Thanyada; Thanyarak, Sucheera

    2001-06-01

    Twenty patients suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent Tc-99m labeled red blood cell (RBC) by ultraTag RBC kit at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Bumrungrad Hospital between January 2000 and December 2002 were studied. The histories of patients together with either endoscopic results or angiographic findings or pathological reports were used as gold standards. Two by Two decision matrix was used for data analysis and the sensitivity together with specificity were calculated. The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit are 87.5% and 91.7%, respectively. We conclude that Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit gives high percentages of sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the image quality is improved because of the absence of free Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake in the stomach in all patients

  5. Haemostatic function and biomarkers of endothelial damage before and after RBC transfusion in patients with haematologic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A M; Leinøe, E B; Johansson, P I

    2015-01-01

    function and the endothelium) to RBC transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was sampled from patients with various transfusion-dependent haematologic diseases before 1 and 24 h after RBC transfusion. Primary and secondary haemostasis was evaluated by whole-blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate....... Compared to before transfusion, patients had slightly reduced coagulability 1 h after RBC transfusion, assessed by TEG. However, transfusion of older RBC products (>14 days) was associated with increased coagulability (all P level of syndecan-1 increased slightly 24 h after transfusion (median....... The changes observed were small to moderate and the clinical relevance of these findings should be investigated in larger studies....

  6. Estimation of adult and neonatal RBC lifespans in anemic neonates using RBCs labeled at several discrete biotin densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Denison J; Widness, John A; Nalbant, Demet; Schmidt, Robert L; Mock, Donald M; An, Guohua; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Prior conclusions that autologous neonatal red blood cells (RBC) have substantially shorter lifespans than allogeneic adult RBCs were not based on direct comparison of autologous neonatal vs. allogeneic adult RBCs performed concurrently in the same infant. Biotin labeling of autologous neonatal RBCs and allogeneic adult donor RBCs permits concurrent direct comparison of autologous vs. allogeneic RBC lifespan. RBCs from 15 allogeneic adult donors and from 15 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates were labeled at separate biotin densities and transfused simultaneously into the 15 neonates. Two mathematical models that account for the RBC differences were employed to estimate lifespans for the two RBC populations. Mean ± SD lifespan for adult allogeneic RBC was 70.1 ± 19.1 d, which is substantially shorter than the 120 d lifespan of both autologous and adult allogeneic RBC in healthy adults. Mean ± SD lifespan for neonatal RBC was 54.2 ± 11.3 d, which is only about 30% shorter than that of the adult allogeneic RBCs. This study provides evidence that extrinsic environmental factors primarily determine RBC survival (e.g., small bore of the capillaries of neonates, rate of oxygenation/deoxygenation cycles) rather than factors intrinsic to RBC.

  7. Erythrocyte survival studies in lymphomas : a prognostic appraisal. [/sup 51/Cr-labelled RBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, B; Subrahmanyam, K; Pant, G C [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Inst. of Medical Sciences

    1977-08-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies using /sup 51/Cr-labelled RBC's were conducted using 20 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and 10 control subjects. Hepatic, splenic, and cardiac areas were monitored for rapid detection of hypersplenism. The findings are discussed in relation to the prognosis of the disease in the patients.

  8. Time dependent variation of human blood conductivity as a method for an estimation of RBC aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2008), s. 69-78 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC aggregation * blood conductivity * low shear rate viscometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.814, year: 2008

  9. 40 CFR 35.2035 - Rotating biological contractor (RBC) replacement grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works owner, the applicant, its engineers, contractors, equipment manufacturers or suppliers; (b) The RBC failure has significantly increased the project's capital or operation and maintenance costs; (c) The modification/replacement project meets all requirements of EPA's construction grant and other...

  10. A gene phylogeny of the red algae (Rhodophyta) based on plastid rbcL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, D W; Fredericq, S; Butler, B S; Hommersand, M H; Chase, M W

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny for the Rhodophyta has been inferred by parsimony analysis of plastid rbcL sequences representing 81 species, 68 genera, 38 families, and 17 orders of red algae; rbcL encodes the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Levels of sequence divergence among species, genera, and families are high in red algae, typically much greater than those reported for flowering plants. The Rhodophyta traditionally consists of one class, Rhodophyceae, and two subclasses, Bangiophycidae and Florideophycidae. The Bangiophycidae with three orders (Porphyridiales, Compsopogonales, and Bangiales) appears to be polyphyletic, and the Florideophycidae with 17 orders is monophyletic in this study. The current classification of the Florideophycidae based on ultrastructure of pit connections is supported. With the exception of the Rhodogorgonales, which appears to be misplaced, orders with one or two pit-plug cap layers (Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Acrochaetiales, Palmanales, Batrachospermales, and Nemaliales) terminate long branches of basal position within Florideophycidae in the most parsimonious rbcL tree. Orders that lack typical cap layers but possess a cap membrane are resolved as a monophyletic clade sister to the Ahnfeltiales. The large order Gigartinales, which is distributed among five rbcL clades, is polyphyletic. Families that possess typical carrageenan in their cell walls are resolved as a terminal clade containing two family complexes centered around the Solieriaceae and Gigartinaceae. PMID:8041781

  11. 77 FR 50487 - Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy Services LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-328-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  12. Measurement of blood coagulation with considering RBC aggregation through a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Nam, Jeonghun; Xue, Shubin; Shin, Sehyun

    2011-01-01

    Even though blood coagulation can be tested by various methods and techniques, the effect of RBC aggregation on blood coagulation is not fully understood. The present study monitored clot formation in a microchip-based light transmission aggregometer. Citrated blood samples with and without the addition of calcium ion solution were initially disaggregated by rotating a stirrer in the microchip. After abrupt stop of the rotating stirrer, the transmitted light intensity over time was recorded. The syllectogram (light intensity vs. time graph) manifested a rapid increase that is associated with RBC aggregation followed by a decrease that is associated with blood coagulation. The time to reach the peak point was used as a new index of coagulation time (CT) and ranged from 200 to 500 seconds in the present measurements. The CT was inversely proportional to the concentration of fibrinogen, which enhances RBC aggregation. In addition, the CT was inversely proportional to the hematocrit, which is similar to the case of the prothrombin time (PT), as measured by a commercial coagulometer. Thus, we carefully concluded that RBC aggregation should be considered in tests of blood coagulation.

  13. Rheological and electrical properties of polymeric nanoparticle solutions and their influence on RBC suspensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Koseva, N.; Kowalczyk, A.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2014), s. 35190 ISSN 1430-6395 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : nanoparticles and RBC suspensions * poly(acrylic acid) * rheology * electrical conductivity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2014 http://www.ar.ethz.ch/TMPPDF/24308140293.696/ApplRheol_24_35190.pdf

  14. Simulator for training operators of electric substation: an approach via RBC-Paraconsistent; Simulador para treinamento de operadores de subestacao eletrica: um enfoque via RBC-paraconsistente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert-Torres, G.; Martins, H.G.; Coutinho, M.P.; Goulart, J.D.C.; Soares, F.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: germanoltorres@gmail.com, helgagonzaga@gmail.com, maurilio.coutinho@gmail.com, janaina157@yahoo.com.br, francis.azevedo@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    This article presents a combination of two techniques applied artificial intelligence to solve problems to Restoration of an Electric Substation: Casebased Reasoning - CBR and the Four Values Annotated Paraconsistent Logic - 4vAPL. The process occurs in the connection functions of belief, disbelief, specialty and temporality to LPA4v in the retrieval of cases to determine process diagnostic of an RBC. The field of CBR is applied in a recovery of an electric substation. The LPA4v is the support applied in problems that have inconsistent information, partials and undefined. Thus this study is closer of the real situations.

  15. Rotational dynamics of C60 in Na2RbC60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christides, C.; Prassides, K.; Neumann, D.A.; Copley, J.R.D.; Mizuki, J.; Tanigaki, K.; Hirosawa, I.; Ebbesen, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the low-energy neutron inelastic-scattering (NIS) spectra of superconducting Na 2 RbC 60 in the temperature range 50-350 K. Well-defined librational peaks are observed at 50 K at 2.83(17) meV (FWHM = 1.7(5) meV). They soften and broaden with increasing temperature. Their behaviour mimics that found in solid C 60 and differs markedly from K 3 C 60 . The rotational barrier for C 60 reorientations in Na 2 RbC 60 is somewhat higher than in pristine C 60 and approximately half as large as in K 3 C 60 . An order-disorder transition is anticipated at a temperature higher than that found in C 60 . (orig.)

  16. rbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, M; Omori, T; Nakazawa, M; Sano, T; Kato, M; Iwatsuki, K

    1994-01-01

    Pteriodophytes have a longer evolutionary history than any other vascular land plant and, therefore, have endured greater loss of phylogenetically informative information. This factor has resulted in substantial disagreements in evaluating characters and, thus, controversy in establishing a stable classification. To compare competing classifications, we obtained DNA sequences of a chloroplast gene. The sequence of 1206 nt of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbc...

  17. Experimental method for the study of blood and RBC suspension conductivity under flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2014), s. 995-1004 ISSN 1310-1331 Grant - others:The Ministry of Education and Science of Bulgaria(BG) BG051PO001-3.3-05/0001; The Ministry of Education, Youth and Science of Bulgaria(BG) DO-805/2012 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : viscometric flow * conductivity * blood/RBC suspension microstructural changes Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2014

  18. Neem leaf extract as potential modifier of free radical interaction with RBC membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Shilpa M.; Kulkarni, Satish G.; Rane, Charusheela

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is well known as village pharmacy due to its multifaceted medicinal action in curing countless health problems. The leaf extract of Neem is known to purify blood by removing toxins and neutralizing free radicals. Using gamma irradiation as free radical generation process the efficacy of neem leaf extract in combating free radical attack on RBC membrane has been explored. The results narrating role of concentration and dose dependency in this radio modulation will be discussed

  19. Phylogeny and intraspecific variability of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from plastid rbcL sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manen, Jean-François; Habashi, Christine; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Park, Jeong-Mi; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2004-11-01

    The rbcL sequences of 106 specimens representing 28 species of the four recognized sections of Orobanche were analyzed and compared. Most sequences represent pseudogenes with premature stop codons. This study confirms that the American lineage (sects. Gymnocaulis and Myzorrhiza) contains potentially functional rbcL-copies with intact open reading frames and low rates of non-synonymous substitutions. For the first time, this is also shown for a member of the Eurasian lineage, O. coerulescens of sect. Orobanche, while all other investigated species of sects. Orobanche and Trionychon contain pseudogenes with distorted reading frames and significantly higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions. Phylogenetic analyses of the rbcL sequences give equivocal results concerning the monophyly of Orobanche, and the American lineage might be more closely related to Boschniakia and Cistanche than to the other sections of Orobanche. Additionally, species of sect. Trionychon phylogenetically nest in sect. Orobanche. This is in concordance with results from other plastid markers (rps2 and matK), but in disagreement with other molecular (nuclear ITS), morphological, and karyological data. This might indicate that the ancestor of sect. Trionychon has captured the plastid genome, or parts of it, of a member of sect. Orobanche. Apart from the phylogenetically problematic position of sect. Trionychon, the phylogenetic relationships within sect. Orobanche are similar to those inferred from nuclear ITS data and are close to the traditional groupings traditionally recognized based on morphology. The intraspecific variation of rbcL is low and is neither correlated with intraspecific morphological variability nor with host range. Ancestral character reconstruction using parsimony suggests that the ancestor of O. sect. Orobanche had a narrow host range.

  20. Effect of RBC concentrate transfusions on serum ferritin content in children with acute leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeshko, V G; Bruslova, E M; Tsvietkova, N M; Iatsemirskii, S M; Puchkareva, T I; Gonchar, L A; Krukovska, V V; Zelinska, A V; Mishchenko, L P

    2013-01-01

    To study the serum ferritin levels in children with acute leukemia, depending on the number of transfusions of RBC concentrate and period of disease. We studied the red blood count, serum iron and ferritin levels in 54 patients with acute leukemia before chemotherapy, at the time of a standardized treatment protocol, and after transfusions of RBC concentrates. In the debute of acute leukemia just before treatment lauch the serum ferritin in 81.5% of children was 2.3-2.5 higher than normal. The need for transfusion of RBC concentrates was higher under serum ferritin level exceeding 500 ng/mL. The association was established between ferritin content and age of the children, variant of acute leukemia and period of the disease. The level of serum ferritin can be used as a marker of ferrokinetic status for timely diagnosis of iron overload in children with acute leukemias and for application of treatment-and-prophylactic actions. Bebeshko V. G., Bruslova K. M., Cvjetkova N. M., Jacemyrskyj S. M., Pushkarova T. I., Gonchar L. O., Krukovska V. V., Zelinska A. V., Mishhenko L. P., 2013.

  1. Multiple and Periodic Measurement of RBC Aggregation and ESR in Parallel Microfluidic Channels under On-Off Blood Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun Kang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC aggregation causes to alter hemodynamic behaviors at low flow-rate regions of post-capillary venules. Additionally, it is significantly elevated in inflammatory or pathophysiological conditions. In this study, multiple and periodic measurements of RBC aggregation and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are suggested by sucking blood from a pipette tip into parallel microfluidic channels, and quantifying image intensity, especially through single experiment. Here, a microfluidic device was prepared from a master mold using the xurography technique rather than micro-electro-mechanical-system fabrication techniques. In order to consider variations of RBC aggregation in microfluidic channels due to continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip, two indices (aggregation index (AI and erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate aggregation index (EAI are evaluated by using temporal variations of microscopic, image-based intensity. The proposed method is employed to evaluate the effect of hematocrit and dextran solution on RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. As a result, EAI displays a significantly linear relationship with modified conventional ESR measurement obtained by quantifying time constants. In addition, EAI varies linearly within a specific concentration of dextran solution. In conclusion, the proposed method is able to measure RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. Furthermore, the method provides multiple data of RBC aggregation and ESR through a single experiment. A future study will involve employing the proposed method to evaluate biophysical properties of blood samples collected from cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Etiology of cardiogenic shock early after open-heart surgery: Assessment by Tc-99m RBC wall motion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, T.; Gray, R.; Chaux, A.; Lee, M.; Matloff, J.; Raymond, M.; Berman, D.

    1984-01-01

    When life-threatening cardiogenic shock (CI 1.8 1/min/m/sup 2/, elevated right and left-side filling pressures) occurs early (0-48 hrs) after open-heart surgery, routine approaches frequently cannot distinguish between expected etiologies: (1) transient systolic failure of the LV, RV, or both, common early postoperatively (postop); (2) perioperative infarct of the LV or RV; (3) myocardial restriction due to active pericardial bleeding or to accumulated clots and fluid; (4) diminished LV reserve from aneurysmectomy; and (5) residual valvular regurgitation. Distinction is critical, because (1), (2), and (4) will be treated by optimizing preload and afterload; (3) with urgent (if active bleeding) or semi-urgent surgery; and (5) with repeat valvular surgery. In 22 pts with unexpected early postop cardiogenic shock, Tc-99m-RBC equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography revealed: global LV (3 pts) or RV (3 pts) dysfunction, new segmental LV dysfunction (2 pts), active bleeding (5 pts) and/or accumulated pericardial fluid ( 8 pts) with hyperdynamic LV and RV, and a small hyperdynamic LV without effusion (1 pt), providing a specific etiologic diagnosis in all cases. In the Cardiac Surgical ICU, therapeutic decisions frequently await and depend on the results of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, now routinely performed in postop pts with unexpected cardiogenic shock

  3. Discriminatory power of rbcL barcode locus for authentication of some of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloukh, Lina; Kumarappan, Alagappan; Jarrar, Mohammad; Salehi, Jawad; El-Wakil, Houssam; Rajya Lakshmi, T V

    2017-06-01

    DNA barcoding of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants is of high practical and scientific value as the plants adapt to very harsh environmental conditions that challenge their identification. Fifty-one plant species belonged to 22 families, 2 monocots, and 20 eudicots; a maximum number of species being legumes and grasses were collected. To authenticate the morphological identification of the wild plant taxa, rbcL and matK regions were used in the study. The primer universality and discriminatory power of rbcL is 100%, while it is 35% for matK locus for these plant species. The sequences were submitted to GenBank; accession numbers were obtained for all the rbcL sequences and for 6 of matK sequences. We suggest rbcL as a promising barcode locus for the tested group of 51 plants. In the present study, an inexpensive, simple method of identification of rare desert plant taxa through rbcL barcode is being reported.

  4. [sup 99m]Tc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy; Assessmet of bleeding site and rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1994-03-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with [sup 99m]Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author).

  5. Physiologic Impact of Circulating RBC Microparticles upon Blood-Vascular Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Said

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review current data elucidating the role of red blood cell derived microparticles (RMPs in normal vascular physiology and disease progression. Microparticles (MPs are submicron-size, membrane-encapsulated vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to numerous stimuli that promote a sequence of cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes and resulting MP genesis. MPs were originally considered as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and more recently are recognized to have pleiotropic biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in initiating apoptosis. RMPs, specifically, form normally during RBC maturation in response to injury during circulation, and are copiously produced during processing and storage for transfusion. Notably, several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs markedly from that of intact RBCs and the nature/composition of RMP components are affected by the specific circumstances of RMP genesis. Described RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion as well as influence upon vasoregulation via influence upon nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Of particular relevance, RMPs scavenge NO more avidly than do intact RBCs; this physiology has been proposed to contribute to the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that may be observed following transfusion. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in normal and patho-physiology and in transfusion recipients is an area of continued investigation.

  6. Decision Tree Algorithm-Generated Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Barcodes of rbcL Genes for 38 Brassicaceae Species Tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Kuo-Chuan; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2018-01-01

    DNA barcode sequences are accumulating in large data sets. A barcode is generally a sequence larger than 1000 base pairs and generates a computational burden. Although the DNA barcode was originally envisioned as straightforward species tags, the identification usage of barcode sequences is rarely emphasized currently. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association studies provide us an idea that the SNPs may be the ideal target of feature selection to discriminate between different species. We hypothesize that SNP-based barcodes may be more effective than the full length of DNA barcode sequences for species discrimination. To address this issue, we tested a r ibulose diphosphate carboxylase ( rbcL ) S NP b arcoding (RSB) strategy using a decision tree algorithm. After alignment and trimming, 31 SNPs were discovered in the rbcL sequences from 38 Brassicaceae plant species. In the decision tree construction, these SNPs were computed to set up the decision rule to assign the sequences into 2 groups level by level. After algorithm processing, 37 nodes and 31 loci were required for discriminating 38 species. Finally, the sequence tags consisting of 31 rbcL SNP barcodes were identified for discriminating 38 Brassicaceae species based on the decision tree-selected SNP pattern using RSB method. Taken together, this study provides the rational that the SNP aspect of DNA barcode for rbcL gene is a useful and effective sequence for tagging 38 Brassicaceae species.

  7. Long-chain PUFA in Granulocytes, Mononuclear Cells, and RBC in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis: Relation to Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Marianne H.; Ott, Peter; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    -related liver disease were matched with 20 CF patients without. Blood samples were analysed for liver biochemistry and haematology. Granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and RBC were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography. Hepatic ultrasound...

  8. rbcL gene sequences provide evidence for the evolutionary lineages of leptosporangiate ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, M; Omori, T; Nakazawa, M; Sano, T; Kato, M; Iwatsuki, K

    1994-06-07

    Pteriodophytes have a longer evolutionary history than any other vascular land plant and, therefore, have endured greater loss of phylogenetically informative information. This factor has resulted in substantial disagreements in evaluating characters and, thus, controversy in establishing a stable classification. To compare competing classifications, we obtained DNA sequences of a chloroplast gene. The sequence of 1206 nt of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL) was determined from 58 species, representing almost all families of leptosporangiate ferns. Phlogenetic trees were inferred by the neighbor-joining and the parsimony methods. The two methods produced almost identical phylogenetic trees that provided insights concerning major general evolutionary trends in the leptosporangiate ferns. Interesting findings were as follows: (i) two morphologically distinct heterosporous water ferns, Marsilea and Salvinia, are sister genera; (ii) the tree ferns (Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae, and Metaxyaceae) are monophyletic; and (iii) polypodioids are distantly related to the gleichenioids in spite of the similarity of their exindusiate soral morphology and are close to the higher indusiate ferns. In addition, the affinities of several "problematic genera" were assessed.

  9. OpenRBC: Redefining the Frontier of Red Blood Cell Simulations at Protein Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Li, He; Grinberg, Leopold; Sachdeva, Vipin; Evangelinos, Constantinos; Karniadakis, George

    We present a from-scratch development of OpenRBC, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics code, which is capable of performing an unprecedented in silico experiment - simulating an entire mammal red blood cell lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton modeled by 4 million mesoscopic particles - on a single shared memory node. To achieve this, we invented an adaptive spatial searching algorithm to accelerate the computation of short-range pairwise interactions in an extremely sparse 3D space. The algorithm is based on a Voronoi partitioning of the point cloud of coarse-grained particles, and is continuously updated over the course of the simulation. The algorithm enables the construction of a lattice-free cell list, i.e. the key spatial searching data structure in our code, in O (N) time and space space with cells whose position and shape adapts automatically to the local density and curvature. The code implements NUMA/NUCA-aware OpenMP parallelization and achieves perfect scaling with up to hundreds of hardware threads. The code outperforms a legacy solver by more than 8 times in time-to-solution and more than 20 times in problem size, thus providing a new venue for probing the cytomechanics of red blood cells. This work was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Model- ing of Materials (CM4). YHT acknowledges partial financial support from an IBM Ph.D. Scholarship Award.

  10. DNA Barcoding the Canadian Arctic Flora: Core Plastid Barcodes (rbcL + matK) for 490 Vascular Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M.; Sokoloff, Paul C.; Gillespie, Lynn J.; Consaul, Laurie L.; Bull, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA–trnH, psbK–psbI, atpF–atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF–atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species. PMID

  11. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  12. Delimiting the species Neosiphonia yendoi (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) based on COI and rbcL genetic variation in Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongseok; Yang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Myung Sook

    2016-09-01

    Although the marine red algal genus Neosiphonia is well characterized, many species of Neosiphonia are poorly understood. To correctly define the species delimitation of Neosiphonia yendoi using genetic variation, owing to the confusion over identification with " N. sphaerocarpa" from Korea, we investigated intensively the haplotype network of the mitochondrial COI and the plastid rbcL genes of specimens collected from Korea and Japan. The molecular analyses indicated that specimens collected in different sites of Korea and Japan belong to the same species, Neosiphonia yendoi and " Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa" from Korea, which is distinguished from N. sphaerocarpa from Florida and is allied with N. yendoi collected from the type locality, Muroran of Japan. A total of 29 COI and 13 rbcL haplotypes were found and the COI haplotype network shows evidence of a clear break between specimens from Jeju Island and all other locations of Korea, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity within N. yendoi.

  13. Contínua evolução da RBC: um obrigado a todos os colaboradores!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Telles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde de seu nascimento, a RBC prima pela divulgação do conhecimento pericial tecnicamente validado e pela discussão de novos métodos e de casos. É o caminho que há de ser constantemente trilhado pelos profissionais da perícia para que não eivem seus laudos periciais e pareceres técnicos de vícios insanáveis cujas consequências seriam nefastas para a justiça. Não é à toa que o Corpo Editorial da RBC, com o imprescindível auxílio dos editores de sessão e dos avaliadores, não envida esforços na contínua evolução da revista em direção à qualidade. Prova disso é a permanente busca por indexação em vários meios e pela elevação dos índices de qualidade por qualificação externa. A RBC aparece no Latindex, no CrossRef, no Google Scholar, no Research Gate, no Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ, no Electronic Journal Library (EZ3, no Scilit, no Diadorim, na ABEC Brasil, na Universitäts Bibliothek UBL Leipzig e na Qualis/CAPES.

  14. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.

  15. Epidemiology of RBC Transfusions in Patients With Severe Acute Kidney Injury: Analysis From the Randomized Evaluation of Normal Versus Augmented Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Lo, Serigne; Gallagher, Martin; Cass, Alan; Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon

    2016-05-01

    To assess the epidemiology and outcomes associated with RBC transfusion in patients with severe acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty-five ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Cohort of 1,465 patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level replacement therapy study. Daily information on morning hemoglobin level and amount of RBC transfused were prospectively collected in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level study. We analyzed the epidemiology of such transfusions and their association with clinical outcomes. Overall, 977 patients(66.7%) received a total of 1,192 RBC units. By day 5, 785 of 977 transfused patients (80.4%) had received at least one RBC transfusion. Hemoglobin at randomization was lower in transfused than in nontransfused patients (94 vs 111 g/L; p regression analysis, RBC transfusion was independently associated with lower 90-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38-0.79). However, we found no independent association between RBC transfusions and mortality when the analyses were restricted to patients surviving at least 5 days (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.85). We found no independent association between RBC transfusion and renal replacement therapy-free days, mechanical ventilator-free days, or length of stay in ICU or hospital. In patients with severe acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, we found no association of RBC transfusion with 90-day mortality or other patient-centered outcomes. The optimal hemoglobin threshold for RBC transfusion in such patients needs to be determined in future randomized controlled trials.

  16. Sex determines the influence of smoking and gene polymorphism on glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Tine Halsen; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Helle Raun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is one of the major oxidative enzymes. Our aim was to characterize factors influencing its activity and to determine whether or not the activity is associated with asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum selenium concentration was measured, GPX1 polymorphisms...... %) had doctor-diagnosed asthma. RESULTS: The average serum selenium concentration was too low for optimal enzyme activity (mean (SE), 83.4 (0.76) ng/mL). GPX1 activity in men was lower than in women, 52.6 (0.66) and 56.4 (0.59) U/g protein, respectively (p... associated with serum selenium concentration (p = 0.005) and negatively associated with both active smoking (p = 0.009) and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (p = 0.02). In women, activity was associated with genotypes with 59.2 (1.4), 56.0 (1.4) and 54.2 (1.4) U/g protein in the homozygote wild...

  17. Reconstructing a herbivore's diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman A; McShea, William J; Ottesen, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbc L gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time-sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples ( F  = 1.73, P  = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4-12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed plants inventoried

  18. Does RBC Storage Age Effect Inflammation, Immune Function and Susceptibility to Transfusion Associated Microchimerism in Critically Ill Patients? Adverse Effects of RBC Storage in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Barnes S, Grizzle W, Miller D, Zhang H-G. A novel nanoparticle drug delivery system: The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin is enhanced when...Ultracentrifugatio remove impuritie including seru protein an othe solubl contaminant fro th plasma whic ca affec functiona experimenta outcomes...applications. EVs used in functional assays should be ultracentrifuged using the 3-step differential centrifugation protocol, since the soluble serum

  19. 浮萍中一个新rbcS基因启动子的克隆及分析%Analysis of a Novel rbcS Promoter Cloned in Duckweed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友如

    2010-01-01

    为了分离组织特异性、诱导性的启动子,本研究根据新克隆的浮萍rbcS基因序列设计引物,采用改进的5'walking技术从浮萍基因组中克隆了一个新的rbcS基因启动子,命名为SSU5C基因启动子.序列分析表明:SSU5C基因启动子长度为1 543 bp,含有保守性元件TATA和CAAT box,并且含有水杨酸、脱落酸、赤霉素、茉莉酸甲酯等植物激素和葡萄糖等的保守顺式作用元件.In silico分析初步推测SSU5C基因启动子受多种信号途径的协调调控.

  20. Determination of degree of RBC agglutination for blood typing using a small quantity of blood sample in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Zhou, Xin-Miao; Yen, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-04-15

    Blood typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This paper presents a microfluidic blood typing system using a small quantity of blood sample to determine the degree of agglutination of red blood cell (RBC). Two measuring methods were proposed: impedimetric measurement and electroanalytical measurement. The charge transfer resistance in the impedimetric measurement and the power parameter in the electroanalytical measurement were used for the analysis of agglutination level. From the experimental results, both measuring methods provide quantitative results, and the parameters are linearly and monotonically related to the degree of RBC agglutination. However, the electroanalytical measurement is more reliable than the impedimetric technique because the impedimetric measurement may suffer from many influencing factors, such as chip conditions. Five levels from non-agglutination (level 0) to strong agglutination (level 4+) can be discriminated in this study, conforming to the clinical requirement to prevent any risks in transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral supplementation of vitamin E reduces osmotic fragility of RBC in hemolytic anemic patients with G6PD deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, N.; Begum, S.; Begum, N.; Ali, T.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell member by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus protects cells from oxidative stress-induced lysis in G6PD deficiency. Changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH and MCHC may occur in haemolytic anaemic patients with G6PD deficiency. To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on these changes in order to evaluate the role of this anti-oxidant vitamin in reducing chronic haemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. A total number of 102 subjects with age ranged of 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (experimental group) and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group). The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children ?12 years (in a divided dose, i.e., 4 times daily). Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control) and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD) of Haematology, Banglabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2005 to June 2006 and all healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method. Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV. MCH, MCHC were significantly lower in patients suffering from

  2. Selection of GP. Mur antigen-negative RBC for blood recipients with anti-'Mia ' records decreases transfusion reaction rates in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-A; Lin, J-A; Chang, C-W; Wu, K-H; Yeh, S-P; Ho, C-M; Chang, J-G

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of GP. Mur antigen-negative blood selection for transfusion in patients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The GP. Mur RBC phenotype is prevalent (7·3%) in Taiwan. Antibodies against GP. Mur (anti-'Mi a ') are identified in 1·24% of our population, and anti-'Mi a ' screening using GP. Mur RBC has been routine for Taiwan's blood banks. However, due to the lack of commercial antibodies, only cross-matching was used to prevent transfusion of GP. Mur-positive blood to patients with anti-'Mi a ' in most hospitals. There is still a risk of GP. Mur-positive RBC exposure and subsequent anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. Since February 2014, GP. Mur antigen-negative RBCs identified by reaction with anti-'Mi a '-positive serum were selected for blood recipients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The transfusion reactions between January 2013 and January 2014 were compared with those that occurred between February 2014 and July 2015. The transfusion reaction rate was significantly higher in anti-'Mi a '-positive blood recipients compared to total subjects receiving an RBC transfusion before GP. Mur-negative donor RBC selection. After antigen-negative RBC selection, the transfusion reaction frequency in subjects with anti-'Mi a ' became similar to total blood recipients. IgG form anti-'Mi a ' antibodies were present in all cases of probable anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. The time required for anti-'Mi a ' boosting after transfusion was around 4-21 days. Selection of GP. Mur-negative RBC for transfusion to patients with anti-'Mi a ' records could decrease the rate of transfusion reaction and antibody boosting. This procedure should be incorporated into blood bank routines in areas where anti-'Mi a ' is prevalent. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. Reflexiones sobre la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC: la experiencia de un programa de RBC en Bolivia Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR: the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urko Díaz-Aristizabal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC es una estrategia de desarrollo comunitario avalada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO, que persigue la rehabilitación, la igualdad de oportunidades y la integración social de las Personas con Discapacidad (PD en sus entornos. Con este objetivo promueve la colaboración entre las PD, sus familias y los diferentes actores de la comunidad involucrados, así como el liderazgo comunitario y la participación de las PD mediante el impulso de la colaboración multisectorial. Este artículo expone los antecedentes históricos y las características fundamentales de la estrategia de RBC a partir de un programa llevado a cabo por una fundación del departamento de Cochabamba (Bolivia, para después incidir en algunos aspectos referentes al contexto sociocultural, que especialmente en situaciones de interculturalidad, pueden determinar que un programa de RBC tenga éxito o esté abocado al fracaso.Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO, the International Labor Office (ILO and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO. It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio

  4. Association between Polymorphisms in Glutathione Peroxidase and Selenoprotein P Genes, Glutathione Peroxidase Activity, HRT Use and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méplan, Catherine; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers in women. Evidence suggests that genetic variation in antioxidant enzymes could influence BC risk, but to date the relationship between selenoproteins and BC risk remains unclear. In this report, a study population including 975 Danish cases...... and 975 controls matched for age and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use was genotyped for five functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SEPP1, GPX1, GPX4 and the antioxidant enzyme SOD2 genes. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk was assessed using conditional...... logistic regression. Additionally pre-diagnosis erythrocyte GPx (eGPx) activity was measured in a sub-group of the population. A 60% reduction in risk of developing overall BC and ductal BC was observed in women who were homozygous Thr carriers for SEPP1 rs3877899. Additionally, Leu carriers for GPX1 Pro...

  5. Analysis of RBC-microparticles in stored whole blood bags - a promising marker to detect blood doping in sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sven Christian; Jaganjac, Morana; Al-Thani, Amna Mohamed; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Raynaud, Christophe Michel; Al-Jaber, Hind; Al-Menhali, Afnan Saleh; Merenkov, Zeyed Ahmad; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Latiff, Aishah; Georgakopoulos, Costas

    2017-11-01

    Blood doping in sports is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To find a possible biomarker for the detection of blood doping, we investigated the changes in blood stored in CPDA-1 blood bags of eight healthy subjects who donated one unit of blood. Aliquots were taken on days 0, 14, and 35. Platelet-free plasma was prepared and stored at -80°C until analysis on a flow cytometer dedicated for the analysis of microparticles (MPs). Changes in the number of red blood cell (RBC) -MPs were highly significant (p doping control but confirmation by a transfusion study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. RBC acetyl cholinesterase: A poor man′s early diagnostic biomarker for familial alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s disease dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmatrao Saluba Bawaskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of red blood cell acetyl cholinesterase (AChE in a familial Alzheimer′s diseases (AD Parkinson′s disease dementia (PDD and their first generation. Setting: General hospital, Mahad district, Raigad. Patients and Methods: Clinically diagnosed patients of AD and PDD and their asymptomatic relatives. Their blood was collected in EDTA tube and transferred to laboratory at Mumbai. Result: Median red blood cell (RBC cholinesterase levels amongst PDD, their first generation asymptomatic relatives, familial AD, asymptomatic relatives of AD, healthy controls, farmers exposed to pesticides (positive control and other neurological condition without dementia (hypertension with TIA 1, sub-dural hematoma 2, hypothyroid 1, non-familial unilateral parkinsonism without dementia 3, writers cramps 2, hyponitremia 1 and cerebral palsy with non-fluent aphasia 1. Median values of RBC AChE were 19086.78 U/L, 15666.05 U/L, 9013.11 U/L, 7806.19 U/L, 14334.57 U/L, 9785.05 U/L and 13162.60 U/L, respectively. As compared to controls, RBC AChE levels were statistically significant among PDD (P = 0.004 and significantly lowered among familial AD patients (P = 0.010, relatives of patients (P = 0.010. Interpretations: Below the normal RBC AChE level is a potential biomarker in asymptomatic relatives of familial AD patients. RBC AChE is raised than normal level in patients suffering from PDD, where AChE inhibitors are helpful. However, RBC AChE level below the normal where AChE inhibitor may not be effective.

  7. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  9. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  10. Taxonomy, phylogenetics and biogeography of Chesneya (Fabaceae), evidenced from data of three sequences, ITS, trnS-trnG, and rbcL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Xiao-Li Hao; Vyacheslav V. Byalt; Alexander P. Sukhorukov; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    Plants of Central Asia have played a significant role in the origin of floras of Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Chesneya, a small leguminous genus occurring in Central Asia, western Asia, and Tibet, is used to establish phylogenetic relationships and discuss the evolutionary and biogeographical history based on sequence data of ITS and trnS-trnG and rbcL.We...

  11. Use of rbcL and trnL-F as a two-locus DNA barcode for identification of NW-European ferns: an ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de G.A.; During, H.J.; Maas, J.W.; Schneider, H.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Although consensus has now been reached on a general two-locus DNA barcode for land plants, the selected combination of markers (rbcL + matK) is not applicable for ferns at the moment. Yet especially for ferns, DNA barcoding is potentially of great value since fern gametophytes—while playing an

  12. Studies on Dasyaceae. 3. Towards a phylogeny of the Dasyaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta), based on comparative rbcL gene sequences and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Y.S D M; van der Wurff, A.W G; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    Phylogenetic analyses of the Dasyaceae based on sequence analysis of the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and 42 morphological characters are presented. Comparative sequence analysis confirms the general view of the Ceramiaceae as a primitive, paraphyletic

  13. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  14. RBC urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... measurement for a result of this test. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  15. Reconstructing a herbivore’s diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman; McShea, William J.; Ottesen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbcL gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time—sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples (F = 1.73, P = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4–12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed behaviour may favour

  16. The Crossmatch/Issue Ratio:  Use of a Novel Quality Indicator and Results of an International Survey on RBC Crossmatching and Issuing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazer, Mark H; Alcantara, Ramir; Beizai, Pouneh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To understand the worldwide scope of RBC crossmatching and issuing practices and measure efficiency using a novel quality indicator, the crossmatch/issue (C/I) ratio. METHODS: An electronic survey was disseminated to hospital transfusion services collecting details about RBC...... crossmatching and issuing practices. Respondents were asked to enumerate the number of RBCs crossmatched and issued at their institutions during the 2014 calendar year to calculate the C/I ratio. RESULTS: Fifty-two survey responses were received, mostly from North American transfusion services (28/52, 54......%). The electronic crossmatch was the most common technique (n = 29), and most respondents performed the crossmatch at the time that an order for RBCs was received in the transfusion service (even if an order to issue the RBCs was not received). Data to calculate the C/I ratio were supplied by 22 respondents...

  17. R and G color component competition of RGB image decomposition as a criterion to register RBC agglutinates for blood group typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovski, Valeri A; Ganilova, Yuliya A; Zabenkov, Igor V

    2014-03-01

    A new approach of the criterion assignment for registration of erythrocyte agglutinates to instrumentally determine blood group type is suggested. The criterion is based on comparison of R and G components of RGB decomposition of microscopy digital image taken for the blood-serum mixture sample. For the chosen experimental conditions, the minimal size (area) of RBC agglutinate to be registered by the criterion suggested is estimated theoretically. The proposed method was tested experimentally on the example of monitoring agglutinates in flow. The encouraging experimental results were obtained for improvement of the resolving power of the method; the optimal experimental conditions were revealed for maximum resolution. Though the suggested method was realized for dynamic (flow) blood group determination, it could also be applied for diagnostics in a stationary environment. This approach increases the reliability of RBC agglutinates registration and, hence, blood group typing. The results may be used to develop the apparatus for automated determination of human blood group.

  18. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This study explored whether increased red blood cell (RBC) swelling and/or plasma or urine amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge might be informative about relative chronic hyperosmotic stress in free-living men. Five healthy men (20–25 years) with baseline total water intake below 2 L/day participated in an 8-week clinical study: four 2-week periods in a U-shaped A-B-C-A design. Intake of drinking water was increased by +0.8 ± 0.3 L/day in period 2, and +1.5 ± 0.3 L/day in period 3, and returned to baseline intake (0.4 ± 0.2 L/day) in period 4. Each week, fasting blood and urine were collected after a 750 mL bolus of drinking water, following overnight water restriction. The periods of higher water intake were associated with significant decreases in RBC deformability (index of cell swelling), plasma histidine, urine arginine, and urine glutamic acid. After 4 weeks of higher water intake, four out of five participants had ½ maximal RBC deformability below 400 mmol/kg; plasma histidine below 100 μmol/L; and/or undetectable urine arginine and urine glutamic acid concentrations. Work is warranted to pursue RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge as possible biomarkers of chronic cell hydration. PMID:24303184

  19. Phylogeny of the Juncaceae based on rbcL sequences, with special emphasis on Luzula DC. and Juncus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drábková, L.; Kirschner, J.; Seberg, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Cladistic analysis of rbcL nucleotide sequences was applied to 58 taxa representing most subgenera and sections of Luzula and Juncus, chosen to reflect morphological and geographical diversity of both genera. Additionally, representatives of all other genera of the Juncaceae and two taxa from the......-supported clade is represented by an assemblage of representatives of five genera and species distributed in the Southern Hemisphere: Juncus capensis and J. lomatophyllus (both from section Graminifolii), Rostkovia, Distichia, Marsippospermum, and Patosia....

  20. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases.

  1. Reduced Utilization of Selenium by Naked Mole Rats Due to a Specific Defect in GPx1 Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Kasaikina, Marina V.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Malinouski, Mikalai Y.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Seravalli, Javier; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Turanov, Anton A.; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Park, Thomas J.; Miller, Richard A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase act...

  2. Reconstructing a herbivore’s diet using a novel rbcL DNA mini-barcode for plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Reed, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Padmini; Bourg, Norman; McShea, William J.; Ottesen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing and the application of metagenomic analyses can be used to answer questions about animal diet choice and study the consequences of selective foraging by herbivores. The quantification of herbivore diet choice with respect to native versus exotic plant species is particularly relevant given concerns of invasive species establishment and their effects on ecosystems. While increased abundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) appears to correlate with increased incidence of invasive plant species, data supporting a causal link is scarce. We used a metabarcoding approach (PCR amplicons of the plant rbcL gene) to survey the diet of white-tailed deer (fecal samples), from a forested site in Warren County, Virginia with a comprehensive plant species inventory and corresponding reference collection of plant barcode and chloroplast sequences. We sampled fecal pellet piles and extracted DNA from 12 individual deer in October 2014. These samples were compared to a reference DNA library of plant species collected within the study area. For 72 % of the amplicons, we were able to assign taxonomy at the species level, which provides for the first time—sufficient taxonomic resolution to quantify the relative frequency at which native and exotic plant species are being consumed by white-tailed deer. For each of the 12 individual deer we collected three subsamples from the same fecal sample, resulting in sequencing 36 total samples. Using Qiime, we quantified the plant DNA found in all 36 samples, and found that variance within samples was less than variance between samples (F = 1.73, P = 0.004), indicating additional subsamples may not be necessary. Species level diversity ranged from 60 to 93 OTUs per individual and nearly 70 % of all plant sequences recovered were from native plant species. The number of species detected did reduce significantly (range 4–12) when we excluded species whose OTU composed <1 % of each

  3. Characterization of hemagglutination activity of emerging Newcastle disease virus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helal Uddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Newcastle disease (ND is an important viral disease for poultry caused by avian paramyxovirus which can be identified by its nature of agglutination activity with red blood cell (RBC of different species. The study was aimed to characterize the hemagglutinating (HA activity of ND virus (NDV at three different temperatures using RBC of five avian species, six mammalian species, and eight different human blood groups. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. Five avian and six different mammalian species were selected for the study. In each species, two blood samples were collected aseptically. Eight different blood groups (A+, A−, B+, B−, AB+, AB−, O+, and O− were studied in human. HA test was performed using two virus strains ND lasota and field isolate of very virulent NDV (VVNDV with mentioned species of RBC at chilling (4°C, incubating (37°C, and room temperature (24°C. Results: Avian RBC requires less time for agglutination than mammalian RBC. Incubation temperature (37°C requires lowest time and chilling temperature requires highest time for agglutination of RBC. Duck RBC requires lowest time (17.81 min while chicken RBC needs highest (57.5 min time for HA at incubation temperature and at chilling temperature, respectively, against ND lasota virus and with field strain. Goat RBC requires significantly higher time for HA (184.68 min at chilling temperature than other mammalian species. Human RBC requires almost similar time but O+ and O− blood group do not show any HA activity. Significant variation (p<0.05 found in quail RBC at incubation temperature. In mammalian species, a significant difference (p<0.05 has been observed in goat and horse RBC at chilling; horse and dog RBC at incubation; goat, horse, buffalo, and dog RBC at room temperature. In human, significant variation (p<0.05 has been found in A+, A− and B− blood group

  4. Overexpression of cellular glutathione peroxidase rescues homocyst(e)ine-induced endothelial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Norbert; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Heydrick, Stanley; Bierl, Charlene; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Homocyst(e)ine (Hcy) inhibits the expression of the antioxidant enzyme cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1) in vitro and in vivo, which can lead to an increase in reactive oxygen species that inactivate NO and promote endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that overexpression of GPx-1 can restore the normal endothelial phenotype in hyperhomocyst(e)inemic states. Heterozygous cystathionine β-synthase-deficient (CBS(−/+)) mice and their wild-type littermates (CBS(+/+)) were crossbred with mice that overexpress GPx-1 [GPx-1(tg+) mice]. GPx-1 activity was 28% lower in CBS(−/+)/GPx-1(tg−) compared with CBS(+/+)/GPx-1(tg−) mice (P < 0.05), and CBS(−/+) and CBS(+/+) mice overexpressing GPx-1 had 1.5-fold higher GPx-1 activity compared with GPx-1 nontransgenic mice (P < 0.05). Mesenteric arterioles of CBS(−/+)/GPx-1(tg−) mice showed vasoconstriction to superfusion with β-methacholine and bradykinin (P < 0.001 vs. all other groups), whereas nonhyperhomocyst(e)inemic mice [CBS(+/+)/GPx-1(tg−) and CBS(+/+)/GPx-1(tg+) mice] demonstrated dose-dependent vasodilation in response to both agonists. Overexpression of GPx-1 in hyperhomocyst(e)inemic mice restored the normal endothelium-dependent vasodilator response. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were transiently transfected with GPx-1 and incubated with dl-homocysteine (HcyH) or l-cysteine. HcyH incubation decreased GPx-1 activity in sham-transfected BAEC (P < 0.005) but not in GPx-1-transfected cells. Nitric oxide release from BAEC was significantly decreased by HcyH but not cysteine, and GPx-1 overexpression attenuated this decrease. These findings demonstrate that overexpression of GPx-1 can compensate for the adverse effects of Hcy on endothelial function and suggest that the adverse vascular effects of Hcy are at least partly mediated by oxidative inactivation of NO. PMID:11606774

  5. A two-locus global DNA barcode for land plants: the coding rbcL gene complements the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, W John; Erickson, David L

    2007-06-06

    A useful DNA barcode requires sufficient sequence variation to distinguish between species and ease of application across a broad range of taxa. Discovery of a DNA barcode for land plants has been limited by intrinsically lower rates of sequence evolution in plant genomes than that observed in animals. This low rate has complicated the trade-off in finding a locus that is universal and readily sequenced and has sufficiently high sequence divergence at the species-level. Here, a global plant DNA barcode system is evaluated by comparing universal application and degree of sequence divergence for nine putative barcode loci, including coding and non-coding regions, singly and in pairs across a phylogenetically diverse set of 48 genera (two species per genus). No single locus could discriminate among species in a pair in more than 79% of genera, whereas discrimination increased to nearly 88% when the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer was paired with one of three coding loci, including rbcL. In silico trials were conducted in which DNA sequences from GenBank were used to further evaluate the discriminatory power of a subset of these loci. These trials supported the earlier observation that trnH-psbA coupled with rbcL can correctly identify and discriminate among related species. A combination of the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region and a portion of the coding rbcL gene is recommended as a two-locus global land plant barcode that provides the necessary universality and species discrimination.

  6. The influence of irradiation potential on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of two bulk-fill flowable RBC base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Leah; Palin, William M; Moskwa, Natalia; McGinley, Emma Louise; Fleming, Garry J P

    2013-08-01

    To assess the depth of cure claims of two bulk-fill flowable RBC bases (SDR and x-tra base) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, biaxial flexure strength (BFS), and Vickers hardness number (VHN) for specimen depths of 8mm (in 1mm increments). The degree of conversion (DC) was measured by monitoring the peak height (6164cm(-1)) of specimens (11.0±0.1mm diameter, 1.0±0.1mm thickness) during light irradiation for 20s using a quartz tungsten halogen light curing unit at 650±26mW/cm(2). DC was measured up to 120s post irradiation and repeated (n=3) for irradiation depths up to 8mm (in 1mm increments). Further series (n=20) of eight discs were prepared, stacked, light irradiated and numbered from one to eight (distance from the LCU). The specimens were stored at 37±1°C for 24h and BFS tested with the fracture fragments used to determine the VHN for each specimen. X-tra base can be irradiated to 8mm without a change in DC, something the SDR material cannot claim. However, the DC results confirm both bulk-fill flowable RBC bases have a depth of cure in excess of 4mm. One-way ANOVAs of BFS and VHN data showed significant differences between irradiation depths for x-tra base and SDR with increasing irradiation depth (4mm) resulting in significant reductions in mean BFS and VHN. The claims that the bulk-fill flowable RBC bases have a depth of cure in excess of 4mm can be confirmed but the differing chemistry of the resin formulations and filler characteristics contribute to significant differences in DC, BFS and VHN data between the two materials tested. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia; Measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with sup 99m Tc-RBC SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo (Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan)); Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi

    1990-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tests for selecting patients with hemodynamic compromise, measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in thirteen patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and was compared with results obtained by {sup 133}Xe SPECT and acetazolamide (Diamox) test. All patients in our study suffered TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery, although plain CT scan or MRI revealed no or, if any, only localized infarcted lesions. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with {sup 133}Xe SPECT before and after intravenous injection of 10 - 12 mg/kg acetazolamide (Diamox). Our results suggest that the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF (mean transit time) is a more sensitive index of the cerebral perfusion reserve than the use of only rCBV or rCBF of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Also, the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF is significantly correlated (r= -0.72) with the Diamox reactivity of rCBF, which is considered to represent the cerebral vasodilatory capacity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. Postoperative SPECT study revealed remarkable improvement of ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF and Diamox reactivity in four patients who underwent EC/IC bypass surgery to improve the hemodynamic compromise. In conclusion, our results suggest that the measurement of rCBV/rCBF with {sup 133}Xe SPECT and {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT is useful for detecting the hemodynamic compromise in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (author).

  8. Influence of iron deficiency in the radiopharmaceutical behavior of red blood cells labeled with 99mTc(99mTC-RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmanovici, G.; Salgueiro, M.J.; Pernas, L.; Collia, N.; Leonardi, N.; Zubillaga, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with 99m Tc are commonly used in the evaluation of cardiac function, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, red blood cell volume or splenic sequestration. Generally stannous ion is used as reducing agent. A proposed mechanism is that once the stannous ion (Sn) and the pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) reach the interior of the RBC, the radionuclide is mainly house in the β-chain of hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to determine if hemoglobin content reduction, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, could affect the efficiency of RBC labeling and the biological distribution of this radiopharmaceutical. We studied 30 rats fed for 3 weeks after weaning with diets with iron contents of 6.5 ppm (group A), 18 ppm (group B) and 100 ppm (control). For all groups, the labeling yields were always higher than 97%; the percentage of radioactivity was mostly founded in blood with almost negligible radioactivity the rest of the studied organs. We can conclude that the decrease in hemoglobin content, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, does not interfere neither in the labeling nor in the biodistribution of red blood cells labeled with 99m Tc. (author)

  9. Implications of resin-based composite (RBC) restoration on cuspal deflection and microleakage score in molar teeth: Placement protocol and restorative material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Lauren E J; Politi, Ioanna; Al-Fodeh, Rami S; Fleming, Garry J P

    2017-09-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection of standardised large mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities in third molar teeth restored using conventional resin-based composite (RBC) or their bulk fill restorative counterparts compared with the unbound condition using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge. Following thermocycling, the cervical microleakage of the restored teeth was assessed to determine marginal integrity. Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in forty-eight sound third molar teeth and randomly allocated to six groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with (and without) a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a light-emitting-diode light-curing-unit. The dependent variable was the restoration protocol, eight oblique increments for conventional RBCs or two horizontal increments for the bulk fill resin restoratives. The cumulative buccal and palatal cuspal deflections from a twin channel deflection measuring gauge were summed, the restored teeth thermally fatigued, immersed in 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage score. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified third molar teeth restored using conventional RBC materials had significantly higher mean total cuspal deflection values compared with bulk fill resin restorative restoration (all pmaterial selection is vital in the absence of clinical data. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) from two sides of the Yellow Sea: analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and plastid rbcL sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Nan; Jiang, Peng; Boo, Sung Min; Lee, Wook Jae; Cui, Yulin; Lin, Hanzhi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Zhengyi; Qin, Song

    2010-07-01

    Ulvacean green seaweeds are common worldwide; they formed massive green tides in the Yellow Sea in recent years, which caused marine ecological problems as well as a social issue. We investigated two major genera of the Ulvaceae, Ulva and Enteromorpha, and collected the plastid rbcL and nuclear ITS sequences of specimens of the genera in two sides of the Yellow Sea and analyzed them. Phylogenetic trees of rbcL data show the occurrence of five species of Enteromorpha ( E. compressa, E. flexuosa, E. intestinalis, E. linza and E. prolifera) and three species of Ulva ( U. pertusa, U. rigida and U. ohnoi). However, we found U. ohnoi, which is known as a subtropical to tropical species, at two sites on Jeju Island, Korea. Four ribotypes in partial sequences of 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 from E. compressa were also found. Ribotype network analysis revealed that the common ribotype, occurring in China, Korea and Europe, is connected with ribotypes from Europe and China/Japan. Although samples of the same species were collected from both sides of the Yellow Sea, intraspecific genetic polymorphism of each species was low among samples collected worldwide.

  11. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häser, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae). Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae), a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women. PMID:27957401

  12. Emergence of anti-red blood cell antibodies triggers red cell phagocytosis by activated macrophages in a rabbit model of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Yao; Hsu, Mei-Chi; Lan, Bau-Shin; Hsiao, Guan-Chung; Chuang, Huai-Chia; Su, Ih-Jen

    2007-05-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a fatal complication frequently associated with viral infections. In childhood HPS, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the major causative agent, and red blood cells (RBCs) are predominantly phagocytosed by macrophages. To investigate the mechanism of RBC phagocytosis triggered by EBV infection, we adopted a rabbit model of EBV-associated HPS previously established by using Herpesvirus papio (HVP). The kinetics of virus-host interaction was studied. Using flow cytometry, we detected the emergence of antibody-coated RBCs, as well as anti-platelet antibodies, at peak virus load period at weeks 3 to 4 after HVP injection, and the titers increased thereafter. The presence of anti-RBCs preceded RBC phagocytosis in tissues and predicted the full-blown development of HPS. The anti-RBC antibodies showed cross-reactivity with Paul-Bunnell heterophile antibodies. Preabsorption of the HVP-infected serum with control RBCs removed the majority of anti-RBC activities and remarkably reduced RBC phagocytosis. The RBC phagocytosis was specifically mediated via an Fc fragment of antibodies in the presence of macrophage activation. Therefore, the emergence of anti-RBC antibodies and the presence of macrophage activation are both essential in the development of HPS. Our observations in this animal model provide a potential mechanism for hemophagocytosis in EBV infection.

  13. Use of Laser Assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer (LoRRca MaxSis in the Diagnosis of RBC Membrane Disorders, Enzyme Defects, and Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias: A Monocentric Study on 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zaninoni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hemolytic anemias are a group of heterogeneous diseases mainly due to abnormalities of red cell (RBC membrane and metabolism. The more common RBC membrane disorders, classified on the basis of blood smear morphology, are hereditary spherocytosis (HS, elliptocytosis, and hereditary stomatocytoses (HSt. Among RBC enzymopathies, the most frequent is pyruvate kinase (PK deficiency, followed by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, pyrimidine 5′ nucleotidase P5′N, and other rare enzymes defects. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, diagnosis may be often challenging despite the availability of a variety of laboratory tests. The ektacytometer laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyser (LoRRca MaxSis, able to assess the RBC deformability in osmotic gradient conditions (Osmoscan analysis, is a useful diagnostic tool for RBC membrane disorders and in particular for the identification of hereditary stomatocytosis. Few data are so far available in other hemolytic anemias. We evaluated the diagnostic power of LoRRca MaxSis in a large series of 140 patients affected by RBC membrane disorders, 37 by enzymopathies, and 16 by congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II. Moreover, nine patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH were also investigated. All the hereditary spherocytoses, regardless the biochemical defect, showed altered Osmoscan curves, with a decreased Elongation Index (EI max and right shifted Omin; hereditary elliptocytosis (HE displayed a trapezoidal curve and decreased EImax. Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHSt caused by PIEZO1 mutations was characterized by left-shifted curve, whereas KCNN4 mutations were associated with a normal curve. Congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II and RBC enzymopathies had Osmoscan curve within the normal range except for glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI deficient cases who displayed an enlarged curve associated with significantly increased Ohyper, offering a

  14. Evaluación de la estrategia de rehabilitación de base comunitaria (RBC desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guajardo Córdoba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A través de este proyecto de investigación se evalúo, desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación en Chile, los distintos niveles de intervención de la RBC. Así, el objetivo que guío esta investigación fue evaluar el impacto social percibido y la aceptabilidad social de la estrategia de Rehabilitación de Base Comunitaria (RBC desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación. El marco metodológico fue definido bajo los parámetros de una investigación cualitativa de carácter descriptivo y transversal. El universo de estudio correspondió a las comunas que contaban con programas de RBC que se desarrollan a nivel nacional como parte de la política nacional de discapacidad y rehabilitación en salud. Los criterios que guiaron el proceso de muestreo fueron los de pertinencia y suficiencia de la información, por lo que  se optó  por un muestreo estructural. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó mediante análisis de contenido semánticamente orientado, siguiendo una estratega intensiva, es decir, se analizó toda la información producida durante la fase de terreno. Los resultados dan cuenta de la RBC como una estrategia  con variadas formas de implementación y desarrollo que se relaciona con la historia local, el perfil de la comunidad, perfil del centro,  perfil de usuarias/ios y las características de vinculación municipal con el programa de rehabilitación. El estudio identifica en la estrategia de RBC tres modelos de acción: biomédico, biopsicosocial y comunitario.

  15. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta: A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1 thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2 cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3 the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  16. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): a new species from South China Sea based on morphological observation and rbcL gene sequences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

    2013-01-01

    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81-108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114-133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  17. Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from China based on morphological evidence and comparative rbcL sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cuicui; Liu, Miao; Guo, Shaoru; Zhao, Dan; Luan, Rixiao; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is newly described from Hainan Province, southern China. The organism has the following morphological features: (1) purplish red, cartilaginous and lubricous thalli 5-10 cm in height; (2) compressed percurrent axes bearing abundant branches with opposite arrangement; (3) claw-like apices on top, constricted to 2-4 cm at the base; (4) cortex consisting of 3-6 layers of elliptical or anomalous cells and a medulla covered by compact medullary filaments; (5) reproductive structures distributed throughout the thallus, especially centralized at the bottom of the end portion of the branches; and (6) 4-celled Carpogonial branches and 3-celled auxiliary-cell branches, both of the Grateloupia-type. The morphological diff erences were supported by molecular phylogenetics based on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbcL) gene sequence analysis. There was only a 1 bp divergence between specimens collected from Wenchang and Lingshui of Hainan province. The new species was embedded in the large Grateloupia clade of the Halymeniaceae. The pairwise distances between G. ramosa and other species within Grateloupia ranged from 26 to 105 bp, within pairwise distances of 13-111 bp between species of the large genus Grateloupia in Halymeniaceae. Thus, we propose this new species as G. ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov.

  18. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

    2013-01-01

    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia. PMID:24455703

  19. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA, phytochrome B, rbcL, atpB, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M P; Savolainen, V; Clevinger, C C; Archer, R H; Davis, J I

    2001-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within Celastraceae (spindle-tree family) were inferred from nucleotide sequence characters from the 5' end of 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (including expansion segments D1-D3; 84 species sampled), phytochrome B (58 species), rbcL (31 species), atpB (23 species), and morphology (94 species). Among taxa of questionable affinity, Forsellesia is a member of Crossosomataceae, and Goupia is excluded from Celastraceae. However, Brexia, Canotia, Lepuropetalon, Parnassia, Siphonodon, and Stackhousiaceae are supported as members of Celastraceae. Gymnosporia and Tricerma are distinct from Maytenus, Cassine is supported as distinct from Elaeodendron, and Dicarpellum is distinct from Salacia. Catha, Maytenus, and Pristimera are not resolved as natural genera. Hippocrateaceae (including Plagiopteron and Lophopetalum) are a clade nested within a paraphyletic Celastraceae. These data also suggest that the Loesener's classification of Celastraceae sensu stricto and Hallé's classification of Hippocrateaceae are artificial. The diversification of the fruit and aril within Celastraceae appears to be complex, with multiple origins of most fruit and aril forms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Activation of the oxidative stress regulator PpYap1 through conserved cysteine residues during methanol metabolism in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Taisuke; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris can grow on methanol as sole source of carbon and energy. The first reaction in yeast methanol metabolism, catalyzed by an abundant peroxisomal enzyme, alcohol oxidase, generates high levels of H(2)O(2), but the oxidative stress response during methanol metabolism has not been elucidated. In this study, we isolated the Yap1 homolog of P. pastoris (PpYap1) and analyzed the properties of a PpYAP1-disruption strain. The PpYap1 transcription factor is activated after exposure to various reactive agents, and therefore functions as a regulator of the redox system in P. pastoris. We have also identified PpGPX1, the unique glutathione peroxidase-encoding gene in P. pastoris whose expression is induced by PpYap1. PpGpx1, but not the ScTsa1 or SpTpx1 homolog PpTsa1, functions as a H(2)O(2) sensor and activates PpYap1. This study is the first demonstration of a yeast Yap1 family protein activated during conventional metabolism.

  1. PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 Is an E3 Ligase That Switches off Activated Oxidative Response by Targeting Histone-Modifying PROTEIN METHYLTRANSFERASE4b.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is unavoidable for aerobic organisms. When abiotic and biotic stresses are encountered, oxidative damage could occur in cells. To avoid this damage, defense mechanisms must be timely and efficiently modulated. While the response to oxidative stress has been extensively studied in plants, little is known about how the activated response is switched off when oxidative stress is diminished. By studying Arabidopsis mutant paraquat tolerance3, we identified the genetic locus PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 (PQT3 as a major negative regulator of oxidative stress tolerance. PQT3, encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is rapidly down-regulated by oxidative stress. PQT3 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in ubiquitination assay. Subsequently, we identified PRMT4b as a PQT3-interacting protein. By histone methylation, PRMT4b upregulates the expression of APX1 and GPX1, encoding two key enzymes against oxidative stress. On the other hand, PRMT4b is recognized by PQT3 for targeted degradation via 26S proteasome. Therefore, we have identified PQT3 as an E3 ligase that acts as a negative regulator of activated response to oxidative stress and found that histone modification by PRMT4b at APX1 and GPX1 loci plays an important role in oxidative stress tolerance.

  2. Effect of yeast biomass with high content of carotenoids on erythrocyte deformability, NO production and Na,K-ATPase activity in healthy and LPS treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, J; Mezesova, L; Okruhlicova, L; Frimmel, K; Breierova, E; Bartekova, M; Vrbjar, N

    2016-11-25

    Measurements of red blood cell (RBC) deformability together with estimation of NO-synthase activity and Na,K-ATPase activity were used for characterization of RBC functionality in rats subjected to single dose of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) at a dose of 1 mg/kg. We hypothesized that LPS might initiate a malfunction of RBC. We also investigated the potential effect of carotenoids (10 mg/kg/day) produced in red yeast biomass of Rhodotorula glutinis on RBC in LPS-challenged rats. LPS significantly reduced the deformability of RBC (by 14%) together with decrease of NO-synthase activity by 20%. Daily supplementation of carotenoids for 10 days attenuated the LPS-induced injury, as observed by 22% increase of RBC deformability and 23% increase of NO-synthase activity. The activity of Na,K-ATPase was also improved probably due to increased number of active enzyme molecules as indicated by 66% enhancement of Vmax value, hence maintaining the activity of erythrocyte Na,K-ATPase to the level even higher as compared with healthy control animals. It may be concluded that administration of yeast biomass with high content of carotenoids resulted in advanced function of erythrocytes as concerns their ability to squeeze through narrow capillaries of the circulation, better intrinsic production of NO and improvement of intracellular homeostasis of sodium.

  3. Population genetic structure and phylogeographical pattern of a relict tree fern, Alsophila spinulosa (Cyatheaceae), inferred from cpDNA atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Guopei; Gu, Hongya

    2004-11-01

    Sequences of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers of individuals of a tree fern species, Alsophila spinulosa, collected from ten relict populations distributed in the Hainan and Guangdong provinces, and the Guangxi Zhuang region in southern China, were determined. Sequence length varied from 724 bp to 731 bp, showing length polymorphism, and base composition was with high A+T content between 63.17% and 63.95%. Sequences were neutral in terms of evolution (Tajima's criterion D=-1.01899, P>0.10 and Fu and Li's test D*=-1.39008, P>0.10; F*=-1.49775, P>0.10). A total of 19 haplotypes were identified based on nucleotide variation. High levels of haplotype diversity (h=0.744) and nucleotide diversity (Dij=0.01130) were detected in A. spinulosa, probably associated with its long evolutionary history, which has allowed the accumulation of genetic variation within lineages. Both the minimum spanning network and neighbor-joining trees generated for haplotypes demonstrated that current populations of A. spinulosa existing in Hainan, Guangdong, and Guangxi were subdivided into two geographical groups. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variation (93.49%, P<0.001) was partitioned among regions. Wright's isolation by distance model was not supported across extant populations. Reduced gene flow by the Qiongzhou Strait and inbreeding may result in the geographical subdivision between the Hainan and Guangdong + Guangxi populations (FST=0.95, Nm=0.03). Within each region, the star-like pattern of phylogeography of haplotypes implied a population expansion process during evolutionary history. Gene genealogies together with coalescent theory provided significant information for uncovering phylogeography of A. spinulosa.

  4. Phylogeny of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) based on DNA sequence data from ITS, psbB-psbH, and rbcL, with emphasis on taxa of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Bin Wen; Ming-Li Zhang; Ge-Lin Zhu; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2010-01-01

    To reconstruct phylogeny and verify the monophyly of major subgroups, a total of 52 species representing almost all species of Salsoleae s.l. in China were sampled, with analysis based on three molecular markers (nrDNA ITS, cpDNA psbB-psbH and rbcL), using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Our molecular evidence provides strong...

  5. Methemoglobin reductase activity in intact fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank B; Nielsen, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    RBCs in physiological saline at normal Pco2 and pH. After initial loading of oxygenated RBCs with nitrite (partly oxidizing Hb to metHb), the nitrite is removed by three washes of the RBCs in nitrite-free physiological saline to enable the detection of RBC metHb reductase activity in the absence......Hb reductase activity in fish offsets their higher Hb autoxidation and higher likelihood of encountering elevated nitrite. Deoxygenation significantly raised the rates of RBC metHb reduction, and more so in rainbow trout than in carp. The temperature sensitivity of metHb reduction in rainbow trout RBCs...

  6. INFLUENCIA DE LA CARGA ORGÁNICA SOBRE LA EFICIENCIA DE REACTORES RBC DE TRES ETAPAS EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE UN EFLUENTE INDUSTRIAL SINTÉTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Behling de Calmón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo incluye el estudio de la influencia de la carga orgánica (CO sobre la eficiencia de reactores biológicos rotativos de contacto (RBC, aerobios de tres etapas, al tratar un efluente industrial sintético, con la finalidad de establecer la adecuación del efluente final con respecto a los límites de descarga establecidos en la normativa de Venezuela. Durante la experimentación, se evaluaron pH, alcalinidad total, oxígeno disuelto, demanda biológica de oxígeno (DBO, demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, sólidos suspendidos totales (SST, nitrógeno total Kjeldahl (NTK, NH 4 + , NO 2 - y NO 3 - , de acuerdo con los métodos estándares. La variación de la CO aplicada se obtuvo mediante modificación del tiempo de retención hidráulico (TRH, (24, 12 y 6 h, y se mantuvo constante la DQO de entrada (influente sintético de sacarosa+ urea. La mayor eficiencia de remoción de DQO se obtuvo para un CO global de 11,68 gDQO/m 2 .d (96,25%; TRH=12 h. Para los TRH 24 y 12 h, la eficiencia de remoción global de N-total fue de 66,92 y 62,95%, respectivamente. La mayor remoción de C y de N se obtuvo en la primera etapa de los reactores y se logró cumplir con el límite venezolano permisible de descarga para DQO (<350 mg/L. La posible ocurrencia del proceso de nitrificación repercutió sobre el aumento de las concentraciones de nitrógeno inorgánico en el efluente final.

  7. Evolution of RLSB, a nuclear-encoded S1 domain RNA binding protein associated with post-transcriptional regulation of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Stata, Matt; Siford, Rebecca; Sage, Tammy L; Sage, Rowan F; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A; Berry, James O

    2016-06-29

    RLSB, an S-1 domain RNA binding protein of Arabidopsis, selectively binds rbcL mRNA and co-localizes with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) within chloroplasts of C3 and C4 plants. Previous studies using both Arabidopsis (C3) and maize (C4) suggest RLSB homologs are post-transcriptional regulators of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA. While RLSB accumulates in all Arabidopsis leaf chlorenchyma cells, in C4 leaves RLSB-like proteins accumulate only within Rubisco-containing bundle sheath chloroplasts of Kranz-type species, and only within central compartment chloroplasts in the single cell C4 plant Bienertia. Our recent evidence implicates this mRNA binding protein as a primary determinant of rbcL expression, cellular localization/compartmentalization, and photosynthetic function in all multicellular green plants. This study addresses the hypothesis that RLSB is a highly conserved Rubisco regulatory factor that occurs in the chloroplasts all higher plants. Phylogenetic analysis has identified RLSB orthologs and paralogs in all major plant groups, from ancient liverworts to recent angiosperms. RLSB homologs were also identified in algae of the division Charophyta, a lineage closely related to land plants. RLSB-like sequences were not identified in any other algae, suggesting that it may be specific to the evolutionary line leading to land plants. The RLSB family occurs in single copy across most angiosperms, although a few species with two copies were identified, seemingly randomly distributed throughout the various taxa, although perhaps correlating in some cases with known ancient whole genome duplications. Monocots of the order Poales (Poaceae and Cyperaceae) were found to contain two copies, designated here as RLSB-a and RLSB-b, with only RLSB-a implicated in the regulation of rbcL across the maize developmental gradient. Analysis of microsynteny in angiosperms revealed high levels of conservation across eudicot species and for both paralogs in

  8. A reassessment of the in vitro RBC haemolysis assay with defibrinated sheep blood for the determination of the ocular irritation potential of cosmetic products: comparison with the in vivo Draize rabbit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eloísa Nunes; Presgrave, Rosaura de Farias; Presgrave, Octávio Augusto França; Sabagh, Fernanda Peres; de Freitas, João Carlos Borges Rolim; Corrado, Alexandre P

    2008-07-01

    We examined the correlation between results obtained from the in vivo Draize test for ocular irritation and in vitro results obtained from the sheep red blood cell (RBC) haemolytic assay, which assesses haemolysis and protein denaturation in erythrocytes, induced by cosmetic products. We sought to validate the haemolytic assay as a preliminary test for identifying highly-irritative products, and also to evaluate the in vitro test as alternative assay for replacement of the in vivo test. In vitro and in vivo analyses were carried out on 19 cosmetic products, in order to correlate the lesions in the ocular structures with three in vitro parameters: (i) the extent of haemolysis (H50); (ii) the protein denaturation index (DI); and (iii) the H50/DI ratio, which reflects the irritation potential (IP). There was significant correlation between maximum average scores (MAS) and the parameters determined in vitro (r = 0.752-0.764). These results indicate that the RBC assay is a useful and rapid test for use as a screening method to assess the IP of cosmetic products, and for predicting the IP value with a high level of concordance (94.7%). The assay showed high sensitivity and specificity rates of 91.6% and 100%, respectively.

  9. Antitumor and antimicrobial activities and inhibition of in-vitro lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antitumor activity was measured in DLA cell line induced mice. Inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation activity of the D. nobile in both liver homogenate and RBC ghosts was also carried out. The aqueous extracts of stem and flower of D. nobile showed better zone of bacterial inhibition than that of ethanol and chloroform

  10. Effect of N-acetylcysteine administration on the expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes and the malondialdehyde level in the blood of lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Machnik, Grzegorz; Birkner, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces oxidative stress intensity and restores the expression and activities of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, SOD), catalase (Cat, CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1, GPx) in lead-exposed workers. The exposed population was divided randomly into two groups. Workers in the first group (reference group, n=49) were not administered any drugs, while workers in the second group (n=122) were treated with NAC at three doses for 12 weeks (200 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg/day). NAC administered orally to lead-exposed workers normalized antioxidant enzyme activities in blood cells. Oxidative stress intensity measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum, leukocytes and erythrocytes significantly decreased after NAC administration. NAC may be an alternative therapy for chronic lead intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc and copper status of women by physical activity and menstrual status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Deuster, P.A.; Kyle, S.B.; Moser, P.B.

    1986-03-01

    The zinc and copper status of 33 eumenorrheic (EU) and 12 amenorrheic (AM) female marathon runners and 19 EU and 8 AM nonrunners were determined from 3-day diet records and plasma and erythrocyte (RBC) levels. The study was conducted as a completely randomized 2 x 2 factorial. Mean daily zinc intakes of all groups fell below the recommended dietary allowances. Copper intakes of runners (EU = 1.3 mg; AM = 1.3 mg) were not significantly different. Menstrual status did not affect plasma zinc, RBC zinc or plasma copper levels. Physical activity however, affected RBC zinc and plasma copper levels. Both these parameters were significantly higher in runners. These findings suggest that exercise influences blood zinc and copper levels.

  12. Vitamin E nanoemulsion activity on stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A L; Azevedo Filho, C A; Pereira, G; Silva, D C N; Castro, M C A B; Almeida, A F; Lucena, S C A; Santos, B S; Barjas-Castro, M L; Fontes, A

    2017-06-01

    Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo numerous changes that have been termed RBC storage lesion, which can be related to oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, acting on cell lipids. Thus, this study aimed to investigate vitamin E activity on stored RBCs. We prepared a vitamin E nanoemulsion that was added to RBC units and stored at 4 °C. Controls, without vitamin E, were kept under the same conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored for up to 35 days of storage. RBC elasticity was also evaluated using an optical tweezer system. Vitamin E-treated samples presented a significant decrease in ROS production. Additionally, the elastic constant for vitamin E-treated RBCs did not differ from the control. Vitamin E decreased the amount of ROS in stored RBCs. Because vitamin E acts on lipid oxidation, results suggest that protein oxidation should also be considered a key factor for erythrocyte elastic properties. Thus, further studies combining vitamin E with protein antioxidants deserve attention, aiming to better preserve overall stored RBC properties. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Evaluation of peripheral metabolic status by determination of Na-K ATPase pump activity in circulating erythrocytes in patients with thyroid diseases and nonthyroidal illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, H; Nishikawa, M

    1993-02-01

    The number of Na-K ATPase units in erythrocytes (RBC) was determined by the maximal ouabain binding assay in 25 normal subjects and patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 29), hypothyroidism (8), chronic renal failure (CRF, 19) and with neoplastic disorders (NP, 12). The activity of the pump units was also assessed by measuring ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake in some of these subjects. In addition, it was determined in mononuclear cells in normal controls and patients with hyper- and hypothyroidism and CRF. Significant diminution of the number of the RBC pump units was found in hyperthyroidism, while it was increased in hypothyroidism. The binding (O) of old RBC was significantly lower than that (Y) of young RBC and a striking correlation was observed between the % reduction rate ((Y-O)/Y) of the binding and the serum T4 level in hyperthyroidism (r = 0.85, P hyperthyroidism. The ratio of RBC 86Rb uptake to the number of the pump units in the same cell (U/B) bore a significant relation to serum T3 (r = 0.48, P metabolic status. In CRF patients with low T3 levels, bindings were increased but those in NP with low T3 was almost normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Discapacidad, pobreza y sus abordajes: Revisión de la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC Aproaches in disability and poverty: Review of community based rehabilitation strategy (CBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nabergoi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados de una revisión bibliográfica sobre la estrategia de Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC. El mismo fue elaborado en el marco de los proyectos de Beca de Doctorado UBACyT "Desempeño ocupacional y salud en personas con discapacidad motriz en situación de pobreza" y Proyecto UBACyT "Praxis Psicosocial Comunitaria en Salud". Se describen antecedentes, características de la propuesta original, su evolución y algunas experiencias relevadas en América Latina.The article presents the results of a literature review on Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR. It was written within the framework of the Doctorate UBACyT Scholarship Project "Occupational Performance and Health in Motor Disabled People in Poverty Situation" and the UBACyT Project "Psychosocial Community Praxis in Health". Background, characteristics, evolution and some experiences in Latin America are described.

  15. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of important medicinal plant species in genus Paeonia based on rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL DNA barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Choi, G; Kang, Y M; Yang, S; Moon, B C

    2016-08-05

    This study was performed to identify and analyze the phylogenetic relationship among four herbaceous species of the genus Paeonia, P. lactiflora, P. japonica, P. veitchii, and P. suffruticosa, using DNA barcodes. These four species, which are commonly used in traditional medicine as Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex, are pharmaceutically defined in different ways in the national pharmacopoeias in Korea, Japan, and China. To authenticate the different species used in these medicines, we evaluated rDNA-internal transcribed spacers (ITS), matK and rbcL regions, which provide information capable of effectively distinguishing each species from one another. Seventeen samples were collected from different geographic regions in Korea and China, and DNA barcode regions were amplified using universal primers. Comparative analyses of these DNA barcode sequences revealed species-specific nucleotide sequences capable of discriminating the four Paeonia species. Among the entire sequences of three barcodes, marker nucleotides were identified at three positions in P. lactiflora, eleven in P. japonica, five in P. veitchii, and 25 in P. suffruticosa. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed four distinct clusters showing homogeneous clades with high resolution at the species level. The results demonstrate that the analysis of these three DNA barcode sequences is a reliable method for identifying the four Paeonia species and can be used to authenticate Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex at the species level. Furthermore, based on the assessment of amplicon sizes, inter/intra-specific distances, marker nucleotides, and phylogenetic analysis, rDNA-ITS was the most suitable DNA barcode for identification of these species.

  16. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteomics--Part I: Proteomics and RBC physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Erica M; Lutz, Hans U; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W

    2010-01-03

    Membrane proteomics is concerned with accurately and sensitively identifying molecules involved in cell compartmentalisation, including those controlling the interface between the cell and the outside world. The high lipid content of the environment in which these proteins are found often causes a particular set of problems that must be overcome when isolating the required material before effective HPLC-MS approaches can be performed. The membrane is an unusually dynamic cellular structure since it interacts with an ever changing environment. A full understanding of this critical cell component will ultimately require, in addition to proteomics, lipidomics, glycomics, interactomics and study of post-translational modifications. Devoid of nucleus and organelles in mammalian species other than camelids, and constantly in motion in the blood stream, red blood cells (RBCs) are the sole mammalian oxygen transporter. The fact that mature mammalian RBCs have no internal membrane-bound organelles, somewhat simplifies proteomics analysis of the plasma membrane and the fact that it has no nucleus disqualifies microarray based methods. Proteomics has the potential to provide a better understanding of this critical interface, and thereby assist in identifying new approaches to diseases. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidative Stress Parameters and Erythrocyte Membrane Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Administered Aqueous Preparation of Kalanchoe Pinnata Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Nikhil; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that according to the World Health Organization affects more than 382 million people. The rise in diabetes mellitus coupled with the lack of an effective treatment has led many to investigate medicinal plants to identify a viable alternative. To evaluate red blood cell (RBC) membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities and antioxidant levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were then treated with aqueous K. pinnata preparation (three mature leaves ~ 9.96 g/70 kg body weight or about 0.14 g/kg body weight/day) for 30 days. Serum glucose, RBC membrane ATPase activities, and antioxidant levels were determined. We noted weight loss and reduced food consumption in the treated diabetic group. Serum glucose levels were reduced in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were not significantly elevated in the treated group compared to the diabetic group. However, serum catalase activity was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not significantly altered among the groups. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Mg(2+) ATPase activity and a nonsignificant increase in Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in the RBC membrane of the treated diabetic group compared to the diabetic group. The consumption of aqueous preparation of K. pinnata may accrue benefits in the management of diabetes by lowering oxidative stress often associated with the disease and improving the availability of cellular magnesium through an increase in the magnesium ATPase pump in the RBC membrane for increased cellular metabolism of glucose through the glycolytic pathway. We noted weight loss and

  18. The effect of diminazene aceturate on cholinesterase activity in dogs with canine babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Milner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effects of diminazene aceturate and its stabiliser antipyrine on serum pseudocholinesterase (PChE and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (RBC AChE in dogs with babesiosis. The trial was conducted on naturally occurring, uncomplicated cases of babesiosis (n = 20 that were randomly allocated to groups receiving a standard therapeutic dose of diminazene aceturate with antipyrine stabiliser (n = 10 or antipyrine alone (n = 10. Blood was drawn immediately before and every 15 minutes for 1 hour after treatment. Plasma PChE showed a 4 % decrease between 0 and 60 min within the treatment group (p < 0.05. No statistically significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups at any of the time intervals for PChE. There was an increase in RBC AChE activity at 15 min in the treatment group (p < 0.05. No significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups at any time interval for RBC AChE. In view of the difference in PChE, samples from additional, new cases (n = 10 of canine babesiosis were collected to identify the affect of the drug over 12 hours. No significant depression was identified over this time interval. The results suggests that the underlying mechanism in producing side-effects, when they do occur, is unlikely to be through cholinesterase depression.

  19. High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, N B; O'Brien, G M

    2006-11-01

    Flying-foxes are better able to defend haemoglobin against autoxidation than non-volant mammals such as sheep. When challenged with the common physiological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, haemolysates of flying-fox red blood cells (RBC) were far less susceptible to methaemoglobin formation than sheep. Challenge with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) caused only half as much methaemoglobin formation in flying-fox as in ovine haemolysates. When intact cells were challenged with phenazine methosulfate (PMS), flying-fox RBC partially reversed the oxidant damage, and reduced methaemoglobin from 40 to 20% over 2 h incubation, while ovine methaemoglobin remained at 40%. This reflected flying-fox cells' capacity to replenish GSH fast enough that it did not deplete beyond 50%, while ovine RBC GSH was depleted to around 20%. The greater capacity of flying-foxes to defend haemoglobin against oxidant damage may be explained in part by antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome-b ( 5 ) reductase having two- to four-fold higher activity than in sheep (P foxes.

  20. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced 14 CO 2 from L-[U- 14 C] malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 μg niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays

  1. Effect of irradiation type (LED or QTH) on photo-activated composite shrinkage strain kinetics, temperature rise, and hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Norbert; Hugo, Burkard; Klaiber, Bernd

    2002-12-01

    This study compares commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) lights with a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) unit for photo-activating resin-based composites (RBC). Shrinkage strain kinetics and temperature within the RBC were measured simultaneously using the 'deflecting disc technique' and a thermocouple. Surface hardness (Knoop) at the bottom of 1.5-mm thick RBC specimens was measured 24 h after irradiation to indicate degree of cure. Irradiation was performed for 40 s using either the continuous or the ramp-curing mode of a QTH and a LED light (800 mW cm(-2) and 320 mW cm(-2), respectively) or the continuous mode of a lower intensity LED light (160 mW cm(-2)). For Herculite XRV and Filtek Z250 (both containing only camphoroquinone as a photo-initiator) the QTH and the stronger LED light produced similar hardness, while in the case of Definite (containing an additional photo-activator absorbing at lower wavelength) lower hardness was observed after LED irradiation. The temperature rise during polymerization and heating from radiation were lower with LED compared to QTH curing. The fastest increase of polymerization contraction was observed after QTH continuous irradiation, followed by the stronger and the weaker LED light in the continuous mode. Ramp curing decreased contraction speed even more. Shrinkage strain after 60 min was greater following QTH irradiation compared with both LED units (Herculite, Definite) or with the weaker LED light (Z250).

  2. Anti-leukemic activity and tolerability of anti-human CD47 monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, E C; Dong, J; Cardoso, R; Zhang, X; Chin, D; Hawkins, R; Dinh, T; Zhou, M; Strake, B; Feng, P-H; Rocca, M; Santos, C Dos; Shan, X; Danet-Desnoyers, G; Shi, F; Kaiser, E; Millar, H J; Fenton, S; Swanson, R; Nemeth, J A; Attar, R M

    2017-01-01

    CD47, a broadly expressed cell surface protein, inhibits cell phagocytosis via interaction with phagocyte-expressed SIRPα. A variety of hematological malignancies demonstrate elevated CD47 expression, suggesting that CD47 may mediate immune escape. We discovered three unique CD47-SIRPα blocking anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with low nano-molar affinity to human and cynomolgus monkey CD47, and no hemagglutination and platelet aggregation activity. To characterize the anti-cancer activity elicited by blocking CD47, the mAbs were cloned into effector function silent and competent Fc backbones. Effector function competent mAbs demonstrated potent activity in vitro and in vivo, while effector function silent mAbs demonstrated minimal activity, indicating that blocking CD47 only leads to a therapeutic effect in the presence of Fc effector function. A non-human primate study revealed that the effector function competent mAb IgG1 C47B222-(CHO) decreased red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit and hemoglobin by >40% at 1 mg/kg, whereas the effector function silent mAb IgG2σ C47B222-(CHO) had minimal impact on RBC indices at 1 and 10 mg/kg. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting CD47 is an attractive therapeutic anti-cancer approach. However, the anti-cancer activity observed with anti-CD47 mAbs is Fc effector dependent as are the side effects observed on RBC indices. PMID:28234345

  3. Molecular consequences of genetic variations in the glutathione peroxidase 1 selenoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Pin; Goldberg, Marci; Herman, Lauren; Lee, Bao-Shiang; Wang, Hengbing; Brown, Rhonda L; Foster, Charles B; Peters, Ulrike; Diamond, Alan M

    2009-10-15

    Accumulating data have implicated the selenium-containing cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, GPx-1, as a determinant of cancer risk and a mediator of the chemopreventive properties of selenium. Genetic variants of GPx-1 have been shown to be associated with cancer risk for several types of malignancies. To investigate the relationship between GPx-1 enzyme activity and genotype, we measured GPx-1 enzyme activity and protein levels in human lymphocytes as a function of the presence of two common variations: a leucine/proline polymorphism at codon 198 and a variable number of alanine-repeat codons. Differences in GPx activity among these cell lines, as well as in the response to the low-level supplementation of the media with selenium, indicated that factors other than just genotype are significant in determining activity. To restrict the study to genotypic effects, human MCF-7 cells were engineered to exclusively express allelic variants representing a combination of either a codon 198 leucine or proline and either 5 or 7 alanine-repeat codons following transfection of GPx-1 expression constructs. Transfectants were selected and analyzed for GPx-1 enzyme activity and protein levels. GPx-1 with 5 alanines and a leucine at codon 198 showed a significantly higher induction when cells were incubated with selenium and showed a distinct pattern of thermal denaturation as compared with GPx-1 encoded by the other examined alleles. The collective data obtained using both lymphocytes and MCF-7 indicate that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors cooperate to ultimately determine the levels of this enzyme available to protect cells against DNA damage and mutagenesis.

  4. Effect of high dietary zinc on plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in copper-depleted and repleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    1996-01-01

    The effect of moderately high dietary zinc (Zn) on the activities of plasma (PL) ceruloplasmin (CP), and PL and erythrocyte (RBC) copper (Cu), Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in weanling rats fed Cu-deficient (DEF; CON; 5 mg Cu/kg) copper diets containing normal or high Zn (HZn; 60 mg/kg) for 4 wk and supplemented with oral Cu (CuS; 5 mg/L) in drinking water for 0, 1, 3, or 7 d. PL Cu decreased (67% compared to CON; p DEF and increased to control level after 3 d of CuS; increased in the MAR group after 1 d of CuS. HZn reduced overall PL Cu by 27% in all groups, but did not alter the linear increase in PL Cu between 0 and 3 d of Cu S. PL CP activity altered concomitantly with PL Cu levels: The time course of increase in CP activity after 0-3 d of CuS was not influenced by HZn in the diet and CP declined in the DEF group by 92%. There was no correlation between dietary Cu level and PL CP. PL SOD activity decreased by 46% (p DEF group, increased to control activity after 1 d of CuS and declined slightly after 7 d; MAR diet did not alter PL SOD. HZn diet increased PL SOD activity in all groups by 150%, reduced activity in the DEF and MAR groups by 65 and 37% and delayed the recovery of PL SOD after CuS. RBC SOD declined in the DEF and MAR groups by 56 and 33% (p < or = 0.05) and did not respond to CuS; HZn diet did not influence RBC SOD activity. These data indicate that moderately high Zn in the diet reduces PL Cu, but not PL CP activity or the recovery of PL Cu or CP activity after oral CuS of Cu-deficient rats, modifies the response of PL SOD to dietary Cu, but does not influence RBC SOD activity.

  5. Enzymatic activity and gene expression changes in zebrafish embryos and larvae exposed to pesticides diazinon and diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velki, Mirna; Meyer-Alert, Henriette; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Hollert, Henner

    2017-12-01

    The zebrafish as a test organism enables the investigation of effects on a wide range of biological levels from molecular level to the whole-organism level. The use of fish embryos represents an attractive model for studies aimed at understanding toxic mechanisms and the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. In the present study, a zebrafish (Danio rerio) in vivo model was employed in order to assess the effects of two commonly used pesticides, the insecticide diazinon and the herbicide diuron, on zebrafish early life stages. Since it was previously established that diazinon and diuron cause effects at the whole-organism level, this study assessed the suborganismic responses to exposure to these pesticides and the enzymatic responses (biochemical level) and the gene expression changes (molecular level) were analyzed. Different exposure scenarios were employed and the following endpoints measured: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CES), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities; and gene expressions of the corresponding genes: acetylcholinesterase (ache), carboxylesterase (ces2), cytochrome P450 (cyp1a), glutathione-S-transferase (gstp1), catalase (cat), glutathione peroxidase (gpx1a) and additionally glutathione reductase (gsr). Significant changes at both the biochemical and the molecular level were detected. In addition, different sensitivities of different developmental stages of zebrafish were determined and partial recovery of the enzyme activity 48h after the end of the exposure was observed. The observed disparity between gene expression changes and alterations in enzyme activities points to the necessity of monitoring changes at different levels of biological organization. Different exposure scenarios, together with a comparison of the responses at the biochemical and molecular level, provide valuable data on the effects of diazinon and diuron on low

  6. Increase in Red Blood Cell-Nitric Oxide Synthase Dependent Nitric Oxide Production during Red Blood Cell Aging in Health and Disease: A Study on Age Dependent Changes of Rheologic and Enzymatic Properties in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Brinkmann, Christian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate RBC-NOS dependent NO signaling during in vivo RBC aging in health and disease. Method RBC from fifteen healthy volunteers (HC) and four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were separated in seven subpopulations by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Results The proportion of old RBC was significantly higher in DM compared to HC. In both groups, in vivo aging was marked by changes in RBC shape and decreased cell volume. RBC nitrite, as marker for NO, was higher in DM and increased in both HC and DM during aging. RBC deformability was lower in DM and significantly decreased in old compared to young RBC in both HC and DM. RBC-NOS Serine1177 phosphorylation, indicating enzyme activation, increased during aging in both HC and DM. Arginase I activity remained unchanged during aging in HC. In DM, arginase I activity was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC but decreased during aging. In HC, concentration of L-arginine, the substrate of RBC-NOS and arginase I, significantly dropped from young to old RBC. In DM, L-arginine concentration was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC and significantly decreased during aging. In blood from healthy subjects, RBC-NOS activation was additionally inhibited by N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-Ornithine dihydrochloride which decreased RBC nitrite, and impaired RBC deformability of all but the oldest RBC subpopulation. Conclusion This study first-time showed highest RBC-NOS activation and NO production in old RBC, possibly to counteract the negative impact of cell shrinkage on RBC deformability. This was even more pronounced in DM. It is further suggested that highly produced NO only insufficiently affects cell function of old RBC maybe because of isolated RBC-NOS in old RBC thus decreasing NO bioavailability. Thus, increasing NO availability may improve RBC function and may extend cell life span in old RBC. PMID:25902315

  7. Stiffness of RBC optical confinement affected by optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-03-01

    In vivo optical trapping is a novel applied direction of an optical manipulation, which enables one to noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of cells and tissues in living animals directly. But an application area of this direction is limited because strong scattering of many biological tissues. An optical clearing enables one to decrease the scattering and therefore increase a depth of light penetration, decrease a distortion of light beam, improve a resolution in imaging applications. Now novel methods had appeared for a measurement an optical clearing degree at a cellular level. But these methods aren't applicable in vivo. In this paper we present novel measurement method of estimate of the optical clearing, which are based on a measurement of optical trap stiffness. Our method may be applicable in vivo.

  8. Modifications of Western-type diet regarding protein, fat and sucrose levels as modulators of steroid metabolism and activity in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyńska, Agata; Herman, Andrzej P; Antushevich, Hanna; Bochenek, Joanna; Dziendzikowska, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Alina; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the modification of the Western-type diet (high-fat, high-sucrose diet rich in saturated fatty acids) considering macronutrients content would influence hepatic metabolism and activity of steroids. For 3 weeks Wistar rat were fed the Western-type diet (21% fat, 35% sucrose, 19% protein, lard) and its modifications regarding dietary protein (10 and 19%), fat (5 and 21%) and sucrose (0 and 35%) levels. The steroid 5α-reductase type 1 (Srd5a1) and androgen receptor (Ar) gene expression as well as testosterone (T) conversion towards 5α-reduced derivatives in liver were positively correlated with body weight gain. The Western-type diets with decreased protein content regardless of the sucrose level exerted the most negative effect on the antioxidant system decreasing catalase (Cat), sodium dismutase (Sod1) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1) gene expression as well as Cat and Gpx activity and total antioxidant status, simultaneously intensifying lipid peroxidation. The impaired antioxidant system was accompanied by decreased level of hepatic T metabolism towards estrogens: 17β-estradiol (E2) and estriol, and increased estrogen receptor type 1 (Esr1) gene expression. Liver Esr1 mRNA level was differently correlated with T (positively) and E2 (negatively) plasma levels. Whereas the fat reduction in Western-type diet restored the plasma proportion between T and E2. In conclusion it could be stated that Western-type diet modification relating to protein, sucrose and fat content can influence hepatic steroid metabolism and activity; however the estrogens and androgens metabolism in liver would be connected with impairment of liver function or catabolic activity, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of glutathione peroxidase-1 deficiency on macrophage foam cell formation and proliferation: implications for atherogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental evidence suggests a protective role for the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1 in the atherogenic process. GPx-1 deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis and increases lesion cellularity in ApoE(-/- mice. However, the distribution of GPx-1 within the atherosclerotic lesion as well as the mechanisms leading to increased macrophage numbers in lesions is still unknown. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were (1 to analyze which cells express GPx-1 within atherosclerotic lesions and (2 to determine whether a lack of GPx-1 affects macrophage foam cell formation and cellular proliferation. Both in situ-hybridization and immunohistochemistry of lesions of the aortic sinus of ApoE(-/- mice after 12 weeks on a Western type diet revealed that both macrophages and - even though to a less extent - smooth muscle cells contribute to GPx-1 expression within atherosclerotic lesions. In isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages differentiated for 3 days with macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (MCSF, GPx-1 deficiency increased oxidized low density-lipoprotein (oxLDL induced foam cell formation and led to increased proliferative activity of peritoneal macrophages. The MCSF- and oxLDL-induced proliferation of peritoneal macrophages from GPx-1(-/-ApoE(-/- mice was mediated by the p44/42 MAPK (p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, namely ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2, signaling pathway as demonstrated by ERK1/2 signaling pathways inhibitors, Western blots on cell lysates with primary antibodies against total and phosphorylated ERK1/2, MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, p90RSK (p90 ribosomal s6 kinase, p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and immunohistochemistry of mice atherosclerotic lesions with antibodies against phosphorylated ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and p90RSK. Representative effects of GPx-1 deficiency on both macrophage proliferation and

  10. A time-driven, activity-based costing methodology for determining the costs of red blood cell transfusion in patients with beta thalassaemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K E; Haysom, H E; Higgins, A M; Waters, N; Tahiri, R; Rushford, K; Dunstan, T; Saxby, K; Kaplan, Z; Chunilal, S; McQuilten, Z K; Wood, E M

    2018-04-10

    To describe the methodology to estimate the total cost of administration of a single unit of red blood cells (RBC) in adults with beta thalassaemia major in an Australian specialist haemoglobinopathy centre. Beta thalassaemia major is a genetic disorder of haemoglobin associated with multiple end-organ complications and typically requiring lifelong RBC transfusion therapy. New therapeutic agents are becoming available based on advances in understanding of the disorder and its consequences. Assessment of the true total cost of transfusion, incorporating both product and activity costs, is required in order to evaluate the benefits and costs of these new therapies. We describe the bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing methodology used to develop process maps to provide a step-by-step outline of the entire transfusion pathway. Detailed flowcharts for each process are described. Direct observations and timing of the process maps document all activities, resources, staff, equipment and consumables in detail. The analysis will include costs associated with performing these processes, including resources and consumables. Sensitivity analyses will be performed to determine the impact of different staffing levels, timings and probabilities associated with performing different tasks. Thirty-one process maps have been developed, with over 600 individual activities requiring multiple timings. These will be used for future detailed cost analyses. Detailed process maps using bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing for determining the cost of RBC transfusion in thalassaemia major have been developed. These could be adapted for wider use to understand and compare the costs and complexities of transfusion in other settings. © 2018 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  13. Shikonin protects dopaminergic cell line PC12 against 6-hydroxydopamine-mediated neurotoxicity via both glutathione-dependent and independent pathways and by inhibiting apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Emran; Gardaneh, Mossa; Gharib, Ehsan; Sabouni, Farzaneh

    2013-08-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of shikonin function on protection of dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment of rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 by serial dilutions of shikonin determined 10 μM of the compound as its optimum concentration for protection saving nearly 70 % of the cells against toxicity. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of shikonin-treated cells showed threefold increase in mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) as a representative component of the intracellular anti-oxidant defense system. To elucidate shikonin-GPX1 relationships and maximize protection, we transduced PC12 cells using recombinant lentivirus vectors that harbored GPX-1 coding sequence. This change upregulated GPX-1 expression, increased peroxidase activity and made neuronal cells resistant to 6-OHDA-mediated toxicity. More importantly, addition of shikonin to GPX1-overexpressing PC12 cells augmented GPX-1 protein content by eightfold leading to fivefold increase of enzymatic activity, 91 % cell survival against neurotoxicity and concomitant increases in intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels. Depletion of intracellular GSH rendered all cell groups highly susceptible to toxicity; however, shikonin was capable of partially saving them. Subsequently, GSH-independent superoxide dismutase mRNA was found upregulated by shikonin. As signs of apoptosis inhibition, the compound upregulated Bcl-2, downregulated Bax, and prevented cell nuclei from undergoing morphological changes typical of apoptosis. Also, a co-staining method demonstrated GPX-1 overexpression significantly increases the percent of live cells that is maximized by shikonin treatment. Our data indicate that shikonin as an antioxidant compound protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA toxicity and enhances their survival via both glutathione-dependent and direct anti-apoptotic pathways.

  14. The glutathione mimic ebselen inhibits oxidative stress but not endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwach, Salma Makhoul; Thomas, Melanie; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D; Haas, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, yet the use of antioxidants in clinical trials has been ineffective at improving outcomes. In endothelial cells, high-dextrose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress promote endothelial dysfunction leading to the recruitment and activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the breakdown of barrier function. Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) mimic, has been shown to improve β-cell function in diabetes and prevent atherosclerosis. To determine if ebselen inhibits both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells, we examined its effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with and without high-dextrose. Oxidative stress and ER stress were measured by 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence and ER stress alkaline phosphatase assays, respectively. GPX1 over-expression and knockdown were performed by transfecting cells with a GPX1 expression construct or a GPX1-specific siRNA, respectively. Ebselen inhibited dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress in both HUVEC and HCAEC. Ebselen also had no effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in HCAEC. Furthermore, augmentation of GPX1 activity directly by sodium selenite supplementation or transfection of a GPX1 expression plasmid decreased dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress, while GPX1 knockout enhanced oxidative stress but had no effect on ER stress. These results suggest that ebselen targets only oxidative stress but not ER stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Ginsenoside Re protects against phencyclidine-induced behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction via interactive modulation of glutathione peroxidase-1 and NADPH oxidase in the dorsolateral cortex of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, The-Vinh; Shin, Eun-Joo; Dang, Duy-Khanh; Ko, Sung Kwon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Yu Jeung; Toriumi, Kazuya; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2017-12-01

    We investigated whether ginsenoside Re (Re) modulates phencyclidine (PCP)-induced sociability deficits and recognition memory impairments to extend our recent finding. We examined the role of GPx-1 gene in the pharmacological activity of Re against mitochondrial dysfunction induced by PCP in the dorsolateral cortex of mice. Since mitochondrial oxidative stress activates NADPH oxidase (PHOX), we applied PHOX inhibitor apocynin for evaluating interactive modulation between GPx-1 and PHOX against PCP neurotoxicity. Sociability deficits and recognition memory impairments induced by PCP were more pronounced in GPx-1 knockout (KO) than in wild type (WT) mice. PCP-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and membrane translocation of p47phox were more evident in GPx-1 KO than in WT. Re treatment significantly attenuated PCP-induced neurotoxic changes. Re also significantly attenuated PCP-induced sociability deficits and recognition memory impairments. The attenuation by Re was comparable to that by apocynin. The attenuation was more obvious in GPx-1 KO than in WT. Importantly, apocynin did not show any additional positive effects on the neuroprotective activity of Re, indicating that PHOX is a molecular target for therapeutic activity of Re. Our results suggest that Re requires interactive modulation between GPx activity and PHOX (p47phox) to exhibit neuroprotective potentials against PCP insult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptogenic Activity of Lyophilized Hydroethanol Extract of Pandanus odoratissimus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Prafulla P; Jadhav, Pranita P; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Bhaskar, V H; Shelke, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders.

  17. Repetitive obidoxime treatment induced increase of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity even in a late phase of a severe methamidophos poisoning: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Eyer, Florian; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Accidental self-poisoning or deliberate use in suicidal intent of organophosphorus pesticides (OPP), which are widely used in agriculture, represent a health problem worldwide. Symptoms of poisoning are characterized by acute cholinergic crisis caused by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. A 75-year-old male patient ingested 20ml of an OPP solution containing 10% methamidophos in suicidal intent. In the course of poisoning typical clinical symptoms of cholinergic crisis (miosis, bradycardia, hypotension, hypersalivation and impairment of neurologic status) were evident. Butyryl (plasma) cholinesterase (BChE) and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (RBC-AChE) revealed decreased activities, thus specific treatment with the enzyme reactivator obidoxime was started. Inhibitory activity of the patient's plasma indicated significant amounts of persisting methamidophos in the circulation and was still found on day 4 after ingestion. Due to missing spontaneous breathing on day 6, obidoxime was administered again. Afterwards a significant increase of RBC-AChE activity was found. The patient was extubated on day 10 and a restitution ad integrum was achieved. In conclusion, obidoxime is a potent reactivator of OPP-inhibited AChE. A repetitive and prolonged administration of obidoxime should be considered in cases of severe methamidophos poisoning and should be tailored with an advanced analytical biomonitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In-vitro antioxidant activity of crataeva magna lour. dc bark extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant Crataeva magna belonging to family Capparaceae is used in anti spasmodic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, anti protozoal, analgesic purposes. The present study was carried out to evaluate appropriate animal model. The antioxidative potential of different solvent extracts of Crataeva magna were evaluated using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2 ’-Azino-Bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-Sulphonic acid (ABTS, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Among those solvent extracts, ethanolic extract of C. magna exhibited highest level of antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract also inhibited H 2O2 mediated haemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human RBC.

  19. Antiarthritic activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangale, Jitendra; Acharya, Sanjeev

    2014-03-01

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) (Poaceae) is traditionally used herb to treat fevers, skin diseases and rheumatic affections. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be safe at all the dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) and there was no mortality up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg of extract when administered orally. C. dactylon showed significant antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Treatment with C. dactylon significantly reduced the mean percentage change in injected and non injected paw, ankle diameter, clinical severity and significantly increased body weight. Results were confirmed using biochemical parameters; there was a significant improvement in the levels of Hb and RBC in C. dactylon treated rats. The increased levels of WBC, ESR, C- reactive protein (CRP) and TNFalpha were significantly suppressed in C. dactylon treated rats. C. dactylon showed protective effect in arthritic joints but it has been supported by an improvement in bone lesions rather than in cartilage lesions. It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at a dose of 400 mg/kg is effective in improving haematological level, CRP and reducing TNFalpha level. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides in ethanolic extract. All the above results support the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Activity-based costs of blood transfusions in surgical patients at four hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel; Ozawa, Sherri; Theusinger, Oliver M; Gombotz, Hans; Spahn, Donat R

    2010-04-01

    Blood utilization has long been suspected to consume more health care resources than previously reported. Incomplete accounting for blood costs has the potential to misdirect programmatic decision making by health care systems. Determining the cost of supplying patients with blood transfusions requires an in-depth examination of the complex array of activities surrounding the decision to transfuse. To accurately determine the cost of blood in a surgical population from a health system perspective, an activity-based costing (ABC) model was constructed. Tasks and resource consumption (materials, labor, third-party services, capital) related to blood administration were identified prospectively at two US and two European hospitals. Process frequency (i.e., usage) data were captured retrospectively from each hospital and used to populate the ABC model. All major process steps, staff, and consumables to provide red blood cell (RBC) transfusions to surgical patients, including usage frequencies, and direct and indirect overhead costs contributed to per-RBC-unit costs between $522 and $1183 (mean, $761 +/- $294). These exceed previously reported estimates and were 3.2- to 4.8-fold higher than blood product acquisition costs. Annual expenditures on blood and transfusion-related activities, limited to surgical patients, ranged from $1.62 to $6.03 million per hospital and were largely related to the transfusion rate. Applicable to various hospital practices, the ABC model confirms that blood costs have been underestimated and that they are geographically variable and identifies opportunities for cost containment. Studies to determine whether more stringent control of blood utilization improves health care utilization and quality, and further reduces costs, are warranted.

  1. Study of relationship of selenium concentration in blood components and tumor tissues of breast and GI tract cancers using neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Bakir, M. A.; Yassine, T.; Sarhel, A.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between selenium (Se) concentration in blood components and tumour tissues of breast and GI tract cancers using neutron activation analysis. red blood cell (RBC) and serum Se concentrations were determined in 50 healthy volunteers aged 25-84 years, 70 breast cancer patients aged 25-70 years and 34 GI tract cancer patients aged 31-85 years, Se levels were also determined in malignant and adjacent normal tissues from breast cancer and GI tract cancer patients. The results showed that Se concentrations in serum and RBC were significantly lower among breast and GI cancer compared to healthy volunteers. The results also showed that Se concentrations were significantly higher in the cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. These data have shown a relationship between selenium status in blood components and both cancer. selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumours. (author)

  2. In vitro study of Vellozia pusilla pohl (Velloziaceae), a Brazilian plant species: antitumoral activity and labeling of blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado de; Feliciano, Glaucio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Vellozia pusilla Pohl is a species of the botanic family Velloziaceae that occurs in the subtropical regions of South America and, although it lives under conditions of high solar irradiation and low water availability, shows great longevity. The methanol extract of roots, stem and leaf sheaths of this species showed an anti tumoral activity through the inhibition of the enzyme Topoisomerase I when analyzed by an in vitro bioassay employing DNA repair or recombination deficient mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the evaluation of the effect of Vellozia pusilla methanol extract on the labeling of RBC, blood of mice was treated with 99m Tc tracer solutions. The percentage of radioactivity (% ATI) bound to plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) was determined. The %ATI in the insoluble fraction of plasma (IF) was also evaluate, and the results showed that there was a decrease in %ATI in this fraction that represents the plasmatic proteins. (author)

  3. Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

  4. Role of Tc-99m labeled RBC SPECT in haemangioma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddadi, Fariba; Kamali, Hosein; Faghihi, Amir Hosein; Shokouhizadeh, Reza

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Haemangioma of the liver must be included in the differential diagnosis of all focal hepatic lesions. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques continue to play a unique role in the evaluation of hepatic masses. Role of planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic haemangioma is already established although it has limitations, which can be significantly improved by means of SPECT studies. A prospective study was carried out to evaluate Tc-99m red blood cell SPECT imaging in liver haemangioma and compare it with CT findings. Radionuclide liver scan, both planar and SPECT was done in 10 patients who had 16 liver masses diagnosed as haemangiomas on their CT. The acquisition protocol was an immediate perfusion phase study in an anterior view followed by SPECT of the liver at 2 hours. A perfusion/blood-pool mismatch is the hallmark finding for hepatic haemangioma. The smallest haemangioma detected with isotope scan was of 1.55 cm size. Planar scintigraphy showed a sensitivity of 82% versus 94.2% for SPECT. It was mostly due to missing of lesions less than 2 cm in size on planar scans. For cavernous haemangioma (n=4) the specificity and positive predictive value was 100%. We believe that hepatic scintigraphy still continues to play an important role in the diagnosis of hepatic masses especially for liver haemangioma where Tc-99m labeled red blood cell scanning has considerably high specificity. However, planar imaging has poor sensitivity especially for the identification of smaller lesions. Hepatic scintigraphy is non-invasive, easy to perform and inexpensive. In our opinion, when a suspicion of hepatic haemangioma is raised on CT or other imaging modalities, it needs to be confirmed by radionuclide blood-pool study. (author)

  5. Study of RBC Efficiency in Aniline Removal by Increasing Contactor Specific Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Mousavi Aliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aniline is a first type amino aromatic compound and has various applications in different pharmaceutical, synthetic dye, plastic, and petrochemical industries. It is poisonous and its discharge into the environment causes serious hazards that warrant it removal by an efficient treatment process.  In this study, the efficiency of rotating biological contactors in aniline removal was investigated using four 3-liter parallel systems (in two series. Two reactors in the first series had 27 disks. The second series had 14 discs with packings in each reactor with the same specific surfaces as compared to the first system.Aniline concentrations from 100 to 1200 mg/L and hydraulic loading rates from 1.57 to 6.28 L/m2.d were used throughout the study period in two treatments. The effect of disc rotation speed on system efficiency was also investigated. The results indicated that COD removal efficiency decreased with increasing hydraulic loading rate but increased with increasing disc speed from 5 to 15 rpm. The best removal efficiencies of 88 and 86 percent for RBCI and RBCII, respectively, were obtained for an aniline concentration of 400 mg/L, a hydraulic loading rate of 1.57 L/m2.d, and a disc speed of 15 rpm. Based on the results, although both systems yield almost equal efficiencies, the start-up period was shorter in RBCII with a clearer effluent due to the lower quantity of suspended microorganisms in the reactor than that in RBCI. Use of packing may decrease energy consumption for disc rotation due to the overall weight reduction of the system.

  6. Gamma irradiation response of RBC in presence of Aloe vera leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, Charusheela C.; Patil, Shilpa M.; Kulkarni, Satish G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The components from fleshy leaves of Aloe vera have wide range of utility in treating human aliments owing to their medicinal property including antioxidant characteristic. During gamma irradiation, attack by free radicals is the prominent cause of damage to cell membrane. This action is modified to varied extent by several components from plants. A radio modulation effect of different dilutions of Aloe vera leave extract against gamma radiation has been evaluated by measuring percent haemolysis. The result obtained will be discussed to narrate influencing role of various factors in modulation

  7. Active Teachers - Active Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as an initiative from the Polytechnic in Nantes, France and the University the Los Andes in Bogota, Colombia. The objective was to start a world wide collaboration allowing teachers in engineering to learn from each other about their experiences with active learning. In this thirteenth edition, ALE joins forces...... with the International Research Symposium on Problem Based Learning (IRSPB) and the International Symposium on Project Approaches in Engineering Education (PAEE) to organise the first International Joint Conference on the Learner in Engineering Education (IJCLEE 2015) hosted by Mondragon University, in San Sebastian...

  8. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  9. Moderate activation of IKK2-NF-kB in unstressed adult mouse liver induces cytoprotective genes and lipogenesis without apparent signs of inflammation or fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Lei, Xiaohong; Zhang, Qinghao

    2015-07-30

    The NF-kB signaling, regulated by IKK1-p52/RelB and IKK2-p65, is activated by various stresses to protect or damage the liver, in context-specific manners. Two previous studies of liver-specific expression of constitutive active IKK2 (IKK2ca) showed that strong activation of IKK2-NF-kB in mouse livers caused inflammation, insulin resistance, and/or fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to understand how moderate activation of IKK2-NF-kB in adult mouse livers alters hepatic gene expression and pathophysiology. We generated mice with adult hepatocyte-specific activation of Ikk2 (Liv-Ikk2ca) using Alb-cre mice and Ikk2ca Rosa26 knockin mice in which a moderate expression of Ikk2ca transgene was driven by the endogenous Rosa26 promoter. Surprisingly, compared to wild-type mice, adult male Liv-Ikk2ca mice had higher hepatic mRNA expression of Ikk2 and classical NF-kB targets (e.g. Lcn2 and A20), as well as IKK1, NIK, and RelB, but no changes in markers of inflammation or fibrosis. Blood levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 remained unchanged, and histology analysis showed a lack of injury or infiltration of inflammatory cells in livers of Liv-Ikk2ca mice. Moreover, Liv-Ikk2ca mice had lower mRNA expression of prooxidative enzymes Cyp2e1 and Cyp4a14, higher expression of antioxidative enzymes Sod2, Gpx1, and Nqo1, without changes in key enzymes for fatty acid oxidation, glucose utilization, or gluconeogenesis. In parallel, Liv-Ikk2ca mice and wild-type mice had similar levels of hepatic reduced glutathione, endogenous reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation. Additionally, Liv-Ikk2ca mice had higher Cyp3a11 without down-regulation of most drug processing genes. Regarding nuclear proteins of NF-kB subunits, Liv-Ikk2ca mice had moderately higher p65 and p50 but much higher RelB. Results of ChIP-qPCR showed that the binding of p50 to multiple NF-kB-target genes was markedly increased in Liv-Ikk2ca mice. Additionally, Liv-Ikk2ca mice had moderate increase in triglycerides in

  10. Complement activation in Ghanaian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofori Michael F

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anaemia (SA, intravascular haemolysis (IVH and respiratory distress (RD are severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with RD reported to be of prognostic importance in African children with malarial anaemia. Complement factors have been implicated in the mechanism leading to excess anaemia in acute P. falciparum infection. Methods The direct Coombs test (DCT and flow cytometry were used to investigate the mean levels of RBC-bound complement fragments (C3d and C3bαβ and the regulatory proteins [complement receptor 1 (CD35 and decay accelerating factor (CD55] in children with discrete clinical forms of P. falciparum malaria. The relationship between the findings and clinical parameters including coma, haemoglobin (Hb levels and RD were investigated. Results Of the 484 samples tested, 131(27% were positive in DCT, out of which 115/131 (87.8% were positive for C3d alone while 16/131 (12.2% were positive for either IgG alone or both. 67.4% of the study population were below 5 years of age and DCT positivity was more common in this age group relative to children who were 5 years or older (Odds ratio, OR = 3.8; 95%CI, 2.2–6.7, p Conclusion These results suggest that complement activation contributed to anaemia in acute childhood P. falciparum malaria, possibly through induction of erythrophagocytosis and haemolysis. In contrast to other studies, this study did not find association between levels of the complement regulatory proteins, CD35 and CD55 and malarial anaemia. These findings suggest that complement activation could also be involved in the pathogenesis of RD but larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  11. Haematology, genotoxicity, enzymatic activity and histopathology as biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew Crocidura russula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Chardi, A.; Marques, C.C.; Gabriel, S.I.; Capela-Silva, F.; Cabrita, A.S.; Lopez-Fuster, M.J.; Nadal, J.; Mathias, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Haematological (WBC, RBC, Hgb and Hct) and genotoxicity (MNT) parameters, hepatic enzymatic activities (GST, GPx and GR), and a histopathological evaluation of liver, kidneys and gonads were assessed as general biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew Crocidura russula inhabiting a pyrite mining area. Specimens exposed to metals presented a few significant alterations when compared with reference animals: GST activity decreased; micronuclei increased; and evident liver alterations related to metal exposure were observed. On the basis of all the parameters studied, age was an important factor that partly explained the observed variation, whereas sex was the least important factor. Significant correlations were also found between heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers evaluated, demonstrating the great influence of these metals in the metabolic alterations. To the best of our knowledge, these data constitute the first measurements of a battery of biomarkers in shrews from a mine site and are among the few available for insectivorous mammals. - Metals from an abandoned pyrite mine produce alterations in haematological parameters, GST, MNT, and histopathology in shrews

  12. Anti-arthritic activity of a classical Ayurvedic formulation Vatari Guggulu in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi G. Patel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In India, Vatari Guggulu has been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The current study was undertaken to evaluate anti-arthritic activity of alcoholic extract of Vatari Guggulu in rats. Arthritis was induced by administration of formaldehyde (2%v/v or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA into the sub-plantar surface of left hind paw of the animals. The extract was administered to the rats by oral gavages in different doses. Joint swelling was measured in formaldehyde induced arthritis. Various physical, biochemical and histopathological parameters were determined in CFA induced arthritis. Vatari Guggulu extract (VGE produced significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of joint swelling in both formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis. The treatment also brought to normalcy the increased white blood cell (WBC count, rheumatoid factor (RF, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL with an enhancement of haemoglobin (Hb levels and red blood cell (RBC count. These effects were found to be dose dependent. These effects were comparable with standard drug indomethacin. Histo-pathological studies of the ankles of VGE treated animals exhibited significant improvements. VGE did not show any toxic symptoms even at a dose of 2000 mg/kg in acute toxicity studies on rats. Thus, Vatari Guggulu, a classical Ayurvedic formulation of the Indian System of Medicine, exhibited significant anti-arthritic activity in formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis in rats. This study corroborates the claims of Ayurveda on Vatari Guggulu.

  13. Antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extract of asparagus officinalis l. stem on plasmodium berghei infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minari, J.B.; Adutuga, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. stem on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. To investigate this, the mice were infected with P.berghei to cause malaria. The mice were simultaneously given oral doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight) of methanolic extract of A. officinalis L. stem. The phytochemical constituents of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoid and steroid. The extract administered to the infected mice significantly suppressed the parasite. The extract also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the activities of serum aspatate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT). White blood corpuscles (WBC), red blood corpuscles (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), packed cell volume (PCV), platelets (PLT) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) showed significant (P<0.05) increase after the administration of the extract while mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) showed significant (P<0.05) reduction. Present findings suggests that the plant extract contains phytochemicals that have antiplasmodial and hepatoprotective properties. (author)

  14. Relationship between serum leptin levels, ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrance and development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with DM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible mechanism of development of nephrosis affected by changes of serum leptin levels and alteration of activities of Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase of erythrocyte membrane in patients with type 2 diabetes(DM2). Methods: Serum leptin levels (with RIA) and erythrocyte membrane Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase activitities (with Reinila method) were determined in 40 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 32 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 35 controls. Results Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the diabetics as a whole than those in controls (P + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase activities were significantly lower (P<0.01). Among the diabetic patients, the serum leptin levels in patients without nephrosis (P<0.05), but the RBC membrance ATPase activities were significantly lower(P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of type 2 diabetes nephrosis might be correlated with the high serum leptin level and decreased ATPase activities of erythrocite membrane. (authors)

  15. An experimental analysis of the specificity of actively acquired tolerance in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, G.

    1963-08-15

    Tolerance to CBA skin was induced in C3H mice by neonatal injection of CBA spleen cells. When two months old, the C3H recipients were grafted with CBA skin. These skin grafts showed no signs of rejection during the observation time of three months, whereas CBA skins grafted onto C3H mice non injected at birth showed complete necrosis in 11.7 days. Normal C3H and C3H mice tolerant to CBA skin were injected with rat RBC and sacrificed 12 days later for serum titration of anti-rat RBC agglutinins. The agglutinin titer was the same in both groups. This indicates that the unresponsiveness of C3H mice to CBA skin was specific, for the tolerant mice were able to respond with normal vigor to antigens (rat RBC) unrelated to C3H and CBA. Whether this response was due to the host immune system or to the CBA spleen cells which may have colonized the C3H newborns was subsequently investigated. Spleen cells from tolerant C3H mice sensitized to rat RBC were injected into two groups of lethally irradiated recipients: C3H mice preimmunized against CBA and CBA mice preimmunized against C3H. Both groups were given rat RBC immediately after the spleen cell transfer from the tolerant mice and sacrified a week later for serum titration of anti-rat RBC agglutinins. These agglutinins, due to the secondary response of the transferred spleen cells, could be detected only in the group of C3H recipients preimmunized against CBA. This shows that anti-rat RBC agglutinins in tolerant mice were produced y the immune system of the C3H host. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed. (auth)

  16. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common charcoal is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum. “Activated charcoal” is similar to common charcoal, but is made especially for use as a medicine. To make activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common ...

  17. Role of one N-linked oligosaccharide chain on canine herpesvirus gD in its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Yokoyama, N; Fujita, K; Xuan, X; Mikami, T

    1997-12-01

    The YP11mu strain of a plaque-selected canine herpesvirus (CHV) encoded a smaller molecular weight (MW) of gD than those of other strains including YP2 strain (Xuan et al., 1990). When nucleotide sequence of the mutated gD of YP11mu strain (gD(YP11mu)) was compared with that of gDs of other CHV strains, gD(YP11mu) lacked 12 nucleotides encoding 4 amino acids, NKTI, including one predicted potential N-linked glycosylation site and no other change was found in other regions. When the gD(YP11mu) and gD of YP2 strain (gD(YP2)) expressed in COS-7 and insect (Spodoptera frugiperda; Sf9) cells were compared each other, both gDs reacted with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CHV gD by indirect immunofluorescence analysis and the gD(YP11mu) possessed an MW of approximately 47-51 and 39-44 kDa in COS-7 and Sf9 cells, respectively, which were smaller than the expressed gD(YP2) (approximately 51-55 and 41-46 kDa, respectively) by immunoblot analysis. After treatment with tunicamycin, the MW of both gDs in Sf9 cells became approximately 37 kDa. When hemagglutination (HA) test using canine red blood cells (RBC) were carried out, lysates of Sf9 cells expressing CHV gDs agglutinated canine RBC. Serum from mice inoculated with lysates of Sf9 cells expressing the gDs possessed a high titer of virus-neutralizing (VN) activities against CHV. These results indicated that the deletion of 4 amino acids possessing approximately 4 kDa of glyco-chain from gD of CHV in mammalian cells does not affect HA activity and VN antibody-inducing activity and that this deletion of gD(YP11mu) might be a good selective marker for development of recombinant viruses as a live vaccine.

  18. Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype-phenotype discordance and thiopurine active metabolite formation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Lynne; Cartwright, Cher Suzanne; Wade, Rachel; Richards, Susan M; Vora, Ajay

    2013-07-01

    In children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) bone marrow activity can influence red blood cell (RBC) kinetics, the surrogate tissue for thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate TPMT phenotype-genotype concordance in ALL, and the influence of TPMT on thiopurine metabolite formation. We measured TPMT (activity, as units ml(-1) packed RBCs and genotype) at diagnosis (n = 1150) and TPMT and thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) and methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (MeMPN) metabolites (pmol/8 × 10(8) RBCs) during chemotherapy (n = 1131) in children randomized to thioguanine or mercaptopurine on the United Kingdom trial ALL97. Median TPMT activity at diagnosis (8.5 units) was significantly lower than during chemotherapy (13.8 units, median difference 5.1 units, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8, 5.4, P mercaptopurine, median TGNs were higher in TPMT heterozygous genotype (754 pmol) than wild-type (360 pmol) patients (median difference 406 pmol, 95% CI 332, 478, P products of the TPMT reaction, were higher in wild-type (10 650 pmol) than heterozygous patients (3868 pmol) (P < 0.0001). In TPMT intermediate activity patients with a wild-type genotype, TGN (median 366 pmol) and MeMPN (median 8590 pmol) concentrations were similar to those in wild-type, high activity patients. In childhood ALL, TPMT activity should not be used to predict heterozygosity particularly in blood samples obtained at disease diagnosis. Genotype is a better predictor of TGN accumulation during chemotherapy. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype–phenotype discordance and thiopurine active metabolite formation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Lynne; Cartwright, Cher Suzanne; Wade, Rachel; Richards, Susan M; Vora, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Aims In children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) bone marrow activity can influence red blood cell (RBC) kinetics, the surrogate tissue for thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate TPMT phenotype–genotype concordance in ALL, and the influence of TPMT on thiopurine metabolite formation. Methods We measured TPMT (activity, as units ml−1 packed RBCs and genotype) at diagnosis (n = 1150) and TPMT and thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) and methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (MeMPN) metabolites (pmol/8 × 108 RBCs) during chemotherapy (n = 1131) in children randomized to thioguanine or mercaptopurine on the United Kingdom trial ALL97. Results Median TPMT activity at diagnosis (8.5 units) was significantly lower than during chemotherapy (13.8 units, median difference 5.1 units, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8, 5.4, P mercaptopurine, median TGNs were higher in TPMT heterozygous genotype (754 pmol) than wild-type (360 pmol) patients (median difference 406 pmol, 95% CI 332, 478, P products of the TPMT reaction, were higher in wild-type (10 650 pmol) than heterozygous patients (3868 pmol) (P < 0.0001). In TPMT intermediate activity patients with a wild-type genotype, TGN (median 366 pmol) and MeMPN (median 8590 pmol) concentrations were similar to those in wild-type, high activity patients. Conclusions In childhood ALL, TPMT activity should not be used to predict heterozygosity particularly in blood samples obtained at disease diagnosis. Genotype is a better predictor of TGN accumulation during chemotherapy. PMID:23252716

  20. Inhibition of thiopurine S-methyltransferase activity by impurities in commercially available substrates: a factor for differing results of TPMT measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröplin, T; Fischer, C; Iven, H

    1999-06-01

    Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity, when measured in red blood cells (RBC) with a recently published TPMT activity assay using 6-thioguanine (6-TG) as substrate, could not be reproduced in another laboratory. We investigated factors which could influence the results of the TPMT activity measurement. We tested twelve 6-TG and four 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) compounds from different suppliers as substrates and determined the enzyme kinetic parameters Km and Vmax. Furthermore, we studied the influence of different 6-TG compounds on the affinity of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to the TPMT enzyme. All 6-TG products were of equal purity (declared >98% by the supplier): this was ascertained by HPLC. However, the rate of methylation obtained following incubation with 6-TG from different suppliers ranged from 10% to 100% when incubated with the same RBC lysate. The lowest apparent Km value for a 6-TG was 22.3 micromol x l(-1), while the product with the highest methylation rate showed a Km of 156 micromol x l(-1). From these results we assume that there is a contaminant in some 6-TG products, which acts as a strong inhibitor of TPMT activity. Compounds possibly used for the synthesis of 6-TG (guanine, pyridine, 6-chloroguanine) did not affect the methylation rate. Thioxanthine, which is known to be a strong inhibitor of TPMT when added to the assay system to give a 2% contamination, reduced TPMT activity from 100% to 72%. Using 6-MP from different suppliers as substrate resulted in Km values ranging from 110 to 162 micromol x l(-1) and Vmox values ranging from 54 to 68 nmol 6-MMP x g(-1)Hb x h(-1). The Km value for the methyl donor SAM was similar to and independent from the thiopurine substrates tested (range 4.9-11 micromol-l(-1) SAM). In contrast to other investigators, we found non-enzymatic S-methylation, which was negligible under our assay conditions (3% with 128 micromol x l(-1) SAM), but could become relevant in experiments using higher

  1. Active ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode F. Jacobsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of active ageing has been gaining prominence in the Nordic countries and beyond. This has been reflected in policy papers in Norway and other Nordic nations. Aims: The aim of this article is to analyse the topic of active ageing in five Norwegian White Papers (2002 to 2015 and discuss those policy documents in context of relevant research literature. Methods: A qualitative document analyses is employed focusing on how active ageing, and ageing in general, is described and which concepts are employed. No ethical approval was needed. Findings: The general theme of ageing and the specific theme of active ageing are increasingly prominent in the Norwegian White Papers studied. In all documents, some assumptions regarding ageing and active ageing seem implicit, such as independence being more important than (interdependence. ‘Productive’ activities like participation in working life are stressed, while others, like reading, watching TV or watching children playing in the street, are ignored. Conclusions: The policy documents demonstrate that the topic of active ageing is growing in importance. The documents increasingly seem to stress ‘productive’ activities – those related to working life, voluntary work or sports and physical training. They exclude activities that are meaningful for many older people, like watching their grandchildren play or reading books. Implications for practice: Practitioners in older people’s care could consider reflecting on: Government documents dealing with their own practice The prevalent concept of active ageing The trend of active ageing as a facilitating or hindering factor for good care work How present discourse on active ageing may influence their attitude towards frail older persons How they wish to relate to active ageing in their own practice

  2. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  3. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry (IFM) presents every year a progress report containing a brief description of activities in research and education within the department. The report is intended as an information for colleagues and institutions. The present report contains activities for the academic year July 1989 to June 1990

  4. Evaluation of 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 as Prognostic Markers in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gondek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In carcinoma of prostate, a causative role of platelet 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 for tumor progression has been firmly established in tumor and/or adjacent tissue. Our goal was to investigate if 12-LOX and/or PAI-1 in patient’s plasma could be used to predict outcome of the disease. The study comprised 149 patients (age 70±9 divided into two groups: a study group with carcinoma confirmed by positive biopsy of prostate (n=116 and a reference group (n=33 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The following parameters were determined by the laboratory test in plasma or platelet-rich plasma: protein level of 12-LOX, PAI-1, thromboglobulin (TGB, prostate specific antigen (PSA, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT, as well as red (RBC and white blood cells (WBC, number of platelets (PLT, international normalized ratio of blood clotting (INR, and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. The only difference of significance was noticed in the concentration of 12-LOX in platelet rich plasma, which was lower in cancer than in BPH group. Standardization to TGB and platelet count increases the sensitivity of the test that might be used as a biomarker to assess risk for prostate cancer in periodically monitored patients.

  5. Effect of red blood cells on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. W. Chesnutt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, which can lead to myocardial infarction and stroke. Thrombosis may form in tortuous microvessels, which are often seen throughout the human body, but the microscale mechanisms and processes are not well understood. In straight vessels, the presence of red blood cells (RBCs is known to push platelets toward walls, which may affect platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. However in tortuous vessels, the effects of RBC interactions with platelets in thrombosis are largely unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to determine the physical effects of RBCs, platelet size, and vessel tortuosity on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. A discrete element computational model was used to simulate the transport, collision, adhesion, aggregation, and shear-induced platelet activation of hundreds of individual platelets and RBCs in thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. Results showed that high shear stress near the inner sides of curved arteriole walls activated platelets to initiate thrombosis. RBCs initially promoted platelet activation, but then collisions of RBCs with mural thrombi reduced the amount of mural thrombus and the size of emboli. In the absence of RBCs, mural thrombus mass was smaller in a highly tortuous arteriole compared to a less tortuous arteriole. In the presence of RBCs however, mural thrombus mass was larger in the highly tortuous arteriole compared to the less tortuous arteriole. As well, smaller platelet size yielded less mural thrombus mass and smaller emboli, either with or without RBCs. This study shed light on microscopic interactions of RBCs and platelets in tortuous microvessels, which have implications in various pathologies associated with thrombosis and bleeding.

  6. Changes in growth, carbon and nitrogen enzyme activity and mRNA accumulation in the halophilic microalga Dunaliella viridis in response to NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Nianjun; Sun, Xue

    2016-12-01

    Many species of microalga Dunaliella exhibit a remarkable tolerance to salinity and are therefore ideal for probing the effects of salinity. In this work, we assessed the effects of NaCl stress on the growth, activity and mRNA level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes of D. viridis. The alga could grow over a salinity range of 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the most rapid growth was observed at 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Paralleling these growth patterns, the highest initial and total Rubisco activities were detected in the presence of 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, decreasing to 37.33% and 26.39% of those values, respectively, in the presence of 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. However, the highest extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured in the presence of 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Different from the two carbon enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) activity showed a slight change under different NaCl concentrations. At the transcriptional level, the mRNAs of Rubisco large subunit ( rbcL), and small subunit ( rbcS), attained their highest abundances in the presence of 1.00 and 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. The CA mRNA accumulation was induced from 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the NR mRNA showed the decreasing tendency with the increasing salinity. In conclusion, the growth and carbon fixation enzyme of Rubisco displayed similar tendency in response to NaCl stress, CA was proved be salt-inducible within a certain salinity range and NR showed the least effect by NaCl in D. viridis.

  7. In Barrett's esophagus patients and Barrett's cell lines, ursodeoxycholic acid increases antioxidant expression and prevents DNA damage by bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sui; Huo, Xiaofang; Rezaei, Davood; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Chunhua; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Cheng, Edaire; Pham, Thai H; Wang, David H; Chen, Minhu; Souza, Rhonda F; Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2014-07-15

    Hydrophobic bile acids like deoxycholic acid (DCA), which cause oxidative DNA damage and activate NF-κB in Barrett's metaplasia, might contribute to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus. We have explored mechanisms whereby ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, a hydrophilic bile acid) protects against DCA-induced injury in vivo in patients and in vitro using nonneoplastic, telomerase-immortalized Barrett's cell lines. We took biopsies of Barrett's esophagus from 21 patients before and after esophageal perfusion with DCA (250 μM) at baseline and after 8 wk of oral UDCA treatment. DNA damage was assessed by phospho-H2AX expression, neutral CometAssay, and phospho-H2AX nuclear foci formation. Quantitative PCR was performed for antioxidants including catalase and GPX1. Nrf2, catalase, and GPX1 were knocked down with siRNAs. Reporter assays were performed using a plasmid construct containing antioxidant responsive element. In patients, baseline esophageal perfusion with DCA significantly increased phospho-H2AX and phospho-p65 in Barrett's metaplasia. Oral UDCA increased GPX1 and catalase levels in Barrett's metaplasia and prevented DCA perfusion from inducing DNA damage and NF-κB activation. In cells, DCA-induced DNA damage and NF-κB activation was prevented by 24-h pretreatment with UDCA, but not by mixing UDCA with DCA. UDCA activated Nrf2 signaling to increase GPX1 and catalase expression, and protective effects of UDCA pretreatment were blocked by siRNA knockdown of these antioxidants. UDCA increases expression of antioxidants that prevent toxic bile acids from causing DNA damage and NF-κB activation in Barrett's metaplasia. Elucidation of this molecular pathway for UDCA protection provides rationale for clinical trials on UDCA for chemoprevention in Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. [Active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folker, A P; Hvidt, N

    1995-02-20

    The growing interest in the subject of active euthanasia in connection with the debate regarding legalization of such practices in Denmark necessitates taking a definite standpoint. The difference in concept between active and passive euthanasia is stressed, and the Dutch guidelines are reviewed. The article discusses how far the patient's autonomy should go, as it regards the consideration of self-determination as being too narrow a criterion in itself. The discussion on the quality of life is included, and the consequences of the process of expulsion as a sociological concept are considered--the risk of a patient feeling guilty for being alive and therefore feeling compelled to request active euthanasia. The changed function of the physician is underlined, and it is discussed whether active euthansia will cause a breach of confidence between the physician and his patient. In connection with the debate the following tendencies in society are emphasized: lack of clarity, increasing medicalization and utilitarian priorities.

  9. Radioprotective activity of the Piper betle-derived phenolic, allylpyrocatechol against gamma-ray induced hemolysis of human red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    As an oxidative shuttle, human (RBCs) are most susceptible to oxidative damages leading to multiple diseases including haemolytic anemia that is a major public health problem in the developing countries. The present effort was aimed at formulating some natural phenolic compounds isolated from piper betle - allylpyrocatechol (APC) to prevent the alterations in the RBC membrane. The biochemical parameters which are considered as biomarkers of redox balance primarily contribute to damages in RBC membrane during gamma radiation induced oxidative stress were investigated

  10. Active colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranson, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior. (physics of our days)

  11. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  12. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  13. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    in reaction to their environment. They reflect an individual’s internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert, voluntary or...identity activities under a range of legal authorities, policy constraints, transnational threats, regional concerns and biases , and most likely...Biography. A baseline and descriptive analytic product that supports the development of the behavioral influences analysis ( BIA ) individual behavioral

  14. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    themselves. We draw on two multi-year field studies of India and Denmark to investigate how national reforms and developments within the ranking industry interact in often surprising ways. Rankings do not always do what policy makers expect. We (1) highlight the activity of rankers in these two countries, (2...

  15. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  16. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  17. Platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte interaction in β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients with marked nucleated erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawvichit, Rassamon; Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Chaichompoo, Porntip; Polsrila, Korakot; Sukklad, Suchana; Sukapirom, Kasama; Khuhapinant, Archrob; Fucharoen, Suthat; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit

    2012-11-01

    Patients with thalassemia, an inherited hemolytic anemia, have increased risk of hypercoagulable complications. A whole blood flow cytometric (FCM) method has been used for studies of platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregation in these patients. However, this FCM method presents technical difficulties because of the high proportion of immature red blood cells (RBCs) in these patients. A protocol for the simultaneous measurement of platelet activation and their aggregation with leukocyte populations in whole blood using four-color FCM which excluded immature RBC was devised, and evaluated for the evaluation of platelet function in patients with β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE). Whole blood from these patients and from healthy volunteers was stained for platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates using anti-CD42a, anti-CD62P, anti-CD45 and glycophorin A (GPA) conjugated with different fluorochromes. Our FCM method is simple, effective and based on the assumption that GPA is present on all immature RBCs, but is not expressed on CD45⁺ leukocytes. Results from the studies showed that blood samples from these patients contained a high frequency of circulating activated platelets (CD42a⁺/CD62P⁺) when compared to samples from healthy individuals. The percentage of platelet-neutrophil, platelet-monocyte-but not platelet-lymphocyte-aggregates were also elevated in both thalassemia genotypes with marked increase in patients who had undergone splenectomy. These findings suggest that platelets adhere to neutrophils and monocytes are activated which support the clinical observation that splenectomized thalassemia patients have an increased risk of arterial or venous thrombotic manifestations.

  18. Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase and Level of Free Radical Processes under Toxic Hepatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Y. Iskusnykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between intensity of free radical processes estimated by biochemiluminesce parameters, content of lipoperoxidation products, and changes of glutathione peroxidase (GP, EC 1.11.1.9 and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2 activities at rats liver injury, after 12, 36, 70, 96, 110, and 125 hours & tetrachloromethane administration have been investigated. The histological examination of the liver sections of rats showed that prominent hepatocytes with marked vacuolisation and inflammatory cells which were arranged around the necrotic tissue are more at 96 h after exposure to CCl4. Moreover maximum increase in GR and GP activities, 2.1 and 2.5 times, respectively, was observed at 96 h after exposure to CCl4, what coincided with the maximum of free radical oxidation processes. Using a combination of reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction, expression of the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes (Gpx1 and Gsr was analyzed by the determination of their respective mRNAs in the rat liver tissue under toxic hepatitis conditions. The analyses of Gpx1 and Gsr expression revealed that the transcript levels increased in 2.5- and 3.0-folds, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that the amounts of hepatic Gpx1 and Gsr proteins increased considerably after CCl4 administration. It can be proposed that the overexpression of these enzymes could be a mechanism of enhancement of hepatocytes tolerance to oxidative stress.

  19. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  20. Active solar information dissemination activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal objective of the project has been the development of an information dissemination strategy for the UK active solar heating industry. The project has also aimed to prepare the industry for the implementation of such a strategy and to produce initial information materials to support the early stages of the implementation process. (author)

  1. Cissampelos pareira Linn: Natural Source of Potent Antiviral Activity against All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant global public health risk. In tropical countries such as India where periodic dengue outbreaks can be correlated to the high prevalence of the mosquito vector, circulation of all four dengue viruses (DENVs and the high population density, a drug for dengue is being increasingly recognized as an unmet public health need.Using the knowledge of traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, we developed a systematic bioassay-guided screening approach to explore the indigenous herbal bio-resource to identify plants with pan-DENV inhibitory activity. Our results show that the alcoholic extract of Cissampelos pariera Linn (Cipa extract was a potent inhibitor of all four DENVs in cell-based assays, assessed in terms of viral NS1 antigen secretion using ELISA, as well as viral replication, based on plaque assays. Virus yield reduction assays showed that Cipa extract could decrease viral titers by an order of magnitude. The extract conferred statistically significant protection against DENV infection using the AG129 mouse model. A preliminary evaluation of the clinical relevance of Cipa extract showed that it had no adverse effects on platelet counts and RBC viability. In addition to inherent antipyretic activity in Wistar rats, it possessed the ability to down-regulate the production of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in severe dengue disease. Importantly, it showed no evidence of toxicity in Wistar rats, when administered at doses as high as 2g/Kg body weight for up to 1 week.Our findings above, taken in the context of the human safety of Cipa, based on its use in Indian traditional medicine, warrant further work to explore Cipa as a source for the development of an inexpensive herbal formulation for dengue therapy. This may be of practical relevance to a dengue-endemic resource-poor country such as India.

  2. The effects of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on body composition and hematological biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hunger and reduction in regular energy intake can lead to a number of problems based on their intensity. For instance, low energy level can cause blood cell production to decline or it may pose a higher risk of anemia. It can also weaken the immune system and platelet aggregation or negatively affect clot formation. This study aimed to have a closer look at fasting and regular physical activity and their impacts on body composition and blood hematological-biochemical parameters among professional wrestlers. Method: In this semi-experimental study, 9 subjects were selected by convenience sampling. The selected training program included participation in this exerciseprogram, 90 min per session, 6 times per week for a period of one month. Blood samples were obtained four times: before the start of Ramadan, 2 weeks after the start, during the last week and 2 weeks after the end of Ramadan. To make intra-group comparison, repeated measure analysis of variance was used. For all statistical comparisons, the level of significance was considered at PResults: Body weight and red blood cell count (RBC dropped significantly at the end of Ramadan (Respectively P= 0.001 and P=0.034. However, the number of white blood cells (WBC and circulating platelets (PLT significantly increased during fasting (Respectively P= 0.048 and P=0.042. As a matter of fact, PLT and WBC were the only factors which dramatically increased during fasting. Intra-group variations of tetracycline (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, LDL: high-density lipoprotein (HDL, triglyceride (TG: HDL and TC: HDL reduced at the end of Ramadan. However, HDL levels ​​drastically increased during fasting (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of the research, despite being a regular activity and fasting has beneficial effects on lipid profile in athletes, however, they can with tangible changes in hematological factors may lead to weaken the immune system of athletes.

  3. Glutathione peroxidase mimic ebselen improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in murine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Yun, Jun-Won; Lei, Xin Gen

    2014-01-10

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) mimic ebselen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic copper diisopropylsalicylate (CuDIPs) were used to rescue impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in islets of GPX1 and(or) SOD1-knockout mice. Ebselen improved GSIS in islets of all four tested genotypes. The rescue in the GPX1 knockout resulted from a coordinated transcriptional regulation of four key GSIS regulators and was mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α)-mediated signaling pathways. In contrast, CuDIPs improved GSIS only in the SOD1 knockout and suppressed gene expression of the PGC-1α pathway. Islets from the GPX1 and(or) SOD1 knockout mice provided metabolically controlled intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide conditions for the present study to avoid confounding effects. Bioinformatics analyses of gene promoters and expression profiles guided the search for upstream signaling pathways to link the ebselen-initiated H2O2 scavenging to downstream key events of GSIS. The RNA interference was applied to prove PGC-1α as the main mediator for that link. Our study revealed a novel metabolic use and clinical potential of ebselen in rescuing GSIS in the GPX1-deficient islets and mice, along with distinct differences between the GPX and SOD mimics in this regard. These findings highlight the necessities and opportunities of discretional applications of various antioxidant enzyme mimics in treating insulin secretion disorders. REBOUND TRACK: This work was rejected during standard peer review and rescued by Rebound Peer Review (Antioxid Redox Signal 16: 293-296, 2012) with the following serving as open reviewers: Regina Brigelius-Flohe, Vadim Gladyshev, Dexing Hou, and Holger Steinbrenner.

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticles to an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita: Impacts on hematology, iono regulation and gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sadanandan Remya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the chronic toxicity effects of iron oxide (Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs (500 mg l−l on certain hematological, ionoregulatory and gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita were estimated for a period of 25 days under static bioassay. A significant increase in hemoglobin (Hb content, red blood cell (RBC count and hematocrit (Ht value was noticed throughout the study period when compared to control groups. In contrast, mean cellular volume (MCV, mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH (except on 5th day and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC levels and white blood cell (WBC counts were found to be decreased during the above study period. Fe2O3 NPs also caused alterations in iono regulation resulting in hyponatremia (Na+, hypochloremia (Cl− (except on 5th day and hypokalemia (K+ (except up to 15th day. A biphasic trend in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity was noticed during the above treatment period. Our results demonstrate that high Fe2O3 NP concentrations in the aquatic environment may have adverse physiological effects on fish. These data may be useful to assess the environmental risk posed by NPs. However the toxicity of various sizes of the nanoparticle could be evaluated using different aquatic organisms.

  5. An improved red blood cell additive solution maintains 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate levels by an enhancing effect on phosphofructokinase activity during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Patrick; Korsten, Herbert; De Korte, Dirk; Rombout, Eva; Van Bruggen, Robin; Verhoeven, Arthur J

    2010-11-01

    Current additive solutions (ASs) for red blood cells (RBCs) do not maintain constant 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels during cold storage. We have previously shown that with a new AS called phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-gluconate-mannitol (PAGGGM), both 2,3-DPG and ATP could be maintained throughout storage for 35 days. In this study, the mechanism underlying the effect of PAGGGM on RBC storage was studied in more detail. By using double-erythrocytapheresis units (leukoreduced), a direct comparison could be made between the current AS saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) and the experimental solution PAGGGM. During cold storage, several in vitro characteristics were analyzed. In agreement with our previous findings with single RBCs, PAGGGM maintained 2,3-DPG and ATP levels for 35 days of cold storage. Furthermore, glucose consumption and lactate production were higher in PAGGGM units during the first 21 days of cold storage. Fructose-1,6-diphophate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate levels were also increased during the first 21 days of storage in PAGGGM units. These results indicate that it is likely that phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity is enhanced in PAGGGM units relative to SAGM units. After 21 days, PFK activity also decreases in PAGGGM units, but sufficient metabolic reserve in these units prevents depletion of 2,3-DPG and ATP. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Chocolate active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  7. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  8. Increased Erythrocytes By-Products of Arginine Catabolism Are Associated with Hyperglycemia and Could Be Involved in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Zamora, Serafín; Méndez-Rodríguez, Miguel L.; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Sánchez-Sevilla, Lourdes; Quintana-Quintana, Miguel; García-García, Norberto; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide disease characterized by metabolic disturbances, frequently associated with high risk of atherosclerosis and renal and nervous system damage. Here, we assessed whether metabolites reflecting oxidative redox state, arginine and nitric oxide metabolism, are differentially distributed between serum and red blood cells (RBC), and whether significant metabolism of arginine exists in RBC. In 90 patients with type 2 DM without regular treatment for diabetes and 90 healthy controls, paired by age and gender, we measured serum and RBC levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrites, ornithine, citrulline, and urea. In isolated RBC, metabolism of L-[14C]-arginine was also determined. In both groups, nitrites were equally distributed in serum and RBC; citrulline predominated in serum, whereas urea, arginine, and ornithine were found mainly in RBC. DM patients showed hyperglycemia and increased blood HbA1C, and increased levels of these metabolites, except for arginine, significantly correlating with blood glucose levels. RBC were observed to be capable of catabolizing arginine to ornithine, citrulline and urea, which was increased in RBC from DM patients, and correlated with an increased affinity for arginine in the activities of putative RBC arginase (Km = 0.23±0.06 vs. 0.50±0.13 mM, in controls) and nitric oxide synthase (Km = 0.28±0.06 vs. 0.43±0.09 mM, in controls). In conclusion, our results suggest that DM alters metabolite distribution between serum and RBC, demonstrating that RBC regulate serum levels of metabolites which affect nitrogen metabolism, not only by transporting them but also by metabolizing amino acids such as arginine. Moreover, we confirmed that urea can be produced also by human RBC besides hepatocytes, being much more evident in RBC from patients with type 2 DM. These events are probably involved in the specific physiopathology of this disease, i.e., endothelial damage and dysfunction. PMID:23826148

  9. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  10. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  11. A molecular phylogeny of the heterokont algae based on analyses of choroplast-encoded rbcL sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Niels; Andersen, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    of heterokont algae. The Eustigmatophyceae were the most basal group, and the Dictyochophyceae branched off as the second most basal group. The branching pattern for the other classes was well supported in terms of bootstrap values in the weightedparsimony analysis but was weakly supported in the maximum......-likelihood analysis (branch containing the Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae. This clade, charactetized by siliceous structures (frustules, cysts, scales), was the sister group to the Pelagophyceae/Sarcinochrysidales and Phaeo....... The branch lengths in the maximum-likelihood reconstruction suggest that these two classes have evolved at an accelerated rate. Six major carotenoids were analyzed cladistically to study the usefulness of carotenoid pigmentation as a class-level character in the heterokont algae. In addition, each carotenoid...

  12. Relationship between RBC Mercury Levels and Serum n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrations among Japanese Men and Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, M.; Ando, T.; Wakamiya, J.; Koriyama, Ch.; Akiba, S.; Kitano, T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate potential health risk and benefits of fish consumption, the association of fish consumption with total mercury levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations was examined. Subjects and Methods. Study subjects were 269 Japanese (98 men and 171 women) living in a remote island of Kagoshima, and their blood was drawn in 1994. Results. Total mercury levels were related to weekly fish consumption among women (P=0.035) but not among men (P=0.643). However, serum EPA levels were not related to fish consumption in both women and men. In contrast, EPA levels in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of the sera were significantly related to fish consumption (P values for men and women were 0.014 and 0.073, resp.). Interestingly, mercury levels were related to serum EPA levels and EPA in the HDL fraction of the sera (P=0.001) among women (P=0.005) but not among men. Sex differences in fish species consumed may be an explanation for the observed sex difference. Conclusion. Those findings suggest that the health benefit of fish consumption can be maximized by the careful selection of fish species consumed

  13. Fractional order models of viscoelasticity as an alternative in the analysis of red blood cell (RBC) membrane mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craiem, Damian; Magin, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    New lumped-element models of red blood cell mechanics can be constructed using fractional order generalizations of springs and dashpots. Such 'spring-pots' exhibit a fractional order viscoelastic behavior that captures a wide spectrum of experimental results through power-law expressions in both the time and frequency domains. The system dynamics is fully described by linear fractional order differential equations derived from first order stress–strain relationships using the tools of fractional calculus. Changes in the composition or structure of the membrane are conveniently expressed in the fractional order of the model system. This approach provides a concise way to describe and quantify the biomechanical behavior of membranes, cells and tissues. (perspective)

  14. Fractional order models of viscoelasticity as an alternative in the analysis of red blood cell (RBC) membrane mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiem, Damian; Magin, Richard L

    2010-01-20

    New lumped-element models of red blood cell mechanics can be constructed using fractional order generalizations of springs and dashpots. Such 'spring-pots' exhibit a fractional order viscoelastic behavior that captures a wide spectrum of experimental results through power-law expressions in both the time and frequency domains. The system dynamics is fully described by linear fractional order differential equations derived from first order stress-strain relationships using the tools of fractional calculus. Changes in the composition or structure of the membrane are conveniently expressed in the fractional order of the model system. This approach provides a concise way to describe and quantify the biomechanical behavior of membranes, cells and tissues.

  15. Biodegradation and detoxification potential of rotating biological contactor (RBC) with Irpex lacteus for remediation of dye-containing wastewater

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malachová, K.; Rybková, Z.; Sezimová, H.; Cerven, J.; Novotný, Čeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 19 (2013), s. 7143-7148 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00200901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Liquid textile wastes * Dye decolorization * Genetic toxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.323, year: 2013

  16. Development, Beam characterization and chromosomal effectiveness of X-rays of RBC characteristic X-ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Ejima, Yosuke; Saigusa, Shin; Tachibana, Akira; Sasaki, Masao S.

    2006-01-01

    A characteristic hot-filament type X-ray generator was constructed for irradiation of cultured cells. The source provides copper K, iron K, chromium K, molybdenum L, aluminium K and carbon K shell characteristic X-rays. When cultured mouse m5S cells were irradiated and frequencies of dicentrics were fitted to a linear-quadratic model, Y=αD+βD 2 , the chromosomal effectiveness was not a simple function of photon energy. The α-terms increased with the decrease of the photon energy and then decreased with further decrease of the energy with an inflection point at around 10 keV. The β-terms stayed constant for the photon energy down to 10 keV and then increased with further decrease of energy. Below 10 keV, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at low doses was proportional to the photon energy, which contrasted to that for high energy X- or γ-rays where the RBE was inversely related with the photon energy. The reversion of the energy dependency occurred at around 1-2 Gy, where the RBE of soft X-rays was insensitive to X-ray energy. The reversion of energy-RBE relation at a moderate dose may shed light on the controversy on energy dependency of RBE of ultrasoft X-rays in cell survival experiments. (author)

  17. A no iso ovel po lation olymera of a ne ase ch ew rbc hain rea cS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    Hubei Norma ed 14 December, ymerase cha mosome wa ndle PCR in i. 3' downstrea mna minor ge isolated from ch was confi ion-mediated s in the isola. Lemna minor es have be omic fragme without go nomic librar chain react y been appl al PCR metho. Inverse PC and Chen, 200 gation-mediat. Villalobos et a. 2003; Dai ...

  18. EFFECTS OF RUMEN PROTECTED METHIONINE AND VITAMIN B12 ON RBC PARAMETERS OF DAIRY COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safarkhanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of rumen-protected methionine and vitamin B12 as well as their interactions on the parameters of red blood cells of dairy cows in early lactation, 16 Holstein cows in early lactation in experiment with randomized complete block design with the 2×2 factorial arrangement used for 42 days. In this experiment, there were four treatments, which in each treatment is placed two cows primi-parous and two cows multi-parous. Treatments included: 1 The group receiving the basal diet, 2 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections, 3 The group receiving the basal diet with rumen-protected methionine, 4 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections and rumen-protected methionine. The results showed that in the use of vitamin B12 and rumen-protected methionine, there is no significant difference between the experimental groups in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels and blood hematocrit. Mean corpuscular (cell volume and mean corpuscular (cell hemoglobin did increase with vitamin B12 supplementation. In a general conclusion, it seems that increasing MCV and MCH may result in improvement in oxygenation and in turn lead to improvement on dry matter intake and milk production.

  19. Statistical intensity variation analysis for rapid volumetric imaging of capillary network flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Jiang, James Y; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2014-04-01

    We present a novel optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based technique for rapid volumetric imaging of red blood cell (RBC) flux in capillary networks. Previously we reported that OCT can capture individual RBC passage within a capillary, where the OCT intensity signal at a voxel fluctuates when an RBC passes the voxel. Based on this finding, we defined a metric of statistical intensity variation (SIV) and validated that the mean SIV is proportional to the RBC flux [RBC/s] through simulations and measurements. From rapidly scanned volume data, we used Hessian matrix analysis to vectorize a segment path of each capillary and estimate its flux from the mean of the SIVs gathered along the path. Repeating this process led to a 3D flux map of the capillary network. The present technique enabled us to trace the RBC flux changes over hundreds of capillaries with a temporal resolution of ~1 s during functional activation.

  20. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  1. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  2. Larvicidal activity and in vitro effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis L. water infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žabar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study green tea water infusion was tested on Drosophila melanogaster wild-type larvae in vivo, also an in vitro antihemolytic and hemolytic tests were performed. Three different concentrations were used 7.5 mg/ml, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, the lowest dose representing the recommended dose followed by five times and ten times higher doses. Effect of these three concentrations was monitored and tested in vivo on Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1830 wt (wild type larval development and surviving. All three concentrations showed toxic effect for larvae, with toxicity being increased in dose – depended manner. The time needed for larvae to fully develop was delayed. This decrease of developmental time was in dose – dependent manner, too. Amount of hemolysis caused by the lowest concentration was very small when compared with the percent of spontaneous hemolysis. Other two higher concentrations, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, showed higher hemolytic effect. During the four hour incubation period percent of hemolysis grew in time – dependent manner. The highest hemolytic effect was recorded for the concentration of 37.5 mg/ml. Antihemolytic test showed that the lowest concentration had the highest inhibitory effect to H2O2 induced hemolysis. The 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml concentrations had lower inhibitory effect when compared with the dose of 7.5 mg/ml. According to our study it can be concluded that the high concentrations of green tea water infusion exhibit larvicidal activity against D. melanogaster larvae, don't have protective effect to RBC membrane and cause greater hemolysis.

  3. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  4. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  5. Artesunate Exerts a Direct Effect on Endothelial Cell Activation and NF-κB Translocation in a Mechanism Independent of Plasmodium Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin and its derivates are an important class of antimalarial drug and are described to possess immunomodulatory activities. Few studies have addressed the effect of artesunate in the murine malaria model or its effect on host immune response during malaria infection. Herein, we study the effect of artesunate treatment and describe an auxiliary mechanism of artesunate in modulating the inflammatory response during experimental malaria infection in mice. Treatment with artesunate did not reduce significantly the parasitemia within 12 h, however, reduced BBB breakdown and TNF-α mRNA expression in the brain tissue of artesunate-treated mice. Conversely, mefloquine treatment was not able to alter clinical features. Notably, artesunate pretreatment failed to modulate the expression of LFA-1 in splenocytes stimulated with parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs in vitro; however, it abrogated the expression of ICAM-1 in pRBC-stimulated endothelial cells. Accordingly, a cytoadherence in vitro assay demonstrated that pRBCs did not adhere to artesunate-treated vascular endothelial cells. In addition, NF-κB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells stimulated with pRBCs was impaired by artesunate treatment. Our results suggest that artesunate is able to exert a protective effect against the P. berghei-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation and the subsequent expression of ICAM-1.

  6. Antioxidant enzyme gene delivery to protect from HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, L; Louboutin, J-P; Reyes, B A S; Van Bockstaele, E J; Strayer, D S

    2006-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to neuronal loss and progressively deteriorating CNS function: HIV-1 gene products, especially gp120, induce free radical-mediated apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), are among the potential mediators of these effects. Neurons readily form ROS after gp120 exposure, and so might be protected from ROS-mediated injury by antioxidant enzymes such as Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and/or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1). Both enzymes detoxify oxygen free radicals. As they are highly efficient gene delivery vehicles for neurons, recombinant SV40-derived vectors were used for these studies. Cultured mature neurons derived from NT2 cells and primary fetal neurons were transduced with rSV40 vectors carrying human SOD1 and/or GPx1 cDNAs, then exposed to gp120. Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Transduction efficiency of both neuron populations was >95%, as assayed by immunostaining. Transgene expression was also ascertained by Western blotting and direct assays of enzyme activity. Gp120 induced apoptosis in a high percentage of unprotected NT2-N. Transduction with SV(SOD1) and SV(GPx1) before gp120 challenge reduced neuronal apoptosis by >90%. Even greater protection was seen in cells treated with both vectors in sequence. Given singly or in combination, they protect neuronal cells from HIV-1-gp120 induced apoptosis. We tested whether rSV40 s can deliver antioxidant enzymes to the CNS in vivo: intracerebral injection of SV(SOD1) or SV(GPx1) into the caudate putamen of rat brain yielded excellent transgene expression in neurons. In vivo transduction using SV(SOD1) also protected neurons from subsequent gp120-induced apoptosis after injection of both into the caudate putamen of rat brain. Thus, SOD1 and GPx1 can be delivered by SV40 vectors in vitro or in vivo. This approach may merit consideration for

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  14. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  15. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  16. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  17. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly......The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension...... hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Apr...

  18. Diurnal fluctuation of leukocyte G6PD activity. A possible explanation for the normal neutrophil bactericidal activity and the low incidence of pyogenic infections in patients with severe G6PD deficiency in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; Ashkenazi, Meir; Grossmann, Rami; Gavrieli, Ronit; Friedman, Ziva; Bashan, Nava; Roos, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    Acute hemolytic anemia associated with red blood cell (RBC) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly encountered in the Mediterranean basin. Nevertheless, concomitant clinical evidence of white blood cell G6PD deficiency is extremely rare in Israel. This study sought to assess

  19. Direct sGC activation bypasses no scavenging reactions of intravascular free oxy-hemoglobin and limits vasoconstriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); D.M. Tabima (D. Marcela); P. Specht (Patricia); J. Tejero (Jesús); M.P. Champion (Michael); D.B. Kim-Shapiro (Daniel); J.G. Baust (John ); E.G. Mik (Egbert); M. Hildesheim (Mariana); J.-P. Stasch (Johannes-Peter); E.-M. Becker (Eva-Maria); H. Truebel (Hubert); M.T. Gladwin (Mark)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) provide a potential alternative to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Their clinical application has been limited by adverse effects, in large part thought to be mediated by the intravascular scavenging of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) by

  20. Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142), and Patent Blue V (E131) by erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Popovici, Jean; Estevez, Yannick; Pelleau, Stéphane; Legrand, Eric; Musset, Lise; Duplais, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P. falciparum including chloroquine-resistant isolates. Herein we have studied the antimalarial activities of dyes with different scaffold and we report that the triarylmethane dye (TRAM) Brilliant green inhibits the growth of asexual stages (IC 50  ≤ 2 μM) and has exflagellation-blocking activity (IC 50  ≤ 800 nM) against P. falciparum reference strains (3D7, 7G8) and chloroquine-resistant clinical isolate (Q206). In a second step we have investigated the antiplasmodial activities of two polysulfonated triarylmethane food dyes. Green S (E142) is weakly active against P. falciparum asexual stage (IC 50 ≃ 17 μM) whereas Patent Blue V (E131) is inactive in both antimalarial assays. By applying liquid chromatography techniques for the culture supernatant analysis after cell washings and lysis, we report the detection of Brilliant green in erythrocytes, the selective uptake of Green S (E142) by infected erythrocytes, whereas Patent Blue V (E131) could not be detected within non-infected and 3D7-infected erythrocytes. Overall, our results suggest that two polysulfonated food dyes might display different affinity with transporters or channels on infected RBC membrane. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142, and Patent Blue V (E131 by erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Jérôme Leba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P. falciparum including chloroquine-resistant isolates. Herein we have studied the antimalarial activities of dyes with different scaffold and we report that the triarylmethane dye (TRAM Brilliant green inhibits the growth of asexual stages (IC50 ≤ 2 μM and has exflagellation-blocking activity (IC50 ≤ 800 nM against P. falciparum reference strains (3D7, 7G8 and chloroquine-resistant clinical isolate (Q206. In a second step we have investigated the antiplasmodial activities of two polysulfonated triarylmethane food dyes. Green S (E142 is weakly active against P. falciparum asexual stage (IC50 ≃ 17 μM whereas Patent Blue V (E131 is inactive in both antimalarial assays. By applying liquid chromatography techniques for the culture supernatant analysis after cell washings and lysis, we report the detection of Brilliant green in erythrocytes, the selective uptake of Green S (E142 by infected erythrocytes, whereas Patent Blue V (E131 could not be detected within non-infected and 3D7-infected erythrocytes. Overall, our results suggest that two polysulfonated food dyes might display different affinity with transporters or channels on infected RBC membrane. Keywords: Antimalarial dyes, Transmission blocking, Triarylmethanes, Drug uptake, Brilliant green, Food dyes

  2. Antiparasitic activity of menadione (vitamin K3) against Schistosoma mansoni in BABL/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Govind J; Soares, Ingrid A O; Rao, G Subba; Badoco, Fernanda R; Furtado, Ricardo A; Correa, Mariana B; Tavares, Denise C; Cunha, Wilson R; Magalhães, Lizandra G

    2017-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases affecting nearly quarter of a billion people in economically challenged tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug currently available to treat this parasitic disease in spite being ineffective against juvenile worms and concerns about developing resistance to treat reinfections. Our earlier in vitro viability studies demonstrated significant antiparasitic activity of menadione (MEN) (vitamin K 3 ) against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. To gain insight into plausible mechanism of antischistosomal activity of MEN, its effect on superoxide anion levels in adult worms were studied in vitro which showed significant increases in both female and male worms. Further confirmation of the deleterious morphological changes in their teguments and organelles were obtained by ultrastructural analysis. Genotoxic and cytotoxic studies in male Swiss mice indicated that MEN was well tolerated at the oral dose of 500mg/kg using the criteria of MNPCE frequency and PCE/RBC ratio in the bone marrow of infected animals. The in vivo antiparasitic activity of MEN was conducted in female BALB/c mice infected with S. mansoni and significant reductions (P<0.001) in total worm burden were observed at single oral doses of 40 and 400mg/kg (48.57 and 61.90%, respectively). Additionally, MEN significantly reduced (P<0.001) the number of eggs in the liver of infected mice by 53.57 and 58.76%, respectively. Similarly, histological analysis of the livers showed a significant reduction (P<0.001) in the diameter of the granulomas. Since MEN is already in use globally as an over-the-counter drug for a variety of common ailments and a dietary supplement with a safety record in par with similar products when used in recommended doses, the above antiparasitic results which compare reasonably well with PZQ, make a compelling case for considering MEN to treat S. mansoni infection in humans. Copyright © 2016

  3. Activation analysis. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The principle, sample and calibration standard preparation, activation by neutrons, charged particles and gamma radiation, sample transport after activation, activity measurement, and chemical sample processing are described for activation analysis. Possible applications are shown of nondestructive activation analysis. (J.P.)

  4. Antioxidant compounds and activities of the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of the anti-smoking Thai medicinal plant: Vernonia cinerea Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketsuwan N

    2017-02-01

    response in AAPH-oxidized RBCs, the same as in standard EGCG. Thus, this study concluded that radical scavenging and antioxidant compounds such as catechins, flavonoid, nitrate and nitrite, and nicotine are present in different VC Less parts and are included in the AAPH-oxidized RBC model. Keywords: antioxidant activity, anti-smoking aid, bioactive compounds, Vernonia cinerea

  5. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  11. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  12. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  13. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  15. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  16. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  17. Further studies on membrane stabilizing, anti-inflammatory and FCA induced arthritic activity of various fractions of bark of Machilus macrantha in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil U Tatiya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Machilus macrantha Nees, Lauraceae, bark is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to validate, mechanism based anti-inflammatory activity of fractions M. macrantha bark are investigated for first time. Test materials viz. petroleum ether (PE, alkaloidal fraction (CH, acetone extracts (TAN and mucilage (MM (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. obtained from M. macrantha bark were tested for membrane stabilizing, anti-nociceptive; anti inflammatory and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA induced arthritis activity. Diclofenac sodium and morphine were used as the reference standards in pharmacological assay. Test materials have significantly (p<0.01 inhibited paw edema after Carrageenan and histamine induction at higher doses. Administration of test materials of M. macrantha (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced abdominal writhing, formalin nociception, cotton pellet granuloma and vascular permeability in experimental animal. In addition to this, bark of M. macrantha showed chronic anti-rheumatic effect by suppressing the swelling volume, arthritis index, hematological and biochemical parameters (ESR, RA factor, CRP, liver transferase enzyme in FCA-induced arthritis. It also significantly inhibited protein denaturation, heat-induced haemolysis of RBC and reduction in total leukocyte migration. Bioassay guided fractionation of the pet. ether extract of bark of M. macrantha led to isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol and stigma sterol confirmed by its HPLC, NMR and GC-MS study. In conclusion, extracts of M. macrantha bark can be explored as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis.

  18. Further studies on membrane stabilizing, anti-inflammatory and FCA induced arthritic activity of various fractions of bark of Machilus macrantha in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil U Tatiya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Machilus macrantha Nees, Lauraceae, bark is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to validate, mechanism based anti-inflammatory activity of fractions M. macrantha bark are investigated for first time. Test materials viz. petroleum ether (PE, alkaloidal fraction (CH, acetone extracts (TAN and mucilage (MM (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. obtained from M. macrantha bark were tested for membrane stabilizing, anti-nociceptive; anti inflammatory and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA induced arthritis activity. Diclofenac sodium and morphine were used as the reference standards in pharmacological assay. Test materials have significantly (p<0.01 inhibited paw edema after Carrageenan and histamine induction at higher doses. Administration of test materials of M. macrantha (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced abdominal writhing, formalin nociception, cotton pellet granuloma and vascular permeability in experimental animal. In addition to this, bark of M. macrantha showed chronic anti-rheumatic effect by suppressing the swelling volume, arthritis index, hematological and biochemical parameters (ESR, RA factor, CRP, liver transferase enzyme in FCA-induced arthritis. It also significantly inhibited protein denaturation, heat-induced haemolysis of RBC and reduction in total leukocyte migration. Bioassay guided fractionation of the pet. ether extract of bark of M. macrantha led to isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol and stigma sterol confirmed by its HPLC, NMR and GC-MS study. In conclusion, extracts of M. macrantha bark can be explored as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis.

  19. Criminalisation of Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  20. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  1. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzi, Stefano S.

    2017-11-01

    I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium. In a simple one-dimensional channel geometry, we show that the interaction between nonuniform nematic order and activity results in either a spontaneous flow of particles or a self-organization into subchannels flowing in opposite directions.

  2. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  3. Active regions, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martres, M.J.; Bruzek, A.

    1977-01-01

    The solar Active Region is an extremely complex phenomenon comprising a large variety of features (active,region phenomena) in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. The occurrence of the various active phenomena depends on the phase and state of evolution of the AR; their appearance depends on the radiation used for the observation. The various phenomena are described and illustrated with photographs. Several paragraphs are dedicated to magnetic classification of AR, Mt. Wilson Spot Classification, solar activity indices, and solar activity data publications

  4. Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project (RICE): A 65 Kyr ice core record of black carbon aerosol deposition to the Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ross; Bertler, Nancy; Tuohy, Andrea; Neff, Peter; Proemse, Bernedette; Feiteng, Wang; Goodwin, Ian; Hogan, Chad

    2015-04-01

    Emitted by fires, black carbon aerosols (rBC) perturb the atmosphere's physical and chemical properties and are climatically active. Sedimentary charcoal and other paleo-fire records suggest that rBC emissions have varied significantly in the past due to human activity and climate variability. However, few paleo rBC records exist to constrain reconstructions of the past rBC atmospheric distribution and its climate interaction. As part of the international Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, we have developed an Antarctic rBC ice core record spanning the past ~65 Kyr. The RICE deep ice core was drilled from the Roosevelt Island ice dome in West Antarctica from 2011 to 2013. The high depth resolution (~ 1 cm) record was developed using a single particle intracavity laser-induced incandescence soot photometer (SP2) coupled to an ice core melter system. The rBC record displays sub-annual variability consistent with both austral dry-season and summer biomass burning. The record exhibits significant decadal to millennial-scale variability consistent with known changes in climate. Glacial rBC concentrations were much lower than Holocene concentrations with the exception of several periods of abrupt increases in rBC. The transition from glacial to interglacial rBC concentrations occurred over a much longer time relative to other ice core climate proxies such as water isotopes and suggests . The protracted increase in rBC during the transition may reflected Southern hemisphere ecosystem / fire regime changes in response to hydroclimate and human activity.

  5. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....

  6. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragsted, Lars O; Krath, Britta; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Vogel, Ulla B; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bo Jensen, Per; Loft, Steffen; Rasmussen, Salka E; Sandstrom, The late BrittMarie; Pedersen, Anette

    2006-02-01

    A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.

  7. Antifeedant activity of quassinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, V; Polonsky, J; Bhatnagar, S

    1984-10-01

    The antifeedant activity of 13 quassinoids of different structural types has been studied against the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) 4th instar larvae and the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Crawer) 5th instar larvae. All quassinoids tested displayed significant activity against the Mexican bean beetle and, thus, do not reveal a simple structure-activity relationship. Five quassinoids were active against the southern armyworm. Interestingly, four of these-bruceantin (I), glaucarubinone (VI), isobruceine A (VIII), and simalikalactone D (XI)-possess the required structural features for antineoplastic activity. The noncytotoxic quassin (X) is an exception; it is active against both pests.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  9. Illicit Activities and Goondagardi

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research analyzes the pathways through which exclusionary urban ... casual labour in construction or small-scale trade activities, etc) and ... PATHWAYS TO ILLICIT ACTIVITIES .... VGG Nagar had become a gambling den for some time.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  14. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  16. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  18. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  2. Diabetes - keeping active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to add more activity to your day. Introduction There are many benefits to being active. Staying ... them emails. Take the stairs instead of the elevator. Stand up and move around while making phone ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  4. Activities for Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Arthur A.

    1987-01-01

    Ten activities that give learners in grades 5-8 a chance to explore mathematics with calculators are provided. The activity cards involve such topics as odd addends, magic squares, strange projects, and conjecturing rules. (MNS)

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  6. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  8. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  9. Interpretable Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...

  10. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  11. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

      In many types of activities communicative and material activities are so intertwined that the one cannot be understood without taking the other into account. This is true of maritime and hospital work that are used as examples in the paper. The spatial context of the activity is also important:...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  12. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu stress decreased fish muscle CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and PKCδ mRNA levels. • Cu stress caused fish muscle lower nuclear Nrf2 levels and poor ARE binding ability. • Cu stress induced caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in fish muscle. • Pre-treatment with MI prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages. - Abstract: The muscle is the main portion of fish that is consumed by humans. Copper (Cu) can induce oxidative damage in fish muscle. However, the effects of Cu exposure on the muscle antioxidant system and molecular patterns and preventive measures against these effects remain unclear. In this study, ROS production, enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling-related molecules, antioxidant response element (ARE) binding ability, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were analyzed in fish muscle following Cu exposure or myo-inositol (MI) pre-administration. The results indicated that contamination due to copper exposure caused an approximately three-fold increase in ROS production, induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and resulted in depletion of the glutathione (GSH) content of fish muscle. Moreover, Cu exposure caused decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) that were accompanied by decreases in CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and signaling factor protein kinase C delta mRNA levels. The decreases in the antioxidant enzyme gene mRNA levels were confirmed to be partly due to the reduced nuclear Nrf2 protein levels, poor ARE binding ability and increased caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in the fish muscle. Interestingly, MI pre-treatment prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages mainly through increasing the GSH content, and increasing the CuZnSOD and GPx activities and corresponding mRNA levels and ARE binding ability. Taken together, our results show for the first

  13. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Wu, Pei [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: zhouxq@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Cu stress decreased fish muscle CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and PKCδ mRNA levels. • Cu stress caused fish muscle lower nuclear Nrf2 levels and poor ARE binding ability. • Cu stress induced caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in fish muscle. • Pre-treatment with MI prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages. - Abstract: The muscle is the main portion of fish that is consumed by humans. Copper (Cu) can induce oxidative damage in fish muscle. However, the effects of Cu exposure on the muscle antioxidant system and molecular patterns and preventive measures against these effects remain unclear. In this study, ROS production, enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling-related molecules, antioxidant response element (ARE) binding ability, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were analyzed in fish muscle following Cu exposure or myo-inositol (MI) pre-administration. The results indicated that contamination due to copper exposure caused an approximately three-fold increase in ROS production, induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and resulted in depletion of the glutathione (GSH) content of fish muscle. Moreover, Cu exposure caused decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) that were accompanied by decreases in CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and signaling factor protein kinase C delta mRNA levels. The decreases in the antioxidant enzyme gene mRNA levels were confirmed to be partly due to the reduced nuclear Nrf2 protein levels, poor ARE binding ability and increased caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in the fish muscle. Interestingly, MI pre-treatment prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages mainly through increasing the GSH content, and increasing the CuZnSOD and GPx activities and corresponding mRNA levels and ARE binding ability. Taken together, our results show for the first

  14. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  15. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  16. Evaluating Diagnostic Value of Electrophysiological Testing (EMG-NCV Compared to the Activity Level of Acetylcholinesterase in Serum and Red Blood Cells of Patients with Moderate to Severe Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Najari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Organophosphate compounds cause poisoning and death more than any other insecticide. These toxins can cause peripheral neuropathy which is delayed for about 3 - 6 weeks and no method has been known for predicting the incidence. It has been claimed that electrophysiological tests (EMG - NCV can help in predicting the disorder. Objectives The main purpose of this research was to study EMG - NCV tests in patients with moderate to severe organophosphate poisoning. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted on patients with moderate to severe organophosphate poisoning from 2014 to 2016 in Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad. The minimum sample size was calculated as 68 patients and then all data was collected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria using data collection form designed by the researcher, and finally data were analyzed using SPSS V.21 software, descriptive tests (including mean, median, mode and analytical tests (K square, ANOVA. Results Of all 78 patients with the mean age of 27.50 ± 10.0, 45 were female and the rest were male. Totally 29.5% of the patients had abnormal EMG - NCV. Although no significant differences were observed between electro diagnostic tests (EMG - NCV and age, gender, clinical symptoms and levels of acetylcholinesterase serum activity, the relationship between EMG - NCV and RBC levels of acetylcholinesterase activity was significant. Conclusions Electrophysiological tests are not associated with clinical symptoms (muscle weakness and they cannot be considered as a determining factor to discharge the patients; therefore, careful examination of the patients or evaluating the level of AChE activity in red blood cells is needed.

  17. GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE-1 PRO200LEU POLYMORPHISM (RS1050450) IS ASSOCIATED WITH MORBID OBESITY INDEPENDENTLY OF THE PRESENCE OF PREDIABETES OR DIABETES IN WOMEN FROM CENTRAL MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Guerrero, César; Hernández Chávez, Paulina; Martínez Castro, Noemí; Parra Carriedo, Alicia; García Del Rio, Sandra; Pérez Lizaur, Ana

    2015-10-01

    obesity affects more than a third of Mexican population. Oxidative stress participates actively in the etiology of this phenomenon. Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) plays a protective role against oxidative stress. The SNP Pro200Leu (rs10504050) has been reported to affect the activity of the enzyme. to determine the frequency of rs10504050 polymorphism in women with obesity and normal weight control, asses the concentration of peripheral TBARS and evaluate the consumption of pro and antioxidants. 104 women with obesity and 70 healthy controls (CG) were included in the study. Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and dietary features were evaluated. GPx-1 rs10504050 was determined by PCR/RFLP method. TBARS was assayed spectrophotometrically in plasma. The subjects were stratified and compared by obesity grades and by subgroups of prediabetes and diabetes condition. Statistical analysis included ANOVA of Kruskal Wallis, Xi squared and Pearson correlation. for rs10504050 polymorphism there were differences (Xi2 = 6; p = 0.01) between frequency (0.61) of obese carriers (Pro/Leu plus Leu/Leu) and CG carriers (0.42), and between (Xi2 = 8; p = 0.004) morbid (IMC > 40) obesity (0.74) and CG carriers. The obese group (OB) showed a prevalence of 66% of prediabetes plus diabetes. There were no differences in frequencies of rs10504050 in OB with pre or diabetes versus CG, or versus obese participants without diabetes. TBARS concentration was greater in all the degrees of OB versus CG. GPx-1 Pro200Leu polymorphism was associated with obesity especially with morbid obesity, but not with obese participants with prediabetes or diabetes. Oxidative stress is present in all grades of obesity significantly. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling Patterns of Activities using Activity Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-06-01

    Pervasive computing offers an unprecedented opportunity to unobtrusively monitor behavior and use the large amount of collected data to perform analysis of activity-based behavioral patterns. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an activity curve , which represents an abstraction of an individual's normal daily routine based on automatically-recognized activities. We propose methods to detect changes in behavioral routines by comparing activity curves and use these changes to analyze the possibility of changes in cognitive or physical health. We demonstrate our model and evaluate our change detection approach using a longitudinal smart home sensor dataset collected from 18 smart homes with older adult residents. Finally, we demonstrate how big data-based pervasive analytics such as activity curve-based change detection can be used to perform functional health assessment. Our evaluation indicates that correlations do exist between behavior and health changes and that these changes can be automatically detected using smart homes, machine learning, and big data-based pervasive analytics.

  19. Heterogeneous Active Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Klotsa, Daphne

    Active systems are composed of self-propelled (active) particles that locally convert energy into motion and exhibit emergent collective behaviors, such as fish schooling and bird flocking. Most works so far have focused on monodisperse, one-component active systems. However, real systems are heterogeneous, and consist of several active components. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of multi-component active matter systems and report on their emergent behavior. We discuss the phase diagram of dynamic states as well as parameters where we see mixing versus segregation.

  20. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  1. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....

  2. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  3. NEA activities in 1980. 9. Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1980 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  4. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Activated carbon from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  6. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    In the recent decade the concept of active aging has become important in the Western hemisphere. The World Health Organization and The European Union have staged active aging as a core policy area and initiated programs of physical activity, independence and prolonged working lives among...... the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... in their socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...

  7. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  8. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  9. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  10. Contemporary physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...

  11. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  13. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  14. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  15. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  16. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  17. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  18. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  20. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  1. Erythrocyte sodium concentration and 86Rb uptake in weanling Dahl rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, C.P.; Hennessy, J.F.; Rauch, A.L.; Buckalew, V.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Alterations in Na, K ATPase pump activity as well as erythrocyte (RBC) intracellular sodium concentration (Nai) have been demonstrated in humans and rats with established hypertension. The contribution of hypertension itself to these changes is unclear. Accordingly, we investigated RBC ion transport and plasma ouabain-like factor (OLF) in four- to five-week old normotensive Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant (DR) rats on low salt diet. Although both strains were normotensive, systolic blood pressure (SBP) of DS (123 ± 2 mm Hg) was higher than that of DR (116 ± 1 mm Hg). No interstrain difference was evident in RBC pump activity measured as ouabain-sensitive 86rubidium ( 86 Rb) uptake (DS = 0.277 ± .030 and DR = 0.271 ± .029 mumol/10(9)RBC/h) even though RBC Nai was greater in DS than DR (14.9 ± 2.0 v 10.7 ± 1.0 mEq/L; P less than 0.05). Plasma OLF was higher in DS than DR (28.9 ± 4.7 v 16.5 ± 2.3 pmol/mL; P less than 0.05), but did not correlate with RBC pump activity in either strain. RBC Nai was directly correlated with pump activity in DS (r = 0.84, P less than 0.01) and demonstrated a trend to correlate in DR (r = 0.71, P = 0.07). RBC Nai was also directly correlated with SBP in DR (r = 0.73, P less than 0.05) and DS (r = 0.70, P = 0.05). We conclude that RBC Nai is genetically determined in Dahl rats and is elevated in normotensive DS who are at risk for hypertension development

  2. NEA activities in 1983. 12. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1983 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, nuclear development and the fuel cycles nuclear safety technology and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings and other NEA joint projects, organisation and administration are reviewed

  3. Russian: An Active Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Nina

    The Active Introduction is one of the modules in an array of materials used in Russian training for beginners at the Foreign Service Institute. It is essentially a catalog of sentences relating to typical daily activities which can be combined to form different communication sequences in dialog form. Students learn to speak Russian through…

  4. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  5. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  6. Rhythmic Activities for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Pointers, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Focusing on the development of fundamental rhythm skills involved in music and movement activities, this teaching guide emphasizes activities that will help children express their feelings and communicate with others, develop perceptual and motor skills, and enhance sensory awareness. Suggestions for involving handicapped children and examples of…

  7. Elementary Environmental Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert J.

    This guide presents suggestions for field trips, out-of-doors activities, material for centers, and individualized activities in the teaching of elementary school science and particularly environmental education at the elementary level. The guide includes a section on preparation and procedures for conducting field trips, including sample…

  8. Enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kofod, L.V.; Andersen, L.N.; Dalboge, H.; Kauppinen, M.S.; Christgau, S.; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, capable of cleaving a rhamnogalacturonan backbone in such a manner that galacturonic acids are left as the non-reducing ends, and which exhibits activity on hairy regions from a soy bean material and/or on saponified hairy regions from a sugar beet

  9. RTE activity report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The RTE (electric power transport network) is the french manger of the electric power transport. This activity report provides information on the company results for the year 2005: panorama of the year, management and organization, the place of RTE in the european market, the customers, the industrial tool, the environment the human resources, the international activity and the management report. (A.L.B.)

  10. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  11. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  12. Activity report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This annual report deals with the activities, the program management and the financial aspects of the ANDRA (National Agency for the radioactive wastes management) during 2002. After a presentation of the activities during the year 2002, it provides the financial accounting, data on company cash, the ANDRA missions and publications. (A.L.B.)

  13. Mental activity and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective

  14. NEA activities in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an account of the activities of the Nuclear Energy Agency. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  15. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  16. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  17. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  18. Automation of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Ivanets, V.N.; Filippov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The basic data on the methods and equipment of activation analysis are presented. Recommendations on the selection of activation analysis techniques, and especially the technique envisaging the use of short-lived isotopes, are given. The equipment possibilities to increase dataway carrying capacity, using modern computers for the automation of the analysis and data processing procedure, are shown

  19. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  20. Children's recreational physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect

  1. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  2. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  3. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  4. Activity Fund Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Addresses the need of school districts in many states to decide on an appropriate mingling of centralization and decentralization in the operation of activity funds. Argues for analysis of activity fund operation through a breakdown into such major components as policy, the accounting system, and reporting and auditing. (JBM)

  5. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  6. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  7. AMP (Activity Manipulation Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W. Jr.

    1976-03-01

    AMP is a FORTRAN IV program written to handle energy-group structured activity factors such as sources, conversion factors, and response functions, as used by ANISN, DOT III, and other nuclear reactor and shielding codes. Activities may be retrieved from ANISN-type cross-section and activity sets found on cards and tapes, and from tabular-type sets on cards. They may be altered by change of group structure, multiplication by a constant, or multiplication by delta E (the group-energy interval), and then output to ANISN-type cards or tape and tabular-type cards. A full edit of input and output activities is always printed by group and activity number

  8. ANDRA, 2006 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The French national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) was marked in 2006 by two outstanding events: the publication of the national inventory of radioactive wastes and valorisable materials, and the vote of the law from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive wastes and materials. This road-map law has an impact on ANDRA's activities for the coming years. This activity report presents several 2006 highlights of ANDRA's missions as well: the public service mission, the by-law about the effluents of the Aube plant for the storage of low-medium activity wastes, the building of the first 'double-cell' at the very-low activity waste storage plant of Aube, the research studies about the project of deep underground disposal of high-medium activity, long-living wastes, and the public information about ANDRA's technical and scientific know-how. The management and financial reports are attached in appendix. (J.S.)

  9. Active chiral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F

    2012-09-01

    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  10. Activation neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable of interacting with neutrons to form radioactive isotopes having different radiation energies when disintegrating. The material capable of being neutron-activated is distributed throughout the volume of a polycondensation resin inert with respect to neutrons and capable of curing. 17 Claims, No Drawings

  11. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, O.; Darcourt, J.; Benoit, M; Malandain, G.; Thirion, J.P.; Robert, Ph.; Vidal, R.; Desvignes, Ph.; Benoliel, J.; Ayache, N.; Bussiere, F.

    1997-01-01

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  12. Forecast of auroral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.

    2004-01-01

    A new technique is developed to predict auroral activity based on a sample of over 9000 auroral sites identified in global auroral images obtained by an ultraviolet imager on the NASA Polar satellite during a 6-month period. Four attributes of auroral activity sites are utilized in forecasting, namely, the area, the power, and the rates of change in area and power. This new technique is quite accurate, as indicated by the high true skill scores for forecasting three different levels of auroral dissipation during the activity lifetime. The corresponding advanced warning time ranges from 22 to 79 min from low to high dissipation levels

  13. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, L.V.; Lee, S.M.; Sahoo, D.; Sreedharan, O.M.; Srinivasan, G.

    1979-05-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during the year 1977 are reported. The report is presented in the form of individual summaries of R and D activities most of which are connected with the FBTR project. These R and D activities deal with various aspects of the FBTR project such as reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, fabrication, testing and quality assurance of reactor materials and components, reactor chemistry, reactor safety, reprocessing, systems analysis and instrumentation. (M.G.B.)

  14. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  15. Active Directory cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Laura

    2008-01-01

    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  16. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  17. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  18. 1985. Activity progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The research program of the Laboratory of nuclear and high energy physics (LPNHE) of the Institute of nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) presents the research activities of its groups: principally, the Delphi group which constructs the outer detector of Delphi at LEP, the neutrino group which studies the neutrino mass, the Hera group whose work is collaboration to the construction of a detector for Hera collisioner; in parallel to these activities, other more little groups continue analysis of activities which are going to be finished: they are the CELLO group, the EHS group, the omega prime group and the nuclear emulsion group [fr

  19. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  20. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  1. IPSN's 2001 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activities and operation of the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) which has become the institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) after its merging with the office of protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI). IPSN's activities cover: the safety of nuclear facilities, the safety of nuclear wastes, the management of emergencies, the management of sensible materials, the protection of the environment and of the public health, some research activities with foreign partners (central and eastern Europe, Asia..), and a partnership with the GRS, the German homologue of IPSN. (J.S.)

  2. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  3. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  4. [Studies on the factors responsible for low erythrocyte alpha-tocopherol concentrations in patients on maintenance hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K

    1989-03-01

    . From above in vivo and in vitro studies, it was concluded that low levels of RBC-TOC in HD-patients may be due to an insufficiency of TOC transfer from HDL fractions affected by low LCAT activity.

  5. Cryogenic Active Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort seeks to develop active mirrors that can correct for thermally-induced figure deformations upon cooling from room-temperature at the time of manufacture,...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  7. Mining activities at Neyveli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, P.V.; Rathinavel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mining activities at lignite areas around Neyveli are described. Measures taken to safeguard the environment from despoliation of land, air pollution, noise pollution and effluents are described. (M.G.B.)

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  10. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript ...

  12. Uranium market activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized from the 1974 ERDA annual survey of buyers and sellers and from a survey of uranium price data which provided information on additional domestic buying activity during the first half of 1975 through 1982

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  14. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  15. Homebuyer Activities Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  18. 1996 GRAMME activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This note draws a balance of the activities made at CEA-DEM within the frame of GRAMME collaboration. Results in six interest fields are presented: solidification, Mephisto program, transport phenomena, isothermal diffusion, rhenium alloys and instrumentation. (A.C.)

  19. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  2. Home Activities Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet, broken up by state. PJs can use this report to view activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS, including;...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting ... attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  5. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG ...

  10. Antitubercular activities of quinolones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper gives a brief account of the recently introduced Szeged index. (Sz). Using this .... good correlation with antitubercular activities and yield physically meaningful regressions. ..... Parr R G and Pearson R G 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc.

  11. Enerplan, activity report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2010 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  13. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  14. The Oxidative Stress Response in Elite Water Polo Players: Effects of Genetic Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercurio Vecchio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exercise is known to induce oxidative stress. Here we assessed the effects of gene polymorphisms SOD2 A16V, CAT −844 G>A, and GPx-1 rs1800668 C>T on oxidative stress markers in 28 elite water polo male players prior to and after a routinely programmed friendly match. The mean plasma concentrations of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs, as well as lactic dehydrogenase (LDH activity, creatine kinase (CK activity, CK-MB, and myoglobin, were significantly increased after exercise, while blood antioxidant potential (BAP and total free thiols were significantly decreased, compared with those measured before exercise. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP were also increased after exercise but not significantly. We observed that water polo players having either AV16 or VV16 SOD genotype exhibited a significant increase of postexercise AOPP, LDH, CK, and myoglobin plasma levels in comparison with wild-type athletes. Water polo players having either CAT −844 GA or GPx1 CT genotype showed a significant increase of postexercise dROMs plasma levels and, respectively, GPx and CAT enzyme activities in comparison with wild-type subjects. These preliminary results suggest that the screening for gene variants of antioxidant enzymes could be useful to assess individual susceptibility to oxidative stress and muscle damage in water polo players.

  15. The Oxidative Stress Response in Elite Water Polo Players: Effects of Genetic Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Mercurio; Currò, Monica; Trimarchi, Fabio; Naccari, Sergio; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Barreca, Davide; Di Mauro, Debora

    2017-01-01

    Acute exercise is known to induce oxidative stress. Here we assessed the effects of gene polymorphisms SOD2 A16V, CAT -844 G>A, and GPx-1 rs1800668 C>T on oxidative stress markers in 28 elite water polo male players prior to and after a routinely programmed friendly match. The mean plasma concentrations of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs), as well as lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, creatine kinase (CK) activity, CK-MB, and myoglobin, were significantly increased after exercise, while blood antioxidant potential (BAP) and total free thiols were significantly decreased, compared with those measured before exercise. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were also increased after exercise but not significantly. We observed that water polo players having either AV16 or VV16 SOD genotype exhibited a significant increase of postexercise AOPP, LDH, CK, and myoglobin plasma levels in comparison with wild-type athletes. Water polo players having either CAT -844 GA or GPx1 CT genotype showed a significant increase of postexercise dROMs plasma levels and, respectively, GPx and CAT enzyme activities in comparison with wild-type subjects. These preliminary results suggest that the screening for gene variants of antioxidant enzymes could be useful to assess individual susceptibility to oxidative stress and muscle damage in water polo players.

  16. Activity report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1980-07-01

    The activites of the Eurochemic (European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels) at Mol is summarized under the following headings: the decontamination and intervention in the Fuel Reception and Storage Building, the active operation of the bituminization facility, the construction of two additional storage bunkers, the full active operation of the section for the handling of solid waste and the construction of various units for the conditioning of organic liquid waste and plutonium hearing solid wastes. (AF)

  17. Activity report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drent, W.; Delande, E.

    1981-07-01

    The EUROCHEMIC Company's activity report for fiscal year 1980 covers the following topics: administrative and commercial matters; personnel; cleaning and decontamination works in the reprocessing plant; operation of the bituminization facility; active treatment of the spent solvent in the Eurowatt facility; operation of the waste sorting and shredding unit, preparing the plutonium contaminated solid wastes for conditioning and recovery of plutonium; radiation protection and library and documentation. (AF)

  18. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  19. Low activation ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  20. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  1. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  2. Activity report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; Ramanathan, N.; Rodriguez, P.; Shankar Singh, R.; Venkataraman, S.

    1977-08-01

    The report covers a wide range of R and D activities in the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India). The scientific and technical activities in various fields such as: reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, design of sodium circuits, reactor fuel handling, electrical and instrumentation engineering for FBTR, data processing system, reactor operation studies, reactor construction, materials science, metallurgy, reprocessing, instrumentation, safety research and engineering services, have been reported in brief. (A.K.)

  3. Fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1981 numerous 14 MeV neutron activation analyses were performed at Korona. On the basis of that work the advantages of this analysis technique and therewith obtained results are compared with other analytical methods. The procedure of activation analysis, the characteristics of Korona, some analytical investigations in environmental research and material physics, as well as sources of systematic errors in trace analysis are described. (orig.) [de

  4. Taxing Financial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz

    2003-01-01

    In most countries, substantial business activity is related to financial intermediation: banking, trusts, investment companies and insurance. Financial businesses play a crucial role in the economy by matching lenders with borrowers as well as facilitating governance of businesses through close monitoring of funds lent to businesses. Financial institutions also reduce risk faced by investors by pooling investments over many different types of business activities and insuring against property,...

  5. Activity report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; Ramanathan, N.; Rodriguez, P.; Shankar Singh, R.; Venkataraman, S.

    1978-11-01

    The research and development activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during 1976 are reported. The main thrust of the R and D activities is directed towards the FBTR Project and they deal with the various aspects of the project such as reactor physics, reactor design, fuel handling, reactor instrumentation, reactor operation, reactor construction, reactor safety, reactor materials, reactor chemistry and fuel reprocessing. (M.G.B.)

  6. Liquidity and Shareholder Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Norli, Øyvind; Ostergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya

    2009-01-01

    This is the authors’ accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may h...

  7. Shareholder activism in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Cr...

  8. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  9. Antibacterial activity of antileukoprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, P S; Maassen, R J; Stolk, J; Heinzel-Wieland, R; Steffens, G J; Dijkman, J H

    1996-01-01

    Antileukoprotease (ALP), or secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor, is an endogenous inhibitor of serine proteinases that is present in various external secretions. ALP, one of the major inhibitors of serine proteinases present in the human lung, is a potent reversible inhibitor of elastase and, to a lesser extent, of cathepsin G. In equine neutrophils, an antimicrobial polypeptide that has some of the characteristics of ALP has been identified (M. A. Couto, S. S. L. Harwig, J. S. Cullor, J. P. Hughes, and R. I. Lehrer, Infect. Immun. 60:5042-5047, 1992). This report, together with the cationic nature of ALP, led us to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ALP. ALP was shown to display marked in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. On a molar basis, the activity of ALP was lower than that of two other cationic antimicrobial polypeptides, lysozyme and defensin. ALP comprises two homologous domains: its proteinase-inhibitory activities are known to be located in the second COOH-terminal domain, and the function of its first NH2-terminal domain is largely unknown. Incubation of intact ALP or its isolated first domain with E. coli or S. aureus resulted in killing of these bacteria, whereas its second domain displayed very little antibacterial activity. Together these data suggest a putative antimicrobial role for the first domain of ALP and indicate that its antimicrobial activity may equip ALP to contribute to host defense against infection. PMID:8890201

  10. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  11. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    OpenAIRE

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This stu...

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DE UM REATOR BIOLÓGIGO ROTATIVO DE CONTATO (RBC) APLICADO AO TRATAMENTO DE EFLUENTE DE UM ABATEDOURO DE SUÍNOS E AVES.

    OpenAIRE

    Bervey Schwerz

    2012-01-01

    Com a expansão da sociedade industrial, se iniciou uma geração de resíduos de forma intensa, surgindo uma questão latente, referente a destinar-se corretamente todos os resíduos gerados durante o processo industrial. Mais especificamente, o processamento de carne gera durante suas inúmeras etapas uma enorme vazão de efluentes líquidos. Uma alternativa para o tratamento deste tipo de resíduo são os reatores de biodiscos. Este trabalho tem por objetivo a construção e aplicação...

  13. Morphological character evolution of Amorphophallus (Araceae) based on a combined phylogenetic analysis of trnL, rbcL, and LEAFY second intron sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedayu, A.; Eurlings, M.C.M.; Gravendeel, B.; Hetterscheid, W.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sequences of three different genes in 69 taxa of Amorphophallus were combined to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of this species-rich Aroid genus. The data set was analyzed by three different methods, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analysis, producing slightly different tree

  14. iAB-RBC-283: A proteomically derived knowledge-base of erythrocyte metabolism that can be used to simulate its physiological and patho-physiological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Jamshidi, Neema; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2011-07-12

    The development of high-throughput technologies capable of whole cell measurements of genes, proteins, and metabolites has led to the emergence of systems biology. Integrated analysis of the resulting omic data sets has proved to be hard to achieve. Metabolic network reconstructions enable complex relationships amongst molecular components to be represented formally in a biologically relevant manner while respecting physical constraints. In silico models derived from such reconstructions can then be queried or interrogated through mathematical simulations. Proteomic profiling studies of the mature human erythrocyte have shown more proteins present related to metabolic function than previously thought; however the significance and the causal consequences of these findings have not been explored. Erythrocyte proteomic data was used to reconstruct the most expansive description of erythrocyte metabolism to date, following extensive manual curation, assessment of the literature, and functional testing. The reconstruction contains 281 enzymes representing functions from glycolysis to cofactor and amino acid metabolism. Such a comprehensive view of erythrocyte metabolism implicates the erythrocyte as a potential biomarker for different diseases as well as a 'cell-based' drug-screening tool. The analysis shows that 94 erythrocyte enzymes are implicated in morbid single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 142 pathologies. In addition, over 230 FDA-approved and experimental pharmaceuticals have enzymatic targets in the erythrocyte. The advancement of proteomic technologies and increased generation of high-throughput proteomic data have created the need for a means to analyze these data in a coherent manner. Network reconstructions provide a systematic means to integrate and analyze proteomic data in a biologically meaning manner. Analysis of the red cell proteome has revealed an unexpected level of complexity in the functional capabilities of human erythrocyte metabolism.

  15. iAB-RBC-283: A proteomically derived knowledge-base of erythrocyte metabolism that can be used to simulate its physiological and patho-physiological states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsson Bernhard O

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of high-throughput technologies capable of whole cell measurements of genes, proteins, and metabolites has led to the emergence of systems biology. Integrated analysis of the resulting omic data sets has proved to be hard to achieve. Metabolic network reconstructions enable complex relationships amongst molecular components to be represented formally in a biologically relevant manner while respecting physical constraints. In silico models derived from such reconstructions can then be queried or interrogated through mathematical simulations. Proteomic profiling studies of the mature human erythrocyte have shown more proteins present related to metabolic function than previously thought; however the significance and the causal consequences of these findings have not been explored. Results Erythrocyte proteomic data was used to reconstruct the most expansive description of erythrocyte metabolism to date, following extensive manual curation, assessment of the literature, and functional testing. The reconstruction contains 281 enzymes representing functions from glycolysis to cofactor and amino acid metabolism. Such a comprehensive view of erythrocyte metabolism implicates the erythrocyte as a potential biomarker for different diseases as well as a 'cell-based' drug-screening tool. The analysis shows that 94 erythrocyte enzymes are implicated in morbid single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 142 pathologies. In addition, over 230 FDA-approved and experimental pharmaceuticals have enzymatic targets in the erythrocyte. Conclusion The advancement of proteomic technologies and increased generation of high-throughput proteomic data have created the need for a means to analyze these data in a coherent manner. Network reconstructions provide a systematic means to integrate and analyze proteomic data in a biologically meaning manner. Analysis of the red cell proteome has revealed an unexpected level of complexity in the functional capabilities of human erythrocyte metabolism.

  16. Brown Recluse spider bite mediated hemolysis: clinical features, a possible role for complement inhibitor therapy, and reduced RBC surface glycophorin A as a potential biomarker of venom exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Gehrie

    Full Text Available The venom of Loxosceles reclusa (Brown Recluse spider can cause a severe, life-threatening hemolysis in humans for which no therapy is currently available in the USA beyond supportive measures. Because this hemolysis is uncommon, relatively little is known about its clinical manifestation, diagnosis, or management. Here, we aimed to clarify the clinical details of envenomation, to determine the efficacy of the complement inhibitor eculizumab to prevent the hemolysis in vitro, and to investigate markers of exposure to Brown Recluse venom.We performed a 10-year chart review of cases of Brown Recluse spider bite-mediated hemolysis at our institution. We also designed an in vitro assay to test the efficacy of eculizumab to inhibit hemolysis of venom exposed red blood cells. Finally, we compared levels of CD55, CD59 and glycophorin A on venom exposed versus venom-naïve cells.Most victims of severe Brown Recluse spider mediated hemolysis at our institution are children and follow an unpredictable clinical course. Brown Recluse spider bite mediated hemolysis is reduced by 79.2% (SD=18.8% by eculizumab in vitro. Erythrocyte glycophorin A, but not CD55 or CD59, is reduced after red blood cells are incubated with venom in vitro.Taken together, our laboratory data and clinical observations indicate that L. reclusa venom exposure results in non-specific antibody and complement fixation on red blood cells, resulting in complement mediated hemolysis that is curtailed by the complement inhibitor eculizumab in vitro. Glycophorin A measurement by flow cytometry may help to identify victims of L. reclusa envenomation.

  17. A Phylogeny of the Monocots, as Inferred from rbcL and atpA Sequence Variation, and a Comparison of Methods for Calculating Jackknife and Bootstrap Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerrold I.; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Petersen, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    elements of Xyridaceae. A comparison was conducted of jackknife and bootstrap values, as computed using strict-consensus (SC) and frequency-within-replicates (FWR) approaches. Jackknife values tend to be higher than bootstrap values, and for each of these methods support values obtained with the FWR...

  18. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  19. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  20. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  1. The chemotherapeutic potential of glycol alkyl ethers: structure-activity studies of nine compounds in a Fischer-rat leukemia transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M P; Jameson, C W; Maronpot, R R; Langenbach, R; Braun, A G

    1990-01-01

    Structure-activity studies with nine glycol alkyl ethers were conducted with a cellular leukemia transplant model in male Fischer rats. This in vivo assay measures the effects of chemical treatment on neoplastic progression in transplant recipients. Chemicals were given ad libitum in the drinking water simultaneously with the transplants and continued throughout the study. In all, 20 million leukemic cells were injected s.c. into syngeneic rats, which after 60 days resulted in a 10-fold increase in relative spleen weights, a 100-fold increase in white blood cell counts, and a 50% reduction in red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet counts. At this interval, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-ME) given at a dose of 2.5 mg/ml in the drinking water completely eliminated all clinical, morphological, and histopathological evidence of leukemia, whereas the same dose of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-EE) reduced these responses by about 50%. Seven of the glycol ethers were ineffective as anti-leukemic agents, including ethylene glycol, the monopropyl, monobutyl, and monophenyl ethylene glycol ethers, diethylene glycol, and the monomethyl and monoethyl diethylene glycol ethers. 2-ME more than doubled the latency period of leukemia expression and extended survival for at least 210 days. A minimal effective dose for a 50% reduction in the leukemic responses was 0.25 mg/ml 2-ME in the drinking water (15 mg/kg body weight), whereas a 10-fold higher dose of 2-EE was required for equivalent antileukemic activity. In addition, the in vitro exposure of a leukemic spleen mononuclear cell culture to 2-ME caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the number of leukemia cells after a single exposure to 1-100 microM concentrations, whereas the 2-ME metabolite, 2-methoxyacetic acid, was only half as effective. The two glycol alkyl ethers with demonstrable anti-leukemic activity, 2-ME and 2-EE, also exhibited a favorable efficacy-to-toxicity ratio and should be considered for

  2. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  3. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  4. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  5. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  6. Photon-activation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable 127 I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors

  7. Comparison of Gene and Protein Expressions in Rats Residing in Standard Cages with Those Having Access to an Exercise Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine M. Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lifelong physical inactivity is associated with morbidity in adulthood, possibly influenced by changes in gene and protein expressions occurring earlier in life. mRNA (Affymetrix gene array and proteomic (2D-DIGE MALDI-TOF/MS analyses were determined in cardiac tissue of young (3 months and old (16 months Sprague-Dawley rats housed with no access to physical activity (SED versus an exercise wheel (EX. Unfavorable phenotypes for body weight, dyslipidemia, and tumorogenesis appeared more often in adult SED versus EX. No differentially expressed genes (DEGs occurred between groups at 3 or 16 months. Within groups, SED and EX shared 215 age-associated DEGs. In SED, ten unique DEGs occurred with age; three had cell adhesion functions (fn1, lgals3, ncam2. In EX, five unique DEGs occurred with age; two involved hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal hormone axis (nrob2, xpnpep2. Protein expression involved in binding, sugar metabolic processes, and vascular regulation declined with age in SED (KNT1, ALBU, GPX1, PYGB, LDHB, G3P, PYGM, PGM1, ENOB. Protein expression increased with age in EX for ATP metabolic processes (MYH6, MYH7, ATP5J, ATPA and vascular function (KNT1, ALBU, GPX1. Differences in select gene and protein expressions within sedentary and active animals occurred with age and contributed to distinct health-related phenotypes in adulthood.

  8. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  9. Arctic industrial activities compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most industrial activities in the Beaufort Sea region are directly or indirectly associated with the search for oil and gas. Activities in marine areas include dredging, drilling, seismic and sounding surveys, island/camp maintenance, vessel movements, helicoptor and fixed-wind flights, and ice-breaking. This inventory contains a summary of chemical usage at 119 offshore drilling locations in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Islands and Davis Straight of the Canadian Arctic between 1973 and 1987. Data are graphically displayed for evaluating patterns of drill waste discharge in the three offshore drilling areas. These displays include a comparison of data obtained from tour sheets and well history records, summaries of drilling mud chemicals used by year, well and oil company, frequency of wells drilled as a function of water depth, and offshore drilling activity by year, company, and platform. 21 refs., 104 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  11. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  12. Rheology of Active Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintillan, David

    2018-01-01

    An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.

  13. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  14. CEREM activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of the activity report of the CEREM (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEREM organization, activities and human resources with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the materials fabrication for the nuclear and automotive industries, the powders metallurgy (molding by injection, cold pressing modelling), the simulation of the hot and cold working processes, the surface treatments, the joining (brazed joints, sintering, welding), the electrochemical storage of the energy (fuel cells, lithium accumulators), the corrosion and the physico-chemistry of fluids, the mechanical properties and the cracks, the robots for nuclear units dismantlement, the alteration mechanisms of properties under different solicitations (thermal, mechanical, chemical, irradiation) and the solidification-crystallogenesis. (O.M.)

  15. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1978-07-01

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1977. Works in the plant are closely related to the handling of fuel element and the treatment of solid wastes as well as the management of liquid wastes. Industrial development activities have been primarily devoted to the solidification of HEWC (highly enriched waste concentrate) by means of the Lotes process; the treatment of spent solvent by means of the Eurowatt process; the treatment of the plutonium-bearing solid wastes by the Eurowetcomb process and the conditioning of highly activity non-combustible solid wastes by incorporation into polymer-concrete matrix . (AF)

  16. Activity report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1979-07-01

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid and solid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1978. Works in the plant are closely related to the decontamination in cooperation with specialized firms. Active operation of bituminization facility was started in June, and a total of 66 m 3 of medium level waste was incorporated into bitumen by the end of 1978. The associated storage facility was in active operation since June and preliminary studies for its extension were completed. A facility was completed for the conditioning of solid wastes arising from the decontamination operation of solid wastes whch were stored under water during plant operation. (AF)

  17. Safeguards activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  18. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...... established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task...... (MET) minutes per week (MET-min/week) as a method for harmonising PA variables among cohorts; (2) The determination of methods for treating missing components of MET-min/week calculation; a value will be produced from comparable activities within a representative cohort; (3) Exclusion of the domain...

  19. Report of Activity - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    The Report of Activity on 1997 published by Waste Management Division (Direction chargee de la Gestion des Dechets) of French Atomic Energy Authority (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) presents the current activity in the framework of CEA Recovery Plan for Civil Centers initiated in 1991, aiming at managing all the radioactive problems issued from its Research and Development Activities. This plan covers three principal directions: management of radioactive wastes resulting from CEA research activities, reprocessing or storing the spent or un-used fuel resulting from research or prototype reactors, recovery measures and dismantling of nuclear facilities. In the field of radioactive waste management important projects, assuring the waste processing equipment, were developed in 1997 at Saclay (STELLA Installation), Cadarache (AGATE Installation) and Marcoule (ATENA Installation). The Radioactive Waste Storage TFA was put into operation at Cadarache. In the field of out-of-use fuel, in 1997 the fuel reprocessing units CARAMEL and UNGG were finished while as temporary storage for fuels waiting to be processed the CASCAD facility at Cadarache was assigned. Finally, concerning the recovery/dismantling activities, priority was granted to recover: the Radiochemical Lab. at Fontenay, the pilot workshop and UP1 plant of COGEMA at Marcoule, the EL4 reactor (in a joint action with EDF), and the AT1 pilot workshop at Cherbourg. The report is structured on five chapters with the following content: 1. The radioactive wastes; 2. The out-of-use fuels; 3. The dismantling of the definitively stopped installations; 4. The waste management at DAM (Direction des Applications Militaires); 5. Recovery activities at Marcoule

  20. Activated carbon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards

  1. Andra 1997 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This activity report comprises two parts. The first part describes the missions and activities of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes): quality control of wastes produced by EdF, CEA, Cogema and the 1100 other small producers, design, construction and management of storage centres, anticipation and development of new management solutions, research and evaluation studies on deep storage facilities, inventory and control of all radioactive materials present in the French territory. The second part is a presentation of financial data. (J.S.)

  2. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  3. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) carries out for the Government, studies and inspections on nuclear installations at many life steps (design, realisation, exploitation, shutdown and dismantling). To obtain quality researches, the Institut performs studies in all domains concerned by the safety and its improvement. The main projects of the year 1999, in the following topics are presented: the nuclear installations and the radioactive wastes safety, the crisis and nuclear materials management, the human and the environment protection, the international activities and cooperation, the quality insurance. It provides also information on the cooperation, the budget, the human resource policy and the communication activities. (A.L.B.)

  4. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  5. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Intergovernmental organisation activities: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Non-legally binding instruments; International relations; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (JC); The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC); International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX); Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA): GIF Framework Agreement extended for ten years; Technology Road-map: Nuclear Energy; Steering Committee Policy Debate: Health Effects of Low-dose Radiation

  6. 1996 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 activity report of the Direction for Waste Management of the CEA, is presented. Its activities have been developed in the framework of the general CEA cleaning plan, and include the management of wastes generated before 1992 in R and D CEA facilities, the disposal of spent fuels generated by research reactors (Orphee and Siloe) or prototype reactors (EL4 at Brennilis), and the dismantling and cleaning of obsolete facilities such as the plutonium radiochemistry building at Fontenay-aux-Roses and the pilot workshop at Marcoule

  7. Reference neutron activation library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,{alpha}), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,{sup 3}He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain

  8. Activity report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1982-07-01

    This report reviews the main activities of the Eurochemic company for the fiscal year 1981. These activities are: the plant operation including the safeguards for special nuclear materials, the management of radioactive wastes and the analytical services, new works such as vitrification project, Pamela building and the design for the storage of vitrified wastes. The industrial development concerns the Eurowatt process for solvent treatment, the wet combustion for plutonium bearing solid wastes, the separation of mercury, the incorporation of solid wastes into a polymer concrete matrix and the Pamela process. The health and safety division, the library and documentation service and the administrative matters are also presented. (AF)

  9. Activity report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drent, W.

    1985-07-01

    For the fiscal year 1984, the technical activities of Eurochemic were: a) the cleaning of the vessels having contained medium level liquid wastes and the incorporation into bitumen of the resulting solution, b) the conditioning of plutonium contaminated solid waste, c) the civil engineering works of Building 29 were completed and the mounting of equipment was begun. The installation will assure the surface storage of the blocks resulting from vitrification, by means of Pamela installation of the high-level liquid wastes. The report includes administrative matters as well as health and safety activity. (AF)

  10. Reference neutron activation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,α), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n, 3 He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10 -5 eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain almost all the

  11. Intergovernmental Organisation Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities, sorted by Organisation: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed binding instruments, Adopted legally binding instruments, Non-legally binding instruments; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability, Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Appointment of new Director-General, International experts in Japan to review safety after Fukushima Daiichi, China Atomic Energy Authority co-operation workshop

  12. MCO Monitoring activity description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description

  13. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  14. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  16. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. E-Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Joy

    2001-01-01

    Presents five technology-based activities to teach elementary students about the human body, including: creating a heartbeat graph; charting the benefits of exercise; playing a "sense"ational card game; reading online stories from three children living with various conditions or illnesses; and examining diagrams of the human body that have been…

  18. ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES THREATENING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... anthropogenic activities across the protected areas in the country. ... education and provision of fund to support sustainable livelihood practices. ... wildlife conservation and tourism. ... Fig: 1 Map of Oyo State showing location of Old Oyo National Park and adjoining community. #. #. # .... This was the view of.

  19. Acid-activated bentonite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we propose Maghnite-H + , as an ecological, cost-effective and easily renewable catalyst, for the polymerization of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). The Maghnite is a clay consisting primarily of smectite minerals (montmorillonite group), which can be activated/reactivated through a simple process, ...

  20. Activity report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1984-07-01

    The reports presents an account of the activities of the Eurochemic Company for the chemical processing of irradiated fuels, in the fiscal year l982. It deals with legal and administrative matters, industrial development, plant operation, new works, health and safety, library and documentation, and conferences and symposia. (AF)

  1. Active Math Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...

  2. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  3. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Sun, Miao; Caps, Valerie; Pelletier, Jeremie; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2013-01-01

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin

  4. Flipped Classroom, active Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...

  5. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  6. NEA activities in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the main features of the Agency's work during 1985. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear developments and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  7. NEA activities in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the main features of the Agency's work during 1984. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear developments and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licencing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  8. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  10. Bonus Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  11. Activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrochna, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    HTGR Activities in Europe: • Stimulated and coordinated by Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative (NC21) • a part of Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) • SNETP has 68 members: industry, research, TSO, ... Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative: Contribute to clean and competitive energy beyond electricity by facilitating deployment of nuclear cogeneration plants

  12. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  14. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  15. Multidisciplinary Wildlife Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernbrode, William R., Ed.

    This guide provides information and activities descriptions designed to allow the teacher to use wildlife concepts in the teaching of various subjects. The author suggests that wildlife and animals are tremendous motivators for children and hold their attention. In the process, concepts of wildlife interaction with man and the environment are…

  16. Neuromodulation on Cerebral Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremoux, Sylvain; Ibanez Pereda, Jaime; Ates, Sedar; Dessi, Alessia; Pons, José L.; Torricelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    During a motor task, a causal relation occurs between the motor command generated in the cortex and the proprioceptive feedbacks that go from the activated muscles through the corticospinal pathway. This causal relation is of interest in neurorehabilitation to improve motor function for people with

  17. Mechanism of charity activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman B. Golovkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the essential properties of the mechanism of charitable activities and to formulate the concept of quotmechanism of charitable activityquot. Methods the objective of the study is achieved using the complex of methods which are based on the interaction of dialectical and metaphysical analysis the epistemological properties of which allowed to reveal various aspects of the charitable activities mechanism functioning taking into account the principles of comprehensiveness complexity specificity and objectivity of the research. Results the rules are stated of using the term quotmechanismquot to characterize actions of state and law the essence of the charity mechanism is defined the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activity quot is formulated. Scientific novelty for the first time at theoretical level in legal science the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activityquot is formulated and its essential properties are set. Practical significance the research will contribute to improving the legal regulation in the field of philanthropy as well as to improving the efficiency and quality of charitable activity in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  18. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures…

  19. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  20. Institutional investor activism : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, William; Bratton, William; McCahery, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  1. DPHPE activities during 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1977 [fr

  2. NEA activities in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1981 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  3. [Cycloferon biological activity characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkina, T M; Potekhina, L P; Kartashova, O L; Vasilchenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    Study the effect of cycloferon in experimental and clinical conditions on persistence properties of aurococci as well as features of their morpho-functional reaction by atomic force microscopy. The study was carried out in 12 Staphylococcus aureus clones isolated from mucous membrane of nose anterior part of a resident carrier. The effect of cycloferon in vivo was evaluated in 26 resident staphylococci carriers under the control of anti-carnosine activity of staphylococci. Anti-carnosine activity was determined by O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999), biofilm formation -by G.A. O'Toole et al. (2000). Staphylococci treated with cycloferon were studied by atomic force microscopy in contact mode using scanning probe SMM-2000 microscope. The decrease of persistence properties of staphylococci under the effect of cycloferon in vitro and in vivo may be examined as one of the mechanisms of biological activity of the preparation. A significant increase of S. aureus surface roughness and changes in their morphology under the effect of cycloferon allow stating the disorder of barrier functions in the aurococci cell wall. The data obtained expand the understanding of cycloferon biological activity mechanisms.

  4. Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  5. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  6. DPHPE activities during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1978 [fr

  7. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  8. Activity report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This activity report of the DSIN ( Direction of Nuclear Installations Safety) is divided into 4 parts bearing on: (1) Organisation, Safety principles, Regulations (2) Nuclear basis installations following (3) Surveillance by the regional directions of the Ministry of Industry, Research and Environment (4) Other missions of the DSIN

  9. Sexual activity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruch, Monika; Kucharczyk, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is usually associated with significant regression in genito-genital intercourse frequency, sexual desire and satisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine women's sexual habits during the third trimester of gestation and to compare their sexual activity before the current pregnancy and during previous pregnancies in case of multiparas. The study material consisted of women in the third trimester of pregnancy, recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw between January 2013 and February 2014, who filled out a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: demographic data, sexual activity prior to current pregnancy and during gestation, including sexual positions and sources of knowledge regarding the subject. The survey involved 25 questions and was distributed among 220 patients, out of which 165 were returned and 149 properly filled out and analyzed. The average age of the respondents was 29.6 ± 4.85 years; the majority (78.8%) were in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The decrease in sexual activity was evident in all age groups--the majority usually had sex 1 to 3 times a month in contrast to 1-2 times a week prior to conceiving. Sexual activity decreased significantly with increasing age. The main reasons for abandoning sexual activity included: decreased libido (35.5%), the doctor's suggestion (29%) and fears concerning child's health (29%). During pregnancy the frequency of vaginal intercourse significantly decreased (100% prior to vs. 86.6% during pregnancy; p < 0.001); as did oral sex (44.3% vs. 29.5%; p = 0.043) and anal sex (12% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02). 54% of the respondents declared reduced satisfaction with sexual life during pregnancy in comparison with the previous period; almost half (43.5%) felt less attractive while pregnant. The same claim was related to libido--it decreased in 58.8% of respondents. Multiparas tended to have sexual

  10. The effect of alcohol and hydrogen peroxide on liver hepcidin gene expression in mice lacking antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase-1 or catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Findik, Duygu Dee; Lu, Sizhao

    2015-05-06

    This study investigates the regulation of hepcidin, the key iron-regulatory molecule, by alcohol and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in glutathione peroxidase-1 (gpx-1(-/-)) and catalase (catalase(-/-)) knockout mice. For alcohol studies, 10% ethanol was administered in the drinking water for 7 days. Gpx-1(-/-) displayed significantly higher hepatic H2O2 levels than catalase(-/-) compared to wild-type mice, as measured by 2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The basal level of liver hepcidin expression was attenuated in gpx-1(-/-) mice. Alcohol increased H2O2 production in catalase(-/-) and wild-type, but not gpx-1(-/-), mice. Hepcidin expression was inhibited in alcohol-fed catalase(-/-) and wild-type mice. In contrast, alcohol elevated hepcidin expression in gpx-1(-/-) mice. Gpx-1(-/-) mice also displayed higher level of basal liver CHOP protein expression than catalase(-/-) mice. Alcohol induced CHOP and to a lesser extent GRP78/BiP expression, but not XBP1 splicing or binding of CREBH to hepcidin gene promoter, in gpx-1(-/-) mice. The up-regulation of hepatic ATF4 mRNA levels, which was observed in gpx-1(-/-) mice, was attenuated by alcohol. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that H2O2 inhibits hepcidin expression in vivo. Synergistic induction of CHOP by alcohol and H2O2, in the absence of gpx-1, stimulates liver hepcidin gene expression by ER stress independent of CREBH.

  11. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  12. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive...

  13. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  14. High activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  15. Techniques for active passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  16. Activation/waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, C.

    1984-10-01

    The selection of materials and the design of the blankets for fusion reactors have significant effects upon the radioactivity generated by neutron activation in the materials. This section considers some aspects of materials selection with respect to waste management. The activation of the materials is key to remote handling requirements for waste, to processing and disposal methods for waste, and to accident severity in waste management operations. In order to realize the desirable evnironmental potentials of fusion power systems, there are at least three major goals for waste management. These are: (a) near-surface burial; (b) disposal on-site of the fusion reactor; (c) acceptable radiation doses at least cost during and after waste management operations

  17. Powernext 2005 activity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility which organizes and warrants the transactions on the European power exchange and CO 2 exchange markets. This activity report presents the highlights of the market and of Powernext in 2005: market conditions (birth of the carbon market, price evolution on the power market), weather-related conditions, electricity production and consumption, situation at the borders, price of fuels, traded volumes at the three markets (Powernext Day-Ahead TM in the case of day-ahead contracts, Powernext Futures TM in the case of medium-term contracts, and Powernext Carbon in the case of CO 2 ), new active members, liquidity on the power market. (J.S.)

  18. Activity report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The ''Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire'' (IPSN), carries out researches and expert studies needed to manage nuclear risks and their consequences on people and environment. These activities cover the installation safety, the radioactive matter transport, the public health and environmental control, the nuclear matters safety and control and the crisis situation management. The IPSN have got also a mission of public information and participates to international actions in the domain of scientific researches or expert's report. This annual report presents the highlights of the year 1998, information on staff, budgets and geographical situation. Then technical and scientific papers gathers the activities of the year covered by the IPSN: the ''Free Tribune'', installations and radioactive wastes safety, crisis and nuclear matter management, public health and environment control, international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  19. Effects of Activating Schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo

    schools. Two gender-segregated focus groups at each school, including in total 57 fourth to eight graders (28 girls), were conducted. The focus groups included go-along interviews in the schoolyard, and a post-it note activity. The data was collected between April and June 2016 (six months after...... as positive for their schoolyard as it provided more variation in play facilities and improved the appearance. However, at most schools the children experienced that the renewed schoolyards were dominated by the youngest children (under 10-year-old). To minimise crowding some schools had formally restricted...... access to the renovated areas for older children and allowed them to leave the school area during recess. Furthermore, most of the children felt that the renewed schoolyard areas were far from their classrooms. CONCLUSIONS: Renewing the schoolyard is not enough to stimulate physical activity. Schools...

  20. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ''Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire'' (IPSN), carries out researches and expert studies needed to manage nuclear risks and their consequences on people and environment. These activities cover the installation safety, the radioactive matter transport, the public health and environmental control, the nuclear matters safety and control and the crisis situation management. The IPSN have got also a mission of public information and participates to international actions in the domain of scientific researches or expert's report. This annual report presents the highlights of the year 1999, information on staff, budgets and geographical situation. Then technical and scientific papers gathers the activities of the year covered by the IPSN: the ''Free Tribune'', installations and radioactive wastes safety, crisis and nuclear matter management, public health and environment control, international cooperation. (A.L.B.)