Sample records for razin chi-wa yuen

  1. Exploring the Architectural Excellence: Design Philosophy of Architect Razin Mahmood

    Ahmad Azim Ashar


    Full Text Available Architectural philosophy can be defined as a set of ideas, theories or concepts that governed the work of architecture with architects incessantly seek to create new concepts or thoughts in defining architecture. It is completely debatable to postulate that architectural excellence has indebted itself to architectural philosophy, but evidently, many eminent architects across the history and geography upheld philosophy as their main design apparatus. Contrastingly, there are problems recognized as in the bracket of architecture and philosophy where architects in Malaysia are treated as patrons’ and decision makers’ architectural ‘prostitute’. On the other hand, there is a lack of publications and documentation done that encompasses Malaysia architectural scene. The main concern of this research is to review how local architects develop their philosophy since there are really no studies made by past scholars that systematically scrutinize, compile and document in depth the philosophy of Malaysian contemporary architects and the mechanism involved in developing architectural philosophy. With this in mind, Architect Razin Mahmood, an award-winning Johor Bahru-based architect has been selected as main case study, with interview and documentation as main research tactics. By extrapolating the variables found in eminent architect’s philosophical development as a theoretical starting point, local architect is interviewed accordingly. Subsequently, the data gained is analyzed and reviewed as a model of architect philosophical development. At the end of this paper, we learned that architect develops philosophies progressively, with a typified matrix of personality and is inspired by their surroundings.

  2. Experimental study for Yuen-Kim protocol of quantum key distribution with unconditional secure

    Hirota, O.; Kato, K; Sohma, M.


    In this report, we simulate practical feature of Yuen-Kim protocol for quantum key distribution with unconditional secure. In order to demonstrate them experimentally by intensity modulation/direct detection(IMDD) optical fiber communication system, we use simplified encoding scheme to guarantee security for key information(1 or 0). That is, pairwise M-ary intensity modulation scheme is employed. Furthermore, we give an experimental implementation of YK protocol based on IMDD.

  3. Uso dos Atributos da Contabilidade Gerencial Propostos por Moores e Yuen (2001 em Empresas de um Segmento Industrial de Santa CatarinaUse of the Management Accounting Attributes Proposed by Moores and Yuen (2001 in Companies of an Industry in de State of Santa CatarinaUso de los Atributos de la Contabilidad de Gestión Propuestos por Yuen y Moores (2001 en Empresas de un Segmento de la Industria de Santa Catarina

    BEUREN, Ilse Maria


    Full Text Available RESUMOO sistema de contabilidade gerencial deve prover os gestores de informações para o cumprimento de objetivos e metas da organização, adaptadas à realidade e estratégias organizacionais. O estudo objetiva averiguar o uso dos atributos da contabilidade gerencial, conforme proposto por Moores e Yuen (2001, nas empresas do segmento industrial de máquinas, aparelhos e materiais elétricos do Estado de Santa Catarina. Pesquisa descritiva realizou-se por meio de levantamento com aplicação de questionário aos gestores das empresas, cujas questões foram adaptadas de Necyk (2008, fundamentadas na proposição de Moores e Yuen (2001. A população compreende as 264 empresas listadas na Secretaria da Fazenda do Estado de Santa Catarina do referido segmento de atividade econômica, e a amostra não aleatória constitui-se das 40 que responderam à pesquisa. Os resultados mostram que os atributos da contabilidade gerencial propostos por Moores e Yuen (2001 em suas duas vertentes são utilizados nas empresas. O atributo seleção de informações, que aborda as fontes de informações utilizadas, obteve concordância de 57%. O atributo apresentação de informações, que aborda formato, tipo e disponibilidade das informações, obteve concordância de 64%. Conclui-se que as empresas participantes da pesquisa utilizam tipos de informações diversificados em maior proporção do que as fontes de informações, ainda que várias dessas informações não estejam sendo apresentadas no formato adequado, podendo prejudicar sua relevância na tomada de decisões.ABSTRACTThe management accounting system should provide to managers the information required to accomplish goals and objectives of the organization, adapted to reality and organizational strategies. The goal of this study is to investigate the use of the management accounting attributes, as proposed by Moores and Yuen (2001, in companies operating in the machinery, electrical equipment and

  4. Experimental study for Yuen-Kim protocol of quantum key distribution with unconditional secure Bell's Theorem Without Inequalities for two Maximally Entangled Particles

    Hirota, O; Sohma, M; Li Ming Wei; Tang, Z L; Liao, C C


    In this report, we simulate practical feature of Yuen-Kim protocol for quantum key distribution with unconditional secure. In order to demonstrate them experimentally by intensity modulation/direct detection(IMDD) optical fiber communication system, we use simplified encoding scheme to guarantee security for key information(1 or 0). That is, pairwise M-ary intensity modulation scheme is employed. Furthermore, we give an experimental implementation of YK protocol based on IMDD. A proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities for two maximally entangled particles is proposed using the technique of quantum teleportation. It follows Hardy's arguments for a non-maximally entangled state with the help of two auxiliary particles without correlation. The present proof can be tested by measurements with 100% probability.

  5. Migration, Displacement, and Movements in the Global Space: Ming-Yuen S. Ma’s Multi-Media Project Xin Lu: A Travelogue in Four Parts

    Xiaojing Zhou


    Full Text Available In her recent work, Sau-ling Cynthia Wong draws critical attention to the implications of the formation of an Asian American “diaporic community” in cyberspace, where race still operates as an organizing principle of power relations. Although cyberspace is not confined by national borders, Wong examines how subversion of and intervention in race- and sex-based hierarchies in cyberspace can articulate Asian American identities in relation to diasporas and the nation-state. This essay explores the politics of artistic invention in diasporas as embedded in the disruption, dislocation, and fragmentation in Ming-Yuen S. Ma’s multi-media project, Xin Lu: A Travelogue in Four Parts—a series of four experimental videos about Chinese diasporas. It argues that by moving outside the nation-space into the experiential and virtual “global space” of diasporas, Ma’s work addresses Wong’s concerns and enacts a viable “virtual mediation” that situates Chinese diasporas in the historical contexts of British colonialism and American racial exploitation and exclusion. This movement also entails confronting other forms of oppression, including sexism and heterosexism in both the East and West. While giving voice and visibility to the struggles of racial and sexual minorities across national borders, Ma demonstrates the possibilities of a historicized critical approach to diasporas, one which underlies Wong’s insistence in critiquing gendered and racialized power structures both within and outside the nation-state.

  6. Protective Effect of Polyphenols Extract of Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf on Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Xingrong Ju


    Full Text Available The present study examines the effect of polyphenols extract of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf (APE on high cholesterol diet fed rats (HCD. APE was orally administrated by gavage at doses of 10, 40 and 200 mg total phenolics/kg body weight of rats once a day for 28 days. At the end of four weeks, serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and markers of oxidative stress viz., malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in the serum and liver of HCD and normal rats were assessed and compared. The results showed that administration of APE was significantly effective in decreasing the serum levels of TC, LDL-C and MDA, increasing the serum level of HDL-C and antioxidant capacity. In addition, oral gavage of APE could also increase the antioxidant capacity, CAT and GSH-Px activities in liver. These results suggested that APE exerted a high hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities, which might be characterized by a protective effect on cardiovascular health in vivo.

  7. 从香港保育政策看晚清墟市的保护--个案研究:元朗旧墟%An Overview of Conservation Policy in Hong Kong in Preserving Late Qing Vernacular Market,Case study:Yuen Long Old Market



    城市急速发展,地价高租金贵的环境下,重建发展的利益往往比保留历史建筑物高。康熙八年(1699年)取消迁界令1),锦田进士邓文蔚获封地设墟,今称元朗旧墟2),是香港晚清时期的民居及墟市旧址。晚清时期,因地理环境因素,旧墟成为附近围村农产品集散地。全盛期店铺多达102间。20世纪初期,随着发展,大部份民居已改建为丁屋3)。现时保存的历史建筑物包括现存香港唯一清代客栈——同益栈,最古老的当铺——晋源押外,还有大王庙及玄关二帝庙及数十间晚清民居,建筑风格都属岭南地区常见的青砖墙及木梁瓦顶结构。墟内建筑群具丰富社会价值,保留了传统工艺店铺。近年铁路开通,建筑物相继清拆重建,晚清时期民居面貌不再。现时只靠业主自愿性维修及保留历史建筑,并无法律及政策保护。这报告将以元朗旧墟为例,透过现有的保护政策及行政诱因讨论保育传统民居建筑群的可行性。%In urban city like Hong Kong, we faced rapid urban development and the land value is at a premium, economical benefit of redevelopment is usual y higher than preservation of historic buildings. Back in 1699( year of KangXi), the Great Clearance Ban was lifted in the same year, Tang Man-wai, who attained a jin-shi degree was permitted to establish a market, as known as Yuen Long Old Market today. It is an area with late Qing vernacular dwel ings and Market. In the Qing dynasty, the geographical benefit of the market has made the area to a commercial hub of New Territories, which consisted of 102 shops at its peak. In the early 20th century, a lot of traditional dwel ings were redeveloped into vil age houses. A few historic buildings stil stand nowadays are Tung Yik Store, Chun Yuen Pawn House, Tai Wong Old Temple and Yuen Kwan Yi Tai Temple and a dozen of traditional dwel ings. They are constructed in the

  8. 8种中药提取物对薏苡灰霉病菌的抑制作用%Inhibitory Effect of Extract from Eight Chinese Herbal Medicines on Botrytis cinerea of Coix lacroyma-jobi (Roman.) Stapf

    肖凤艳; 高郁芳


    采用生长速率法和倍比稀释法测定了8种中药提取物对薏苡(Coix lacroyma-jobi ( Roman.))灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)的生物活性.结果表明,在浓度为1.0 g/mL时,丁香(Eugenia aromatica Baill)、辛夷(Magnoliab iondii Pamp.)、商陆(Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.)提取物对薏苡灰霉病菌抑菌率达100%;北豆根(Menispermum dahuricmn DC.)、萝藦[Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Mark.]、甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)、艾蒿(Artemisia argyi Van.)提取物的抑菌率分别为76.3%、76.3%、69.7%、33.8%;天南星(A ris ae ma amurense Maxim.)提取物对薏苡灰霉病菌没有抑制作用;丁香、辛夷、商陆的最小抑制浓度依次为0.062 5、0.125 0、0.500 0 g/mL.%Fungal inhibitory activity of extracts from 8 Chinese herbal medicines against Botryiis cinerea oi Coix lacroyma—jobi I,, var. ma-yuen (Roman.) Stapf was determined by growth rate method and douhle dilution method. Results showed that at the concentration of 1.0 g/mL, the extracts of Eugenia aromatica Baill, Magnolia biondii Pamp., Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Had 100% inhibition rate. The extracts of Menispermum dahuricnm DC, Melnplexis japonica (Thunb.) Mark., Glycyrrhiza u-ratensis Fisch., Artemisia argyi Van. Had 76.3%, 76.3%, 69.7%, 33.8% inhibition rate respectively. Arisaema a-murense Maxim, had no inhibition effect. The MIC of the extracts of Eugenia aromatica Baill, Magnolia biondii Pamp., Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Were 0.062 5 g/mL, 0.125 0 g/mL, 0.500 0 g/mL, respectively.

  9. Koo Yuen Kim, D.P.T.J, J.P


    @@ The grandfather of Koo was living in the closed and undeveloped China during the early ages of last century. As not to tolerate with the suffering days of hungry and poverty, he began his new life in far region of South China Sea. Relying on the bare industrious hands, Koo's grandfather managed to lead out the hard life. Later, Koo's father,the second generation of Malaysian Chinese was bom on the land of Malaya during the years of the turbulent period of history. Koo's father worked extremely hard as expecting for one day of returning ancestral hometown.

  10. A Novel Antihypertensive Derived from Adlay (Coix larchryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf Glutelin

    Bin Li


    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that Coix glutelin pepsin hydrolysate can effectively inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE activity in vitro. The main purpose of this study was to obtain potent anti-hypertensive peptides from Coix glutelin. The Coix glutelin hydrolysates (CGH were prepared by pepsin catalysis and further separated by an ultrafitration (UF system, gel filtration chromatography (GFC and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. As a result, the sub-fraction F5-3 had the highest ACE-inhibitory activity. Six ACE inhibitory peptides were identifiedusing nano-liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The most potent peptide GAAGGAF (IC50 = 14.19 μmol·L−1 was finally obtained by further molecular simulation screening and a series of division and optimization. Single oral administration of synthesized GAAGGAF at 15 mg/kg body weight (BW in spontaneously hypertensively rats (SHR could reduce the systolic blood pressure (SBP around 27.50 mmHg and blood pressure-lowering effect lasted for at least 8 h. The study demonstrated for the first time that the ACE inhibitory peptide GAAGGAF from Coix glutelin has a significant antihypertensive effect, and it could be a good natural ingredient for pharmaceuticals against hypertension and the related diseases.

  11. Forests Hold the Key


    An interview with Mr. Allen Tak Yuen Chan,Managing Director and CEO of Sino-Forest Corp. of Canada A lien Tak Yuen Chan,Managing Director and CEO of the Sino-Forest Corp.,is an acclaimed academic and a columnist.

  12. 專論/分類不一致之自動偵測:以農資中心資料為例/曾元顯;王峻禧 | Automatic Inconsistency Detection for the ASIC Categorization Collection / Yuen-Hsien Tseng; Chun-Shi Wang



    Full Text Available

    文件分類是根據文件內容的主題給定類別的知識加值工作,傳統上由人工進行。然而受分類架構設計、類別定義以及分類者學識 背景等影響,主題內容類似的文件,不見得都會被分類到相同的類別,因而造成分類不一致的情況,降低分類文件的應用價值。本文以案例的形式,根據農資中心的 人工分類資料, 進行分類一致性的自動驗證,呈現及探討其結果,並說明其可能潛在的應用,以展示此項工作的可行性及實際效益。綜合而言,分類不一致之自動偵測,可作為資料 清理、知識盤點等知識管理實務上的應用,或是後續分類槃構修正、分類策略擬定、人工分類訓練,以及引進自動分類機制之參考與前置作業。

    Text categorization is a process of assigning labels to documents according to the contents or topics of the documents. Traditionally text categorization is carried out by human experts. However, due to factors such as blurred category boundaries, background bias, and personal judgment, label inconsistency is often found in human classified collections, thus reducing their values in various applications. This article described an automatic process to detect such inconsistency based on the Agricultural Science Information Center (ASIC collection. In the article, important examples and results are presented. Potential benefits and applications are discussed.


  13. Simulations of a Plasma Thruster Utilizing the FRC Configuration

    Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cohen, B. I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report describes work performed by LLNL to model the behavior and performance of a reverse-field configuration (FRC) type of plasma device as a plasma thruster as summarized by Razin et al. [1], which also describes the MNX device at PPPL used to study this concept.

  14. 厨师黄学源(英文)


    The Kempinski Hotel, Beijing is pleased to announce the appointment of Wong Hok Yuen as Chinese executive chef as of October 23, 2000. Mr. Wong started his trade in Hong Kong where he worked for leading Chinese restaurants before em-

  15. Hiina naiskunstnike näitus / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-


    Hongkongis avatud näitus "Hiina kunstilaval" keskendub hiina naiskunstnike Yu Cheni, Wang Jingi, Yuen Nimchi ja Hao Li loomingule ning on esimene samm võitluses hiina naiskunstnike soolise diskrimineerimise vastu.

  16. Hiina naiskunstnike näitus / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-


    Hongkongis avatud näitus "Hiina kunstilaval" keskendub hiina naiskunstnike Yu Cheni, Wang Jingi, Yuen Nimchi ja Hao Li loomingule ning on esimene samm võitluses hiina naiskunstnike soolise diskrimineerimise vastu.

  17. 77 FR 54721 - Appraisals for Higher-Risk Mortgage Loans


    ... (202) 973-6122, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC 20551. Bureau: Michael... Ming-Yuen Meyer-Fong, Assistant General Counsel, Office of General Counsel, (202) 649-3078,...

  18. Quantum stream cipher based on optical communications

    Hirota, Osamu; Kato, Kentaro; Sohma, Masaki; Usuda, Tsuyoshi S.; HARASAWA, Katsuyoshi


    In 2000, an attractive new quantum cryptography was discovered by H.P.Yuen based on quantum communication theory. It is applicable to direct encryption, for example quantum stream cipher based on Yuen protocol(Y-00), with high speeds and for long distance by sophisticated optical devices which can work under the average photon number per signal light pulse:$ = 1000 \\sim 10000$. In addition, it may provide information-theoretic security against known/chosen plaintext attack, which has no class...

  19. Perturbations of gyrosynchrotron emission polarization from solar flares by sausage modes: forward modeling

    Reznikova, V. E.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Kuznetsov, A. A.


    We examined the polarization of the microwave flaring emission and its modulation by the fast sausage standing wave using a linear 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of a plasma cylinder. We analyzed the effects of the line-of-sight angle on the perturbations of the gyrosynchrotron intensity for two models: a base model with strong Razin suppression and a low-density model in which the Razin effect was negligible. The circular polarization (Stokes V) oscillation is in phase with the intensity oscillation, and the polarization degree (Stokes V/I) oscillates in phase with the magnetic field at the examined frequencies in both models. The two quantities experience a periodical reversal of their signs with a period equal to half of the sausage wave period when seen at a 90° viewing angle, in this case, their modulation depth reaches 100%.

  20. Forward modeling of gyrosynchrotron intensity perturbations by sausage modes

    Reznikova, V. E.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B box 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Antolin, P., E-mail: [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    To determine the observable radio signatures of the fast sausage standing wave, we examine gyrosynchrotron (GS) emission modulation using a linear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of a plasma cylinder. Effects of the line-of-sight angle and instrumental resolution on perturbations of the GS intensity are analyzed for two models: a base model with strong Razin suppression and a low-density model in which the Razin effect was unimportant. Our finding contradicts previous predictions made with simpler models: an in-phase variation of intensity between low (f < f {sub peak}) and high (f > f {sub peak}) frequencies is found for the low-density model and an anti-phase variation for the base model in the case of a viewing angle of 45°. The spatially inhomogeneous character of the oscillating emission source and the spatial resolution of the model are found to have a significant effect on the resulting intensity.



    Pozitivni rezultati modela Balanced Scorecard ostvareni u razvijenim gospodarstvima potaknuli su autora u istraživanju njegove eventualne moguće primjene na području financija. Model procjenjuje poslovanje polazeći od njegove četiri osnovne razine: financijske, marketinške, interne i organizacijske i služi kao osnova za implementaciju nove tržišno-orijentirane strategije poslovanja.

  2. Disease: H00478 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available imprinting disorders mapped to chromosome 15q11-q13. Lack of a functional paternal copy of 15q11-q13 causes ...PWS. On the other hand, lack of a functional maternal copy of UBE3A, a gene within 15q11-q13, causes...uhatzira L, Kaufman Y, Razin A, Shemer R MeCP2 deficiency in Rett syndrome causes epigenetic aberrations at

  3. Causality relations between foreign direct investment and portfolio investment volatility

    Gozgor, Giray; Erzurumlu, Yaman O.


    Following the liberalization of financial markets, Goldstein and Razin (2006) show that there is an information based trade-off between foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment, our paper examines the causality relations between foreign direct investment and volatility of foreign portfolio investment. Utilizing monthly and quarterly data set of Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and Turkey, volatility of portfolio investments, which indicated evidence of ARCH effects for all fou...

  4. Quality of Life of Poor People Living in Remote Areas in Hong Kong

    Wong, Hung


    Based on three surveys carried out for studying living conditions of youth, women and elderly living in six remote areas (Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, Tin Shui Wai, Sheung Shui, Fan Ling and Tai Po) in the New Territories of Hong Kong, this paper reports the poverty and social exclusion of these three groups of people. The quality of life of youth, women…

  5. 75 FR 9028 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G



  6. JPRS Report, East Asia Southeast Asia


    substitute to stripped abaca hemp fiber and, mass-produced, it could generate foreign exchange earnings as well. Unknown to many, the Japanese 10,000...yuen paper currency has stripped abaca hemp as one of its security features; chances are, stripped pineapple fiber may be used as a substitute, the

  7. Evaluation of serum nitric oxide before and after local ...

    Hoda Aly Abd-El Moety


    Oct 6, 2012 ... Chronic hepatitis C virus is one of the main risk factors for the development of. Hepatocellular carcinoma ... either sub-Saharan Africa or in eastern Asia.1,2 Risk factors that lead to the ..... Yuen Man-Fung, Lai Ching-Lung. Serological .... Nitric oxide of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines promotes ...

  8. Coherent pulse position modulation quantum cipher

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu [Quantum ICT Research Institute, Tamagawa University, 6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)


    On the basis of fundamental idea of Yuen, we present a new type of quantum random cipher, where pulse position modulated signals are encrypted in the picture of quantum Gaussian wave form. We discuss the security of our proposed system with a phase mask encryption.

  9. Teorije transformacije: demokratska konsolidacija postautoritarnih društava

    Merkel, Wolfgang


    Demokratska konsolidacija postautoritarnih i posttotalitarnih društava modelski se razmatra na razini: (1) temeljnih političkih institucija, (2) glavnih aktera predstavničke demokracije (političkih stranaka i interesnih saveza); (3) ponašanja moćnih neformalnih političkih aktera (vojske, crkve, poduzetnika i dr.) i (4) građanske kulture. Demokracija je stabilna tek kad su konsolidirane sve četiri razine. Taj “maksimalistički koncept” demokratske konsolidacije isključuje tumačenja sloma demokr...

  10. Kronični dugotrajni neliječeni giht s istodobnom dilatacijskom kardiomiopatijom i iznimno opsežnom anasarkom


    Giht je najčešći tip upalnog artritisa, a uzrokovan je nakupljanjem kristala urata u zglobovima kao rezultat povišene razine urata u serumu. Prikazan je slučaj 59-godišnjeg bolesnika s neliječenim uričnim artritisom i kliničkom manifestacijom globalno dekompenzirane dilatacijske kardiomiopatije. Kliničkim pregledom dominirala je anasarka, tj. opsežan generalizirani tjestasti edem oba gornja i donja ekstremiteta, skrotalni otok, edem trbušne i prsne stijenke. Proksimalni i distalni interfalang...

  11. Sveučilišni pravilnik o odijevanju

    Tomić, Zoran; Musa, Miljenko


    Namjera je ovoga rada pokazati kako je pravilnik o odijevanju prijeko potreban i nužan dio procesa brendiranja sveučilišta. U tu je svrhu provedeno istraživanje koje je obuhvatilo brojna cijenjena sveučilišta na Zapadu. Na početku se određuje značenje izraza pravilnik o odijevanju u njegovu izvornome obliku dress code, zatim se ukazuje na tri razine važnosti ovoga pravilnika u pisanu obliku (individualna, institucionalna i društvena), kao i na tri moguća pristupa ovomu fenomenu (konzervativni...

  12. Utjecaj trajanja zrenja na količinu pojedinih biogenih amina u sredini i pod korom kravljeg Livanjskog sira

    Marijan, Antonela; Džaja, Petar; Bogdanović, Tanja; Škoko, Ines; Cvetnić, Željko; Dobranić, Vesna; Zdolec, Nevijo; Šatrović, Edin; Severin, Krešimir


    Određivanje razine biogenih amina u siru, osim što ima značaj za utvrđivanje higijenske ispravnosti sira, može se upotrijebiti kao parametar za procjenu uvjeta proizvodnje i/ili zrenja proizvoda, te posebno u odabiru mljekarskih kultura. U radu se željelo utvrditi utjecaj samog procesa zrenja na količinu biogenih amina u siru. U tu svrhu su obavljene fizikalno-kemijske i mikrobiološke analize, te određivanje sadržaja biogenih amina. Tijekom procesa zrenja Livanjskog sira iz tri različite šarž...

  13. Funkcija jetre i bubrega pri trovanju molibdenom i bakrom

    Rana, S.V.S.; Kumar, A.


    Autori iznose rezultate testiranja funkcije jetre i bubrega (ukupni bilirubin, hipurna kiselina, glukoza-6-fosfataza, kolinesteraza, urea u serumu, albumin u mokraći, specifična težina mokraće i dilucijski test) koje su proveli da bi otkrili eventualna oštećenja jetre i bubrega štakora koji su primali hranu s dodatkom molibdena i bakra. Vrijednosti bilirubina u štakora hranjenih hranom s dodatkom bakra upućivali su na hemolizu. Niske razine hipurne kiseline također su ukazivale na oštećenje j...

  14. Povećana stopa doniranja organa u kliničkoj bolnici sestara milosrdnica


    Stopa donacije organa je mjerilo razvijenosti zemlje. Kako bi se ta razina povećala, u Hrvatskoj su poduzete određene mjere. Posljedično je zamijećen stalan porast potencijalnih donora u kojih je potvrđena moždana smrt. Prikazujemo stalan porast razine donora od 2004. do 2008. godine. Analizirani su podaci svih potencijalnih donora u kojih je proveden postupak potvrđivanja moždane smrti. Izračunat je postotak broja donora u odnosu na osobe u kojih je dijagnosticirana moždana smrt te u odnosu ...

  15. Analysis of saliva pepsin level in patients with tracheoesophageal fistula and voice prosthesis complications.

    Đanić Hadžibegović, Ana; Đanić, Davorin; Prgomet, Drago; Tićac, Robert; Kozmar, Ana


    RAZINA PEPSINA U SLINI BOLESNIKA S KOMPLIKACIJAMA TRAHEOEZOFAGEALNE FISTULE I GOVORNE PROTEZE ----- Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je proučiti odnose koncentracije pepsina u slini i učestalosti pojave komplikacija traheoezofagelane fistule (TEF) i komplikacija govorne proteze (GP) kod bolesnika s postavljenom GP nakon totalne laringektomije. U istraživanje je bio uključen 41 bolesnik čije su razine koncentracije pepsina u slini uspoređene s pojavom TEF komplikacija (curenje oko protez...

  16. Koncept socijalne isključenosti

    Šućur, Zoran


    Rad se bavi konceptom socijalne isključenosti i njegovom ulogom u socijalnoj politici razvijenih europskih zemalja. Dok je ovaj koncept postao sastavni dio rječnika znanstvenika i političara u većini europskih zemalja, dotle je u nas gotovo nepoznat. Analiziran je socijalno-povijesni i nacionalni kontekst u kojem se javlja termin socijalne isključenosti. Isto tako, autor ukazuje na poteškoće prilikom definiranja socijalne isključenosti (zbog njezine višedimenzionalnosti, razine pristupa, neja...

  17. Tipovi kapitalizma, ekspanzija neoliberalizma i socijalni učinci u baltičkim zemljama, Sloveniji i Hrvatskoj: komparativni pristup

    Lučev, Josip; Babić, Zdenko


    Europa je u posljednjih 40 godina doživjela »okretanje« tržištu na dvije razine. Prva je globalna »migratorna tehnologija« neoliberalizma koja se razvija od 1970-ih. Druga je tranzicija u središnjoj i istočnoj Europi u posljednjih dvadesetak godina. Mogu li se prepoznati alternativni razvojni putovi i modeli unutar zajedničke orijentacije tržištu i tržišnoj ekonomiji u Europi? Autori najprije ispituju fenomen neoliberalizma te se bave razmjerom u kojem su neoliberalne reforme primijenjene u p...

  18. Seši u Plitvičkim jezerima

    Pasarić, Miroslava; Slaviček, Lasta


    Poduzeta su visokofrekventna mjerenja razine vode u dva najveća plitvička jezera, u Prošću i u Kozjaku, kako bi se istražili seši. Mjerenja su rađena s intervalom uzorkovanja od 1 minute tijekom perioda od 46 dana i to na dva suprotna kraja u svakom jezeru, što je dalo informaciju i o međusobnom odnosu faza. Izračunati su spektri snage kako bi se odredili periodi vlastitih modova. Opaženi maksimimi su interpretirani uz pomoć teorijskih rezultata, dobivenih jednostavnom numeričkom metodom Defa...

  19. Međukulturna kompetencija u nastavi hrvatskoga kao drugoga i stranoga jezika


    Početno učenje i usvajanje hrvatskoga kao stranoga i drugoga jezika podrazumijeva svladavanje niza gramatičkih i leksičkih činjenica, ali i postizanje određene razine međukulturne sposobnosti ili kompetencije. Međutim, poučavanju se i razvijanju te kompetencije u nastavi hrvatskoga kao stranoga jezika i drugoga jezika pridaje nedovoljna pozornost. Suvremeni pristupi nastavi stranoga i drugoga jezika zahtijevaju aktivniju ulogu i nastavnika i učenika u postizanju međukulturne kompetencije, koj...

  20. Određivanje alergena grinja u kućnoj prašini enzim-imunokemijskom metodom

    Prester, Ljerka; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Macan, Jelena


    Cilj ovoga rada bio je odrediti razine alergena grinja Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) i Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) u 30 uzoraka kućne prašine uzorkovane u gradskim stanovima u Zagrebu enzim-imunokemijskom metodom (ELISA, Indoor Biotechnologies Ltd, Carfiff, UK). Metoda se koristi tehnikom dvaju monoklonskih protutijela, a primjenjuje se kao standardna metoda za određivanje alergena grinja u prašini. Uzorci prašine skupljeni su usisavanjem prašine s tepiha u celulozne filtre....


    Milas, Goran; RIHTAR, Stanko


    Radom su se nastojale otkriti temeljne organizacijske odrednice društvenih stavova u Hrvatskoj. Problem je razložen na dvije razine, metodološkoj i kulturalnoj. Anketno istraživanje provedeno je u dvjema vremenskim točkama, u ratnom vremenu 1992. i nakon završetka ratnih operacija 1996./97. U prvom dijelu istraživanja ispitan je reprezentativan uzorak Hrvatske (2366) a u drugom uzorak polaznika zagrebačkih gimnazija (444). Primijenjena su dva mjerna instrumenta s repre...



    Međunarodna pomorska organizacija (IMO) još je 1978. putem STCW konvencije uvela standarde obrazovanja pomoraca na globalnoj razini, kako bi omogućila potpunu mobilnost radne snage u pomorskoj industriji. Na taj su način uvedeni minimalni sadržaji i trajanje za pojedine obrazovne razine i ukinuta potreba za priznavanjem inozemnih kvalifikacija. Osim toga, uvedeni su i programi cjeloživotnog učenja te mehanizmi upravljanja kvalitetom temeljeni na industrijskim standardima. Dvadesetak godina ka...

  3. Anita Chan (ed.), Chinese Workers in Comparative Perspective,

    Ho, Ming-sho


    China watchers generally agree that successful economic development through low-wage export has shown signs of exhaustion. Since the Labour Contract Law came into effect in 2008, labour costs have risen considerably, squeezing the profit margins of export-oriented manufacturers. Migrant workers’ rights consciousness has surged, as witnessed by the Honda strike and the much publicised wave of suicides at Foxconn (a Taiwanese electronics maker) in 2010, and the strike at Yue Yuen (a Taiwanese f...

  4. Neither this nor that: The hyphenated existence of Chinese children growing up in twentieth century North America

    Byrne, Elizabeth


    This project takes its evidence from Chinese North American authors who have written about their own lives or those of members of their immigrant community. Authors such as Denise Chong, Wayson Choy, Ben Fong-Torres, Amy Tan, and Yuen-Fong Woon have written autobiographical fictions, fictionalized biographies, and family histories that delve into Chinese communities in Canada and America. These authors have opened windows into the personal worlds of their communities, and this project attempt...

  5. A 37-mm Ceramic Gun Nozzle Stress Analysis


    generate the nodes and elements. The keyword input is more effective to conduct parametric studies. Four node axisymmetric elements were chosen for...stress cases. The combined effect has to be considered. Since both thermal and dynamic analyses are based on linear assumptions, the total result...H YUEN PICATINNY ARSENAL NJ 07806-5000 2 CDR US ARMY ARDEC AMSTA AR CCH B C MANDALA E FENNELL PICATINNY ARSENAL NJ

  6. Winners of 2008 CAS Award for international Scientific Cooperation

    XIN Ling


    @@ On 14 January, 2009, CAS honored three foreign scientists for their lasting and fruitful contributions to the collaboration between CAS and the world: Akito Arima, president of the Japan Science Foundation, Yuen-Ron Shen, professor of physics with the University of California at Berkley, and Michel Che, catalyst expert and chair professor at Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Their association with the Chinese scientific community can be dated back to some three decades ago.

  7. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory: Deep Water Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea


    and Yuen, M. Y. (2015). "Multipurpose acoustic networks in the Integrated Arctic Ocean Observing System," Arctic 68, 11-27. 2. Publications...the "Special Issue on Deep-water Ocean Acoustics" in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (Vol. 134, No . 4, Pt. 2 of 2 , October20 13...15. SUBJECT TERMS ocean acoustics, deep water acousti c propagati on 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c


    Liu Yan; Yang Wenquan; Hu Yijun


    This article considers a risk model as in Yuen et al. (2002). Under this model the two claim number processes are correlated. Claim occurrence of both classes relate to Poisson and Erlang processes. The formulae is derived for the distribution of the surplus immediately before ruin, for the distribution of the surplus immediately after ruin and the joint distribution of the surplus immediately before and after ruin. The asymptotic property of these ruin functions is also investigated.

  9. Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi


    A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.

  10. Quantum stream cipher based on optical communications

    Hirota, O; Sohma, M; Usuda, T S; Harasawa, K; Hirota, Osamu; Kato, Kentaro; Sohma, Masaki; Usuda, Tsuyoshi S.; Harasawa, Katsuyoshi


    In 2000, an attractive new quantum cryptography was discovered by H.P.Yuen based on quantum communication theory. It is applicable to direct encryption, for example quantum stream cipher based on Yuen protocol(Y-00), with high speeds and for long distance by sophisticated optical devices which can work under the average photon number per signal light pulse:$ = 1000 \\sim 10000$. In addition, it may provide information-theoretic security against known/chosen plaintext attack, which has no classical analogue. That is, one can provide secure communication, even the system has $H(K) << H(X)$. In this paper, first, we give a brief review on the general logic of Yuen's theory. Then, we show concrete security analysis of quantum stream cipher to quantum individual measurement attacks. Especially by showing the analysis of Lo-Ko known plaintext attack, the feature of Y-00 is clarified. In addition, we give a simple experimental result on the advantage distillation by scheme consisting of intensity modulation/dir...

  11. Impact of Terms-of-Trade on Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Croatia in the Short Run

    Szomolányi Karol


    Full Text Available The terms-of-trade shocks are not main source of business cycles in three post-communist countries (i.e., Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Croatia. The zero or negative reactions of the trade balance in terms-of-trade positive shocks in the countries exhibit the Obstfeld-Svensson-Razin effect, according to which the Harberger-Laursen-Metzler positive effect on terms-of-trade indicates that the smaller the trade balance, the more persistent the terms-of-trade shock is. The conclusions come from the structural vector autoregressive analysis of the cyclical components of terms-of-trade, trade balance, output, consumption, and investment in three post-communist countries.

  12. Koncentracije lebdećih čestica PM1, PM2.5, PM10 u zatvorenom prostoru te koncentracije PM2,5 čestica u otvorenom prostoru osnovnih škola u gradu Sariju u Iranu


    Svrha je ovog istraživanja bila utvrditi raspodjelu lebdećih čestica u osnovnim školama u središtu iranskoga grada Sarija te vidjeti jesu li razine lebdećih čestica mjerenih u dvorištima škola i u učionicama međusobno povezane. Vani su mjerene PM2,5 čestice pomoću stalnog Micro Dust Pro monitora, a unutra PM1, PM2,5 i PM10 čestice pomoću GRIMM monitora. Oba su instrumenta kalibrirana gravimetrijskom metodom pomoću filtara. Kolmogorov-Smirnovljev test pokazao je normalnu raspodjelu vanjskih mj...

  13. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Mauritius,Madagascar and La Reunion

    Tang; Ruimin


    <正>In April,2014,a CPAFFC delegation led by Vice President Feng Zuoku visited Mauritius,Madagascar and the French overseas territory la Reunion.It held meetings with Rajkeswur Purryag,President of Mauritius,Michael Yeung Sik Yuen,Mauritian Minister of Tourism and Leisure,Didier Robert,President of the Regional Council of la Reunion,Gilbert Anette,Mayor of Saint-Denis City,and Ny Hasina Andriamanjato,Mayor of Tananarive City.President Rajkeswur Purryag

  14. Low cost fabrication and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks

    Land, K


    Full Text Available . Phys. Lett. 99, 143703 (2011) Bio-inspired artificial iridophores based on capillary origami: Fabrication and device characterization Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 144102 (2011) Three-dimensional cellular focusing utilizing a combination of insulator.... Nano- fluid. 3, 1, (2007). 7P. K. Yuen, Lab Chip 8, 1374 (2008). 8S. M. Langelier, E. Livak-Dahl, A. J. Manzo, B. N. Johnson, N. G. Walter, and M. A.Burns, Lab Chip 11, 1679 (2011). 9K. A. Shaikh, K. S. Ryu, E. D. Goluch, J.-M. Nam, J. Liu, C. Shad...

  15. Product formulas for volumes of flow polytopes

    Meszaros, Karola


    Intrigued by the product formula prod_{i=1}^{n-2} C_i for the volume of the Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytope CRY_n, where C_i is the ith Catalan number, we construct a family of polytopes P_{m,n}, whose volumes are given by the product \\prod_{i=m+1}^{m+n-2}\\frac{1}{2i+1}{{m+n+i} \\choose {2i}}. The Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytope CRY_n coincides with P_{0,n-1}. Our construction of the polytopes P_{m,n} is an application of a systematic method we develop for expressing volumes of a class of flow polytopes as the number of certain triangular arrays. This method can also be used as a heuristic technique for constructing polytopes with combinatorial volumes. As an illustration of this we construct polytopes whose volumes equal the number of r-ary trees on n internal nodes, \\frac{1}{(r-1)n+1} {{rn} \\choose n}. Using triangular arrays we also express the volumes of flow polytopes as constant terms of formal Laurent series.

  16. A quantum symmetric key cipher(Y-00) and key generation (Quantum stream cipher-Part II)

    Hirota, O; Sohma, M; Fuse, M; Hirota, Osamu; Kato, Kentaro; Sohma, Masaki; Fuse, Masaru


    What obstructs the realization of useful quantum cryptography is single photon scheme, or entanglement which is not applicable to the current infrastructure of optical communication network. We are concerned with the following question: Can we realize the information theoretically secure symmetric key cipher under "the finite secret key" based on quantum-optical communications? A role of quantum information theory is to give an answer for such a question. As an answer for the question, a new quantum cryptography was proposed by H.P.Yuen, which can realize a secure symmetric key cipher with high speeds(Gbps) and for long distance(1000 Km). Although some researchers claim that Yuen protocol(Y-00) is equivalent to the classical cryptography, they are all mistaken. Indeed it has no classical analogue, and also provides a generalization even in the conventional cryptography. At present, it is proved that a basic model of Y-00 has at least the security such as $H(X|Y_E)=H(K|Y_E)=H(K)$, $H(K|Y_E,X)\\sim 0$ under the ...

  17. Physical properties of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 through low and high frequency radio observations

    Marcote, B; Paredes, J M; Ishwara-Chandra, C H


    We have studied in detail the 0.15-15 GHz radio spectrum of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 to look for a possible turnover and absorption mechanisms at low frequencies, and to constrain the physical properties of its emission. We have analysed two archival VLA monitorings, all the available archival GMRT data and a coordinated quasi-simultaneous observational campaign conducted in 2013 with GMRT and WSRT. The data show that the radio emission of LS 5039 is persistent on day, week and year timescales, with a variability $\\lesssim 25~\\%$ at all frequencies, and no signature of orbital modulation. The obtained spectra reveal a power-law shape with a curvature below 5 GHz and a turnover at $\\sim0.5$ GHz, which can be reproduced by a one-zone model with synchrotron self-absorption plus Razin effect. We obtain a coherent picture for a size of the emitting region of $\\sim0.85~\\mathrm{mas}$, setting a magnetic field of $B\\sim20~\\mathrm{mG}$, an electron density of $n_{\\rm e}\\sim4\\times10^5~{\\rm cm^{-3}}$ and a mass-los...

  18. Density functional theory study on organic semiconductor for field effect transistors: Symmetrical and unsymmetrical porphyrazine derivatives with annulated 1,2,5-thiadiazole and 1,4-diamyloxybenzene moieties

    CAI Xue; ZHANG YueXing; QI DongDong; JIANG JianZhuang


    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to investigate the organic field effect transistor (OFET) performance of the symmetrical metal-free tetrakis (1,2,5-thiadiazole) porphyrazine (S4)PzH2 and tetrakis (1,4-diamyloxybenzene) (A4)PzH2 as well as the low-symmetry metal-free porphy-razine with annulated 1,2,5-thiadiazole and 1,4-diamyloxybenzene groups in the ratio 2:2 (cis) and 1:3, that is, (cis-S2A2)PzH2 and (SA3)PzH2, (S = 1,2,5-thiadiazole ring, A .-. annulated 1,4-diamyloxy-benzene ring, Pz= porphyrazine) in terms of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoc-cupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy, ionization energy (IE), electron affinity (EA), and their reor-ganization energy (λ) during the charge-transport process. On the basis of Marcus electron transfer theory, electronic couplings (V) and field effect transistor (FET) properties for the four compounds with known crystal structure have been calculated. The electron transfer mobility (μ_) is revealed to be 0.056 (cis-S2A2)PzH2, (SA3)PzH2, and (A4)PzH2, respectively. The present work represents the theoretical effort towards understanding the OFET properties of symmetrical and unsymmetrical porphyrazine deriva-tives with annulated 1,2,5-thiadiazole and 1,4-diamyloxybenzene.

  19. A sustainability analysis of Serbia’s current account deficit

    Boljanović Srđan


    Full Text Available The global economic crisis have important implications for international capital movements, which further sharpens the question of the sustainability of permanent current account deficits in Southeast Europe. The goal of this paper is to analyze the medium and long-term sustainability of Serbia’s current account deficit. The first part of the paper presents a factor analysis of the sustainability of Serbia’s current account deficit. In the second part of the paper the theoretical model created by Milesi-Ferretti and Razin is used to access Serbia’s medium term current account sustainability. On the basis of Reisen’s theoretical work (Reisen methodology and by adding net reinvested earnings from foreign direct investment to the model, a new (modified model for assessing the long-term sustainability of a country’s current account deficit is presented. The created model was used for assessing the long-term sustainability of Serbia’s current account deficit.

  20. Current account deficit sustainability in selected transition economies

    Aleksander Aristovnik


    Full Text Available The article examines the question of whether the current account deficits seen inselected transition economies in recent years mainly as a symptom of the dynamiceconomic activity of the catching-up process are a source of potentialmacroeconomic destabilisation. Given the possible significant reduction of capitalflows, as well as restrictions and lessons from recent financial crises, currentaccount deficits must be closely monitored in the region. In this respect, the issue of‘current account sustainability’ in seventeen transition economies is investigated.For this purpose, two accounting frameworks (Milesi-Ferreti and Razin, 1996;Reisen, 1998 based on certain strict assumptions are employed. The results showthat if the observed level of foreign direct investment (FDI flows is kept in themedium run almost all countries could optimally have a higher level of externaldeficit, with the exception of countries such as Baltic States, Hungary, Macedonia,Moldova and Romania. Accordingly, the maintenance of relatively large FDIinflows (especially greenfield investments to national economies is a key priority insecuring future external sustainability. In the end, the results indicate that currentaccount deficits of transition economies that exceed 5 percent of GDP generallyinvolve problems of their external sustainability

  1. Alíquotas Tributárias Efetivas Médias para a Economia Brasileira: Uma Abordagem Macroeconômica

    Vinícius Almeida

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é calcular as alíquotas tributárias macroeconômicas efetivas médias que incidem sobre o consumo, renda do trabalho e renda do capital, utilizando dados de arrecadação tributária e das contas nacionais para a economia brasileira no período de 1997 a 2013. A metodologia utilizada segue Mendoza, Razin & Tesar (1994, que permite calcular essas alíquotas consistentemente com a tributação distorciva enfrentada pelo agente representativo em uma estrutura de equilíbrio geral. Técnicas de desagregação temporal são aplicadas para se obter aquelas alíquotas também na frequência trimestral. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a tributação no Brasil onera, principalmente, a renda do trabalho e do capital, em comparação com a tributação sobre o consumo.

  2. Nível de aderência dos artefatos de contabilidade gerencial sob a perspectiva do ciclo de vida organizacional: um estudo de caso = Adherence level of managerial accounting tools in the perspective of organizational life cycle: a case study

    Tatiane Antonovz


    Full Text Available O estudo demonstra a evolução do uso dos artefatos de contabilidade gerencial sob a perspectiva dociclo de vida organizacional, investigando de acordo com o modelo delineado por Miller e Friesen(1984, que verifica a evolução da entidade, desde o nascimento até seu declínio. O modelo foiconfirmado pelo trabalho de Moores e Yuen (2001, que se baseou no estudo de Miller e Friensen(1984 para verificar como a evolução dentro deste modelo interfere no uso dos artefatos dacontabilidade gerencial. Quanto aos procedimentos metodológicos, utiliza-se de um estudo de casoaplicado em uma indústria de confecções do Noroeste do Paraná, conhecida como pólo industrialnessa área. Os achados do estudo evidenciam que há uma relação direta da evolução da entidade e oefetivo uso dos artefatos disponíveis, mas que nem sempre o estágio de vida em que esta se encontraconfirma tal situação, ou seja, não há necessariamente uma evolução do uso dos artefatos aliados àevolução da entidade. O trabalho pode confirmar a posição da empresa com relação ao modeloescolhido, porém foi verificado que não necessariamente todos os artefatos de contabilidade gerencialevoluíram conforme o modelo de Moores e Yuen (2001.This study aimed to demonstrate the evolution of the use of Management Accounting tools from theperspective of the organizational life cycle, by investigating the model outlined by Miller and Friesen(1984, based on the evolution of the human body, from birth to their decline, interferes the use ofthese tools. The model was confirmed by the work of Moores and Yuen (2001, which was based onthe study of Management Accounting, and the understanding of the evolution of entities. Using thetechnique of case study, justified as the most appropriate to describe a managerial position and capable to shows a real situation. The organization chosen is an industry of clothing the Northwest sideof Paraná, known as industrial pole in the area. The

  3. Laboratory production of complex organics in simulated interstellar ices

    Dworkin, J.; Bernstein, M.; Ashbourn, S.; Iraci, L.; Cooper, G.; Sandford, S.; Allamandola, L.

    1 see for more information. Bernstein, M., Dworkin, J., Sandford, S., &Allamandola, L. (2001). Ultraviolet Ir- radiation of Naphthalene in H2O Ice: Implications for Meteorites and Biogenesis. Meteoritics and Planetary Science36, 351-358. Bernstein, M., Dworkin, J., Sandford, S., Cooper, G. &Allamandola, L. (2002) The Formation of Racemic Amino Acids byUltraviolet Photolysis of Interstellar Ice Analogs. Nature, 416, 401U403 Dworkin, J., Deamer, D., Sandford, S., &Allamandola, L. (2001). Self-Assembling Amphiphilic Molecules: Synthesis in Simulated Interstellar/Precometary Ices. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 815-819. Krishnamurthy, R., Epstein, S., Cronin, J., Pizzarello, S. &Yuen, G. (1992) Isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids of the Murchison meteorite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 4045-4058. Sandford, S. A., Bernstein, M. P., &Dworkin, J. P. (2001). Assessment of the interstellar processes leading to deuterium enrichment in meteoritic organics. Meteoritics and Planetary Sci- ence36, 1117-1133.

  4. Implementation of Newton-Rapshon iterations for parallel staggered-grid geodynamic models

    Popov, A. A.; Kaus, B. J. P.


    Staggered-grid finite differences discretization has a good potential for solving highly heterogeneous geodynamic models on parallel computers (e.g. Tackey, 2008; Gerya &Yuen, 2007). They are inherently stable, computationally inexpensive and relatively easy to implement. However, currently used staggered-grid geodynamic codes employ almost exclusively the sub-optimal Picard linearization scheme to deal with nonlinearities. It was shown that Newton-Rapshon linearization can lead to substantial improvements of the solution quality in geodynamic problems, simultaneously with reduction of computer time (e.g. Popov & Sobolev, 2008). This work is aimed at implementation of the Newton-Rapshon linearization in the parallel geodynamic code LaMEM together with staggered-grid discretization and viso-(elasto)-plastic rock rheologies. We present the expressions for the approximate Jacobian matrix, and give detailed comparisons with the currently employed Picard linearization scheme, in terms of solution quality and number of iterations.

  5. Presentation of coefficient of variation for bioequivalence sample-size calculation

    Lee, Yi Lin; Mak, Wen Yao; Looi, Irene; Wong, Jia Woei; Yuen, Kah Hay


    The current study aimed to further contribute information on intrasubject coefficient of variation (CV) from 43 bioequivalence studies conducted by our center. Consistent with Yuen et al. (2001), current work also attempted to evaluate the effect of different parameters (AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Cmax) used in the estimation of the study power. Furthermore, we have estimated the number of subjects required for each study by looking at the values of intrasubject CV of AUC0-∞ and have also taken into consideration the minimum sample-size requirement set by the US FDA. A total of 37 immediate-release and 6 extended-release formulations from 28 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were evaluated. Out of the total number of studies conducted, 10 studies did not achieve satisfactory statistical power on two or more parameters; 4 studies consistently scored poorly across all three parameters. In general, intrasubject CV values calculated from Cmax were more variable compared to either AUC0-t and AUC0-∞. 20 out of 43 studies did not achieve more than 80% power when the value was calculated from Cmax value, compared to only 11 (AUC0-∞) and 8 (AUC0-t) studies. This finding is consistent with Steinijans et al. (1995) [2] and Yuen et al. (2001) [3]. In conclusion, the CV values obtained from AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were similar, while those derived from Cmax were consistently more variable. Hence, CV derived from AUC instead of Cmax should be used in sample-size calculation to achieve a sufficient, yet practical, test power.

  6. A heuristic for the minimization of open stacks problem

    Fernando Masanori Ashikaga


    Full Text Available It is suggested here a fast and easy to implement heuristic for the minimization of open stacks problem (MOSP. The problem is modeled as a traversing problem in a graph (Gmosp with a special structure (Yanasse, 1997b. It was observed in Ashikaga (2001 that, in the mean experimental case, Gmosp has large cliques and high edge density. This information was used to implement a heuristic based on the extension-rotation algorithm of Pósa (1976 for approximation of Hamiltonian Circuits. Additionally, an initial path for Pósa's algorithm is derived from the vertices of an ideally maximum clique in order to accelerate the process. Extensive computational tests show that the resulting simple approach dominates in time and mean error the fast actually know Yuen (1991 and 1995 heuristic to the problem.Sugerimos uma heurística rápida e de implementação simples para o problema de minimização de pilhas abertas (MOSP. O problema é modelado como um problema de percorrimento de arcos no grafo (Gmosp associado (Yanasse, 1997b. Foi observado em Ashikaga (2001 que o grafo Gmosp possui grandes cliques e uma alta densidade de arestas. Esta informação foi utilizada para implementar uma heurística baseada no algoritmo Extensão-Rotação de Pósa (1976 para aproximação de Circuitos Hamiltonianos. O caminho inicial para o algoritmo de Pósa é obtido a partir dos vértices de uma aproximação do maior clique do grafo para acelerar o processo. Testes computacionais extensivos mostram que a abordagem domina tanto em tempo quanto em erro médio a mais rápida heurística conhecida de Yuen (1991 e 1995.

  7. From rifting to subduction: the role of inheritance in the Wilson Cycle

    Beaussier, Stéphane; Gerya, Taras; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    The Wilson Cycle entails that oceans close and reopen. This cycle is a fundamental principle in plate tectonics, inferring continuity from divergence to convergence and that continental rifting takes place along former suture zones. This view questions the role of inherited structures at each stage of the Wilson Cycle. Using the 3D thermo-mechanical code, I3ELVIS (Gerya and Yuen 2007) we present a high-resolution continuous model of the Wilson cycle from continental rifting, breakup and oceanic spreading to convergence and spontaneous subduction initiation. Therefore, all lateral and longitudinal structures of the lithospheres are generated self-consistently and are consequences of the initial continental structure, tectono-magmatic inheritance and material rheology. In the models, subduction systematically initiates off-ridge and is controlled by the convergence-induced swelling of the ridge. Geometry and dynamics of the developing off-ridge subduction is controlled by four main factors: (1) the obliquity of the ridge with respect to the convergence direction; (2) fluid-induced weakening of the oceanic crust; (3) irregularity of ridge and margins inherited from rifting and spreading; (4) strain localization at transform faults formed during ocean floor spreading. Further convergence can lead to obduction of the oceanic crust and segments of ridge after the oceanic lithosphere is entrained into subduction. We show that the main parameters controlling the occurrence and geometry of obducted ophiolite are the convergence rate and the inherited structure of the passive margins and ridge. Our numerical experiments results show the essential role played by inheritance during the Wilson Cycle and are consistent with nature observations such as the tectonic history of the Oman subduction-obduction system. REFERENCES Gerya, T. V., and D. A. Yuen. 2007: "Robust Characteristics Method for Modelling Multiphase Visco-Elasto-Plastic Thermo-Mechanical Problems, Physics of the

  8. Amira: Multi-Dimensional Scientific Visualization for the GeoSciences in the 21st Century

    Bartsch, H.; Erlebacher, G.


    amira ( is a general purpose framework for 3D scientific visualization that meets the needs of the non-programmer, the script writer, and the advanced programmer alike. Provided modules may be visually assembled in an interactive manner to create complex visual displays. These modules and their associated user interfaces are controlled either through a mouse, or via an interactive scripting mechanism based on Tcl. We provide interactive demonstrations of the various features of Amira and explain how these may be used to enhance the comprehension of datasets in use in the Earth Sciences community. Its features will be illustrated on scalar and vector fields on grid types ranging from Cartesian to fully unstructured. Specialized extension modules developed by some of our collaborators will be illustrated [1]. These include a module to automatically choose values for salient isosurface identification and extraction, and color maps suitable for volume rendering. During the session, we will present several demonstrations of remote networking, processing of very large spatio-temporal datasets, and various other projects that are underway. In particular, we will demonstrate WEB-IS, a java-applet interface to Amira that allows script editing via the web, and selected data analysis [2]. [1] G. Erlebacher, D. A. Yuen, F. Dubuffet, "Case Study: Visualization and Analysis of High Rayleigh Number -- 3D Convection in the Earth's Mantle", Proceedings of Visualization 2002, pp. 529--532. [2] Y. Wang, G. Erlebacher, Z. A. Garbow, D. A. Yuen, "Web-Based Service of a Visualization Package 'amira' for the Geosciences", Visual Geosciences, 2003.

  9. 40%磺草·莠去津悬浮剂的高效液相色谱分析%HPLC Analysis of 40% of the Sulcotrione · Atrazine SC

    吕东; 李莉


    采用高效液相色谱法,使用 Diamonsil -C18色谱柱和紫外检测器,在254 nm 波长下对磺草酮、莠去津进行分离和定量分析。结果表明,该方法磺草酮、莠去津的线性相关系数分别为 R2=0.9989、R2=0.996;磺草酮、莠去津的标准偏差分别为0.06、0.15;磺草酮、莠去津的变异系数分别为0.54、0.49;磺草酮、莠去津的平均回收率分别为100.1%、100.0%。%The separation and quantitative analysis of Sulcotrione and atrazine were done with the high performance liquid chromatography using Diamonsil - C18 column and UV detector at 254nm wavelength. The results show that the analytical method the linear correlation coefficient of atrazine were R2 =0.9989 and R2 =0.996 for sulcotrione and atrazine respectively;the standard deviation of were 0.06 and 0.15 for sulcotrione and atrazine respectively;the coefficients of variation were 0.54 and 0.49 for sulcotrione and at-razine respectively;the average recovery were 100.1% and 100.0% for sulcotrione and atrazine respective-ly.

  10. Odnos opće mentalne sposobnosti, osobina ličnosti i transformacijskog stila rukovođenja: Uloga izvora procjene

    Ljerka Hajncl


    Full Text Available Cilj je ovog istraživanja bio ispitati odnos opće mentalne sposobnosti i pet osobina ličnosti s transformacijskim stilom rukovođenja. Na uzroku od 177 rukovoditelja srednje i niže razine rukovođenja u 16 radnih organizacija primijenjen je test opće mentalne sposobnosti i petofaktorski upitnik ličnosti. Stil rukovođenja procijenjen je primjenom Višefaktorskog upitnika stilova rukovođenja iz dvaju izvora procjene. Formu za samoprocjene popunilo je 177 rukovoditelja, a formu za procjene drugih 340 njihovih podređenih. Rezultati hijerarhijske regresijske analize za samoprocjene stila rukovođenja upućuju na to da opća mentalna sposobnost nije pridonosila predikciji transformacijskog stila. Utvrđeno je da osobine ličnosti objašnjavaju 22% varijance transformacijskog stila pri čemu su savjesnost i otvorenost za iskustva samostalni prediktori. Međutim, kada su transformacijski stil rukovoditelja procjenjivali njihovi podređeni, opća mentalna sposobnost bila je u niskoj negativnoj korelaciji s transformacijskim stilom, a osobine ličnosti nisu pridonosile objašnjenju varijance transformacijskog stila. Dob i spol su samostalni značajni prediktori, a demografske varijable kao grupa značajno objašnjavaju varijancu transformacijskog stila rukovođenja. Podređeni procjenjuju da mlađi rukovoditelji i rukovoditelji ženskog spola iskazuju više transformacijskih ponašanja.

  11. Density functional theory study on organic semiconductor for field effect transistors: Symmetrical and unsymmetrical porphyrazine derivatives with annulated 1,2,5-thiadiazole and 1,4-diamyloxybenzene moieties


    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to investigate the organic field effect transistor (OFET) performance of the symmetrical metal-free tetrakis (1,2,5-thiadiazole) porphyrazine (S4)PzH2 and tetrakis (1,4-diamyloxybenzene) (A4)PzH2 as well as the low-symmetry metal-free porphy- razine with annulated 1,2,5-thiadiazole and 1,4-diamyloxybenzene groups in the ratio 2:2 (cis) and 1:3, that is, (cis-S2A2)PzH2 and (SA3)PzH2, (S = 1,2,5-thiadiazole ring, A = annulated 1,4-diamyloxy-benzene ring, Pz = porphyrazine) in terms of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy, ionization energy (IE), electron affinity (EA), and their reorganization energy (λ) during the charge-transport process. On the basis of Marcus electron transfer theory, electronic couplings (V) and field effect transistor (FET) properties for the four compounds with known crystal structure have been calculated. The electron transfer mobility (μ -) is revealed to be 0.056 cm2·V-1·s-1 for (S4)PzH2. The hole transfer mobility (μ+) is 0.075, 0.098, and 8.20 cm2·V-1·s-1 for (cis-S2A2)PzH2, (SA3)PzH2, and (A4)PzH2, respectively. The present work represents the theoretical effort towards understanding the OFET properties of symmetrical and unsymmetrical porphyrazine derivatives with annulated 1,2,5-thiadiazole and 1,4-diamyloxybenzene.

  12. Simulations of Gyrosynchrotron Microwave Emission from an Oscillating 3D Magnetic Loop

    Kuznetsov, A. A.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Reznikova, V. E.


    Radio observations of solar flares often reveal various periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations. Most likely, these oscillations are caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations of flaring loops which modulate the emission. Interpreting the observations requires comparing them with simulations. We simulated the gyrosynchrotron radio emission from a semicircular (toroidal-shaped) magnetic loop containing sausage-mode MHD oscillations. The aim was to detect the observable signatures specific to the considered MHD mode and to study their dependence on the various source parameters. The MHD waves were simulated using a linear three-dimensional model of a magnetized plasma cylinder; both standing and propagating waves were considered. The curved loop was formed by replicating the MHD solutions along the plasma cylinder and bending the cylinder; this model allowed us to study the effect of varying the viewing angle along the loop. The radio emission was simulated using a three-dimensional model, and its spatial and temporal variations were analyzed. We considered several loop orientations and different parameters of the magnetic field, plasma, and energetic electrons in the loop. In the model with low plasma density, the intensity oscillations at all frequencies are synchronous (with the exception of a narrow spectral region below the spectral peak). In the model with high plasma density, the emission at low frequencies (where the Razin effect is important) oscillates in anti-phase with the emissions at higher frequencies. The oscillations at high and low frequencies are more pronounced in different parts of the loop (depending on the loop orientation). The layers where the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field changes sign can produce additional peculiarities in the oscillation patterns.

  13. Usporedba proteina sirutke i liposolubilnih vitamina između četiri pasmine krava držane u intenzivnim sustavima proizvodnje

    Jolanta Król


    Full Text Available Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je odrediti sadržaj proteina sirutke i vitamina topljivih u mastima u uzorcima mlijeka za četiri pasmine krava koje se uzgajaju u Poljskoj, t.j. holstein-frizijske, Montbéliarde, Jersey i simentalske. Kvalitativna i kvantitativna analiza određenih frakcija proteina sirutke, odnosno α-laktalbumina (α-La, β-laktoglobulina (β-Lg, albumina goveđeg seruma (BSA, laktoferina i lizozima te liposolubilnih vitamina (A, D3 i E provedena je pomoću metode RP-HPLC. Prema dobivenim rezultatima, pasmina krava značajno je utjecala na razinu proteina sirutke i liposolubilnih vitamina u mlijeku. Najniže količine tih hranjivih tvari utvrđene su u mlijeku kojeg su proizvele krave pasmine holstein-friesian. Mlijeko simentalskih krava sadržavalo statistički najznačajnije i najviše razine antioksidativnih tvari, odnosno vitamina A - 0,465 mg L-1, E - 1,302 mg L-1 i D3 - 0,653 µg L-1 (P≤0,05, kao i β-laktoglobulin (3,28 g L-1, P≤0,01. Osim toga, kravlje mlijeko simentalca također odlikuje visokim sadržajem antimikrobnih proteina - laktoferina i lizozima (odnosno: 121,23 mg L-1, P≤0,01 i 9,66 µg L-1, P≤0,05 u usporedbi s drugim pasminama krava.

  14. The effects of perturbations on the strain distribution in numerical simulations - elasto-viscoplastic modeling of boudinage as a case study

    Peters, Max; Karrech, Ali; Poulet, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus


    During necking of a mechanically stiffer layer embedded in a weaker matrix, relatively large amounts of strain localize in small areas. As this deformation style appears under distinct geological conditions, necking phenomena, e.g. boudinaged veins, are associated with a variety of deformation modes. So far, there exists rather limited knowledge about the origin of instabilities and their role as precursory structures, i.e. strong localization of elastic energy affecting further plastic deformation (e.g. Regenauer-Lieb & Yuen, 1998; 2004; Karrech et al., 2011a). We applied the finite element solver ABAQUS in order to investigate the 2-D strain distribution in layers including different mechanical material properties during plane strain co-axial deformation. First, linear perturbation analyses were performed in order to evaluate the imperfection sensitivity in the elastic and viscous regimes. We perform a classical modal analysis to determine the natural mode shapes and frequencies of our geological structure during arbitrary vibrations. This analysis aims at detecting the eigenmodes of the geological structure, which are sinusoidal vibrations with geometry specific natural modal shapes and frequencies. The eigenvalues represent the nodal points where the onset of (visco)-elasto-plastic localization can initiate in the structure (Rice, 1977). The eigenmodes, eigenvalues and eigenvectors are highly sensitive to the layer-box' aspect ratio and differences in Young's moduli, or effective viscosity, respectively. Boundary effect-free strain propagation occurs for layer-box aspect ratios smaller than 1:10. Second, these preloading structures were used as seeds for imperfections in elasto-viscoplastic numerical modeling of continuous necking of a coarse-grained mineral layer embedded in a finer-grained matrix (pinch-and-swell type of boudinage), following the thermo-mechanical coupling of grain size evolutions by Herwegh et al. (in press). The evolution of symmetric necks

  15. The influence of cloud droplet heterogeneity on sulfate production mechanisms constrained by isotopic measurements of sulfate aerosol

    Alexander, B.; Allman, D. J.; Amos, H. M.; Fairlie, T. D.; Dachs, J.; Hegg, D.; Sletten, R. S.


    Observations and modeling studies have shown that heterogeneity in fog and cloud drop size and chemical composition can significantly impact in-cloud sulfate production rates due to the strong pH dependence of the ozone oxidation pathway. Averaging cloud water pH tends to underestimate the fraction of S(IV) that is SO32- leading to underestimates of in-cloud sulfate production rates. Large scale models typically do not account for this heterogeneity due to the large computational expense associated with this calculation, and instead employ bulk calculations or assumptions of cloud water pH. Modeling studies have consistently shown that calculated sulfate production rates using bulk cloud pH treatments tend to underestimate in-cloud sulfate production rates compared to more explicit treatment of cloud drop heterogeneity by underestimating the ozone oxidation pathway. Here, we utilize a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and observations of the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol collected during a ship cruise in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean to quantify sulfate formation pathways in the marine boundary layer. The oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol is particularly sensitive to the importance of the ozone oxidation pathway due to its large isotopic signature. We employ a model parameterization by Yuen et al. (1996) that accounts for the impact of alkaline, coarse-mode sea salt aerosols on in-cloud sulfate production rates. As sulfate formation in cloud droplets formed on alkaline coarse-mode sea salt aerosols is thought to be dominated by the ozone oxidation pathway, observations of the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol provide a robust test of this parameterization. Including the Yuen et al. (1996) parameterization of cloud droplet heterogeneity improves the model's agreement with the observed sulfate oxygen isotopes. Accounting for the impact of cloud droplet heterogeneity on in-cloud sulfate production rates

  16. 3D Numerical modelling of topography development associated with curved subduction zones

    Munch, Jessica; Ueda, Kosuke; Burg, Jean-Pierre; May, Dave; Gerya, Taras


    Curved subduction zones, also called oroclines, are geological features found in various places on Earth. They occur in diverse geodynamic settings: 1) single slab subduction in oceanic domain (e.g. Sandwich trench in the Southern Atlantic); 2) single slab subduction in continental domain, (e.g. Gibraltar-Alboran orocline in the Western Mediterranean) 3); multi-slab subduction (e.g. Caribbean orocline in the South-East of the Gulf of Mexico). These systems present various curvatures, lengths (few hundreds to thousands of km) and ages (less than 35 Ma for Gibraltar Alboran orocline, up to 100 Ma for the Caribbean). Recent studies suggested that the formation of curved subduction systems depends on slab properties (age, length, etc) and may be linked with processes such as retreating subduction and delamination. Plume induced subduction initiation has been proposed for the Caribbean. All of these processes involve deep mechanisms such as mantle and slab dynamics. However, subduction zones always generate topography (trenches, uplifts, etc), which is likely to be influenced by surface processes. Hence, surface processes may also influence the evolution of subduction zones. We focus on different kinds of subduction systems initiated by plume-lithosphere interactions (single slab subduction/multi-slab subduction) and scrutinize their surface expression. We use numerical modeling to examine large-scale subduction initiation and three-dimensional slab retreat. We perform two kinds of simulations: 1) large scale subduction initiation with the 3D-thermomechanical code I3ELVIS (Gerya and Yuen, 2007) in an oceanic domain and 2) large scale subduction initiation in oceanic domain using I3ELVIS coupled with a robust new surface processes model (SPM). One to several retreating slabs form in the absence of surface processes, when the conditions for subduction initiation are reached (c.f. Gerya et al., 2015), and ridges occur in the middle of the extensional domain opened by slab

  17. Towards the determination of deformation rates - pinch-and-swell structures as a natural and simulated paleo-strain rate gage

    Peters, Max; Poulet, Thomas; Karrech, Ali; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Herwegh, Marco


    Layered rocks deformed under viscous deformation conditions frequently show boudinage, a phenomenon that results from differences in effective viscosity between the involved layers. In the case of continuous necking of a mechanically stiffer layer embedded in a weaker matrix, symmetric boudins are interpreted as the result of dominant visco-plastic deformation (Goscombe et al., 2004). However, information on the physical conditions, material properties and deformation processes are yet unknown. Natural samples deformed under low-grade (Trelatively high extensional strains. REFERENCES Austin, N. and Evans, B. (2007). Paleowattmeters: A scaling relation for dynamically recrystallized grain size. Geology, 35. Goscombe, B.D., Passchier, C.W. and Hand, M. (2004). Boudinage classification: End-member boudin types and modified boudin structures, Journal of Structural Geology, 26. Herwegh, M., Poulet, T., Karrech, A. and Regenauer-Lieb, K. (in press). From transient to steady state deformation and grain size: A thermodynamic approach using elasto-visco-plastic numerical modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research. Karrech, A., Regenauer-Lieb, K. and Poulet, T. (2011a). A Damaged visco-plasticity model for pressure and temperature sensitive geomaterials. Journal of Engineering Science 49. Regenauer-Lieb, K. and Yuen, D. (2004). Positive feedback of interacting ductile faults from coupling of equation of state, rheology and thermal-mechanics. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 142. Schmalholz, S.M. and Maeder, X. (2012). Pinch-and-swell structure and shear zones in viscoplastic layers. Journal of Structural Geology, 34.

  18. Preliminary occurrence studies of antibiotic residues in Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta.

    Chen, Yumei; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung; Selvam, Ammaiyappan


    An improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to investigate the occurrence of selected antibiotic residues in Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta. LC and MS parameters were optimized to produce the maximum analytical responses for each compound. The established method targeted five groups of antibiotics, namely, macrolides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and amphenicols. The method was validated for three types of environmental water matrices, namely, reservoir, river, and estuarine waters. Low detection limits of 0.17-0.18 ng/L for macrolides, 0.22-0.34 ng/L for quinolones, 0.67-1.65 ng/L for tetracyclines, and 0.27-0.56 ng/L for sulfonamides were obtained. No apparent interferences were observed in the chromatograms of all antibiotics groups. The developed method was preliminarily used to analyze water samples collected from Yuen Long River in New Territories, Hong Kong and four sites along the Pearl River Delta. Results showed that high level of tetracycline was found among the groups tested in the local river samples. In Pearl River Delta, we identified significant levels of erythromycin, roxithromycin, and sulfadiazine in Shenzhen Reservoir.

  19. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Ileykin, L. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.


    Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  20. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    I. A. Leykin


    Full Text Available Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves. At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976. The phase shift between o. harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  1. Paleoclimatological and paleoenvironmental records since 4 000 a B.P. in sediments of alpine lakes in Taiwan

    罗建育; 陈镇东


    The 3 310-m-high Chia-min Lake records the climatic history since 4 ka B. P. in Taiwan. The warm/wet period before 2.2 ka B.P. seemed to correspond to the later part of the Holocene Megathermal, and the cold/dry period during 0-2/2 ka B. P. corresponded to the Katathermal. Before the termination of the Megathermal, an especially warm and humid segment (2, 2-2. 4 ka B. P. ) emerged. The paleoclimatic records from Yuen-yang and Chi-tsai Lakes support the notion that the Megathermal in Taiwan terminated during 2-2. 3 ka B. P. A warm segment (820-1 320 AD) in the Katathermal could be considered the Medieval Warm Period. The climate turned cold and dry after 1 320 AD and this indicated the onset of the Little Ice Age. These paleoclimatic variations are also in good agreement with those recorded in Great Ghost Lake.

  2. Masking property of quantum random cipher with phase mask encryption

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu


    The security analysis of physical encryption protocol based on coherent pulse position modulation (CPPM) originated by Yuen is one of the most interesting topics in the study of cryptosystem with a security level beyond the Shannon limit. Although the implementation of CPPM scheme has certain difficulty, several methods have been proposed recently. This paper deals with the CPPM encryption in terms of symplectic transformation, which includes a phase mask encryption as a special example, and formulates a unified security analysis for such encryption schemes. Specifically, we give a lower bound of Eve's symbol error probability using reliability function theory to ensure that our proposed system exceeds the Shannon limit. Then we assume the secret key is given to Eve after her heterodyne measurement. Since this assumption means that Eve has a great advantage in the sense of the conventional cryptography, the lower bound of her error indeed ensures the security level beyond the Shannon limit. In addition, we show some numerical examples of the security performance.

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infection by Opisthorchis viverrini in an Urban Area of Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand.

    Chaiputcha, Kusumaporn; Promthet, Supannee; Bradshaw, Peter


    The aim of this cross-sectional analytic study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection in an urban area of Northeastern Thailand. The participants were 254 household representatives aged 15 years or older living in the most urbanised part of Chiang Yuen municipality in Mahasarakham Province. All participants provided stool samples which were examined using the modified Kato-Katz procedure, and a structured interview questionnaire was used to collection demographic information, knowledge about OV infection, and the consumption of unsafely prepared freshwater fish. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The overall prevalence of OV infection was 15.0%, and in the multivariate analysis male gender was found to be significantly and positively associated with OV infection (ORadj=9.75, 95%CI: 34.03-23.58) while education to secondary school level or above was a significant protective factor (ORadj=0.30, 95%CI: 0.12-0.74). The eating of unsafely prepared fish and knowledge about OV were not significantly related to infection status. The findings were discussed in terms of issues for future research, especially the need to consider the possibility of higher rates of OV infection in urban areas than might be expected and to investigate the sources of infected fish products which may well be different from those in rural villages.

  4. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial to determine the efficacy and safety of ibudilast, a potential glial attenuator, in chronic migraine

    Kwok YH


    Full Text Available Yuen H Kwok,1 James E Swift,1 Parisa Gazerani,2 Paul Rolan1 1Discipline of Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, Level 5 Medical School North, South Australia, Australia; 2Department of Health Science & Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Background: Chronic migraine (CM is problematic, and there are few effective treatments. Recently, it has been hypothesized that glial activation may be a contributor to migraine; therefore, this study investigated whether the potential glial inhibitor, ibudilast, could attenuate CM. Methods: The study was of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover design. Participants were randomized to receive either ibudilast (40 mg twice daily or placebo treatment for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the participants underwent a 4-week washout period followed by a second 8-week treatment block with the alternative treatment. CM participants completed a headache diary 4 weeks before randomization throughout both treatment periods and 4 weeks after treatment. Questionnaires assessing quality of life and cutaneous allodynia were collected on eight occasions throughout the study. Results: A total of 33 participants were randomized, and 14 participants completed the study. Ibudilast was generally well tolerated with mild, transient adverse events, principally nausea. Eight weeks of ibudilast treatment did not reduce the frequency of moderate to severe headache or of secondary outcome measures such as headache index, intake of symptomatic medications, quality of life or change in cutaneous allodynia. Conclusion: Using the current regimen, ibudilast does not improve migraine with CM participants. Keywords: chronic migraine, glia, ibudilast, headache, immune system

  5. France and the Gulf of Tonkin Region: Shipping Markets and Political Interventions in South China in the 1890s

    Bert Becker


    Full Text Available In the period of “new” imperialism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, France strived to create a sphere of influence in southwest China. To foster such imperialist policies, France’s policy makers regarded French companies operating in East Asia as instrumental. One such firm was Auguste Raphael Marty’s Tonkin Shipping Company, based in Haiphong, French Indochina, which operated steam coasters across the wider Gulf of Tonkin region. In the region’s highly competitive shipping market, Marty strived to achieve a monopoly when favorable conditions permitted during the final phase of the Sino-Japanese War. His profit-driven strategy caused huge losses for Chinese shippers and ultimately resulted in their boycotting his ships through the Tsap Yet syndicate. When French officials intervened on Marty’s behalf in negotiations with the Chinese government, the Syndicate was finally dissolved. It was followed by an agreement between the Chinese firm of Yuen Cheong Lee and Co. and the German firm of Jebsen and Co., based on long-established mutual trust between the owners. Although Marty received monetary compensation for his losses, he ruined his relationship with Chinese merchants. This case study presents little-known facts about the interactions among foreign firms in China and demonstrates the Chinese ability to react efficiently to unfair business practices.

  6. Who would benefit from memory training? A pilot study examining the ceiling effect of concurrent cognitive stimulation

    Kwok TCY


    Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Wai Wang Chau1, Kenneth SL Yuen1,3, Anita YM Wong4, Jessie CY Li1, Rebecca YY Shiu4, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong KongAbstract: Diverse effects of memory training were observed in the literature. One possible factor is the amount of concurrent cognitive training received during the training program. In this pilot study, we recruited 24 elderly adults with or without concurrent cognitive stimulations to attend a memory-training program. Findings suggested that elderly people without concurrent cognitive stimulation could benefit from a memory-training program in the form of improved initiation and memory functioning. Self-rated quality of life measure also showed improvements alongside the cognitive benefits. Elderly people with regular concurrent cognitive stimulation, on the other hand, seemed to plateau in their level of performance and did not show any significant change. Our preliminary findings suggested nonlinear concurrent cognitive stimulation in the elderly.Keywords: memory training, cognitive training, dementia, Chinese, elderly 

  7. Prostrating Walk in the Campaign against Sino-Hong Kong Express Railway: Collective Identity of Native Social Movement

    Steve Kwok-Leung Chan


    Full Text Available Occupation, blockage and storming are not rare in social movements a decade after China resuming sovereignty in Hong Kong. The organizers and participants usually involve locally born young people. Some of them are secondary school students in their teens. They are known as the fourth generation or post-1980s born Hongkongers. The paper examines the cultural context of social movements involving these youth activists. It mainly studied the campaign against the Sino-Hong Kong Express Railway development project. The project called for the demolition of the Tsoi Yuen Village, a small rural village located on its designed route. Since then, the role of younger generation in social movements has been generally recognized. Social media are widely employed in all stages of the movements with citizen journalists actively involved. The impressive ‘prostrating walk’ imitating Tibetan pilgrims becomes the symbol of these youth activists. It keeps appearing in other campaigns including Occupy Central in Hong Kong in 2014. This paper argues that the rise of nativism, advancement in ICT technology and shifting towards new social movements contribute to the dominant role of youth in recent social movements of Hong Kong. Collective identity of Hongkonger in response to the top-down assimilation by China, strengthens the movement.

  8. Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: role of radiofrequency ablation

    Dessy R Emril


    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril1 Kok-Yuen Ho21Neurology Department, Syiah Kuala University/Dr Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; 2Pain Management Centre, Raffles Hospital, SingaporeAbstract: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN is a neuropathic pain condition affecting the face. It has a significant impact on the quality of life and physical function of patients. Evidence suggests that the likely etiology is vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve leading to focal demyelination and aberrant neural discharge. Secondary causes such as multiple sclerosis or brain tumors can also produce symptomatic TN. Treatment must be individualized to each patient. Carbamazepine remains the drug of choice in the first-line treatment of TN. Minimally invasive interventional pain therapies and surgery are possible options when drug therapy fails. Younger patients may benefit from microvascular decompression. Elderly patients with poor surgical risk may be more suitable for percutaneous trigeminal nerve rhizolysis. The technique of radiofrequency rhizolysis of the trigeminal nerve is described in detail in this review.Keywords: interventional treatment, minimally invasive, pain management, radiofrequency rhizolysis, trigeminal neuralgia 

  9. Misinterpretation of statistical distance in security of quantum key distribution shown by simulation

    Iwakoshi, Takehisa; Hirota, Osamu


    This study will test an interpretation in quantum key distribution (QKD) that trace distance between the distributed quantum state and the ideal mixed state is a maximum failure probability of the protocol. Around 2004, this interpretation was proposed and standardized to satisfy both of the key uniformity in the context of universal composability and operational meaning of the failure probability of the key extraction. However, this proposal has not been verified concretely yet for many years while H. P. Yuen and O. Hirota have thrown doubt on this interpretation since 2009. To ascertain this interpretation, a physical random number generator was employed to evaluate key uniformity in QKD. In this way, we calculated statistical distance which correspond to trace distance in quantum theory after a quantum measurement is done, then we compared it with the failure probability whether universal composability was obtained. As a result, the degree of statistical distance of the probability distribution of the physical random numbers and the ideal uniformity was very large. It is also explained why trace distance is not suitable to guarantee the security in QKD from the view point of quantum binary decision theory.

  10. Electron microscopic observation and rotational diffusion measurement of bacteriorhodopsin in lipid vesicles

    HU; Kunsheng


    [1]Stoeckenius, W.. Bacterial rhodopsins: Evolution of a mechanistic model for the ion pumps, Protein Science, 1999, 8: 447.[2]Ebrey. T. G, Light energy transduction in bacteriorhodopsin, in Thermodynamics of Membranes, Receptors and Channels (ed. Jackson. M.), New York: CRC Press, 1993. 353-387.[3]Lanyi. J. K.. Understanding structure and function in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, J. Struct. Biol., 1998,l24: 164.[4]Quay. S. C., Condie. C. C., Conformational studies of aqueous melittin: Thermodynamic parameters of the monomer-tetramer self-association reaction. Biochemistry, 1983, 22: 695.[5]Habermann. E.. Bee and wasp venoms. Science, 1972, 177: 314.[6]Tosteson. M. T., Holmes. S. J., Razin. M. et al., Melitton lysis of red cells, J. Membr. Biol., 1985, 87: 35.[7]Hu, K. S., Dufton, M. J., Morrison, I. E. G. et al., Cherry interaction of bee venom melittin with bacteriorhodopsin in lipid vesicles: Protein rotational diffusion measurement. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 1985, 816(2): 358.[8]Shi, H., Hu, K. S., Huang, Y. et al., Effect of melittin on photocycle and photoresponse of purple membrane: sites of interaction between bacteriorhodopsin and melittin, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1993, 58(3): 413.[9]Jiang. Q. X., Hu, K. S.. Shi. H., Interaction of both melittin and its site-specific mutants with bacteriorhodopsin of Halobacterium halobium: sites of electrostatic interaction on melittin Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1994, 60(2): 175.[10]Doebler, R., Basaran. N.. Goldston H. et al., Effect of protein aggregation into aqueous phase on the binding of membrane proteins to membranes, Biophys. J., 1999, 76: 928.[11]Rehorek, M., Heyn, M. P, Binding of all-trans-retinal to the purple membrane, Evidence for cooperativity and determination of the extinction coefficient, Biochemistry, 1979, 18: 4977.[12]Chen. P. S. Jr.. Toribara, T. Y., Warner, H., Microdetermination of phosphorous, Anal. Chem., t956, 28

  11. Low-frequency variability of Western Boundary Currents in the turbulent ocean: intrinsic modes and atmospheric forcing

    Sérazin, Guillaume; Penduff, Thierry; Terray, Laurent; Grégorio, Sandy; Barnier, Bernard; Molines, Jean-Marc


    Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes are particularly strong in Western Boundary Current (WBC) regions where SST front variations influence basin-scale climate variability. Observed low-frequency fluctuations in latitude and strength of these oceanic jets are classically thought to be essentially atmospherically-driven by wind stress curl variability via the oceanic Rossby wave adjustment. Yet academic eddy-resolving process-oriented models with double-gyre configurations have revealed that an idealized WBC may exhibit low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations without low-frequency external forcing (e.g. Berloff et al., 2007, Dijkstra and Ghil, 2005, etc). Experiments with eddying Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) have also shown that the amount of low-frequency Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) variability is largely intrinsic in WBCs (Penduff et al. 2011; Sérazin et al 2014) and that the frontal-scale (<10°) pattern of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) variability is similar to intrinsic modes (Taguchi et al. 2010). Based on a pair of atmospherically-forced 1/12° OGCM experiments that simulate with accuracy either the intrinsic variability (seasonally-forced) or the observed total variability (forced with the full range of atmospheric timescales), Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis is performed on zonally-averaged SLA fields of four main WBCs (e.g. Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Extension, Agulhas Current and East Australian Current). The first two modes of the KE and GS exhibit a similar spatial structure that is shaped by oceanic intrinsic processes. The frequency content is however different between the intrinsic and total Principal Components, the former containing a wide range of timescales similar to a red noise and the latter being more autocorrelated at interannual-to-decadal timescales. These modes are compared with those obtained from the 20 years of altimetry observation and relationships with low-frequency westward propagative features in the respective oceanic basin are

  12. Viscous Dissipation and Criticality of Subducting Slabs

    Riedel, Mike; Karato, Shun; Yuen, Dave


    Rheology of subducting lithosphere appears to be complicated. In the shallow part, deformation is largely accomodated by brittle failure, whereas at greater depth, at higher confining pressures, ductile creep is expected to control slab strength. The amount of viscous dissipation ΔQ during subduction at greater depth, as constrained by experimental rock mechanics, can be estimated on the basis of a simple bending moment equation [1,2] 2ɛ˙0(z) ∫ +h/2 2 M (z) = h ṡ -h/2 4μ(y,z)y dy , (1) for a complex multi-phase rheology in the mantle transition zone, including the effects of a metastable phase transition as well as the pressure, temperature, grain-size and stress dependency of the relevant creep mechanisms; μ is here the effective viscosity and ɛ˙0(z) is a (reference) strain rate. Numerical analysis shows that the maximum bending moment, Mcrit, that can be sustained by a slab is of the order of 1019 Nm per m according to Mcrit˜=σp ∗h2/4, where σp is the Peierl's stress limit of slab materials and h is the slab thickness. Near Mcrit, the amount of viscous dissipation grows strongly as a consequence of a lattice instability of mantle minerals (dislocation glide in olivine), suggesting that thermo-mechanical instabilities become prone to occur at places where a critical shear-heating rate is exceeded, see figure. This implies that the lithosphere behaves in such cases like a perfectly plastic solid [3]. Recently available detailed data related to deep seismicity [4,5] seems to provide support to our conclusion. It shows, e.g., that thermal shear instabilities, and not transformational faulting, is likely the dominating mechanism for deep-focus earthquakes at the bottom of the transition zone, in accordance with this suggested "deep criticality" model. These new findings are therefore briefly outlined and possible implications are discussed. References [1] Riedel, M. R., Karato, S., Yuen, D. A. Criticality of Subducting Slabs. University of Minnesota

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Squeezing

    Zubairy, Suhail


    Langevin formalism for squeezing in lasing systems. In the last article of this part, Wiseman deals with squeezing systems when the system's environment can be deliberately engineered so that the feedback is important. The third part of the book includes four articles dealing with the applications of quantum squeezing. In the first article, Yuen presents a discussion of communications and measurement using squeezed states and discusses the advantages of using nonclassical light over classical light in communications and measurement. In the second article, Swain deals with the interaction of squeezed light with the atomic systems and presents a review of novel phenomena in spectroscopy. This chapter on two-level atomic system is followed by Ficek's article on squeezed-light based spectroscopy in three-level atomic systems. In the last article, Reid again addresses the advantages of squeezed light in communications, but her emphasis is different from that of Yuen's article. Here she discusses EPR correlations for squeezed light and presents squeezed-light based methods for quantum cryptography. All the authors are leading figures in the field of squeezed states who have made pioneering contributions to various aspects of the field over the years. This is reflected in the authoritative style with which all the articles are written. These articles are rich in content, easy to read and cover a broad base. The emphasis is however on the theoretical aspects with occasional references to experimental work. This book is an excellent collection of articles on quantum squeezing that are highly useful both for beginners who would like to learn about squeezing and its applications, as well as for experts who would like to learn about the frontiers.

  14. Measuring Air Density in the Introductory Lab

    Calzà, G.; Gratton, L. M.; López-Arias, T.; Oss, S.


    The measurement of the mass, or the density, of air can easily be done with very simple materials and offers many interesting phenomena for discussion—buoyancy and its effects being the most obvious but not the only one. Many interesting considerations can be done regarding the behavior of gases, the effect of the external conditions in the measurement, and the reason for the choice of the procedure, among others. One of the most widespread approaches makes use of rubber balloons. Such an approach can be misleading if attention is not paid to the effect of the buoyant force on the balloon, exerted by the surrounding air. Air is weightless in an environment full of it. While this fact can usually be neglected in daily, nontechnical weight measurements, it is not the case when we are interested in the weight of air itself. A sketch such as the one depicted in Fig. 1 is often presented in elementary science textbooks, as a demonstration that air has weight. A search of the Internet will reveal that this misleading approach is often presented as the simplest one for this kind of measurement at an elementary level and represents one among other common misconceptions that can be found in K-6 science textbooks as discussed, for instance, in Ref. 2. For a more detailed description of the flaws inherent to the measurement of air's weight with a rubber balloon, see Ref. 3. In this paper we will describe two procedures to measure the density of air: weighing a PET bottle and a vacuum rigid container. There are other interesting ways to estimate the weight of air; see, for instance, the experiment of Zhu and Se-yuen using carbon dioxide and Archimedes' principle.4 We emphasize the experimental implications and the physical reasons for the accuracy and conceptual correctness of each method. It is important not to undervalue the importance of both simplicity and reliability for any experimental measurement made in a didactic context.

  15. Optimal management of fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review

    Yuen HK


    Full Text Available Hon K Yuen,1 Melissa A Cunningham2 1Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 2Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA Abstract: Among the host of distressing pathophysiological and psychosocial symptoms, fatigue is the most prevalent complaint in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. This review is to update the current findings on non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and modality strategies to manage fatigue in patients with SLE and to provide some recommendations on optimal management of fatigue based on the best available evidence. We performed a systematic literature search of the PubMed and Scopus databases to identify publications on fatigue management in patients with SLE. Based on the studies reported in the literature, we identified nine intervention strategies that have the potential to alleviate fatigue in patients with SLE. Of the nine strategies, aerobic exercise and belimumab seem to have the strongest evidence of treatment efficacy. N-acetylcysteine and ultraviolet-A1 phototherapy demonstrated low-to-moderate levels of evidence. Psychosocial interventions, dietary manipulation (low calorie or glycemic index diet aiming for weight loss, vitamin D supplementation, and acupuncture all had weak evidence. Dehydroepiandrosterone is not recommended due to a lack of evidence for its efficacy. In addition to taking treatment efficacy and side effects into consideration, clinicians should consider factors such as cost of treatment, commitments, and burden to the patient when selecting fatigue management strategies for patients with SLE. Any comorbidities, such as psychological distress, chronic pain, sleep disturbance, obesity, or hypovitaminosis D, associated with fatigue should be addressed. Keywords: health-related quality of life, vitality, systemic lupus erythematosus, clinical

  16. Cytoprotective and enhanced anti-inflammatory activities of liposomal piroxicam formulation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Chiong HS


    Full Text Available Hoe Siong Chiong,1 Yoke Keong Yong,1 Zuraini Ahmad,1 Mohd Roslan Sulaiman,1 Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria,1 Kah Hay Yuen,2 Muhammad Nazrul Hakim1,31Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, Malaysia; 3Sports Academy, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaBackground: Liposomal drug delivery systems, a promising lipid-based nanoparticle technology, have been known to play significant roles in improving the safety and efficacy of an encapsulated drug.Methods: Liposomes, prepared using an optimized proliposome method, were used in the present work to encapsulate piroxicam, a widely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The cytotoxic effects as well as the in vitro efficacy in regulation of inflammatory responses by free-form piroxicam and liposome-encapsulated piroxicam were evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide-sensitive macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7.Results: Cells treated with liposome-encapsulated piroxicam demonstrated higher cell viabilities than those treated with free-form piroxicam. In addition, the liposomal piroxicam formulation resulted in statistically stronger inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators (ie, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and prostaglandin E2 than piroxicam at an equivalent dose. The liposome-encapsulated piroxicam also caused statistically significant production of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine.Conclusion: This study affirms the potential of a liposomal piroxicam formulation in reducing cytotoxicity and enhancing anti-inflammatory responses in vitro.Keywords: liposomes, nitric oxide, cytokines, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1β, piroxicam

  17. Effectiveness of coordination exercise in improving cognitive function in older adults: a prospective study

    Kwok TCY


    Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, KC Lam2, PS Wong2, WW Chau2, Kenneth SL Yuen2,3, KT Ting2, Elite WK Chung2, Jessie CY Li2, Florence KY Ho2,41Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, 4Jockey Club CADENZA Hub, Hong Kong SARBackground: Studies on the effect of a low intensity coordination exercise on the elderly with limited mobility are sparse. This prospective study attempted to compare the effectiveness of a customized coordination exercise and a strength exercise in improving the cognitive functioning and physical mobility on the elderly.Methods: Participants from two centers for the elderly were allocated to practice either an 8-week coordination training (CT program or an 8-week towel exercise (TE program. The Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination and Chinese Dementia Rating Scale (CDRS were used to measure cognitive functioning of participants, and Timed Up-and-Go test for physical mobility. These assessments were administered before and after the program.Results: Paired t-tests showed that the CDRS scores of the CT group improved significantly from 114.8 at pre-test to 119.3 after training (P = 0.045. The CDRS scores of the TE group also improved from 114.9 at pre-test to 116.9 after training.Conclusion: Findings from this prospective study demonstrated that low-intensity level mind-body exercise could be beneficial to the cognitive functioning of older adults.Keywords: coordination exercise, cognitive function, elderly, Chinese

  18. A Grid Framework for Visualization Services

    Erlebacher, G.; Lu, Z.; Bollig, E. F.; Yuen, D. A.; Pierce, M.; Pallickara, S.


    Increasingly large collaborative teams, geographically distributed, coupled with experimental and numerical data sets whose size appears to increase exponentially, demands new solutions to ease data analysis, visualization, and manipulation in a transparent manner. Rather than concentrate on where and how the job gets done, users should be able to interact with their data without concern for the underlying hardware, system load, or resource availability. We address this problem through a a unique and flexible architecture, based on the NaradaBrokering (NB) middleware application program interface (API) (, [1]). We aim to support collaborative real-time remote visualization, data analysis, and video creation with an emphasis on simplicity of use. NB connects clients to services through the use of topics, rather than IP addresses and hostnames. The flexibility of this approach makes it possible to easily incorporate logging systems, redundancy, fault-tolerance, asynchronous communications, and collaboration as additional web services into the system. Furthermore, it becomes possible to insert additional services into the system such as databases and storage archives. After describing a prototype system within the context of Web-IS [2-3], we will demonstrate fault tolerance with respect to the faulty nodes in the NB network and with respect to the visualization servers, and the ability to share data. References [1] S. Pallickara and G. Fox, "NaradaBrokering: A Middleware Framework and Architec-ture for Enabling Durable Peer-to-Peer Grid", in Proceedings of ACM/IFIP/USENIX International Middleware Conference Middleware-2003. pp 41-61, (2003). [2] Y. Wang, D.A. Yuen, Z. Garbow, and G. Erlebacher, "Web-based Service of a Visualization Package ` Amira' for the Geosciences", Visual Geosciences, Springer-Verlag, (2003), [3] Php-based imaging service, view

  19. Update on the evaluation of transient vision loss

    Pula JH


    Full Text Available John H Pula,1 Katherine Kwan,2 Carlen A Yuen,3 Jorge C Kattah4 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of ophthalmology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston IL, USA; 3University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, 4Department of Neurology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL, USA Abstract: Transient vision loss may indicate underlying vascular disease, including carotid occlusion and thromboembolism, or it may have a more benign etiology, such as migraine or vasospasm. This review focuses on the differential diagnosis and workup of patients presenting with transient vision loss, focusing on several key areas: the relationship to thromboembolic vascular disease, hypercoagulable testing, retinal migraine, and bilateral vision loss. The objective is to provide the ophthalmologist with information on how to best manage these patients. Thromboembolic etiologies for transient vision loss are sometimes managed with medications, but when carotid surgery is indicated, earlier intervention may prevent future stroke. This need for early treatment places the ophthalmologist in the important role of expediting the management process. Hospital admission is recommended in patients presenting with transient symptoms within 72 hours who meet certain high-risk criteria. When the cause is giant cell arteritis, ocular ischemic syndrome, or a cardioembolic source, early management of the underlying condition is equally important. For nonthromboembolic causes of transient vision loss such as retinal migraine or retinal vasospasm, the ophthalmologist can provide reassurance as well as potentially give medications to decrease the frequency of vision loss episodes. Keywords: transient vision loss, TVL, amaurosis fugax, retinal migraine, ocular migraine, retinal vasospasm

  20. Progress in Y-00 physical cipher for Giga bit/sec optical data communications (intensity modulation method)

    Hirota, Osamu; Futami, Fumio


    To guarantee a security of Cloud Computing System is urgent problem. Although there are several threats in a security problem, the most serious problem is cyber attack against an optical fiber transmission among data centers. In such a network, an encryption scheme on Layer 1(physical layer) with an ultimately strong security, a small delay, and a very high speed should be employed, because a basic optical link is operated at 10 Gbit/sec/wavelength. We have developed a quantum noise randomied stream cipher so called Yuen- 2000 encryption scheme (Y-00) during a decade. This type of cipher is a completely new type random cipher in which ciphertext for a legitimate receiver and eavesdropper are different. This is a condition to break the Shannon limit in theory of cryptography. In addition, this scheme has a good balance on a security, a speed and a cost performance. To realize such an encryption, several modulation methods are candidates such as phase-modulation, intensity-modulation, quadrature amplitude modulation, and so on. Northwestern university group demonstrated a phase modulation system (α=η) in 2003. In 2005, we reported a demonstration of 1 Gbit/sec system based on intensity modulation scheme(ISK-Y00), and gave a design method for quadratic amplitude modulation (QAM-Y00) in 2005 and 2010. An intensity modulation scheme promises a real application to a secure fiber communication of current data centers. This paper presents a progress in quantum noise randomized stream cipher based on ISK-Y00, integrating our theoretical and experimental achievements in the past and recent 100 Gbit/sec(10Gbit/sec × 10 wavelengths) experiment.

  1. Cooled radiofrequency denervation for treatment of sacroiliac joint pain: two-year results from 20 cases

    Ho KY


    Full Text Available Kok-Yuen Ho,1 Mohamed Abdul Hadi,2 Koravee Pasutharnchat,2 Kian-Hian Tan21Pain Management Centre, Raffles Hospital, 2Pain Management Centre, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeBackground: Sacroiliac joint pain is a common cause of chronic low back pain. Different techniques for radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint have been used to treat this condition. However, results have been inconsistent because the variable sensory supply to the sacroiliac joint is difficult to disrupt completely using conventional radiofrequency. Cooled radiofrequency is a novel technique that uses internally cooled radiofrequency probes to enlarge lesion size, thereby increasing the chance of completely denervating the sacroiliac joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cooled radiofrequency denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system for sacroiliac joint pain.Methods: The charts of 20 patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain who had undergone denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system were reviewed at two years following the procedure. Outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale for pain intensity, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Global Perceived Effect for patient satisfaction.Results: Fifteen of 20 patients showed a significant reduction in pain (a decrease of at least three points on the Numeric Rating Scale. Mean Numeric Rating Scale for pain decreased from 7.4 ± 1.4 to 3.1 ± 2.5, mean Patient Global Impression of Change was "improved" (1.4 ± 1.5, and Global Perceived Effect was reported to be positive in 16 patients at two years following the procedure.Conclusion: Cooled radiofrequency denervation showed long-term efficacy for up to two years in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain.Keywords: ablation, chronic low back pain, intervention, neurotomy, sacroiliitis

  2. Effects of rotation on crystal settling in a terrestrial magma ocean: Spherical shell model

    Maas, C.; Hansen, U.


    Like Moon or Mars, Earth experienced one or several deep magma ocean periods of globalextent in a later stage of its accretion. The crystallization of these magma oceans is of keyimportance for the chemical structure of Earth, the mantle evolution and the onset of platetectonics. Due to the fast rotation of early Earth and the small magma viscosity, rotationprobably had a profound effect on differentiation processes. For example, Matyska et al.[1994] propose that the distribution of heterogeneities like the two large low shear velocityprovinces (LLSVP) at the core mantle boundary is influenced by rotational dynamicsof early Earth. Further Garnero and McNamara [2008] suggest that the LLSVPs arevery long-living anomalies, probably reaching back to the time of differentiation andsolidification of Earth. However, nearly all previous studies neglect the effects of rotation.In our previous work using a Cartesian model, a strong influence of rotation as well asof latitude on the differentiation processes in an early magma ocean was revealed. Weshowed that crystal settling in an early stage of magma ocean crystallization cruciallydepends on latitude as well as on rotational strength and crystal density.In order to overcome the restrictions as to the geometry of the Cartesian model, we arecurrently developing a spherical model to simulate crystal settling in a rotating sphericalshell. This model will allow us not only to investigate crystal settling at the poles andthe equator, but also at latitudes in-between these regions, as well as the migration ofcrystals between poles and equator. ReferencesE. J. Garnero and A. K. McNamara. Structure and dynamics of earth's lower mantle.Science, 320(5876):626-628, 2008.C. Matyska, J. Moser, and D. A. Yuen. The potential influence of radiative heat transferon the formation of megaplumes in the lower mantle. Earth and Planetary ScienceLetters, 125(1):255-266, 1994.

  3. Structure of the transcription initiation and termination sequences of seven early genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment.

    Lee-Chen, G J; Bourgeois, N; Davidson, K; Condit, R C; Niles, E G


    The vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment is 16,060 bp in length and encodes 13 complete genes [E.G. Niles et al. (1986). Virology 153, 96-112; S. L. Weinrich and D. E. Hruby (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3003-3016]. Six of these genes are expressed only at early times after infection and one gene is expressed at both early and late times [G. -J. Lee-Chen and E. G. Niles (1988). Virology 163, 52-63]. Transcript mapping by S1 nuclease protection studies was carried out and compared to the results of primer extension analyses, in order to locate map positions of the 5' termini of each early mRNA. The lengths of the products of in vitro transcription, from DNA templates which possess the transcription start regions of each of the early genes, were determined and compared to the lengths of DNA products generated by S1 nuclease protection and primer extension, in order to demonstrate that the 5' termini identified by S1 mapping and primer extension are due to transcription initiation and not to mRNA processing. For each of the early genes in the HindIII D fragment, transcription starts within 25 nucleotides of the translation initiation codon. The precise location of the 3' termini of each early transcript was identified by S1 nuclease mapping. In all but one case, the 3' ends map within 75 nucleotides of the putative transcription termination signal TTTTTNT [G. Rohrmann, L. Yuen, and B. Moss (1986).

  4. Effect of preventive and curative interventions on hepatitis C virus transmission in Egypt (ANRS 1211): a modelling study.

    Breban, Romulus; Arafa, Naglaa; Leroy, Sandrine; Mostafa, Aya; Bakr, Iman; Tondeur, Laura; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Doss, Wahid; Esmat, Gamal; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Fontanet, Arnaud


    Most hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in Egypt is related to medical injections and procedures. To control the spread of HCV, the Egyptian Ministry of Health initiated awareness and education campaigns, strengthened infection control in health-care facilities, and subsidised anti-HCV treatment. We aimed to investigate the effect of these interventions on the spread of HCV by mathematical modelling. We developed a mathematical model of HCV transmission in Zawyat Razin, a typical rural community. Our model assumes that each individual has two distinct types of medical procedures: injections and more invasive medical procedures. To quantify the severity of the spread of HCV, we used the notion of the basic reproduction number R0, a standard threshold parameter signalling whether transmission of an infectious disease is self-sustained and maintains an epidemic. If R0 is greater than 1, HCV is self-sustained; if R0 is 1 or less, HCV transmission is not self-sustained. We investigated whether heterogeneity in the rate of injection or invasive medical procedures is the determinant factor for HCV transmission and whether most iatrogenic transmission is caused by a small group of individuals who receive health-care interventions frequently. We then assessed whether interventions targeted at this group could reduce the spread of HCV. The R0 of the spread of HCV without treatment was 3·54 (95% CI 1·28-6·18), suggesting a self-sustained spread. Furthermore, the present national treatment programme only decreased R0 from 3·54 to 3·03 (95% CI 1·10-5·25). Individuals with high rates of medical injections seem to be responsible for the spread of HCV in Egypt; the R0 of the spread of HCV without treatment would be 0·64 (95% CI 0·41-0·93) if everybody followed the average behaviour. The effect of treatment on HCV transmission is greatly enhanced if treatment is provided a mean of 2·5 years (95% CI 0·1-9·2) after chronic infection and with drug regimens with more

  5. Orogenesis of the Oman Mountains - a new geodynamic model based on structural geology, plate reconstructions and thermochronology

    Grobe, Arne; Virgo, Simon; von Hagke, Christoph; Ralf, Littke; Urai, Janos L.


    faults on the northern flank of the anticline. We link these results with the geodynamic framework of the area, constrained by plate tectonic reconstructions. Furthermore, we constrain the exhumation history of the mountain belt using zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He dating. Geodynamic and exhumation events can be linked to structural generations. This results in a new tectonic model of the Oman Mountains. We find a remarkable along-strike consistency of mountain building phases and argue involvement of a micro-plate is not required. Breton, J.P., Béchennec, F., Le Métour, J., Moen-Maurel, L., Razin, P., 2004. Eoalpine (Cretaceous) evolution of the Oman Tethyan continental margin: Insights from a structural field study in Jabal Akhdar (Oman Mountains). GeoArabia 9, 41-58. Fink, R., Virgo, S., Arndt, M., Visser, W., Littke, R., Urai, J.L.L., 2015. Solid bitumen in calcite veins from the Natih Formation in the Oman Mountains: Multiple phases of petroleum migration in a changing stress field. Int. J. Coal Geol. 157, 39-51. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2015.07.012 Grobe, A., Urai, J.L.L., Littke, R., Lünsdorf, N.K.K., 2016. Hydrocarbon generation and migration under a large overthrust: The carbonate platform under the Semail Ophiolite, Jebel Akhdar, Oman. Int. J. Coal Geol. 1-17. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2016.02.007

  6. Technial Programme Committee


    Chairpersons Dr Dinesh Sathyamoorthy, Science & Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE), Ministry of Defence, Malaysia Associate Professor Sr Dr Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Ahmad Fikri Abdullah, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Farrah Melissa Muharram, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Members Professor Dr Li Jing, Beijing Normal University, China Professor Dr Iyyanki Muralikrishna, Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI), India Professor Dr Alias Abdul Rahman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Ismat Mohamed El Hassan, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Professor Dr George Miliaresis, Open University of Cyprus, Cyprus Professor Dr Christine Pohl, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Mahender Kotha, Goa University, India Associate Professor Dr Paolo Gamba, University of Pavia, Italy Associate Professor Dr Behara Seshadri Daya Sagar, Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), India Associate Professor Sr Ranjit Singh, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Abdul Nasir Matori, Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP), Malaysia Associate Dr Lucian Dragut, West University of Timişoara, Romania Associate Professor Dr Saied Pirasteh, Islamic Azad University, Iran Associate Professor Dr Peter Yuen, Cranfield University, United Kingdom Associate Professor Dr Lim Hwee San, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Wayan Suparta, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Tuong Thuy Vu, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Maged Mahmoud Marghany, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Rami Al-Ruzouq, University of Sharjah, UAE Associate Professor Dr Biswajeet Pradhan, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia

  7. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.


    Active margins are important sites of new continental crust formation by magmatic processes related to the subduction of oceanic plates. We investigate these phenomena using a three-dimensional coupled petrological-geochemical-thermomechanical numerical model, which combines a finite-difference flow solver with a non-diffusive marker-in-cell technique for advection (I3ELVIS code, Gerya and Yuen, PEPI,2007). The model includes mantle flow associated with the subducting plate, water release from the slab, fluid propagation that triggers partial melting at the slab surface, melt extraction and the resulting volcanic crustal growth at the surface. The model also accounts for variations in physical properties (mainly density and viscosity) of both fluids and rocks as a function of local conditions in temperature, pressure, deformation, nature of the rocks, and chemical exchanges. Our results show different patterns of crustal growth and surface topography, which are comparable to nature, during subduction at active continental margins. Often, two trench-parallel lines of magmatic activity, which reflect two maxima of melt production atop the slab, are formed on the surface. The melt extraction rate controls the patterns of new crust at different ages. Moving free water reflects the path of fluids, and the velocity of free water shows the trend of two parallel lines of magmatic activity. The formation of new crust in particular time intervals is distributed in finger-like shapes, corresponding to finger-like and ridge-like cold plumes developed atop the subducting slabs (Zhu et al., G-cubed,2009; PEPI,2011). Most of the new crust is basaltic, formed from peridotitic mantle. Granitic crust extracted from melted sediment and upper crust forms in a line closer to the trench, and its distribution reflects the finger-like cold plumes. Dacitic crust extracted from the melted lower crust forms in a line farther away from the trench, and its distribution is anticorrelated with

  8. How does recycling of sediment components in arc magmatism really work?

    Kelemen, P.; Hacker, B.; Austin, N.


    -driven instabilities (Ringwood JGSL 74; Marsh AJS 76; Gerya & Yuen EPSL 03; Kelemen et al, Treatise on Geochem 03). In the wedge, metasedimentary diapirs heat as they rise, and undergo large degrees of super-adiabatic partial melting which exhaust trace phases, releasing the sediment component observed in arcs.

  9. Effect of planetary rotation on the differentiation of a terrestrial magma ocean in spherical geometry

    Hansen, Ulrich; Maas, Christian


    (11):7508-7525, 2015. C. Matyska, J. Moser, and D. A. Yuen. The potential influence of radiative heat transfer on the formation of megaplumes in the lower mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 125(1):255-266, 1994.

  10. The prognostic significance of protein tyrosine phosphatase 4A2 in breast cancer

    Zhao D


    Full Text Available Duanzheng Zhao,1 Libin Guo,2,* Henrique Neves,3,* Hiu-Fung Yuen,4 Shu-Dong Zhang,5 Cian M McCrudden,6 Qing Wen,5 Jin Zhang,2 Qi Zeng,4 Hang Fai Kwok,3,5,6 Yao Lin2 1College of Continuing Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida de Universidade, Taipa, Macau Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China; 4Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore; 5Center for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, 6School of Pharmacy, Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast, UK *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Although PTP4A3 has been shown to be a very important factor in promoting cancer progression, the role of its close family member PTP4A2 is still largely unknown. Recent reports have shown contradicting results on the role of PTP4A2 in breast cancer progression. Considering this, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of PTP4A2 in five independent breast cancer data sets (minimum 198 patients per cohort, totaling 1,124 patients in the Gene Expression Omnibus Database. We found that high expression of PTP4A2 was a favorable prognostic marker in all five independent breast cancer data sets, as well as in the combined cohort, with a hazard ratio of 0.68 (95% confidence interval =0.56–0.83; P<0.001. Low PTP4A2 expression was associated with estrogen receptor-negative tumors and tumors with higher histological grading; furthermore, low expression was inversely correlated with the expression of genes involved in proliferation, including MKI67 and the MCM gene family encoding the minichromosome maintenance proteins. These findings suggest that PTP4A2 may play a role in breast cancer progression by dysregulating cell proliferation. PTP4A2 expression was

  11. Dynamic Web Services for Data Analysis in the Geosciences

    Erlebacher, G.; Lu, Z.; Gadgil, H.; Bollig, E. F.; Kadlec, B. J.; Yuen, D. A.; Pierce, M.; Pallickara, S.


    software package Amira [2]) which is finally returned to one or more clients. Collaboration between two or more users are also demonstrated, along with fault tolerance. References [1] S. Pallickara and G. Fox, NaradaBrokering: A Middleware Framework and Architec-ture for Enabling Durable Peer-to-Peer Grid, in Proceedings of ACM/IFIP/USENIX International Middleware Conference Middleware-2003. pp 41-61, (2003). [2] Y. Wang, D.A. Yuen, Z. Garbow, and G. Erlebacher, Web-based Service of a Visualization Package Amira for the Geosciences, Visual Geosciences, Springer-Verlag, (2003).

  12. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.


    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  13. Gene dose influences cellular and calcium channel dysregulation in heterozygous and homozygous T4826I-RYR1 malignant hyperthermia-susceptible muscle.

    Barrientos, Genaro C; Feng, Wei; Truong, Kim; Matthaei, Klaus I; Yang, Tianzhong; Allen, Paul D; Lopez, José R; Pessah, Isaac N


    Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is primarily conferred by mutations within ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1). Here we address how the MHS mutation T4826I within the S4-S5 linker influences excitation-contraction coupling and resting myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](rest)) in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and vastus lateralis prepared from heterozygous (Het) and homozygous (Hom) T4826I-RYR1 knock-in mice (Yuen, B. T., Boncompagni, S., Feng, W., Yang, T., Lopez, J. R., Matthaei, K. I., Goth, S. R., Protasi, F., Franzini-Armstrong, C., Allen, P. D., and Pessah, I. N. (2011) FASEB J. doi:22131268). FDB responses to electrical stimuli and acute halothane (0.1%, v/v) exposure showed a rank order of Hom ≫ Het ≫ WT. Release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry contributed to halothane-triggered increases in [Ca(2+)](rest) in Hom FDBs and elicited pronounced Ca(2+) oscillations in ∼30% of FDBs tested. Genotype contributed significantly elevated [Ca(2+)](rest) (Hom > Het > WT) measured in vivo using ion-selective microelectrodes. Het and Hom oxygen consumption rates measured in intact myotubes using the Seahorse Bioscience (Billerica, MA) flux analyzer and mitochondrial content measured with MitoTracker were lower than WT, whereas total cellular calpain activity was higher than WT. Muscle membranes did not differ in RYR1 expression nor in Ser(2844) phosphorylation among the genotypes. Single channel analysis showed highly divergent gating behavior with Hom and WT favoring open and closed states, respectively, whereas Het exhibited heterogeneous gating behaviors. [(3)H]Ryanodine binding analysis revealed a gene dose influence on binding density and regulation by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and temperature. Pronounced abnormalities inherent in T4826I-RYR1 channels confer MHS and promote basal disturbances of excitation-contraction coupling, [Ca(2+)](rest), and oxygen consumption rates. Considering that both Het and Hom T4826I-RYR1 mice are

  14. Diagnosis and Modeling of the Explosive Development of Winter Storms: Sensitivity to PBL Schemes

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pradhan, Prabodha K.


    exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66: 330-334 doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato M.L.R., J.G. Pinto, R.M. Trigo, P. Ludwig, P. Ordóñez, D. Yuen, I.F. Trigo (2013) Explosive development of winter storm Xynthia over the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 2239-2251, doi:10.5194/nhess-13-2239-2013

  15. Pore water pressure variations in Subpermafrost groundwater : Numerical modeling compared with experimental modeling

    Rivière, Agnès.; Goncalves, Julio; Jost, Anne; Font, Marianne


    imposed. The Plexiglas box is filled with glass beads of which hydraulics and thermal parameters are known. All parameters required for our numerical model are controlled and continuous monitoring of soil temperatures and pore water pressure are reported. Our results of experimental model allow us to test the relevance of processes described by our numerical simulation and to quantify the impact of permafrost on pore water pressure of subpermafrost groundwater during a cycle of freezing and thawing. Michel, Frederick A. and Van Everdingen, Robert O. 1994. Changes in hydrogeologic regimes in permafrost regions due to climatic change. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 5: 191-195. Wang, Chi-yuen and Manga, Michael and Hanna, Jeffrey C. 2006. Can freezing cause floods on Mars? Geophysical Research Letters, 33

  16. Effects of vicarious pain on self-pain perception: investigating the role of awareness

    Terrighena EL


    Full Text Available Esslin L Terrighena,1,2 Ge Lu,1 Wai Ping Yuen,1 Tatia M C Lee,1–4 Kati Keuper1,2,5 1Department of Psychology, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Laboratory of Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Hong Kong; 4Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Münster, Germany Abstract: The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in ­determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images, and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test. Self-pain tolerance, intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated in a sample of 77 healthy participants. Results revealed ­significant interactions of exposure time and vicarious pain in all three dependent measures. In the presence of visual awareness (optimal condition, vicarious pain compared to no-pain elicited overall enhanced self-pain sensitivity, indexed by reduced pain tolerance and enhanced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Conversely, in the absence of visual awareness (subliminal condition, vicarious pain evoked decreased self-pain intensity and unpleasantness while pain tolerance remained unaffected. These

  17. The role of N-H complexes in the control of localized center recombination in hydrogenated GaInNAs (Conference Presentation)

    Whiteside, Vincent R.; Fukuda, Miwa; Estes, Nicholas J.; Wang, Bin; Brown, Collin R.; Hossain, Khalid; Golding, Terry D.; Leroux, Mathieu; Al Khalfioui, Mohamed; Tischler, Joseph G.; Ellis, Chase T.; Glaser, Evan R.; Sellers, Ian R.


    A significant improvement in the quality of dilute nitrides has recently led to the ability to reveal depletion widths in excess of 1 μm at 1 eV [1]. The real viability of dilute nitrides for PV has been recently demonstrated with the reporting of a record efficiency of 43.5% from a 4J MJSC including GaInNAs(Sb) [2]. Despite the progress made, these materials remain poorly understood and work continues to improve their lifetime and reproducibility. We have investigated the possibility of improving the functionality of GaInNAs using hydrogenation to selectively passivate mid-gap defects, while preserving the substitutional nitrogen. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements of the intrinsic region of a GaInNAs p-i-n solar cell show a classic "s-shape" associated with localization prior to hydrogenation. No sign of this "s-shape" is evident after hydrogenation, despite the retention of substitutional nitrogen as evidenced by the band absorption of 1 eV. The absence of an "s-shape" at low-temperature in hydrogenated GaInNAs is rather curious since, even in high quality nitrides this behavior is due to the emission of isoelectronic centers created via N-As substitution [3]. The potential origins of this behavior will be discussed. The promise of this process for GaInNAs solar cells was demonstrated by a three-fold improvement in the performance of a hydrogenated device with respect to an as-grown reference [4]. [1] "Wide-depletion width GaInNAs solar cells by thermal annealing," I. R. Sellers, W-S. Tan, K. Smith, S. Hooper, S. Day and M. Kauer, Applied Physics Letters 99, 151111 (2011) [2] "43.5% efficient lattice matched solar cells," M. Wiemer, V. Sabnis, and H. Yuen, Proc. SPIE 8108, 810804 (2011) [3]"Probing the nature of carrier localization in GaInNAs, epilayers using optical methods," T. Ysai, B. Barman, T. Scarce, G. Lindberg, M. Fukuda, V. R. Whiteside, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, I. R. Sellers, M. Al Khalfioui, M. Leroux, B. A. Weinstein and A

  18. The structure of *-inverse semigroups

    REN; Xueming


    [1]Hall T E.Orthodox semigroups.Pacific J Math,1971,39:677-686[2]Howie J M.An Introduction to Semigroup Theory.Now York:Academic Press,1976[3]Fountain J B.Abundant semigroups.Proc Lond Math Soc,1982,44 (3):103-129[4]El-Qallali A,Fountain J B.Idempotent-connected abundant semigroups.Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh,1981,Sec.A:79-90[5]El-Qallali A,Fountain J B.Quasi-adequate semigroups.Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh,1981,Sec.A:91-99[6]Fountain J B.Adequate semigroups.Proc Edinburgh Math Soc,1979,22:113-125[7]Guo X J.Abundant C-lpp proper semigroups.Southeast Asian Bull Math,2000,24 (1):41-50[8]Guo X J,Shum K P,Guo Y Q.Perfect rpp semigroups.Communications in Algebra,2001,29(6):2447-2459[9]Ren X M,Shum K P.Structure theorems for right pp-semigroups with left central idempotents.Discussions Math General Algebra and Applications,2000,20:63-75[10]Ren X M,Shum K P.The structure of superabundant semigroups.Sci China Ser A-Math,2004,47(5):756-771[11]Shum K P,Ren X M.Abundant semigroups with left central idempotents.Pure Math Appl,1999,10(1):109-113[12]Armstrong S.The structure of type A semigroups.Semigroup Forum,1984,29:319-336[13]Lawson M V.The structure of type A semigroups.Quart J Math Oxford,1986,37(2):279-298[14]Bailes G L.Right inverse semigroups.J Algebra,1973,26:492-507[15]Venkatesan P S.Right (left) inverse semigroups.J Algebra,1974,31:209-217[16]Yamada M.Orthodox semigroups whose idempotents satisfy a certain identity.Semigroup Forum,1973,6:113-128[17]Preston G B.Semiproducts of semigroups.Proc Roy Soc Edinburgh,1986,102A:91-102[18]Preston G B:Products of semigroups.In:Shum K P,Yuen P C,eds.Proc.of the conference"Ordered structures and algebra of computer languages",1991 (Hong Kong).Singapore:World Scientific Inc,1993.161-169[19]Lawson M V.The natural partial order on an abundant semigroup.Proc Edinburgh Math Soc,1987,30:169-186[20]El-Qallali A.(L)*-unipotent semigroups.J Pure and Applied Algebra,1989,62:19-23

  19. A Comparative Study on the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture



    distress from Bone marrow aspirations and lumbar punctures. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37(1:17-22.4. Ellis JA, Villeneuve K, Newhook K, Ulrichsen J. Pain Management Practices for Lumbar Punctures: Are We Consistent? J Pediatr Nurs 2007 Dec;22(6:479-87.5. Mathai A, Nazareth M, Raju RS. Preanesthetic sedation of preschool children: comparison of intranasal midazolam versus oral promethazin. Anesth Essays Res 2011;5(1:67-71.6. McCann ME, Kain ZN. The management of preoperative anxiety in children: an update. Anesth Analg 2001; 93(1: 98–105.7. Kain ZN, Caldwell-Andrews AA. Psychological preparation of children undergoing surgery. Anesth Clinic NA 2005;23:597–614.8. Wolf AR, Rosenbarum A, Kain ZN, Larsson P, Lönnqvist PA. The place of premedication in pediatric practice. Paediatr Anaesth 2009;19(9:817-28.9. Yuen VM, Hui TW, Irwin MG, Yuen MK. A Comparison of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine and Oral Midazolam for Premedication in Pediatric Anesthesia: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial. Anesth Analg 2008;106(6:1715–21.10. Funk W, Jakob W, Riedl T, Taeger K. Oral preanaestheticmedication for children: double blind randomized study of a combination of midazplam and ketamine vs midazolam or ketamine alone. Br JAnaesth 2000;84(3:355-4011. Mazurek MS. Sedation and Analgesia for Procedures outside the Operating Room. Semin in Pediatr Surg 2004;13(3:166-173.12. Jo SH, Hong HK, Chong SH, Lee HS, Choe H. H1 antihistamine drug promethazine directly blocks hERG K+ channel. Pharmacol Res 2009;60(5:429-37.13. Gutstein HB, Johnson KL, Heard MB, Gregory GA. Oral Ketamine Preanesthetic Medication in children, Anesthesiology 1992;76(1:28-33.14. Almenrader N, Passariello M, Coccetti B, Haiber R, Pietropaoli P. Premedication in children: a comparison of oral midazolam and oral clonidine. Pediatr Anesth 2007;17(12:1143–9.15. Singh N, Pandey RK, Saksena AK, Jaiswal JN. A comparative evaluation of oral midazolam with oral sedatives as  premedication in pediatric dentistry. J Clin Pediatr

  20. The South Tibetan Tadpole Zone: Ongoing density sorting at the Moho beneath the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone (and beneath volcanic arcs?)

    Kelemen, Peter; Hacker, Bradley


    at less than 700°C (e.g. Jackson 02). We build on earlier studies (LePichon et al 92, 97; Schulte-Pelkum et al 05; Monsalve et al 08) to develop the hypothesis that there is rapid growth of garnet at 80 km and 1000°C within subducting Indian crust, causing increased rock densities. Dense eclogites founder into the mantle, while relatively buoyant lithologies accumulate in thickening lower crust. Mantle return flow plus radioactive heating in thick, felsic crust maintains high temperature, facilitating formation of hybrid magmas and pyroxenites. The crustal volume grows at 760 cubic m/yr/m of strike length. Moho-depth earthquakes may be due to localized deformation and thermal runaway in weak layers and along the margins of dense, foundering diapirs (e.g., Larsen & Yuen 97; Braeck & Podladchikov 07; Kelemen & Hirth 07; Lister et al 08; Kufner et al 16). A similar process may take place at some convergent margins, where forearc crust is thrust beneath hot, magmatic arc crust, leading to extensive, Moho-depth density sorting and hybrid crust-mantle magmatism in Arc Tadpole Zones.

  1. Effect of Mantle Rheology on Viscous Heating induced during Ice Sheet Cycles

    Huang, Pingping; Wu, Patrick; van der Wal, Wouter


    little more irregular than that from uniform viscosity model. However, peak heating in the VM5a model is as big as 22.5 times that of the chondritic radiogenic heating, and is much bigger than that from linear rheology with uniform viscosity (3.95 times the chondritic radiogenic heating), non-linear rheology model (10.14 times) and composite rheology model (10.04 times). Applications of viscous heating will also be discussed. References Hanyk, L., Matyska, C., & Yuen, D. A. (2005). Short time-scale heating of the Earth's mantle by ice-sheet dynamics. Earth, planets and space, 57(9), 895-902. Wu, P. (2004). Using commercial finite element packages for the study of earth deformations, sea levels and the state of stress. Geophysical Journal International, 158(2), 401-408. Van der Wal, W., P. Wu, H. Wang & M.G. Sideris, (2010). Sea levels and uplift rate from composite rheology in glacial isostatic adjustment modeling, J. Geod., J. Geod., 50:38-48. Peltier, W., Argus, D., and Drummond, R. (2015). Space geodesy constrains ice age terminal deglaciation: The global ICE-6GC (VM5a) model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 120(1): 450-487

  2. Constraints From the Rock Record, and Complementary Speculation, on Subduction and the Evolution of the Mantle

    Kelemen, P.


    As time permits, I will cover some of the following: (1) What crustal components are subducted for long term recycling? (a) Revisiting an old approach, relatively new constraints on the "subduction component" in arc magmas can be derived from comparison of primitive MORB with a compilation of primitive arc lavas (Kelemen et al., ToG 03). These provide quantitative estimates for the composition of the "arc residue" in subducting oceanic crust and sediment. (b) It may be that substantial recycling in subduction settings is from the hanging wall, via subdution erosion (von Huene & Scholl, Rev Geophys 91) and "delamination" (Herzberg et al CMP 83; Kay & Kay GCA 88; Arndt & Goldstein T'phys 89). (c) Subducting sediment may migrate into the mantle wedge via buoyancy (Kelemen et al., ToG 03; Gerya & Yuen EPSL 03). (d) New ICPMS data are available on trace element characteristics of arc (Kelemen et al., ToG 03; Greene et al J Pet 06) and oceanic lower crust (not published, sorry!). I will illustrate evolution of radiogenic parent-daughter ratios as constrained by these data. (2) Where do residual peridotites go during subduction? I see three interesting possibilities. (a) Highly depleted cratonic mantle peridotites formed as relatively shallow residues (Bernstein et al EPSL 98), were carried to greater depth to form metamorphic garnet (Kelemen et al EPSL 98), and then were imbricated or rose buoyantly to become a long-lasting part of the cratonic mantle (Oxburgh & Parmentier, JGSL 77), where they have been affected by Arc(hean) processes (Kelemen et al EPSL 98). High light REE contents as well as measured high H2O in cratonic mantle indicate that it is not dry and viscous, so its long term stability is not well understood. There is insufficient work on how compositional buoyancy of highly depleted residues affects cratonic mantle stability. (b) Perhaps some cold, dry residues remain for long periods in the lower mantle. Trace element data suggest that some ubiquitous

  3. North Atlantic explosive cyclones and large scale atmospheric variability modes

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.


    MLR, Pinto JG, Trigo RM, Ludwig P, Ordóñez P, Yuen D, Trigo IF (2013) Explosive development of winter storm Xynthia over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 13:2239-2251. doi:10.5194/nhess-13-2239-2013 Woollings T, Hannachi A, Hoskins B (2010) Variability of the North Atlantic eddy-driven jet stream. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136, 856-868, doi:10.1002/qj.625 Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  4. Numerical Modelling of Subduction Zones: a New Beginning

    Ficini, Eleonora; Dal Zilio, Luca; Doglioni, Carlo; Gerya, Taras V.


    , if any (e.g., Doglioni et al., 2007; Afonso et al., 2008). Therefore we attempt to generate a different model setup in which are included both a decoupling at the lithosphere base and the "westward" drift of the lithosphere that implies a relative "eastward" mantle flow. The method used for this task is an implementation of I2VIS code, a 2D thermomechanical code incorporating both a characteristics based marker-in-cell method and conservative finite-difference (FD) schemes (Gerya and Yuen, 2003). The implementation involves both the integration of the LVZ and the application of an incoming and outgoing mantle flow through the lateral boundaries of the rectangular box (that represent the basic setup of the models). This new insight in numerical modelling of subduction zones could help to have a more accurate comprehension on what is actually influencing subduction zones dynamics in order to successively explain what are the causes of this fundamental process and what are its implications on plate tectonics dynamics.

  5. Using Scientific Thinking and Intelligent Aggregation to Tame Big Data

    Strelitz, R. A.; Yuen, D. A.


    Using Scientific Thinking and Intelligent Aggregation to Tame Big Data. Dave Yuen, Department of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute , University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0219 USA Richard Strelitz, CCS-3, MS B265, Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 We take the contrarian position that BIG DATA is at best a misnomer. The average human is confronted with Terabytes to Petabytes of sensor data daily, not to mention all of the internally generate throughts and conclusions. We start with the assumption that the coping mechanism is based on aggregation, suppression and prediction in a tight, Kalman filter based feedback system. Over the past year we have been developing tools and schemas that implement if not the mechanisms then the concepts we use every day, at work and in life. Current simulation science and its most faithful henchmen-visualization and statistics, are predicated on the idea that value at a point (on a grid) is the natural if not only was to consider data. It gives primacy to the geometry, itself an artifact of computational ease and also creates an entirely misleading sense that the value is precise and immutable. Yet when we view the same representation through our scientific lenses, we see patterns, structures, and familiar forms, and most often a large number of these in various sizes, orientations and stages of maturity. It is the pattern that matters. We have applied this concept to ocean eddy's that make up a significant part of the world wide ocean. Many ';see' the eddies, but few have attempted to compile demographics of size, age, depth, power that speak powerfully to the degree of mixing of various source waters. Fewer still have used this catalogue of self-similar features to develop scaling laws that relate to their formation and disappearance. Here we introduce the essential paradigm of the scientific method --observe, simulate, refine, repeat. A key feature of our approach is its adherence to first principles and

  6. Numerical Modeling of Deep Mantle Convection: Advection and Diffusion Schemes for Marker Methods

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Dabrowski, Marcin; Steinberger, Bernhard


    that we use for this study, the velocity field is discretised using second order triangular elements, which gives second order accuracy of interpolation from grid-nodes to markers. A fourth order Runge-Kutta solver is used to compute marker-trajectories. We reevaluate the velocity field for each of the intermediate steps of the ODE-solver, rendering our advection scheme to be fourth-order accurate in time. We compare two different approaches for performing the thermal diffusion step. In the first, more conventional approach, the energy equation is solved on a static grid. For this grid, we use first-order triangular elements and a higher resolution than for the velocity-grid, to compensate for the lower order elements. The temperature field is transferred between grid-nodes and markers, and a subgrid diffusion correction step (Gerya and Yuen, 2003) is included to account for the different spatial resolutions of the markers and the grid. In the second approach, the energy equation is solved directly on markers. To do this, we compute a constrained Delaunay triangulation, with markers as nodes, at every time step. We wish to resolve the large range of spatial scales of the solution at lowest possible computational cost. In several existing codes this is achieved with dynamically adaptive meshes, which use high resolution in regions with high solution gradients, and vice versa. The numerical scheme used in this study can be extended to include a similar feature, by regenerating the thermal and mechanical grids in the course of computation, adapting them to the temperature and chemistry fields carried by the markers. We present the results of thermochemical convection simulations obtained using the schemes outlined above, as well as the results of the numerical benchmarks commonly used in the geodynamics community. The quality of the solutions, as well as the computational cost of our schemes, are discussed.

  7. A local probability exponential inequality for the large deviation of an empirical process indexed by an unbounded class of functions and its application


    [1]Shorack, G. R., Wellner, J. A., Empirical Processes with Applications to Statistics, New York: Wiley, 1986.[2]Vaart, A. W., Wellner, J. A., Weak Convergence and Empirical Processes, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1996.[3]Chen Xiru, An Introduction of Mathematical Statistics, Beijing: Science Press, 1997.[4]Giné, E., Zinn, J., Bootstrapping empirical processes, Ann. Probab., 1990, 18: 851-869.[5]Zhang, D. X., Li G., Bootstrap approximation for generalized U-processes, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1994,39:1761-1765.[6]Zhang, D. X., Cheng, P., Random weighting approximation of empirical processes and their applications, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1996, 41: 353-357.[7]Zhang, D. X., Bayesian bootstraps for U-processes, hypothesis tests and convergence of Dirichlet U-processes,Statistica Sinica, 2001, 11: 463-478.[8]Yuen, K. C., Zhu, L, Zhang, D. X., Comparing k cumulative incidence functions through resampling methods,Lifetime Data Analysis, 2002, 8: 401-412.[9]Pollard, D., Convergence of Stochastic Processes, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984.[10]Talagrand, M., Sharper bounds for Gaussian and empirical processes, Ann. Probab., 1994, 22: 28-76.[11]Alexander, K. S., Probability inequalities for empirical processes and a law of the iterated logarithm, Ann.Probab., 1984, 12: 1041-1067.[12]Alexander, K. S., Correction: Probability inequalities for empirical processes and a law of the iterated logarithm,Ann. Probab., 1987, 15: 428-430.[13]Talagrand, M., New concentration inequalities on product spaces, Invent. Math., 1996, 126: 505-563.[14]Bennett, G., Probability inequalities for the sum of independent random variables, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1962, 57: 33-45.[15]Hoeffding, W., Probability inequalities for sums of bounded random variables, JASA., 1963, 58: 13-30.[16]Devroye, L., Bounds for the uniform deviation of empirical measures, J. Multivariate Anal., 1982, 12: 72-79.[17]Dudley, R. M

  8. Ecological impacts of flood control project on birds%防洪改善计划对鸟类的生态影响

    郭汉佳; 戴名扬


    A total of 23 hm2 of fishponds and 22 hm2 of cultivated lands in the New Territories of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) were converted to two flood control channels(Channels 60 and 43) by the Main Drainage Channels Project for Ngau Tam Mei, Yuen Long, and Kam Tin (MDC Projects). Post construction ecological monitoring surveys showed that bird abundance of the two flood control channels were lower than those of the habitats they replaced. Conversion of cu ltivated lands to Channel 43 resulted in decline of mean bird density from 33.9individuals/hm 2 to 2.2 individuals/hm2. Conversion of fishponds to Channel 60 resulted in decline of mean bird density from 5.2 individuals/hm 2 to 0.4 individual/hm 2.This was probably due to declines in food abundance, vegetati on cover and habitat complexity. Losses of ecological habitats were observed. The inner embankment of Channel 43 was lined with grasscrete to provide wildlife habitats to mitigate the loss of cultivated lands. This mitigation measure, however, proved ineffective.%香港特别行政区新界内有23 hm2的鱼塘和22 hm2的耕地,在"元朗-锦田-牛潭尾主要防洪改善计划"中被改变成两条防洪渠(防洪渠60号和43号).于该防洪改善计划中的生态监察调查中发现这两条防洪渠的鸟类数量均较原先的生境大大减少.在耕地改变成防洪渠43号的过程中,鸟类密度由33.9 只/hm2减少至2.2只/hm2.在鱼塘改变成防洪渠60号的过程中,鸟类密度由5.2 只/hm2 减少至0.4只/hm2.研究亦发现一些原本在鱼塘和耕地很常见的鸟类物种因为生境被改变而消失.这些转变可能和食物,植被及生境复杂程度的减少有关.另一方面,为纾缓因这防洪改善计划中损失的耕地生境,渠务署在防洪渠43号的河岸铺上混凝土草格,促进植物繁衍,为鸟类提供生境.但研究发现以混凝土草格建造的草坡并未能提供有效的纾缓措施,取代耕地生境以减少生态影响.

  9. Consequences of an unstable chemical stratification on mantle dynamics

    Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Breuer, Doris


    phase transition between lower and upper mantle and assumed all radiogenic heat sources to be enriched during the freezing-phase of the magma ocean in the uppermost 50 km [4]. A stagnant lid forms rapidly because of the strong temperature dependence of the viscosity. This prevents the uppermost dense cumulates to sink, even when allowing for a plastic yielding mechanism. Below this dense stagnant lid, the mantle chemical gradient settles to a stable configuration. The convection pattern is dominated by small-scale structures, which are difficult to reconcile with the large-scale volcanic features observed over Mars' surface. Assuming that the stagnant lid will break, a stable density gradient is obtained, with the densest material and the entire amount of heat sources lying above the core-mantle-boundary. This leads to a strong overheating of the lowermost mantle, whose temperature increases to values that exceed the liquidus. Therefore a fractionated global and deep magma ocean is difficult to reconcile with observations. Different scenarios assuming, for instance, a hemispherical or shallow magma ocean will have to be considered. References [1] N. Tosi, D.A. Yuen and O. Dadek; EPSL (2010) (Yet Another Convection Code, [2] C. Huettig and K. Stemmer; PEPI (2008) [3] L.T. Elkins-Tanton, E.M. Parmentier and P.C. Hess; Meteoritic and Planetary Science (2003) [4] L.T. Elkins-Tanton, S.E. Zaranek, E.M. Parmentier and P.C. Hess; EPSL (2005)

  10. Evaluation of the ASCO Value Framework for Anticancer Drugs at an Academic Medical Center.

    Wilson, Leslie; Lin, Tracy; Wang, Ling; Patel, Tanuja; Tran, Denise; Kim, Sarah; Dacey, Katie; Yuen, Courtney; Kroon, Lisa; Brodowy, Bret; Rodondi, Kevin


    between frameworks. The ASCO Value Framework requires further specificity before use in a clinical setting, since it currently results in low inter-rater reliability and validity. Furthermore, ASCO scores were unable to discriminate between drugs providing the most and least value. The evaluation provides specific areas of weakness that can be addressed in future updates of the ASCO framework to improve usability. Meanwhile, the UCSF Medical Center should rely on CEAs, which are highly accessible for the highlighted cancer drugs. The MOC role can include summarizing and disseminating available CEA studies for interpretation by clinicians and financial counselors around drug value. Funding for this research was contributed by the University of California, San Francisco, Medical Center Campus Strategic Initiative Program. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Study concept and design were contributed primarily by Wilson, along with Wang and Patel. Kim, Dacey, and Yuen collected the data, and data interpretation was performed by Wilson and Lin. The manuscript was written by Wilson, Lin, Wang, and Tran and revised by Lin, Redondi, Brodowy, and Kroon.

  11. Zonisamide Efficacy as Adjunctive Therapy in Children With Refractory Epilepsy

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH


    . Healthcare, Philadelphia (2002, pp. 873-879.16. Baulac M. Introduction to zonisamide. Epilepsy Res2006 Feb;68 (Suppl 2:S3-9. 17. Baulac M, Ilo E. Leppik. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive zonisamide therapy for refractory partial seizures. Epilepsy Research 2007;75:75-83. 18. Coppola G, Grosso S, Verrotti A, Parisi P, Luchetti A,Franzoni E, et al. Zonisamide in children and young adults with refractory epilepsy: An open label, multicenter Italian study. Epilepsy Research 2009;83:112-116.19. Tan HJ, Martland TR, Appleton RE, Kneen R. Effectiveness and tolerability of zonisamide in children with epilepsy: A retrospective review. Seizure 2010;19:31-35.20. Stephen LJ, Kelly K, Wilson EA, Parker P, Brodie MJ. A prospective audit of adjunctive zonisamide in an everyday clinical setting. Epilepsy Behav 2010 Apr;17(4:455-60.21. Catarino CB, Bartolini E, Bell GS, Yuen AWC, Duncan JS, Sander JW.The long-term retention of zonisamide in a large cohort of people with epilepsy at a tertiary referral centre. Epilepsy Research 2011;96:39-44.22. Loscher W, Schmidt D. Experimental and clinical evidence for loss of effect(tolerance during prolonged treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 2006;47(8:1253-84.23. Eun SH, Kim HD, Eun BL, Lee IK, Chung HJ, Kim JS, et al. Comparative trial of low- and high-dose zonisamide as monotherapy for childhood epilepsy.Seizure 2011;20(7:558-63.

  12. Use of multiple attributes decision-making Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS for Ghare-Gheshlagh calcite in determination of optimum geochemical sampling sites

    Mansour Rezaei Azizi


    . Geological map of Mahabad, scale 1:100,000. Geological Survey of Iran. (in Persian Momenei, M., 2006. New aspects of operation research. Tehran University Press, Tehran, 326 pp. (in Persian Nesbitt, H.W., MacRae, N.D. and Kronberg, B.I., 1990. Amazon deep-sea fan muds: light REE enriched products of extreme chemical weathering. Earth Planet Science Letters, 100(1: 118-123. Stocklin, J. and Nabavi, M., 1972. Tectonic Map of Iran, scale: 1:100,000. Geological Survey of Iran. Taylor, S.R. and McLennan, S.M., 1981. The composition and evolution of the continental crust: rare earth elements evidence from sedimentary rocks. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 301(3: 381-399. Zhijun, W., Louis N. and Yuen, W., 2013. Modelling cracking behavior of rock mass containing inclusions using the enriched numerical manifold method. Engineering Geology, 5(1: 1-52.

  13. Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes in Children: A Review Article

    Samin ALAVI


    2004 Oct;127 (Pt 10:2331–8. Epub 2004 Sep 10.30. Titulaer MJ, Soffietti R, Dalmau J, Gilhus NE, GiomettoB, Graus F, et al. Screening for tumours in paraneoplasticsyndromes: report of an EFNS Task Force. Eur J Neurol 2010; 18(1:19-e3. Epub 2010 Sep 29.31. Wells EM, Dalmau J. Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders in children. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2011;11(2:187-94.32. Haberlandt E, Bast T, Ebner A, Holthausen H, Kluger G,Kravljanac R, et al. Limbic encephalitis in children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child. 2010; 96(2:186-91.33. Yeung WL, Li CK, Nelson EA, Chik KW, Joynt GM, Yuen E, et al. Unusual neurological presentation of neuroblastoma. Hong Kong Med J 2003; 9(2:142–4.34. Gultekin SH, Rosenfeld MR, Voltz R, Eichen J, Posner JB, Dalmau J. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis:neurological symptoms, immunological findings and tumour association in 50 patients. Brain 2000;123 (Pt 7:1481-94.35. Vedeler CA, Antoine JC, Giometto B, Graus F, Grisold W, Hart IK, et al. Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome Euronetwork. Management of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes: report of an EFNS Task Force. Eur J Neurol. 2006 Jul; 13(7: 682-90.36. Darnell RB: NMDA receptor as a target in paraneoplasticencephalitis. Ann Neurol 2007; 61(1: 3-4.37. Dalmau J, Tüzün E, Wu HY, Masjuan J, Rossi JE, Voloschin A, et al. Paraneoplastic anti-Nmethyl-Daspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma. Ann Neurol 2007; 61(1: 25-36.38. Dalmau J, Gleichman AJ, Hughes EG, Rossi JE, Peng X, Lai M, et al. Anti- NMDA receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7(12:1091-98.39. Florance NR, Davis RL, Lam C, Szperka C, Zhou L,Ahmad S, et al. Anti-N-methyl-Daspartate receptor (NMDAR encephalitis in children and adolescents. Ann Neurol 2009; 66(1:11-8. 40. Drukker CA, Heij HA, Wijnaendts LC, Verbeke JI, Kaspers GJ. Paraneoplastic gastro-intestinal anti-Hu syndrome in neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009; 52(3:396-8.41. Emir S

  14. from Editorial

    Ugur dEMİRAY


    learning in developing countries were to be achieved.The Second article is on “Student Experience In Blog Use For Supplementary Purposes In Courses”, written by Adile Askim KURT, Serkan IZMIRLI from Anadolu University, Eskisehir and Ozden SAHIN-IZMIRLI from Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, TURKEY. The purpose of this study is to determine the views of students about blog use for supplementary purposes in courses. The third articles are from, MALAYSIA. The third one is on “Pre-Service Teachers’ Training In Information Communication And Technology For The Esl Classrooms in Malaysia”, conducted by Chan Yuen FOOK, Gurnam Kaur SIDHU, Nursyaidatul KAMAR Md. Shah and Norazah Abdul AZIZ, Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi mara Malaysia. In their paper they mentioned that to investigate the ESL pre-service teachers’ attitudes, competency and preparation in integrating ICT in their teaching and learning activities. These pre-service teachers, who had undergone 12 weeks of practicum teaching in secondary schools, were given a set of questionnaire and the data gathered from the questionnaires were statistically analyzed. The 4th article arrived from SAUDI ARABIA which is prepared on “Best Practices In Online Education: Online Instructors, Courses, And Administrators” Written by Ziad D. BAGHDADI. This paper describes the roles of teachers and administrators in online learning, and discusses the rules of best practices for both. The fifth article again from MALATSIA which is entitled as “Users’ Behavior Towards Ubiquitous M-Learning” written by Norazah Mohd SUKI and Norbayah Mohd SUKI. This study focused on beneficial for leaning institutions which desire to use M-learning.The sixth article from TURKEY on “The Use of Mobile Technologies In Multimedia-Supported Learning Environments” written by Suzan DUYGU ERIŞTI, Halil Ibrahim HASESKI, Betül ULUUYSAL and Ferit KARAKOYUN from Anadolu University, Faculty of Education. The aim of the study is

  15. Prioritizing social and economic effects of sport places on Urban Environment (A case study: Yazd City

    M. Soltanhosseini


    :// D K, Kirtland. K A, Ainsworth. B E, Addy. C l (2004, “Socioeconomic status and perceptions of access and safety for physical activity”, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, pp. 20–28.Yuen. B (2008, “Sport and urban development in Singapore”, Cities, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, pp. 29-36.