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Sample records for rays methodology dose-response

  1. Cellular response to low Gamma-ray doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares A, E; Vega C, H R; Leon, L.C. de . [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rebolledo D, O; Radillo J, F [Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias de la Universidad de Colima, Colima (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    Lymphocytes, obtained from healthy donors, were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp70 and Hsc70.Hsp70 protein was detected after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 1.25 c Gy gamma-ray dose, lymphocytes expressed Hsp70 protein, indicating a threshold response to gamma rays. (Author)

  2. Cellular response to low Gamma-ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.; Leon, L.C. de; Rebolledo D, O.; Radillo J, F.

    2002-01-01

    Lymphocytes, obtained from healthy donors, were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp70 and Hsc70.Hsp70 protein was detected after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 1.25 c Gy gamma-ray dose, lymphocytes expressed Hsp70 protein, indicating a threshold response to gamma rays. (Author)

  3. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    CERN Document Server

    Simpkins, A A

    2002-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  4. Cytogenetics dosimetry: dose-response curve for low doses of X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Virginia E. Noval; Pineda Bolivar, William R.; Riano, Victor M. Pabon; Ureana, Cecilia Crane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary study for the standardization in the future, the dose-response curve for low doses of X-rays, through the analysis of in vitro cultures of peripheral blood samples of 3 men and 3 women occupationally not exposed to artificial sources of ionizing radiation, age 18-40 years, where possible nonsmokers

  5. Optimization of foaming properties of sludge protein solution by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Yulin; Xiang, Yuxiu; Wang, Lipeng; Zhang, Zhifang

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken experimental design were used to model and optimize the operational parameters of foaming properties of the sludge protein solution by 60 Co γ-ray/H 2 O 2 treatment. The four variables involved in this research were the protein solution concentration, H 2 O 2 , pH and dose. In the range studied, statistical analysis of the results showed that selected variables had a significant effect on protein foaming properties. The optimized conditions contained: protein solution concentration 26.50% (v/v), H 2 O 2 concentration 0.30% (v/v), pH value 9.0, and dose 4.81 kGy. Under optimal conditions, the foamability and foam stability approached 23.3 cm and 21.3 cm, respectively. Regression analysis with R 2 value of 0.9923 (foamability) and 0.9922 (foam stability) indicated a satisfactory correlation between the experimental data and predicted values (response). In addition, based on a feasibility analysis, the 60 Co γ-ray/H 2 O 2 method can improve odor and color of the protein foaming solution. - Highlights: • Effects of 60 Co γ-ray/H 2 O 2 on foaming properties of sludge protein were studied. • Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken experimental design were applied. • 60 Co γ-ray/H 2 O 2 method can improve foaming properties of protein solution.

  6. Adaptive response of DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes to low dose and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Su Liaoyuan; Kong Xiangrong; Tian Hailin

    1996-01-01

    Fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding was used to study the adaptive response of DNA strand breaks induced by low dose γ-rays and the effect of pADPRT inhibitor-3-AB on the adaptive response. The results indicated that 0.5-4 cGy γ-rays could induce adaptive response of DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes, especially at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 cGy. This response was not obvious after 8.0 cGy γ-rays irradiation. A challenge dose of 5-20 Gy could make the response expressed, 15 Gy was the best one and 30 Gy was too high to give an adaptive response . 0.5 mM 3-AB could inhibit the response vigorously. As the concentration increased, the adaptive response could be inhibited completely

  7. Comparison of X-ray and gamma-ray dose-response curves for pink somatic mutations in Tradescantia clone 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underbrink, A.G.; Kellerer, A.M.; Mills, R.E.; Sparrow, A.H.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, N.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Microdosimetric data indicate that the mean specific energy, xi, produced by individual charged particles from X rays and gamma rays is different for the two radiation qualities by nearly a factor of two. In order to test whether this influences the initial, linear component in the dose-effect relations, a comparison was made between dose-response curves for pink somatic mutations in Tradescantia clone 02 stamen hairs following X and gamma irradiations. Absorbed doses ranged from 2.66 to 300 rad. The results are in agreement with predictions made on the basis of microdosimetric data. At low doses gamma rays are substantially less effective than X rays. The RBE of gamma rays vs. X rays at low doses was approximately 0.6, a value lower than those usually reported in other experimental systems. (orig.) [de

  8. X-ray conditions and response characteristics of automatic dose control in cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroaki

    1997-01-01

    X-ray characteristics including subject thickness (copper plate), tube voltage, tube current and irradiation time were measured at stability, with an automatic dose control x-ray generator for cineangiography. Regardless of subject thickness, it is possible that the energy input to the x-ray tube in one frame may be decreased. The automatic control response was measured after rapid fluctuation in subject thickness. Two inverter-type x-ray generators with different automatic control units were studied. The older control unit changes exposure dose by tube voltage and tube current, while the newer one changes exposure dose by tube voltage, tube current and irradiation time. The maximum rate of change in tube voltage is greater with the newer control unit. In addition, the actual tube current response of the newer control unit in increasing nominal value is faster than the older one. In the new control unit, for each pulse, irradiation is cut off by means of a signal that the exposure has reached the proper value. Thus given the same differential in subject thickness, the newer control unit resumed stability faster than the older one. (author)

  9. X-ray conditions and response characteristics of automatic dose control in cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Hiroaki [Cardiovascular Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    X-ray characteristics including subject thickness (copper plate), tube voltage, tube current and irradiation time were measured at stability, with an automatic dose control x-ray generator for cineangiography. Regardless of subject thickness, it is possible that the energy input to the x-ray tube in one frame may be decreased. The automatic control response was measured after rapid fluctuation in subject thickness. Two inverter-type x-ray generators with different automatic control units were studied. The older control unit changes exposure dose by tube voltage and tube current, while the newer one changes exposure dose by tube voltage, tube current and irradiation time. The maximum rate of change in tube voltage is greater with the newer control unit. In addition, the actual tube current response of the newer control unit in increasing nominal value is faster than the older one. In the new control unit, for each pulse, irradiation is cut off by means of a signal that the exposure has reached the proper value. Thus given the same differential in subject thickness, the newer control unit resumed stability faster than the older one. (author)

  10. Response of human and rabbit lymphocytes to low doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, L.

    1982-01-01

    The response of human and rabbit lymphocytes to low doses of X-rays was studied by the yields of dicentrics in first division metaphases. For both species, the dose-response curve was best fitted to the linear-quadratic model with a linear component predominating up to 67 and 42 rad respectively for man and rabbit. A calibration curve (5-400 rad) was obtained by combining the present results on man with previous data at higher doses. On the other hand, it appears that, at low doses, the radiosentivity of human lymphocytes is significantly higher than that of rabbit lymphocytes [fr

  11. Introduction to methodology of dose-response meta-analysis for binary outcome: With application on software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Jia, Pengli; Yu, Liu; Xu, Chang

    2018-05-01

    Dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) is widely applied to investigate the dose-specific relationship between independent and dependent variables. Such methods have been in use for over 30 years and are increasingly employed in healthcare and clinical decision-making. In this article, we give an overview of the methodology used in DRMA. We summarize the commonly used regression model and the pooled method in DRMA. We also use an example to illustrate how to employ a DRMA by these methods. Five regression models, linear regression, piecewise regression, natural polynomial regression, fractional polynomial regression, and restricted cubic spline regression, were illustrated in this article to fit the dose-response relationship. And two types of pooling approaches, that is, one-stage approach and two-stage approach are illustrated to pool the dose-response relationship across studies. The example showed similar results among these models. Several dose-response meta-analysis methods can be used for investigating the relationship between exposure level and the risk of an outcome. However the methodology of DRMA still needs to be improved. © 2018 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Dose response of micronuclei induced by combination radiation of α-particles and γ-rays in human lymphoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ruiping; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► α-Particle induced MN had a biphasic dose–response followed by a bystander model. ► MN dose–response of α- and γ-combination IR was similar to that of α-particle. ► α-Particles followed by γ-rays yielded a synergistic effect on MN induction. ► Low dose γ-rays triggered antagonistic and adaptive responses against α-particle. - Abstract: Combination radiation is a real situation of both nuclear accident exposure and space radiation environment, but its biological dosimetry is still not established. This study investigated the dose–response of micronuclei (MN) induction in lymphocyte by irradiating HMy2.CIR lymphoblast cells with α-particles, γ-rays, and their combinations. Results showed that the dose–response of MN induced by γ-rays was well-fitted with the linear-quadratic model. But for α-particle irradiation, the MN induction had a biphasic phenomenon containing a low dose hypersensitivity characteristic and its dose response could be well-stimulated with a state vector model where radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was involved. For the combination exposure, the dose response of MN was similar to that of α-irradiation. However, the yield of MN was closely related to the sequence of irradiations. When the cells were irradiated with α-particles at first and then γ-rays, a synergistic effect of MN induction was observed. But when the cells were irradiated with γ-rays followed by α-particles, an antagonistic effect of MN was observed in the low dose range although this combination radiation also yielded a synergistic effect at high doses. When the interval between two irradiations was extended to 4 h, a cross-adaptive response against the other irradiation was induced by a low dose of γ-rays but not α-particles.

  13. Pan-oral dose assessment: a comparative report of methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafford, J.; Pryor, M.; Hollaway, P.; Peet, D.; Oduko, J.

    2015-01-01

    National guidance from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM Report 91) currently recommends that the patient dose for a pan-oral X-ray unit is measured as dose area product (DAP) replacing dose width product described in earlier guidance. An investigation identifying different methods available to carry out this measurement has been undertaken and errors in the methodologies analysed. It has been shown that there may be up to a 30 % variation in DAP measurement between methods. This paper recommends that where possible a DAP meter is used to measure the dose-area product from a pan-oral X-ray unit to give a direct DAP measurement. However, by using a solid-state dose measurement and film/ruler to calculate DAP the authors have established a conversion factor of 1.4. It is strongly recommended that wherever a DAP value is quoted the methodology used to obtain that value is also reported. (authors)

  14. Methodology for calibration of ionization chambers for X-ray of low energy in absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The beams of low energy X-ray (10 to 150 kV) are used in several places in the world to treat a wide variety of surface disorders, and between these malignancies. As in Brazil, at this moment, there is no calibration laboratory providing the control service or calibration of parallel plate ionization chambers, the aim of this project was to establish a methodology for calibration of this kind of ionization chambers at low energy X-ray beams in terms of absorbed dose to water using simulators in the LCI. (author)

  15. Establishment and verification of dose-response curve of chromosomal aberrations after exposure to very high dose γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Luo Yisheng; Cao Zhenshan; Liu Xiulin

    2006-01-01

    To estimate accurately biological dose of the victims exposed to high dose, the dose-response curves of chromosome aberration induced by 6-22 Gy 60 Co γ-ray were established. Human peripheral blood in vitro was irradiated, then lymphocytes were concentrated, cultured 52h, 68h and 72h and harvested. The frequencies of dicentrics (multi-centrics) and rings were counted and compared between different culture times. The dose-response curves and equations were established, as well as verified with high dose exposure accidents. The experiment showed that the culture time should be prolonged properly after high dose exposure, and no significant differences were observed between 52-72h culture. The dose-response curve of 6-22 Gy fitted to linear-square model Y=-2.269 + 0.776D - 7.868 x 10 -3 D 2 and is reliable through verification of the accident dose estimations. In this study, the dose-response curve and equation of chromosome dic + r after 6-22 Gy high dose irradiation were established firstly, and exact dose estimation can be achieved according to it. (authors)

  16. Cytogenetic adaptive response of cultured fish cells to low doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Etoh, Hisami; Rienkjkarn, M.

    1992-01-01

    The adaptive response was examining chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in cultured fish cells, ULF-23 (mudminnow) and CAF-31 (gold fish). When cultured fish cells were first irradiated with small doses of X-rays, they became less sensitive to subsequent exposures to high doses. The effective adaptive dose was 4.8 cGy-9.5 cGy. Adaptive doses given cells in the G1 phase were more effective than when given in the S phase. The adaptive response was maximal at 5 hours and disappeared at 10 hours after the adaptive dose. The expression of the response was inhibited by treatment with 3-aminobenzamide, as reported for mammalian cells, and with arabinofuranoside cytosine, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. Caffeine, an inhibitor of post-replicational repair, had no effect on the response. (author)

  17. Cytogenetic adaptive response of cultured fish cells to low doses of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Etoh, Hisami (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Rienkjkarn, M.

    1992-12-01

    The adaptive response was examining chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in cultured fish cells, ULF-23 (mudminnow) and CAF-31 (gold fish). When cultured fish cells were first irradiated with small doses of X-rays, they became less sensitive to subsequent exposures to high doses. The effective adaptive dose was 4.8 cGy-9.5 cGy. Adaptive doses given cells in the G1 phase were more effective than when given in the S phase. The adaptive response was maximal at 5 hours and disappeared at 10 hours after the adaptive dose. The expression of the response was inhibited by treatment with 3-aminobenzamide, as reported for mammalian cells, and with arabinofuranoside cytosine, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. Caffeine, an inhibitor of post-replicational repair, had no effect on the response. (author).

  18. Characterization of the adaptive response to ionizing radiation induced by low doses of X-rays to Vibrio cholerae cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Jayasri

    1996-01-01

    Pretreatment with sublethal doses of X-rays induced an adaptive response in Vibrio cholerae cells as indicated by their greater resistance to the subsequent challenging doses of X-irradiation. The adaptive response was maximum following a pre-exposure dose of 1.7 Gy X-rays and an optimum incubation period of 40 min at 37C. Pre-exposure to a sublethal dose of 1.7 Gy X-rays made the Vibrio cholerae cells 3.38-fold more resistant to the subsequent challenge by X-rays. Pretreatment with a sublethal dose of hydrogen peroxide offered a similar degree of protection to the bacterial cells against subsequent treatment with challenging doses of X-ray radiation. However, exposure of Vibrio cholerae cells to mild heat (42C for 10 min) before X-ray irradiation decreased their survival following X-irradiation

  19. Validation of dose-response calibration curve for X-Ray field of CRCN-NE/CNEN: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Laís Melo; Mendonç, Julyanne Conceição de Goes; Andrade, Aida Mayra Guedes de; Hwang, Suy F.; Mendes, Mariana Esposito; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mendes_sb@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares, (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana Maria M.A., E-mail: july_cgm@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitória de Santo Antão, PE (Brazil). Centro Acadêmico de Vitória

    2017-07-01

    It is very important in accident investigations that accurate estimating of absorbed dose takes place, so that it contributes to medical decisions and overall assessment of long-term health consequences. Analysis of chromosome aberrations is the most developed method for biological monitoring, and frequencies of dicentric chromosomes are related to absorbed dose of human peripheral blood lymphocytes using calibration curves. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that each biodosimetry laboratory sets its own calibration curves, given that there are intrinsic differences in protocols and dose interpretations when using calibration curves produced in other laboratories, which could add further uncertainties to dose estimations. The Laboratory for Biological Dosimetry CRCN-NE recently completed dose-response calibration curves for X ray field. Curves of chromosomes dicentrics and dicentrics plus rings were made using Dose Estimate. This study aimed to validate the calibration curves dose-response for X ray with three irradiated samples. Blood was obtained by venipuncture from healthy volunteer and three samples were irradiated by x-rays of 250 kVp with different absorbed doses (0,5Gy, 1Gy and 2Gy). The irradiation was performed at the CRCN-NE/CNEN Metrology Service with PANTAK X-ray equipment, model HF 320. The frequency of dicentric and centric rings chromosomes were determined in 500 metaphases per sample after cultivation of lymphocytes, and staining with Giemsa 5%. Results showed that the estimated absorbed doses are included in the confidence interval of 95% of real absorbed dose. These Dose-response calibration curves (dicentrics and dicentrics plus rings) seems valid, therefore other tests will be done with different volunteers. (author)

  20. Validation of dose-response calibration curve for X-Ray field of CRCN-NE/CNEN: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Laís Melo; Mendonç, Julyanne Conceição de Goes; Andrade, Aida Mayra Guedes de; Hwang, Suy F.; Mendes, Mariana Esposito; Lima, Fabiana F.; Melo, Ana Maria M.A.

    2017-01-01

    It is very important in accident investigations that accurate estimating of absorbed dose takes place, so that it contributes to medical decisions and overall assessment of long-term health consequences. Analysis of chromosome aberrations is the most developed method for biological monitoring, and frequencies of dicentric chromosomes are related to absorbed dose of human peripheral blood lymphocytes using calibration curves. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that each biodosimetry laboratory sets its own calibration curves, given that there are intrinsic differences in protocols and dose interpretations when using calibration curves produced in other laboratories, which could add further uncertainties to dose estimations. The Laboratory for Biological Dosimetry CRCN-NE recently completed dose-response calibration curves for X ray field. Curves of chromosomes dicentrics and dicentrics plus rings were made using Dose Estimate. This study aimed to validate the calibration curves dose-response for X ray with three irradiated samples. Blood was obtained by venipuncture from healthy volunteer and three samples were irradiated by x-rays of 250 kVp with different absorbed doses (0,5Gy, 1Gy and 2Gy). The irradiation was performed at the CRCN-NE/CNEN Metrology Service with PANTAK X-ray equipment, model HF 320. The frequency of dicentric and centric rings chromosomes were determined in 500 metaphases per sample after cultivation of lymphocytes, and staining with Giemsa 5%. Results showed that the estimated absorbed doses are included in the confidence interval of 95% of real absorbed dose. These Dose-response calibration curves (dicentrics and dicentrics plus rings) seems valid, therefore other tests will be done with different volunteers. (author)

  1. Radiation dose response of N channel MOSFET submitted to filtered X-ray photon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Filho, Luiz C.; Monte, David S.; Barros, Fabio R.; Santos, Luiz A. P.

    2018-01-01

    MOSFET can operate as a radiation detector mainly in high-energy photon beams, which are normally used in cancer treatments. In general, such an electronic device can work as a dosimeter from threshold voltage shift measurements. The purpose of this article is to show a new way for measuring the dose-response of MOSFETs when they are under X-ray beams generated from 100kV potential range, which is normally used in diagnostic radiology. Basically, the method consists of measuring the MOSFET drain current as a function of the radiation dose. For this the type of device, it has to be biased with a high value resistor aiming to see a substantial change in the drain current after it has been irradiated with an amount of radiation dose. Two types of N channel device were used in the experiment: a signal transistor and a power transistor. The delivered dose to the device was varied and the electrical curves were plotted. Also, a sensitivity analysis of the power MOSFET response was made, by varying the tube potential of about 20%. The results show that both types of devices have responses very similar, the shift in the electrical curve is proportional to the radiation dose. Unlike the power MOSFET, the signal transistor does not provide a linear function between the dose rate and its drain current. We also have observed that the variation in the tube potential of the X-ray equipment produces a very similar dose-response.

  2. X-rays individual dose assessment using TLD dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in Embalse NPP for measuring individual X-ray dose in dentists and radiologists, who work in areas near the plant. Personnel is provided with TLD personal dosimeters for thoracic use, as well as TLD ring dosimeters. This individual X-ray dosimetry is fundamental in order to know the effective energy coming from the radiation field, since the dosimetry factors depend on it. On the other hand, the response of the TLD crystals also depends of the effective energy; this accentuates the problem when assessing the individual dose. The X-ray dosimeter must simultaneously determine the value of the effective energy and the corresponding dose value. The basic principle for determining effective energy is by using at least two different TLD materials covered by filters of different thickness. The TLD materials used have totally energy responses. Therefore, different readouts from each of the crystals are obtained. The ratio between both readouts provides a factor that depends of the effective energy but that is 'independent' from the exposure values irradiated to the dosimeter. The Personal TLD dosimeter currently in use is Bicron-Harshaw. It comprises a carrier model 8807. This carrier contains a card model 2211 which groups two TLD 200 crystals and two TLD 100 crystals. It has internal filters at each side of the TLD 200 crystals. The periodical calibration of these dosimeters consists in the irradiation of some dosimeters with different X-ray energy beams in the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). This dosimeter was used, by the National Regulatory Authority (ARN) in several comparisons, always getting satisfactory results. (author)

  3. Cosmic-ray contribution in measurement of environmental gamma-ray dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Kazunori; Honda, Kouichirou; Miyano, Keiji

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays several kinds of dosimeters are being used for environmental gamma-ray monitoring. However the results measured by those instruments are not always in good agreement. It may be caused from the different characteristics of dosimeters. In particular the different responses of the instruments to cosmic-rays give significant influence on the results. Environmental radiation measurements at various altitudes on Mt. Fuji were carried out using a scintillation spectrometer with 3''φ spherical NaI(Tl), a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC), an air-equivalent ionization chamber (IC), thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD), radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLD) and NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meters so that the response characteristics of these instruments to cosmic-rays could be clarified. Cosmic-ray contributions for all instruments were correlated with counting rate over 3 MeV by the spectrometer. Each contribution can be estimated by measurement of the counting rate. Conversion factors (nGy/h/cpm) for IC, PIC, TLD, RPLD and NaI survey meters (TCS166 and TCS121C) were 0.33, 0.32, 0.25, 0.24, 0.06 and -0.01, respectively. Self-doses of these instruments were estimated by measurements at Nokogiriyama facilities of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo. Self-doses for TLD and RPLD were approximately 6 nGy/h. The self dose effect should be taken into consideration in environmental dose measurements. These data are expected to be useful in estimating the cosmic-ray contribution and self-dose in the measurement of environmental gamma-ray dose. (author)

  4. A threshold in the dose-response relationship for X-ray induced somatic mutation frequency in drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koana, Takao; Sakai, Kazuo; Okada, M.O.

    2004-01-01

    The dose-response relationship of ionizing radiation and its stochastic effects has been thought to be linear without any thresholds for a long time. The basic data for this model was obtained from mutational assays using germ cells of male fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, cancer-causing activity should be examined more appropriately in somatic cells than in germ cells. In this paper, we examined the dose-response relationship of X-ray irradiation and somatic mutation in drosophila, and found a threshold at approximately 1 Gy in the DNA repair proficient flies. In the repair deficient siblings, the threshold was smaller and the inclination of the dose-response curve was five times steeper. These results suggest that the dose-response relationship between X-ray irradiation and somatic mutation has a threshold, and that the DNA repair function contributes to its formation. (author)

  5. Comparative response of dogs and monkeys to sublethal acute and continuous low dose-rate gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.; Johnson, O.S.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Vigil, E.A.

    1977-02-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (injury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with 35 R/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injury remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50 percent) and monkeys (8 percent) died from injury incurred during the conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what might be expected from a single acute dose. Mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approximately 1400 h). Thus, hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35 R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater than for their control counterparts. Thus, the long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than four times the acute LD 50 - 30 in dogs and approximately two times that of monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 R/day

  6. Dose-response for X-ray induction of myeloid leukaemia in male CBA/H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mole, R H; Papworth, D G; Corp, M J [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1983-02-01

    The form of the dose-response for induction of malignant diseases in vivo by ionizing radiation is not yet established in spite of its scientific interest and its practical importance. Considerably extended observations have confirmed that the dose-response for acute myeloid leukaemia induced in male CBA/H mice by X-ray exposure is highly curvilinear. The dose-response was well fitted by the expression aD/sup 2/esup(-..gamma..D) (D = dose) in agreement with induction at the cellular level in proportion to D/sup 2/ over the whole dose range 0.25-6.0 Gy. The factor esup(-..gamma..D) accounts for the inescapable concomitant inactivating action of the inducing irradiation. The quantitative aspects of induction of myeloid leukaemia by ionizing radiation are unlike the induction of genetic mutation or cell inactivation and suggest that interaction of two adjoining cells is an essential element in radiation leukaemogenesis.

  7. Thermoluminescent dosimeters for low dose X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Sol Fernández, S.; García-Salcedo, R.; Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G.; Gaona, E.; León-Alfaro, M.A. de; Rivera-Montalvo, T.

    2016-01-01

    The response of TLD-100, CaSO_4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P for a range of X-ray low dose was measured. For calibration, the TLDs were arranged at the center of the X-ray field. The dose output of the X-ray machine was determined using an ACCU-Gold. All dosimeters were exposed at the available air kerma values of 14.69 mGy within a field 10×10 cm"2 at 80 cm of SSD. Results of LiF:Mg,Cu,P X-ray irradiated showed 4.8 times higher sensitivity than TLD-100. Meanwhile, TL response of CaSO_4:Dy exposed at the same dose was 5.6 time higher than TLD-100. Experimental results show for low dose X-ray measurements a better linearity for LiF:Mg,Cu,P compared with that of TLD-100. CaSO_4:Dy showed a linearity from 0.1 to 60 mGy - Highlights: • Low dose X-ray doses for personal dosimetry were measured. • Radiation dose (µGy ) for environmental dosimetry were determined. • Scattering radiation dose were measured by TLDs. • Linearity of pair TLD system was successful in the range of microgray. • Pair TLDs composed by CaSO_4:Dy and by LiF:Mg,Cu,P. is suggested for clinical dosimetry.

  8. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1-5.5 MeV alphas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Herrera, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics fielded at inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray uences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-K α and K β x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1-5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0 ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± 2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± 1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± 5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual effect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula

  9. Response of human lymphocytes to low gamma ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Carrillo, HR; Banuelos Valenzuela, R; Manzanares Acuna, E; Sanchez-Rodriguez, S.H

    2001-01-01

    Radiation and non-radiation workers lymphocytes were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp25, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90; from these, only Hsp70 protein was detected before and after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 70.5 mGy gamma-ray dose, radiation worker's lymphocytes expressed more Hsp70 protein, than non-radiation workers' lymphocytes, indicating a larger tolerance to gamma rays (gamma tolerance), due to an adaptation process developed by their labor condition (Au)

  10. Assessment of organ equivalent doses and effective doses from diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun

    2003-02-01

    The MIRD-type adult male, female and age 10 phantoms were constructed to evaluate organ equivalent dose and effective dose of patient due to typical diagnostic X-ray examination. These phantoms were constructed with external and internal dimensions of Korean. The X-ray energy spectra were generated with SPEC78. MCNP4B ,the general-purposed Monte Carlo code, was used. Information of chest PA , chest LAT, and abdomen AP diagnostic X-ray procedures was collected on the protocol of domestic hospitals. The results showed that patients pick up approximate 0.02 to 0.18 mSv of effective dose from a single chest PA examination, and 0.01 to 0.19 mSv from a chest LAT examination depending on the ages. From an abdomen AP examination, patients pick up 0.17 to 1.40 mSv of effective dose. Exposure time, organ depth from the entrance surface and X-ray beam field coverage considerably affect the resulting doses. Deviation among medical institutions is somewhat high, and this indicated that medical institutions should interchange their information and the need of education for medical staff. The methodology and the established system can be applied, with some expansion, to dose assessment for other medical procedures accompanying radiation exposure of patients like nuclear medicine or therapeutic radiology

  11. A Threshold Exists in the Dose-response Relationship for Somatic Mutation Frequency Inducted by X-ray Irradiation of Drosophia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koana, T.; Takashima, Y.; Okada, M. O.; Ikehata, M.; Miyakoshi, J.; Sakai, K.

    2004-01-01

    The dose-response relationship of ionizing radiation and its stochastic effects has been thought to be linear without any thresholds. The basic data for this model was obtained from mutational assays in the male germ cells of fruits fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, carcinogenic activity should be examined more appropriately in somatic cells than in germ cells. Here, the dose-response relationship of X- ray irradiation and somatic mutation is examined in Drosophila. A threshold at approximately 1Gy was observed in the DNA repair proficient flies. In the repair deficient siblings, the threshold was smaller and the inclination of the dose-response curve was much steeper. These results suggest that the dose-response relationship between X-ray irradiation and somatic mutation has a threshold, and that the DNA repair function contributes to its formation. (Author) 35 refs

  12. Evaluation of effective dose equivalent from environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.; Moriuchi, S.; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose equivalents for environmental gamma rays were calculated using human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods accounting rigorously the environmental gamma ray fields. It was suggested that body weight is the dominant factor to determine organ doses. The weight function expressing organ doses was introduced. Using this function, the variation in organ doses due to several physical factors were investigated. A detector having gamma-ray response similar to that of human bodies has been developed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator. (author)

  13. Response of the 'patient dose calibrator' chamber for incident positions and sizes of X-ray fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Abrantes, Marcos Eugenio S.; Ferreira, Flavia C. Bastos; Lacerda, Marco A. de Souza; Alonso, Thessa C.; Silva, Teogenes A. da; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of patient doses is an important tool for optimizing radiodiagnostic medical procedures with conventional X-ray equipment and for improving the quality of the radiographic image. The Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC) chamber is a dosimetric instrument that is used in the evaluation of the air kerma-area product (P KA ) quantity aiming the reduction of patient doses. The objective this work was to study the P KA variation caused by different field incident positions and sizes of the X-ray beam on the PDC chamber. Results showed that the PDC chamber has repeatability lower than 0.6%, beam position dependence of 3% and linearity response within ± 6%; these characteristics are to be taken into account during evaluation of the radiological protection conditions of conventional x-ray equipment. (author)

  14. X-ray dose response of calcite—A comprehensive analysis for optimal application in TL dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, J.M.; Wary, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of annealing temperature on TL signal of calcite has been studied. • Specific annealing treatment for optimal dose response has been evaluated. • The dose response of natural calcite has been analyzed quantitatively. - Abstract: The effect of various annealing treatments on dosimetric characteristics of orange calcite (CaCO_3) mineral has been studied in detail. Quantitative analysis on the dose response shows that the 573 K annealed sample showed sublinear dose response from 10 mGy to 1 Gy. The fading and reproducibility of this sample are also good enough for dosimetric application. However, a specific annealing treatment after irradiation shows some significant improvements in the dosimetric characteristics of the sample. The 773 K pre-annealed sample, after X-ray irradiation post-annealing at 340 K for 6 min provides linear dose response from 10 mGy to 3.60 Gy, very less fading and good reproducibility. Moreover, this sample after post-annealing at 380 K for 6 min shows linear dose response from 10 mGy to 5.40 Gy when analyzed from the ∼408 K thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak. Analysis of TL glow curves confirmed that the 1.30 eV trap center in calcite crystal is the most effective trapping site for dosimetric application.

  15. X-ray dose response of calcite—A comprehensive analysis for optimal application in TL dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, J.M., E-mail: jitukalita09@gmail.com; Wary, G.

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Effect of annealing temperature on TL signal of calcite has been studied. • Specific annealing treatment for optimal dose response has been evaluated. • The dose response of natural calcite has been analyzed quantitatively. - Abstract: The effect of various annealing treatments on dosimetric characteristics of orange calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) mineral has been studied in detail. Quantitative analysis on the dose response shows that the 573 K annealed sample showed sublinear dose response from 10 mGy to 1 Gy. The fading and reproducibility of this sample are also good enough for dosimetric application. However, a specific annealing treatment after irradiation shows some significant improvements in the dosimetric characteristics of the sample. The 773 K pre-annealed sample, after X-ray irradiation post-annealing at 340 K for 6 min provides linear dose response from 10 mGy to 3.60 Gy, very less fading and good reproducibility. Moreover, this sample after post-annealing at 380 K for 6 min shows linear dose response from 10 mGy to 5.40 Gy when analyzed from the ∼408 K thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak. Analysis of TL glow curves confirmed that the 1.30 eV trap center in calcite crystal is the most effective trapping site for dosimetric application.

  16. SU-D-16A-02: A Novel Methodology for Accurate, Semi-Automated Delineation of Oral Mucosa for Radiation Therapy Dose-Response Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J; Welsh, L; Gulliford, S; Harrington, K; Nutting, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The significant morbidity caused by radiation-induced acute oral mucositis means that studies aiming to elucidate dose-response relationships in this tissue are a high priority. However, there is currently no standardized method for delineating the mucosal structures within the oral cavity. This report describes the development of a methodology to delineate the oral mucosa accurately on CT scans in a semi-automated manner. Methods: An oral mucosa atlas for automated segmentation was constructed using the RayStation Atlas-Based Segmentation (ABS) module. A radiation oncologist manually delineated the full surface of the oral mucosa on a planning CT scan of a patient receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the head and neck region. A 3mm fixed annulus was added to incorporate the mucosal wall thickness. This structure was saved as an atlas template. ABS followed by model-based segmentation was performed on four further patients sequentially, adding each patient to the atlas. Manual editing of the automatically segmented structure was performed. A dose comparison between these contours and previously used oral cavity volume contours was performed. Results: The new approach was successful in delineating the mucosa, as assessed by an experienced radiation oncologist, when applied to a new series of patients receiving head and neck RT. Reductions in the mean doses obtained when using the new delineation approach, compared with the previously used technique, were demonstrated for all patients (median: 36.0%, range: 25.6% – 39.6%) and were of a magnitude that might be expected to be clinically significant. Differences in the maximum dose that might reasonably be expected to be clinically significant were observed for two patients. Conclusion: The method developed provides a means of obtaining the dose distribution delivered to the oral mucosa more accurately than has previously been achieved. This will enable the acquisition of high quality dosimetric data for use in

  17. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1–5.5 MeV alphas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Herrera, J., E-mail: jimmy06@mit.edu; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics fielded at inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray fluences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-K{sub α} and K{sub β} x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1–5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0 ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± 2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± 1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± 5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual effect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.

  18. Low-dose radiation epidemiological studies: an assessment of methodological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modan, B.

    1991-01-01

    The present report attempts to assess the problems inherent in the analysis of low dose radiation studies, with emphasis on possible sources of methodological errors in the published data, and the consequent relevance to risk estimates. The published data examined concerned populations exposed to nuclear sources such as fallout, weapons' test or in the vicinity of nuclear reactors, occupational exposure, intra-uterine diagnostic X-rays, scattered radiation following X-ray therapy and background irradiation. (UK)

  19. Very low dose and dose-rate X-ray induced adaptive response in human lymphocytes at various cell cycle stages against bleomycin induced chromatid aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein Mozdarani; Moghadam, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: To study the adaptive response induced by very low doses of X-rays at very low dose rate in human lymphocytes at different cell cycle stages followed by a challenge dose of bleomycin sulphate at G2 phase. Materials and Methods: Human peripheral blood lymphocytes before (G0) and after PHA stimulation (G1 and G2) were exposed to 1 and 5 cGy X-rays generated by a fluoroscopy unit with a dose rate of 5.56 mGy/min and challenged with 5 μg/ml bleomycin sulphate (BLM) 48 hours after culture initiation. Mitotic cells were arrested at metaphase by addition of colcemid in cultures 1.5 h before harvesting. Harvesting and slide preparation was performed using standard method. 100 well spread metaphases were analyzed for the presence of chromatid type aberrations for each sample. Results: Results obtained indicate that there is a linear relationship between the dose of BLM and chromatid aberrations below 5 μg/ml (R=0.93, p<0.0001). The results also show that pretreatment of lymphocytes with low dose X-rays at G0, G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle significantly reduced the sensitivity of lymphocytes to the clastogenic effects of BLM in G2. Much lower frequencies of chromatid aberrations were observed in X-ray irradiated lymphocytes following BLM treatment (p<0.05). The magnitudes of adaptation induced at different phases of the cell cycle were not significantly different. Furthermore, there was no a significant difference in the magnitude of adaptive response induced by either 1 or 5 cGy X-rays. Conclusion: These observations might indicate that resistance of pre-exposure of lymphocytes to very low doses of X-rays protects them from clastogenic effects of BLM. This effect might be due to initial DNA damage induced in these cells leading to provocation of an active DNA repair mechanism independent of cell cycle stage.

  20. Adaptive response of spermatogenic cell apoptosis selectively induced by low dose X-ray irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangwei; Dong Lihua; Liu Yang; Lv Zhe; Liu Shuchun; Gong Shouliang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The adaptive response of spermatogenic cell apoptosis induced by whole-body X-ray irradiation at low doses was studied in mice. Methods: Kunming male mice were irradiated with an inductive dose (D1:75 mGy) and/or a challenging dose (D2:1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 Gy). Different kinds of spermatogenic cells were separated using density gradient centrifugation and their apoptotic percentages were analysed using flow cytometry (FCM). Results: When the mice were irradiated with D1 6 h before irradiation with D2, the apoptotic percentages of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes declined rapidly as compared with those in the groups irradiated with D2 only, and those of spermatids and spermatozoa showed no significant changes. When the interval times between D1 and D2 was 3, 6, 12 or 24 h, the apoptotic percentages in spermatogonia and spermatocytes reduced early, significantly and continued for a longer duration after smaller D2(1.0 and 2.0 Gy) irradiation, while the apoptotic percentages did not change after larger D2(3.0 Gy) irradiation. Conclusion: The adaptive response of apoptosis in spermatogonia and spermatocytes could be selectively induced by low dose X-ray irradiation. The adaptive response could be closely related to the D2 dose and interval time between D1 and D2

  1. Experimental data and dose-response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Dose-response relationships for radiation carcinogenesis have been of interest to biologists, modelers, and statisticians for many years. Despite his interest there are few instances in which there are sufficient experimental data to allow the fitting of various dose-response models. In those experimental systems for which data are available the dose-response curves for tumor induction for the various systems cannot be described by a single model. Dose-response models which have been observed following acute exposures to gamma rays include threshold, quadratic, and linear models. Data on sex, age, and environmental influences of dose suggest a strong role of host factors on the dose response. With decreasing dose rate the effectiveness of gamma ray irradiation tends to decrease in essentially every instance. In those cases in which the high dose rate dose response could be described by a quadratic model, the effect of dose rate is consistent with predictions based on radiation effects on the induction of initial events. Whether the underlying reasons for the observed dose-rate effect is a result of effects on the induction of initial events or is due to effects on the subsequent steps in the carcinogenic process is unknown. Information on the dose response for tumor induction for high LET (linear energy transfer) radiations such as neutrons is even more limited. The observed dose and dose rate data for tumor induction following neutron exposure are complex and do not appear to be consistent with predictions based on models for the induction of initial events

  2. Cytogenetics dosimetry: dose-response curve for low doses of X-ray; Dosimetria citogenetica: curva dosis-respuesta para bajas dosis de rayos-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Virginia E. Noval; Pineda Bolivar, William R.; Riano, Victor M. Pabon, E-mail: venovall.15@hotmail.com, E-mail: wrpineda@misena.edu.co, E-mail: vmpabonr@udistrital.edu.co [Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas (UD), Bogota (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear; Ureana, Cecilia Crane, E-mail: cecicrane@yahoo.com [Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), Bogota (Colombia). Laboratorio de Genetica

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary study for the standardization in the future, the dose-response curve for low doses of X-rays, through the analysis of in vitro cultures of peripheral blood samples of 3 men and 3 women occupationally not exposed to artificial sources of ionizing radiation, age 18-40 years, where possible nonsmokers.

  3. The feasibility of 10 keV X-ray as radiation source in total dose response radiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruoyu; Li Bin; Luo Hongwei; Shi Qian

    2005-01-01

    The standard radiation source utilized in traditional total dose response radiation test is 60 Co, which is environment-threatening. X-rays, as a new radiation source, has the advantages such as safety, precise control of dose rate, strong intensity, possibility of wafer-level test or even on-line test, which greatly reduce cost for package, test and transportation. This paper discussed the feasibility of X-rays replacing 60 Co as the radiation source, based on the radiation mechanism and the effects of radiation on gate oxide. (authors)

  4. Environmental impact statement analysis: dose methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Standardized sections and methodologies are being developed for use in environmental impact statements (EIS) for activities to be conducted on the Hanford Reservation. Five areas for standardization have been identified: routine operations dose methodologies, accident dose methodology, Hanford Site description, health effects methodology, and socioeconomic environment for Hanford waste management activities

  5. Dose and energy dependence of response of Gafchromic XR-QA film for kilovoltage x-ray beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R

    2006-06-07

    There is a growing interest in Gafchromic films for patient dosimetry in radiotherapy and in radiology. A new model (XR-QA) with high sensitivity to low dose was tested in this study. The response of the film to different x-ray beam energies (range 28-145 kVp with various filtrations, dose range 0-100 mGy) and to visible light was investigated, together with the after exposure darkening properties. Exposed films were digitized with a commercially available, optical flatbed scanner. A single functional form for dose versus net pixel value variation has been determined for all the obtained calibration curves, with a unique fit parameter different for each of the used x-ray beams. The film response was dependent on beam energy, with higher colour variations for the beams in the range 80-140 kVp. Different sources of uncertainties in dose measurements, governed by the digitalization process, the film response uniformity and the calibration curve fit procedure, have been considered. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the beam energy and decreased with increasing absorbed dose. For doses above 10 mGy and beam energies in the range 80-140 kVp the total uncertainty was less than 5%, whereas for the 28 kVp beam the total uncertainty at 10 mGy was about 10%. The post-exposure colour variation was not negligible in the first 24 h after the exposure, with a consequent increase in the calculated dose of about 10%. Results of the analysis of the sensitivity to visible light indicated that a short exposure of this film to ambient and scanner light during the measurements will not have a significant impact on the radiation dosimetry.

  6. A shape and mesh adaptive computational methodology for gamma ray dose from volumetric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, N.M.; Ali, B.; Mirza, S.M.; Tufail, M.; Ahmad, N.

    1991-01-01

    Indoor external exposure to the population is dominated by gamma rays emitted from the walls and the floor of a room. A shape and mesh size adaptive flux calculational approach has been developed for a typical wall source. Parametric studies of the effect of mesh size on flux calculations have been done. The optimum value of the mesh size is found to depend strongly on distance from the source, permissible limits on uncertainty in flux predictions and on computer Central Processing Unit time. To test the computations, a typical wall source was reduced to a point, a line and an infinite volume source having finite thickness, and the computed flux values were compared with values from corresponding analytical expressions for these sources. Results indicate that the errors under optimum conditions remain less than 6% for the fluxes calculated from this approach when compared with the analytical values for the point and the line source approximations. Also, when the wall is simulated as an infinite volume source having finite thickness, the errors in computed to analytical flux ratios remain large for smaller wall dimensions. However, the errors become less than 10% when the wall dimensions are greater than ten mean free paths for 3 MeV gamma rays. Also, specific dose rates from this methodology remain within the difference of 15% for the values obtained by Monte Carlo method. (author)

  7. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  8. Dose and energy dependence of response of Gafchromic (registered) XR-QA film for kilovoltage x-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R [Struttura Complessa fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista, Corso Bramante 88, 10126 Turin (Italy)

    2006-06-07

    There is a growing interest in Gafchromic (registered) films for patient dosimetry in radiotherapy and in radiology. A new model (XR-QA) with high sensitivity to low dose was tested in this study. The response of the film to different x-ray beam energies (range 28-145 kVp with various filtrations, dose range 0-100 mGy) and to visible light was investigated, together with the after exposure darkening properties. Exposed films were digitized with a commercially available, optical flatbed scanner. A single functional form for dose versus net pixel value variation has been determined for all the obtained calibration curves, with a unique fit parameter different for each of the used x-ray beams. The film response was dependent on beam energy, with higher colour variations for the beams in the range 80-140 kVp. Different sources of uncertainties in dose measurements, governed by the digitalization process, the film response uniformity and the calibration curve fit procedure, have been considered. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the beam energy and decreased with increasing absorbed dose. For doses above 10 mGy and beam energies in the range 80-140 kVp the total uncertainty was less than 5%, whereas for the 28 kVp beam the total uncertainty at 10 mGy was about 10%. The post-exposure colour variation was not negligible in the first 24 h after the exposure, with a consequent increase in the calculated dose of about 10%. Results of the analysis of the sensitivity to visible light indicated that a short exposure of this film to ambient and scanner light during the measurements will not have a significant impact on the radiation dosimetry.

  9. The induction by x rays of chromosome aberrations in male guinea-pigs, rabbits and golden hamsters. 3. Dose-response relationship after single doses of X-rays to spermatogonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, M F; Cox, B D

    1975-09-01

    The induction by X-rays of translocations in spermatogonia was studied by cytological means in spermatocytes derived from them. In the rabbit and guinea-pig, hump-shaped dose-response curves were obtained, with a linear relationship at the low doses. The shapes of the curves were similar to those reported for the mouse, except that the maximum occurred at 600-700 rad in the mouse as opposed to 300 rad in the guinea-pig and rabbit. Unlike the guinea-pig and rabbit, the golden hamster showed a hump dose-response curve without a definite peak value and with little decrease in yield at high radiation doses. Over the low dose range 100-300 rad, the slopes of the curves of translocation yield were in the order: mouse (highest), rabbit, guinea-pig and hamster. Data on sterile periods suggested that the amount of spermatogonial killing in the rabbit and guinea-pig was as great or greater than in the mouse, and that in the golden hamster it was most severe. It is suggested that the differing shapes of the dose-response curves can be explained by a lower sensitivity to translocation induction in the test species and, also especially in the golden hamster, a greater sensitivity to cell killing. The possibility of extrapolating from these data to other species is discussed.

  10. Experimental study on x-rays dose enhancement effects for floating gate ROMs

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Hong Xia; Chen Yu Sheng; Han Fu Bin; He Chao Hui; Zhao Hui

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results of x-ray dose enhancement effects are given for floating gate read-only memory (ROMs) irradiated in the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The wrong byte numbers vs. total irradiation dose have been tested and the equivalent relation of total dose damage is provided compared the response of devices irradiated with sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-ray source. The x-ray dose enhancement factors for floating gate ROMs are obtained firstly in China. These results can be an effective evaluation data for x-rays radiation hardening technology

  11. Cosolvent-free polymer gel dosimeters with improved dose sensitivity and resolution for x-ray CT dose response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, J N M; McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Schreiner, L J, E-mail: kim.mcauley@chee.queensu.ca [Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, K7L 5P9 (Canada)

    2011-04-07

    This study reports new N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel recipes with increased dose sensitivity and improved dose resolution for x-ray CT readout. NIPAM can be used to increase the solubility of N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in aqueous solutions from approximately 3% to 5.5% by weight, enabling the manufacture of dosimeters containing up to 19.5%T, which is the total concentration of NIPAM and Bis by weight. Gelatin is shown to have a mild influence on dose sensitivity when gels are imaged using x-ray CT, and a stronger influence when gels are imaged optically. Phantoms that contain only 3% gelatin and 5 mM tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride are sufficiently stiff for dosimetry applications. The best cosolvent-free gel formulation has a dose sensitivity in the linear range ({approx}0.88 H Gy{sup -1}) that is a small improvement compared to the best NIPAM-based gels that incorporate isopropanol as a cosolvent ({approx}0.80 H Gy{sup -1}). This new gel formulation results in enhanced dose resolution ({approx}0.052 Gy) for x-ray CT readout, making clinical applications of this imaging modality more feasible.

  12. Cosolvent-free polymer gel dosimeters with improved dose sensitivity and resolution for x-ray CT dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain, J N M; McAuley, K B; Jirasek, A; Schreiner, L J

    2011-01-01

    This study reports new N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel recipes with increased dose sensitivity and improved dose resolution for x-ray CT readout. NIPAM can be used to increase the solubility of N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in aqueous solutions from approximately 3% to 5.5% by weight, enabling the manufacture of dosimeters containing up to 19.5%T, which is the total concentration of NIPAM and Bis by weight. Gelatin is shown to have a mild influence on dose sensitivity when gels are imaged using x-ray CT, and a stronger influence when gels are imaged optically. Phantoms that contain only 3% gelatin and 5 mM tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride are sufficiently stiff for dosimetry applications. The best cosolvent-free gel formulation has a dose sensitivity in the linear range (∼0.88 H Gy -1 ) that is a small improvement compared to the best NIPAM-based gels that incorporate isopropanol as a cosolvent (∼0.80 H Gy -1 ). This new gel formulation results in enhanced dose resolution (∼0.052 Gy) for x-ray CT readout, making clinical applications of this imaging modality more feasible.

  13. MiR-34a is up-regulated in response to low dose, low energy X-ray induced DNA damage in breast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankevicins, Luiza; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Moura Gallo, Claudia Vitoria de; Almeida da Silva, Ana Paula; Ventura dos Passos, Flavia; Santos Ferreira, Evelin dos; Menks Ribeiro, Maria Cecilia; G David, Mariano; J Pires, Evandro; Ferreira-Machado, Samara Cristina; Vassetzky, Yegor

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression including DNA damage responses. Low doses of low energy X-ray radiation, similar to those used in mammographic exams, has been described to be genotoxic. In the present work we investigated the expression of miR-34a; a well described p53-regulated miRNA implicated in cell responses to X-ray irradiation at low doses. Non-cancerous breast cell line MCF-10A and cancerous T-47D and MCF-7 cell lines were submitted to a low-energy X-ray irradiation (ranging from 28–30 Kv) using a dose of 5 Gy. The expression level of miR-34a, let-7a and miR-21 was assessed by qRT-PCR at 4 and 24 hours post-irradiation. DNA damage was then measured by comet assay and micronuclei estimation in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines, where an increase of miR-34a levels could be observed after irradiation. The rate of apoptotic cells was estimated by nuclear staining and fluorescence microscopy. These experiments were also performed at low doses (3; 12 and 48 mGy) in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines. We have observed an increase in miR-34a expression 4 hours post-irradiation at 5 Gy in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines while its level did not change in T-47D, a breast cancer cell line bearing non-functional p53. At low doses, miR-34a was up-regulated in non-tumoral MCF-10A to a higher extent as compared to MCF-7. MiR-34a levels decreased 24 hours post-irradiation. We have also observed DNA damage and apoptosis at low-energy X-ray irradiation at low doses and the high dose in MCF-10A and MCF-7 4 and 24 hours post-irradiation relative to the mock control. Low energy X-ray is able to promote DNA strand breaks and miR-34a might be involved in cell responses to low energy X-ray DNA damage. MiR-34a expression correlates with X-ray dose, time after irradiation and cell type. The present study reinforces the need of investigating consequences of low dose X-ray irradiation of breast cells

  14. Cellular Stress to Low Gamma-ray Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Vega-Carrillo, H. R.; Letechipia de Leon, C.; Guzman Enriquez, L. J.; Garcia-Talavera, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low gamma ray intensity upon Hsp 70 expression in human lymphocytes. the heat shock proteins (Hsp) family, are a group of proteins present in all living organism, therefore there are highly conserved and are related to adaptation and evolution. At cellular level these proteins acts as chaperones correcting denatured proteins. when a stress agent, such heavy metals, UV, heat, etc. is affecting a cell a response to this aggression is triggered through overexpression of Hsp. Several studies has been carried out in which the cellular effect are observed, mostly of these studies uses large doses, but very few studies are related with low doses. Blood of healthy volunteers was obtained and the lymphocytes were isolated by ficoll-histopaque gradient. Experimental lots were irradiated in a ''137Cs gamma-ray. Hsp70 expression was found since 0.5 cGy, indicating a threshold to very low doses of gamma rays. (Author) 27 refs

  15. Studies on adaptive response of lymphocyte transformation induced by low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Su Liaoyuan; Tian Hailin; Zou Huawei

    1995-10-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by mitogen in vitro for 24 h were exposed to low-dose γ-ray irradiation (0.5∼4.0 cGy, adaptive dose). They showed an adaptive response to the inhibition of 3 H-TdR incorporation by subsequent higher acute doses of γ-ray (challenge dose). At the interval of 24 h between adaptive dose and challenge dose, the strongest adaptive response induced by low-dose irradiation was found. It is also found that the response induced by 1.0 cGy of adaptive dose was more obvious than that by other doses and that 3.0 Gy of challenge dose produced the strongest adaptive response. As the challenge doses increased, the adaptive response reduced. (2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  16. Stage sensitivity and dose response of meiotic chromosomes of pollen mother cells of Tradescantia to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T H; Kontos, Jr, G J; Anderson, V A [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1980-05-01

    Chromosome damage induced by physical and chemical mutagens can be quantitated by the frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) produced in tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells of Tradescantia, i.e. the 'MCN-in-Tetrad' test. The stage sensitivity and dose response of these meiocytes to low exposures of X-rays was studied to improve the efficiency and reliability of this test. Stage sensitivity was determined by observing, at 3 hr intervals, the frequencies of X-ray (35 rads)-induced MCN in tetrads from a series of 16 fixations of tetrad-containing inflorescences. Late stages of meiosis (3-9 hr post-irradiation fixation groups) were insensitive (5-14 MCN/100 tetrads). Relatively high sensitivity was exhibited in the early stages of meiosis. The first and second sensitive peaks (62 and 61 MCN/100 tetrads) centered around the 21 and 39 hr post-irradiation fixation groups respectively. Control groups yielded around 3-4 MCN/100 tetrads. A dose-response relation for MCN was determined by treating early stages of meiotic pollen mother cells with X-ray exposures ranging from 9.5 to 57.5 rads. A linear regression line was established with about 20 MCN/100 tetrads per 10 rad increment.

  17. Effects of X-Ray Dose On Rhizosphere Studies Using X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Susan; Helliwell, Jonathan R.; Tracy, Saoirse R.; Mairhofer, Stefan; Sturrock, Craig J.; Pridmore, Tony; Bennett, Malcolm; Mooney, Sacha J.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a non-destructive imaging technique originally designed for diagnostic medicine, which was adopted for rhizosphere and soil science applications in the early 1980s. X-ray CT enables researchers to simultaneously visualise and quantify the heterogeneous soil matrix of mineral grains, organic matter, air-filled pores and water-filled pores. Additionally, X-ray CT allows visualisation of plant roots in situ without the need for traditional invasive methods such as root washing. However, one routinely unreported aspect of X-ray CT is the potential effect of X-ray dose on the soil-borne microorganisms and plants in rhizosphere investigations. Here we aimed to i) highlight the need for more consistent reporting of X-ray CT parameters for dose to sample, ii) to provide an overview of previously reported impacts of X-rays on soil microorganisms and plant roots and iii) present new data investigating the response of plant roots and microbial communities to X-ray exposure. Fewer than 5% of the 126 publications included in the literature review contained sufficient information to calculate dose and only 2.4% of the publications explicitly state an estimate of dose received by each sample. We conducted a study involving rice roots growing in soil, observing no significant difference between the numbers of root tips, root volume and total root length in scanned versus unscanned samples. In parallel, a soil microbe experiment scanning samples over a total of 24 weeks observed no significant difference between the scanned and unscanned microbial biomass values. We conclude from the literature review and our own experiments that X-ray CT does not impact plant growth or soil microbial populations when employing a low level of dose (<30 Gy). However, the call for higher throughput X-ray CT means that doses that biological samples receive are likely to increase and thus should be closely monitored. PMID:23840640

  18. High dose gamma-ray standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrin, R.; Moraru, R.

    1999-01-01

    The high gamma-ray doses produced in a gamma irradiator are used, mainly, for radiation processing, i.e. sterilization of medical products, processing of food, modifications of polymers, irradiation of electronic devices, a.s.o. The used absorbed doses depend on the application and cover the range 10 Gy to 100 MGy. The regulations in our country require that the response of the dosimetry systems, used for the irradiation of food and medical products, be calibrated and traceable to the national standards. In order to be sure that the products receive the desired absorbed dose, appropriate dosimetric measurements must be performed, including the calibration of the dosemeters and their traceability to the national standards. The high dose gamma-ray measurements are predominantly based on the use of reference radiochemical dosemeters. Among them the ferrous sulfate can be used as reference dosemeter for low doses (up to 400 Gy) but due to its characteristics it deserves to be considered a standard dosemeter and to be used for transferring the conventional absorbed dose to other chemical dosemeters used for absorbed doses up to 100 MGy. The study of the ferrous sulfate dosemeter consisted in preparing many batches of solution by different operators in quality assurance conditions and in determining for all batches the linearity, the relative intrinsic error, the repeatability and the reproducibility. The principal results are the following: the linear regression coefficient: 0.999, the relative intrinsic error: max.6 %, the repeatability (for P* = 95 %): max.3 %, the reproducibility (P* = 95%): max.5 %. (authors)

  19. Stage sensitivity and dose response of meiotic chromosomes of pollen mother cells of Tradescantia to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.-H.; Kontos, G.J. Jr.; Anderson, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Chromosome damage induced by physical and chemical mutagens can be quantitated by the frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) produced in tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells of Tradescantia, i.e. the 'MCN-in-Tetrad' test. The stage sensitivity and dose response of these meiocytes to low exposures of X-rays was studied to improve the efficiency and reliability of this test. Stage sensitivity was determined by observing, at 3 hr intervals, the frequencies of X-ray (35 rads)-induced MCN in tetrads from a series of 16 fixations of tetrad-containing inflorescences. Late stages of meiosis (3-9 hr post-irradiation fixation groups) were insensitive (5-14 MCN/100 tetrads). Relatively high sensitivity was exhibited in the early stages of meiosis. The first and second sensitive peaks (62 and 61 MCN/100 tetrads) centered around the 21 and 39 hr post-irradiation fixation groups respectively. Control groups yielded around 3-4 MCN/100 tetrads. A dose-response relation for MCN was determined by treating early stages of meiotic pollen mother cells with X-ray exposures ranging from 9.5 to 57.5 rads. A linear regression line was established with about 20 MCN/100 tetrads per 10 rad increment. (author)

  20. X-ray and radioiodine dose to thyroid follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faw, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation doses to the epithelial cells of thyroid follicles have been calculated for internal exposure by radionuclides of iodine and by secondary radiations created as a result of interactions of externally administered x rays with iodine naturally occurring in the thyroid. Calculations were performed for the thyroids of subjects ranging from the newborn to the adult male. Results for internal radionuclides are reported as the dose rate to follicular-cell nuclei per unit specific activity of the radionuclide in the thyroid as a whole, i.e., as the specific ''S value'' as used in the MIRD method for internal dosimetry. Results for x rays are reported as the response function, i.e., the absorbed dose per unit fluence of primary x rays. Dose rates are subdivided into internal and external components, the former from radiations emitted within the colloid volume of any one follicle, and the latter from radiations emitted throughout the thyroid in follicles surrounding that one follicle. 37 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. ESR signal features of 60Co γ-ray irradiated bone tissue and its dose response relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ke; Sun Zunpu; Shi Yuanming

    1993-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was used to study the radiation-induced ESR signal features of different paramagnetic species of 60 Co γ-ray irradiated bone tissue. The results showed that the intensity of an ESR signal at that the intensity of an ESR signal at g 2.0022 of human bones exposed to a dose range of 0-50 Gy had linear dose response relationships. The lower limit of detectable dose was about 2 Gy and the detecting error was about 10%. The signal was stable at room temperature during 60 days, and the effect of radiation dose rate of 0.5-8.0 Gy/min could be neglected. This signal was insensitive to microwave power and temperature, which was suitable for rapid and direct detection with ESR technique. These features suggest that human bones could be used for radiation accident dose evaluation by ESR

  2. Study of hard X-ray dose enhancement effects for some kinds of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Hong Xia; Chen Yu Sheng; Zhou Hui; He Chao Hui; Xie Ya Ning; Huang Yu Ying; He Wei; Hu Tian Dou

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results of X-ray dose enhancement effects are given for CMOS4069 and floating gate ROMs irradiated in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility and in cobalt source. Shift of threshold voltage vs. total dose for CMOS4069 and the errors vs. total dose for 28f256 and 29c256 have been tested on line and the equivalent relation of total dose damage under the same accumulated dose is provided comparing the response of devices irradiated by X-ray and gamma-ray source. These results can be provided for X-ray radiation hardening technology as an effective evaluation data

  3. Outdoor γ-ray dose rate in Shariki Village and environmental factors affecting outdoor γ-ray dose rate in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    Previously, we surveyed the outdoor γ-ray dose rate throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1992 to 1995, and found an annual mean dose rate of 51 nGy h -1 . Relatively high dose rates were also observed in several areas (municipalities) of the survey locations. In this study, we examined the detailed distribution of the γ-ray dose rate in one such high dose rate area, Shariki Village. Glass dosemeters were used for the monitoring of cumulative γ-ray dose rate at 10 locations in the village. The dose rate from each radioactive nuclide in the ground at the monitoring locations was measured by using an in situ γ-ray spectrometer with a Ge detector. The results obtained with the glass dosemeters showed that the γ-ray dose rates in Shariki Village varied from 49 to 55 nGy h -1 . Although the dose rates were generally higher than the mean dose in Aomori Prefecture (1992-1995), the rates were lower than other high dose rate areas which had already been measured. The in situ γ-ray spectrometry revealed that these relatively high dose rates were mainly caused by 40 K and Th series radionuclides in the village. The effect of meteorological conditions on the γ-ray dose rate was studied at a monitoring station in the IES site. The dose rate was continuously recorded by a DBM NaI(Tl) scintillation detector system. The mean dose rate obtained when precipitation was sensed was 27 nGy h -1 and higher than when no precipitation was sensed (25 nGy h -1 ). (author)

  4. Outdoor γ-ray dose rate in Mutsu city and environmental factors affecting outdoor γ-ray dose rate in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we surveyed outdoor γ-ray dose rates throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1992 to 1995, and found a mean annual dose rate of 28 nGy h -1 . Relatively high dose rates were also observed in several areas (municipalities) of the survey locations. In this study, we examined the detailed distribution of the γ-ray dose rate in one such high dose rate area, Mutsu City. Glass dosemeters were used for the monitoring of cumulative γ-ray dose rate at 10 locations in the city. The dose rate from each radioactive nuclide in the ground at the monitoring locations was measured by using an in situ γ-ray spectrometer with a Ge detector. The results obtained with the glass dosemeters showed that the γ-ray dose rates in Mutsu City varied from 17 to 32 nGy h -1 . Although the dose rates were almost the same as the mean dose in Aomori Prefecture (1992-1995), the rates were lower than other high dose rate areas which had already been measured. The in situ γ-ray spectrometry revealed that these relatively high dose rates were mainly caused by 40 K and Th series radionuclides in the local ground. The effect of meteorological conditions on the γ-ray dose rate was studied at a monitoring station in the IES site. The dose rate was continuously recorded by a DBM NaI(Tl) scintillation detector system. The mean dose rate obtained when precipitation was sensed was 26 nGy h -1 and higher than when no precipitation was sensed (24 nGy h -1 ). (author)

  5. Mahalanobis distance and variable selection to optimize dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.H. II; Bennett, D.E.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kranzler, D.

    1979-01-01

    A battery of statistical techniques are combined to improve detection of low-level dose response. First, Mahalanobis distances are used to classify objects as normal or abnormal. Then the proportion classified abnormal is regressed on dose. Finally, a subset of regressor variables is selected which maximizes the slope of the dose response line. Use of the techniques is illustrated by application to mouse sperm damaged by low doses of x-rays

  6. Effect and adaptive response of lymphocytes DNA induced by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Su Liaoyuan; Tian Hailin

    1994-09-01

    Fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU) was conducted and was proved to be an optimal method for studying DNA strand breaks induced by low dose irradiation. The linear dose response curve was obtained. The minimum detected dose was 0.3 Gy. There was no effect of low dose γ-rays (0.5∼8.0 cGy) on DNA strand breaks of quiescent and mitogen-induced lymphocytes. The 0.5∼4.0 cGy γ-rats could induce adaptive response of lymphocytes' DNA strand breaks, especially, at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 cGy. The challenge doses of 5∼20 Gy could make the adaptive response appearance, and the 15 Gy was the best one. The 3-AB could powerfully inhibit the adaptive response. The repair of DNA strand breaks (37 degree C, 15∼60 min) caused by 15 Gy γ-rays could be promoted by the low dose γ-ray irradiation (2.0 cGy), but no difference was found at 37 degree C, 120 min

  7. Dose-response of photographic emulsions under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Do Thi Nguyet Minh; Le Van Vinh

    2003-01-01

    Photographic emulsion is irradiated under gamma rays irradiation of 137 Cs in the IAEA/WHO secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. Dose-response of the film is established. The sensitivity of the film is determined. The dose-rate effect is studied. (author)

  8. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H.; Rodrigues F, M. A.; Vivolo, V.

    2014-08-01

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with 7 Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Engenharia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues F, M. A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia, Av. Prof. Montenegro s/n, Rubiao Junior, 18601-970 Botucatu (Brazil); Vivolo, V., E-mail: chancez@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with {sup 7}Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  10. Low-dose neutron dose response of zebrafish embryos obtained from the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.P.; Kong, E.Y.; Konishi, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Suya, N.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2015-01-01

    The dose response of embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, irradiated at 5 h post fertilization (hpf) by 2-MeV neutrons with ≤100 mGy was determined. The neutron irradiations were made at the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. A total of 10 neutron doses ranging from 0.6 to 100 mGy were employed (with a gamma-ray contribution of 14% to the total dose), and the biological effects were studied through quantification of apoptosis at 25 hpf. The responses for neutron doses of 10, 20, 25, and 50 mGy approximately fitted on a straight line, while those for neutron doses of 0.6, 1 and 2.5 mGy exhibited neutron hormetic effects. As such, hormetic responses were generically developed by different kinds of ionizing radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) values. The responses for neutron doses of 70 and 100 mGy were significantly below the lower 95% confidence band of the best-fit line, which strongly suggested the presence of gamma-ray hormesis. - Highlights: • Neutron dose response was determined for embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. • Neutron doses of 0.6, 1 and 2.5 mGy led to neutron hormetic effects. • Neutron doses of 70 and 100 mGy accompanied by gamma rays led to gamma-ray hormesis

  11. Adaptive Response to ionizing Radiation Induced by Low Doses of Gamma Rays in Human Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jin Sil; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon

    1994-01-01

    When cells are exposed to low doses of a mutagenic or clastogenic agents, they often become less sensitive to the effects of a higher does administered subsequently. Such adaptive responses were first described in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells to low doses of an alkylating agent. Since most of the studies have been carried out with human lymphocytes, it is urgently necessary to study this effect in different cellular systems. Its relation with inherent cellular radiosensitivity and underlying mechanism also remain to be answered. In this study, adaptive response by 1 cGy of gamma rays was investigated in three human lymphoblastoid cell lines which were derived from ataxia telangiectasia homozygote, ataxia telangiectasia heterozygote, and normal individual. Experiments were carried out by delivering 1 cGy followed by 50 cGy of gamma radiation and chromatid breaks were scored as an endpoint. The results indicate that prior exposure to 1 cGy of gamma rays reduces the number of chromatid breaks induced by subsequent higher does (50 cGy). The expression of this adaptive response was similar among three cell lines despite of their different radiosensitivity. When 3-aminobenzamide, an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, was added after 50 cGy, adaptive responses were abolished in all the tested cell lines. Therefore it is suggested that the adaptive response can be observed in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Which was first documented through this study. The expression of adaptive response was similar among the cell lines regardless of their radiosensitivity. The elimination of the adaptive response by 3-aminobenzamide is consistent with the proposal that this adaptive response is the result of the induction of a certain chromosomal repair mechanism

  12. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Zorko, B.; Gregori, B.; Knezevic, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron + gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Boskovic Inst. (RBI), Croatia, Jozef Stefan Inst. (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7 LiF (TLD-700), CaF 2 :Mn and Al2 O3 :Mg,Y - all from RBI; CaF 2 :Mn from JSI and 7 LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. (authors)

  13. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed.

  14. Assessment of organ doses by standard X-ray procedures in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautz, M.; Brandt, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    A modern method has been described to assess the radiation burden by X-ray procedures with consideration of the standards of our Society for Medical Radiology in the GDR. The underlying methodology is a Monte Carlo computer technique, which simulates stochastically the energy deposition of X-ray photons in a mathematically described heterogeneous anthropomorphic phantom by Rosenstein (US Department of Health, Education and Welfare). To apply the procedure specific values for the following parameters must be determined for each dose estimation: projection and view, X-ray field size and location entrance exposure at skin surface, beam quality, source-to-image receptor distance. The base data are obtained in terms of tissue-air ratio. Organ doses were calculated for chest, urography, skull, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lymphography. Concluding possibilities have been discussed for reduction of radiation burden. 9 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (author)

  15. Dose-response relationship of γ-H2AX foci induction in human lymphocytes after X-rays exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandina, Tania; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine H.; Voisin, Pascale; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Romero, Ivonne; Garcia, Omar; Voisin, Philippe; Roy, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Biological dosimeters are recommended for dose estimation in case of human overexposure to ionising radiation. Rapid measurement of γ-H2AX foci as a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induction has been recently tested with this purpose. Here we reported a dose-response relationship after X-ray irradiation at different times post-exposure. Blood samples were obtained from several healthy donors and exposed to doses between 0 and 2 Gy. After irradiation, blood samples were incubated at 37 deg. C during 0.5 h, 5 h, and 8 h. Scoring of cells and γ-H2AX foci was performed by software. The dose-response curves for different incubation times were as follows: Y (0.5h) = 11.66D + 0.15 (R 2 = 0.99), Y (5h) = 2.44D + 0.15 (R 2 = 0.99), Y (8h) = 1.57D + 0.22 (R 2 = 0.99). At 0.5 h post-exposure, the dose-response relationship for X-irradiated lymphocytes was similar to the one obtained after gamma-irradiation using the same protocol. On the other hand, the results were not similar after 8 h due to different kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation. Our results confirm the possibilities of using γ-H2AX foci method for dose estimation in a period from 0.5 h up to 8 h post X-irradiation and support the hypothesis of differences in γ-H2AX foci kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation in vitro.

  16. Dose-response relationship of {gamma}-H2AX foci induction in human lymphocytes after X-rays exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandina, Tania [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C. Habana (Cuba); Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine H.; Voisin, Pascale [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, LDB, BP17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Romero, Ivonne [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C. Habana (Cuba); Garcia, Omar, E-mail: omar@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C. Habana (Cuba); Voisin, Philippe; Roy, Laurence [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, LDB, BP17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-09-15

    Biological dosimeters are recommended for dose estimation in case of human overexposure to ionising radiation. Rapid measurement of {gamma}-H2AX foci as a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induction has been recently tested with this purpose. Here we reported a dose-response relationship after X-ray irradiation at different times post-exposure. Blood samples were obtained from several healthy donors and exposed to doses between 0 and 2 Gy. After irradiation, blood samples were incubated at 37 deg. C during 0.5 h, 5 h, and 8 h. Scoring of cells and {gamma}-H2AX foci was performed by software. The dose-response curves for different incubation times were as follows: Y{sub (0.5h)} = 11.66D + 0.15 (R{sup 2} = 0.99), Y{sub (5h)} = 2.44D + 0.15 (R{sup 2} = 0.99), Y{sub (8h)} = 1.57D + 0.22 (R{sup 2} = 0.99). At 0.5 h post-exposure, the dose-response relationship for X-irradiated lymphocytes was similar to the one obtained after gamma-irradiation using the same protocol. On the other hand, the results were not similar after 8 h due to different kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation. Our results confirm the possibilities of using {gamma}-H2AX foci method for dose estimation in a period from 0.5 h up to 8 h post X-irradiation and support the hypothesis of differences in {gamma}-H2AX foci kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation in vitro.

  17. X-raying with low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malevich, E.E.; Kisel, E.M.; Shpita, I.D.; Lazovsky, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    With the purpose of the improvement of diagnostics quality and reduction of beam load on a patient in modern x-ray devices pulse x-raying is applied. It is based on the using of radiation pulses with various frequencies of intervals between them instead of continuous radiation. At pulse x-raying with the net control the principle of filling of an interval is used, when the information about the image, received with the last pulse, get into memory and is displayed before occurrence of other pulse. It creates impression of the continuous image even at low frequency of pulses. Due to the unique concept of the simultaneous (double) control, all of 3 parameters, which define the quality of the image (pressure(voltage), force of a current and length of a pulse), are adjusted automatically at each pulse, thus optimum adaptation to varied thickness of object during dynamic researches occurs. At x-raying pulse the presence of a free interval from x-ray radiation between two pulses results in the decrease of a radiation dose. Pulsing occurs some times per one second with equal intervals between pulses. Thus, the degree of decrease irradiation dose depends on duration of a pause between pulses. On the screen the image of last pulse before occurrence of the following is kept and repeats. The principle of x-raying pulse was realized in system Grid Controlled Fluoroscopy by the firm 'Philips Medi zin Systeme'. In the x-ray tube of this system inclusion and de energizing of radiation occurs directly on a source. Electron cloud is broken off by the special grid, which is located between the cathode and the anode and operates as a barrier. Thus the tube continues to be energized. In usual devices for pulses formation is used generator pulsation system, which at increase and attenuation of a x-ray pulse results in occurrence of the increasing and fading radiation which are not participating in the formation of the image, but creating beam load on the patient and the personnel. Thus

  18. Selection of skin dose calculation methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports that good health physics practice dictates that a dose assessment be performed for any significant skin contamination incident. There are, however, several methodologies that could be used, and while there is probably o single methodology that is proper for all cases of skin contamination, some are clearly more appropriate than others. This can be demonstrated by examining two of the more distinctly different options available for estimating skin dose the calculational methods. The methods compiled by Healy require separate beta and gamma calculations. The beta calculational method is the derived by Loevinger, while the gamma dose is calculated from the equation for dose rate from an infinite plane source with an absorber between the source and the detector. Healy has provided these formulas in graphical form to facilitate rapid dose rate determinations at density thicknesses of 7 and 20 mg/cm 2 . These density thicknesses equate to the regulatory definition of the sensitive layer of the skin and a more arbitrary value to account of beta absorption in contaminated clothing

  19. Evaluation of rate of unstable chromosomal changes in human blood irradiated by X-rays: establishment of dose-response curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonça, J.C.G.; Mendes, M.E.; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Silva, L.M.; Andrade, A.M.G.; Hwang, S.F.; Lima, F.F.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of ionizing radiation, and consequently of its properties, there has been an increasing in its use, which in turn has raised concerns about the biological damage that it could cause in exposed individuals. As a result, cytogenetic dosimetry has emerged: a method that can be used as a complement or, in the absence of physical dosimetry, relating the frequency of chromosomal changes found in the blood of the exposed individual and the dose absorbed through dose-response calibration curves. This work aimed to verify the frequencies of the unstable chromosomal changes in human blood lymphocytes irradiated by X-rays of 250 kVp with different absorbed doses and later establish the dose-response calibration curves. The irradiation was performed at the CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE, Brazil metrology service on a PANTAK X-ray machine, model HF 320. The blood samples had their lymphocytes cultured in culture media and, after the processing, the metaphases were obtained. The chromosomal alterations analyzed were chromosomes dicentric, ring and isolated actinic fragments. There was an increase in frequencies of all chromosomal changes with increased absorbed dose. The calibration curves of dicentric and dicentric + rings presented good adjustments with the values of the coefficients Y = 0.0013 + 0.0271D + 0.0556D 2 (X 2 = 10.36 / GL = 6) and Y = 0.0013 + 0.0263D + 0.0640D 2 (X 2 = 7.43 / GL = 6), respectively. The establishment of these curves enables the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry of the CRCN/NE/CNEN-PE to estimate the dose absorbed by occupationally exposed individuals and in cases of radiological accidents

  20. Determination of Entrance Skin Doses and Organ Doses for Medical X Ray Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, C.J.; Cheng, C.Y.; Chao, T.C.; Tsai, H.Y.

    1999-01-01

    A national survey of patient doses for diagnostic X ray radiographs is planned in Taiwan. Entrance skin doses and organ doses for all installed X ray machines will be investigated. A pilot study has been carried out for the national survey to develop a protocol for the dose assessment. Entrance skin doses and organ doses were measured by thermoluminescence dosemeters and calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for several X ray examinations. The conversion factor from free air entrance absorbed dose to entrance skin dose was derived. A formula for the computation of entrance skin doses from inputs of kV p , mA.s, source to skin distance, aluminium filtration, and generator rectifying was constructed. Organ doses were measured using a RANDO phantom and calculated using a mathematical phantom. All data will be passed to the Atomic Energy Council for developing a programme of national survey and regulatory controls for diagnostic X ray examinations. (author)

  1. Applying the PCXMC software for dose assessment in patients submitted to abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, V.L.S.; Silva, T.A. da

    2009-01-01

    The PCXMC R computational methodology was applied as a evaluation tool of the organ doses in patients submitted to different X-ray conventional diagnoses examinations. Simulations were made based in x-ray parameters and exposure geometry of three patient of same age group in an Emergency Hospital of the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte city. Contributions to the effective dose from critical organs were evaluated and analyzed in terms of patient height and weight for the examinations of abdomen and pelvis. (author)

  2. Adsorptive removal of crystal violet dye by a local clay and process optimization by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loqman, Amal; El Bali, Brahim; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Weidler, Peter G.; Kherbeche, Abdelhak

    2017-11-01

    The current study relates to the removal of a dye [crystal violet (CV)] from aqueous solutions through batch adsorption experiment onto a local clay from Morocco. The clay was characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscope, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and Fraunhofer diffraction method. The influence of independent variables on the removal efficiency was determined and optimized by response surface methodology using the Box-Behnken surface statistical design. The model predicted maximum adsorption of 81.62% under the optimum conditions of operational parameters (125 mg L-1 initial dye concentration, 2.5 g L-1 adsorbent dose and time of 43 min). Practically, the removal ranges in 27.4-95.3%.

  3. TL detectors for gamma-ray dose measurements in critically accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Knezevic, Z.; Zorko, B.; Gregori, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Determination of gamma-ray dose in mixed neutron + gamma-ray fields is still a challenging task. Dosemeters used for gamma-ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e. on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosimeter responses to gamma-rays. To reduce all these influences, design of dosemeter holders is of special importance. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma-ray dose determination in mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Boscovic Institute (RBI), Croatia, Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. At that exercise three accidental scenarios were reproduced: bare reactor, free evolution; lead shielded reactor, steady state; and lead shielded reactor, free evolution. In each irradiation dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free-in-air'. Also, dosemeters were irradiated in a pure gamma ray field of 60 Co source. Following types of TLDs were used: 7 LiF (TLD-700), CaF 2 :Mn and AI 2 O 3 :Mg,Y - all from RBI; CaF 2 :Mn from JSI and 7 LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the mean participants' values. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. (author)

  4. Absorbed dose rate meter for β-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, K.

    1977-01-01

    The absorbed dose of β-ray depends on the energy of β-rays and the epidermal thickness of tissue in interest. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate at the interested tissue directly, the ratio of counting rate to absorbed dose should be constant independent of β-ray energy. In this purpose, a thin plastic scintillator was used as a detector with a single channel analyzer. The pulse height distribution, obtained using the scintillator whose thickness is less than the range of β-rays, shows a peak at a particular pulse height depending on the thickness of scintillator used. This means an increase of the number of pulses at lower pulse height. The lower level of discrimination and window width of the single channel analyzer are chosen according to the epidermal thickness of the tissue. In the experiment, scintillators of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 mm thick were tested. It was found that desirable pulse height distribution, to obtain a constant dose sensitivity, could be obtained using the 2 mm thick scintillator. The sensitivity of the absorbed dose rate meter is constant within +-15% for β-ray with maximum energy from 0.4 to 3.5 MeV, when the absorbed dose rate for skin (epidermal thickness 7mg/cm 2 ) is measured. In order to measure the dose rate for a hand (epithermal thickness 40mg/cm 2 ) the lower level of discrimination is changed to be higher and at the same time the window width is also changed. Combining these techniques, one can get an absorbed dose rate meter for the tissue dose of various thickness, which has the constant dose sensitivity within +-15% for β-rays with maximum energy from 0.4 to 3.5 MeV

  5. Investigation of organ dose difference of age phantoms for medical X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Woo Ran; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Choon Sik

    2003-01-01

    Methodology for calculating the organ equivalent doses and the effective doses of pediatric and adult patients undergoing medical X-ray examinations were established. The MIRD-type mathematical phantoms of 4 age groups were constructed with addition of the esophagus to the same phantoms. Two typical examination procedures, chest PA and abdomen AP, were simulated for the pediatric patients as well as the adult as illustrative examples. The results confirmed that patients pick up approximate 0.03 mSv of effective dose from a single chest PA examination, and 0.4 to 1.7 mSv from an abdomen AP examination depending on the ages. For dose calculations where irradiation is made with a limited field, the details of the position, size and shape of the organs and the organ depth from the entrance surface considerably affect the resulting doses. Therefore, it is important to optimize radiation protection by control of X-ray properties and beam examination field. The calculation result, provided in this study, can be used to implement optimization for medical radiation protection

  6. A dose to curie conversion methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowe, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Development of the computer code RadCAT (Radioactive waste Classification And Tracking) has led to the development of a simple dose rate to curie content conversion methodology for containers with internally distributed radioactive material. It was determined early on that, if possible, the computerized dose rate to curie evaluation model employed in RadCAT should yield the same results as the hand method utilized and specified in plant procedures. A review of current industry practices indicated two distinct types of computational methodologies are presently in use. The most common methods are computer based calculations utilizing complex mathematical models specifically established for various containers geometries. This type of evaluation is tedious, however, and does not lend itself to repetition by hand. The second method of evaluation, therefore, is simplified expressions that sacrifice accuracy for ease of computation, and generally over estimate container curie content. To meet the aforementioned criterion current computer based models were deemed unacceptably complex and hand computational methods to be too inaccurate for serious consideration. The contact dose rate/curie content analysis methodology presented herein provides an equation that is easy to use in hand calculations yet provides accuracy equivalent to other computer based computations

  7. A survey of chest medical X-ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomba, M.; Conha, P.G. da; Almeida, C.E. de

    1996-01-01

    The medical X-ray exposures due to radiological examinations are responsible for the largest contribution to the population collective dose as result of the normal use of artificial sources of radiation. The relative impact of the medical exposures to the total dose received by the population from all kinds of radiation sources varies from country to country and in some cases within the same country. The dose variations observed for a specific type of examination are in general associated to several factors i.e. the type of film-ecran combination, the choice of the appropriate physical parameters of the X-ray generator (Kvp, filament current, exposure time) and finally to the film processing conditions. At the present moment the data available in Brazil are scarce and scanty to allow a complete analyzis of this question so needed by the health authorities to justify the implementation of a quality assurance and dose reduction programs. In addition, it is desirable to establish a cost effective operation based on simple administrative concepts in order to reduce the number of films retake, then increasing the life expectancy of the equipment and the number of radiological procedures. The aim of this work was to assess the typical doses of an PA and LAT chest wall X-ray examinations in five different public hospitals (a University Hospital, a Cancer Hospital, a Navy Hospital, an Emergency Hospital and a State General Hospital), as representative of the city of Rio de Janeiro, and compare the results with the international data and recommendations available. (author)

  8. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, M; Büermann, L

    2015-08-07

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation.Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series.Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series.For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication.

  9. Differential response of two cell lines sequentially irradiated with low X-ray doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güerci, A M; Dulout, F N; Grillo, C A; Seoane, A I

    2005-05-01

    An experiment was designed to compare the effect of repeated low doses of X-rays in two different cell lines: one transformed, epithelial like and aneuploid Chinese hamster ovary K-1 (CHO-K1); the other originated from a human primary culture, fibroblast, diploid and non-transformed, MRC-5. CHO and MRC-5 cells were cultured for 14 or eight passages, respectively. Irradiation was performed once per passage when cells were in the quiescent state (90 - 95% in G1/G0). Cells were exposed to 10.0 mSv X-ray doses. Ionizing radiation did not induce apoptosis or necrosis in the exposed CHO cell population. Significant increases of low-level damaged cells (degrees 1 and 2) were found for the 14 cycles of radiation when compared with controls, except for the first irradiation cycle. No significant increases in the frequency of cells with severe damage were observed. The frequency of MRC-5 cells with low-level damage increased significantly when compared with controls for radiation cycles seven and eight. Significant increases of apoptosis, necrosis and severe damage were found only for the highest dose. Transformed and non-transformed cell types responded differently to direct and indirect damage using low-dose repeat exposures to ionizing radiation. Though more investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms of radiation effects in chronic low-dose-exposed cell populations, cellular type should be taken into account in the design of in vitro experiments for understanding low-dose-irradiation effects.

  10. Methodology of dose calculation for the SRS SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Safety Analysis Report (SAR) covering K reactor operation assesses a spectrum of design basis accidents. The assessment includes estimation of the dose consequences from the analyzed accidents. This report discusses the methodology used to perform the dose analysis reported in the SAR and also includes the quantified doses. Doses resulting from postulated design basis reactor accidents in Chapter 15 of the SAR are discussed, as well as an accident in which three percent of the fuel melts. Doses are reported for both atmospheric and aqueous releases. The methodology used to calculate doses from these accidents as reported in the SAR is consistent with NRC guidelines and industry standards. The doses from the design basis accidents for the SRS reactors are below the limits set for commercial reactors by the NRC and also meet industry criteria. A summary of doses for various postulated accidents is provided

  11. Macrophage and tumor cell responses to repetitive pulsed X-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldakov, M. A.; Tretyakova, M. S.; Ryabov, V. B.; Klimov, I. A.; Kutenkov, O. P.; Kzhyshkowska, J.; Bol'shakov, M. A.; Rostov, V. V.; Cherdyntseva, N. V.

    2017-05-01

    To study a response of tumor cells and macrophages to the repetitive pulsed low-dose X-ray radiation. Methods. Tumor growth and lung metastasis of mice with an injected Lewis lung carcinoma were analysed, using C57Bl6. Monocytes were isolated from a human blood, using CD14+ magnetic beads. IL6, IL1-betta, and TNF-alpha were determined by ELISA. For macrophage phenotyping, a confocal microscopy was applied. “Sinus-150” was used for the generation of pulsed X-ray radiation (the absorbed dose was below 0.1 Gy, the pulse repetition frequency was 10 pulse/sec). The irradiation of mice by 0.1 Gy pulsed X-rays significantly inhibited the growth of primary tumor and reduced the number of metastatic colonies in the lung. Furthermore, the changes in macrophage phenotype and cytokine secretion were observed after repetitive pulsed X-ray radiation. Conclusion. Macrophages and tumor cells had a different response to a low-dose pulsed X-ray radiation. An activation of the immune system through changes of a macrophage phenotype can result in a significant antitumor effect of the low-dose repetitive pulsed X-ray radiation.

  12. Analysis of offsite dose calculation methodology for a nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This technical study reviews the methodology for calculating offsite dose estimates as described in the offsite dose calculation manual (ODCM) for Pennsylvania Power and Light - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES). An evaluation of the SSES ODCM dose assessment methodology indicates that it conforms with methodology accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Using 1993 SSES effluent data, dose estimates are calculated according to SSES ODCM methodology and compared to the dose estimates calculated according to SSES ODCM and the computer model used to produce the reported 1993 dose estimates. The 1993 SSES dose estimates are based on the axioms of Publication 2 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). SSES Dose estimates based on the axioms of ICRP Publication 26 and 30 reveal the total body estimates to be the most affected

  13. Development of a Reference System for the determination of the personal dose equivalent and the constancy of X- Ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivolo, Vitor

    2006-01-01

    A reference system for the determination of the personal dose equivalent, Hp (10), and a quality control program of X-ray equipment used In radioprotection require the periodic verification of the X-ray beams constancy. In this work, two parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed with inner electrodes of different materials, and inserted into PMMA slab phantoms. One ionization chamber was developed with inner carbon electrodes and the other with inner aluminium electrodes. The two ionization chambers can be used as a Tandem system. The different energy response of the two ionization chambers allowed the development of the Tandem system that is very useful for the checking of the constancy of beam qualities. Standard intermediary energy X-ray beams (from 48 keV to 118 keV), radioprotection level, were established through the development of a dosimetric methodology and the analysis of their physical parameters. The ionization chambers were studied in relation to their operational characteristics, and they were calibrated in X-ray beams (radioprotection, diagnostic radiology, mammography and radiotherapy levels) in accordance to international recommendations. They presented good performance. The determination procedure of personal dose equivalent, Hp (10), was established. (author)

  14. Thymocyte apoptosis in response to low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu-Zheng, Liu; Ying-Chun, Zhang; Ying, Mu; Xu, Su; Jian-Xiang, Liu

    1996-01-01

    Thymocyte apoptosis was assessed by counting apoptotic bodies with flow cytometry (FCM) and measuring DNA fragmentation with fluorescence spectrophotometry (FSP). J-shaped dose-response curves were obtained after both whole-body irradiation (WBI) of mice and in vitro irradiation of EL4 cells with doses ranging from 0.025 to 4 Gy X-rays. There was a significant reduction of apoptosis rate to below control level with doses within 0.2 Gy, and a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis with doses above 0.5 Gy. When thymocytes were cultured 24 h after WBI with 75 mGy X-rays in complete RPMI 1640 medium, a reduction in apoptosis was observed in the course of incubation for 72 h, and the presence of Con A in the medium accentuated this reduction in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The implications of these observations and the possible molecular mechanisms for future studies are proposed

  15. Comparative study of dose-response curve for chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by {sup 60}Co and X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Mariana E.; Mendonça, Julyanne C.G.; Andrade, Aida M.G.; Silva, Laís M.; Hwang, Suy; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Santos, Neide; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: mendes_sb@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Biodosimetry represents a biological marker to the estimation of health risks after accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation. Chromosomal dicentric in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been the most reliable biomarker of exposure to IR during the last several decades. This technique could be used to support physical dosimetry or when it is impossible to achieve it. A reliable measurement of the absorbed dose is critical for medical decision, including the assessment of long-term health consequences. The aim of this research is to compare dose-response curves for dicentric aberration induced in human lymphocytes by {sup 60}Co and X-Rays. For both quality of radiation, the samples were exposed to at least eight different absorbed doses. The X-rays with dose rate of 0,275 Gy/min at Laboratory of Metrology (CRCN/NE - PE - Brazil) and the second one was exposed to cobalt source with dose rate of 0.055 Gy/min ({sup 60}Co Gammacell 220) located at Department of Nuclear Energy (UFPE-DEN-BRASIL). Mitotic metaphase cells were obtained by lymphocyte culture for chromosomal analysis and slides were stained with Giemsa 5%. The frequencies of dicentrics were counted in more than 18.000 metaphases for this comparison. After that, all frequencies and distributions of dicentrics were tested to analyze their conformity with Poisson distribution and then each quality of radiation were used for build the calibration curves using Dose Estimate program. These results showed that both curves followed the Poisson distribution and coefficients of each one are: YX-rays = 0,0013 (± 0,0006) + 0,0271 (± 0,0086)⁎D + 0,0556(±0,0050))⁎D{sup 2} and Y{sub Co-60} = 0,0014 (± 0,0010) + 0,0081 (± 0,0073))⁎D + 0,0451 (± 0,0046))⁎D{sup 2} (Y = frequency of dicentrics and D = absorbed dose). It was expected that there was no significant difference between this two types of radiation because both were low LET. We believed that dose rate have been a principal factor to produce this

  16. Critical target and dose and dose-rate responses for the induction of chromosomal instability by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoli, C. L.; Corcoran, J. J.; Milligan, J. R.; Ward, J. F.; Morgan, W. F.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the critical target, dose response and dose-rate response for the induction of chromosomal instability by ionizing radiation, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-substituted and unsubstituted GM10115 cells were exposed to a range of doses (0.1-10 Gy) and different dose rates (0.092-17.45 Gy min(-1)). The status of chromosomal stability was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization approximately 20 generations after irradiation in clonal populations derived from single progenitor cells surviving acute exposure. Overall, nearly 700 individual clones representing over 140,000 metaphases were analyzed. In cells unsubstituted with BrdU, a dose response was found, where the probability of observing delayed chromosomal instability in any given clone was 3% per gray of X rays. For cells substituted with 25-66% BrdU, however, a dose response was observed only at low doses (1.0 Gy), the incidence of chromosomal instability leveled off. There was an increase in the frequency and complexity of chromosomal instability per unit dose compared to cells unsubstituted with BrdU. The frequency of chromosomal instability appeared to saturate around approximately 30%, an effect which occurred at much lower doses in the presence of BrdU. Changing the gamma-ray dose rate by a factor of 190 (0.092 to 17.45 Gy min(-1)) produced no significant differences in the frequency of chromosomal instability. The enhancement of chromosomal instability promoted by the presence of the BrdU argues that DNA comprises at least one of the critical targets important for the induction of this end point of genomic instability.

  17. Biological dose estimation for accidental supra-high dose gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Yan, X.K.; Du, J.; Wang, Z.D.; Zhang, X.Q.; Zeng, F.G.; Zhou, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    To correctly estimate the biological dose of victims accidentally exposed to a very high dose of 60 Co gamma-ray, a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics/multicentrics and rings in the supra-high dose range was established. Peripheral blood from two healthy men was irradiated in vitro with doses of 60 Co gamma-rays ranging from 6 to 22 Gy at a dose rate of 2.0 Gy/min. Lymphocytes were concentrated, cultured and harvested at 52 h, 68 h and 72 h. The numbers of dic + r were counted. The dose-effect curves were established and validated using comparisons with doses from the Tokai-mura accident and were then applied to two victims of supra-high dose exposure accident. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in chromosome aberration frequency among the different culture times from 52 h to 72 h. The 6-22 Gy dose-effect curve was fitted to a linear quadratic model Y = -2.269 + 0.776D - 7.868 x l0 -3 D 2 . Using this mathematic model, the dose estimates were similar to data from Tokai-mura which were estimated by PCC ring. Whole body average doses of 9.7 Gy and 18.1 Gy for two victims in the Jining accident were satisfactorily given. We established and successfully applied a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics plus ring (dic + r) after 6-22 Gy γ-irradiation from a supra-high dose 60 Co gamma-ray accident.

  18. Dose-response relationship of neutrons and γ rays to leukemia incidence among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by type of leukemia, 1950--1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, T.; Otake, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of leukemia during 1950 to 1971 in a fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was analyzed as a function of neutron and γ kerma and marrow doses. Two dose-response models were tested for acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that the leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of separate risks imposed by γ and neutron doses. In Model I the risk from both types of radiation is assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that whereas the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from γ rays is proportional to dose-squared. The analysis demonstrated that the dose-response of the two types of leukemia differed by type of radiation. The data suggested that the response of acute leukemia was best explained by Model II, while the response of chronic granulocytic leukemia depended almost linearly upon neutron dose alone, because the regression coefficients associated with γ radiation for both Models I and II were not significant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in relation to γ rays for incidence of acute leukemia was estimated to be approximately 30/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 17/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 54/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for kerma and 32/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 18/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 58/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for marrow dose (Dn = neutron dose). If acute and chronic granulocytic leukemias are considered together as all types of leukemia, Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither model is statistically rejected by the data

  19. Linear dose-response of acentric chromosome fragments down to 1 R of x-rays in grasshopper neuroblasts, a potential mutagen-test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaulden, M.E.; Read, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    Grasshopper-embryo neuroblasts have no spontaneous chromosome breakage; therefore they permit easy detection of agents that break chromosomes. An X-ray exposure of 1 R induces in them a detectable number of chromosome fragments. The dose-response of acentric fragment frequency fits a linear model between 0 and 128 R. Thus another cell type is added to those previously demonstrated to have no threshold dose for the induction of chromosome or gene mutations

  20. Radiation dose and radiation risk to foetuses and newborns during X-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, A. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the way in which the demands set by degree 423/2000 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health are fulfilled with respect to the most radiosensitive groups, the foetus and the child, by estimating the radiation dose and radiation risk to the foetus from x-ray examinations of an expectant mother's pelvic region, finding out the practice involved in preventing doses to embryos and foetuses and assessing dose practices in cases where an embryo or foetus is or shall be exposed, and by estimating radiation dose and risk due to the radiation received by a new-born being treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. No statistics are available in Finland to indicate how many x-ray examinations of the pelvic region and lower abdomen are made to pregnant patients or to show the dose and risk to the foetus due these examinations. In order to find out the practices in radiological departments concerning the pelvic x-ray examination of fertile woman and the number of foetuses exposed, a questionnaire was sent to all radiation safety officers responsible for the safe use of radiation (n = 290). A total of 173 questionnaires were returned. This study recorded the technique and Dose-Area Product of 118 chest examinations of newborns in paediatric intensive care units. Entrance surface doses and effective doses were calculated separately to each newborn. Based on the patient records, the number of all x-ray examinations during the study was calculated and the effective doses were estimated retrospectively to each child. The radiation risk was estimated both for the foetuses and for the newborns. According to this study, it is rare in Finland to expose a pregnant woman to radiation. On the other hand, with the exception of pelvimetry examinations, there are no compiled statistics concerning the number of pelvic x-ray examinations of a pregnant woman. There was no common practice on how to exclude the possibility of pregnancy. The dose

  1. Radiation dose and radiation risk to foetuses and newborns during X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, A.

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the way in which the demands set by degree 423/2000 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health are fulfilled with respect to the most radiosensitive groups, the foetus and the child, by estimating the radiation dose and radiation risk to the foetus from x-ray examinations of an expectant mother's pelvic region, finding out the practice involved in preventing doses to embryos and foetuses and assessing dose practices in cases where an embryo or foetus is or shall be exposed, and by estimating radiation dose and risk due to the radiation received by a new-born being treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. No statistics are available in Finland to indicate how many x-ray examinations of the pelvic region and lower abdomen are made to pregnant patients or to show the dose and risk to the foetus due these examinations. In order to find out the practices in radiological departments concerning the pelvic x-ray examination of fertile woman and the number of foetuses exposed, a questionnaire was sent to all radiation safety officers responsible for the safe use of radiation (n = 290). A total of 173 questionnaires were returned. This study recorded the technique and Dose-Area Product of 118 chest examinations of newborns in paediatric intensive care units. Entrance surface doses and effective doses were calculated separately to each newborn. Based on the patient records, the number of all x-ray examinations during the study was calculated and the effective doses were estimated retrospectively to each child. The radiation risk was estimated both for the foetuses and for the newborns. According to this study, it is rare in Finland to expose a pregnant woman to radiation. On the other hand, with the exception of pelvimetry examinations, there are no compiled statistics concerning the number of pelvic x-ray examinations of a pregnant woman. There was no common practice on how to exclude the possibility of pregnancy. The dose to a

  2. Dose levels in conventional X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra M, J. A.; Gonzalez G, J. A.; Pinedo S, A.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    2009-10-01

    There were a series of measures in the General Hospital of Fresnillo in the X-ray Department in the areas of X-1 and X-2-ray rooms and in the neonatal intensive care unit 2, was determined the dose surface entry in eyes, thyroid and gonads for patients undergoing to X-ray study of chest Tele by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Five dosemeters were used in each one of the scans; so find the following dose ranges 20 + - 23 mGy to 350 + - 41 mGy. With the results obtained we can conclude that the procedures used and the equipment calibration is adequate. (Author)

  3. Dose Response Model of Biological Reaction to Low Dose Rate Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, J.; Furikawa, C.; Hoshi, Y.; Kawakami, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to use reproducible and stable indicators to evaluate biological responses to long term irradiation at low dose-rate. They should be simple and quantitative enough to produce the results statistically accurate, because we have to analyze the subtle changes of biological responses around background level at low dose. For these purposes we chose micronucleus formation of U2OS, a human osteosarcoma cell line, as indicators of biological responses. Cells were exposed to gamma ray in irradiation rom bearing 50,000 Ci 60Co. After irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, and cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and prospidium iodide, respectively. the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was counted under a fluorescence microscope. Dose rate in the irradiation room was measured with PLD. Dose response of PLD is linear between 1 mGy to 10 Gy, and standard deviation of triplicate count was several percent of mean value. We fitted statistically dose response curves to the data, and they were plotted on the coordinate of linearly scale response and dose. The results followed to the straight line passing through the origin of the coordinate axes between 0.1-5 Gy, and dose and does rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) was less than 2 when cells were irradiated for 1-10 min. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose above 0.1 Gy when 5,000 binuclear cells were analyzed. In contrast, dose response curves never followed LNT, when cells were irradiated for 7 to 124 days. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose below 6 Gy, when cells were continuously irradiated for 124 days. These results suggest that dose response curve of biological reaction is remarkably affected by exposure

  4. The effect of well-characterized, very low-dose x-ray radiation on fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Katelyn; Bradley, Suzanne; Baginski, Bryana; Wilson, Joseph R; Medlin, Donald; Zheng, Leon; Wilson, R Kevin; Rusin, Matthew; Takacs, Endre; Dean, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of low-dose radiation on fibroblast cells irradiated by spectrally and dosimetrically well-characterized soft x-rays. To achieve this, a new cell culture x-ray irradiation system was designed. This system generates characteristic fluorescent x-rays to irradiate the cell culture with x-rays of well-defined energies and doses. 3T3 fibroblast cells were cultured in cups with Mylar® surfaces and were irradiated for one hour with characteristic iron (Fe) K x-ray radiation at a dose rate of approximately 550 μGy/hr. Cell proliferation, total protein analysis, flow cytometry, and cell staining were performed on fibroblast cells to determine the various effects caused by the radiation. Irradiated cells demonstrated increased proliferation and protein production compared to control samples. Flow cytometry revealed that a higher percentage of irradiated cells were in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle compared to control counterparts, which is consistent with other low-dose studies. Cell staining results suggest that irradiated cells maintained normal cell functions after radiation exposure, as there were no qualitative differences between the images of the control and irradiated samples. The result of this study suggest that low-dose soft x-ray radiation might cause an initial pause, followed by a significant increase, in proliferation. An initial "pause" in cell proliferation could be a protective mechanism of the cells to minimize DNA damage caused by radiation exposure. The new cell irradiation system developed here allows for unprecedented control over the properties of the x-rays given to the cell cultures. This will allow for further studies on various cell types with known spectral distribution and carefully measured doses of radiation, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms behind varied cell responses to low-dose x-rays reported in the literature.

  5. A review: Development of a microdose model for analysis of adaptive response and bystander dose response behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bobby E

    2008-02-27

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type (125)I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  6. Characteristics of environmental gamma-rays and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1986-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity has attracted much attention in terms of exposure to the population, although its exposure doses are minimal. This paper presents problems encountered in the assessment of exposure doses using model and monitoring systems, focusing on the characteristics, such as energy distribution, direction distribution, and site, of environmental gamma-rays. The assessment of outdoor and indoor exposure doses of natural gamma-rays is discussed in relation to the shielding effect of the human body. In the assessment of artificial gamma-rays, calculation of exposure doses using build-up factor, the shielding effect of the human body, and energy dependency of the measuring instrument are covered. A continuing elucidation about uncertainties in dose assessment is emphasized. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Dose response curve for prematurely condensed chromosome fragments of human lymphocytes after 60Co-γ ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jinsheng; Zheng Siying; Bao Hong

    1992-06-01

    The dose-effect relationship of premature condensed chromosome fragments in human lymphocytes irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray was studied by PCC method (premature condensed chromosomes). In addition, The conventional cellular genetics method was also used in the study. The response curve of both methods can represented by two linear equations. The ratio of two slopes, K PCC /K M1 , is about 28. Comparing with conventional method, the PCC method has many advantages such as faster, simpler, more sensitive and accurate. The PCC method used in the studying of radiation damage is also discussed

  8. Response of mouse tongue epithelium to single doses of bleomycin and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, W.; Hirler, E.; Honig, M.

    1993-01-01

    Both bleomycin (BLM) and local X-irradiation (25 kV) induce denudation in the tongue epithelium of the C3H-Neuherberg mouse in a dose-dependent manner. In the present study the effect of BLM alone and of combined single doses of drug and radiation were studied using the incidence of epithelial denudation as the end-point. In 'time-line' experiments, 8 mg/kg BLM were given before or after graded doses of X-rays. BLM treatment required a reduction of the radiation dose (ED 50 ) from 15 Gy to 5-7 Gy, independent of sequence or time interval. In contrast, the time course of the response was clearly dependent on the treatment interval. Latency decreased when the drug was injected less than 2 h before irradiation with minimum latency observed at 30 min. Isobologram analysis of experiments with varying combinations of X-rays and BLM demonstrated that small drug doses were relatively more effective than larger doses, suggesting an upward concavity of the BLM dose-effective curve in vivo, i.e. a 'negative shoulder' of the curve in the low dose region. In contrast to the response to X-rays alone, which has a constant latent time to ulcer of 10 days, the latency in combined treatment was clearly shortened with increasing drug dose and at high doses eventually approximated the epithelial turnover time of 5 days. The data suggest that BLM both as a single agent and in combination with X-rays reduced the probability of abortive divisions and through this effect shortened the latent time to epithelial denudation. (author)

  9. Patient doses from x-ray examinations in Sweden - a compilation of the results from the reports from the Swedish health care 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, W.; Joensson, Helene

    2001-01-01

    In early 1999 the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) requested data on patient doses and frequency of x-ray examinations from the 30 licensees with the largest activities. This was comprising five conventional x-ray examinations, mammography and six computed tomography examinations. Patient doses and other relevant data from roughly 400 x-ray stands with an average of 20 patients each were reported. The average of the patient doses was calculated for each x-ray stand and examination type. The average values for the twelve types of examinations varied with a factor up to 15. It must be emphasized that a judgement of x-ray examinations based on one single parameter, the patient dose, is not fair. Low doses may imply poor diagnostic accuracy, high doses may be justified when the patient sample is representing many unusual clinical problems which are leading to more excessive examinations, which might be the case in e. g. university hospitals. Another problem is that the various examination types are not defined unambiguously, meaning that the clinical problem to be solved and hence the extent of the examination may differ between various clinics. Some parameters that are directly influencing the spread in patient dose have been identified, e. g. different sensitivities of the image receptors, different numbers of projections, differences in patient anatomy and different fluoroscopy times. It became obvious that the large dose variations cannot be accounted for by merely medical reasons. This is supported by the response from clinics after being informed that their doses were high. Straight forward countermeasures for dose reduction could be taken as e. g. changing the (insensitive) image receptor, increasing the filtration or modifying the examination methodology. Based on these results SSI will continue with the work of introducing diagnostic reference levels. In addition to numerical values and instructions on how and how often assessments have to be

  10. Dose-response relationship for life-shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated at day 7 postnatal age with dose range below 1 Gy of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shunsaku; Fukuda, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the dose-response relationships for life-shortening and tumorigenic effect in the dose range below 1 Gy of gamma rays delivered during the infant period. Female B6C3F 1 mice were irradiated with 0.10, 0.48 or 0.95 Gy at 7 days of age. All irradiated mice were allowed to live out their entire life span together with a simultaneously ongoing control group under a specific pathogen-free condition. Shortening of the mean life span was 1.58% in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy, which was statistically significant. The coefficient of the linear dose-response relationship for life-shortening was 11.21% Gy -1 . The attributable death fraction for all causes of death in 0.10 Gy group reached 0.092. The excess relative risk for death rate from all causes was 0.102 in the group irradiated with 0.10 Gy. The coefficient of the linear dose-response relationship of the excess relative risk for death rate from all causes was 1.30 Gy -1 . The mean number of types of solid tumors at the time of death in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy was distinctly larger than that in the control group. The excess relative risk for death rate from solid tumors was 0.45 in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy. The coefficient of the linear dose-response relationship of excess relative risk for death rate from solid tumors was 4.52 Gy -1 . Increase in incidences of the pituitary, ovarian and adrenal tumors was observed in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy. The results of the present study showed that infant mice are susceptible to solid tumor induction, especially of the endocrine organs. (author)

  11. Dose-response relationship of dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes obtained for the fission neutron therapy facility MEDAPP at the research reactor FRM II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, E; Wagner, F M; Romm, H; Walsh, L; Roos, H

    2009-02-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons from the neutron therapy facility MEDAPP (mean neutron energy 1.9 MeV) at the new research reactor FRM II at Garching, Germany, has been analyzed, at different depths in a polyethylene phantom. Whole blood samples were exposed to the MEDAPP beam in special irradiation chambers to total doses of 0.14-3.52 Gy at 2-cm depth, and 0.18-3.04 Gy at 6-cm depth of the phantom. The neutron and gamma-ray absorbed dose rates were measured to be 0.55 Gy min(-1) and 0.27 Gy min(-1) at 2-cm depth, while they were 0.28 and 0.25 Gy min(-1) at 6-cm depth. Although the irradiation conditions at the MEDAPP beam and the RENT beam of the former FRM I research reactor were not identical, neutrons from both facilities gave a similar linear-quadratic dose-response relationship for dicentric chromosomes at a depth of 2 cm. Different dose-response curves for dicentrics were obtained for the MEDAPP beam at 2 and 6 cm depth, suggesting a significantly lower biological effectiveness of the radiation with increasing depth. No obvious differences in the dose-response curves for dicentric chromosomes estimated under interactive or additive prediction between neutrons or gamma-rays and the experimentally obtained dose-response curves could be determined. Relative to (60)Co gamma-rays, the values for the relative biological effectiveness at the MEDAPP beam decrease from 5.9 at 0.14 Gy to 1.6 at 3.52 Gy at 2-cm depth, and from 4.1 at 0.18 Gy to 1.5 at 3.04 Gy at 6-cm depth. Using the best possible conditions of consistency, i.e., using blood samples from the same donor and the same measurement techniques for about two decades, avoiding the inter-individual variations in sensitivity or the differences in methodology usually associated with inter-laboratory comparisons, a linear-quadratic dose-response relationship for the mixed neutron and gamma-ray MEDAPP field as well as for its fission neutron part was obtained. Therefore, the debate on whether the fission

  12. Gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugiu, Daniela; Roth, Csaba; Ghinescu, Alecse

    2010-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well established nuclear technique, suited to investigate the microstructural or elemental composition and can be applied to studies of a large variety of samples. The work with large samples involves, beside the development of large irradiation devices with well know neutron field characteristics, the knowledge of perturbing phenomena and adequate evaluation of correction factors like: neutron self shielding, extended source correction, gamma ray auto absorption. The objective of the works presented in this paper is to validate an appropriate methodology for gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation for large inhomogeneous samples. For this purpose a benchmark experiment has been defined - a simple gamma ray transmission experiment, easy to be reproduced. The gamma ray attenuation in pottery samples has been measured and computed using MCNP5 code. The results show a good agreement between the computed and measured values, proving that the proposed methodology is able to evaluate the correction factors. (authors)

  13. Dose-response calibration curves of {sup 137}Cs gamma rays for dicentric chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wol Soon; Oh, Su Jung; Jeong, Soo Kyun; Yang, Kwang Mo [Dept. of Research center, Dong Nam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Min Ho [Dept. of Microbiology, Dong A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Recently, the increased threat of radiologically industrial accident such as radiation nondestructive inspection or destruction of nuclear accident by natural disaster such as Fukushima accident requires a greater capacity for cytogenetic biodosimetry, which is critical for clinical triage of potentially thousands of radiation-exposed individuals. Dicentric chromosome aberration analysis is the conventional means of assessing radiation exposure. Dose–response calibration curves for {sup 13}'7Cs gamma rays have been established for unstable chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in many laboratories of international biodosimetry network. In this study, therefore, we established dose– response calibration curves of our laboratory for {sup 137}Cs gamma raysaccording to the IAEA protocols for conducting the dicentric chromosome assay We established in vitro dose–response calibration curves for dicentric chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes for{sup 13}'7Cs gamma rays in the 0 to 5 Gy range, using the maximum likelihood linear-quadratic model, Y = c+αD+βD2. The estimated coefficients of the fitted curves were within the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the curve fitting of dose–effect relationship data indicated a good fit to the linear-quadratic model. Hence, meaningful dose estimation from unknown sample can be determined accurately by using our laboratory’s calibration curve according to standard protocol.

  14. Quantitative analysis of biological responses to low dose-rate γ-radiation, including dose, irradiation time, and dose-rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, J.; Furukawa, C.; Kawakami, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Because biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose, it is necessary to include dose, dose-rate and irradiation time simultaneously to predict the risk of low dose-rate irradiation. In this study, we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, irradiation time and dose-rate, using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells. For evaluation of chromosome breakage we assessed micronuclei induced by radiation. U2OS cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line, were exposed to gamma-ray in irradiation room bearing 50,000 Ci 60 Co. After the irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and propidium iodide, and the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was determined by fluorescent microscopy. For proliferation inhibition, cells were cultured for 48 h after the irradiation and [3H] thymidine was pulsed for 4 h before harvesting. Dose-rate in the irradiation room was measured with photoluminescence dosimeter. While irradiation time less than 24 h did not affect dose-response curves for both biological responses, they were remarkably attenuated as exposure time increased to more than 7 days. These biological responses were dependent on dose-rate rather than dose when cells were irradiated for 30 days. Moreover, percentage of micronucleus-forming cells cultured continuously for more than 60 days at the constant dose-rate, was gradually decreased in spite of the total dose accumulation. These results suggest that biological responses at low dose-rate, are remarkably affected by exposure time, that they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in the case of long-term irradiation, and that cells are getting resistant to radiation after the continuous irradiation for 2 months. It is necessary to include effect of irradiation time and dose-rate sufficiently to evaluate risk

  15. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27

    applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ¡Ý 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ¡Ý 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low

  16. In situ measurements of dose rates from terrestrial gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, M.C.; Jiang, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A portable, high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was employed for the performance of in situ measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in the ground in Taiwan, at altitudes ranging from sea level to 3900 m. The absolute peak efficiency of the HPGe detector for a gamma-ray source uniformly distributed in the semi-infinite ground was determined using a semi-empirical method. The gamma-ray dose rates from terrestrial radionuclides were calculated from the measured activity levels using recently published dose rate conversion factors. The absorbed dose rate in air due to cosmic rays was derived by subtracting the terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate from the overall absorbed dose rate in air measured using a high-pressure ionization chamber. The cosmic-ray dose rate calculated as a function of altitude, was found to be in good agreement with the data reported by UNSCEAR. (orig.)

  17. Organ or tissue doses, effective dose and collective effective dose from X-ray diagnosis, in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Takashi; Nishizawa, Kanae; Noda, Yutaka; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Iwai, Kazuo.

    1996-01-01

    Effective doses and collective effective doses from X-ray diagnostic examinations were calculated on the basis of the frequency of examinations estimated by a nationwide survey and the organ or tissue doses experimentally determined. The average organ or tissue doses were determined with thermoluminescence dosimeters put at various sites of organs or tissues in an adult and a child phantom. Effective doses (effective dose equivalents) were calculated as the sum of the weighted equivalent doses in all the organs or tissues of the body. As the examples of results, the effective doses per radiographic examination were approximately 7 mGy for male, and 9 mGy for female angiocardiography, and about 3 mGy for barium meal. Annual collective effective dose from X-ray diagnostic examinations in 1986 were about 104 x 10 3 person Sv from radiography and 118 x 10 3 person Sv from fluoroscopy, with the total of 222 x 10 3 person Sv. (author)

  18. Analysis of surface absorbed dose in X-ray grating interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhili, E-mail: wangnsrl@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu, Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Theoretical framework for dose estimation in X-ray grating interferometry. • Potential dose reduction of X-ray grating interferometry compared to conventional radiography. • Guidelines for optimization of X-ray grating interferometry for dose-sensitive applications. • Measure to compare various existing X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques. - Abstract: X-ray phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry has shown increased contrast over conventional absorption imaging, and therefore the great potential of dose reduction. The extent of the dose reduction depends on the geometry of grating interferometry, the photon energy, the properties of the sample under investigation and the utilized detector. These factors also determine the capability of grating interferometry to distinguish between different tissues with a specified statistical certainty in a single raw image. In this contribution, the required photon number for imaging and the resulting surface absorbed dose are determined in X-ray grating interferometry, using a two-component imaging object model. The presented results confirm that compared to conventional radiography, phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry indeed has the potential of dose reduction. And the extent of dose reduction is strongly dependent on the imaging conditions. Those results provide a theoretical framework for dose estimation under given imaging conditions before experimental trials, and general guidelines for optimization of grating interferometry for those dose-sensitive applications.

  19. Analysis of surface absorbed dose in X-ray grating interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhili; Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical framework for dose estimation in X-ray grating interferometry. • Potential dose reduction of X-ray grating interferometry compared to conventional radiography. • Guidelines for optimization of X-ray grating interferometry for dose-sensitive applications. • Measure to compare various existing X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques. - Abstract: X-ray phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry has shown increased contrast over conventional absorption imaging, and therefore the great potential of dose reduction. The extent of the dose reduction depends on the geometry of grating interferometry, the photon energy, the properties of the sample under investigation and the utilized detector. These factors also determine the capability of grating interferometry to distinguish between different tissues with a specified statistical certainty in a single raw image. In this contribution, the required photon number for imaging and the resulting surface absorbed dose are determined in X-ray grating interferometry, using a two-component imaging object model. The presented results confirm that compared to conventional radiography, phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry indeed has the potential of dose reduction. And the extent of dose reduction is strongly dependent on the imaging conditions. Those results provide a theoretical framework for dose estimation under given imaging conditions before experimental trials, and general guidelines for optimization of grating interferometry for those dose-sensitive applications

  20. Multifraction dose response of growing and resting phase hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegesna, V.; Withers, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established in both the clinic and the laboratory that there is a differentiation response to changes in dose per fraction in early and late responding tissues. To study one possible biological reason for differences in early and late responses. The authors selected one kind of cellular entity, the hair follicle, in two different phases of mitotic activity. The follicles are usually in a resting phase (7-12 wks), but mitotic activity can be initiated by plucking the club hairs. This was done on one half of the thorax and then exposing mice to doses of radiation (cesium gamma-ray). Dose responses for epilation between growing (early) and resting (late) follicles were compared for the same mouse. The fractionated response was studied by reducing the dose down to 2.5 Gy/fx. As the literature suggests, the total dose tolerated by a resting (late) follicle increased more than that for a growing (early) follicle

  1. Radiation response of industrial materials: Dose-rate and morphology implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial uses of ionizing radiation mostly rely upon high current, high dose-rate (100 kGy/s) electron beam (EB) accelerators. To a lesser extent, industry uses low dose-rate (2.8 x 10 -3 kGy/s) radioactive Cobalt-60 as a gamma source, generally for some rather specific purposes, as medical device sterilization and the treatment of food and foodstuffs. There are nearly nine times as many (∼1400) high current EB units in commercial operation than gamma sources (∼160). However, gamma sources can be easily scaled-down so that much research on materials effects is conducted using gamma radiation. Likewise, laboratories are more likely to have very low beam current and consequently low dose-rate accelerators such as Van de Graaff generators and linear accelerators. With the advent of very high current EB accelerators, X-ray processing has become an industrially viable option. With X-rays from high power sources, dose-rates can be modulated based upon accelerator power and the attenuation of the X-ray by the distance of the material from the X-ray target. Dose and dose-rate dependence has been found to be of consequence in several commercial applications which can employ the use of ionizing radiation. The combination of dose and dose-rate dependence of the polymerization and crosslinking of wood impregnants and of fiber composite matrix materials can yield more economically viable results which have promising commercial potential. Monomer and oligomer structure also play an important role in attaining these desirable results. The influence of morphology is shown on the radiation response of olefin polymers, such as ethylene, propylene and isobutylene polymers and their copolymers. Both controlled morphology and controlled dose-rate have commercial consequences. These are also impacted both by the adroit selection of materials and through the possible use of X-ray processing

  2. Single-dose-response curves of murine gastrointestinal crypt stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, K.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.; Chen, K.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Dose-response curves for the reproductive capacity of crypt stem cells of murine colonic, jejunal, and gastric mucosae exposed in situ to multifractionated gamma ray exposures were analyzed and single-dose-survival curves of these cells were constructed. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The single-dose-response curves bend downward over a dose range of approximately 200 to 1500 rad; (2) cell death seems to be due to nonrepairable damage at doses less than 250 rad for colon, and 220 rad for jejunum; (3) there are 21, 110, and 140 stem cells per crypt of gastric, colonic, and jejunal mucosa, respectively; and (4) jejunal stem cells are the most radiosensitive and gastric mucosal stem cells are the most resistant

  3. A study on measurement on artificial radiation dose rate using the response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidachi, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Konno, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    We examined accuracy and stability of estimated artificial dose contribution which is distinguished from natural background gamma-ray dose rate using Response Matrix method. Irradiation experiments using artificial gamma-ray sources indicated that there was a linear relationship between observed dose rate and estimated artificial dose contribution, when irradiated artificial gamma-ray dose rate was higher than about 2 nGy/h. Statistical and time-series analyses of long term data made it clear that estimated artificial contribution showed almost constant values under no artificial influence from the nuclear power plants. However, variations of estimated artificial dose contribution were infrequently observed due to of rainfall, detector maintenance operation and occurrence of calibration error. Some considerations on the factors to these variations were made. (author)

  4. Harderian Gland Tumorigenesis: Low-Dose and LET Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Polly Y. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Biosciences Div.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Cucinotta, Francis A. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences; Bjornstad, Kathleen A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Bakke, James [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Biosciences Div.; Rosen, Chris J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Biosciences Div.; Du, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Fairchild, David G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Cacao, Eliedonna [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences; Blakely, Eleanor A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    2016-04-19

    Increased cancer risk remains a primary concern for travel into deep space and may preclude manned missions to Mars due to large uncertainties that currently exist in estimating cancer risk from the spectrum of radiations found in space with the very limited available human epidemiological radiation-induced cancer data. Existing data on human risk of cancer from X-ray and gamma-ray exposure must be scaled to the many types and fluences of radiations found in space using radiation quality factors and dose-rate modification factors, and assuming linearity of response since the shapes of the dose responses at low doses below 100 mSv are unknown. The goal of this work was to reduce uncertainties in the relative biological effect (RBE) and linear energy transfer (LET) relationship for space-relevant doses of charged-particle radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The historical data from the studies of Fry et al. and Alpen et al. for Harderian gland (HG) tumors in the female CB6F1 strain of mouse represent the most complete set of experimental observations, including dose dependence, available on a specific radiation-induced tumor in an experimental animal using heavy ion beams that are found in the cosmic radiation spectrum. However, these data lack complete information on low-dose responses below 0.1 Gy, and for chronic low-dose-rate exposures, and there are gaps in the LET region between 25 and 190 keV/μm. In this study, we used the historical HG tumorigenesis data as reference, and obtained HG tumor data for 260 MeV/u silicon (LET ~70 keV/μm) and 1,000 MeV/u titanium (LET ~100 keV/μm) to fill existing gaps of data in this LET range to improve our understanding of the dose-response curve at low doses, to test for deviations from linearity and to provide RBE estimates. Animals were also exposed to five daily fractions of 0.026 or 0.052 Gy of 1,000 MeV/u titanium ions to simulate chronic exposure, and HG tumorigenesis from this fractionated study were compared to the

  5. Theory of thermoluminescence gamma dose response: The unified interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive theory of thermoluminescence (TL) dose response, the unified interaction model (UNIM). The UNIM is based on both radiation absorption stage and recombination stage mechanisms and can describe dose response for heavy charged particles (in the framework of the extended track interaction model - ETIM) as well as for isotropically ionising gamma rays and electrons (in the framework of the TC/LC geminate recombination model) in a unified and self-consistent conceptual and mathematical formalism. A theory of optical absorption dose response is also incorporated in the UNIM to describe the radiation absorption stage. The UNIM is applied to the dose response supralinearity characteristics of LiF:Mg,Ti and is especially and uniquely successful in explaining the ionisation density dependence of the supralinearity of composite peak 5 in TLD-100. The UNIM is demonstrated to be capable of explaining either qualitatively or quantitatively all of the major features of TL dose response with many of the variable parameters of the model strongly constrained by ancilliary optical absorption and sensitisation measurements

  6. Computerized x-ray dose-monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, R.H.; Wesenberg, R.L.; Amundson, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    An x-ray dose-monitoring system using a small digital computer is described. Initially, and for every 6 months afterward, the system is calibrated using an exposure meter. For each exposure, the computer receives values of x-ray technique and beam geometry from the x-ray generator through a specially designed electronic interface. Then, by means of calibration data, entrance exposure, area exposure product, and integral dose are obtained and printed for each patient examined. The overall accuracy of the system is better than +/-20%. Operation is semiautomatic, requiring minimum operator intervention. Over 2000 patients have been monitored with the device. Because the system is computer-based, it offers the opportunity for statistical analysis of the data base created, as the results for each patient are stored on computer disk

  7. Myeloid leukaemia frequency after protracted exposure to ionizing radiation: experimental confirmation of the flat dose-response found in ankylosing spondylitis after a single treatment course with x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mole, R H; Major, I R [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1983-01-01

    The dose-response for leukaemia induction by exposure to ionizing radiation protracted over several weeks was largely independent of dose not only in X-rayed patients with ankylosing spondylitis but also in experimentally ..gamma..-rayed CBA/H mice. In the experiment the induced leukaemia frequency of acute myeloid leukaemia was independent of a several thousand-fold variation in physical dose rate. Any difference in leukaemia induction between brief and protracted exposures must therefore depend on specifically biological consequences of protracted exposures. Experimental analysis is required to provide the guides for inference about risks of low level exposure from observations on relatively heavily irradiated populations.

  8. Patient doses from x-ray examinations in Sweden - follow-up of remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Helene; Leitz, W.

    2002-03-01

    In early 1999 the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) requested data about patient doses etc. for a number of specified x-ray examinations. The aim was on one hand to get a basis for planned regulations on diagnostic reference levels (DRL) and on the other hand to obtain an overview of how the situation is in the country with respect to patient doses. The licensees who reported dose values exceeding (provisional) DRL were asked to perform investigations about the grounds for the high dose and to take remedial actions for reducing the dose. In this report the outcome is presented. The dose reductions were large: on average between 35 and 60 % for the various examinations. A large proportion of the measures taken were simple and cheap, such as increase of radiation quality, improved examination methodology (smaller radiation fields, use of compression, reduced number of images or fluoroscopy time) and optimising the film processing. This is indicating that the planned regulations on diagnostic reference levels have a good chance to succeed with a large reduction of the patient doses in Sweden

  9. Near-term and late biological effects of acute and low-dose-rate continuous gamma-ray exposure in dogs and monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.

    1979-07-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (inury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with gamma rays at 35 r/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injry remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50%) and monkeys (8%) died from injury incurred during conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response (in terms of lethality) of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what we would expect from a single acute dose. The mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approx. 1400 h). Thus, the hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35-R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater (significant in dogs but not in monkeys) than for their control counterparts. Thus, long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than 4 times the acute LD 50 30 in dogs and approximately 2 times that in monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 Rat/day

  10. Real-time, ray casting-based scatter dose estimation for c-arm x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnewaini, Zaid; Langer, Eric; Schaber, Philipp; David, Matthias; Kretz, Dominik; Steil, Volker; Hesser, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Dosimetric control of staff exposure during interventional procedures under fluoroscopy is of high relevance. In this paper, a novel ray casting approximation of radiation transport is presented and the potential and limitation vs. a full Monte Carlo transport and dose measurements are discussed. The x-ray source of a Siemens Axiom Artix C-arm is modeled by a virtual source model using single Gaussian-shaped source. A Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation determines the radiation transport from the source to compute scatter from the patient, the table, the ceiling and the floor. A phase space around these scatterers stores all photon information. Only those photons are traced that hit a surface of phantom that represents medical staff in the treatment room, no indirect scattering is considered; and a complete dose deposition on the surface is calculated. To evaluate the accuracy of the approximation, both experimental measurements using Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of dose depositing for different tube angulations of the C-arm from cranial-caudal angle 0° and from LAO (Left Anterior Oblique) 0°-90° are realized. Since the measurements were performed on both sides of the table, using the symmetry of the setup, RAO (Right Anterior Oblique) measurements were not necessary. The Geant4-Monte Carlo simulation agreed within 3% with the measured data, which is within the accuracy of measurement and simulation. The ray casting approximation has been compared to TLD measurements and the achieved percentage difference was -7% for data from tube angulations 45°-90° and -29% from tube angulations 0°-45° on the side of the x-ray source, whereas on the opposite side of the x-ray source, the difference was -83.8% and -75%, respectively. Ray casting approximation for only LAO 90° was compared to a Monte Carlo simulation, where the percentage differences were between 0.5-3% on the side of the x-ray source where the highest dose

  11. Dose-response meta-analysis of differences in means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Crippa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analytical methods are frequently used to combine dose-response findings expressed in terms of relative risks. However, no methodology has been established when results are summarized in terms of differences in means of quantitative outcomes. Methods We proposed a two-stage approach. A flexible dose-response model is estimated within each study (first stage taking into account the covariance of the data points (mean differences, standardized mean differences. Parameters describing the study-specific curves are then combined using a multivariate random-effects model (second stage to address heterogeneity across studies. Results The method is fairly general and can accommodate a variety of parametric functions. Compared to traditional non-linear models (e.g. E max, logistic, spline models do not assume any pre-specified dose-response curve. Spline models allow inclusion of studies with a small number of dose levels, and almost any shape, even non monotonic ones, can be estimated using only two parameters. We illustrated the method using dose-response data arising from five clinical trials on an antipsychotic drug, aripiprazole, and improvement in symptoms in shizoaffective patients. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, pooled results indicated a non-linear association with the maximum change in mean PANSS score equal to 10.40 (95 % confidence interval 7.48, 13.30 observed for 19.32 mg/day of aripiprazole. No substantial change in PANSS score was observed above this value. An estimated dose of 10.43 mg/day was found to produce 80 % of the maximum predicted response. Conclusion The described approach should be adopted to combine correlated differences in means of quantitative outcomes arising from multiple studies. Sensitivity analysis can be a useful tool to assess the robustness of the overall dose-response curve to different modelling strategies. A user-friendly R package has been developed to facilitate

  12. Mechanisms and biological importance of photon-induced bystander responses. Do they have an impact on low-dose radiation responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masanori; Maeda, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the biological effect of low linear energy transfer (LET), low-dose and/or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation is essential in ensuring radiation safety. Over the past two decades, non-targeted effects, which are not only a direct consequence of radiation-induced initial lesions produced in cellular DNA but also of intra- and inter-cellular communications involving both targeted and non-targeted cells, have been reported and are currently defining a new paradigm in radiation biology. These effects include radiation-induced adaptive response, low-dose hypersensitivity, genomic instability, and radiation-induced bystander response (RIBR). RIBR is generally defined as a cellular response that is induced in non-irradiated cells that receive bystander signals from directly irradiated cells. RIBR could thus play an important biological role in low-dose irradiation conditions. However, this suggestion was mainly based on findings obtained using high-LET charged-particle radiations. The human population (especially the Japanese, who are exposed to lower doses of radon than the world average) is more frequently exposed to low-LET photons (X-rays or γ-rays) than to high-LET charged-particle radiation on a daily basis. There are currently a growing number of reports describing a distinguishing feature between photon-induced bystander response and high-LET RIBR. In particular, photon-induced by-stander response is strongly influenced by irradiation dose, the irradiated region of the targeted cells, and p53 status. The present review focuses on the photon-induced bystander response, and discusses its impact on the low-dose radiation effect. (author)

  13. Absorbed and effective dose from periapical radiography by portable intraoral x-ray machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the absorbed dose and to calculate the effective dose for periapical radiography done by portable intraoral x-ray machines. 14 full mouth, upper posterior and lower posterior periapical radiographs were taken by wall-type 1 and portable type 3 intraoral x-ray machines. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were placed at 23 sites at the layers of the tissue-equivalent ART woman phantom for dosimetry. Average tissue absorbed dose and radiation weighted dose were calculated for each major anatomical site. Effective dose was calculated using 2005 ICRP tissue weighted factors. On 14 full mouth periapical radiographs, the effective dose for wall-type x-ray machine was 30 Sv; for portable x-ray machines were 30 Sv, 22 Sv, 36 Sv. On upper posterior radiograph, the effective dose for wall-type x-ray machine was 4 Sv; for portable x-ray machines doses were 4 Sv, 3 Sv, 5 Sv. On lower posterior radiograph, the effective dose for wall type x-ray machine was 5 Sv; for portable x-ray machines doses were 4 Sv, 4 Sv, 5 Sv. Effective doses for periapical radiographs performed by portable intraoral x-ray machines were similar to doses for periapical radiographs taken by wall type intraoral x-ray machines

  14. Shield device for controlling the dose of x-rays applied in an x-ray machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrier, P.

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides an improved shield for use with an x-ray machine. The shield can control the dose of x-rays applied by the machine in different areas without affecting the power of the x-rays. This is achieved with a shield especially designed and positioned to intercept with x-rays for longer or shorter periods in different areas during the taking of the picture, but not for the whole period of time necessary for taking this picture. Each area of the subject being x-rayed is exposed to full power x-rays. However, owing to the shield, the areas that require smaller dose receive these full power x-rays for a shorter portion of the time required to take the picture while the other areas that require larger dose of x-rays, receive the full power x-rays for a longer portion of the full period of time required to take the picture. To ensure this differential exposure, the shield is placed through the path of the x-rays and rotated about an axis which is generally transverse to the direction of travel of the x-rays to cut out some of said x-rays for different portions of the period of time necessary for taking the picture. The shield is preferably shaped to intercept x-rays for a longer period in some areas than in others depending on the required doses. A plurality of differently shaped shields can be provided to suit different picture taking situations

  15. Dose enhancement effects of X ray radiation in bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun

    1997-01-01

    The author has presented behaviour degradation and dose enhancement effects of bipolar transistors in X ray irradiation environment. The relative dose enhancement factors of X ray radiation were measured in bipolar transistors by the experiment methods. The mechanism of bipolar device dose enhancement was investigated

  16. Electrical behavior research of silicon photo-cell used in online monitoring absorbed dose rate of γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guixia; Li Xiaoyan; Fu Lan; Wu Wenhao; An You; Zeng Fansong

    2015-01-01

    The real-time online monitoring system for γ-ray absorbed dose rate was established to study the relationship between the photocurrent of semi-conductive silicon photo-cell BBZSGD-4 and γ-ray absorbed dose rate under the open circuit. The radioactive experiments in "6"0Co γ radiation field show that photo-cell BBZSGD-4 has good response to "6"0Co γ-ray, and their relationship accords with the linear law. The photocurrent of photo-cell can be up to 1.26 μA when the absorbed dose rate is 94.54 Gy/min. The relationship between photocurrent and the absorbed dose accords with exponential law when absorbed dose rate is 50 Gy/min, and the attenuation of photocurrent is 1% when the absorbed dose is 5445.8 Gy. Thus photo-cell BBZSGD-4 has the potential to be a real-time detector to detect low absorbed dose rate in "6"0Co γ radiation field. (authors)

  17. Mutation induction in cultured human cells after low-dose and low-dose-rate γ-ray irradiation. Detection by LOH analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umebayashi, Yukihiro; Iwaki, Masaya; Yatagai, Fumio; Honma, Masamitsu; Suzuki, Masao; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2007-01-01

    To study the genetic effects of low-doses and low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (IR), human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were exposed to 30 mGy of γ-rays at a dose-rate of 1.2 mGy/hr. The frequency of early mutations (EMs) in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene locus was determined to be 1.7 x 10 -6 , or 1.9-fold higher than the level seen in unirradiated controls. These mutations were analyzed with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) detection system, a methodology which has been shown to be sensitive to the effects of radiation. Among the 15 EMs observed after IR exposure, 8 were small interstitial-deletion events restricted to the TK gene locus. However, this specific type of event was not found in unirradiated controls. Although these results were observed under the limited conditions, they strongly suggest that the LOH detection system can be used for estimating the genetic effects of a low-dose IR exposure delivered at a low-dose-rate. (author)

  18. Validation of response simulation methodology of Albedo dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, B.M.; Silva, A.X. da

    2016-01-01

    The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria developed and runs a neutron TLD albedo individual monitoring service. To optimize the dose calculation algorithm and to infer new calibration factors, the response of this dosemeter was simulated. In order to validate this employed methodology, it was applied in the simulation of the problem of the QUADOS (Quality Assurance of Computational Tools for Dosimetry) intercomparison, aimed to evaluate dosimetric problems, one being to calculate the response of a generic albedo dosemeter. The obtained results were compared with those of other modeling and the reference one, with good agreements. (author)

  19. Induction by X-rays of chromosome aberrations in male guinea-pigs and golden hamsters. 4. Dose-response for spermatogonia treated with fractionated doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, M F; Cox, B D [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1975-10-01

    The effect of dose fractionation on the induction of translocations by 400 and 600 rad X-rays in spermatogonia of guinea-pigs and hamsters was investigated cytologically. Three types of fractionation were used, dividing the dose into (a) two equal fractions 24h apart, (b) two equal fractions 8 weeks apart, and (c) eight or twelve equal fractions of 50 rad, at intervals of one week. The two species responded similarly throughout, but gave lower translocation yields than the mouse. The effects of the first and third types of fractionation were similar to those described previously in the mouse, and suggested that a first radiation dose modifies the spermatogonial population so that its sensitivity to a dose 24h later is altered, and that repeated radiation doses result in development of resistance to translocation induction. After 8-week fractionation, the results suggested that in guinea-pigs and hamsters, the spermatogonial population had not returned to normal by 8 weeks after the first dose, whereas in the mouse, normal sensitivity had returned by this time. The results, reported previously, of single doses of X-rays suggest that the spermatogonial population consists of sub-populations differing in sensitivity to cell killing and genetic effects. The effects of fractionated doses in the mouse suggest that the sensitive and resistant types represent different phases of the samecell type rather than two distinct types of cell. In the guinea-pig and hamster, this question remains open.

  20. The hyper-radiosensitivity effect of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells exposed to low dose γ-rays and 12C ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaodong; Li Qiang; Li Wenjian; Wang Jufang; Guo Chuanling; Hao Jifang

    2006-01-01

    Hypersensitive response of mammalian cells in cell killing to X- and γ-rays has been reported at doses below 1 Gy. The purpose of this study was to examine the low dose sensitivity of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells irradiated with 6 Co γ-rays and 50 MeV/u 12 C ions. Experiments using γ-rays and charged particle irradiation were performed, particularly in the low dose range from 0 to 2 Gy. The survival effect of SMMC-7721 cells was measured by means of standard clonogenic assay in conjunction with a cell sorter. The result indicates SMMC-7721 cells showed hyper-radiosensitive response at low doses and increased radio-resistance at larger single doses for the carbon ions (LET = 45.2 keV/μm) and the γ-rays. However, the HRS/IRR effect caused by high-LET irradiation is different from that by low-LET radiation. This might possibly be due to the difference in the mode of energy deposition by particle beam and low-LET irradiation

  1. Adaptive response to ionizing radiation induced by low doses of gamma rays in human cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jinsil; Chang, Ok Suh; Gwi, Eon Kim

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the adaptive response could be induced in human lymphoblastoid cell lines and human tumor cell lines. The time necessary for the expression of the adaptive response was also investigated. Materials and Methods: Three lymphoblastoid cell lines from ataxia telangiectasia (AT) homozygote (GM 1526), AT heterozygote (GM 3382), and normal individual (3402p) and two hepatoma cell lines, Hep G2 and Hep 3B, were used in this study. Experiments were carried out by delivering 0.01 Gy followed by 0.5 Gy of gamma radiation to the exponentially growing cells. The time necessary for the expression of the adaptive response was determined by varying the time interval between the two doses from 1 to 72 h. In some experiments, 3-aminobenzamide, a potent inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, was added immediately after the 0.5 Gy exposure. The cultures were fixed 30 min (for the G 2 chromatid) and 6 h (for the S chromatid) after the 0.5 Gy exposure. Metaphase chromosome assay was carried out to score chromatid breaks as an end point. Results: A prior exposure to 0.01 Gy of gamma rays significantly reduced the number of chromatid breaks induced by subsequent higher doses (0.5 Gy) in all the tested cell lines. The magnitude of the adaptive response was similar among the cell lines despite their different radiosensitivities. In the G 2 chromatids, the adaptive response was observed both at short-time intervals, as early as 1 h, and at long-time intervals. In the S chromatids, however, the adaptive response was shown only at long-time intervals. When 3-aminobenzamide was added after the 0.5 Gy, the adaptive responses were abolished in all the experimental groups. Conclusion: The adaptive response was observed in human lymphoblastoid cell lines and hepatoma cell lines. The magnitude of the adaptive response did not seem to be related to the radiosensitivity of the cells. The elimination of the adaptive response with 3

  2. Dose response relationship in local radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Chul; Seong, Jin Sil; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Moon, Young Myoung; Song, Jae Seok; Suh, Chang Ok

    2001-01-01

    In this study, it was investigated whether dose response relation existed or not in local radiotherapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma. From January 1992 to March 2000, 158 patients were included in present study. Exclusion criteria included the presence of extrahepatic metastasis, liver cirrhosis of Child's class C, tumors occupying more than two thirds of the entire liver, and performance status on the ECOG scale of more than 3. Radiotherapy was given to the field including tumor with generous margin using 6, 10-MV X-ray. Mean tumor dose was 48.2±7.9 Gy in daily 1.8 Gy fractions. Tumor response was based on diagnostic radiologic examinations such as CT scan, MR imaging, hepatic artery angiography at 4-8 weeks following completion of treatment. Statistical analysis was done to investigate the existence of dose response relationship of local radiotherapy when it was applied to the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. An objective response was observed in 106 of 158 patients, giving a response rate of 67. 1%. Statistical analysis revealed that total dose was the most significant factor in relation to tumor response when local radiotherapy was applied to the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Only 29.2% showed objective response in patients treated with dose less than 40 Gy, while 68.6% and 77.1 % showed major response in patients with 40-50 Gy and more than 50 Gy, respectively. Child-Pugh classification was significant factor in the development of ascites, overt radiation induced liver disease and gastroenteritis. Radiation dose was an important factor for development of radiation induced gastroduodenal ulcer. Present study showed the existence of dose response relationship in local radiotherapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Only radiotherapy dose was a significant factor to predict the objective response. Further study is required to predict the maximal tolerance dose in consideration of liver function and non-irradiated liver

  3. Low Dose X-Ray Speckle Visibility Spectroscopy Reveals Nanoscale Dynamics in Radiation Sensitive Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwohlt, Jan; Reiser, Mario; Randolph, Lisa; Matic, Aleksandar; Medina, Luis Aguilera; Madsen, Anders; Sprung, Michael; Zozulya, Alexey; Gutt, Christian

    2018-04-01

    X-ray radiation damage provides a serious bottleneck for investigating microsecond to second dynamics on nanometer length scales employing x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. This limitation hinders the investigation of real time dynamics in most soft matter and biological materials which can tolerate only x-ray doses of kGy and below. Here, we show that this bottleneck can be overcome by low dose x-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy. Employing x-ray doses of 22-438 kGy and analyzing the sparse speckle pattern of count rates as low as 6.7 ×10-3 per pixel, we follow the slow nanoscale dynamics of an ionic liquid (IL) at the glass transition. At the prepeak of nanoscale order in the IL, we observe complex dynamics upon approaching the glass transition temperature TG with a freezing in of the alpha relaxation and a multitude of millisecond local relaxations existing well below TG . We identify this fast relaxation as being responsible for the increasing development of nanoscale order observed in ILs at temperatures below TG .

  4. Preparation of the FXG gel dosemeter and studying its response for low and medium energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Kharita, M. H.

    2008-02-01

    Gel dosimetry method was found to be capable of addressing complicated issues related to dose measurements particularly in modern sophisticated radiotherapy applications. Ferrous-sulphate Xylenol-orange and Gelatin (FXG) radiochromic gel dosemeter is one of the systems used for such applications. Some chemical dosemeters show different response for low and medium energies X-rays in comparison with high energy-photons. The energy and dose rate dependence of the FXG dose response was examined. In addition to the detector response other important dosimetric properties of the system were investigated for different X-ray beam qualities with tube voltages in the range 100 - 300 kv. An orthovoltage X-ray therapy unit was used to irradiate standard sized samples of FXG from different batches for radiation doses in the range 0 - 8 Gy. This work includes in the first stage the preparation of the radiochromic gel dosemeter (FXG) as well as its calibration in gamma radiation field. Furthermore, the stability and reproducibility of measurements were tested. The obtained results were found to be suitable as a basis to carry on the next stage of this study. The second phase was centred about the delivery of radiation doses from X-ray source that has increasing energy and evaluating the gel material properties as a dosemeter in this case, with concentration on finding the changes of the gel material response with the changes in the applied X-ray energy. Therefore establishing the response radiation energy dependence and comparing the measurement results with other results taken from other known dosimetry system such as ion chambers. Experiments shows that the FXG gel detector has a dynamic rage suitable for the dose delivered in radiotherapy treatment; its response as a function of the dose rate is also stable in the range of radiation energies applied.(Author)

  5. Low-dose radiation-induced adaptive response in bone marrow cells of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Zeba; Kesavan, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    Using bone marrow cells of whole body irradiated mice, the cytogenetic adaptive response induced by low conditioning doses of gamma-rays was investigated. The conditioning doses (0.025 and 0.05 Gy) were given at a dose-rate of 1.67 Gy/min. The challenging dose of 1 Gy was given at a dose-rate of 0.045 Gy/s. The challenging dose was given at different time intervals after the conditioning dose. The time intervals between the conditioning dose and challenging dose were 2, 7.5, 13, 18.5 and 24 h. When the time interval between the conditioning dose and the challenging dose was 2 h, both conditioning doses (0.025 and 0.05 Gy) reduced the frequency of MNPCEs and chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells. The data collected at different time intervals (7.5, 13, 18.5 h) reveal that the radioadaptive response persisted for a longer time when the lower conditioning dose (0.025 Gy) was given. With the higher conditioning dose (0.05 Gy), the radioadaptive response disappeared after a time interval of 13 h. When the time interval between the conditioning dose and the challenging doses was 18.5 or 24 h, only the lower conditioning dose appeared effective in inducing the radioadaptive response

  6. The methodology proposed to estimate the absorbed dose at the entrance of the labyrinth in HDR brachytherapy facilities with IR-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujades, M. C.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of procedure for evaluating the design of a brachytherapy (BT) vault with maze from the point of view of radiation protection, usually formalism of external radiation is adapted. The purpose of this study is to adapt the methodology described by the National council on Radiological Protection and Measurements Report 151 (NCRP 151). Structural Shielding Design for megavoltage X-and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy facilities, for estimating dose at the door in BT and its comparison with the results megavoltage X-and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities, for estimating dose at the door in BT and its comparison with the results obtained by the method of Monte Carlo (MC) for a special case of bunker. (Author) 17 refs.

  7. Trends in x-ray photography and patient exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, Takeo; Sanada, Shigeru; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke

    1980-01-01

    The exposure doses of patients in X-ray photography are influenced by such technological factors as X-ray tube voltage, filter, sensitizing screen, film and grid. Survey by questionnnaire was made previously in 1973 on the above factors. The trends five years after were surveyed similarly, in connection with the exposure doses of patients. Questionnaires were sent to 200 radiation technicians, and 121 (60.5%) answered the survey in March, 1979. The results in the cases of simple X-ray photography and obstetric, infant and breast X-ray photographings are described. X-ray tube voltage is generally on the increase. In the sensitizing screens, exposure doses are fairly decreased due to the use of improved intensifying screen (LT-II). In the grid, the ratio 8 : 1 is used more than 5 : 1. In the usage of additional filters and in the distance of photography, improvements are desired. (J.P.N.)

  8. Comparative study of radiation dose between digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingshan; Duan Tao; Wang Xiaoyun; Zhao Li; Dong Jian; Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the actual dose of patients who receive the same medical practice by either digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit and give evidence for better selection of oral X-ray examination method. Methods: Round sheet lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used. The experiment was divided into natural background contrast group, general panoramic X-ray children group, general panoramic X-ray adults group, digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group. The dosimeter of natural background radiation was placed at the office of the doctor, the dosimeters of general panoramic X-ray children group and general panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of panoramic X-ray to children and adults, the dosimeters of digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of digital panoramic X-ray to children and adults. The thermoluminescent dosimeter was used to count and calculate the exposure doses in various groups. Results: The dose of children exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.28 times of that in digital panoramic X-ray unit, there was significant difference (t=6.904, P<0.01). The dose of adults exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.55 times of that in the digital panoramic X-ray unit, there also was significant difference (t=-11.514. P< 0.01). Conclusion: The digital panoramic X-ray unit can reduce the dose of patients, so the digital panoramic X-ray unit should be used as far as possible. (authors)

  9. Intercomparison of personnel dosimetry for thermal neutron dose equivalent in neutron and gamma-ray mixed fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    1985-01-01

    In order to consider the problems concerned with personnel dosimetry using film badges and TLDs, an intercomparison of personnel dosimetry, especially dose equivalent responses of personnel dosimeters to thermal neutron, was carried out in five different neutron and gamma-ray mixed fields at KUR and UTR-KINKI from the practical point of view. For the estimation of thermal neutron dose equivalent, it may be concluded that each personnel dosimeter has good performances in the precision, that is, the standard deviations in the measured values by individual dosimeter were within 24 %, and the dose equivalent responses to thermal neutron were almost independent on cadmium ratio and gamma-ray contamination. However, the relative thermal neutron dose equivalent of individual dosimeter normalized to the ICRP recommended value varied considerably and a difference of about 4 times was observed among the dosimeters. From the results obtained, it is suggested that the standardization of calibration factors and procedures is required from the practical point of radiation protection and safety. (author)

  10. Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Polychromatic Mice Erythrocyte as Measured by Acridine Orange Stained Micronuleus Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee-Sun, K.; Kwang-Hee, Y.; Cha-Soom, K.; Jung-Mi, C.; Gu-Choul, S.; Suk-Young, P.; Kyoung-H, C.; Chong-Soom, K.; Young-Khi, L.; Jae-Ho, W.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of conditioning pretreatment with 0.01Gy of gamma rays on micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) induction by 2Gy of g-rays was determined in peripheral blood of C3H/He mice. The timing of their administration of challenge doses was 6hr. The response was determined by scoring of Acridine orange dye stained MN-PCEs. The results indicate that low dose gamma ray pretreatment does protect against MN-PCE induction by the challenge g-ray dose. Introduction: An adaptive response induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in vivo reported. Some research team reports that a reduction on MN-PCE of mice caused by the pretreatment was observed [1- 4]. However, there was variability in the amount of the response depending on the time and adaptive dose [3]. This is important because the variation of MN-PCE frequency with time could lead to differences in the interpretation. In this study, differences in the biological effects within the priming dose ranges are discussed. Materials and Methods: Specific pathogen free 5-week-old C3H/He mice, purchased from Shizuoka Laboratory Center (Japan), were kept in clean and conventional environment. When 6 weeks old, the animal were whole body irradiated using irradiator of IBL-437 (137Cs, 0.8Gy/min). After various time intervals, the two groups were administrated to adaptation dose and challenge dose of 0.01Gy and 2Gy, respectively. For experiments, sham-irradiated, only adaptive and challenge dose irradiated groups were run concurrently. Smears were stained and scored using Acridine orange dye method [2]. Statistically significant differences in MN-PCE frequency were determined by comparing tie individual values at each group with the respective control values (challenge dose irradiated group) by using the paired ttest. Results and Discussions: Induced MN by the challenge dose (2Gy) after the pretreatment with 0.01Gy is low to the one induced by the challenge dose alone. In the present study, this estimation for the

  11. Radiation doses to paediatric patients and comforters undergoing chest x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Vlychou, M.; Tsougos, I.; Theodorou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is an important cause of hospital admission among children in the developed world and it is estimated to be responsible for 3-18 % of all paediatric admissions. Chest X ray is an important examination for pneumonia diagnosis and for evaluation of complications. This study aims to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD), organ, effective doses and propose a local diagnostic reference level. The study was carried out at the university hospital of Larissa (Greece). Patients were divided into three groups: organ and effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board software. The ESD was determined by thermoluminescent dosemeters for 132 children and 76 comforters. The average ESD value was 55±8 μGy. The effective dose for patients was 11.2±5 μSv. The mean radiation dose for comforter is 22±3 mGy. The radiation dose to the patients is well within dose constraint, in the light of the current practice. (authors)

  12. Effects of X-rays spectrum on the dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez I, J. L.; Hernandez A, P. L.; Vega C, H. R.; Rivera M, T.

    2015-10-01

    The X-ray equipment for diagnosis comes in different sizes and shapes depending on the scan type to perform. The X-ray spectrum is the energy distribution of the beam photons and consists of a continuous spectrum of photons braking and discrete spectrum due to the characteristic photons. The knowledge of the X-rays spectrum is important to understand like they affect the voltage changes (k Vp), current (m A), time (s) and the type of filter in the interaction mechanisms between X-rays and patient's body, the image receptor or other material that gets in the beam. Across the spectrum can be estimated the absorbed dose in any point of the patient, the quality of the image and the scattered radiation (which is related to the dose received by the equipment operator). The Monte Carlo method was used by MCNP5 code to calculate the spectrum of X-rays that occurs when a monoenergetic electron beam of 250 keV interact with targets of Mo, Rh and W. The spectra were calculated with and without filter, and the values of ambient dose equivalent were estimated, as well as the air kerma. (Author)

  13. Cosmic rays exposure during aircraft flight (3). Guideline and dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Council of MEXT drew up the Guideline of Cosmic Ray Exposure Control for Air Crew in 2006. The content of the Guideline and evaluation methods of dose are explained. The Guideline stated five items for Airline Company. It consists of 1) exposure dose control for air crew, 2) evaluation methods of cosmic rays exposure dose of air crew, 3) explanation and education of cosmic rays exposure for air crew, 4) reading, record and store of cosmic rays exposure dose of air crew, and 5) health control of air crew. The doses of four airlines were calculated by the Civil Aeromedical Research Institute (CARI) code and the European Program package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses (EPCARD) code. The difference of two codes was about 15 to 25%. Japanese Internet System for Calculation of Aviation Route Doses (JISCAED) has been developed by Japan. (S.Y.)

  14. X-ray-induced bystander response reduce spontaneous mutations in V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Munetoshi; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Usami, Noriko; Tomiya, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    The potential for carcinogenic risks is increased by radiation-induced bystander responses; these responses are the biological effects in unirradiated cells that receive signals from the neighboring irradiated cells. Bystander responses have attracted attention in modern radiobiology because they are characterized by non-linear responses to low-dose radiation. We used a synchrotron X-ray microbeam irradiation system developed at the Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK, and showed that nitric oxide (NO)-mediated bystander cell death increased biphasically in a dose-dependent manner. Here, we irradiated five cell nuclei using 10 × 10 µm 2 5.35 keV X-ray beams and then measured the mutation frequency at the hypoxanthine-guanosine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus in bystander cells. The mutation frequency with the null radiation dose was 2.6 × 10 -5 (background level), and the frequency decreased to 5.3 × 10 -6 with a dose of approximately 1 Gy (absorbed dose in the nucleus of irradiated cells). At high doses, the mutation frequency returned to the background level. A similar biphasic dose-response effect was observed for bystander cell death. Furthermore, we found that incubation with 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO), a specific scavenger of NO, suppressed not only the biphasic increase in bystander cell death but also the biphasic reduction in mutation frequency of bystander cells. These results indicate that the increase in bystander cell death involves mechanisms that suppress mutagenesis. This study has thus shown that radiation-induced bystander responses could affect processes that protect the cell against naturally occurring alterations such as mutations. (author)

  15. Tissue doses in X-ray examinations of osteoarticular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Stavitskij, R.V.; Blinov, N.N.; Vasil'ev, Yu.D.

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray method in diagnosis of the osteoarticular system disease is described. Problems on tissue dose distribution in X-ray examinations of a skeleton, a skull, humeral articulation, cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hip joint, hipbones are considered. The values of specific tissue doses in roentgenography of the osteoarticular system are given

  16. Increased apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks in the embryonic mouse brain in response to very low-dose X-rays but not 50 Hz magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shreya; Woodbine, Lisa; Haines, Jackie; Coster, Margaret; Ricket, Nicole; Barazzuol, Lara; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Sienkiewicz, Zenon; Jeggo, Penny

    2014-11-06

    The use of X-rays for medical diagnosis is enhancing exposure to low radiation doses. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic or magnetic fields is also increasing. Epidemiological studies show consistent associations of childhood leukaemia with exposure to magnetic fields but any causal relationship is unclear. A limitation in assessing the consequence of such exposure is the availability of sensitive assays. The embryonic neuronal stem and progenitor cell compartments are radiosensitive tissues. Using sensitive assays, we report a statistically significant increase in DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and apoptosis in the embryonic neuronal stem cell compartment following in utero exposure to 10-200 mGy X-rays. Both endpoints show a linear response. We also show that DSB repair is delayed following exposure to doses below 50 mGy compared with 100 mGy. Thus, we demonstrate in vivo consequences of low-dose radiation. In contrast to these impacts, we did not observe any significant induction of DSBs or apoptosis following exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields (100 or 300 µT). We conclude that any DSB induction by treatment with magnetic fields is lower than following exposure to 10 mGy X-rays. For comparison, certain procedures involving computed tomography scanning are equivalent to 1-5 mGy X-rays.

  17. Patient and population doses of x-ray diagnostics in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannikko, S; Karila, K T.K.; Toivonen, M

    1997-09-01

    Periodic surveys of patient and population doses are important because of the large contribution of x-ray diagnostics to the artificial population dose. Measured entrance surface doses and dose-area products are the main quantities used for monitoring patient doses in hospitals, and most population dose studies have been derived from these quantities and from the frequences of x-ray examinations. This study is based on the radiation, exposure geometry, and patient parameters recorded by experienced radiographers and postgraduated students. The software used in the work (ODS-60 of Rados Technology) suits the determination of effective and organ doses from such detailed data using a human-like patient phantom which can be adapted for sex and size. The program, together with the very detailed input data, made it possible to determine organ equivalent and effective doses for complicated dynamic x-ray examinations and interventions in more detail than in previous studies. Collective organ and effective doses were derived for 50 examination types. The annual collective dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in 1994 was 0.5 mSv per capita in Finland. The five groups of examinations or examinations that had greatest contributions to the collective dose were CT, barium enema: double contrast, lumbar spine, carotid angiography, and intestinal transit. Together they represented for about 60 % of the total dose. The highest dose-area products (about 2000 Gy cm{sup 2}) were obtained from certain angiographic and interventional examinations. A literature survey showed that Finland patient doses are at the same average level as in other countries of a high standard of health care. (orig.). 125 refs.

  18. Patient and population doses of x-ray diagnostics in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannikko, S.; Karila, K.T.K.; Toivonen, M.

    1997-09-01

    Periodic surveys of patient and population doses are important because of the large contribution of x-ray diagnostics to the artificial population dose. Measured entrance surface doses and dose-area products are the main quantities used for monitoring patient doses in hospitals, and most population dose studies have been derived from these quantities and from the frequences of x-ray examinations. This study is based on the radiation, exposure geometry, and patient parameters recorded by experienced radiographers and postgraduated students. The software used in the work (ODS-60 of Rados Technology) suits the determination of effective and organ doses from such detailed data using a human-like patient phantom which can be adapted for sex and size. The program, together with the very detailed input data, made it possible to determine organ equivalent and effective doses for complicated dynamic x-ray examinations and interventions in more detail than in previous studies. Collective organ and effective doses were derived for 50 examination types. The annual collective dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in 1994 was 0.5 mSv per capita in Finland. The five groups of examinations or examinations that had greatest contributions to the collective dose were CT, barium enema: double contrast, lumbar spine, carotid angiography, and intestinal transit. Together they represented for about 60 % of the total dose. The highest dose-area products (about 2000 Gy cm 2 ) were obtained from certain angiographic and interventional examinations. A literature survey showed that Finland patient doses are at the same average level as in other countries of a high standard of health care. (orig.)

  19. Response to challenging dose of x-rays as a predictive assay for molecular epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    2003-01-01

    Human biomonitoring, as a tool to identify or quantify the potential risk from genotoxic exposures, has gained increasing interest especially in the areas of cancer risk assessment and diseases treatment. Chromosome aberrations resulting from direct DNA breakage or from inhibition of DNA repair or synthesis, measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been used in occupational health surveillance programs in order to assess risks from exposures. Many results in our human monitoring studies have shown influence of the environmental or occupational exposure on the cytogenetic damage detected in lymphocytes, confirming both, the association with adverse health outcome and the influence of life style related confounding factors. Susceptibility to the environmental agent actions was also evaluated in lymphocytes in the studies of variation between responses to the challenging dose of UV or X-rays followed by the evaluation of the repair capacity of the DNA damage induced by a challenging dose. The induced and residual DNA damage was analyzed with the use of SCGE assay. Susceptibility and repair capacities of healthy donors and cancer patients were compared. Studies have shown a good correlation between DNA damage induced in vivo or in vitro and cytogenetic measures. Results from studies on susceptibilities and repair competence performed in occupationally exposed and unexposed 475 healthy donors and patients with diagnosed cancer are discussed. Significantly lower efficiency of repair process was observed in cancer patients. The possible effects on repair competency of various occupational exposures and influence of the diet and other confounding factors is shown. Although in our preliminary studies comet assay failed to detect DNA damage repair disorders in a teratoma immature infant, though, prospective use of a challenging dose of radiation combined with the comet assay as a predictive assay is suggested and limitation discussed

  20. Dose-response relationship in local radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Chul; Seong, Jinsil; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Moon, Young Myoung; Suh, Chang Ok

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is based on the hypothesis that increasing the dose can enhance tumor control. This study aimed to determine whether a dose-response relationship exists in local radiotherapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: One hundred fifty-eight patients were enrolled in the present study between January 1992 and March 2000. The exclusion criteria included the presence of an extrahepatic metastasis, liver cirrhosis of Child class C, tumors occupying more than two-thirds of the entire liver, and a performance status on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale of more than 3. Radiotherapy was given to the field, including the tumor, with generous margin using 6- or 10-MV X-rays. The mean radiation dose was 48.2 ± 7.9 Gy in daily 1.8-Gy fractions. The tumor response was assessed based on diagnostic radiologic examinations, including a computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, and hepatic artery angiography 4-8 weeks after the completion of treatment. Liver toxicity and gastrointestinal complications were evaluated. Results: An objective response was observed in 106 of 158 (67.1%) patients. Statistical analysis revealed that the total dose was the most significant factor associated with the tumor response. The response rates in patients treated with doses 50 Gy were 29.2%, 68.6%, and 77.1%, respectively. Survivals at 1 and 2 years after radiotherapy were 41.8% and 19.9%, respectively, with a median survival time of 10 months. The rate of liver toxicity according to the doses 50 Gy was 4.2%, 5.9%, and 8.4%, respectively, and the rate of gastrointestinal complications was 4.2%, 9.9%, and 13.2%, respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed the existence of a dose-response relationship in local radiotherapy for primary HCC. Only the radiation dose was a significant factor for predicting an objective response. The results of this study showed that 3D

  1. Effects of dose fractionation on the response of alanine dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundahl, Brad; Logar, John; Desrosiers, Marc; Puhl, James

    2014-01-01

    Alanine dosimetry is well established as a transfer standard and is becoming more prevalently used in routine dosimetry systems for radiation processing. Many routine measurement applications in radiation processing involve absorbed dose measurements resulting from fractioned exposures to ionizing radiation. Fractioning of absorbed dose is identified as an influence quantity (ISO/ASTM, 2013). This paper reports on study results of absorbed dose fractioning characteristics of alanine for gamma and high energy electron beam radiation sources. The results of this study indicate a radiation response difference due to absorbed dose fractioning in response can be observed after four fractionations for high-energy electron beams and no difference up to seven fractions for gamma rays using an ANOVA evaluation method. - Highlights: • Fractioning effects signaled in electron beam using an ANOVA at 6 equal increments. • Fractioning effects not signaled in gamma using an ANOVA up to 7 equal increments. • Insensitivity of alanine to dose fractioning indicates nominal impact on calibration

  2. Organ doses as a function of body weight for environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    The organ doses for γ rays from typical environmental sources were determined with Monte Carlo calculations using anthropomorphic phantoms having different body sizes. It has been suggested that body weight is the predominant factor influencing organ doses for environmental γ rays, regardless of sex and age. A weight function expressing organ doses for environmental γ rays was introduced. This function fitted well with the organ doses calculated using the different phantoms. The function coefficients were determined mathematically with the least squares method. On the assumption that this function was applicable to organ doses for human bodies with diverse characteristics, the variances in organ doses due to race, sex, age and difference in body weight of adults were investigated. The variations of organ doses due to race and sex were not significant. Differences in body weight were found to alter organ doses by a maximum of 10% for γ rays over 100 keV, and 20% for low-energy γ rays. The doses for organs located deep inside a body, such as ovaries, differed between a newborn baby and an adult by a maximum factor of 2 to 3. For γ rays over 100 keV, the variation was within a factor of 2 for all organs. The organ doses for adolescents more than 12 years agreed within 15% with those of the average adult. (author)

  3. Time-effect relationship of immunological adaptive response induced by low dose X-irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yong; Gong Shouliang; Liu Shuzheng

    1995-01-01

    Kunming mice irradiated with whole-body X-rays were used to observe time-effect relationship of immunological adaptive response induced by ionizing radiation. The results showed that pre-irradiation dose of 75 mGy X-rays with the intervals of 6-48 h between pre-irradiation and challenge irradiation could induce immunological adaptive response in the spontaneous proliferation of thymocytes and the responses of splenocytes to Con A and LPS in mice at 18-24 h after challenge irradiation with 1.5-2.0 Gy X-rays

  4. Response of radiation monitors for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    Radiation monitors are used all over the world to evaluate if places with presence of ionising radiation present safe conditions for people. Radiation monitors should be tested according to international or national standards in order to be qualified for use. This work describes a methodology and procedures to evaluate the energy and angular responses of any radiation monitor for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), according to the recommendations of ISO and IEC standards. The methodology and the procedures were applied to the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026, developed by the Instituto em Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), to evaluate and to adjust its response for H*(10), characterizing it as an ambient dose equivalent meter. The tests were performed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), and results showed that the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026 can be used as an EI*(10) meter, in accordance to the IEC 60846 standard requirements. The overall estimated uncertainty for the determination of the MIR 7026 response, in all radiation qualities used in this work, was 4,5 % to a 95 % confidence limit. (author)

  5. Dose response of tracheal epithelial cells to ionizing radiation in air-liquid interface cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutsu, K.; Yamada, Y.; Shimo, M.

    2002-01-01

    The dose-response relationships of tracheal epithelial cells to ionizing radiation was examined in air-liquid interface cultures, which were developed for the purpose of simulating in vivo conditions. The cultures investigated in this study were expected to be advantageous for the performance of irradiation experiments using short-range α rays. The level of dose response of air-liquid interface cultures to ionizing radiation proved to be the same as that for in vivo conditions. This result indicates that air-liquid interface cultures will prove most useful, to facilitate future studies for the investigation of the biological effects induced in tracheal epithelial cells by ionizing radiation, especially by α-rays. (orig.)

  6. Dose Matters: FDA's Guidance on Children's X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Dose Matters: FDA's Guidance on Children's X-rays Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... exposure during medical procedures. The level of ionizing radiation from X-ray imaging is generally very low, but can ...

  7. Study on the dose response characteristics of a scanning liquid ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Shao Gang; Song Yi Xin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the dose response characteristics and the influence factors such as gantry angle, field size and acquisition mode on the dosimetric response curves, when using a scanning liquid ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for dose verification. Methods: All experiments were carried out on a Varian 600 C/D accelerator (6 MV X-ray) equipped with a Varian PortalVision sup T sup M MK2 type EPID. To obtain the dose response curve, the relationship between the incident radiation intensity to the detector and the pixel value output from the EPID were established. Firstly, the different dose rates of 6 MV X-rays were obtained by varying SSD. Secondly, three digital portal images were acquired for each dose rate using the EPID and averaged to avoid the influence of the dose rate fluctuations of the accelerator. The pixel values of all images were read using self-designed image analysis software, and and average for a region consisting of 11 x 11 pixels around the center was taken as the res...

  8. [Induction of glutathione and activation of immune functions by low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shuji

    2006-10-01

    We first examined the relation between the induction of glutathione and immune functions in mice after low-dose gamma-ray irradiation. Thereafter, inhibition of tumor growth by radiation was confirmed in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. The total glutathione level of the splenocytes transiently increased soon after irradiation and reached a maximum at around 4 h postirradiation. Thereafter, the level reverted to the 0 h value by 24 h postirradiation. A significantly high splenocyte proliferative response was also recognized 4 h postirradiation. Natural killer (NK) activity was also increased significantly in a similar manner. The time at which the response reached the maximum coincided well with that of maximum total glutathione levels of the splenocytes in the gamma-ray-irradiated mice. Reduced glutathione exogenously added to splenocytes obtained from normal mice enhanced the proliferative response and NK activity in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of radiation on tumor growth was then examined in EST-bearing mice. Repeated low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy, four times, before and within an early time after inoculation) significantly delayed the tumor growth. Finally, the effect of single low-dose (0.5 Gy), whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on immune balance was examined to elucidate the mechanism underlying the antitumor immunity. The percentage of B cells in blood lymphocytes was selectively decreased after radiation, concomitant with an increase in that of the helper T cell population. The IFN-gamma level in splenocyte culture prepared from EST-bearing mice was significantly increased 48 h after radiation, although the level of IL-4 was unchanged. IL-12 secretion from macrophages was also enhanced by radiation. These results suggest that low-dose gamma-rays induce Th1 polarization and enhance the activities of tumoricidal effector cells, leading to an inhibition of tumor growth.

  9. Cytosolic Hsp70/Hsc70 protein expression in lymphocytes exposed to low gamma-ray dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.; Letechipia de Leon, C.; Guzman E, L.J.; Garcia T, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low gamma ray intensity upon Hsp70 expression in human Iymphocytes. The heat shock proteins (Hsp) family, are a group of proteins present in all living organism, therefore there are highly conserved and are related to adaptation and evolution. At cellular level these proteins acts as chaperones correcting denatured proteins. When a stress agent, such heavy metals, UV, heat, etc. is affecting a cell a response to this aggression is triggered only through over expression of Hsp. Several studies has been carried out in which the cellular effect are observed, mostly of these studies uses large doses, but very few studies are related with low doses. Blood of healthy volunteers was obtained and the Iymphocytes were isolated by ficoll- histopaque gradient. Experimental lots were irradiated in a 137 Cs gamma-ray. Hsp70 expression was found since 0.5 c Gy, indicating a threshold to very low doses of gamma rays. (Author)

  10. Cytosolic Hsp70/Hsc70 protein expression in lymphocytes exposed to low gamma-ray dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.; Letechipia de Leon, C. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: emanz@cantera.reduaz.mx; Guzman E, L.J. [Unidad Academica de Biologia Experimental, Guadalupe, Zacatecas (Mexico); Garcia T, M. [LIBRA, Centro I and D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low gamma ray intensity upon Hsp70 expression in human Iymphocytes. The heat shock proteins (Hsp) family, are a group of proteins present in all living organism, therefore there are highly conserved and are related to adaptation and evolution. At cellular level these proteins acts as chaperones correcting denatured proteins. When a stress agent, such heavy metals, UV, heat, etc. is affecting a cell a response to this aggression is triggered only through over expression of Hsp. Several studies has been carried out in which the cellular effect are observed, mostly of these studies uses large doses, but very few studies are related with low doses. Blood of healthy volunteers was obtained and the Iymphocytes were isolated by ficoll- histopaque gradient. Experimental lots were irradiated in a {sup 137} Cs gamma-ray. Hsp70 expression was found since 0.5 c Gy, indicating a threshold to very low doses of gamma rays. (Author)

  11. Comparison of responses of thermoluminescent dosemeters irradiated by soft x-rays at very low and very high dose rate levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrikova-Farnikova, M.; Krasa, J.; Juha, L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent great progress in construction and application of bright sources of soft X-rays gave a strong impetus for the development of methods of their dosimetric diagnostics. The soft X-ray sources are primarily represented by synchrotron radiation sources and by sources based on laser-produced plasma, including X-ray lasers. Their characteristics spread over a very wide region of photon energies, peak and average powers and densities. From our preliminary experiments it follows that thermoluminescent dosemeters can serve as a suitable tool for the determination of these characteristics. Problem lies in the fact that routine use of the thermoluminescent dosemeters for the dosimetry of soft X-rays requires their spectral calibration, which can be carried out with low peak power sources (synchrotron radiation and radionuclide sources). On the contrary, many important sources, especially these based on laser-produced plasmas, exhibit a very high peak power, i.e. dosemeters are irradiated at extremely high dose rate. In comparative experiments carried out with laser-produced plasmas and radionuclides using TLD 200 (CaF 2 :Dy) and GR 200A (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) it was satisfactorily proven that total thermoluminescent signals are independent of the dose rate. Dependence of glow curve shapes on the dose, dose rate and photon energy were equally determined

  12. Reduction of doses from diagnostic X-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudden, F.; Kuhn, H.

    1992-01-01

    More recent developments in the field of receiver systems for X-rays have made it possible for doses required in X-ray examinations to be gradually reduced to no more than 5% of the radiation patients were exposed to 30 years ago. Despite this fact, the image quality standards necessary to establish even considerably improved. The author suggests to repeat series of measurements carried out in the distant past to be able to make a population-based assessment of the current risk from the effective equivalence dose in one year. In all likelihood, such a survey would prove the quivalence dose to be much lower than the degree of environmental radiation exposure. (orig./DGD) [de

  13. Radiation dose response of strand breaks in SINPV-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunxiang; Luo Daling; Li Mianfeng; Liu Xiaowei; Zeng Rong; Wang Xunzhang

    1995-01-01

    The Spodoplera litura Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses (SINPV) is a kind of insectile virus with a simple structure, in which a double helix DNA is encapsulated in a protein coat and there is no function of enzymatic repair. The SINPV samples in dry powdered form held in sealed plastic tube were irradiated by 1-100 kGy gamma rays. The single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) induced in SINPV after irradiation were measured by neutral and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. A dose-response function combining the responses of one-hit and two-hit events was used to describe the SSB and DSB dose-response curves. It is shown that the SSB are one-hit events and the DSB are the combination of both one-hit, and two-hit events, and two-hit events are predominant in the DSB process

  14. Differences in responses to X-ray exposure between osteoclast and osteoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Ziyang; Wu, Anqing; Nie, Jing; Pei, Hailong; Hu, Wentao; Wang, Bing; Shang, Peng; Li, Bingyan; Zhou, Guangming

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced bone loss is a potential health concern for cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Enhanced bone resorption by osteoclasts and decreased bone formation by osteoblasts were thought to be the main reasons. In this study, we showed that both pre-differentiating and differentiating osteoclasts were relatively sensitive to X-rays compared with osteoblasts. X-rays decreased cell viability to a greater degree in RAW264.7 cells and in differentiating cells than than in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. X-rays at up to 8 Gy had little effects on osteoblast mineralization. In contrast, X-rays at 1 Gy induced enhanced osteoclastogenesis by enhanced cell fusion, but had no effects on bone resorption. A higher dose of X-rays at 8 Gy, however, had an inhibitory effect on bone resorption. In addition, actin ring formation was disrupted by 8 Gy of X-rays and reorganized into clusters. An increased activity of Caspase 3 was found after X-ray exposure. Actin disorganization and increased apoptosis may be the potential effects of X-rays at high doses, by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, our data indicate high radiosensitivity of osteoclasts. X-ray irradiation at relatively low doses can activate osteoclastogenesis, but not osteogenic differentiation. The radiosensitive osteoclasts are the potentially responsive cells for X-ray-induced bone loss.

  15. Increased apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks in the embryonic mouse brain in response to very low-dose X-rays but not 50 Hz magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shreya; Woodbine, Lisa; Haines, Jackie; Coster, Margaret; Ricket, Nicole; Barazzuol, Lara; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Sienkiewicz, Zenon; Jeggo, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The use of X-rays for medical diagnosis is enhancing exposure to low radiation doses. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic or magnetic fields is also increasing. Epidemiological studies show consistent associations of childhood leukaemia with exposure to magnetic fields but any causal relationship is unclear. A limitation in assessing the consequence of such exposure is the availability of sensitive assays. The embryonic neuronal stem and progenitor cell compartments are radiosensitive tissues. Using sensitive assays, we report a statistically significant increase in DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and apoptosis in the embryonic neuronal stem cell compartment following in utero exposure to 10–200 mGy X-rays. Both endpoints show a linear response. We also show that DSB repair is delayed following exposure to doses below 50 mGy compared with 100 mGy. Thus, we demonstrate in vivo consequences of low-dose radiation. In contrast to these impacts, we did not observe any significant induction of DSBs or apoptosis following exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields (100 or 300 µT). We conclude that any DSB induction by treatment with magnetic fields is lower than following exposure to 10 mGy X-rays. For comparison, certain procedures involving computed tomography scanning are equivalent to 1–5 mGy X-rays. PMID:25209403

  16. Response Surface Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter first summarizes Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which started with Box and Wilson’s article in 1951 on RSM for real, non-simulated systems. RSM is a stepwise heuristic that uses first-order polynomials to approximate the response surface locally. An estimated polynomial

  17. Edge enhancement algorithm for low-dose X-ray fluoroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Seok; Park, Chul Hee; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose X-ray fluoroscopy has continually evolved to reduce radiation risk to patients during clinical diagnosis and surgery. However, the reduction in dose exposure causes quality degradation of the acquired images. In general, an X-ray device has a time-average pre-processor to remove the generated quantum noise. However, this pre-processor causes blurring and artifacts within the moving edge regions, and noise remains in the image. During high-pass filtering (HPF) to enhance edge detail, this noise in the image is amplified. In this study, a 2D edge enhancement algorithm comprising region adaptive HPF with the transient improvement (TI) method, as well as artifacts and noise reduction (ANR), was developed for degraded X-ray fluoroscopic images. The proposed method was applied in a static scene pre-processed by a low-dose X-ray fluoroscopy device. First, the sharpness of the X-ray image was improved using region adaptive HPF with the TI method, which facilitates sharpening of edge details without overshoot problems. Then, an ANR filter that uses an edge directional kernel was developed to remove the artifacts and noise that can occur during sharpening, while preserving edge details. The quantitative and qualitative results obtained by applying the developed method to low-dose X-ray fluoroscopic images and visually and numerically comparing the final images with images improved using conventional edge enhancement techniques indicate that the proposed method outperforms existing edge enhancement methods in terms of objective criteria and subjective visual perception of the actual X-ray fluoroscopic image. The developed edge enhancement algorithm performed well when applied to actual low-dose X-ray fluoroscopic images, not only by improving the sharpness, but also by removing artifacts and noise, including overshoot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitory mechanism of low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays against tumor metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhiro Ohsima; Mitsutoshi Tukimoto; Shuji Kojima

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A lot of beneficial effects of low-dose irradiation are well known. Of them, an inhibitory effect of the radiation on lung metastasis is reported so far. It has been reported that low-dose whole-body irradiation with gamma rays enhanced cytotoxic immune response as one of the mechanisms. In our laboratory, it has been confirmed an enhancement of natural killer activity in mice irradiated with whole-body 0.5Gy gamma-rays. Metastasis is accomplished by multistep process, involving basement membrane destruction, local invasion, intravasation, survival in the bloodstream, extravasation into distant organs, and proliferation at the target site. Besides, a lot of growth factors and proteases are involved in these steps. As to mechanism of inhibition of tumor metastasis induced by low-dose whole-body irradiation, studies from the standpoint of tumor invasion have not been reported. Here, inhibitory effect of 0.5Gy whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on tumor metastasis and its mechanism were examined in pulmonary metastasis model mice injected with B16 melanoma cells. Consequently, 0.5Gy whole-body gamma ray irradiation significantly suppressed colony formation in the lungs. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase- 2 (MMP- 2), a proteinase related to metastasis, in lung tissues was suppressed by the radiation. Alteration of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) after the gamma-ray irradiation was examined. Expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA in the lungs were significantly increased. In order to clarify the inhibitory effect obtained in the in vivo metastatic lung cancer model mice, we studied effects of gamma-rays on cell proliferation, alterations of mRNA and proteins related to tumor metastasis in cultured B16 melanoma cells. Proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. MMP-2 mRNA expression was not altered in any doses of gamma-rays. Thought expression of the protein was slightly

  19. Robust ray-tracing algorithms for interactive dose rate evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotte, L.

    2011-01-01

    More than ever, it is essential today to develop simulation tools to rapidly evaluate the dose rate received by operators working on nuclear sites. In order to easily study numerous different scenarios of intervention, computation times of available softwares have to be all lowered. This mainly implies to accelerate the geometrical computations needed for the dose rate evaluation. These computations consist in finding and sorting the whole list of intersections between a big 3D scene and multiple groups of 'radiative' rays meeting at the point where the dose has to be measured. In order to perform all these computations in less than a second, we first propose a GPU algorithm that enables the efficient management of one big group of coherent rays. Then we present a modification of this algorithm that guarantees the robustness of the ray-triangle intersection tests through the elimination of the precision issues due to floating-point arithmetic. This modification does not require the definition of scene-dependent coefficients ('epsilon' style) and only implies a small loss of performance (less than 10%). Finally we propose an efficient strategy to handle multiple ray groups (corresponding to multiple radiative objects) which use the previous results.Thanks to these improvements, we are able to perform an interactive and robust dose rate evaluation on big 3D scenes: all of the intersections (more than 13 million) between 700 000 triangles and 12 groups of 100 000 rays each are found, sorted along each ray and transferred to the CPU in 470 milliseconds. (author) [fr

  20. Life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Duggal, K.; Lombard, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The primary focus of this program is to obtain information on the late effects of whole body exposure to low doses of a high linear-energy-transfer (LET) and a low-LET ionizing radiation in experimental animals to provide guidance for the prediction of radiation hazards to man. The information obtained takes the form of dose-response curves for life shortening and for the induction of numerous specific types of tumors. The animals are irradiated with fission neutrons from the Janus reactor and with 60 Co gamma rays, delivered as single, weekly, or duration-of-life exposures covering the range of doses and dose rates. 6 refs

  1. Radiation doses for X-ray diagnosis teeth in dental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direkov, Lyubomir

    2009-01-01

    X-rays are the first ionizing radiation, which are applied in medicine for diagnostic radiology and X-ray therapy. While in the beginning they are mainly used for X-ray photos of the chest /lungs and in severe fractures of the limbs, then in recent years they are widely applied in diagnostics of teeth in dental medicine. Considering that caries is a widespread disease, both in children and adults, and it requires repeated x-ray photographs of the damaged teeth for the individual, the total radiation doses, which reflect on people from the X-rays are at high values. In order to reduce external exposure to other organs /mainly thyroid gland/ by X-ray pictures of teeth, it should be used with special lead aprons with large coefficient of reduction. Keywords: doses of radiation, X-ray machines, dental, x-ray pictures of teeth, protection sources

  2. Fieldable computer system for determining gamma-ray pulse-height distributions, flux spectra, and dose rates from Little Boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Lucas, M.C.; Tisinger, E.W.; Hamm, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Our system consists of a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system with a built-in CAMAC crate and eight bismuth-germanate detectors 7.62 cm in diameter and 7.62 cm long. Gamma-ray pulse-height distributions are acquired simultaneously for up to eight positions. The system was very carefully calibrated and characterized from 0.1 to 8.3 MeV using gamma-ray spectra from a variety of radioactive sources. By fitting the pulse-height distributions from the sources with a function containing 17 parameters, we determined theoretical repsonse functions. We use these response functions to unfold the distributions to obtain flux spectra. A flux-to-dose-rate conversion curve based on the work of Dimbylow and Francis is then used to obtain dose rates. Direct use of measured spectra and flux-to-dose-rate curves to obtain dose rates avoids the errors that can arise from spectrum dependence in simple gamma-ray dosimeter instruments. We present some gamma-ray doses for the Little Boy assembly operated at low power. These results can be used to determine the exposures of the Hiroshima survivors and thus aid in the establishment of radation exposure limits for the nuclear industry

  3. Adaptive response to mutagenesis and its molecular basis in a human T-cell leukemia line primed with a low dose of γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, P.K.; Xiang, X.Q.; Sun, W.Z.; Liu, X.Y.; Zhang, Y.P.; Wei, K.

    1994-01-01

    The effect was studied of a low dose of γ-ray preexposure on the frequency and molecular spectrum of radiation-induced mutations at the hprt locus in a human T-cell leukemia line. When the cells were preexposed to 0.01 Gy of γ-rays, the yield of mutations induced by a subsequent 2-Gy challenge dose was reduced by 60%, compared with the 2 Gy of irradiation alone. The data of Southern blot analysis showed that 47% of the mutants induced by 2 Gy in the cells without low-dose preexposure were of the deletion or rearranged mutations type. In contrast, in the low-dose radioadapted cells the proportion of this type of 2-Gy-induced mutations decreased to 28%. This is close to the control level (22%) of spontaneous mutations. Our results confirm that a low dose of γ-ray preexposure leads to a decreased susceptibility to gene deletions and rearrangements after high-dose irradiation. (orig.)

  4. Dose Rate Determination from Airborne Gamma-ray Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    The standard method for determination of ground level dose rates from airborne gamma-ray is the integral count rate which for a constant flying altitude is assumed proportional to the dose rate. The method gives reasonably results for natural radioactivity which almost always has the same energy...

  5. Monochromatic x-rays for low-dose digital mammography: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Kwon, Young Man; Choi, Byoung-Jung; Son, Hyun Hwa; Ryu, Cheol Woo; Chon, Kwon Su; Park, Seong Hoon; Juhng, Sun Kwan

    2012-12-01

    The feasibility of using monochromatic x-ray imaging generated from an x-ray tube and a multilayer reflector for digital mammography with a low radiation dose was examined. A multilayer mirror was designed to select the x-ray peak with an energy of 21.5 keV generated from an x-ray tube with a tungsten target and was fabricated by the ion-beam sputtering deposition system. Monochromatic x-ray images were obtained from an experimental digital mammography setup with a scanning stage. The performance of the system was evaluated using a breast phantom, a spectrometer, and a radiation dosimeter. We measured the contrast-to-noise ratio and performed the 10% modulation function test to determine image quality and resolution. The monochromatic beam from the multilayer reflector had a full-width-at-half-maximum of 0.9 keV at 21.5 keV, and the reflectivity was 0.70, which was 90% of the designed value. The polychromatic and monochromatic x-rays showed radiation doses of 0.497 and 0.0415 mGy, respectively. The monochromatic x-ray image shows fibers, calcifications, and masses more clearly than the polychromatic x-ray images do. The image contrast of the monochromatic x-rays was 1.85 times higher than that of the polychromatic x-rays. The experimental mammography setup had a spatial resolution of 7 lp/mm with both x-rays. Monochromatic x-rays generated using a multilayer mirror may be a useful diagnostic tool for breast examination by providing high contrast imaging with a low radiation dose.

  6. Measurements of gamma-ray dose from a moderated 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Griffith, R.V.; Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1983-06-01

    The gamma-ray dose fraction from a moderated 252 Cf source was determined by using three types of dosimetry systems. Measurements were carried out in air at a distance of 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere (50 cm from the source which is at the center of the sphere) to the geometrical center of each detector. The moderating sphere is 0.8-mm-thick stainless steel shell filled with D 2 O and covered with 0.5 mm of cadmium. Measurements were also carried out with instruments and dosimeters positioned at the surface of a 40 cm x 40 cm x 15 cm plexiglass irradiation phantom whose front surface was also 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere. A-150 tissue-equivalent (TE) plastic ionization chambers and a TE proportional counter (TEPC) were used to measure tissue dose, from which the neutron dose equivalent was computed. The ratio of gamma-ray dose to the neutron dose equivalent was determined by using a relatively neutron-insensitive Geiger-Mueller (GM) counter and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, the event-size spectrum measured by the TEPC was also used to compute the gamma-ray dose fraction. The average value for the ratio of gamma-ray dose to neutron dose equivalent was found to be 0.18 with an uncertainty of about +-18%

  7. Distribution and characteristics of gamma and cosmic ray dose rate in living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1991-01-01

    A series of environmental radiation surveys was carried out from the viewpoint of characterizing the natural radiation dose rate distribution in the living environment, including natural and artificial ones. Through the analysis of the data obtained at numbers of places, several aspects of the radiation field in living environments were clarified. That is the gamma ray dose rate varies due to the following three dominant causes: 1) the radionuclide concentration of surrounding materials acting as gamma ray sources, 2) the spatial distribution of surrounding materials, and 3) the geometrical and shielding conditions between the natural gamma ray sources and the measured point; whereas, the cosmic ray dose rate varies due to the thickness of upper shielding materials. It was also suggested that the gamma ray dose rate generally shows an upward tendency, and the cosmic ray dose rate a downward one in artificial environment. This kind of knowledge is expected to serve as fundamental information for accurate and realistic evaluation of the collective dose in the living environment. (author)

  8. Role of X-ray-inducible genes and proteins in adaptive survival responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.; Schea, R.A.; Petrowski, A.E.; Seabury, H.; McLaughlin, P.W.; Lee, I.; Lee, S.W.; Boothman, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Certain X-ray-inducible genes and their corresponding protein products, appearing following low priming doses of ionizing radiation may subsequently give rise to an adaptive survival response, ultimately leading to increased radioresistance. Further, this adaptive radioresistance may be due to increased DNA repair (or misrepair) processes. Ultimately, the function of low-dose-induced cDNA clones within the cell is hoped to elucidate to follow the effects of specific gene turn-off on adaptive responses. Future research must determine the various functions of adaptive response gene products so that the beneficial or deleterious consequences of adaptive responses, which increases resistance to ionizing radiation, can be determined. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig

  9. Preliminary investigation of the NMR, optical and x-ray CT dose-response of polymer gel dosimeters incorporating cosolvents to improve dose sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeva, V I; McAuley, K B; Olding, T; Jirasek, A; Schreiner, L J

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on efforts to increase the dose sensitivity of polymer gel dosimeters used in 3D radiation dosimetry. The potential of several different cosolvents is investigated, with the aim of increasing the solubility of N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide crosslinker in polymer gel dosimeters. Glycerol and isopropanol increase the limit for the crosslinker solubility from approximately 3% to 5% and 10% by weight, respectively. This enables the manufacture of polymer gel dosimeters with much higher levels of crosslinking than was previously possible. New dosimeter recipes containing up to 5 wt% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide were subjected to spatially uniform radiation and were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as x-ray and optical CT techniques. The resulting dosimeters exhibit dose sensitivities that are up to 2.7 times higher than measured for a typical dosimeters with 3% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide without the addition of cosolvent. Two additional cosolvents (n-propanol and sec-butanol) were deemed unsuitable for practical dosimeters due to incompatibility with gelatin, cloudiness prior to irradiation, and immiscibility with water when large quantities of cosolvent were used. The dosimeters with high N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide content that used isopropanol or glycerol as cosolvents had high optical clarity prior to irradiation, but did not produce suitable optical CT results for non-uniformly irradiated gels due to polymer development outside of the high dose regions of the pencil beams and significant light scatter. Further experiments are required to determine whether cosolvents can be used to manufacture gels with sufficiently high dose sensitivity for readout using x-ray computed tomography.

  10. Measurement of dose received in knee joint x-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashar, Basamat Musa Hajo

    2014-11-01

    Diagnostic x-rays examinations play an important role in the health care of the population. These examinations may involve significant irradiation of the patient and probably represent the largest man-made source of radiation exposure for the population. This study was performed in Khartoum Teaching Hospital in period of January to June 2014. This study performed to assess the effective dose (ED) received in knee joint radiographic examination and to analyze dose (ed) received in knee joint radiographic examination and to analyze effective dose distribution among radiological departments under study. The study was performed in Khartoum Teaching Hospital, covering two x-ray units and a sample of 50 patients. The following parameters were recorded age, weight, height, body mass ines (BMI) derived from weight (Kg) and (Height (M)) and (height (m)) and exposure factors. The dose was measured for knee joint x-rays examination. For effective dose calculation, the entrance surface dose (ESD) values were estimated from the x-ray tube output parameters for knee joint Ap and lateral examinations. The ED values were then calculated from the obtained ESD values using IAEA calculation methods. Effective doses were then calculated from energy imparted using ED conversion factors proposed by IAEA. The results of ED values calculated showed that patient exposure were within the normal range of exposure. The mean ED values calculated were( 2.49 + 0.03) and (5.60 + 0.22) milli Grey for knee joint AP and lateral examinations, respectively, Further studies are recommended with more number of patients and using more two modalities for comparison.(Author)

  11. Biological dosimetry in radiation accidents. Dose-response curve by chromosomal aberrations analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.; Atanasova, P.; Popova, L.; Stainova, A.; Bulanova, M.; Georgieva, I.; Vukov, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to obtain a dose-response relationship for chromosomal aberrations induced in human lymphocytes after in vitro irradiation. Peripheral blood samples of 7 different donors were used. The blood irradiation was done with Cs137 gamma-rays at different doses: 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 Gy. Lymphocyte cultures were established and maintain for 48 hours at 37 0 C in CO 2 incubator for chromosomal aberration analysis. The dose response relationship has been established based on dysenteric and ring chromosomes yield. The relationship can be described by the following equation: Y = 0.0274D + 0.0251 D 2 , where (Y) = dysenteric and ring chromosomes yield, (D) = radiation dose obtained. EXCEL software was established for calculation of the received dose by using this equation, as a whole body equivalent dose acute irradiation

  12. The relative biological effectiveness of 60Co γ-rays, 55 kVp X-rays, 250 kVp X-rays, and 11 MeV electrons at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadinger, I.; Palcic, B.

    1992-01-01

    The RBE of selected low-LET radiation modalities (55 kVp X- rays, 250 kVp X-rays, 60 Co γ-rays, and 11 MeV electrons) was investigated for survival of two cell lines (V79 and CHO). Detailed measurements were made in the 0 to 3 Gy dose range using an image cytometry device to accurately determine the number of cells assayed at each dose point. Data were also collected in the high dose range (0 to 10 Gy) using conventional counting and plating techniques. RBE values (#+- #1 SE) varied from 1.0±0.07 (V79 cells) and 1.2± 0.05 (CHO cells) at high doses to 1.3±0.07 (V79) and 1.4±0.1 (CHO) at low doses for 55 kVp X-rays, from 1.1±0.05 (V79) and 1.1±0.04 (CHO) at high doses to 1.1±0.06 (V79) and 1.2±0.2 (CHO) at low doses for 250 kVp X-rays, and from 1.1±0.08 (V79) and 1.0±0.04 (CHO) at high doses to 1.0±0.06 (V79) and 0.9±0.1 (CHO) at low doses for 11 MeV electrons. Only the low and high dose RBEs for 55 kVp X-rays relative to 60 Co γ-rays were significantly different. (author)

  13. Cellular and humoral immuno-stimulatory effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Jafar-Zadeh, A.; Khosravi, M.H.; Mehdipour, L.A.; Behnejad, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The immunosuppressive effects of high doses of ionizing radiation have long been known, while researchers know less about the effects of low dose radiation on the immune system. Recently, in human and experimental animal models it has been reported that low dose radiation may have immuno-stimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low doses of diagnostic doses of X-rays on cell mediated and humoral immune responses in a Balb/c animal model. Materials and Methods: Using a conventional Villa radiography machine, three groups of male Balb/c mice were exposed one, two and three times to 30 mGy of X-rays. The measured surface dose was equal to the dose of a single view lateral lumbar radiography. Two to four hours after irradiation, the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and humoral responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) were measured and compared to the responses of sham and control groups. Results: The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibodies in two-times irradiated (74.66± 26.12 ) and three-times irradiated (128 ± 70.1) groups were significantly higher than those of non-irradiated (26.66 ± 8.26) or sham irradiated (28.8 ± 20.86) group (p<0.001). However, no significant differences were observed between the mean titer of anti-SRBC antibodies in one-time irradiated (22.4 ± 8.76) and either non-irradiated or sham irradiated groups. Similarly, comparing DTH responses showed that the differences between either two-times irradiated (12.2 ± 3.9 ) or three times-irradiated (6.9 ± 3.7) and non-irradiated (4 ± 0.2) or sham irradiated (4.3 ± 3) groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Theses results show that two-times and three-times irradiated mice demonstrate significant stimulatory effects on both DTH and antibody responses. However, one-time irradiated animals did not exhibit any bio- positive effect on DTH and humoral responses. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was observed between the DTH

  14. Evaluation of doses in gastrointestinal fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevaro, Lucia Viviana

    1995-04-01

    This work aims at the development of a methodology to measure radiation doses to patients and professionals (radiologists) in fluoroscopic gastrointestinal tract examinations. Also, it aims at the assessment of the performance of this type of medical x-ray equipment, from the radiation protection point of view at the Department of Radiology of the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro). This work was developed in order to identify the actual status and to set base lines as a reference for a quality control program. The calibration procedures of thermoluminescent dosimeters for radiodiagnosis quality beams are discussed and described here as well as its application in dose measurements, for patients and radiologists. The performance of two types of x-ray equipment (fluorescent screen and image intensifier) usually used to perform this examinations was evaluated through appropriate tests. Radiation protection features are also considered. Dose to radiologists at unprotected regions and to patients at several sample points were measured. A comparison of the measured doses given by both types of equipment was made. After further analysis, the necessity to look for methods that reduce unnecessary doses became evident. The high values obtained in some procedures using fluorescent screen make the use of this type of equipment unacceptable. With these results, we consider that Health Care authorities have the responsibility of replacing all fluorescent screen equipment and of establishing standards, and raising awareness the responsible staff. (author)

  15. Catalogue of response spectra for unfolding in situ gamma-ray pulse-height distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymke, N.

    1982-01-01

    To unfold in situ gamma-ray pulse-height distributions by means of a response matrix technique, the matrix must be in keeping with the measurement geometry, detector size, and energy range to be covered by the measurements. A methodology has been described for determination of standard gamma-ray spectra needed in deriving response matrices and a spectrum catalogue compiled containing graphs and data for the 0-3 MeV (4 x 4 in. NaI(Tl)) and 0-8 MeV (1.5 x 1.5 in. NaI(Tl)) ranges. (author)

  16. Gamma-Ray Doses Affected on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, E.M; Tarrad, M.M.; Abd El-Daem, G.A.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the experimental from, Nuclear Research Center at Inshas. Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) at Egypt during 2011– 2012 growing seasons on alfalfa genotype. The aim of this investigation to evaluate the effect of different gamma ray doses (100-300 Gy) on the alfalfa yield and related traits. Seeds lots of alfalfa genotype were subjected to five gamma ray treatments (100,150,200,250 and 300 Gray). Over all cuts, the dose treatment 300 Gy increased the majority of studied traits i.e., plant height, No. of shoots/plant, fresh weight/plant, fresh yield/Fadden and dry weight yield/fed. The results observed indicated that. In addition, dose of 200 and 250 Gy increased No. of leaves /plant, No. of shoots/plant, stem diameter and fresh weight /plant. However, the plant dry weight was decreased by all doses used and over all cuts, but the dose of 100 and 150 Gy increased leaves /stem ratio. Meanwhile, the later cuts were more affected by irradiation treatments than the earlier ones. In general, the low doses had negative effects on yield traits, but, the relatively high doses exhibited an increase in yield traits

  17. Dose-Response Calculator for ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Leu, Matthias; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    The Dose-Response Calculator for ArcGIS is a tool that extends the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS 10 Desktop application to aid with the visualization of relationships between two raster GIS datasets. A dose-response curve is a line graph commonly used in medical research to examine the effects of different dosage rates of a drug or chemical (for example, carcinogen) on an outcome of interest (for example, cell mutations) (Russell and others, 1982). Dose-response curves have recently been used in ecological studies to examine the influence of an explanatory dose variable (for example, percentage of habitat cover, distance to disturbance) on a predicted response (for example, survival, probability of occurrence, abundance) (Aldridge and others, 2008). These dose curves have been created by calculating the predicted response value from a statistical model at different levels of the explanatory dose variable while holding values of other explanatory variables constant. Curves (plots) developed using the Dose-Response Calculator overcome the need to hold variables constant by using values extracted from the predicted response surface of a spatially explicit statistical model fit in a GIS, which include the variation of all explanatory variables, to visualize the univariate response to the dose variable. Application of the Dose-Response Calculator can be extended beyond the assessment of statistical model predictions and may be used to visualize the relationship between any two raster GIS datasets (see example in tool instructions). This tool generates tabular data for use in further exploration of dose-response relationships and a graph of the dose-response curve.

  18. The reduction methods of operator's radiation dose for portable dental X-ray machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Han, Won-Jeong

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the methods to reduce operator's radiation dose when taking intraoral radiographs with portable dental X-ray machines. Two kinds of portable dental X-ray machines (DX3000, Dexcowin and Rextar, Posdion) were used. Operator's radiation dose was measured with an 1,800 cc ionization chamber (RadCal Corp.) at the hand level of X-ray tubehead and at the operator's chest and waist levels with and without the backscatter shield. The operator's radiation dose at the hand level was measured with and without lead gloves and with long and short cones. The backscatter shield reduced operator's radiation dose at the hand level of X-ray tubehead to 23 - 32%, the lead gloves to 26 - 31%, and long cone to 48 - 52%. And the backscatter shield reduced operator's radiation dose at the operator's chest and waist levels to 0.1 - 37%. When portable dental X-ray systems are used, it is recommended to select X-ray machine attached with a backscatter shield and a long cone and to wear the lead gloves.

  19. Preliminary investigation of the NMR, optical and x-ray CT dose-response of polymer gel dosimeters incorporating cosolvents to improve dose sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeva, V I; McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Olding, T [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, ON, K7L5P9 (Canada)], E-mail: kim.mcauley@chee.queensu.ca

    2009-05-07

    This study reports on efforts to increase the dose sensitivity of polymer gel dosimeters used in 3D radiation dosimetry. The potential of several different cosolvents is investigated, with the aim of increasing the solubility of N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide crosslinker in polymer gel dosimeters. Glycerol and isopropanol increase the limit for the crosslinker solubility from approximately 3% to 5% and 10% by weight, respectively. This enables the manufacture of polymer gel dosimeters with much higher levels of crosslinking than was previously possible. New dosimeter recipes containing up to 5 wt% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide were subjected to spatially uniform radiation and were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as x-ray and optical CT techniques. The resulting dosimeters exhibit dose sensitivities that are up to 2.7 times higher than measured for a typical dosimeters with 3% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide without the addition of cosolvent. Two additional cosolvents (n-propanol and sec-butanol) were deemed unsuitable for practical dosimeters due to incompatibility with gelatin, cloudiness prior to irradiation, and immiscibility with water when large quantities of cosolvent were used. The dosimeters with high N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide content that used isopropanol or glycerol as cosolvents had high optical clarity prior to irradiation, but did not produce suitable optical CT results for non-uniformly irradiated gels due to polymer development outside of the high dose regions of the pencil beams and significant light scatter. Further experiments are required to determine whether cosolvents can be used to manufacture gels with sufficiently high dose sensitivity for readout using x-ray computed tomography.

  20. Dose distribution calculation for in-vivo X-ray fluorescence scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, R. G.; Lozano, E.; Valente, M.

    2013-01-01

    In-vivo X-ray fluorescence constitutes a useful and accurate technique, worldwide established for constituent elementary distribution assessment. Actually, concentration distributions of arbitrary user-selected elements can be achieved along sample surface with the aim of identifying and simultaneously quantifying every constituent element. The method is based on the use of a collimated X-ray beam reaching the sample. However, one common drawback for considering the application of this technique for routine clinical examinations was the lack of information about associated dose delivery. This work presents a complete study of the dose distribution resulting from an in-vivo X-ray fluorescence scanning for quantifying biohazard materials on human hands. Absorbed dose has been estimated by means of dosimetric models specifically developed to this aim. In addition, complete dose distributions have been obtained by means of full radiation transport calculations in based on stochastic Monte Carlo techniques. A dedicated subroutine has been developed using the Penelope 2008 main code also integrated with dedicated programs -Mat Lab supported- for 3 dimensional dose distribution visualization. The obtained results show very good agreement between approximate analytical models and full descriptions by means of Monte Carlo simulations. (Author)

  1. Outdoor γ-ray dose rate in Ajigasawa Town and environmental factors affecting it in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Naoyuki; Koyama, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    We surveyed the outdoor γ-ray dose rate throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1991 to 1995, and found an annual mean dose rate of 46 nGy h -1 . Relatively high dose rates were also observed in several areas (municipalities) of the survey locations. In this study, we examined the detailed distribution of the γ-ray dose rate in one such high dose rate area, Ajigasawa Town. Glass dosimeters were used for the monitoring of cumulative γ-ray dose rate at 10 locations in the town. The dose rate from each radioactive nuclide in the ground at the monitoring locations was measured by using an in situ γ-ray spectrometer with a Ge detector. The results obtained with the glass dosimeters showed that the γ-ray dose rates in Ajigasawa Town varied from 48 to 57 nGy h -1 . Although the dose rates were generally higher than the mean dose in Aomori Prefecture (1992-1995), the rates were lower than other high dose rate areas which had already been measured. The in situ γ-ray spectrometry revealed that these relatively high dose rates were mainly caused by 40 K and Th series radionuclides in the town. The effect of meteorological conditions on the γ-ray dose rate was studied at a monitoring station in IES. The dose rate was continuously recorded by a DBM NaI(Tl) scintillation detector system. The mean dose rate obtained when precipitation was sensed was 27 nGy h -1 and higher than when no precipitation was sensed (23 nGy h -1 ). (author)

  2. SUDOQU, a new dose-assessment methodology for radiological surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Teun; van Dijk, Arjan

    2018-06-12

    A new methodology has been developed for the assessment of the annual effective dose resulting from removable and fixed radiological surface contamination. It is entitled SUDOQU (SUrface DOse QUantification) and it can for instance be used to derive criteria for surface contamination related to the import of non-food consumer goods, containers and conveyances, e.g., limiting values and operational screening levels. SUDOQU imposes mass (activity)-balance equations based on radioactive decay, removal and deposition processes in indoor and outdoor environments. This leads to time-dependent contamination levels that may be of particular importance in exposure scenarios dealing with one or a few contaminated items only (usually public exposure scenarios, therefore referred to as the 'consumer' model). Exposure scenarios with a continuous flow of freshly contaminated goods also fall within the scope of the methodology (typically occupational exposure scenarios, thus referred to as the 'worker model'). In this paper we describe SUDOQU, its applications, and its current limitations. First, we delineate the contamination issue, present the assumptions and explain the concepts. We describe the relevant removal, transfer, and deposition processes, and derive equations for the time evolution of the radiological surface-, air- and skin-contamination levels. These are then input for the subsequent evaluation of the annual effective dose with possible contributions from external gamma radiation, inhalation, secondary ingestion (indirect, from hand to mouth), skin contamination, direct ingestion and skin-contact exposure. The limiting effective surface dose is introduced for issues involving the conservatism of dose calculations. SUDOQU can be used by radiation-protection scientists/experts and policy makers in the field of e.g. emergency preparedness, trade and transport, exemption and clearance, waste management, and nuclear facilities. Several practical examples are worked

  3. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Esra Abdalrhman Dfaalla

    2013-06-01

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  4. Assessment of patient radiation doses in chest X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, S.; Scribano, V.S.; Merluzzi, F.; Tosca, L.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the initial results of a radioprotection programme for diagnostic radiology carried out in a major hospital in Milan. The data cover chest X-ray examinations. The dose values were obtained using different techniques, according to the specific diagnostic requirements in each departement. A wide radiation dose range was observed between the different techniques, with a ratio between maximum and minimum dose > 30 for the skin and the spine. The doses were however lower than those capable of inducing non-stochastic effects by about 10000 and were so low that the probability of a stochastics effect is minimal. Nevertheless, because chest X-rays are performed so frequently, it is recommended that radiologists take greater account of patient dose, as far as compatible with diagnostic requirements. Radiology technicians must strictly observe the regulations for radioprotection of the patient

  5. The survey of the surface doses of the dental x-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variability of doses with same exposure parameters and evaluate radiographic density according to the variability of doses. Twenty-eight MAX-GLS (Shinhung Co, Seoul, Korea), twenty-one D-60-S (DongSeo Med, Seoul, Korea), and eleven REX-601 (Yoshida Dental MFG, Tokyo, Japan) dental x-ray machines were selected for this study. Surface doses were measured under selected combinations of tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, and constant distance 42 cm from the focal spot to the surface of the Multi-O-meter (Unfors Instrument, Billdal, Sweden). Radiographic densities were measured on the films at maximum, minimum and mean surface doses of each brand of x-ray units. With MAX-GLS, the maximum surface doses were thirteen to fourteen times as much as the minimum surfaces doses. With D-60-S, the maximum surface doses were three to eight times as much as the minimum surface doses. With REX-601, the maximum surface doses were six to ten times as much as the minimum surface doses. The differences in radiographic densities among maximum, mean, and minimum doses were significant (p<0.01). The surface exposure doses of each x-ray machine at the same exposure parameters were different within the same manufacturer's machines.

  6. Single cell low dose studies of bystander cell killing with targeted ultrasoft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettino, G.; Prise, K.M.; Folkard, M.; Vojnovic, B.; Michael, B.D.; Wu, L.; Held, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bystander responses have attracted considerable interest in the recent years and several investigations have reported a binary behavior with the effect triggered by very small doses and immediately reaching a plateau. The Ultrasoft X-ray Microprobe in operation at the GCI is a facility designed to precisely assess the biological response of individual cells in vitro irradiated with a sub-micron size X-ray beam . Although recent improvements have upgrade the facility with AlK and TiK X-rays, most of the bystander studies have been performed using CK X-rays of 278 eV. The high sensitivity and the accurate irradiation and revisiting of the individual samples allowed us to investigate specific characteristics of the bystander phenomenon. In particular, evidences of a dose dependency of cell killing by bystander effect have been found at doses below 0.2 Gy where no differences is observed between all cell and single cell irradiation. Recent improvements have also allowed us to individually identify the phase of the cell cycle of all samples exposed. Although the G2-S phase have been found the most sensitive in responding to the bystander signal (a factor of 1.3), cells in the G1 phase also respond significantly while the phase of the irradiated cell doesn't seem to play a critical role. The time scale of the bystander effect has also been investigated by irradiating the same sample(s) twice with a few hours gap between exposures. Results indicate that the bystander signal is transmitted within a few minutes from the irradiation as replacing the medium immediately after irradiation does not influence the response, and it doesn't depend on the number of cells irradiated (up to 5). However, after a resting time of a few hours (3 h), the system seems to reset itself and a second irradiation has been shown to trigger a further bystander effect. Finally, by considering the total amount of energy deposited in to the sample population as critical parameter (instead

  7. SU-G-201-08: Energy Response of Thermoluminescent Microcube Dosimeters in Water for Kilovoltage X-Ray Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maso, L; Lawless, M; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L [University of Wisconsin- Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the energy dependence for TLD-100 microcubes in water at kilovoltage energies. Methods: TLD-100 microcubes with dimensions of (1 × 1 × 1) mm{sup 3} were irradiated with kilovoltage x-rays in a custom-built thin-window liquid water phantom. The TLD-100 microcubes were held in Virtual Water™ probes and aligned at a 2 cm depth in water. Irradiations were performed using the M-series x-ray beams of energies ranging from 50-250 kVp and normalized to a {sup 60}Co beam located at the UWADCL. Simulations using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code System were performed to model the x-ray beams, the {sup 60}Co beam, the water phantom and the dosimeters in the phantom. The egs-chamber user code was used to tally the dose to the TLDs and the dose to water. The measurements and calculations were used to determine the intrinsic energy dependence, absorbed-dose energy dependence, and absorbed-dose sensitivity. These values were compared to TLD-100 chips with dimensions of (3.2 × 0.9 × 0.9) mm{sup 3}. Results: The measured TLD-100 microcube response per dose to water among all investigated x-ray energies had a maximum percent difference of 61% relative to {sup 60}Co. The simulated ratio of dose to water to the dose to TLD had a maximum percent difference of 29% relative to {sup 60}Co. The ratio of dose to TLD to the TLD output had a maximum percent difference of 13% relative to {sup 60}Co. The maximum percent difference for the absorbed-dose sensitivity was 15% more than the used value of 1.41. Conclusion: These results confirm that differences in beam quality have a significant effect on TLD response when irradiated in water. These results also indicated a difference in TLD-100 response between microcube and chip geometries. The intrinsic energy dependence and the absorbed-dose energy dependence deviated up to 10% between TLD-100 microcubes and chips.

  8. Dose-response curves from incomplete data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    Frequently many different responses occur in populations (animal or human) exposed to ionizing radiation. To obtain a dose-response curve, the exposed population is first divided into sub-groups whose members received the same radiation dose. To estimate the response, the fraction of subjects in each sub-group that showed the particular response of interest is determined. These fractions are plotted against dose to give the dose-response curve. This procedure of plotting the fractions versus the radiation dose is not the correct way to estimate the time distribution for a particular response at the different dose levels. Other observed responses competed for the individuals in the exposed population and therefore prevented manifestation of the complete information on the response-time distribution for one specific response. Such data are called incomplete in the statistical literature. A procedure is described which uses the by now classical Kaplan-Meier estimator, to establish dose-response curves from incomplete data under the assumption that the different observed responses are statistically independent. It is demonstrated that there is insufficient information in the observed survival functions to estimate the time distribution for one particular response if the assumption of independence is dropped. In addition, it is not possible to determine from the data (i.e. type of response and when it occurred) whether or not the different response-time distributions are independent. However, it is possible to give sharp bounds between which the response has to lie. This implies that for incomplete data, only a 'dose-response band' can be established if independence of the competing responses cannot be assumed. Examples are given using actual data to illustrate the estimation procedures

  9. A systematic methodology review of phase I radiation dose escalation trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Mastrigt, Ghislaine van; Hahn, Steve M.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Lammering, Guido; Buijsen, Jeroen; Bentzen, Soren M.; Lievens, Yolande; Kramar, Andrew; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the methodology used in published phase I radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation trials. A specific emphasis was placed on the frequency of reporting late complications as endpoint. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic literature review using a predefined search strategy to identify all phase I trials reporting on external radiotherapy dose escalation in cancer patients. Results: Fifty-three trials (phase I: n = 36, phase I-II: n = 17) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 20 used a modified Fibonacci design for the RT dose escalation, but 32 did not specify a design. Late toxicity was variously defined as >3 months (n = 43) or > 6 months (n = 3) after RT, or not defined (n = 7). In only nine studies the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was related to late toxicity, while only half the studies reported the minimum follow-up period for dose escalation (n = 26). Conclusion: In phase I RT trials, late complications are often not taken into account and there is currently no consensus on the methodology used for radiation dose escalation studies. We therefore propose a decision-tree algorithm which depends on the endpoint selected and whether a validated early surrogate endpoint is available, in order to choose the most appropriate study design.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of dose enhancement effect of X-ray at Au/Si interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhengxin; He Chengfa; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; Yu Xin; Zhang Lei; Deng Wei; Zheng Qiwen; ARKIN Abulim

    2013-01-01

    Background: The dose enhancement factor of X-ray was found in 1970s, because of its bad damage to electronic devices. Purpose: This paper is mainly to calculate the dose-enhancement factor at Au/Si interfaces. Methods: The gradient distribution of dose with X-rays has been studied at and near the interface of Au/Si by Monte-Carlo simulation of particle transportation. The mechanism of dose enhancement is discussed based on the principles of interaction of photon with matter. A 3D Au/Si model has been established by MCNP5 program and the dose-enhancement factors of different thicknesses Au/Si interfaces were calculated by Monte Carlo method. Results: The calculated results demonstrate that there exists a stronger dose-enhancement in the Si side near the interface when the energy of X-ray is 30-300 keV. Conclusions: When the thickness of Au is 0-10 μm, dose-enhancement factor of X-ray increases along with the increase of the thickness of Au, when the thickness of Au exceeds 10 μm, dose-enhancement factor of X-ray decreases along with the increase of the thickness of Au. (authors)

  11. Patient doses from x-ray examinations in Sweden - a compilation of the results from the reports from the Swedish health care 1999; Patientdoser fraan roentgenundersoekningar i Sverige - sammanstaellning av resultaten fraan sjukvaardens rapportering 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitz, W.; Joensson, Helene

    2001-01-01

    In early 1999 the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) requested data on patient doses and frequency of x-ray examinations from the 30 licensees with the largest activities. This was comprising five conventional x-ray examinations, mammography and six computed tomography examinations. Patient doses and other relevant data from roughly 400 x-ray stands with an average of 20 patients each were reported. The average of the patient doses was calculated for each x-ray stand and examination type. The average values for the twelve types of examinations varied with a factor up to 15. It must be emphasized that a judgement of x-ray examinations based on one single parameter, the patient dose, is not fair. Low doses may imply poor diagnostic accuracy, high doses may be justified when the patient sample is representing many unusual clinical problems which are leading to more excessive examinations, which might be the case in e. g. university hospitals. Another problem is that the various examination types are not defined unambiguously, meaning that the clinical problem to be solved and hence the extent of the examination may differ between various clinics. Some parameters that are directly influencing the spread in patient dose have been identified, e. g. different sensitivities of the image receptors, different numbers of projections, differences in patient anatomy and different fluoroscopy times. It became obvious that the large dose variations cannot be accounted for by merely medical reasons. This is supported by the response from clinics after being informed that their doses were high. Straight forward countermeasures for dose reduction could be taken as e. g. changing the (insensitive) image receptor, increasing the filtration or modifying the examination methodology. Based on these results SSI will continue with the work of introducing diagnostic reference levels. In addition to numerical values and instructions on how and how often assessments have to be

  12. Dose Rate and Mass Attenuation Coefficients of Gamma Ray for Concretes

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Latif, A A; Kansouh, W A; El-Sayed, F H

    2003-01-01

    This work is concerned with the study of the leakage gamma ray dose and mass attenuation coefficients for ordinary, basalt and dolomite concretes made from local ores. Concretes under investigation were constructed from gravel, basalt and dolomite ores, and then reconstructed with the addition of 3% steel fibers by weight. Measurements were carried out using a collimated beam from sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma ray source and sodium iodide (3x3) crystal with the genie 2000 gamma spectrometer. The obtained fluxes were transformed to gamma ray doses and displayed in the form of gamma ray dose rates distribution. The displayed curves were used to estimate the linear attenuation coefficients (mu), the relaxation lengths (lambda), half value layer (t sub 1 /2) and tenth value layer (t sub 1 /10). Also, The total mass attenuation coefficients of gamma ray have been calculated to the concerned concretes using XCOM (version 3.1) program and database elements cross sections from Z=1 to 100 at energies from 10 keV to 100 MeV. In...

  13. Additional radiation dose to population due to X-ray diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Discovery of X rays has revolutionised the medical diagnosis but the fact that the diagnostic radiological procedures contribute about 80 to 90 % of the radiation dose to population as compared to other man made radiation sources cannot be ignored especially when X ray diagnostic facilities are being made available to larger section of the society. The estimated frequency of radiological procedures in India is 12,000 procedures/ year/100,000 population, though it is quite less as compared to developed countries, its increasing day by day. As part of the project, a radiation protection survey of X ray installations and patient radiation dose measurement during various radiological procedures was undertaken. 193 X ray installations were surveyed and the radiation doses received by the patient during various radiological procedure was measured. For measurement of radiation doses, CaSO 4 : Dy thermoluminescence (T.L.) discs of size 13.3 mm diameter and 0.8 mm thickness were used. Pre annealed T.L. discs were fixed by adhesive tape on the patient skin at the center of entrance beam before the exposure. After exposure the T.L. discs were estimated f or entrance skin dose during that particular projection/ examination. 10,000 measurements at different centers during various radiological procedures were done. It was found that chest radiography accounts for 37 % of all radiological procedures and further it was observed that 70 % of the chest X rays were normal with out any pathology indicating scope for curtailing the unwarranted radiological procedures. The special investigations like barium swallow, barium meal and fallow through accounts for about 1.5 % of the total radiological procedures. The entrance skin dose [E.S.D.] during chest radiography was 0.3 + 0.1 mGy where as during K.U.B. and cervical spine radiography it was 6.2 + 1.1 mGy and 5.1 + 0.9 mGy respectively. The details of frequency of various radiological procedures and the

  14. A practical and transferable methodology for dose estimation in irradiated spices based on thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Oca, M.C.; Bartolotta, A.; Cammilleri, C.; Giuffrida, S.; Parlato, A.; Di Stefano, V.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Among the industrial applications of ionizing radiation, the treatment of food for preservation purposes is a worldwide recognized tool, provided that proper and validated identification methods are available and used. The thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry is the physical method validated by the European Committee for Standardization for food from which silicate minerals can be isolated, such as spices and aromatic herbs. The aim of this work was to set up a reasonably simple procedure, alternative to the recommended one, for the identification of irradiated spices and to estimate at the same time the original dose in the irradiated product, using TL and the additive dose method, even after months storage. We have already shown that the additive dose method can be applied with TL dosimetry, if the TL response of the silicate specimen after extraction is always added to the response after each irradiation; the applied added doses were higher than 1 kGy, that can however give saturation problems. The new proposed methodology makes use of added doses lower than 600 Gy; the entire process can be completed within few hours and a linear fit can be utilized. The method was applied to the silicates extracted from oregano samples soon after the radiation treatment (original dose: 2 - 3 - 5 kGy), and after one year storage at room conditions in the dark (original dose: 1-2 kGy). The procedure allows the identification of irradiated samples, without any false positive, together with an estimation of the dose range

  15. γ-ray dose rate effect in DNA double-strand break repair deficient murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liya; Li Peiwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the dose rate effect and potentially lethal damage repair in DNA double-strand break repair deficient murine cells (SCID) irradiated by γ-ray. Methods: The wild type (CB.17+/+) and SCID cells were exposed to γ-ray at high and low dose rates. The high dose rate exposure was fractionated into two equal doses at 24 h intervals. The survival rates of irradiated cells were calculated by clone-forming analysis. Results: When γ-ray was given to wild type (CB.17+/+) cells in two fractions at 24 h intervals, the survival rate was significantly higher than that when the same total dose was given singly. In contrast, there was no difference in the survival rates between the single and fractionated exposure in SCID cells. SCID cells were more sensitive than CB.17+/+ cells to both low and high dose rates γ-ray exposure for cell killing. The survival rate by low dose rate exposure was significantly higher than that by high dose rate exposure, not only in CB.17+/+ cells but also in SCID cells. Conclusions: SCID cells are deficient in repairing γ-ray induced double-strand breaks. There is dose rate effect in both SCID and CB.17+/+ cells

  16. Radiation Dose Measurements in Routine X Ray Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.; Sulieman, A.; Suliman, I.I.; Sam, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of current study was to evaluate patients radiation dose in routine X-ray examinations in Omdurman teaching hospital Sudan.110 patients was examined (134) radiographs in two X-ray rooms. Entrance surface doses (ESDs) were calculated from patient exposure parameters using DosCal software. The mean ESD for the chest, AP abdomen, AP pelvis, thoracic spine AP, lateral lumber spine, anteroposterior lumber spine, lower limb and for the upper limb were; 231±44 Gy,453± 29 Gy, 567±22 Gy, 311±33 Gy,716±39 Gy, 611±55 Gy,311±23 Gy, and 158±57 Gy, respectively. Data shows asymmetry in distribution. The results of were comparable with previous study in Sudan.

  17. Frequencies of aneuploidy and dominant lethal mutations in young female mice induced by low dose γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Suyan; Zhang Chaoyang; Dai Lianlian; Gao Changwen

    1991-01-01

    Relationship between aneuploidy, dominant lethal mutations and doses in young feral mice induced by low dose γ-rays was examined. The results suggest that the frequencies of aneuploidy of embryos increased at 0.15 Gy, but increases at over 0.50 Gy after irradiation in groups. The frequencies of aneuploidy and dominant lethal mutations increased with increasing doses and fitted linear relationship. This dose-response relationship of trisomic was not significant. The frequency of dominant lethal mutations induced by 60 Co γ irradiation is 5.59%. The effect of dominant lethal mutation is higher than that of the aneuploidy

  18. Dose-response relationship for the induction of structural chromosome aberrations in human spermatozoa after in vitro exposure ti tritium. beta. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiguchi, Yujiroh; Tateno, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Kazuya (Asahikawa Medical College (Japan). Department of Biological Sciences)

    1990-02-01

    THe effects of tritium (HTO) {beta}-rays on human sperm chromosomes were studied using our interspecific in vitro fertilization system between human spermatozoa and zona-free hamster oocytes. Semen samples were treated with media containing 1.53-24.3 mCi/ml HTO for about 80 min. 1290 spermatozoa from the controls and 1842 spermatozoa from the irradiated groups were karyotyped. The incidence of spermatozoa with structural chromosome aberrations increased linearly with increasing dosage. Breakage-type aberrations occurred far more frequently than exchange-type. Chromosome-type aberrations appeared far more frequently than chromatid-ype. All of these types of aberrations showed linear dose-dependent increases. The RBE valus of HTO {beta}-rays relative to X-rays were calculated for the above-mentioned 5 indices, respectively. Their RBE values franged from 1.89 to 3.00 when the absorbed dose was estimated to be the minimum, whereas the values ranged between 1.04 and 1.65 when the absorbed dose was estimated to be the maximum. (author). 15 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs.

  19. A biosafety evaluation of synchrotron radiation X-ray to skin and bone marrow: single dose irradiation study of rats and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Tang, Guanghui; Lin, Hui; Lin, Xiaojie; Jiang, Lu; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Yongting

    2017-06-01

    Very limited experimental data is available regarding the safe dosages related to synchrotron radiation (SR) procedures. We used young rats and macaques to address bone marrow and skin tolerance to various doses of synchrotron radiation. Rats were subjected to 0, 0.5, 2.5, 5, 25 or 100 Gy local SR X-ray irradiation at left hind limb. Rat blood samples were analyzed at 2-90 days after irradiation. The SR X-ray irradiated skin and tibia were sectioned for morphological examination. For non-human primate study, three male macaques were subjected to 0.5 or 2.5 Gy SR X-ray on crus. Skin responses of macaques were observed. All rats that received SR X-ray irradiation doses greater than 2.5 Gy experienced hair loss and bone-growth inhibition, which were accompanied by decreased number of follicles, thickened epidermal layer, and decreased density of bone marrow cells (p X-ray but showed significant hair loss when the dose was raised above 2.5 Gy. The safety threshold doses of SR X-ray for rat skin, bone marrow and macaque skin are between 0.5 and 2.5 Gy. Our study provided essential information regarding the biosafety of SR X-ray irradiation.

  20. Assessing the dose values received by patients during conventional radiography X-ray examinations and the technical condition of the equipment used for this purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekas, Marcin; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Waśniewska, Elżbieta; Bogucka, Dagmara; Magiera, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    X-ray examination is associated with patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Dose values depend on the type of medical procedure used, the X-ray unit technical condition and exposure conditions selected. The aim of this study was to determine the dose value received by patients during certain conventional radiography X-ray examinations and to assess the technical condition of medical equipment used for this purpose. The study covered the total number of 118 conventional diagnostic X-ray units located in the Masovian Voivodeship. The methodology used to assess the conventional diagnostic X-ray unit technical condition and the measurement of the radiation dose rate received by patients are based on test procedures developed by the Department of Radiation Protection and Radiobiology of the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (Warszawa, Poland) accredited for compliance with PN-EN 17025 standard by the Polish Centre for Accreditation. It was found that 84.7% of X-ray units fully meet the criteria set out in the Polish legislation regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine, while 15.3% of the units do not meet some of them. The broadest dose value range was recorded for adult patients. Particularly, during lateral (LATl) lumbar spine radiography the recorded entrance surface dose (ESD) values ranged from 283.5 to 7827 µGy (mean: 2183.3 µGy). It is absolutely necessary to constantly monitor the technical condition of all X-ray units, because it affects population exposure to ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it is essential to raise radiographers' awareness of the effects that ionizing radiation exposure can have on the human body.

  1. Specific gamma-ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, L.M.; Trubey, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    Tables of specific gamma-ray dose constants (the unshielded gamma-ray dose equivalent rate at 1 m from a point source) have been computed for approximately 500 nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment. The half life, the mean attenuation coefficient, and thickness for a lead shield providing 95% dose equivalent attenuation are also listed

  2. Soft x-ray-controlled dose deposition in yeast cells: techniques, model, and biological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Marziale; Batani, Dimitri; Conti, Aldo; Masini, Alessandra; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Turcu, I. C. Edmond

    1996-12-01

    A procedure is presented to release soft x-rays onto yeast cell membrane allegedly damaging the resident enzymatic processes connected with fermentation. The damage is expected to be restricted to regulating fermentation processes without interference with respiration. By this technique fermentation is followed leading to CO2 production, and respiration resulting in global pressure measurements. A solid state pressure sensor system has been developed linked to a data acquisition system. Yeast cells cultures have been investigated at different concentrations and with different nutrients. A non-monotone response in CO2 production as a function of the delivered x-ray dose is observed.

  3. Dose calculation of X-ray in medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanmei; Xue Dingyu; Xu Xinhe; Chen Zhen; Dong Zaili

    2006-01-01

    The photon transportation in radiotherapy is studied based on Monte Carlo method. The dose calculation based on the MC simulation package DPM has been carried out, and the results have been visualized using MEX technology of Matlab. The dose results of X-ray in homogeneity and inhomogeneity medium have been compared with experimental data and those of other MC simulation package, and these results all agree. The calculation method we proposed has the advantage of high speed and good accuracy, therefore, is applicable in practice. (authors)

  4. Quantifying murine bone marrow and blood radiation dose response following {sup 18}F-FDG PET with DNA damage biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Grainne [Biological Effects Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kristina [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Finnon, Paul [Biological Effects Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom); Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Badie, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.badie@phe.gov.uk [Biological Effects Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Mice received either a range of {sup 18}F-FDG activities or whole body X-ray doses. • Blood samples were collected at 24 and 43 h for MN-RET and QPCR analysis. • Regression analysis showed that both types of exposure produced a linear response. • BM doses of 33 mGy ({sup 18}F-FDG) and 25 mGy X-rays were significantly higher than controls. • No significant difference between internal ({sup 18}F-FDG) and external (X-ray) was found. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to quantify the poorly understood radiation doses to murine bone marrow and blood from whole-body fluorine 18 ({sup 18}F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), by using specific biomarkers and comparing with whole body external low dose exposures. Groups of 3–5 mice were randomly assigned to 10 groups, each receiving either a different activity of {sup 18}F-FDG: 0–37 MBq or whole body irradiated with corresponding doses of 0–300 mGy X-rays. Blood samples were collected at 24 h and at 43 h for reticulocyte micronucleus assays and QPCR analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes. Blood and bone marrow dose estimates were calculated from injected activities of {sup 18}F-FDG and were based on a recommended ICRP model. Doses to the bone marrow corresponding to 33.43 mGy and above for internal {sup 18}F-FDG exposure and to 25 mGy and above for external X-ray exposure, showed significant increases in radiation-induced MN-RET formation relative to controls (P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that both types of exposure produced a linear response with linear regression analysis giving R{sup 2} of 0.992 and 0.999 for respectively internal and external exposure. No significant difference between the two data sets was found with a P-value of 0.493. In vivo gene expression dose–responses at 24 h for Bbc3 and Cdkn1 were similar for {sup 18}F-FDG and X-ray exposures, with significant modifications occurring for doses over 300 mGy for Bbc3

  5. Dose properties of x-ray beams produced by laser-wakefield-accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, K K; Hogstrom, K R; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D

    2005-01-01

    Given that laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) has been demonstrated experimentally to accelerate electron beams to energies beyond 25 MeV, it is reasonable to assess the ability of existing LWFA technology to compete with conventional radiofrequency linear accelerators in producing electron and x-ray beams for external-beam radiotherapy. We present calculations of the dose distributions (off-axis dose profiles and central-axis depth dose) and dose rates of x-ray beams that can be produced from electron beams that are generated using state-of-the-art LWFA. Subsets of an LWFA electron energy distribution were propagated through the treatment head elements (presuming an existing design for an x-ray production target and flattening filter) implemented within the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Three x-ray energy configurations (6 MV, 10 MV and 18 MV) were studied, and the energy width ΔE of the electron-beam subsets varied from 0.5 MeV to 12.5 MeV. As ΔE increased from 0.5 MeV to 4.5 MeV, we found that the off-axis and central-axis dose profiles for x-rays were minimally affected (to within about 3%), a result slightly different from prior calculations of electron beams broadened by scattering foils. For ΔE of the order of 12 MeV, the effect on the off-axis profile was of the order of 10%, but the central-axis depth dose was affected by less than 2% for depths in excess of about 5 cm beyond d max . Although increasing ΔE beyond 6.5 MeV increased the dose rate at d max by more than 10 times, the absolute dose rates were about 3 orders of magnitude below those observed for LWFA-based electron beams at comparable energies. For a practical LWFA-based x-ray device, the beam current must be increased by about 4-5 orders of magnitude. (note)

  6. Dose evaluation for digital X-ray imaging of premature neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkels, T.J.M.; Jeukens, C.R.L.P.N.; Andriessen, P.; Van der Linden, A.N.; Dam, A.J.; Van Straaten, H.L.M.; Cottaar, E.J.E.; Van Pul, C.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray radiography is a commonly used diagnostic method for premature neonates. However, because of higher radiosensitivity and young age, premature neonates are more sensitive to the detrimental effects of ionising radiation. Therefore, it is important to monitor and optimise radiation doses at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The number of X-ray examinations, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses are evaluated for three Dutch NICUs using digital flat panel detectors. Thorax, thorax abdomen and abdomen protocols are included in this study. Median number of examinations is equal to 1 for all three hospitals. Median DAP ranges between 0.05 and 1.02 μGy m2 for different examination types and different weight categories. These examinations result in mean effective doses between 4 ± 4 and 30 ± 10 μSv per examination. Substantial differences in protocols and doses can be observed between hospitals. This emphasises the need for up-to-date reference levels formulated specifically for premature neonates. (authors)

  7. Measurements of X ray absorbed doses to dental patients in two dental X ray units in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogundare, F.O.; Oni, O.M.; Balogun, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of absorbed doses from radiographic examinations to various anatomical sites in the head and neck of patients with an average age of 45 years using intra-oral dental radiography have been carried out. LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters were used for the measurements of the absorbed dose. The measured absorbed doses to the various anatomical sites in the two units are reported, discussed and compared with results from the literature. Quality control measurements were also performed using a Victoreen quality control test device on the X ray units. The tube voltage accuracies for the two units were found to be within acceptable limits (less than ±10%). On the other hand the exposure time accuracies for these units have large deviations (>20%). These results and those that have been reported in the literature may be an indication that high patient doses are common in most dental X ray centres and countries. As a result of this, regular compliance and performance checks of dental diagnostic X ray equipment are essential in order to ensure proper performance and to minimise unnecessary patient and operator doses. (author)

  8. American National Standard: neutron and gamma-ray flux-to-dose rate factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This Standard presents data recommended for computing biological dose rates due to neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields. Neutron flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for energies from 2.5 x 10 -8 to 20 MeV are given; the energy range for the gamma-ray conversion factors is 0.01 to 15 MeV. Specifically, this Standard is intended for use by shield designers to calculate wholebody dose rates to radiation workers and the general public. Establishing dose-rate limits is outside the scope of this Standard. Use of this Standard in cases where the dose equivalents are far in excess of occupational exposure guidelines is not recommended

  9. Effects of low X-ray doses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, A.; Laskowski, W.

    1987-01-01

    Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different capacities for repair of radiation damage (RAD, rad18, and rad52) have been tested for their colony forming ability (CFA) and growth rates after application of small X-ray doses from 3.8 mGy to 40 Gy. There was no reproducible increase in CFA observable after application of doses between 3.8 mGy and 4.7 Gy.X-ray doses of 40 Gy causing an inactivation of CFA from 90% to 50%, depending on the repair capacity of the strains used, caused a reduced increase in optical density during 2 h buffer treatment in comparison to unirradiated cells. This reduction however, is reversible as soon as the cells are transferred into nutrient medium. One hour after transfer into growh medium the portions of cells with large buds (Gs and M phase) and cells with small buds (S phase) are drastically different in irradiated cells from those obtained in unirradiated cells. The time necessary for separation of mother and daughter cells is prolonged by X-ray irradiation and the formation of new buds is retarded. (orig.)

  10. Estimation of the collective effective dose to the population from medical X-ray examinations in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenkanen-Rautakoskia, Petra; Jaervinen, Hannu; Bly, Ritva

    2008-01-01

    The collective effective dose to the population from all X-ray examinations in Finland in 2005 was estimated. The numbers of X-ray examinations were collected by a questionnaire to the health care units (response rate 100 %). The effective doses in plain radiography were calculated using a Monte Carlo based program (PCXMC), as average values for selected health care units. For computed tomography (CT), weighted dose length product (DLP w ) in a standard phantom was measured for routine CT protocols of four body regions, for 80 % of CT scanners including all types. The effective doses were calculated from DPL w values using published conversion factors. For contrast-enhanced radiology and interventional radiology, the effective dose was estimated mainly by using published DAP values and conversion factors for given body regions. About 733 examinations per 1000 inhabitants (excluding dental) were made in 2005, slightly less than in 2000. The proportions of plain radiography, computed tomography, contrast-enhanced radiography and interventional procedures were about 92, 7, 1 and 1 %, respectively. From 2000, the frequencies (number of examinations per 1000 inhabitants) of plain radiography and contrast-enhanced radiography have decreased about 8 and 33 %, respectively, while the frequencies of CT and interventional radiology have increased about 28 and 38 %, respectively. The population dose from all X-ray examinations is about 0.43 mSv per person (in 1997 0.5 mSv). About half of this is caused by CT (in 1997 only 20 %) although the relative number of CT examinations is only 7 %. The contribution by plain radiography is 19 %, interventional radiology 17 %, and contrast-enhanced radiology 14 %. It is concluded that CT examinations are the major source of the population dose, while interventional radiology gives about the same population dose as plain radiography. For plain radiography, body examinations cause the highest effective dose. (author)

  11. The elimination of low-dose hypersensitivity in Chinese hamster V79-379A cells by pretreatment with X rays or hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marples, B.; Joiner, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    To explain increased radioresistance over the X-ray dose range ∼ 0.5-1 Gy an inducible radioprotective mechanism triggered by DNA damage was proposed; hypersensitivity to doses much-lt Gy reflected the response prior to the activation of this system. To test this hypothesis, cells were pre-exposed to DNA-damaging agents in an attempt to induce the process prematurely. An increase in survival was evident at X-ray doses below 0.3 Gy after a priming treatment of X rays (0.05, 0.2, 1 Gy) given 6 h earlier. The protective effect was found to be transitory, requiring time for development and diminishing after two to three cell cycle times. Cycloheximide administered in the interval between the priming and challenge doses of X rays abolished the protection conferred by pretreatment, indicating the involvement of de novo protein synthesis. Oxidative damage by nontoxic doses of hydrogen peroxide (10 -4 M, but not 10 -6 M) also produced a protective effect against subsequent X irradiation. These experiments indicate survival in the hyper-radiosensitive region (much-lt 0.5 Gy) can be modified by pretreatment with agents known to affect DNA repair. In addition, the development of increased radioresistance after single doses of X rays was inhibited by cycloheximide treatment. These studies provide evidence to support the explanations proposed previously for the phenomena of increased radioresistance and hyper-radiosensitivity observed at very low X-ray doses. 57 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  12. An investigation of dose changes for therapeutic kilovoltage x-ray beams with underlying lead shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robin; Healy, Brendan; Holloway, Lois; Baldock, Clive

    2007-01-01

    Kilovoltage x-ray beams are used to treat cancer on or close to the skin surface. Many clinical cases use high atomic number materials as shielding to reduce dose to underlying healthy tissues. In this work, we have investigated the effect on both the surface dose and depth doses in a water phantom with lead shielding at depth in the phantom. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the water phantom and to calculate the surface doses and depth doses using primary x-ray beam spectra derived from an analytical model. The x-ray beams were in the energy range of 75-135 kVp with field sizes of 2, 5 and 8 cm diameter. The lead sheet was located beneath the water surface at depths ranging from 0.5-7.5 cm. The surface dose decreased as the lead was positioned closer to the water surface and as the field size was increased. The variation in surface dose as a function of x-ray beam energy was only small but the maximum reduction occurred for the 100 kVp x-ray beam. For the 8 cm diameter field with the lead at 1 cm depth and using the 100 kVp x-ray beam, the surface dose was reduced to 0.898 of the surface dose in the water phantom only. Measured surface dose changes, using a Farmer-type ionization chamber, agreed with the Monte Carlo calculated doses. Calculated depth doses in water with a lead sheet positioned below the surface showed that the dose fall-off increased as the lead was positioned closer to the water surface as compared to the depth dose in the water phantom only. Monte Carlo calculations of the total x-ray beam spectrum at the water surface showed that the total fluence decreased due to a reduction in backscatter from within the water and very little backscatter from the lead. The mean energy of the x-ray spectrum varied less than 1 keV, with the lead at 1 cm beneath the water phantom surface. As the Monte Carlo calculations showed good agreement with the measured results, this method can be used to verify surface dose changes in clinical situations

  13. Calculation of neutron and gamma-ray flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.G.; Lee, S.Y.; Yook, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for neutrons and gamma rays based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N666. These data are used to calculate the dose rate distribution of neutron and gamma ray in radiation fields. Neutron flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for energies from 2.5 x 10 -8 to 20 MeV are presented; the corresponding energy range for gamma rays is 0.01 to 15 MeV. Flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors were calculated, under the assumption that radiation energy distribution has nonlinearity in the phantom, have different meaning from those values obtained by monoenergetic radiation. Especially, these values were determined with the cross section library. The flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors obtained in this work were in a good agreement to the values presented by ANSI. Those data will be useful for the radiation shielding analysis and the radiation dosimetry in the case of continuous energy distributions. (author)

  14. Experimental determination of the photon-energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD600 and TLD700 (LiF:Mg,Ti) thermoluminescence detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwahofer, Andrea [Vivantes Clinic Neukoelln, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy; Feist, Harald [Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Georg, Holger [PTW Freiburg (Germany). Calibration Lab.; Haering, Peter; Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study has been the experimental determination of the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescent detectors (Harshaw) in X-ray beams with mean photon energies from about 20 to 200 keV in comparison with {sup 60}Co gamma rays and 6 MV X-rays. Experiments were carried out in collaboration with the German secondary standard laboratory PTW Freiburg. The energy dependent relative responses of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescence detectors were determined at radiation qualities between 30 kV{sub p} and 280 kV{sub p}. The overall uncertainty of the measured values was characterized by standard deviations varying from 1.2 to 3%. The present results agree with previous studies on the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD100. As an application example, the results were used to measure doses associated with X-ray imaging in image-guided radiotherapy.

  15. The measurement of patient doses from diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, N.D.; Solomon, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    As part of the National Health and Medical Research Council survey to determine the genetic and mean bone-marrow doses to the Australian population from the medical, dental and chiropractic uses of radiation sources, doses to patients undergoing X-ray diagnostic procedures were evaluated. The doses were measured using capsules of LiF or CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). The evaluation of the TLD measurements is described and the mean values of the skin doses for patients undergoing various radiographic examinations in Australia in 1970 are presented

  16. Collective effective dose in Europe from x-ray and nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bly, R.; Jaervinen, H.; Jahnen, A.; Olerud, H.; Vassileva, J.; Vogiatzi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547 500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605 000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30 700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31 100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput. (authors)

  17. Effect of in utero exposure to diagnostic doses of X-rays on the growth and behaviour of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash Hande, M.; Uma Devi, P.

    1992-01-01

    Intrauterine development, particularly the period of organogenesis is an especially radiosensitive phase in mammals. Teratogenic effect of low dose irradiation has been demonstrated in laboratory animals. Several studies have indicated the vulnerability of the developing human brain to radiation injury and demonstrated changes in postnatal behaviour following intrauterine animal irradiation. However, data are lacking on the comparative response of the different stages of prenatal development to low doses at levels that could result from diagnostic radiation exposure. This study attempts to empirically evaluate the differential response of critical stages in prenatal development of mouse to single low dose exposures to diagnostic X-rays. Data on growth and behaviour are briefly presented. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Method of estimating patient skin dose from dose displayed on medical X-ray equipment with flat panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Koshida, Kichiro; Togashi, Atsuhiko; Matsubara, Kousuke

    2004-01-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has stipulated that medical X-ray equipment for interventional procedures must display radiation doses such as air kerma in free air at the interventional reference point and dose area product to establish radiation safety for patients (IEC 60601-2-43). However, it is necessary to estimate entrance skin dose for the patient from air kerma for an accurate risk assessment of radiation skin injury. To estimate entrance skin dose from displayed air kerma in free air at the interventional reference point, it is necessary to consider effective energy, the ratio of the mass-energy absorption coefficient for skin and air, and the backscatter factor. In addition, since automatic exposure control is installed in medical X-ray equipment with flat panel detectors, it is necessary to know the characteristics of control to estimate exposure dose. In order to calculate entrance skin dose under various conditions, we investigated clinical parameters such as tube voltage, tube current, pulse width, additional filter, and focal spot size, as functions of patient body size. We also measured the effective energy of X-ray exposure for the patient as a function of clinical parameter settings. We found that the conversion factor from air kerma in free air to entrance skin dose is about 1.4 for protection. (author)

  19. Required doses for projection methods in X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The ideal dose requirement has been stated by Cohen et al. (1981) by a formula basing on parallel beam, maximum quantum yield and Bucky grid effect depending on the signal to noise ratio and object contrast. This was checked by means of contrast detail diagrams measured at the hole phantom, and was additionally compared with measurement results obtained with acrylic glass phantoms. The optimal dose requirement is obtained by the maximum technically possible approach to the ideal requirement level. Examples are given, besides for x-ray equipment with Gd 2 O 2 S screen film systems for grid screen mammography, and new thoracic examination systems for mass screenings. Finally, a few values concerning the dose requirement or the analogous time required for fluorscent screening in angiography and interventional radiology, are stated, as well as for dentistry and paediatric x-ray diagnostics. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Response of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters subjected to X-rays in diagnostic energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, Y; Hashim, S; Karim, M K A; Ang, W C; Salehhon, N; Bakar, K A

    2017-01-01

    The use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for dosimetry applications has recently increased considerably due to availability of commercial OSL dosimeters (nanoDots) for clinical use. The OSL dosimeter has a great potential to be used in clinical dosimetry because of its prevailing advantages in both handling and application. However, utilising nanoDot OSLDs for dose measurement in diagnostic radiology can only be guaranteed when the performance and characteristics of the dosimeters are apposite. In the present work, we examined the response of commercially available nanoDot OSLD (Al 2 O 3 :C) subjected to X-rays in general radiography. The nanoDots response with respect to reproducibility, dose linearity and signal depletion were analysed using microStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL). Irradiations were performed free-in-air using 70, 80 and 120 kV tube voltages and tube currents ranging from 10 – 100 mAs. The results showed that the nanoDots exhibit good linearity and reproducibility when subjected to diagnostic X-rays, with coefficient of variations (CV) ranging between 2.3% to 3.5% representing a good reproducibility. The results also indicated average of 1% signal reduction per readout. Hence, the nanoDots showed a promising potential for dose measurement in general X-ray procedure. (paper)

  1. Development of an ionization chamber based high sensitivity detector for the measurement of radiation dose from X-ray whole body scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunil K.; Tripathi, S.M.; LijiShaiju; Sathian, V.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Using walk through metal detectors and undergoing frisking for personals at airports, seaports, railway stations and other sensitive places no longer meets proper security requirements. Now a days use of plastic explosives, drug trafficking or illegal carriage of dangerous items concealed under cloths or body cavities has increased many folds which in many cases is not possible to detect by conventional methods. One of the systems which are capable to overcome the above mentioned difficulties is the use of X-ray based whole body scanners, either transmission type or backscatter type, depending upon the nature of requirement. While using these whole body scanners the person being scanned possesses a radiation risk whose safety aspects can be monitored by following international standards (recommending certain dose limits). In order to check the compliance of these dose limits, the dose per scan received by the person (from these whole body scanners) needs to be measured. A very high sensitive ionization chamber has been designed and fabricated for measuring these extremely low X- ray fields ( few μR) produced by a scanning X-ray beam over a large area. A methodology has been developed to measure exposure per scan using large volume ionization chambers. This value of exposure was used to calculate whole body dose as per the recommendations of ANSI standard for its compliance

  2. Analysis of Dose and Dose Distribution for Patients Undergoing Selected X-Ray Diagnostic Procedures in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schandorf, C.; Tetteh, G.K

    1998-07-01

    The levels of dose and dose distributions for adult patients undergoing five selected common types of X ray examination in Ghana were determined using thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) attached to the skin where the beam enters the patient. To assess the performance of each X ray room surveyed, the mean of the entrance surface dose for patients whose statistics were close to a standard patient (70 kg weight and 20 cm AP trunk thickness) were compared to the Commission of the European Communities guideline values for chest PA, lumbar spine AP, pelvis/abdomen AP and skull AP examinations. The third quartiles dose values were 1.3 mGy, 14.5 mGy, 12.0 mGy and 7.9 mGy for chest PA, lumbar spine AP, pelvis/abdomen AP and skull AP respectively. Analysis of the data show that 86%, 58%, 37.5% and 50% of radiographic rooms delivered a mean dose greater than the CEC guideline values for chest PA, lumbar spine AP, pelvis/abdomen and skull AP respectively. This suggests that radiographic departments should undertake a review of their radiographic practice in order to bring their doses to optimum levels. (author)

  3. Analysis of Dose and Dose Distribution for Patients Undergoing Selected X-Ray Diagnostic Procedures in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Tetteh, G.K.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of dose and dose distributions for adult patients undergoing five selected common types of X ray examination in Ghana were determined using thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) attached to the skin where the beam enters the patient. To assess the performance of each X ray room surveyed, the mean of the entrance surface dose for patients whose statistics were close to a standard patient (70 kg weight and 20 cm AP trunk thickness) were compared to the Commission of the European Communities guideline values for chest PA, lumbar spine AP, pelvis/abdomen AP and skull AP examinations. The third quartiles dose values were 1.3 mGy, 14.5 mGy, 12.0 mGy and 7.9 mGy for chest PA, lumbar spine AP, pelvis/abdomen AP and skull AP respectively. Analysis of the data show that 86%, 58%, 37.5% and 50% of radiographic rooms delivered a mean dose greater than the CEC guideline values for chest PA, lumbar spine AP, pelvis/abdomen and skull AP respectively. This suggests that radiographic departments should undertake a review of their radiographic practice in order to bring their doses to optimum levels. (author)

  4. The influence of x-ray energy on lung dose uniformity in total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth; Greven, Kathryn; Wu Qingrong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examine the influence of x-ray energy on the uniformity of the dose within the lung in total-body irradiation treatments in which partial transmission blocks are used to control the lung dose. Methods and Materials: A solid water phantom with a cork insert to simulate a lung was irradiated by x-rays with energies of either 6, 10, or 18 MV. The source to phantom distance was 3.9 meters. The cork insert was either 10 cm wide or 6 cm wide. Partial transmission blocks with transmission factors of 50% were placed anterior to the cork insert. The blocks were either 8 or 4 cm in width. Kodak XV-2 film was placed in the midline of the phantom to record the dose. Midplane dose profiles were measured with a densitometer. Results: For the 10 cm wide cork insert the uniformity of the dose over 80% of the block width varied from 6.6% for the 6 MV x-rays to 12.2% for the 18 MV x-rays. For the 6 cm wide cork insert the uniformity was comparable for all three x-ray energies, but for 18 MV the central dose increased by 9.4% compared to the 10 cm wide insert. Conclusion: Many factors must be considered in optimizing the dose for total-body irradiation. This study suggests that for AP/PA techniques lung dose uniformity is superior with 6 MV irradiation. The blanket recommendation that the highest x-ray energy be used in TBI is not valid for all situations

  5. Evaluation of dose from kV cone-beam computed tomography during radiotherapy: a comparison of methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, J.; Wilkinson, D.; Malaroda, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    2017-01-01

    Three alternative methodologies to the Computed-Tomography Dose Index for the evaluation of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography dose are compared, the Cone-Beam Dose Index, IAEA Human Health Report No. 5 recommended methodology and the AAPM Task Group 111 recommended methodology. The protocols were evaluated for Pelvis and Thorax scan modes on Varian® On-Board Imager and Truebeam kV XI imaging systems. The weighted planar average dose was highest for the AAPM methodology across all scans, with the CBDI being the second highest overall. A 17.96% and 1.14% decrease from the TG-111 protocol to the IAEA and CBDI protocols for the Pelvis mode and 18.15% and 13.10% decrease for the Thorax mode were observed for the XI system. For the OBI system, the variation was 16.46% and 7.14% for Pelvis mode and 15.93% to the CBDI protocol in Thorax mode respectively.

  6. PATIENT RADIATION DOSE FROM CHEST X-RAY EXAMINATIONS IN THE WEST BANK-PALESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Issa, Ahlam; ALMasri, Hussein

    2018-02-01

    Radiation doses to patients resulting from chest X-ray examinations were evaluated in four medical centers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem-Palestine. Absorbed organ and effective doses were calculated for a total of 428 adult male and female patients by using commercially available Monte Carlo based softwares; CALDOSE-X5 and PCXMC-2.0, and hermaphrodite mathematical adult phantoms. Patients were selected randomly from medical records in the time period from November 2014 to February 2015. A database of surveyed patients and exposure factors has been established and includes: patient's height, weight, age, gender, X-ray tube voltage, electric current (mAs), examination projection (anterior posterior (AP), posterior anterior (PA), lateral), X-ray tube filtration thickness in each X-ray equipment, anode angle, focus to skin distance and X-ray beam size. The average absorbed doses in the whole body from different projections were: 0.06, 0.07 and 0.11 mGy from AP, PA and lateral projections, respectively. The average effective dose for all surveyed patients was 0.14 mSv for all chest X-ray examinations and projections in the four investigated medical centers. The effect of projection geometry was also investigated. The average effective doses for AP, PA and lateral projections were 0.14, 0.07 and 0.22 mSv, respectively. The collective effective dose estimated for the exposed population was ~60 man-mSv. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Dose-response relationship of γ-ray-induced reciprocal translocations at low doses in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Tobari, Izuo; Yamagiwa, Junji; Utsugi, Toyoko; Okamoto, Masanori; Nakai, Sayaka

    1985-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by acute γ-irradiation at low doses in the crab-eating monkey's (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia was examined. Over the low dose range from 0 to 1 Gy, the dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one. To estimate the sensitivity to the induction of translocations in the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia, the slope of the regression line was compared with those in other mammalian species. Consequently, over the low dose range below 1 Gy, the sensitivity of the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia to translocation induction was similar to several mammalian species, the mouse, Chinese hamster, and the rabbit, but significantly higher than that of the rhesus monkey and lower than that of the marmoset. (Auth.)

  8. Late effects of chronic low dose-rate γ-rays irradiation on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Sasagawa, Sumiko; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate late biological effects of chronic low dose-rate radiation, we are conducting two experiments. Experiment 1 - Late effects of chronic low dose-rate g-rays irradiation on SPF mice, using life-span and pathological changes as parameters. Continuous irradiation with g-rays for 400 days was performed using 137 Cs γ-rays at dose-rates of 20 mGy/day, 1 mGy/day and 0.05 mGy/day with accumulated doses equivalent to 8,000 mGy, 400 mGy and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept until they died a natural death. As of 2002 March 31, 3,999 of the total 4,000 mice have died. Preliminary analyses of data show that 20 mGy/day suggested a shortened life span in both sexes. Partial results show that the most common lethal neoplasms in the pooled data of non-irradiated control and irradiated male mice, in order of frequency, were neoplasms of the lymphohematopoietic system, liver, and lung. In female mice, neoplasms of the lymphohematopoietic system, soft tissue, and endocrine system were common. Experiment 2 - Effects on the progeny of chronic low dose-rate g-ray irradiated SPF mice: pilot study, was started in 1999 and is currently in progress. (author)

  9. Gamma-ray mutagenic effect on adzuki bean and the optimum dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Huifang; Li Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    Dry seeds of three kinds of adzuki beans (Jinhong1, Jihong9218, and Jingnong6) were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The radiation effects on seedlings were analyzed to estimate the optimum dose, which was 400 to 600 Gy, based on the average half lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 473.3 Gy for the three kinds of adzuki beans. The M 1 γ-ray mutagenic effects were studied by farming the three kinds of adzuki beans irradiated to 350, 500 and 650 Gy. It was found that the beans treated with higher doses had obvious inhibition on germination rate, seedling development, with significant or very significant difference compared with the CK. There was significantly negative correlation between seedling emergences, seedling height and doses. Irradiation affected mature plants by reducing plant height, decreasing nodes number of main stem, pods number per plant, seeds per pod and shortening pod length with significant. The order of radio-sensitivity to γ-rays was as follows: Jinhong1, Jihong9218, and Jingnong6. (authors)

  10. Radiation doses from some common paediatric X-ray examinations in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Elshiekh, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation doses to patients from some common paediatric X-ray examinations were studied in three hospitals in Khartoum state (Sudan)). Entrance surface dose (ESD) was determined from exposure settings using DosCal software. Totally, 459 patients were included in this study. Mean ESDs obtained from anteroposterior projection for chest, skull, abdomen and pelvis for neonates falls in the range of 52-100, 115-169, 145-183, 204-242 μGy, respectively. For a 1-y-old infant, mean ESD range was 80-114, 153-202, 204-209, 181-264 μGy, respectively. Some doses for neonates and infants were exceeding the reference doses by >20%. The results highlighted that a good technique has to adhere to guidelines necessarily. As demonstrated elsewhere, patients' doses were high in departments using single-phase generators compared with those using constant potential. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving reference doses for paediatric X-ray examinations in Sudan. (authors)

  11. Low-dose phase contrast tomography with conventional x-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, C. K., E-mail: charlotte.hagen.10@ucl.ac.uk; Endrizzi, M.; Diemoz, P. C.; Olivo, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Munro, P. R. T. [Optical + Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia and Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation, and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The edge illumination (EI) x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) method has been recently further developed to perform tomographic and, thus, volumetric imaging. In this paper, the first tomographic EI XPCi images acquired with a conventional x-ray source at dose levels below that used for preclinical small animal imaging are presented. Methods: Two test objects, a biological sample and a custom-built phantom, were imaged with a laboratory-based EI XPCi setup in tomography mode. Tomographic maps that show the phase shift and attenuating properties of the object were reconstructed, and analyzed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and quantitative accuracy. Dose measurements using thermoluminescence devices were performed. Results: The obtained images demonstrate that phase based imaging methods can provide superior results compared to attenuation based modalities for weakly attenuating samples also in 3D. Moreover, and, most importantly, they demonstrate the feasibility of low-dose imaging. In addition, the experimental results can be considered quantitative within the constraints imposed by polychromaticity. Conclusions: The results, together with the method's dose efficiency and compatibility with conventional x-ray sources, indicate that tomographic EI XPCi can become an important tool for the routine imaging of biomedical samples.

  12. Response of mouse lung to irradiation at different dose-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of LAF1 mice were given thoracic irradiation using 60 Co γ-rays at dose-rates of 0.05 Gy/min (LDR) or 1.1 Gy/min (HDR) and the death of the animals was monitored as a function of time. It was found that the time pattern of animal deaths was similar for the two different dose-rates. Dose response curves for animals dying at various times up to 500 days after irradiation were calculated and the LD 50 values determined. The curves for the LD 50 values, plotted as a function of the time at analysis for treatment at HDR or LDR, were essentially parallel to each other but separated by a factor (LDR/HDR) of about 1.8. This indicates that the sparing effect of LDR treatment is the same for deaths occurring during the early pneumonitis phase or during the late fibrotic phase of lung damage. The available information on the response of patients to whole thoracic irradiation, given for either palliation or piror to bone marrow transplantation, suggests that for similar dose-rates to those studied here the ratio (LDR/HDR) is only 1.2 to 1.3. This difference between the animal and human data may reflect the modifying effect of the large doses of cytotoxic drugs used in combination with the irradiation of bone marrow transplant patients

  13. Methodological issues in radiation dose-volume outcome analyses: Summary of a joint AAPM/NIH workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Herbert, Donald; Yan, Di; Jackson, Andrew; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Langer, Mark; Sapareto, Steve

    2002-01-01

    This report represents a summary of presentations at a joint workshop of the National Institutes of Health and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Current methodological issues in dose-volume modeling are addressed here from several different perspectives. Areas of emphasis include (a) basic modeling issues including the equivalent uniform dose framework and the bootstrap method, (b) issues in the valid use of statistics, including the need for meta-analysis, (c) issues in dealing with organ deformation and its effects on treatment response, (d) evidence for volume effects for rectal complications, (e) the use of volume effect data in liver and lung as a basis for dose escalation studies, and (f) implications of uncertainties in volume effect knowledge on optimized treatment planning. Taken together, these approaches to studying volume effects describe many implications for the development and use of this information in radiation oncology practice. Areas of significant interest for further research include the meta-analysis of clinical data; interinstitutional pooled data analyses of volume effects; analyses of the uncertainties in outcome prediction models, minimal parameter number outcome models for ranking treatment plans (e.g., equivalent uniform dose); incorporation of the effect of motion in the outcome prediction; dose-escalation/isorisk protocols based on outcome models; the use of functional imaging to study radio-response; and the need for further small animal tumor control probability/normal tissue complication probability studies

  14. Clastogenic effects in human lymphocytes exposed to low and high dose rate X-ray irradiation and vitamin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacka, M; Rogolinski, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we investigated the ability of vitamin C to modulate clastogenic effects induced in cultured human lymphocytes by X-irradiation delivered at either high (1 Gy/min) or low dose rate (0.24 Gy/min). Biological effects of the irradiation were estimated by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay including the analysis of the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and apoptotic cells as well as calculation of nuclear division index (NDI). The numbers of micronucleated binucleate lymphocytes (MN-CBL) were 24.85 ± 2.67% and 32.56 ± 3.17% in cultures exposed to X-rays (2 Gy) delivered at low and high dose rates, respectively. Addition of vitamin C (1-20 μg/ml) to the medium of cultures irradiated with the low dose rate reduced the frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes with multiple MN in a concentration-dependent manner. Lymphocytes exposed to the high dose rate radiation showed a U-shape response: low concentration of vitamin C significantly reduced the number of MN, whereas high concentration influenced the radiation-induced total number of micronucleated cells insignificantly, although it increased the number of cells with multiple MN. Addition of vitamin C significantly reduced the fraction of apoptotic cells, irrespective of the X-ray dose rate. These results indicate that radiation dose rate is an important exposure factor, not only in terms of biological cell response to irradiation, but also with respect to the modulating effects of antioxidants. (authors)

  15. Organ doses for foetuses, babies, children and adults from environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petoussi, N.; Jacob, P.; Zankl, M.; Saito, K.

    1991-01-01

    Organ doses for babies, children and adults and doses to foetuses from environmental gamma rays were calculated using Monte Carlo codes. Firstly, gamma ray fields in the air-over-ground geometry were simulated, neglecting the disturbances of the radiation field by the human body. The exposure modes considered were semi-infinite homogeneous volume sources in the air, infinite plane sources at a depth of 0.5 g.cm -2 in the ground and homogeneous volume sources of natural radionuclides in the ground. The results of the simulation of the gamma ray transport in the air-over-ground geometry were used as sources irradiating the anthropomorphic phantoms: an 8 week old baby, a seven year old child and two 'reference' adult phantoms of a male and a female. The dose to foetuses were estimated from the dose to the uterus of the adult female. Dose conversion factors normalised to source intensity and air kerma were calculated for monoenergetic sources (15 keV to 10 MeV) and natural and artificial radionuclides. (author)

  16. Application of Dempster-Shafer theory in dose response outcome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhou; Cui, Yunfeng; He, Yanyan; Yu, Yan; Galvin, James; Hussaini, Yousuff M.; Xiao, Ying

    2012-09-01

    The Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) reviews summarize the currently available three-dimensional dose/volume/outcome data from multi-institutions and numerous articles to update and refine the normal tissue dose/volume tolerance guidelines. As pointed out in the review, the data have limitations and even some inconsistency. However, with the help of new physical and statistical techniques, the information in the review could be updated so that patient care can be continually improved. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the application of a mathematical theory, the Dempster-Shafer theory, in dose/volume/outcome data analysis. We applied this theory to the original data obtained from published clinical studies describing dose response for radiation pneumonitis. Belief and plausibility concepts were introduced for dose response evaluation. We were also able to consider the uncertainty and inconsistency of the data from these studies with Yager's combination rule, a special methodology of Dempster-Shafer theory, to fuse the data at several specific doses. The values of belief and plausibility functions were obtained at the corresponding doses. Then we applied the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model to fit these values and a belief-plausibility range was obtained. This range could be considered as a probability range to assist physicians and treatment planners in determining acceptable dose-volume constraints. Finally, the parameters obtained from the LKB model fitting were compared with those in Emami and Burman's papers and those from other frequentist statistics methods. We found that Emami and Burman's parameters are within the belief-plausibility range we calculated by the Dempster-Shafer theory.

  17. X-ray absorbed doses evaluation on patients under radiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Daros, Kellen A.C.

    1996-01-01

    The skin absorbed doses were evaluated on patient submitted to the following x-ray exams : chest, facial sinus, lumbar spine. Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used and a variety of irradiation techniques performed. The results shown considerable differences on the absorbed dose for the various alternative technical conditions

  18. Collective radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray examination in nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical x-ray exposures have the largest man made source of population exposure to ionizing radiation in different countries. Recent developments in medical imaging have led to rapid increases in a number of high dose xray examinations performed with significant consequences for individual patient doses ...

  19. Calculation of organ doses in X-ray examinations of premature babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smans, K.

    2009-01-01

    As ionizing radiation has enabled great progress in the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of medicine, its use is in most cases easily justifiable. General radiation protection principles require additionally that radiation doses of the patients should be as low as reasonably achievable within the medical purposes. In Europe this is stipulated in the directive 97/43/Euratom. This directive also requires that special attention should be given to the patient doses in pediatric examinations, of which premature babies constitute an important sub-group. All babies born before 37 weeks of gestation are defined as being prematurely born. Newborn and prematurely born babies are particularly sensitive to the detrimental effects of X-rays. Risk of cancer induction is believed to be 2 to 3 times higher than that of the average population and 6 to 9 times higher than the risk from an exposure at 60 years of age, for equal dose. A premature born child may be exposed to a large number of diagnostic X-ray examinations. Several of these infants may have underdeveloped lungs, which may lead directly to the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or to (lethal) lunghypoplasia/hypertension. Diagnosis and follow-up of the respiratory distress syndrome by means of chest radiography is justified. Risks associated with X-ray examinations are low compared to the other medical risks that these patients face, but even in this case the radiation dose should be kept as low as possible. Knowledge of the radiation dose is a first step in the optimization process. A recent study on 255 premature children in the University Hospital of Gasthuisberg found that they undergo 10 X-ray examinations, on the average. In this sample, the maximum was 78 X-ray examinations

  20. Generalized Response Surface Methodology : A New Metaheuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Generalized Response Surface Methodology (GRSM) is a novel general-purpose metaheuristic based on Box and Wilson.s Response Surface Methodology (RSM).Both GRSM and RSM estimate local gradients to search for the optimal solution.These gradients use local first-order polynomials.GRSM, however, uses

  1. Effective dose due to environmental γ-ray for the people of Akita prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junsuke; Watarai, Jiro; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2001-01-01

    Environmental γ-ray doses were measured in Akita prefecture by a NaI(Tl) scintillation surveymeter. The numbers of measurement site were 207 on pavement, 45 on unpaved ground, nine in concrete buildings and nine in wooden houses. The results of measurements, which were subtracted for background (cosmic ray and self-irradiation of the surveymeter), were 31 nSv/h (effective dose rate) on pavement, 27 nSv/h on unpaved ground, 65 nSv/h in the concrete buildings and 34 nSv/h in the wooden houses. The effective dose rate due to environmental γ-ray for the people of Akita prefecture was estimated taking into account of seasonal change of the dose rate at one site and occupancy factor in the prefecture. The outdoor and indoor dose rates were estimated to be 0.03 mSv/y and 0.33 mSv/y, respectively. (author)

  2. Effect of Photon Hormesis on Dose Responses to Alpha Particles in Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candy Yuen Ping Ng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Photon hormesis refers to the phenomenon where the biological effect of ionizing radiation with a high linear energy transfer (LET value is diminished by photons with a low LET value. The present paper studied the effect of photon hormesis from X-rays on dose responses to alpha particles using embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio as the in vivo vertebrate model. The toxicity of these ionizing radiations in the zebrafish embryos was assessed using the apoptotic counts at 20, 24, or 30 h post fertilization (hpf revealed through acridine orange (AO staining. For alpha-particle doses ≥ 4.4 mGy, the additional X-ray dose of 10 mGy significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells at 24 hpf, which proved the presence of photon hormesis. Smaller alpha-particle doses might not have inflicted sufficient aggregate damages to trigger photon hormesis. The time gap T between the X-ray (10 mGy and alpha-particle (4.4 mGy exposures was also studied. Photon hormesis was present when T ≤ 30 min, but was absent when T = 60 min, at which time repair of damage induced by alpha particles would have completed to prevent their interactions with those induced by X-rays. Finally, the drop in the apoptotic counts at 24 hpf due to photon hormesis was explained by bringing the apoptotic events earlier to 20 hpf, which strongly supported the removal of aberrant cells through apoptosis as an underlying mechanism for photon hormesis.

  3. Response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for X-rays of low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    In diverse practical applications as the existent in radiological clinics, industrial facilities and research laboratories, the solid state dosimeters are used for the measure of the different types of ionizing radiations. At the present time dosimeters are manufactured with different types of materials that present thermoluminescent properties, to the effects of determining the absorbed radiation dose. Under these conditions, the radiation dose is determined integrated in all the range of energies of the beam of X-rays, since it assumes that the response of these dosimeters is lineal with the energy of the photons or radiant particles. Because interest exists in advancing in the development of a determination method in the way of the X-rays spectrum emitted by a tube of those used in diagnostic or therapy, we have measured the response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for low energies, minor at 60 keV, for a several group of these dosimeters. (Author)

  4. Dose-response relationship of octylphenol and radiation evaluated by tradescantia-micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Cheon, K. J.; Lee, B. H.; Shin, H. S.; Lee, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Many kinds of synthetic chemicals have been being used for various purposes. Some of them are called 'Endocrine Disruptor's because they can disturb the endocrine system of organisms. Presently no technique is established for the quantitative assessment of biological risk of the environmental hormones. The pollen mother cells (PMC) of Tradescantia are very sensitive to chemical toxicants or ionizing radiation, and thus can be used as a biological end-point assessing their effect. Micronucleus frequencies in PMC showed a good dose- and concentration-response relationship for radiation, bisphenol A and octylphenol. A parallel series of experiment using five increasing doses of gamma-ray at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cGy was conducted. The MCN frequencies of 12.0, 25.2, 41.7, 76 and 83 MCN/100 tetrads were observed from each of the increasing gamma-ray dosage groups, respectively. Lenear regression analysis of the gamma-ray data MCN frequencies yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.95. the MCN frequencies in pollen mother cells treated with bisphenol a and octylphenol showed dose-response relationship in a concentration of 0, 1, 2, 4 μM and 0, 4, 10, 20 μM. the MCN frequency for the bisphenol a and octylphenol group yields 2.33, 8.06, 12.7 and 19.6 MCN/100 tetrads for the bisphenol a and 2.33, 2.33, 11.47, 17.6 MCN/100 tetrads for the octylphenol. The MCN frequency of the control was 2.33 MCN/100 tetrads. It is known from the result that Trad-MCN assay can be an excellent tool for detection of biological risk due to environmental toxicants or synthetic chemicals

  5. Repair and dose-response at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totter, J.R.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-04-01

    The DNA of each individual is subject to formation of some 2-4 x 10 14 ion pairs during the first 30 years of life from background radiation. If a single hit is sufficient to cause cancer, as is implicit in the linear, no-threshold theories, it is unclear why all individuals do not succumb to cancer, unless repair mechanisms operate to remove the damage. We describe a simple model in which the exposed population displays a distribution of repair thresholds. The dose-response at low dose is shown to depend on the shape of the threshold distribution at low thresholds. If the probability of zero threshold is zero, the response at low dose is quadratic. The model is used to resolve a longstanding discrepancy between observed incidence of leukemia at Nagasaki and the predictions of the usual linear hypothesis

  6. Exposure doses of the patient and the medical staff during urological X-ray examens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Loehr, H.; Haug, P.; Schuett, B.

    1977-01-01

    During 32 intravenous urografies and 48 angiografies of the kidney and the suprarenal glands the X-ray doses at the patient's skin and gonades were determined. During the angiografies the doses were mesured at the hands. the gonades and the front (eyes) of the medical staff. The results are discussed. Because the X-ray doses are relatively high, the number of the pictures and the exposure time is to be reduced to the minimum. Clinical experience and special knowledge is the best X-ray protection. (orig.) [de

  7. Dose-response-a challenge for allelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Hurle, Karl; Duke, Stephen O

    2005-04-01

    The response of an organism to a chemical depends, among other things, on the dose. Nonlinear dose-response relationships occur across a broad range of research fields, and are a well established tool to describe the basic mechanisms of phytotoxicity. The responses of plants to allelochemicals as biosynthesized phytotoxins, relate as well to nonlinearity and, thus, allelopathic effects can be adequately quantified by nonlinear mathematical modeling. The current paper applies the concept of nonlinearity to assorted aspects of allelopathy within several bioassays and reveals their analysis by nonlinear regression models. Procedures for a valid comparison of effective doses between different allelopathic interactions are presented for both, inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The dose-response applications measure and compare the responses produced by pure allelochemicals [scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one); DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxaxin-3(4H)-one); BOA (benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one); MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one)], involved in allelopathy of grain crops, to demonstrate how some general principles of dose responses also relate to allelopathy. Hereupon, dose-response applications with living donor plants demonstrate the validity of these principles for density-dependent phytotoxicity of allelochemicals produced and released by living plants (Avena sativa L., Secale cereale L., Triticum L. spp.), and reveal the use of such experiments for initial considerations about basic principles of allelopathy. Results confirm that nonlinearity applies to allelopathy, and the study of allelopathic effects in dose-response experiments allows for new and challenging insights into allelopathic interactions.

  8. Evaluation of patient dose in imaging using a cone-beam CT dosimetry by X-ray films for radiotherapeutic dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yuri; Morita, Yasuhiko; Honda, Eiichi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    A limited cone-beam X-ray CT (3DX multi-image micro CT; 3DX-FPD) is widely used in dentistry because it provides a lower cost, smaller size, and higher spatial resolution than a CT for medicine. Our recent research suggested that the patient dose of 3DX-FPD was less than 7/10 of that of CT, and it was several to 10 times more than that of dental or panoramic radiography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution from 3DX-FPD and to estimate the influence of dose by positioning of the region of interest. Dosimetry of the organs and the tissues was performed using an anthropomorphic Alderson Rando phantom and X-ray films for measurement of radiotherapeutic dose. Measurements of dose distribution were performed using a cylinder-type tank of water made of acrylic resin imitating the head and X-ray films. The results are summarized as follows: The dose was higher as the ratio of the air region included in the region of interest increased. The dose distribution was not homogeneous and the dose was highest in the skin region. The dose was higher for several seconds after the beginning of exposure. It was concluded that patient positioning, as well as exposure conditions including the size of the exposure field and tube current, could greatly influence the patient dose in 3DX-FPD. In addition, it is necessary to consider the influence of image quality for the treatment of dental implants. (author)

  9. The study on clinical conditions and skin dose of upper-gastrointestinal x-ray fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Ahn, Sung Min; Jang, Sang Sup

    2007-01-01

    This study examined present conditions of upper-gastrointestinal X-ray fluoroscopy and patient skin dose. The authors elected 21 equipment to check the X-ray equipment and exposure factor of fluoroscopy and spot exposure in university hospitals, hospitals, and clinics where perform upper-gastrointestinal X-ray fluoroscopy more than five times every day in Incheon areas. The amount of patient's skin dose during upper-gastrointestinal X-ray fluoroscopy was measured by ionization chamber

  10. Measurement of the porosity of amorphous materials by gamma ray transmission methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottker, Walmir Eno; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2000-01-01

    In this work it is presented the measurement of the total porosity of TRe soil, Sandstone Berea rocks and porous ceramics samples. For the determination of the total porosity, the Arquimedes method (conventional) and the gamma ray transmission methodology were employed. The porosity measurement using the gamma methodology has a significant advantage respect to the conventional method due to the fast and non-destructive determination, and also for supplying results with a greater characterization in small scales, in relation to the heterogeneity of the porosity. The conventional methodology presents good results only for homogeneous samples. The experimental set up for the gamma ray transmission technique consisted of a 241 Am source (59,53 keV ), a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, collimators, a XYZ micrometric table and standard gamma spectrometry electronics connected to a multichannel analyser. (author)

  11. Determination of entrance skin dose from diagnostic X-ray of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patient during x-ray examination in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi in Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Entrance skin doses (ESDs) for a common type of x-ray procedures, namely chest AP/PA (anterior/posterior) were measured. A total of 200 data were collected from patients who were exposed to diagnostic X-ray during their routine ...

  12. Computer-assisted detection (CAD) methodology for early detection of response to pharmaceutical therapy in tuberculosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Robert; Kwong, Heston; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.

    2009-02-01

    The chest x-ray radiological features of tuberculosis patients are well documented, and the radiological features that change in response to successful pharmaceutical therapy can be followed with longitudinal studies over time. The patients can also be classified as either responsive or resistant to pharmaceutical therapy based on clinical improvement. We have retrospectively collected time series chest x-ray images of 200 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis receiving the standard pharmaceutical treatment. Computer algorithms can be created to utilize image texture features to assess the temporal changes in the chest x-rays of the tuberculosis patients. This methodology provides a framework for a computer-assisted detection (CAD) system that may provide physicians with the ability to detect poor treatment response earlier in pharmaceutical therapy. Early detection allows physicians to respond with more timely treatment alternatives and improved outcomes. Such a system has the potential to increase treatment efficacy for millions of patients each year.

  13. Correlation between dose and tumor response in the radiotherapy of lung cancer of various histological types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Kenji; Kusuhara, Toshiyuki; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Asada, Keiko; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1984-01-01

    Correlation between dose and tumor response by cell types was determined in 50 patients with lung cancer in order to predict the possibility of further tumor regression. The TDF (time-dose-fractionation) concept was used as dose factor. The radiation source was a cobalt-60 γ-ray or linear accelerator 10 MV X-ray. As a routine regime a fraction dose of 2 Gy five times per week was given to 39 of the 50 patients, but a dose of 2 Gy three times per week or of 1.5 Gy five times per week was given to seven and four patients, respectively. Radiation response was the best in small cell carcinoma and better in adenocarcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma, showing a tumor regression rate of 50% or more in 90%, 80% and 58% of the patients, respectively. The correlation between tumor regression rate and TDF values was good in squamous cell carcinoma (r = 0.73) and small cell carcinoma (r = - 0.72), but poor in adenocarcinoma (r = - 0.10). These results suggest that in squamous cell carcinoma improvement of tumor regression can be expected by increasing TDF values, and in adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma the optimal TDF values are about 100 and 60 to 80, respectively. (author)

  14. Evaluation of dose to tooth enamel from medical diagnostic X-ray examinations at Mayak PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, A., E-mail: wieser@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Vasilenko, E. [Mayak Production Association, 456780 Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Zankl, M.; Greiter, M.; Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sabayev, A.; Knyazev, V.; Zahrov, P. [Mayak Production Association, 456780 Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The nuclear workers of the Mayak Production Association had regular check-ups including medical diagnostic X-ray examinations since start of the production lines in 1948. Doses from diagnostic examinations need to be considered in reconstruction of occupational doses of the workers with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of tooth enamel. The numbers and types of examinations of an individual worker can be assessed from the Mayak PA archives but no information was available on doses delivered to teeth by a single specific examination. Of the twenty one applied examination procedures only three affected the teeth, these being X-ray examinations of teeth, skull and cervical spine. For these three kinds of examinations operational procedures and operating modes of X-ray units were compiled from the archive and photon spectra were obtained from a catalog of spectral data for diagnostic X-rays. Entrance doses in air kerma were calculated using the fluence of photon spectra and absorbed dose in tooth enamel for various tooth positions and exposure geometry was then calculated using dose conversion coefficients obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Doses were calculated for examinations in 1948-2000. Except for examination of the skull, absorbed doses in enamel of incisors were found to be about twice as large as in enamel of molars. In the period before 1970 the largest mean absorbed doses in tooth enamel were due to X-ray examination of teeth, with 64 mGy and 34 mGy calculated for incisors and molars, respectively. In the same period the lowest mean doses were due to X-ray examination of the skull, with 11 mGy and 12 mGy calculated for incisors and molars, respectively. In the period from 1970 to 2000, largest mean doses in enamel were due to X-ray examination of cervical spine, with 23 mGy and 12 mGy calculated for incisors and molars, respectively.

  15. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examining the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-radiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. It was concluded that oligodendrocytes in irradiated cultures had significantly lower functional capacity than did unirradiated controls. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. At DIC 14, the group irradiated in a single fraction had significantly lower oligodendrocyte counts than any group given split doses; all irradiated cultures had marked depression of MBP synthesis, but to significant differences referable to time interval between doses. At DIC 21, cultures irradiated at intervals of 0 h to 2 h had similar oligodendrocyte counts to one another, but these counts were significantly lower than in cultures irradiated at intervals of 4 h to 6 h; MBP levels remained depressed at DIC 21 for all irradiated cultures. The oligodendrocyte response to dose rate (0.03 to 1.97 Gy/min) was evaluated at DIC 14 and DIC 21. Exposure at 0.03 Gy/min suppressed oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 21 less than did higher dose rates in 5-Gy irradiated cultures

  16. Dose response relationship for unstable-type chromosome aberration rate of spleen cells from mice continuously exposed to low-dose-rate gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Khoda, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Oghiso, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that people who are chronically exposed to radiation such as nuclear facility workers and medical radiologists have slightly higher incidences of chromosome aberrations than non-exposed people. However, chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates related to accumulated doses and dose-rates for low dose-rate radiation exposures have not been well studied. Precise analyses of human populations are quite limited because confounding factors influence the results. For this reason, animal experiments are important for analyses. Mice were continuously exposed to gamma-rays at 400 mGy/22 hr/day for 10 days, 20 mGy/22 hr/day for about 400 days, and 1 mGy/22 hr/day for about 615 days under SPF conditions. Chronological changes of unstable-type chromosome aberration rates of spleen cells were observed along with accumulated doses at the middle dose rate and the two low-dose rates by conventional Giemsa-staining method. Aberrations such as dicentric chromosome, ring chromosome and fragment increased in a two-phase manner within 0-1.2 Gy and 2-8 Gy at 20 mGy/22 hr/day. They slightly increased up to 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day. Aberration rates for 1, 2, 8 Gy at the 20 mGy/22 hr/day and for 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day were 5.1, 9.6, 13.9 and 2.2 times higher than those of age-matched, non-irradiated control mice, respectively. Chromosome aberration rates at 400 mGy/22 hr/day were 2.7 times higher than that of 20 mGy/22 hr/day for the same total dose of 1.2 Gy. The results that unstable-type chromosome aberrations increased with accumulated dose of the low-dose rate radiation will be important to establish biological dosimetry for people who are chronically exposed to radiation. (author)

  17. New model for assessing dose and dose rate sensitivity of Gamma ray radiation loss in polarization maintaining optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongchen; Liu Hai; Qiao Wenqiang; Xue Huijie; He Shiyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Building a new phenomenological theory model to investigate the relation about the irradiation induced loss with irradiation dose and dose rate. ► The Gamma ray irradiation induced loss of the “Capsule” type and “Panda” type polarization maintaining optical fibers at 1310 nm wavelength are investigated. ► The anti irradiation performance of the “Panda” type polarization maintaining optical fiber is better than that of the “Capsule” type polarization maintaining optical fiber, the reason is that the stress region doped by GeO 2 . - Abstract: The Gamma ray irradiation induced loss of the “Capsule” type and “Panda” type polarization maintaining optical fibers at 1310 nm wavelength are investigated. A phenomenological theory model is introduced and the influence of irradiation dose and dose rate on the irradiation induced loss is discussed. The phenomenological theoretical results are consistent with the experimental results of the irradiation induced loss for the two types of polarization maintaining optical fibers. The anti irradiation performance of the “Panda” type polarization maintaining optical fiber is better than that of the “Capsule” type polarization maintaining optical fiber, the reason is that the stress region dope with GeO 2 . Meanwhile, both of the polarization maintaining optical fiber irradiation induced loss increase with increasing the irradiation dose. In the case of same dose, the high dose rate Gamma ray irradiation induced optical fiber losses are higher than that of the low dose rate.

  18. Division delay after low x-ray doses and treatment with cyclohexionide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderman, M.H.; Braby, L.A.; Roesch, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation-induced division delay of Chinese hamster ovary cells located in G 2 , and in G 2 between the cycloheximide and x-ray transition points, was measured by the mitotic cell selection technique. The mitotic yield (number of mitotic cells after treatment expressed as a fraction of the control) decreased with increasing radiation dose (4.5 to 34 rad). However, either because some cells were not delayed or because delayed cells recovered rapidly, the mitotic yield did not fall to zero. When cycloheximide was combined with radiation to prevent repair of the radiation damage, only cells which were past the cycloheximide transition point and not delayed by the radiation were selected. The location of the transition points determined from the combined drug plus low-dose radiation (4.5 to 34 rad) experiments indicate a dose-dependent relationship, with more cells delayed as the dose was increased. In addition, the transition point for cells treated with cycloheximide plus 150 rad of x rays was closer to division than the 150 rad of x rays alone. These results are discussed in light of a recent model for radiation-induced division delay proposed by Dewey and Highfield

  19. Application of Dempster–Shafer theory in dose response outcome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenzhou; Cui Yunfeng; Yu Yan; Galvin, James; Xiao Ying; He Yanyan; Hussaini, Yousuff M

    2012-01-01

    The Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) reviews summarize the currently available three-dimensional dose/volume/outcome data from multi-institutions and numerous articles to update and refine the normal tissue dose/volume tolerance guidelines. As pointed out in the review, the data have limitations and even some inconsistency. However, with the help of new physical and statistical techniques, the information in the review could be updated so that patient care can be continually improved. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the application of a mathematical theory, the Dempster–Shafer theory, in dose/volume/outcome data analysis. We applied this theory to the original data obtained from published clinical studies describing dose response for radiation pneumonitis. Belief and plausibility concepts were introduced for dose response evaluation. We were also able to consider the uncertainty and inconsistency of the data from these studies with Yager's combination rule, a special methodology of Dempster–Shafer theory, to fuse the data at several specific doses. The values of belief and plausibility functions were obtained at the corresponding doses. Then we applied the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) model to fit these values and a belief–plausibility range was obtained. This range could be considered as a probability range to assist physicians and treatment planners in determining acceptable dose–volume constraints. Finally, the parameters obtained from the LKB model fitting were compared with those in Emami and Burman's papers and those from other frequentist statistics methods. We found that Emami and Burman's parameters are within the belief–plausibility range we calculated by the Dempster–Shafer theory. (paper)

  20. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing Oil Extraction Yield From ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... from tropical almond seed by the use of response surface methodology (RSM).

  1. PWR Facility Dose Modeling Using MCNP5 and the CADIS/ADVANTG Variance-Reduction Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeman, Edward D [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL; Murphy, Brian D [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The feasibility of modeling a pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) facility and calculating dose rates at all locations within the containment and adjoining structures using MCNP5 with mesh tallies is presented. Calculations of dose rates resulting from neutron and photon sources from the reactor (operating and shut down for various periods) and the spent fuel pool, as well as for the photon source from the primary coolant loop, were all of interest. Identification of the PWR facility, development of the MCNP-based model and automation of the run process, calculation of the various sources, and development of methods for visually examining mesh tally files and extracting dose rates were all a significant part of the project. Advanced variance reduction, which was required because of the size of the model and the large amount of shielding, was performed via the CADIS/ADVANTG approach. This methodology uses an automatically generated three-dimensional discrete ordinates model to calculate adjoint fluxes from which MCNP weight windows and source bias parameters are generated. Investigative calculations were performed using a simple block model and a simplified full-scale model of the PWR containment, in which the adjoint source was placed in various regions. In general, it was shown that placement of the adjoint source on the periphery of the model provided adequate results for regions reasonably close to the source (e.g., within the containment structure for the reactor source). A modification to the CADIS/ADVANTG methodology was also studied in which a global adjoint source is weighted by the reciprocal of the dose response calculated by an earlier forward discrete ordinates calculation. This method showed improved results over those using the standard CADIS/ADVANTG approach, and its further investigation is recommended for future efforts.

  2. PWR Facility Dose Modeling Using MCNP5 and the CADIS/ADVANTG Variance-Reduction Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeman, Edward D.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Wagner, John C.; Murphy, Brian D.; Mueller, Don

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of modeling a pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) facility and calculating dose rates at all locations within the containment and adjoining structures using MCNP5 with mesh tallies is presented. Calculations of dose rates resulting from neutron and photon sources from the reactor (operating and shut down for various periods) and the spent fuel pool, as well as for the photon source from the primary coolant loop, were all of interest. Identification of the PWR facility, development of the MCNP-based model and automation of the run process, calculation of the various sources, and development of methods for visually examining mesh tally files and extracting dose rates were all a significant part of the project. Advanced variance reduction, which was required because of the size of the model and the large amount of shielding, was performed via the CADIS/ADVANTG approach. This methodology uses an automatically generated three-dimensional discrete ordinates model to calculate adjoint fluxes from which MCNP weight windows and source bias parameters are generated. Investigative calculations were performed using a simple block model and a simplified full-scale model of the PWR containment, in which the adjoint source was placed in various regions. In general, it was shown that placement of the adjoint source on the periphery of the model provided adequate results for regions reasonably close to the source (e.g., within the containment structure for the reactor source). A modification to the CADIS/ADVANTG methodology was also studied in which a global adjoint source is weighted by the reciprocal of the dose response calculated by an earlier forward discrete ordinates calculation. This method showed improved results over those using the standard CADIS/ADVANTG approach, and its further investigation is recommended for future efforts

  3. Gamma-ray spectra and doses from the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Lucas, M.C.; Tisinger, E.W.; Hamm, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Most radiation safety guidelines in the nuclear industry are based on the data concerning the survivors of the nuclear explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Crucial to determining these guidelines is the radiation from the explosions. We have measured gamma-ray pulse-height distributions from an accurate replica of the Little Boy device used at Hiroshima, operated at low power levels near critical. The device was placed outdoors on a stand 4 m from the ground to minimize environmental effects. The power levels were based on a monitor detector calibrated very carefully in independent experiments. High-resolution pulse-height distributions were acquired with a germanium detector to identify the lines and to obtain line intensities. The 7631 to 7645 keV doublet from neutron capture in the heavy steel case was dominant. Low-resolution pulse-height distributions were acquired with bismuth-germanate detectors. We calculated flux spectra from these distributions using accurately measured detector response functions and efficiency curves. We then calculated dose-rate spectra from the flux spectra using a flux-to-dose-rate conversion procedure. The integral of each dose-rate spectrum gave an integral dose rate. The integral doses at 2 m ranged from 0.46 to 1.03 mrem per 10 13 fissions. The output of the Little Boy replica can be calculated with Monte Carlo codes. Comparison of our experimental spectra, line intensities, and integral doses can be used to verify these calculations at low power levels and give increased confidence to the calculated values from the explosion at Hiroshima. These calculations then can be used to establish better radiation safety guidelines. 7 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  4. Avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats irradiated with a sublethal dose of gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášová, Lenka; Smajda, B; Bona, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether a sublethal dose of gamma-rays will influence the avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats and whether the response to radiation depends on time of day of its application. Adult male Wistar rats were tested in elevated plus-maze, in hot plate test and in the light/dark box in 4 regular intervals during a day. After two weeks the animals were irradiated with a whole-body dose 6 Gy of gamma-rays. One day after irradiation the animals were repeatedly tested in the same way, as before irradiation. In the plus-maze test an increased level of anxiety was established. The irradiation significantly decreased the locomotor activity of rats, but the extent of exploratory and comfortable behaviour were not altered. After irradiation, an elevated aversion to the thermal stimulus was observed in the hot plate test. The effects of radiation were more pronounced in the light period of the day, than in the dark one. No significant differences in aversion to light were detected after irradiation. The obtained results indicate, that sublethal doses of ionizing radiation can markedly influence the reactivity of animals to adverse stimuli, their motoric activity and emotional status, as well.

  5. On-Line High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test of the CCD/CMOS Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, test results of gamma ray irradiation to CCD/CMOS cameras are described. From the CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system) data of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant station, we found out that the gamma ray dose-rate when the hydrogen explosion occurred in nuclear reactors 1{approx}3 is about 160 Gy/h. If assumed that the emergency response robot for the management of severe accident of the nuclear power plant has been sent into the reactor area to grasp the inside situation of reactor building and to take precautionary measures against releasing radioactive materials, the CCD/CMOS cameras, which are loaded with the robot, serve as eye of the emergency response robot. In the case of the Japanese Quince robot system, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras are used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. In the preceding assumptions, a major problem which arises when dealing with CCD/CMOS cameras in the severe accident situations of the nuclear power plant is the presence of high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. In the case of the DBA (design basis accident) situations of the nuclear power plant, in order to use a CCD/CMOS camera as an ad-hoc monitoring unit in the vicinity of high radioactivity structures and components of the nuclear reactor area, a robust survivability of this camera in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. The CCD/CMOS cameras of various types were gamma irradiated at a

  6. Development of new methodology for dose calculation in photographic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltro, T.F.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new methodology for equivalent dose calculations has been developed at IPEN-CNEN/SP to be applied at the Photographic Dosimetry Laboratory using artificial intelligence techniques by means of neutral network. The research was orientated towards the optimization of the whole set of parameters involves in the film processing going from the irradiation in order to obtain the calibration curve up to the optical density readings. The learning of the neutral network was performed by taking the readings of optical density from calibration curve as input and the effective energy and equivalent dose as output. The obtained results in the intercomparison show an excellent agreement with the actual values of dose and energy given by the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation. (author)

  7. Development of new methodology for dose calculation in photographic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltro, T.F.L.; Campos, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new methodology for equivalent dose calculation has been developed at IPEN-CNEN/SP to be applied at the Photographic Dosimetry Laboratory using artificial intelligence techniques by means of neural network. The research was oriented towards the optimization of the whole set of parameters involved in the film processing going from the irradiation in order to obtain the calibration curve up to the optical density readings. The learning of the neural network was performed by taking readings of optical density from calibration curve as input and the effective energy and equivalent dose as output. The obtained results in the intercomparison show an excellent agreement with the actual values of dose and energy given by the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation

  8. Dose-response relationships for carcinogens: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeise, L.; Wilson, R.; Crouch, E.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors review the experimental evidence for various shapes of dose-response relationships for carcinogens and summarize those experiments that give the most information on relatively low doses. A brief review of some models is given to illustrate the shapes of dose-response curve expected from them. Their major interest is in the use of dose-response relationships to estimate risks to humans at low doses, and so they pay special attention to experimentally observed and theoretically expected nonlinearities. There are few experimental examples of nonlinear dose-response relations in humans, but this may simply be due to the limitations in the data. The several examples in rodents, even though for high dose data, suggest that nonlinearity is common. In some cases such nonlinearities may be rationalized on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of the test compound or its metabolites

  9. Evaluation of skyshine dose due to gamma-rays from a cobalt-60 irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Okamoto, Shinichi; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Tsujii, Yukio

    1991-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate skyshine dose due to gamma-rays from a cobalt-60 irradiation facility. As the first step, the results of measurements and calculations were compared of the skyshine dose due to gamma-rays from the cobalt-60 source of 1.45 PBq set in the No.4 irradiation room of our laboratory. Distances of measuring points from the cobalt source were in the range from 17 m to about 100 m in the site of our office. Calculation was carried out with simplified single scattering method. The calculated values of the skyshine dose were higher than the measured values. For more precise evaluation of the skyshine dose, the following factors are to be considered; the dose rate distribution on the roof above the source and the attenuation of gamma-rays by air. (author)

  10. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  11. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co gamma rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were 5, 19, 17 or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at 600, 1400, 2000 or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for gamma-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relativeimportance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 344 R (258 rads) delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 4000 R (approximately 3000 rads) at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon haematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no definitive LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued haematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in the organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow serveral important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as irradiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukaemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates appear more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of haematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of haematologic depression, the nadir of the depression and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the first two are directly related to exposure rate. ( author)

  12. Neutron and gamma-ray dose-rates from the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report dose-rate information obtained at many locations in the near vicinity of, and at distances out to 0.64 km from, the Little Boy replica while it was operated as a critical assembly. The measurements were made with modified conventional dosimetry instruments that used an Anderson-Braun detector for neutrons and a Geiger-Mueller tube for gamma rays with suitable electronic modules to count particle-induced pulses. Thermoluminescent dosimetry methods provide corroborative data. Our analysis gives estimates of both neutron and gamma-ray relaxation lengths in air for comparison with earlier calculations. We also show the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio as a function of distance from the replica. Current experiments and further data analysis will refine these results. 7 references, 8 figures

  13. Quantitative assessment of changes in the dermal fibroblast population of pig skin after single doses of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, R.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1988-10-01

    Changes in the density of fibroblast nuclei in reticular dermis of pigs was studied from 6 to 104 weeks after a single dose of 15.4 Gy of X-rays. The largest decrease in fibroblasts occurred between 12 and 26 weeks after irradiation; after this there was only a slight fall in fibroblast number until 104 weeks when observations ceased. At 26 weeks and later times after irradiation reduction in the density of fibroblast nuclei in the reticular dermis was dose-dependent for single doses in the range 8.0-20.7 Gy. The dose-response curve had an initial shoulder, after which the fall in the fibroblast nuclear density was linearly related to dose. Data obtained between 26 weeks and 104 weeks after irradiation, could be fitted by the same dose-response curve. The fall in the counts of fibroblast nuclei was compared with earlier studies. The loss of fibroblasts occurred after an initial reduction in blood flow in the pig skin but was concomitant with general reduction in dermal thickness.

  14. Dose-response relationship in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehan, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship of dose (and dose rate) to response and toxicity in clinical oncology is reviewed. The concepts expressed by some authors in dose-response studies in animal and human systems are reviewed briefly. Dose rate and tactics of conducting clinical studies are reviewed for both radiotherapy and various types of chemotherapeutic treatment. Examples are given from clinical studies in Hodgkin's disease, acute leukemia, and breast cancer that may prove useful in planning future clinical studies

  15. Effect of large dose gamma-ray irradiation on polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yohsuke; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Yagyu, Hideki.

    1988-01-01

    In the radiation environment of atomic energy, space and so on, with the heightening of the performance of equipment, the organic materials having the radiation resistance up to several hundreds MGy have been demanded. Polyimide is one of a small number of the polymers which are considered to be applicable to such environment. However, actually the characteristics as the insulator for such large dose radiation environment have not been sufficiently verified. In this study, the gamma-ray of as large dose as 100 MGy was irradiated on the polyimides having different chemical structure in the air and in nitrogen, and the change of their mechanical and electrical characteristics was elucidated, at the same time, the structural change was examined. The four kinds of polyimides used for the experiment were three kinds of thermosetting type and thermoplastic polyether imide. Co-60 gamma-ray was irradiated at the dose rate of 17 kGy/h at room temperature. The tensile properties, volume resistivity, dielectric tangent, gel fraction, glass transition temperature and IR spectra were examined. In the air, the characteristics lowered by large dose irradiation due to the severance of main chains. In nitrogen, the deterioration was extremely slight, and cross-linking occurred. (K.I.)

  16. Gamma ray doses proceeding from natural occurring radionuclides in closed environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Vitor Angelo P. de; Medina, Nilberto H.; Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli da; Moreira, Ramon H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report on the application of gamma-ray spectrometry in the study of the effective dose coming from terrestrial natural elements present in building materials such as sand, cement, lime (CaO) and milled granitic stones. The major contribution to annual gamma-ray radiation effective dose is due to the natural occurring radionuclides 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U. Two spectrometry systems were employed to measure the gamma radiation: one with a 60% efficient GeHP detector and the second one with a 2''x2'' NaI(Tl) scintillator. The estimated effective dose coming from the three reference rooms assumed is 0.63 mSv/yr, proceeding from terrestrial natural elements. The principal gamma radiation sources are cement, sand and bricks. (author)

  17. Estimating the Absorbed Dose to Critical Organs During Dual X-ray Absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari-Dizaji, M.; Sharafi, A. A.; Larijani, B.; Mokhlesian, N.; Hasanzadeh, H. [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Objective : The purpose of this study is to estimate a patient's organ dose (effective dose) during performance of dual X-ray absorptiometry by using the correlations derived from the surface dose and the depth doses in an anthropomorphic phantom. Materials and Methods : An anthropomorphic phantom was designed and TLDs (Thermoluminescent Dosimeters) were placed at the surface and these were also inserted at different depths of the thyroid and uterus of the anthropomorphic phantom. The absorbed doses were measured on the phantom for the spine and femur scan modes. The correlation coefficients and regression functions between the absorbed surface dose and the depth dose were determined. The derived correlation was then applied for 40 women patients to estimate the depth doses to the thyroid and uterus. Result : There was a correlation between the surface dose and depth dose of the thyroid and uterus in both scan modes. For the women's dosimetry, the average surface doses of the thyroid and uterus were 1.88 {mu}Gy and 1.81 Gy, respectively. Also, the scan center dose in the women was 5.70 Gy. There was correlation between the thyroid and uterus surface doses, and the scan center dose. Conclusion : We concluded that the effective dose to the patient's critical organs during dual X-ray absorptiometry can be estimated by the correlation derived from phantom dosimetry.

  18. Estimating the Absorbed Dose to Critical Organs During Dual X-ray Absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari-Dizaji, M.; Sharafi, A. A.; Larijani, B.; Mokhlesian, N.; Hasanzadeh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective : The purpose of this study is to estimate a patient's organ dose (effective dose) during performance of dual X-ray absorptiometry by using the correlations derived from the surface dose and the depth doses in an anthropomorphic phantom. Materials and Methods : An anthropomorphic phantom was designed and TLDs (Thermoluminescent Dosimeters) were placed at the surface and these were also inserted at different depths of the thyroid and uterus of the anthropomorphic phantom. The absorbed doses were measured on the phantom for the spine and femur scan modes. The correlation coefficients and regression functions between the absorbed surface dose and the depth dose were determined. The derived correlation was then applied for 40 women patients to estimate the depth doses to the thyroid and uterus. Result : There was a correlation between the surface dose and depth dose of the thyroid and uterus in both scan modes. For the women's dosimetry, the average surface doses of the thyroid and uterus were 1.88 μGy and 1.81 Gy, respectively. Also, the scan center dose in the women was 5.70 Gy. There was correlation between the thyroid and uterus surface doses, and the scan center dose. Conclusion : We concluded that the effective dose to the patient's critical organs during dual X-ray absorptiometry can be estimated by the correlation derived from phantom dosimetry

  19. Radiation doses to patients from x-ray examinations - development from 2005 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, Wolfram; Almen, Anja

    2010-04-01

    Data has been compiled and analyzed and compared with the earlier reports. Radiation doses were tested for possible links with various parameters (eg type of x-ray equipment, image recording systems, different technique factors). In conventional x-ray examinations radiation doses were, for equipment with direct digital image receivers, in average 30% lower than for those with photo plates. Mammography doses were, with one exception, the same for all types of equipment and video receivers. The CT-examinations had a small trend for higher doses for new equipment as compared to earlier. Use of exposure automation did not affect radiation doses. Compared with 2006, the doses of conventional surveys decreased by an average of 21%. One third of this dose reduction can be attributed the introduction of direct digital system whose use grew by about 30%. Most of the dose reduction can be attributed to the actions carried out to lower the dose of the reference level. Doses for the CT scan showed only a weak downwards trend. Mammography Doses decreased by an average of just over 10% a large part dependent on increased number of Sectra equipment. The system of diagnostic reference levels have again shown to have positive influence on the radiation level at the x-ray examinations, this is most pronounced for conventional radiography. There is still a large potential for dose reduction, and a measure to achieve this is to reduce the current reference levels. Very few diagnostic Standard doses are higher than the reference level. A reduction of the reference levels corresponding to the third quartile of dose distribution could lead further dose decrease of 10-20%. The corresponding reduction in dose should be done also for the DT and mammograms when lowering the reference level, there are few standard doses higher than the current reference levels

  20. Real-time x-ray response of biocompatible solution gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, Markus; Funk, Maren; Paretzke, Herwig G.; Thalhammer, Stefan; Howgate, John; Sharp, Ian D.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We present the real-time x-ray irradiation response of charge and pH sensitive solution gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. The devices show stable and reproducible behavior under and following x-ray radiation, including a linear integrated response with dose into the μGy range. Titration measurements of devices in solution reveal that the linear pH response and sensitivity are not only retained under x-ray irradiation, but an irradiation response could also be measured. Since the devices are biocompatible, and can be simultaneously operated in aggressive fluids and under hard radiation, they are well-suited for both medical radiation dosimetry and biosensing applications.

  1. Patient doses from x-ray examinations in Sweden - follow-up of remedial actions; Patientdoser fraan roentgenundersoekningar i Sverige - uppfoeljning av aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Helene; Leitz, W

    2002-03-01

    In early 1999 the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) requested data about patient doses etc. for a number of specified x-ray examinations. The aim was on one hand to get a basis for planned regulations on diagnostic reference levels (DRL) and on the other hand to obtain an overview of how the situation is in the country with respect to patient doses. The licensees who reported dose values exceeding (provisional) DRL were asked to perform investigations about the grounds for the high dose and to take remedial actions for reducing the dose. In this report the outcome is presented. The dose reductions were large: on average between 35 and 60 % for the various examinations. A large proportion of the measures taken were simple and cheap, such as increase of radiation quality, improved examination methodology (smaller radiation fields, use of compression, reduced number of images or fluoroscopy time) and optimising the film processing. This is indicating that the planned regulations on diagnostic reference levels have a good chance to succeed with a large reduction of the patient doses in Sweden.

  2. Pathway to a paradigm: the linear nonthreshold dose-response model in historical context. The American Academy of Health Physics 1995 Radiology Centennial Hartman Oration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathren, R L

    1996-05-01

    This paper traces the evolution of the linear nonthreshold dose-response model and its acceptance as a paradigm in radiation protection practice and risk analysis. Deterministic effects such as skin burns and even deep tissue trauma were associated with excessive exposure to x rays shortly after their discovery, and carcinogenicity was observed as early as 1902. Still, it was not until 1925 that the first protective limits were suggested. For three decades these limits were based on the concept of a tolerance dose which, if not exceeded, would result in no demonstrable harm to the individual and implicitly assumed a threshold dose below which radiation effects would be absent. After World War II, largely because of genetic concerns related to atmospheric weapons testing, radiation protection dose limits were expressed in terms of a risk based maximum permissible dose which clearly implied no threshold. The 1927 discovery by Muller of x-ray induced genetic mutations in fruit flies, linear with dose and with no apparent threshold, was an important underpinning of the standards. The linear nonthreshold dose-response model was originally used to provide an upper limit estimate of the risk, with zero being the lower limit, of low level irradiation since the dose-response curve could not be determined at low dose levels. Evidence to the contrary such as hormesis and the classic studies of the radium dial painters notwithstanding, the linear nonthreshold model gained greater acceptance and in the centennial year of the discovery of x rays stands as a paradigm although serious questions are beginning to be raised regarding its general applicability. The work includes a brief digression describing the work of x-ray protection pioneer William Rollins and concludes with a recommendation for application of a de minimis dose level in radiation protection.

  3. BATSE gamma-ray burst line search. 2: Bayesian consistency methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D. L.; Ford, L. A.; Matteson, J. L.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.; Preece, R.; Palmer, D.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian methodology to evaluate the consistency between the reported Ginga and Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detections of absorption features in gamma-ray burst spectra. Currently no features have been detected by BATSE, but this methodology will still be applicable if and when such features are discovered. The Bayesian methodology permits the comparison of hypotheses regarding the two detectors' observations and makes explicit the subjective aspects of our analysis (e.g., the quantification of our confidence in detector performance). We also present non-Bayesian consistency statistics. Based on preliminary calculations of line detectability, we find that both the Bayesian and non-Bayesian techniques show that the BATSE and Ginga observations are consistent given our understanding of these detectors.

  4. Estimation of breast doses and breast cancer risk associated with repeated fluoroscopic chest examinations of women with tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Rosenstein, M.; Trout, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate cumulative breast dose and breast cancer risk for women exposed to repeated fluoroscopic chest examinations during air collapse therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Medical record abstraction, physician interview, patient contact, machine exposure measurements, and absorbed dose computations were combined to estimate average breast doses for 1047 Massachusetts women who were treated between 1930 and 1954. The methodology presented considers breast size and composition, patient orientation, x-ray field size and location, beam quality, type of examination, machine exposure rate, and exposure time during fluoroscopic examinations. The best estimate for the risk of radiation-induced cancer for the women living longer than 10 years after initial fluoroscopic exposure is 6.2 excess breast cancers per million woman-year-rad with 90% confidence limits of 2.8 and 10.7 cancers/10 6 WY-rad. When breast cancer risk is considered as a function of absorbed dose in the breast, instead of as a function of the number of fluoroscopic examinations, a linear dose--response relationship over the range of estimated doses is consistent with the data. However, because of the uncertainty due to small-sample variability and because of the wide range of assumptions regarding certain fluoroscopy conditions, other dose--response relationships are compatible with the data

  5. Limited-angle x-ray luminescence tomography: methodology and feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, C M; Pratx, G; Sun, C; Xing, L

    2011-01-01

    X-ray luminescence tomography (XLT) has recently been proposed as a new imaging modality for biological imaging applications. This modality utilizes phosphor nanoparticles which luminesce near-infrared light when excited by x-ray photons. The advantages of this modality are that it uniquely combines the high sensitivity of radioluminescent nanoparticles and the high spatial localization of collimated x-ray beams. Currently, XLT has been demonstrated using x-ray spatial encoding to resolve the imaging volume. However, there are applications where the x-ray excitation may be limited by geometry, where increased temporal resolution is desired, or where a lower dose is mandatory. This paper extends the utility of XLT to meet these requirements by incorporating a photon propagation model into the reconstruction algorithm in an x-ray limited-angle (LA) geometry. This enables such applications as image-guided surgery, where the ability to resolve lesions at depths of several centimeters can be the key to successful resection. The hybrid x-ray/diffuse optical model is first formulated and then demonstrated in a breast-sized phantom, simulating a breast lumpectomy geometry. Both numerical and experimental phantoms are tested, with lesion-simulating objects of various sizes and depths. Results show localization accuracy with median error of 2.2 mm, or 4% of object depth, for small 2-14 mm diameter lesions positioned from 1 to 4.5 cm in depth. This compares favorably with fluorescence optical imaging, which is not able to resolve such small objects at this depth. The recovered lesion size has lower size bias in the x-ray excitation direction than the optical direction, which is expected due to the increased optical scatter. However, the technique is shown to be quite invariant in recovered size with respect to depth, as the standard deviation is less than 2.5 mm. Sensitivity is a function of dose; radiological doses are found to provide sufficient recovery for μg ml -1

  6. Spatial variation of natural terrestrial γ-ray dose rates in Brunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.; Lai, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    A carborne survey of natural terrestrial y-ray dose rates along the main roads of the western part of Brunei Darussalam was carried out using two portable type 1.5'φx4' NaI(T1) and 1'φx2' NaI(T1) scintillation counters. A series of semicontinuous count rates measurements were performed inside a moving vehicle. This yielded equal-distance data which were analysed statistically to obtain the spatial variation of the natural terrestrial γ-ray dose rates. The equal-distance data of dose rates were obtained by correcting for shielding effect of the car. The thickness of the pavement and the contribution from the pavement material were estimated from a correlation curve between the dose rates measured on pavements and on the nearby soils. A spectral analysis of the equal-distance data enabled us to clarify the structure of the spatial variation in dose rates. The data could be reasonably smoothened by removing the random noise components in a higher wave number region

  7. Induction and disappearance of G2 chromatid breaks in lymphocytes after low doses of low LET γ - rays and high LET fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vral, Anne; Thierens, Hubert; Baeyens, Ans; De Ridder, Leo

    2001-01-01

    In view of the potential importance of the G2 assay for detecting chromosomal radiosensitivity and possible predisposition to cancer the need to elucidate the mechanism underlying the formation of chromatid breaks, observed with the G2 assay after low dose irradiation, has been recognised. In this study we irradiated blood samples of 4 healthy donors with low LET γ-rays and high LET neutrons, which initially produce the same number of dsb but of a different quality. By means of the G2 assay, we determined the number of chromatid breaks induced by γ-rays and neutrons and compared the kinetics of chromatid break rejoining for radiations of different quality. In a first set of experiments a dose-response curve for the formation of chromatid breaks was carried out for γ-rays and neutrons with doses ranging between 0.1 and 0.5 Gy. In a second set of experiments the kinetics of chromatid break formation and disappearance was investigated after a dose of 0.5 Gy using post-irradiation times ranging between 0.5 h and 3.5 h. For the highest dose of 0.5 Gy the number of isochromatid breaks were also scored. No significant differences in the number of chromatid breaks were observed between low LET γ-rays and high LET neutrons for the 4 donors at any of the doses given. The dose response curves for the formation of chromatid breaks are linear for both radiation qualities and RBE values equal to one were obtained. Scoring of isochromatid breaks at the highest dose of 0.5 Gy revealed that high LET neutrons are however more effective at inducing isochromatid breaks (RBE of 6.2). The rejoining experiments further showed that the kinetics of disappearance of chromatid breaks following irradiation with low LET γ-rays or high-LET neutrons are not significantly different. T 1/2 0.92 h for γ-rays and t 1/2 = 0.84 h for neutrons were obtained. In conclusion, our results show that at low doses of radiation the induction as well as the disappearance of G2 chromatid breaks is LET

  8. Dose inspection and risk assessment on radiation safety for the use of non-medical X-ray machines in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Yuh; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chao, Jiunn-Hsing

    2017-11-01

    The subject of this study is the on-site visits and inspections of facilities commissioned by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the possible dose and dose rate of cabinet-type X-ray equipment with nominal voltages of 30-150 kV and open-beam (portable or handheld) equipment, taking both normal operation and possibly abnormal operation conditions into account. Doses and dose rates were measured using a plastic scintillation survey meter and an electronic personal dosimeter. In total, 401 X-ray machines were inspected, including 139 units with nominal voltages of 30-50 kV X-ray equipment, 140 units with nominal voltages of 50-150 kV, and 122 open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment. The investigated doses for radiation workers and non-radiation workers operating cabinet-type X-ray equipment under normal safety conditions were all at the background dose level. Several investigated dose rates at the position of 10 cm away from the surface of open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment were very high, such X-ray machines are used by aeronautical police for the detection of suspected explosives, radiation workers are far away (at least 10 m away) from the X-ray machine during its operation. The doses per operation in X-ray equipment with a 30-50 kV nominal voltage were less than 1 mSv in all cases of abnormal use. Some doses were higher than 1 mSv per operation for X-ray equipment of 50-150 kV nominal voltage X-ray. The maximum dose rates at the beam exit have a very wide range, mostly less than 100 μSv/s and the largest value is about 3.92 mSv/s for open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray devices. The risk induced by operating X-ray devices with nominal voltages of 30-50 kV is extremely low. The 11.5 mSv dose due to one operation at nominal voltage of 50-150 kV X-ray device is equivalent to the exposure of taking 575 chest X-rays. In the abnormal use of open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment, the

  9. Tissue responses to low protracted doses of high LET radiations or photons: Early and late damage relevant to radio-protective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Afzal, S. M. J.; Crouse, D. A.; Hanson, W. R.; Fry, R. J. M.

    Early and late murine tissue responses to single or fractionated low doses of heavy charged particles, fission-spectrum neutrons or gamma rays are considered. Damage to the hematopoietic system is emphasized, but results on acute lethality, host response to challenge with transplanted leukemia cells and life-shortening are presented. Low dose rates per fraction were used in some neutron experiments. Split-dose lethality studies (LD 50/30) with fission neutrons indicated greater accumulation of injury during a 9 fraction course (over 17 days) than was the case for γ-radiation. When total doses of 96 or 247 cGy of neutrons or γ rays were given as a single dose or in 9 fractions, a significant sparing effect on femur CFU-S depression was observed for both radiation qualities during the first 11 days, but there was not an earlier return to normal with dose fractionation. During the 9 fraction sequence, a significant sparing effect of low dose rate on CFU-S depression was observed in both neutron and γ-irradiated mice. CFU-S content at the end of the fractionation sequence did not correlate with measured LD 50/30. Sustained depression of femur and spleen CFU-S and a significant thrombocytopenia were observed when a total neutron dose of 240 cGy was given in 72 fractions over 24 weeks at low dose rates. The temporal aspects of CFU-S repopulation were different after a single versus fractionated neutron doses. The sustained reduction in the size of the CFU-S population was accompanied by an increase in the fraction in DNA synthesis. The proliferation characteristics and effects of age were different for radial CFU-S population closely associated with bone, compared with the axial population that can be readily aspirated from the femur. In aged irradiated animals, the CFU-S proliferation/redistribution response to typhoid vaccine showed both an age and radiation effect. After high single doses of neutrons or γ rays, a significant age- and radiation-related deficiency

  10. Ambient and personal dose assessment of a container inspection site using a mobile X-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.Y., E-mail: fyhsu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuangfu Rd., 300 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lee, W.F., E-mail: 005679@webmail.customs.gov.tw [Taichung Customs Office, Ministry of Finance, 2, Sec. 3, Chung-Chie Rd., Sha Lu, 435 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tung, C.J., E-mail: cjtung@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, 333 Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, J.S., E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Peitou, 112 Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Wu, T.H., E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Peitou, 112 Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Hsu, S.M., E-mail: smhsu@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Rd., 404 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Su, H.T., E-mail: edwardsu1027@hotmail.com [School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., 402 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.R., E-mail: trchen@csmu.edu.tw [School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., 402 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Image, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, 402 Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    Ambient monitor and phantom studies of absorbed and effective doses by TLDs were carried out in a non-intrusive inspection station for containers, Terminal I, of Taichung harbor, Taiwan. The doses from the X-ray scan in the control room and driver waiting room, located outside of the radiation control area, were quite small and could not be distinguished from the natural background radiation. The doses in the driver cab and the inspector cab of the X-ray scan car were also within background radiation levels. The protection wall, a 40-cm thick concrete barrier, can effectively attenuate the intensity of the primary X-ray scan. The possible effective dose of a person in the container or trailer is about 3.15{+-}0.23 {mu}Sv/scan and 2.31{+-}0.38 {mu}Sv/scan. This dose is below the annual background dose. If someone was to be scanned by the X-ray, the effective dose would be at an acceptable level. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used TLDs to evaluate the dose in the environment and in the Rando phantom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorbed dose in the container Terminal showed a natural background level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protection wall effectively lowers the X-ray intensity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective dose of a person in the container or trailer is about 3 {mu}Sv/scan.

  11. Low dose X -ray effects on catalase activity in animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focea, R.; Nadejde, C.; Creanga, D.; Luchian, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effect of low-dose X ray-irradiation upon the activity of catalase (CAT) in freshly excised chicken tissues (liver, kidney, brain, muscle). The tissue samples were irradiated with 0.5Gy and 2Gy respectively, in a 6 MV photon beam produced by a clinical linear accelerator (VARIAN CLINAC 2100SC). The dose rate was of 260.88cGy/min. at 100 cm source to sample distance. The catalase level was assayed spectrophotometrically, based on reaction kinetics, using a catalase UV assay kit (SIGMA). Catalase increased activity in various tissue samples exposed to the studied X ray doses (for example with 24 % in the liver cells, pbonds that ensure the specificity of CAT active site) but the resulted balance of the two concurrent processes indicates the cell ability of decomposing the hydrogen peroxide-with benefits for the cell physiology restoration for the chosen low dose radiation.

  12. Absorbed dose assessment in newborns during x-ray examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipe, Patricia K.; Berrocal, Mariella J.; Carita, Raúl F.

    2012-02-01

    Often a newborn presents breathing problems during the early days of life, i.e. bronchopneumonia, wich are caused in most of cases, by aspirating a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid. In these cases, it is necessary to make use of a radiograph, requested by the physician to reach a diagnosis. This paper seeks to evaluate the absorbed doses in neonates undergoing a radiograph. For this reason we try to simulate the real conditions in a X-ray room from Lima hospitals. With this finality we perform a simulation made according a questionnaire related to technical data of X-ray equipment, distance between the source and the neonate, and its position to be irradiated. The information obtained has been used to determine the absorbed dose by infants, using the MCNP code. Finally, the results are compared with reference values of international health agencies.

  13. Dose determination algorithms for a nearly tissue equivalent multi-element thermoluminescent dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovitch, M.; Chamberlain, J.; Velbeck, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop dosimetric systems that will enable reliable interpretation of dosimeter readings in terms of the absorbed dose or dose-equivalent, a new multi-element TL dosimeter assembly for Beta and Gamma dose monitoring has been designed. The radiation-sensitive volumes are four LiF-TLD elements, each covered by its own unique filter. For media-matching, care has been taken to employ nearly tissue equivalent filters of thicknesses of 1000 mg/cm 2 and 300 mg/cm 2 for deep dose and dose to the lens-of-the-eye measurements respectively. Only one metal filter (Cu) is employed to provide low energy photon discrimination. A Thin TL element (0.09 mm thick) is located behind an open window designed to improve the energy under-response to low energy beta rays and to provide closer estimate of the shallow dose equivalent. The deep and shallow dose equivalents are derived from the correlation of the response of the various TL elements to the above quantities through computations based on previously defined relationships obtained from experimental results. The theoretical formalization for the dose calculation algorithms is described in detail, and provides a useful methodology which can be applied to different tissue-equivalent dosimeter assemblies. Experimental data has been obtained by performing irradiation according to the specifications established by DOELAP, using 27 types of pure and mixed radiation fields including Cs-137 gamma rays, low energy photons down to 20 keV, Sr/Y-90, Uranium, and Tl-204 beta particles

  14. Evaluation of shipping doses and compositions for vitrified waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Shipments of radioactive materials must adhere to dose limits specified in the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper discusses methods for evaluating shipping doses of vitrified waste. A methodology was developed for evaluating the change in vitrification composition required to maintain shipping dose rates within limits. The point kernel codes QAD and Microshield were used to evaluate dose equivalent rates from specified waste forms and radioactivity measurements. The Origen code was utilized to provide the gamma-ray activity as a function of time from isotopic activity measurements. This gamma-ray activity served as source input for QAD. Microshield developed its own source from the given isotopic activities

  15. DNA damage and the bystander response in tumor and normal cells exposed to X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashree, M; Venkateswarlu, R; Karthik, K; Shangamithra, V; Venkatachalam, P

    2017-09-01

    Monolayer and suspension cultures of tumor (BMG-1, CCRF-CEM), normal (AG1522, HADF, lymphocytes) and ATM-mutant (GM4405) human cells were exposed to X-rays at doses used in radiotherapy (high dose and high dose-rate) or radiological imaging (low dose and low dose-rate). Radiation-induced DNA damage, its persistence, and possible bystander effects were evaluated, based on DNA damage markers (γ-H2AX, p53 ser15 ) and cell-cycle-specific cyclins (cyclin B1 and cyclin D1). Dose-dependent DNA damage and a dose-independent bystander response were seen after exposure to high dose and high dose-rate radiation. The level of induced damage (expression of p53 ser15 , γ-H2AX) depended on ATM status. However, low dose and dose-rate exposures neither increased expression of marker proteins nor induced a bystander response, except in the CCRF-CEM cells. Bystander effects after high-dose irradiation may contribute to stochastic and deterministic effects. Precautions to protect unexposed regions or to inhibit transmission of DNA damage signaling might reduce radiation risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methodology for combining dynamic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudlin, R.; Hosford, S.; Mattu, R.; Wichman, K.

    1978-09-01

    The NRC has historically required that the structural/mechanical responses due to various accident loads and loads caused by natural phenomena, (such as earthquakes) be combined when analyzing structures, systems, and components important to safety. Several approaches to account for the potential interaction of loads resulting from accidents and natural phenomena have been used. One approach, the so-called absolute or linear summation (ABS) method, linearly adds the peak structural responses due to the individual dynamic loads. In general, the ABS method has also reflected the staff's conservative preference for the combination of dynamic load responses. A second approach, referred to as SRSS, yields a combined response equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the peak responses due to the individual dynamic loads. The lack of a physical relationship between some of the loads has raised questions as to the proper methodology to be used in the design of nuclear power plants. An NRR Working Group was constituted to examine load combination methodologies and to develop a recommendation concerning criteria or conditions for their application. Evaluations of and recommendations on the use of the ABS and SRSS methods are provided in the report

  17. Gamma-ray dose rate increase at rainfall events and their air-mass origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2007-01-01

    The environmental γ-ray dose rate and precipitation rates were measured at our institute, in Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. We analyzed 425 rainfall events in which the precipitation rate was over 0.5 mm from April through November during the years 2003 to 2005. Backward trajectories for 5 d starting from 1000 m above Rokkasho at the time of the maximum dose rate in a rainfall event, were calculated by using the HYSPLIT model of the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory. The trajectories for 5 d were classified by visual inspection according to the passage areas; Pacific Ocean, Asian Continent and Japan Islands. The increase of cumulative environmental γ-ray dose during a rainfall event was plotted against the precipitation in the event, and their relationship was separately examined according to the air-mass passage area, i.e. origin of the air-mass. Our results showed that the origin of air-mass was an important factor affecting the increase of environmental γ-ray dose rate by rainfall. (author)

  18. Calculating patient specific doses in X-ray diagnostics and from radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampinen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The risk associated with exposure to ionising radiation is dependent on the characteristics of the exposed individual. The size and structure of the individual influences the absorbed dose distribution in the organs. Traditional methods used to calculate the patient organ doses are based on standardised calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. When estimating the radiation dose of an individual patient, patient specific calculation methods must be used. Methods for patient specific dosimetry in the fields of X-ray diagnostics and diagnostic and therapeutic use of radiopharmaceuticals were proposed in this thesis. A computer program, ODS-60, for calculating organ doses from diagnostic X-ray exposures was presented. The calculation is done in a patient specific phantom with depth dose and profile algorithms fitted to Monte Carlo simulation data from a previous study. Improvements to the version reported earlier were introduced, e.g. bone attenuation was implemented. The applicability of the program to determine patient doses from complex X-ray examinations (barium enema examination) was studied. The conversion equations derived for female and male patients as a function of patient weight gave the smallest deviation from the actual patient doses when compared to previous studies. Another computer program, Intdose, was presented for calculation of the dose distribution from radiopharmaceuticals. The calculation is based on convolution of an isotope specific point dose kernel with activity distribution, obtained from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Anatomical information is taken from magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) images. According to a phantom study, Intdose agreed within 3 % with measurements. For volunteers administered diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals, the results given by Intdose were found to agree with traditional methods in cases of medium sized patients. For patients

  19. Genetic injury in hybrid male mice exposed to low doses of 60CO γ-rays or fission neutrons. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Carnes, B.A.; Farrington, B.H.; Lee, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    Young adult male B6CF 1 mice were exposed to single whole body doses of fission neutrons or 60 Co γ rays. Postspermatogonial dominant lethal injury, incidence of reciprocal chromosome translocations induced in spermatogonia, incidence of abnormal epididymal sperm 4-6 weeks after exposure, and testis weight loss 3-6 weeks after exposure were all measured. Significant effects were seen at 1 and 2.5 rad of neutrons consistent with extrapolation from higher doses, with the exception of dominant lethal mutations, which occurred in significant excess of expectation. Dose-response functions were linear or linear-quadratic, depending upon end point, radiation quality, and dose range. For translocation frequencies, the D 2 term was negative for neutron and positive for γ-ray irradiations. RBE values varied with dose and end point. For testis weight loss and abnormal sperm over the full dose range, the RBEs were between 5 and 6. They were between 7 and 9 at lower doses (< 10 rad) for translocations. RBEs for postimplantation and total dominant lethal rates were 5-6 above 10 rad and 10-14 below 10 rad. The RBEs for preimplant losses were between 15 and 25 above 10 rad and possibly higher below 10 rad, although the data are statistically 'noisy'. (Auth.)

  20. Biological responses to low dose rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, Junji; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    Linear non-threshold (LNT) theory is a basic theory for radioprotection. While LNT dose not consider irradiation time or dose-rate, biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose. Moreover, experimental and epidemiological studies that can evaluate LNT at low dose/low dose-rate are not sufficiently accumulated. Here we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, dose-rate and irradiation time using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells as indicators of biological responses. We also acquired quantitative data at low doses that can evaluate adaptability of LNT with statistically sufficient accuracy. Our results demonstrate that biological responses at low dose-rate are remarkably affected by exposure time, and they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in long-term irradiation. We also found that change of biological responses at low dose was not linearly correlated to dose. These results suggest that it is necessary for us to create a new model which sufficiently includes dose-rate effect and correctly fits of actual experimental and epidemiological results to evaluate risk of radiation at low dose/low dose-rate. (author)

  1. Characteristic of immunological adaptive response induced by low level whole body irradiation with X-rays in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Guizhi; Song Chunhua; Qi Jin; Liu Shuzheng

    1995-01-01

    The range of preirradiated doses (D 1 ) and challenge doses (D 2 ) for the induction of immunological adaptive response and the optimum time intervals between D 1 and D 2 were investigated in Kunming mice. The results were as follows: 1. Single whole body preirradiation by X-rays with D 1 doses of 25∼100 mGy (12.5 mGy/min) could induce adaptive response of spontaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR into thymocytes and the reaction of splenocytes to LPS. 2. With D 2 doses of 1.0 to 1.5 Gy, the adaptive response of spontaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR into thymocytes and the reaction of splenocytes to ConA and LPS could be induced. 3. The optimum interval for the induction of immunological adaptive response between D 1 and D 2 could be 6∼12 h

  2. Paediatric x-ray radiation dose reduction and image quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L; Ruddlesden, R; Makepeace, C; Robinson, L; Mistry, T; Starritt, H

    2013-09-01

    Collaboration of multiple staff groups has resulted in significant reduction in the risk of radiation-induced cancer from radiographic x-ray exposure during childhood. In this study at an acute NHS hospital trust, a preliminary audit identified initial exposure factors. These were compared with European and UK guidance, leading to the introduction of new factors that were in compliance with European guidance on x-ray tube potentials. Image quality was assessed using standard anatomical criteria scoring, and visual grading characteristics analysis assessed the impact on image quality of changes in exposure factors. This analysis determined the acceptability of gradual radiation dose reduction below the European and UK guidance levels. Chest and pelvis exposures were optimised, achieving dose reduction for each age group, with 7%-55% decrease in critical organ dose. Clinicians confirmed diagnostic image quality throughout the iterative process. Analysis of images acquired with preliminary and final exposure factors indicated an average visual grading analysis result of 0.5, demonstrating equivalent image quality. The optimisation process and final radiation doses are reported for Carestream computed radiography to aid other hospitals in minimising radiation risks to children.

  3. Paediatric x-ray radiation dose reduction and image quality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L; Ruddlesden, R; Mistry, T; Starritt, H; Makepeace, C; Robinson, L

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration of multiple staff groups has resulted in significant reduction in the risk of radiation-induced cancer from radiographic x-ray exposure during childhood. In this study at an acute NHS hospital trust, a preliminary audit identified initial exposure factors. These were compared with European and UK guidance, leading to the introduction of new factors that were in compliance with European guidance on x-ray tube potentials. Image quality was assessed using standard anatomical criteria scoring, and visual grading characteristics analysis assessed the impact on image quality of changes in exposure factors. This analysis determined the acceptability of gradual radiation dose reduction below the European and UK guidance levels. Chest and pelvis exposures were optimised, achieving dose reduction for each age group, with 7%–55% decrease in critical organ dose. Clinicians confirmed diagnostic image quality throughout the iterative process. Analysis of images acquired with preliminary and final exposure factors indicated an average visual grading analysis result of 0.5, demonstrating equivalent image quality. The optimisation process and final radiation doses are reported for Carestream computed radiography to aid other hospitals in minimising radiation risks to children. (paper)

  4. A simple methodology for obtaining X-ray color images in scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, M.M. da; Pietroluongo, L.R.V.

    1985-01-01

    A simple methodology for obtaining at least 3 elements X-ray images in only one photography is described. The fluorescent X-ray image is obtained from scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion analysis system. The change of detector analytic channels, color cellophane foils and color films are used sequentially. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. A study of gonad doses in X-ray radiographic examinations of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    A phantom study has been made in an attempt to redetermine gonad dose associated with routine X-ray diagnostic procedures. Over a range of voltages between 60 kVp and 130 kVp, TLD measurements of skin, ovary, a standardised cassette dose of 1 mrad, and testicle doses were obtained for AP, PA and lateral radiographs. Whilst exact numerical results depended greatly on the characteristics of the film-screen combination used, the contrast required in the final radiograph and the efficiency of the Bucky grid, results of this redetermination did not support the view that a reduction in population genetic dose would follow any general increase in the typical operating potential used for abdominal x-ray examinations. (U.K.)

  6. Measurement of conversion coefficients between air Kerma and personal dose equivalent and backscatter factors for diagnostic X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, Paulo Henrique Goncalves

    2008-01-01

    Two sets of quantities are import in radiological protection: the protection and operational quantities. Both sets can be related to basic physical quantities such as kerma through conversion coefficients. For diagnostic x-ray beams the conversion coefficients and backscatter factors have not been determined yet, those parameters are need for calibrating dosimeters that will be used to determine the personal dose equivalent or the entrance skin dose. Conversion coefficients between air kerma and personal dose equivalent and backscatter factors were experimentally determined for the diagnostic x-ray qualities RQR and RQA recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The air kerma in the phantom and the mean energy of the spectrum were measured for such purpose. Harshaw LiF-100H thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) were used for measurements after being calibrated against an 180 cm 3 Radcal Corporation ionization chamber traceable to a reference laboratory. A 300 mm x 300 mm x 150 mm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab phantom was used for deep-dose measurements. Tl dosemeters were placed in the central axis of the x-ray beam at 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 mm depth in the phantom upstream the beam direction Another required parameter for determining the conversion coefficients from was the mean energy of the x-ray spectrum. The spectroscopy of x-ray beams was done with a CdTe semiconductor detector that was calibrated with 133 Ba, 241 Am and 57 Co radiation sources. Measurements of the x-ray spectra were carried out for all RQR and RQA IEC qualities. Corrections due to the detector intrinsic efficiency, total energy absorption, escape fraction of the characteristic x-rays, Compton effect and attenuation in the detector were done aiming an the accurate determination of the mean energy. Measured x-ray spectra were corrected with the stripping method by using these response functions. The typical combined standard uncertainties of conversion coefficients and

  7. A quantitative assessment of changes in the dermal fibroblast population of pig skin after single doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, R.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the density of fibroblast nuclei in reticular dermis of pigs was studied from 6 to 104 weeks after a single dose of 15.4 Gy of X-rays. The largest decrease in fibroblasts occurred between 12 and 26 weeks after irradiation; after this there was only a slight fall in fibroblast number until 104 weeks when observations ceased. At 26 weeks and later times after irradiation reduction in the density of fibroblast nuclei in the reticular dermis was dose-dependent for single doses in the range 8.0-20.7 Gy. The dose-response curve had an initial shoulder, after which the fall in the fibroblast nuclear density was linearly related to dose. Data obtained between 26 weeks and 104 weeks after irradiation, could be fitted by the same dose-response curve. The fall in the counts of fibroblast nuclei was compared with earlier studies. The loss of fibroblasts occurred after an initial reduction in blood flow in the pig skin but was concomitant with general reduction in dermal thickness. (author)

  8. Fourth IRMF comparison of calibrations of portable gamma-ray dose- rate monitors 2001-2002 Ionising radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, V E

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a fourth comparison of calibrations of gamma-ray dose-rate monitors in which fifteen establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three gamma-ray monitors for calibration in the fields produced using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and sup 6 sup 0 Co. The instruments used were an Electra with MC 20 probe, a Mini-Instruments Mini-rad 1000 and a Siemens electronic personal dosemeter Mk 2 (EPD). The responses relative to 'true' dose equivalent rate were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the facilities and fields employed. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments. However, the participants' treatment of uncertainties needs improvement and demonstrates a need for guidance in this area.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation on hard X-ray dose produced in interaction between high intensity laser and solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Qiu Rui; Li Junli; Zhang Hui

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray dose produced in the interaction between high intensity laser and solid target was studied by simulation using Monte Carlo code. Compared with experimental results, the calculation model was verified. The calculation model was used to study the effect on X-ray dose with different electron temperatures, target materials (including Au, Cu and PE) and thicknesses. The results indicate that the X-ray dose is mainly determined by the electron temperature, and will be affected by the target parameters. X-ray dose of Au is about 1.2 times that of Cu, and is about 5 times that of PE (polyethylene). In addition, compared with other target thickness, when target thickness is the mean range of electron in the target, X-ray dose is relatively large. These results will provide references on evaluating the ionizing radiation dose for laser devices. (authors)

  10. The additional dose to radiosensitive organs caused by using under-collimated X-ray beams in neonatal intensive care radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, H.; Ben-Shlomo, A.; Margaliot, M.; Bader, D.; Sadetzki, S.; Juster-Reicher, A.; Marks, K.; Smolkin, T.; Zangen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Radiographic technique and exposure parameters were recorded in five Israeli Neonatal Intensive Care Units for chest, abdomen and both chest and abdomen X-ray examinations. Equivalent dose and effective dose values were calculated according to actual examination field size borders and proper technique field size recommendations using PCXMC, a PC-based Monte Carlo program. Exposure of larger than required body areas resulted in an increase of the organ doses by factors of up to 162 (testes), 162 (thyroid) and 8 (thyroid) for chest, abdomen and both chest and abdomen examinations, respectively. These exposures increased the average effective dose by factors of 2.0, 1.9 and 1.3 for the chest, abdomen and both chest and abdomen examinations, respectively. Differences in exposure parameters were found between the different neonatal intensive care units - tube voltage, current-time product and focal to skin distance differences up to 13, 44 and 22%, respectively. Reduction of at least 50% of neonate exposure is feasible and can be implemented using existing methodology without any additional costs. (authors)

  11. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  12. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  13. The effect of radiosensitizers on the survival response of hypoxic mammalian cells: The low X-ray dose region, hypersensitivity and induced radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skov, K.A.; MacPhail, H.S.; Marples, B.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the extent of chemical modification of the hypoxic radiation response is dependent on dose. Some types of sensitizer are more effective at low doses (to 4 Gy) than at higher doses. Since such drugs are possible adjuvants to radiotherapy, the mechanisms responsible for the variable response at clinical doses are summarized, and the effects of cisplatin and buthionine sulfoximine on the purported induced response to radiation in hypoxic cells are presented. Cisplatin at a low, nontoxic concentration (1 μM) appears to abolish the increased radioresistant portion of the survival response. A role for high-mobility-group protein binding by platinum drugs is hypothesized to explain their interaction with radiation, and conversely, it is suggested that the heretofore unexplained different behavior of certain hypoxic sensitizers at low doses could be, at least in part, an effect on the induction of resistance. 36 refs., 2 figs

  14. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low dose/low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munira A Kadhim

    2010-03-05

    To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e., less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these “non-targeted” responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander responses in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/H and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition on two non-targeted radiation responses in these models; the bystander effect and genomic instability, which we believe are closely related. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to doses approaching a single electron traversal. Using conventional X-ray and γ-ray sources, novel dish separation and targeted irradiation approaches, we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various bystander conditions at doses down to a few electron tracks. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for bystander targeted studies. Mechanistic studies of instability and the bystander response in different cell lineages will focus initially on the role of cytokines which have been shown to be involved in bystander signaling and the initiation of instability. These studies also aim

  15. Equivalent dose determination in foraminifera: analytical description of the CO2--signal dose-response curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Woda, C.; Mangini, A.

    2003-01-01

    The dose-response of the CO 2 - signal (g=2.0006) in foraminifera with ages between 19 and 300 ka is investigated. The sum of two exponential saturation functions is an adequate function to describe the dose-response curve up to an additional dose of 8000 Gy. It yields excellent dating results but requires an artificial doses of at least 5000 Gy. For small additional doses of about 500 Gy the single exponential saturation function can be used to calculate a reliable equivalent dose D E , although it does not describ the dose-response for higher doses. The CO 2 - -signal dose-response indicates that the signal has two components of which one is less stable than the other

  16. Evaluation of rate of unstable chromosomal changes in human blood irradiated by X-rays: establishment of dose-response curve; Avaliação da taxa de alterações cromossômicas instáveis em sangue humano irradiado por Raios x: estabelecimento de curva dose-resposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J.C.G.; Mendes, M.E.; Melo, A.M.M.A., E-mail: july_cgm@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, L.M.; Andrade, A.M.G.; Hwang, S.F.; Lima, F.F. [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Dosimetria Biológica

    2017-07-01

    Since the discovery of ionizing radiation, and consequently of its properties, there has been an increasing in its use, which in turn has raised concerns about the biological damage that it could cause in exposed individuals. As a result, cytogenetic dosimetry has emerged: a method that can be used as a complement or, in the absence of physical dosimetry, relating the frequency of chromosomal changes found in the blood of the exposed individual and the dose absorbed through dose-response calibration curves. This work aimed to verify the frequencies of the unstable chromosomal changes in human blood lymphocytes irradiated by X-rays of 250 kVp with different absorbed doses and later establish the dose-response calibration curves. The irradiation was performed at the CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE, Brazil metrology service on a PANTAK X-ray machine, model HF 320. The blood samples had their lymphocytes cultured in culture media and, after the processing, the metaphases were obtained. The chromosomal alterations analyzed were chromosomes dicentric, ring and isolated actinic fragments. There was an increase in frequencies of all chromosomal changes with increased absorbed dose. The calibration curves of dicentric and dicentric + rings presented good adjustments with the values of the coefficients Y = 0.0013 + 0.0271D + 0.0556D{sup 2} (X{sup 2} = 10.36 / GL = 6) and Y = 0.0013 + 0.0263D + 0.0640D{sup 2} (X{sup 2} = 7.43 / GL = 6), respectively. The establishment of these curves enables the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry of the CRCN/NE/CNEN-PE to estimate the dose absorbed by occupationally exposed individuals and in cases of radiological accidents.

  17. Epidemiological methods for assessing dose-response and dose-effect relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellström, Tord; Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Selected Molecular Mechanisms of Metal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity General Considerations of Dose-Effect and Dose-Response Relationships Interactions in Metal Toxicology Epidemiological Methods for Assessing Dose-Response and Dose-Effect Relationships Essential Metals: Assessing Risks from Deficiency......Description Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals is the standard reference work for physicians, toxicologists and engineers in the field of environmental and occupational health. This new edition is a comprehensive review of the effects on biological systems from metallic elements...... access to a broad range of basic toxicological data and also gives a general introduction to the toxicology of metallic compounds. Audience Toxicologists, physicians, and engineers in the fields of environmental and occupational health as well as libraries in these disciplines. Will also be a useful...

  18. A methodology to establish the appearance of cancer cases due to radiation dose in compressed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feital, Joao Carlos Da Silva; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.; Fonseca, Hugo Geraldo Da

    2013-01-01

    It is known that more than 20% of the world's population will contract some type of cancer. In Brazil, with the exception of skin cancer (non melanoma) the breast cancer ranks first among the higher frequency of tumours among women and in general, although the methods of detection are advancing in the year 2010 took place about 13 thousand deaths in about 50,000 cases, probably due to late detection of these neoplasm. New cases of breast cancer in a given population can be proven from absorbed dose quantity, calculated for the compressed breast, due to the risk by means of exposure to x rays in this radiodiagnostic practices. Methodology: Exposures were held in an ionization chamber and the other quantities required were obtained to the screen-film equipment of mammography. Results: Also experimental results were of compressed breast an equivalent dose of ( 1.82 mSv ± 0.2%) or (3.64 mSv ± 0.2%) for both projections, i.e. medium lateral oblique and cranio caudal. The experimental value obtained here is consistent with the calculated results and published in the literature for analog and CR equipment. Conclusion: From the result of dose equivalent in the breast, one can say that there will be effectively attesting as to the appearance of new cases of cancer if approximately 80 million women are exposed to radiation emitted by mammographers. (author)

  19. Dose-response relationship with radiotherapy: an evidence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, B.; Rauglaudre, G. de; Mineur, L.; Alfonsi, M.; Reboul, F.

    2003-01-01

    The dose-response relationship is a fundamental basis of radiobiology. Despite many clinical data, difficulties remain to demonstrate a relation between dose and local control: relative role of treatment associated with radiation therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy), tumor heterogeneity, few prospective randomized studies, uncertainty of local control assessment. Three different situations are discussed: tumors with high local control probabilities for which dose effect is demonstrated by randomized studies (breast cancer) or sound retrospective data (soft tissues sarcomas), tumors with intermediate local control probabilities for which dose effect seems to be important according to retrospective studies and ongoing or published phase III trials (prostate cancer), tumors with low local control probabilities for which dose effect appears to be modest beyond standard doses, and inferior to the benefit of concurrent chemotherapy (lung and oesophageal cancer). For head and neck tumors, the dose-response relationship has been explored through hyperfractionation and accelerated radiation therapy and a dose effect has been demonstrated but must be compared to the benefit of concurrent chemotherapy. Last but not least, the development of conformal radiotherapy allow the exploration of the dose response relationship for tumors such as hepatocellular carcinomas traditionally excluded from the field of conventional radiation therapy. In conclusion, the dose-response relationship remains a sound basis of radiation therapy for many tumors and is a parameter to take into account for further randomized studies. (author)

  20. Optimum power of radiation dose in X ray television systems of flaw inspection in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denbnovetskii, S.V.; Troitskii, V.A.; Belyi, N.G.; Grom, V.S.; Kuz'micheva, N.V.; Leshchishin, A.V.; Mikhailov, V.N.; Shutenko, O.V.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the experimental dose characteristics of a x ray television system based on x ray vidicons with the diameter of the working field of 900 mm which operate in the continuous and pulsed conditions with the longer time of cumulation of radiation images on the target of the x ray vidicon. For each type of the inspected material, its thickness, and cumulation time, the dose characteristics were used to determine the optimum power of the exposure dose ensuring the maximum signal/noise ratio and detectability of the defects at the output of the system. (author)

  1. Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Michael W.M.; Dearnley, Megan K.; Riessen, Grant A. van; Abbey, Brian; Putkunz, Corey T.; Junker, Mark D.; Vine, David J.; McNulty, Ian; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Tilley, Leann

    2014-01-01

    Phase-diverse X-ray coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) provides a route to high sensitivity and spatial resolution with moderate radiation dose. It also provides a robust solution to the well-known phase-problem, making on-line image reconstruction feasible. Here we apply phase-diverse CDI to a cellular sample, obtaining images of an erythrocyte infected by the sexual stage of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, with a radiation dose significantly lower than the lowest dose previously reported for cellular imaging using CDI. The high sensitivity and resolution allow key biological features to be identified within intact cells, providing complementary information to optical and electron microscopy. This high throughput method could be used for fast tomographic imaging, or to generate multiple replicates in two-dimensions of hydrated biological systems without freezing or fixing. This work demonstrates that phase-diverse CDI is a valuable complementary imaging method for the biological sciences and ready for immediate application. - Highlights: • Phase-diverse coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy provides high-resolution and high-contrast images of intact biological samples. • Rapid nanoscale resolution imaging is demonstrated at orders of magnitude lower dose than previously possible. • Phase-diverse coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a robust technique for rapid, quantitative, and correlative X-ray phase imaging

  2. Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Michael W.M., E-mail: michael.jones@latrobe.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Dearnley, Megan K. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Riessen, Grant A. van [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Abbey, Brian [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Putkunz, Corey T. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Junker, Mark D. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Vine, David J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); McNulty, Ian [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Centre for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nugent, Keith A. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Peele, Andrew G. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton 3168 (Australia); Tilley, Leann [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-08-01

    Phase-diverse X-ray coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) provides a route to high sensitivity and spatial resolution with moderate radiation dose. It also provides a robust solution to the well-known phase-problem, making on-line image reconstruction feasible. Here we apply phase-diverse CDI to a cellular sample, obtaining images of an erythrocyte infected by the sexual stage of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, with a radiation dose significantly lower than the lowest dose previously reported for cellular imaging using CDI. The high sensitivity and resolution allow key biological features to be identified within intact cells, providing complementary information to optical and electron microscopy. This high throughput method could be used for fast tomographic imaging, or to generate multiple replicates in two-dimensions of hydrated biological systems without freezing or fixing. This work demonstrates that phase-diverse CDI is a valuable complementary imaging method for the biological sciences and ready for immediate application. - Highlights: • Phase-diverse coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy provides high-resolution and high-contrast images of intact biological samples. • Rapid nanoscale resolution imaging is demonstrated at orders of magnitude lower dose than previously possible. • Phase-diverse coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a robust technique for rapid, quantitative, and correlative X-ray phase imaging.

  3. Patient doses due to a diagnostic X-ray picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riet, A. van 't.

    1977-09-01

    The influence of technical parameters on patient doses in X-ray diagnostics has been investigated. During an X-ray picture (30 x 40 or 35 x 43 cm 2 ) for general survey in intraveneous pyelography (IVP), skin exposure measurements in the centre of the radiation beam were carried out at 650 adult female patients in 46 Dutch hospitals. In addition, the first half-value layer of the radiation was measured. In 15 of these hospitals, similar measurements were also carried out at a Rando phantom. Small LiF thermoluminescent dosemeters were used for all measurements. The results show a remarkable variation in the mean entrance- and exit-exposure per hospital. The variation in the mean entrance-exposure per hospital (factor 8) is mainly caused by differences in radiation quality. In some hospitals, no added filtration is used while others use a relatively heavy filtration. The variation in the mean exit-exposure per hospital could not be explained uniquely from technical parameters like grid, screen and film sensivity. From phantom measurements it was found that other parameters like adjustment of the automatic exposure timer and film density required by the radiographer are of importance. The measuring system used has shown to be an adequate and simple tool for a crude selection of those hospitals where skin exposures are relatively high. On the basis of the collected data some recommendations are given to promote dose reduction in X-ray diagnostics. The use of fast screen-film combinations is of great potential importance. However further investigation seems desirable, especially concerning patient dose during fluoroscopy 0

  4. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology task force report on 'dose-response relationship in allergen-specific immunotherapy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, M A; Larenas, D; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Jacobsen, L; Passalacqua, G; Eng, P A; Varga, E M; Valovirta, E; Moreno, C; Malling, H J; Alvarez-Cuesta, E; Durham, S; Demoly, P

    2011-10-01

    For a century, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has proven to be an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and insect sting allergy. However, as allergen doses are frequently adapted to the individual patient, there are few data on dose-response relationship in SIT. Allergen products for SIT are being increasingly required to conform to regulatory requirements for human medicines, which include the need to demonstrate dose-dependent effects. This report, produced by a Task Force of the EAACI Immunotherapy Interest Group, evaluates the currently available data on dose-response relationships in SIT and aims to provide recommendations for the design of future studies. Fifteen dose-ranging studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and twelve reported a dose-response relationship for clinical efficacy. Several studies also reported a dose-response relationship for immunological and safety endpoints. Due to the use of different reference materials and methodologies for the determination of allergen content, variations in study design, and choice of endpoints, no comparisons could be made between studies and, as a consequence, no general dosing recommendations can be made. Despite recently introduced guidelines on the standardization of allergen preparations and study design, the Task Force identified a need for universally accepted standards for the measurement of allergen content in SIT preparations, dosing protocols, and selection of clinical endpoints to enable dose-response effects to be compared across studies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Real-time and on-site γ-ray radiation response testing system for semiconductor devices and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Yifei, E-mail: Y.Mu@student.liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Zhao, Ce Zhou, E-mail: cezhou.zhao@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Qi, Yanfei, E-mail: yanfei.qi01@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lam, Sang, E-mail: s.lam@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhao, Chun, E-mail: garyzhao@ust.hk [Nano and Advanced Materials Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lu, Qifeng, E-mail: qifeng@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Cai, Yutao, E-mail: yutao.cai@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Mitrovic, Ivona Z., E-mail: ivona@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Taylor, Stephen, E-mail: s.taylor@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Chalker, Paul R., E-mail: pchalker@liverpool.ac.uk [Center for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    The construction of a turnkey real-time and on-site radiation response testing system for semiconductor devices is reported. Components of an on-site radiation response probe station, which contains a 1.11 GBq Cs{sup 137} gamma (γ)-ray source, and equipment of a real-time measurement system are described in detail for the construction of the whole system. The real-time measurement system includes a conventional capacitance–voltage (C–V) and stress module, a pulse C–V and stress module, a conventional current–voltage (I–V) and stress module, a pulse I–V and stress module, a DC on-the-fly (OTF) module and a pulse OTF module. Electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors or MOSFET devices are measured by each module integrated in the probe station under continuous γ-ray exposure and the measurement results are presented. The dose rates of different gate dielectrics are calculated by a novel calculation model based on the Cs{sup 137} γ-ray source placed in the probe station. For the sake of operators’ safety, an equivalent dose rate of 70 nSv/h at a given operation distance is indicated by a dose attenuation model in the experimental environment. HfO{sub 2} thin films formed by atomic layer deposition are employed to investigate the radiation response of the high-κ material by using the conventional C–V and pulse C–V modules. The irradiation exposure of the sample is carried out with a dose rate of 0.175 rad/s and ±1 V bias in the radiation response testing system. Analysis of flat-band voltage shifts (ΔV{sub FB}) of the MOS capacitors suggests that the on-site and real-time/pulse measurements detect more serious degradation of the HfO{sub 2} thin films compared with the off-site irradiation and conventional measurement techniques.

  6. The alanine detector in BNCT dosimetry: dose response in thermal and epithermal neutron fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, T; Bassler, N; Blaickner, M; Ziegner, M; Hsiao, M C; Liu, Y H; Koivunoro, H; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Palmans, H; Sharpe, P; Langguth, P; Hampel, G

    2015-01-01

    The response of alanine solid state dosimeters to ionizing radiation strongly depends on particle type and energy. Due to nuclear interactions, neutron fields usually also consist of secondary particles such as photons and protons of diverse energies. Various experiments have been carried out in three different neutron beams to explore the alanine dose response behavior and to validate model predictions. Additionally, application in medical neutron fields for boron neutron capture therapy is discussed. Alanine detectors have been irradiated in the thermal neutron field of the research reactor TRIGA Mainz, Germany, in five experimental conditions, generating different secondary particle spectra. Further irradiations have been made in the epithermal neutron beams at the research reactors FiR 1 in Helsinki, Finland, and Tsing Hua open pool reactor in HsinChu, Taiwan ROC. Readout has been performed with electron spin resonance spectrometry with reference to an absorbed dose standard in a (60)Co gamma ray beam. Absorbed doses and dose components have been calculated using the Monte Carlo codes fluka and mcnp. The relative effectiveness (RE), linking absorbed dose and detector response, has been calculated using the Hansen & Olsen alanine response model. The measured dose response of the alanine detector in the different experiments has been evaluated and compared to model predictions. Therefore, a relative effectiveness has been calculated for each dose component, accounting for its dependence on particle type and energy. Agreement within 5% between model and measurement has been achieved for most irradiated detectors. Significant differences have been observed in response behavior between thermal and epithermal neutron fields, especially regarding dose composition and depth dose curves. The calculated dose components could be verified with the experimental results in the different primary and secondary particle fields. The alanine detector can be used without

  7. Optimal dose reduction in computed tomography methodologies predicted from real-time dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Christopher Jason

    Over the past two decades, computed tomography (CT) has become an increasingly common and useful medical imaging technique. CT is a noninvasive imaging modality with three-dimensional volumetric viewing abilities, all in sub-millimeter resolution. Recent national scrutiny on radiation dose from medical exams has spearheaded an initiative to reduce dose in CT. This work concentrates on dose reduction of individual exams through two recently-innovated dose reduction techniques: organ dose modulation (ODM) and tube current modulation (TCM). ODM and TCM tailor the phase and amplitude of x-ray current, respectively, used by the CT scanner during the scan. These techniques are unique because they can be used to achieve patient dose reduction without any appreciable loss in image quality. This work details the development of the tools and methods featuring real-time dosimetry which were used to provide pioneering measurements of ODM or TCM in dose reduction for CT.

  8. Bone-and-muscle-equivalent solid chemical dose meters for photon and electron doses above one kilorad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Rosenstein, M.; Levine, H.

    1975-01-01

    Conventional solid dose meters, such as plastic films, powders, emulsions, glasses, ceramics and gels, have a response to ionizing photons and electrons that varies markedly over a broad spectrum when compared with the absorption characteristics of biological tissues. New radiochromic dyed plastic dose meters have been developed with X- and gamma ray and electron energy absorption cross-sections (calculated) and radiation energy responses (experimental) corresponding approximately to those for human muscle and bone, for a spectrum from a few keV to at least 10 MeV. Three-dimensional solid dose meters useful over the absorbed dose range of 10 3 to 10 6 rad are formed by thermosetting a selected combination of monomers containing the radiochromic dye in solution. Thin-film dose meters for the dose range 10 5 to 10 7 rad are formed by casting on optically flat surfaces strippable layers of special combinations of polymers and dyes in solution. The response of these systems to X- and gamma rays and electrons has been studied over various radiation spectra, dose-rates and temperatures during irradiation. (author)

  9. Feasibility of using continuous X-ray to simulate cable response under X-ray environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Zhou Hui; Cheng Yinhui; Wu Wei; Li Jinxi; Zhao Mo; Guo Jinghai

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism and simulating method of cable response induced by X-ray were researched, and the relationship of cable response irradiated by continuous and pulsed X-ray was analyzed. A one-dimension model of strip line irradiation response of X-ray was given, which includes the gap between cable shield and dielectric, and induced conductivity in cable dielectric. The calculation result using the model indicates that the cable responses of continuous and rectangular-pulsed X-ray have the similar current waveform and the same gap voltages. Therefore, continuous X-ray can be used to research some cable responses of pulsed X-ray irradiation under the mechanism described in the one-dimension model. (authors)

  10. The influence of tube voltage and phantom size in computed tomography on the dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, G; Pietsch, H; Lengsfeld, P; Voth, M; Schmid, E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dose response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes after CT scans at tube voltages of 80 and 140 kV. Blood samples from a healthy donor placed in tissue equivalent abdomen phantoms of standard, pediatric and adipose sizes were exposed at dose levels up to 0.1 Gy using a 64-slice CT scanner. It was found that both the tube voltage and the phantom size significantly influenced the CT scan-induced linear dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. Using the same phantom (standard abdomen), 80 kV CT x-rays were biologically more effective than 140 kV CT x-rays. However, it could also be determined that the applied phantom size had much more influence on the biological effectiveness. Obviously, the increasing slopes of the CT scan-induced dose response relationships of dicentrics in human lymphocytes obtained in a pediatric, a standard and an adipose abdomen have been induced by scattering effects of photons, which strongly increase with increasing phantom size.

  11. The influence of tube voltage and phantom size in computed tomography on the dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, G; Pietsch, H [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Lengsfeld, P; Voth, M [Global Medical Affairs Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Schmid, E, E-mail: Ernst.Schmid@lrz.uni-muenchen.d [Institute for Cell Biology, Center for Integrated Protein Science, University of Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dose response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes after CT scans at tube voltages of 80 and 140 kV. Blood samples from a healthy donor placed in tissue equivalent abdomen phantoms of standard, pediatric and adipose sizes were exposed at dose levels up to 0.1 Gy using a 64-slice CT scanner. It was found that both the tube voltage and the phantom size significantly influenced the CT scan-induced linear dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. Using the same phantom (standard abdomen), 80 kV CT x-rays were biologically more effective than 140 kV CT x-rays. However, it could also be determined that the applied phantom size had much more influence on the biological effectiveness. Obviously, the increasing slopes of the CT scan-induced dose response relationships of dicentrics in human lymphocytes obtained in a pediatric, a standard and an adipose abdomen have been induced by scattering effects of photons, which strongly increase with increasing phantom size.

  12. Measurement of the gonad dose of infants during X-ray examination of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.; Krepler, P.; Harranek, C.

    1977-01-01

    To protect the gonads during X-ray examination of the hip joints a special lead shield of 1,5 mm Pb with a fenestration can be used. This window allows the delineation of all parts of the skeleton to make a correct diagnosis while all other parts, especially the gonads, are safely shielded. To check the effectiveness of this gonad protection direct dosimetric studies on the infants were performed with LiF and CaF 2 :Dy TL-dosimeters at different adjustments of the x-ray machine and with various screen-film combinations. To correct the energy response of the LiF and CaF 2 :Dy dosimeters in the energy range below 100 keV tandem dosimeters were used. From the ratio of indications by TLD-200/TLD-100 the effective energy of the x-ray spectrum can be estimated and therefrom the response of the high sensitive TLD-200 dosimeters determined. To measure the ovary dose the dosimeters were placed in the rectum on the tip of a tube. The lowest exposure values were registrated using rare earth intensifying screens and generator adjustment of 60 kV and 1 mAs: 0,12 mrad for the ovary and 0,03 - 0,07 mR for the testes

  13. Stage specificity and dose-response relationships for chromosome aberrations induced in mouse primary spermatocytes following X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Utsugi, T.

    1986-05-01

    In this study, dose-response relationships were examined for chromosome aberrations observed at diakinesis-metaphase I of spermatocytes with X-irradiation at various stages of meiosis (diplotene, mid-pachytene, zygotene and leptotene). The frequencies of cells with X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations increased with dose at all stages in the applied range of 0.5-3.0 Gy and tended to increase as the irradiated stages descended after leptotene stage. In three stages, the frequencies increased exponentially with dose, but the rates of induction of chromosome breaks were markedly different depending on the stages at which spermatocytes were irradiated with X-rays. The rate of induction was the highest at diplotene and the lowest at leptotene, suggesting that diplotene spermatocytes had the highest radiosensitivity to the induction of chromosome breaks, followed by pachytene, zygotene and leptotene spermatocytes in that order. The dose-response relationships fitted well to linear equations for deletion-type aberrations at each stage, and to linear-quadratic equations for exchange-type aberrations at all stages except for leptotene. At leptotene, the chromatid exchanges were hardly observed, the aberrations being mainly consisted of iso-chromatid fragments. On the contrary, chromatid exchanges and iso-chromatide deletions were mainly observed at later stages (zygotene-diplotene).

  14. The relationship between external beam radiotherapy dose and chronic urinary dysfunction - A methodological critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosewall, Tara; Catton, Charles; Currie, Geoffrey; Bayley, Andrew; Chung, Peter; Wheat, Janelle; Milosevic, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a methodological critique of the literature evaluating the relationship between external beam radiotherapy dose/volume parameters and chronic urinary dysfunction to determine why consistent associations between dose and dysfunction have not been found. Methods and materials: The radiotherapy literature was reviewed using various electronic medical search engines with appropriate keywords and MeSH headings. Inclusion criteria comprised of; English language articles, published between 1999 and June 2009, incorporating megavoltage external beam photons in standard-sized daily fraction. A methodological critique was then performed, evaluating the factors affected in the quantification of radiotherapy dose and chronic urinary dysfunction. Results: Nine of 22 eligible studies successfully identified a clinically and statistically significant relationship between dose and dysfunction. Accurate estimations of external beam radiotherapy dose were compromised by the frequent use of dosimetric variables which are poor surrogates for the dose received by the lower urinary tract tissue and do not incorporate the effect of daily variations in isocentre and bladder position. The precise categorization of chronic urinary dysfunction was obscured by reliance on subjective and aggregated toxicity metrics which vary over time. Conclusions: A high-level evidence-base for the relationship between external beam radiotherapy dose and chronic urinary dysfunction does not currently exist. The quantification of the actual external beam dose delivered to the functionally important tissues using dose accumulation strategies and the use of objective measures of individual manifestations of urinary dysfunction will assist in the identification of robust relationships between dose and urinary dysfunction for application in widespread clinical practice.

  15. Dose reduction by x-ray beam filtration in screen-film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koedooder, C.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical aspects of dose reduction by x-ray beam filtration in screen-film radiography. The thesis deals mainly with dose reduction under the constraint of constant image quality; an analytical approach is chosen. Therefore, part of the thesis deals with the development of an algorithm to calculate patient dose and exposure for different filter materials and different tube load conditions, under the constraint of constant contrast and constant optical density. (Auth.)

  16. Estimation of the population dose from medical X-ray diagnostic examination in Shandong province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xieming

    1985-01-01

    The exposure doses on the examinated body surface for verious types of X-ray diagnostic examanition in Shandong Province were surveyed. The collective effective dose equivalent in per million population were calculated with the measured results, the ratios of orga absorbed doses to irradiated surface exposure doses and the frequencies of X-ray examination in Shandong Province. The result was 326 man.Sv per million total population in 1980, of which chest fluoroscopies. lumbar spine radiographies and G.I. examination were estimated to be about 78, 9 and 5 precent, respectively

  17. Studies on γ-ray induced structural changes in Nd{sup 3+} doped lead alumino silicate glasses by means of thermoluminescence for dosimetric applications in high dose ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundara Rao, M. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522 510, Guntur, A.P. (India); Gandhi, Y. [Department of Physics, Kakani Venkata Ratnam College, Nandigama 521 185, A.P. (India); Sanyal, Bhaskar [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bhargavi, K. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522 510, Guntur, A.P. (India); Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University, Ul. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Veeraiah, N., E-mail: nvr8@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522 510, Guntur, A.P. (India)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: TL glow curves of PbO–SiO{sub 2}:Nd{sup 3+} glasses mixed with different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exposed to γ-rays of dose 5.0 kGy. - Highlights: • TL studies of Nd{sup 3+} ions doped lead alumino silicate glasses were carried out. • Highest TL output was observed in the glasses mixed with 10 mol% of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Different mechanisms responsible for TL emission were discussed. • Near linearity of the dose response was observed in the dose range of 1.0–3.0 kGy. • These glasses may be useful as dosimeters in processing perishable food commodities. - Abstract: Thermoluminescence (TL) studies on PbO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}:Nd{sup 3+} glasses mixed with varying concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exposed to γ-rays of dose in the range 0–5.0 kGy were carried out. The TL emission exhibited a dosimetric peak at about 185 °C. The TL output under the glow peak increased with increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and also with the γ-ray dose. The mechanisms responsible for TL emission and enhancement of TL output with increase in the concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were quantitatively discussed in terms of induced structural defects in the vicinity of Nd{sup 3+} ions due to interaction of γ-rays with the glass network in the scenario of varying concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The dose response of these glass samples exhibited linear behavior in the medium dose range viz., 1.0–3.0 kGy. Finally, it is concluded that the glass containing the highest concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits high TL output and such glasses are useful for dosimetry in the range 1.0–3.0 kGy and hence these glasses may be useful for dosimetry in such high range of doses required for commercial radiation processing of perishable food commodities to extend their shelf-lives.

  18. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... period is introduced and its implication on the calculation of footbridge response is discussed. Finally, a brief comparison is made between the theoretically predicted pedestrian-induced vertical response of an 80m long RC footbridge (as an example) and actual field measurements. The comparison shows...

  19. Low-dose X-ray CT reconstruction via dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Mou, Xuanqin; Zhang, Lei; Hsieh, Jiang; Wang, Ge

    2012-09-01

    Although diagnostic medical imaging provides enormous benefits in the early detection and accuracy diagnosis of various diseases, there are growing concerns on the potential side effect of radiation induced genetic, cancerous and other diseases. How to reduce radiation dose while maintaining the diagnostic performance is a major challenge in the computed tomography (CT) field. Inspired by the compressive sensing theory, the sparse constraint in terms of total variation (TV) minimization has already led to promising results for low-dose CT reconstruction. Compared to the discrete gradient transform used in the TV method, dictionary learning is proven to be an effective way for sparse representation. On the other hand, it is important to consider the statistical property of projection data in the low-dose CT case. Recently, we have developed a dictionary learning based approach for low-dose X-ray CT. In this paper, we present this method in detail and evaluate it in experiments. In our method, the sparse constraint in terms of a redundant dictionary is incorporated into an objective function in a statistical iterative reconstruction framework. The dictionary can be either predetermined before an image reconstruction task or adaptively defined during the reconstruction process. An alternating minimization scheme is developed to minimize the objective function. Our approach is evaluated with low-dose X-ray projections collected in animal and human CT studies, and the improvement associated with dictionary learning is quantified relative to filtered backprojection and TV-based reconstructions. The results show that the proposed approach might produce better images with lower noise and more detailed structural features in our selected cases. However, there is no proof that this is true for all kinds of structures.

  20. Balancing patient dose and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.J.; Sutton, D.G.; Sharp, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of images in diagnostic radiology involves a complex interdependence of many factors. The ideal balance is to obtain an image which is adequate for the clinical purpose with the minimum radiation dose. Factors which affect radiation dose and image quality can be grouped under three headings; radiation quality, photon fluence and removal of scattered radiation. If optimal performance is to be achieved, it is necessary to understand how these factors influence image formation and affect radiation dose, and apply methodology for image quality and dose analysis at each stage in the development and use of X-ray equipment

  1. Adult and child doses in standardised X ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallini, R.E.; Belletti, S.; Berna, V.; Giugni, U.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on patient doses measured during standard hospital routine in seven radiological departments in the Province of Brescia. This study is part of a Quality Assurance Programme, carried out to assess the possibility and validity of a regional protocol. Before collecting dose data, tests on the performance of the X ray units and processors were performed in every department according to a Quality Control Protocol. The following examinations were considered: chest, knee, lumbar spine, pelvis, skull and barium meal. The surface entrance doses of 314 adults and 216 children were measured. The sample size for barium meal was lower: 65 adults and only 10 children. The patients anthropometric data and the technical parameters used were collected at the same time. For adults the organ doses and effective dose equivalent (EDE) were calculated. A wide range of entrance doses were obtained both for adults and children. The reasons can be: patient size, performance of the equipment and processors, film-screen combination, use of AEC, use of fluoroscopy and grid, training and skill of the staff

  2. Adult and child doses in standardised X ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallini, R.E.; Belletti, S.; Berna, V.; Giugni, U.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on patient doses measured during standard hospital routine in seven radiological departments in the Province of Brescia, as part of a Quality Assurance Programme, carried out to assess the possibility and validity of a regional protocol. Before collecting dose data, tests on the performance of the X ray units and processors were performed in every department according to a Quality Control Protocol. The following examinations were considered: chest, knee, lumbar spine, pelvis, skull and barium meal. Surface entrance doses of 314 adults and 216 children were measured. The sample size for barium meal was lower: 65 adults and 10 children. The patients anthropometric data and technical parameters used were collected at the same time. For adults the organ doses and effective dose equivalent (EDE) were calculated. A wide range of entrance doses were obtained both for adults and children, due to patient size, performance of the equipment and processors, film-screen combination, use of AEC, use of fluoroscopy and grid, training and skill of the staff. (author)

  3. Assessment of patient doses and image quality in X-ray diagnostics in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olerud, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Results from other industrialized countries indicate that the annual number of diagnostic procedures approaches one for every member of the population, and in many cases the individual radiation doses are higher than from any other human activity. Furthermore, the doses to patients for the same type of examination differ widely from place to place, suggesting that there is a considerable potential for dose reduction. This motivated an investigation of the diagnostic use of X-rays in Norway. The trends in the number of X-ray examinations performed annually have been studied. The patient doses (all diagnostics) and image quality (mammography and computed tomography) have been assessed for various radiological procedures. This form the basis for the assessment of total collective effective dose (CED) from X-rays in Norway, and further risk estimates. The radiological practice has then been evaluated according to the radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation. Based on the 1993 examination frequency, the total CED was assessed to 3400 manSv (0.78 mSv/inhabitant). It is estimated that this radiation burden may cause about 100 excess cancer deaths annually. The frequency of CT examination has doubled every fifth year, and did in 1993 represent 7% of the total number of examinations and 30% of the total CED. 129 refs

  4. Assessment of patient doses and image quality in X-ray diagnostics in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olerud, H M

    1998-06-01

    Results from other industrialized countries indicate that the annual number of diagnostic procedures approaches one for every member of the population, and in many cases the individual radiation doses are higher than from any other human activity. Furthermore, the doses to patients for the same type of examination differ widely from place to place, suggesting that there is a considerable potential for dose reduction. This motivated an investigation of the diagnostic use of X-rays in Norway. The trends in the number of X-ray examinations performed annually have been studied. The patient doses (all diagnostics) and image quality (mammography and computed tomography) have been assessed for various radiological procedures. This form the basis for the assessment of total collective effective dose (CED) from X-rays in Norway, and further risk estimates. The radiological practice has then been evaluated according to the radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation. Based on the 1993 examination frequency, the total CED was assessed to 3400 manSv (0.78 mSv/inhabitant). It is estimated that this radiation burden may cause about 100 excess cancer deaths annually. The frequency of CT examination has doubled every fifth year, and did in 1993 represent 7% of the total number of examinations and 30% of the total CED. 129 refs.

  5. Radiation transport of cosmic ray nuclei in lunar material and radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C.H.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Letaw, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation environment on the lunar surface is inhospitable. The permanent settlers may work ten hours per 24-hour interval for the two-week-long lunar day on the lunar surface, or 20 percent of the total time. At moderate depths below the lunar surface (less than 200 g/sq cm) the flux of secondary neutrons exceeds considerably that in the upper atmosphere of the earth, due to cosmic-ray interactions with lunar material. The annual dose equivalent due to neutrons is about 20 or 25 rem within the upper meter of the lunar surface. The dose equivalent due to gamma rays generated by nuclear interactions near the lunar surface is only on the order of 1 percent of that due to neutrons. However, gamma-ray line emission from excited nuclei and nuclear spallation products generated by cosmic rays near the lunar surface is of considerable interest: these lines permit the partial determination of lunar composition by gamma spectroscopy. 12 references

  6. Relationship between radiation dose and changes of blood cells in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenzheng

    1984-01-01

    The hematological changes of 2867 cases of medical X-ray workers and 1152 cases of non-X-ray medical workers were compared. It was shown that the total number of leukocytes, the numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets were significantly lower in X-ray workers than those in controls. However, the percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and the concentration of hemoglobin were higher in the irradiated group. the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The degree of changes in the number of blood cells was dose-dependent. A negative correlation could be found between the changes of leukocyte and neutrophil counts and cumulative dose (<250 mGy), annual dose (<15 mGy/a) and length of service of the X-ray workers; and a positive correlation existed between the percentages of basophils, eosinophils and monocytes, and the radiation dose. The abnormality rate of blood picture in the irradiated group was higher than that in the control group. Most X-ray workers with abnormal blood picture were distributed in low-dose group. The data also showed that radiation effect on male X-ray workers was greater than that on female workers. (Author)

  7. Mathematical model for evaluation of dose-rate effect on biological responses to low dose γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.; Kawakami, Y.; Magae, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate quantitative dose-response relationship on the biological response to radiation, it is necessary to consider a model including cumulative dose, dose-rate and irradiation time. In this study, we measured micronucleus formation and [ 3 H] thymidine uptake in human cells as indices of biological response to gamma radiation, and analyzed mathematically and statistically the data for quantitative evaluation of radiation risk at low dose/low dose-rate. Effective dose (ED x ) was mathematically estimated by fitting a general function of logistic model to the dose-response relationship. Assuming that biological response depends on not only cumulative dose but also dose-rate and irradiation time, a multiple logistic function was applied to express the relationship of the three variables. Moreover, to estimate the effect of radiation at very low dose, we proposed a modified exponential model. From the results of fitting curves to the inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake and micronucleus formation, it was obvious that ED 50 in proportion of inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake increased with longer irradiation time. As for the micronuclei, ED 30 also increased with longer irradiation times. These results suggest that the biological response depends on not only total dose but also irradiation time. The estimated response surface using the three variables showed that the biological response declined sharply when the dose-rate was less than 0.01 Gy/h. These results suggest that the response does not depend on total cumulative dose at very low dose-rates. Further, to investigate the effect of dose-rate within a wider range, we analyzed the relationship between ED x and dose-rate. Fitted curves indicated that ED x increased sharply when dose-rate was less than 10 -2 Gy/h. The increase of ED x signifies the decline of the response or the risk and suggests that the risk approaches to 0 at infinitely low dose-rate

  8. Low-dose multiple-information retrieval algorithm for X-ray grating-based imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhentian; Huang Zhifeng; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Jiang Xiaolei; Kang Kejun; Yin Hongxia; Wang Zhenchang; Stampanoni, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The present work proposes a low dose information retrieval algorithm for X-ray grating-based multiple-information imaging (GB-MII) method, which can retrieve the attenuation, refraction and scattering information of samples by only three images. This algorithm aims at reducing the exposure time and the doses delivered to the sample. The multiple-information retrieval problem in GB-MII is solved by transforming a nonlinear equations set to a linear equations and adopting the nature of the trigonometric functions. The proposed algorithm is validated by experiments both on conventional X-ray source and synchrotron X-ray source, and compared with the traditional multiple-image-based retrieval algorithm. The experimental results show that our algorithm is comparable with the traditional retrieval algorithm and especially suitable for high Signal-to-Noise system.

  9. Mutagenic adaptive response to high-LET radiation in human lymphoblastoid cells exposed to X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varès, Guillaume; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Kakimoto, Ayana; Eguchi-Kasai, Kyomi; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-10

    The ability of cells to adapt low-dose or low-dose rate radiation is well known. High-LET radiation has unique characteristics, and the data concerning low doses effects and high-LET radiation remain fragmented. In this study, we assessed in vitro the ability of low doses of X-rays to induce an adaptive response (AR) to a subsequent challenging dose of heavy-ion radiation. Lymphoblastoid cells (TK6, AHH-1, NH32) were exposed to priming 0.02-0.1Gy X-rays, followed 6h later by challenging 1Gy heavy-ion radiation (carbon-ion: 20 and 40keV/μm, neon-ion: 150keV/μm). Pre-exposure of p53-competent cells resulted in decreased mutation frequencies at hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus and different H2AX phosphorylation kinetics, as compared to cells exposed to challenging radiation alone. This phenomenon did not seem to be linked with cell cycle effects or radiation-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggested the existence of an AR to mutagenic effects of heavy-ion radiation in lymphoblastoid cells and the involvement of double-strand break repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between the adaptive response and bystander effect produced by single cell irradiation using a focused ultrasoft x-ray microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.; Schettino, G.; Folkard, M.; Yu, Z.; Prise, K.; Michael, B.; Wang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Using the cell killing method and our newly developed focused carbon-K ultrasoft X-rays, we tested for an interaction between bystander responses and adaptive responses by irradiating only one V79 cell in a population with a dose of 0.2 or 1Gy, combined with a conventional 240kVp X irradiation (0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.2 or 1Gy) 2 hours before or after bystander treatment. The clonogenic survival of V79 cells was precisely measured by a single cell revisiting assay after incubation for 3 days. Our results clearly showed that the cell killing by the bystander treatment could be reduced by about 5% if we treated the cells with a very low dose of conventional 240kVp X-rays of 0.01 or 0.05Gy (at which dose they only kill 1 or 2% cells in a population), whether the conventional dose was given before or after bystander irradiation. When the conventional dose was increased to 0.2 or 1Gy (at which dose they could kill about 10 or 25% V79 cells), no adaptive response was found if we treated the cells with conventional irradiation first and bystander irradiation afterwards. However, the adaptive responses observed when we irradiated a single cell within the whole cell population before 0.2 or 1Gy conventional irradiation was given. This showed that the bystander-mediated adaptive response could increase the cell survival by 5 or 8% respectively compared with the cell killing by conventional irradiation of 0.2 or 1Gy only. We also tested the distribution of dead clones in the microbeam dishes either for bystander irradiation only or combined with conventional X-rays. We did not find any distance relationship between the irradiated cell and non-irradiated cells, which was consistent with our previous bystander irradiation studies showing an equal probability of finding damaged clones any where in the scanned area of the dish

  11. Significance of manipulating tumour hypoxia and radiation dose rate in terms of local tumour response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kashino, G; Hirayama, R; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kinashi, Y; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of manipulating intratumour oxygenation status and radiation dose rate on local tumour response and lung metastases following radiotherapy, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations within irradiated tumours. B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation at high dose rate (HDR) or reduced dose rate (RDR) following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local hyperthermia at mild temperatures (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Following HDR irradiation, nicotinamide and MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the total and Q-cell populations, respectively. The decrease in sensitivity at RDR irradiation compared with HDR irradiation was slightly inhibited by MTH, especially in Q cells. Without γ-ray irradiation, nicotinamide treatment tended to reduce the number of lung metastases. With γ-rays, in combination with nicotinamide or MTH, especially the former, HDR irradiation decreased the number of metastases more remarkably than RDR irradiation. Manipulating both tumour hypoxia and irradiation dose rate have the potential to influence lung metastasis. The combination with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide may be more promising in HDR than RDR irradiation in terms of reducing the number of lung metastases. PMID:20739345

  12. Inverse dose-rate-effects on the expressions of extra-cellular matrix-related genes in low-dose-rate γ-ray irradiated murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Takashi; Tanaka, Kimio; Oghiso, Yoichi; Murano, Hayato

    2008-01-01

    Based on the results of previous microarray analyses of murine NIH3T3/PG13Luc cells irradiated with continuous low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-ray or end-high-dose-rate-irradiations (end-HDR) at the end of the LDR-irradiation period, the inverse dose-rate-effects on gene expression levels were observed. To compare differences of the effects between LDR-irradiation and HDR-irradiation, HDR-irradiations at 2 different times, one (ini-HDR) at the same time at the start of LDR-irradiation and the other (end-HDR), were performed. The up-regulated genes were classified into two types, in which one was up-regulated in LDR-, ini-HDR-, and end-HDR irradiation such as Cdkn1a and Ccng1, which were reported as p53-dependent genes, and the other was up-regulated in LDR- and ini-HDR irradiations such as pro-collagen TypeIa2/Colla2, TenascinC/Tnc, and Fibulin5/Fbln5, which were reported as extra-cellular matrix-related (ECM) genes. The time dependent gene expression patterns in LDR-irradiation were also classified into two types, in which one was an early response such as in Cdkn1a and Ccng1 and the other was a delayed response such as the ECM genes which have no linearity to total dose. The protein expression pattern of Cdkn1a increased dose dependently in LDR- and end-HDR-irradiations, but those of p53Ser15/18 and MDM2 in LDR-irradiations were different from end-HDR-irradiations. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of the ECM genes in embryonic fibroblasts from p53-deficient mice were not increased by LDR- and end-HDR-irradiation, so the delayed expressions of the ECM genes seem to be regulated by p53. Consequently, the inverse dose-rate-effects on the expression levels of the ECM genes in LDR- and end-HDR-irradiations may be explained from different time responses by p53 status. (author)

  13. Response Surface Methodology: An Extensive Potential to Optimize in vivo Photodynamic Therapy Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirand, Loraine; Bastogne, Thierry; Bechet, Denise M.Sc.; Linder, Michel; Thomas, Noemie; Frochot, Celine; Guillemin, Francois; Barberi-Heyob, Muriel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the interaction of a photosensitizing (PS) agent, light, and oxygen. Few new PS agents are being developed to the in vivo stage, partly because of the difficulty in finding the right treatment conditions. Response surface methodology, an empirical modeling approach based on data resulting from a set of designed experiments, was suggested as a rational solution with which to select in vivo PDT conditions by using a new peptide-conjugated PS targeting agent, neuropilin-1. Methods and Materials: A Doehlert experimental design was selected to model effects and interactions of the PS dose, fluence, and fluence rate on the growth of U87 human malignant glioma cell xenografts in nude mice, using a fixed drug-light interval. All experimental results were computed by Nemrod-W software and Matlab. Results: Intrinsic diameter growth rate, a tumor growth parameter independent of the initial volume of the tumor, was selected as the response variable and was compared to tumor growth delay and relative tumor volumes. With only 13 experimental conditions tested, an optimal PDT condition was selected (PS agent dose, 2.80 mg/kg; fluence, 120 J/cm 2 ; fluence rate, 85 mW/cm 2 ). Treatment of glioma-bearing mice with the peptide-conjugated PS agent, followed by the optimized PDT condition showed a statistically significant improvement in delaying tumor growth compared with animals who received the PDT with the nonconjugated PS agent. Conclusions: Response surface methodology appears to be a useful experimental approach for rapid testing of different treatment conditions and determination of optimal values of PDT factors for any PS agent.

  14. Pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate blunted p53 response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Asakawa, I.; Tamamoto, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Yuki, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Tachibana, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We have studied whether the p53-centered signal transduction pathway induced by acute radiation is interfered with chronic pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate in human cultured cells and whole body of mice. In squamous cell carcinoma cells, we found that a challenge irradiation with X-ray immediately after chronic irradiation resulted in lower levels of p53 than those observed after the challenge irradiation alone. In addition, the induction of p53-centered apoptosis and the accumulation of its related proteins after the challenge irradiation were strongly correlated with the above-mentioned phenomena. In mouse spleen, the induction of apoptosis and the accumulation of p53 and Bax were observed dose-dependently at 12 h after a challenge irradiation. In contrast, we found significant suppression of them induced by challenge irradiation at a high dose-rate when mice were pre-irradiated with chronic irradiation at a low dose-rate. These findings suggest that chronic pre-irradiation suppressed the p53 function through radiation-induced p53-dependent signal transduction processes. There are numerous papers about p53 functions in apoptosis, radiosensitivity, genomic instability and cancer incidence in cultured cells or animals. According to our data and other findings, since p53 can prevent carcinogenesis, pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate might enhance the predisposition to cancer. Therefore, it is possible that different maximal permissible dose equivalents for the public populations are appropriate. Furthermore, concerning health of human beings, studies of the adaptive responses to radiation are quite important, because the radiation response strongly depends on experience of prior exposure to radiation

  15. Assessment of pediatrics radiation dose from routine x-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Given the fact that children are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than adults,with an increased risk of developing radiation-induced cancer,special care should be taken when they undergo X-ray examinations. The main aim of the current study was to determine Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) to pediatric ...

  16. MONTEC, an interactive fortran program to simulate radiation dose and dose-rate responses of populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.A.; Szekely, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    The computer program MONTEC was written to simulate the distribution of responses in a population whose members are exposed to multiple radiation doses at variable dose rates. These doses and dose rates are randomly selected from lognormal distributions. The individual radiation responses are calculated from three equations, which include dose and dose-rate terms. Other response-dose/rate relationships or distributions can be incorporated by the user as the need arises. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. This version is written in FORTRAN-10 for the DEC system PDP-10

  17. Thermoluminescence Response of Copper-Doped Potassium Borate Glass Subjected to 6 Megavolt X-Ray Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, I.; Shekaili, N. K.; Wagiran, H.

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses the characteristics of Cu-doped and undoped potassium borate glass for use as ionizing radiation dosimeters by investigating and comparing the thermoluminescence responses, linearity, sensitivity and dose response s of the two types of glasses. A number of samples based on xK 2 CO 3 + (100 - x)H 3 BO 3 , where 10 ≤ x ≤ 30 mol.%, have been prepared using a melt quenching technique. The amorphous phases were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The undoped potassium borate samples 20K 2 CO 3 + 80H 3 BO 3 (mol.%) and Cu-doped (0.5 mol.%) samples were placed in a solid phantom apparatus and irradiated with in X-ray tube under 6 MV accelerating voltage with doses ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 Gy. This beam was produced by the Primus MLC 3339 linear accelerator (LINAC) available at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The results clearly show the superiority of Cu-doped glass in terms of response and sensitivity to producing luminescence over undoped potassium borate glass. The sensitivity of Cu-doped glass is 6.75 times greater than that of undoped glass.

  18. Effect of repeated small-dose γ-ray irradiation on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Su-Ping; Muto, Yasuko; Tago, Fumitoshi; Simura, Noriko; Kojima, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that several small-dose 0.5 Gy whole-body γ-ray irradiation inhibits tumor growth in mice via elevation of the interferon (IFN)-γ/interleukin 4 (IL-4) ratio concomitantly with a decrease in the percentage of B cells. Here, we examined whether repeated small-dose (0.5 Gy, 10 times) γ-ray irradiation influences atopic dermatitis in an NC/Nga mouse model. It was found that repeated γ-ray irradiation increased total IgE in comparison with the disease-control group. Levels of IL-4 and IL-5 were increased versus the disease-control group, while IFN-γ was slightly decreased, resulting in a further decrease of the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio compared with the disease-control group. These results indicate that repeated small-dose γ-ray irradiation may exacerbate atopic dermatitis. This may be because the irradiation induces not helper T lymphocyte 1 (Th1), but Th2 polarization in this atopic mouse model, i.e., the effects of small-dose irradiation may be different in conditions involving immune hypersensitivity and impaired immunity. (author)

  19. Relationship between mutation frequency of GPA locus and cumulative dose among medical diagnostic X-ray workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Yu Wenru; Li Benxiao; Fan Tiqiang; Li Zhen; Gao Zhiwei; Chen Zhenjun; Zhao Yongcheng

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of using GPA locus mutation assay as a bio-dosimeter for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods: An improved technique of GPA locus mutation assay was used in th study. The frequencies of mutant RBC in peripheral blood of 55 medical X-ray workers and 50 controls employed in different calendar-year periods were detected. The relationship between mutation frequencies (MFs) and period of entry, working years and cumulative doses were analyzed. Results: The MFs were significantly elevated among X-ray workers employed before 1970. This finding is similar to the result of cancer epidemiological study among medical X-ray workers , in which the cancer risk was significantly increased only X-ray workers employed before 1970. The MFs of GPA increased with increasing cumulative dose. The dose-effect relationship of Nφ MF with cumulative dose was closer than that of NN MF. Conclusion: There are many problems to be solved for using GPA MF assay as a bio-dosimeter such as individual variation, specificity and calibration curve of dose-effect relationship

  20. Effect Of Small Doses On THE Thymus In Pediatric Chest X - Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Dj.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Anzic, S. A.; Zagar, I.

    2015-01-01

    The thymus, pyramid-shaped lymphoid organ is immediately beneath the breastbone at the level of the heart, therefore chest X-ray covers the position of thymus. The thymus is divided into two lobes, lying on either side of the midline of the body. Unlike most other lymphoid structures, the thymus grows rapidly and attains its greatest size relative to the rest of the body during fetal life and the first years after birth. The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. It has big responsibility helping the body protect itself against autoimmunity diseases. It is well known from literature data that thymus size reduced at radiotherapy irradiation. After many years of experience in X-ray chest diagnostics with children a fairly regular thymus size reduction after exposure to diagnostic low doses was noticed. Therefore it was analysed at what percentage of children patients their control radiograms would exhibit a thymus shade decrease compared to the primary image taken at the illness out-set. In the Children Hospital Srebrnjak in one year 1972 children in the age group 0 - 5 years underwent X-ray exam. In our earlier study at PA and profile projections of lung examinations of this age group 0.15 mSv and 0.11 mSv average doses were measured on the back and on the chest, respectively. From this group the radiograms of those 119 children were analysed who were exposed, according to medical indication, to control examinations. 58 of the investigated patients showed enlarged thymus at the first exam. It could be seen from the control radiogram that 52 children of these 58 patients had significant or discrete decrease in size of thymus. Taking into account that thymus has very important role in maturity of T-lymphocytes and development of immunology tolerance these empiric statements are important for radiation protection of children in X-ray diagnostic of chest. (author).

  1. Implementation of Ray Safe i2 System for staff dose measuring in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershan, Vesna; Atsovska, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    Interventional radiology procedures usually delivered the highest radiation dose to the patients as well as to medical personal. Beside another factors like patient size, fluoroscopy time, machine calibration etc., a good clinical practice has strong effects to staff and patient’s radiation dose. Materials and methods: In August 2012, a Ray Safe i2 system was installed in a private hospital in Skopje. The main purpose of this dosimetry system is to provide real time indication for the current exposure level of the medical personal. Knowing that, the staff has prerequisites to adjust their behavior to minimize unnecessary exposure like changing distance from exposed volume, C-ram angulations, field of view etc. and on this way to develop a good clinical practice. The Ray Safe i2 system is consisted by ten digital dosimeters, two dock stations, real time display, dose viewer and dose manager software. During interventional procedures, each involved staff wears dosimeter which measures and records X-Ray exposure every second and transfer the data wirelessly to the real time display. Color indication bars (green, yellow, red) represents the intensity of the currently received exposure, whereas green zone indicates < 0.2 mSv/h, yellow zone from 0.2 to 2 mSv/h and red zone indications from 2 to 20 mSv/h. Additionally, accumulated dose per individual is displayed next to the color indication bars. By using the software, information about personal dose history, such as annual dose, dose per particular session, hour, day or week, can be viewed and analyzed. Results: In this work it was found that staff accumulated doses were constantly increased over time, but reported number of procedures does not correspond to this tendency. Our assumption is that there is a misleading between reported number and actual performed procedures. Doctor1 received 55 times more dose than Doctor2 and Nurse1 received 11 to 3 times more dose than another Nurses. It was found a correlation of R2

  2. Response Surface Methodology: 1966-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    male broilers to examine quantitatively the protein levels in starter and Gnisher rations and the time of ration change to optimize body weight, carcass...1983). ’Akn Investigation of Protein Levels for Broiler Starter and Finisher Rations and the Time of Ration Change by Response Surface Methodology...when Responses Within a Litter are Correlated,’ Biometrics, 37, 153-156. Shek, E., Ghani, M. and Jones, R.E. (1980). "Simplex Search in Optimization

  3. Dose fractionation in synchrotron radiation x-ray phase micro-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachon, Thibaut; Weber, Loriane; Hesse, Bernhard; Rit, Simon; Dong, Pei; Olivier, Cecile; Peyrin, Françoise; Langer, Max

    2015-01-01

    Phase sensitive x-ray imaging expands the applicability of standard attenuation based techniques by offering several orders of magnitude of increase in sensitivity. Due to the short wavelength, x-ray phase is not directly measurable, but has to be put in evidence by the use of phase contrast techniques. The phase can then be reconstructed from one or several phase contrast images. In this study, we consider synchrotron x-ray phase micro-computed tomography (μCT) based on free space propagation for heterogeneous and strongly absorbing objects. This technique generally relies on acquiring several scans of the sample at different detector distances. It is also generally believed that multi-distance phase μCT needs a higher dose input than single distance phase μCT. The purpose of this work is to study the impact of different means of dose fractionation on the reconstructed image quality. We define different acquistion schemes in multi-distance in-line phase μCT. Previously, the exposure time at each sample-to-detector distance was usually kept the same. Here, we let not only the number of distances vary but also the fraction of exposure time at each distance, the total exposure time being kept constant. Phase retrieval is performed with the mixed approach algorithm. The reconstructed μCT images are compared in terms of accuracy, precision and resolution. In addition, we also compare the result of dose fractionated multi distance phase μCT to single distance phase μCT using the same total radiation dose. In the multi-distance approach, we find that using different exposure times on each distance improves the image quality in the reconstructed image. Further, we show that, despite having the same total dose delivery, the multi distance imaging method gives better image quality than the single distance method, at the cost of an additional overhead from camera displacements and reference images. We show that by optimizing the acquistion parameters in terms of

  4. Radiation Dose-Response Relationships and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    The notion of a dose-response relationship was probably invented shortly after the discovery of poisons, the invention of alcoholic beverages, and the bringing of fire into a confined space in the forgotten depths of ancient prehistory. The amount of poison or medicine ingested can easily be observed to affect the behavior, health, or sickness outcome. Threshold effects, such as death, could be easily understood for intoxicants, medicine, and poisons. As Paracelsus (1493-1541), the 'father' of modern toxicology said, 'It is the dose that makes the poison.' Perhaps less obvious is the fact that implicit in such dose-response relationships is also the notion of dose rate. Usually, the dose is administered fairly acutely, in a single injection, pill, or swallow; a few puffs on a pipe; or a meal of eating or drinking. The same amount of intoxicants, medicine, or poisons administered over a week or month might have little or no observable effect. Thus, before the discovery of ionizing radiation in the late 19th century, toxicology ('the science of poisons') and pharmacology had deeply ingrained notions of dose-response relationships. This chapter demonstrates that the notion of a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation is hopelessly simplistic from a scientific standpoint. While useful from a policy or regulatory standpoint, dose-response relationships cannot possibly convey enough information to describe the problem from a quantitative view of radiation biology, nor can they address societal values. Three sections of this chapter address the concepts, observations, and theories that contribute to the scientific input to the practice of managing risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. The presentation begins with irradiation regimes, followed by responses to high and low doses of ionizing radiation, and a discussion of how all of this can inform radiation risk management. The knowledge that is really needed for prediction of individual risk is presented

  5. Development and Attestation of Gamma-Ray Measurement Methodologies for use by Rostekhnadzor Inspectors in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeff Sanders

    2006-01-01

    Development and attestation of gamma-ray non-destructive assay measurement methodologies for use by inspectors of the Russian Federal Service for Environmental, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostekhnadzor, formerly Gosatomnadzor or GAN), as well as for use by Russian nuclear facilities, has been completed. Specifically, a methodology utilizing the gamma-ray multi group analysis (MGA) method for determining plutonium isotopic composition has been developed, while existing methodologies to determining uranium enrichment and isotopic composition have been revised to make them more appropriate to the material types and conditions present in nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation. This paper will discuss the development and revision of these methodologies, the metrological characteristics of the final methodologies, as well as the limitations and concerns specific to the utilization of these analysis methods in the Russian Federation

  6. Dose response characteristics of polymethacrylic acid gel (PMAAG) for a polymerization-based dosimeter using NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, S M; Elias, S; Jumiah, H; Asri, M T M; Masrianis, A; Ab Rahman, M Z; Taiman, K; Abdul Rashid, M Y

    2004-05-01

    The radiation-response characteristics of polymetharylic acid gel dosimeter prepared with different concentrations of monomer and cross-linker is described in these studies. The dosimeters were prepared under the hypoxic condition in a glove box and were then irradiated with gamma-rays produced by Co-60 radionuclide that was generated at 1.25MeV energy. The irradiation took place at different doses ranged from 0Gy to 19Gy. Due to the radiation activities, chain-reaction polymerisation processes had taken place in the formation of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) gel, which cause the dose response mechanism increased in the NMR relaxation rates of protons. It has been observed that for higher concentration of monomer and cross-linker, the polymerization rate was increased.

  7. Health risk assessment of doses to patients\\' eyes from dental X-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The skin entry dose to patients\\' eyes during dental x-ray examination was carried out on one hundred and ten patients comprising infants and adult of both sexes. The dose measurements was performed at Alpha dental centre, Ibadan, using Lithium fluoride thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLD). The results of the study ...

  8. Low-Dose X-ray CT Reconstruction via Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong; Zhang, Lei; Hsieh, Jiang; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Although diagnostic medical imaging provides enormous benefits in the early detection and accuracy diagnosis of various diseases, there are growing concerns on the potential side effect of radiation induced genetic, cancerous and other diseases. How to reduce radiation dose while maintaining the diagnostic performance is a major challenge in the computed tomography (CT) field. Inspired by the compressive sensing theory, the sparse constraint in terms of total variation (TV) minimization has already led to promising results for low-dose CT reconstruction. Compared to the discrete gradient transform used in the TV method, dictionary learning is proven to be an effective way for sparse representation. On the other hand, it is important to consider the statistical property of projection data in the low-dose CT case. Recently, we have developed a dictionary learning based approach for low-dose X-ray CT. In this paper, we present this method in detail and evaluate it in experiments. In our method, the sparse constraint in terms of a redundant dictionary is incorporated into an objective function in a statistical iterative reconstruction framework. The dictionary can be either predetermined before an image reconstruction task or adaptively defined during the reconstruction process. An alternating minimization scheme is developed to minimize the objective function. Our approach is evaluated with low-dose X-ray projections collected in animal and human CT studies, and the improvement associated with dictionary learning is quantified relative to filtered backprojection and TV-based reconstructions. The results show that the proposed approach might produce better images with lower noise and more detailed structural features in our selected cases. However, there is no proof that this is true for all kinds of structures. PMID:22542666

  9. Effects of single doses of X-rays on renal function in the pig after the irradiation of both kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of a single kidney in the pig with relatively low doses of X-rays, in the order of 8 Gy, produces a pronounced reduction in both glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). This apparent high radiosensitivity may be due, in part, to the compensatory hypertrophy displayed by the contralateral unirradiated kidney. This could suppress any potential for recovery by the irradiated kidney. To test this hypothesis, both kidneys of 14-week-old Large White pigs were sequentially irradiated with single doses of 250 kV X-rays, in the range 8.8 to 12.6 Gy. Two weeks after irradiation, GFR and ERPF increased markedly in all irradiated kidneys; levels then declined in a dose-dependent manner. Following a dose of 8.8 Gy renal haemodynamics returned to control values within 4 weeks of irradiation. After higher doses, GFR and ERPF decreased markedly and remained below control values up to 24 weeks after irradiation. At all doses the mean functional status of irradiated kidneys in animals in which both kidneys were irradiated was significantly greater than that previously observed in the irradiated kidney of pigs in which only one kidney was irradiated. The findings support the above hypothesis, and indicate that individual kidneys in the same animal may differ in their response to a similar nephrotoxic insult. 35 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Scatter and transmission doses from several pediatric X-ray examinations in a nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, John W.; Rampant, Peter L.; Beeson, Brendan P.

    2003-01-01

    While several studies have investigated the dose from scattered radiation from X-ray procedures in a pediatric nursery, they examined scatter from chest procedures only, or the types of examination were not specified. The aim of this study was to collect scatter and transmission data from several types of X-ray examinations. Using a ''newborn'' anthropomorphic phantom and an ion chamber, a series of scatter and transmission dose measurements were performed using typical exposure factors for chest, chest and abdomen, skull, skeletal long bone and spine procedures. The phantom was inside a crib for all exposures. The maximum scatter dose measured at 1 m from the field center was about 0.05 μGy per exposure for lateral skulls. Transmission doses for lateral exams were around 0.1 μGy per exposure at 1 m from the isocenter. The study demonstrated that scatter dose to other patients in a neonatal unit is not significant, assuming the distance between adjacent cribs is in the order of 1 m. Transmission doses are also low provided the beam is fully intercepted by the cassette. For an average workload the dose received by imaging technologists would be small. (orig.)

  11. Commentary: progress in optimization of patient dose and image quality in x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.; Chan, H.-P.

    1999-01-01

    X-ray diagnostics gives the largest contribution to the population dose from man-made radiation sources. Strategies for reduction of patient doses without loss of diagnostic accuracy are therefore of great interest to society and have been focussed in general terms by the ICRP (ICRP 1996) through the introduction of the concept of diagnostic reference levels. The European Union has stimulated research in the field, and, based on patient dose measurements and radiologists' appreciation of acceptable image quality, good radiographic techniques have been identified and recommended (EUR 1996a, b) for conventional screen-film imaging. These efforts have resulted in notable dose reductions in clinical practices (Hart et al 1996). In spite of 100 years of use of x-rays for diagnostics, the choice of technique parameters still relies to a great extent on experience. Scientific efforts to optimize the choice in terms of finding the parameter settings which yield sufficient image quality at the lowest possible cost in dose are still rare. True optimization requires (1) estimation of the image quality needed to make a correct diagnosis and (2) methods to investigate all possible means of achieving this image quality in order to be able to decide which of them gives the lowest dose. The paper by Tapiovaara, Sandborg and Dance published in this issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology (pages 537-559) addresses the optimization of paediatric fluoroscopy, a timely and important topic. Fluoroscopy procedures, used to guide x-ray examinations or interventional procedures, are little standardized and may result in high dose levels; radiation exposure in childhood is likely to result in a higher lifetime risk than the same exposure later in life. The authors represent an interesting mix of expertise within various scientific fields: the theory of medical imaging and assessment of image quality, the physics of diagnostic radiology and radiation dosimetry. They provide good insights

  12. Methodology of ionizing radiation measurement, from x-ray equipment, for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Katia C.S.; Borges, Jose C.

    1996-01-01

    Most of X-rays beam used for diagnostic, are short exposure time (milliseconds). Exception are those used in fluoroscopy. measuring instruments (area monitors with ionizing chambers or Geiger tubes) used in hospitals and clinics, in general, have characteristic answer time not adequate to X-rays beams length in time. Our objective was to analyse instruments available commercially, to prepare a measuring methodology for direct and secondary beams, in order to evaluate protection barriers for beams used in diagnostic radiology installations. (author)

  13. Suitable gamma ray dose determination in order to induce genetic variation in kaboli chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naserian Khiabani, B.; Ahari Mostafavi, H.; Fathollahi, H.; Vedadi, S.; Mosavi Shalmani, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of chickpea's use in Iran and its ability of being replaced to adjust the shortage of protein in dietary habits, yield production is very low. One of the main reasons for chickpea's low yield production is its sensitiveness to some diseases, pest and environmental stresses. Genetic variation in chickpea is very low, because of its self pollination. In breeding programs, genetic variation plays an essential role so that the induction of genetic variation in plant population is very important for the plant breeders. The induced mutation through different kinds of mutagens is one of the important ways of genetic variation. In this research, first the sensitiveness of four cultivars (ILC.486, Philip86, Bivinich, Jam) were assessed to different gamma ray doses (100, 200, 300, 400 Gy). The results showed that with an increase in gamma ray dose, the growth rate of chickpea's genotypes decreases. In this respect, the decrease of growth rate has a linear relationship with the gamma ray dose and it is independent from the genotypes. The root length is more sensitive to gamma ray doses than its shoot, and it was observed that at the low doses the root growth decreases, comparing to the shoot growth. On the other hand, in high doses of gamma ray growth abrasion (Ageotropism, Albinism and etc.) were observed. Some traits variation (such as leaf shape, leaf size, leaf color, Albinism, etc.) were seen in M 2 generation, and finally to continue the project, three doses of gamma ray (150,200,250) were selected for the next year

  14. Electrodeposition of Iridium Oxide by Cyclic Voltammetry: Application of Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakooei Saeid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of scan rate, temperature, and number of cycles on the coating thickness of IrOX electrodeposited on a stainless steel substrate by cyclic voltammetry were investigated in a statistical system. The central composite design, combined with response surface methodology, was used to study condition of electrodeposition. All fabricated electrodes were characterized using electrochemical methods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed for IrOX film characterization. Results showed that scan rate significantly affects the thickness of the electrodeposited layer. Also, the number of cycles has a greater effect than temperature on the IrOX thickness.

  15. SU-G-IeP3-02: Characteristics of In-Vivo MOSFET Dosimeters for Diagnostic X-Ray Low-Dose Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S; Ali, S; Harper, K; Liang, Q; Serratore, D [Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To correct in-vivo metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters dependence on X-ray energy, dose and dose rate, and temperature in order to measure doses or exposures on several anatomic points of interest undergoing some routine radiographs. Methods: A mobile MOSFET system (BEST Medical) was carefully calibrated with X-ray at kVp of 70, 80, 100, 120, and 138 kVp, phantom temperatures at 0, 21, and 43 oC, and exposure range from 0.01 to 10 R confirmed with Raysafe and RadCal dosimeters. The MOSFETS were placed on the midline bladder or uterus, left pelvic iliac artery, left abdominal above iliac crest, abdominal midline anterior at inferior margin of stomach, and left pectoral of a large and a small body-size cadavers undergoing AP/PA chest and lumber spine radiographs using manual and automatic exposure control (AEC) with and without lead shielding. MOSTFETs and TLD chips were also placed on the stomach, sigmoid, pubic symphysis, left and right pelvic walls of another cadaver for AP pelvic manual or AEC radiography prior to and after a left hip metal implant. Results: Individual MOSFET detectors had various low-dose limits in ranged from 0.03 to 0.08 R, nonlinear response to X-ray energy, and significant temperature effect of 15%. By accumulating 10 manual exposures and 20 AEC exposures, we achieved dose measured accuracy of 6%. There were up to 8 fold increases for AEC exposure of spine and chest X-ray procedure from no shielding to with shielding. For pelvic radiography, exposure to public symphysis was the highest even higher than that of the skin. After hip implant, AEC pelvic radiograph increase exposure by 30 to 200% consistent with results of TLDs. Conclusion: Dependence of energy, temperature and dose limit were accurately corrected. We have found significant exposure for those clinical pr°ocedures and the study provided evidences for developing new clinical procedures.

  16. Dose-response characteristics of an amorphous silicon EPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Peter; Hefner, Alfred; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were originally developed for the purpose of patient setup verification. Nowadays, they are increasingly used as dosimeters (e.g., for IMRT verification and linac-specific QA). A prerequisite for any clinical dosimetric application is a detailed understanding of the detector's dose-response behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the dosimetric properties of an amorphous silicon EPID (Elekta IVIEWGT) with respect to three photon beam qualities: 6, 10, and 25 MV. The EPID showed an excellent temporal stability on short term as well as on long term scales. The stability throughout the day was strongly influenced by warming up, which took several hours and affected EPID response by 2.5%. Ghosting effects increased the sensitivity of the EPID. They became more pronounced with decreasing time intervals between two exposures as well as with increasing dose. Due to ghosting, changes in pixel sensitivity amounted up to 16% (locally) for the 25 MV photon beam. It was observed that the response characteristics of our EPID depended on dose as well as on dose rate. Doubling the dose rate increased the EPID sensitivity by 1.5%. This behavior was successfully attributed to a dose per frame effect, i.e., a nonlinear relationship between the EPID signal and the dose which was delivered to the panel between two successive readouts. The sensitivity was found to vary up to 10% in the range of 1 to 1000 monitor units. This variation was governed by two independent effects. For low doses, the EPID signal was reduced due to the linac's changing dose rate during startup. Furthermore, the detector reading was influenced by intrabeam variations of EPID sensitivity, namely, an increase of detector response during uniform exposure. For the beam qualities which were used, the response characteristics of the EPID did not depend on energy. Differences in relative dose-response curves resulted from energy dependent temporal output

  17. Low dose X –ray effects on catalase activity in animal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focea, R; Nadejde, C; Creanga, D; Luchian, T

    2012-01-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effect of low-dose X ray-irradiation upon the activity of catalase (CAT) in freshly excised chicken tissues (liver, kidney, brain, muscle). The tissue samples were irradiated with 0.5Gy and 2Gy respectively, in a 6 MV photon beam produced by a clinical linear accelerator (VARIAN CLINAC 2100SC). The dose rate was of 260.88cGy/min. at 100 cm source to sample distance. The catalase level was assayed spectrophotometrically, based on reaction kinetics, using a catalase UV assay kit (SIGMA). Catalase increased activity in various tissue samples exposed to the studied X ray doses (for example with 24 % in the liver cells, p<0.05) suggested the stimulation of the antioxidant enzyme biosynthesis within several hours after exposure at doses of 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy; the putative enzyme inactivation could also occur (due to the injuries on the hydrogen bonds that ensure the specificity of CAT active site) but the resulted balance of the two concurrent processes indicates the cell ability of decomposing the hydrogen peroxide-with benefits for the cell physiology restoration for the chosen low dose radiation.

  18. Skin Entrance dose to patients from routine P-A chest X-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radiation of any amount is potentially hazardous and it should be minimized as much as possible during health care delivery. Objective: To determine and assess the variation of the dose received by patients undergoing chest x-ray examination, and to provide a useful baseline data to evaluate the dose to the ...

  19. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. I. Radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A.; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how patient age, size and composition, together with the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect radiation doses in head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Head size dimensions, cross-sectional areas, and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images of 127 patients. For radiation dosimetry purposes patients were modeled as uniform cylinders of water. Dose computations were performed for 18x7 mm sections, scanned at a constant 340 mAs, for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV. Values of mean section dose, energy imparted, and effective dose were computed for patients ranging from the newborn to adults. There was a rapid growth of head size over the first two years, followed by a more modest increase of head size until the age of 18 or so. Newborns have a mean HU value of about 50 that monotonically increases with age over the first two decades of life. Average adult A-P and lateral dimensions were 186±8 mm and 147±8 mm, respectively, with an average HU value of 209±40. An infant head was found to be equivalent to a water cylinder with a radius of ∼60 mm, whereas an adult head had an equivalent radius 50% greater. Adult males head dimensions are about 5% larger than for females, and their average x-ray attenuation is ∼20 HU greater. For adult examinations performed at 120 kV, typical values were 32 mGy for the mean section dose, 105 mJ for the total energy imparted, and 0.64 mSv for the effective dose. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increases patient doses by about a factor of 5. For the same technique factors, mean section doses in infants are 35% higher than in adults. Energy imparted for adults is 50% higher than for infants, but infant effective doses are four times higher than for adults. CT doses need to take into account patient age, head size, and composition as well as the selected x-ray technique factors

  20. Toward an organ based dose prescription method for the improved accuracy of murine dose in orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belley, Matthew D.; Wang, Chu; Nguyen, Giao; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetry is essential when irradiating mice to ensure that functional and molecular endpoints are well understood for the radiation dose delivered. Conventional methods of prescribing dose in mice involve the use of a single dose rate measurement and assume a uniform average dose throughout all organs of the entire mouse. Here, the authors report the individual average organ dose values for the irradiation of a 12, 23, and 33 g mouse on a 320 kVp x-ray irradiator and calculate the resulting error from using conventional dose prescription methods. Methods: Organ doses were simulated in the Geant4 application for tomographic emission toolkit using the MOBY mouse whole-body phantom. Dosimetry was performed for three beams utilizing filters A (1.65 mm Al), B (2.0 mm Al), and C (0.1 mm Cu + 2.5 mm Al), respectively. In addition, simulated x-ray spectra were validated with physical half-value layer measurements. Results: Average doses in soft-tissue organs were found to vary by as much as 23%–32% depending on the filter. Compared to filters A and B, filter C provided the hardest beam and had the lowest variation in soft-tissue average organ doses across all mouse sizes, with a difference of 23% for the median mouse size of 23 g. Conclusions: This work suggests a new dose prescription method in small animal dosimetry: it presents a departure from the conventional approach of assigninga single dose value for irradiation of mice to a more comprehensive approach of characterizing individual organ doses to minimize the error and uncertainty. In human radiation therapy, clinical treatment planning establishes the target dose as well as the dose distribution, however, this has generally not been done in small animal research. These results suggest that organ dose errors will be minimized by calibrating the dose rates for all filters, and using different dose rates for different organs

  1. Determination of Doses for X-Ray Examinations of Paranasal Sinuses of Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, D.; Miljanic, S.; Knezevic, Z.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Beck, N; Zagar, I.

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the absorbed doses during X-ray examination is very important, especially in paediatric radiology in order to improve radiation protection. In childhood, the paranasal sinuses diseases are very frequent and the development of sinuses has some specialities which has to be taken into consideration in X-ray diagnostics. The aim of this work was the determination of the relative doses on the thyroid gland and eyes, in respect to the entrance dose on the anthropomorphic child phantom (CIRS). The entrance doses on the phantom to the entrance dose on patients of similar age. Simultaneously the influence of human working method was studied, i.e. the performance of the radiological technicians. The age of the patients varied from 7 to 15 years, the child phantom was equivalent to 10 years age. A protective lead apron on the necks of both children and phantom was used. Doses were measured with radiophotoluminescence (RPL) and thermoluminescence (TL) dosemeters. The mean doses on the thyroid and the eyes measured in the phantom after 10 expositions were 0.20 ± 0.05 mSv, and 0.32 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. Relative doses were calculated in relation to entrance dose of 9.96 mSv for 10 exposures, and the results were 0.02 and 0.03 for the thyroid gland and the eyes, respectively. The dosimetry results on 45 patients showed that there was a good correlation between measured doses and the body mass index (BMI). The mean entrance dose measured on the 45 patients was 0.97 ± 0.08 mSv.(author)

  2. Using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) to determine the gonadal dose of patients under-going chest X-ray examinations at NKST hospital, Mkar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agba, E.H.; Akaagerger, N.B.; Kungur, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    The doses absorbed by the gonads of patients undergoing chest X-ray examinations at NKST Christian Hospital, Mkar was determined using the Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Technique of measurement. Also, the direct X-ray dose to the chest of patients undergoing the routine examinations was also determined using the Thermolumnescence Dosimetry technique of measurement. The mean gonadal dose and the X-ray dose to the patients were found to be 0.03±0.02μSv and 0.04±0.03mSv respectively after exposure. These X-ray doses to the patients is seen to be within the acceptable recommended X -ray dose limits of 1mGy recommended by ICRP.

  3. Evaluation of the Comet Assay for Assessing the Dose-Response Relationship of DNA Damage Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Chang; Du, Li Qing; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jian Xiang; Su, Xu; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Fei-Yue; Wang, Bing; Katsube, Takanori; Fan, Sai Jun; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Dose- and time-response curves were combined to assess the potential of the comet assay in radiation biodosimetry. The neutral comet assay was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes caused by γ-ray irradiation. A clear dose-response relationship with DNA double-strand breaks using the comet assay was found at different times after irradiation (p < 0.001). A time-response relationship was also found within 72 h after irradiation (p < 0.001). The curves for DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair in vitro of human lymphocytes presented a nice model, and a smooth, three-dimensional plane model was obtained when the two curves were combined. PMID:24240807

  4. Evaluation of the Comet Assay for Assessing the Dose-Response Relationship of DNA Damage Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dose- and time-response curves were combined to assess the potential of the comet assay in radiation biodosimetry. The neutral comet assay was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes caused by γ-ray irradiation. A clear dose-response relationship with DNA double-strand breaks using the comet assay was found at different times after irradiation (p < 0.001. A time-response relationship was also found within 72 h after irradiation (p < 0.001. The curves for DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair in vitro of human lymphocytes presented a nice model, and a smooth, three-dimensional plane model was obtained when the two curves were combined.

  5. In situ biological dose mapping estimates the radiation burden delivered to 'spared' tissue between synchrotron X-ray microbeam radiotherapy tracks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rothkamm

    Full Text Available Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT using high doses of synchrotron X-rays can destroy tumours in animal models whilst causing little damage to normal tissues. Determining the spatial distribution of radiation doses delivered during MRT at a microscopic scale is a major challenge. Film and semiconductor dosimetry as well as Monte Carlo methods struggle to provide accurate estimates of dose profiles and peak-to-valley dose ratios at the position of the targeted and traversed tissues whose biological responses determine treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to utilise γ-H2AX immunostaining as a biodosimetric tool that enables in situ biological dose mapping within an irradiated tissue to provide direct biological evidence for the scale of the radiation burden to 'spared' tissue regions between MRT tracks. Γ-H2AX analysis allowed microbeams to be traced and DNA damage foci to be quantified in valleys between beams following MRT treatment of fibroblast cultures and murine skin where foci yields per unit dose were approximately five-fold lower than in fibroblast cultures. Foci levels in cells located in valleys were compared with calibration curves using known broadbeam synchrotron X-ray doses to generate spatial dose profiles and calculate peak-to-valley dose ratios of 30-40 for cell cultures and approximately 60 for murine skin, consistent with the range obtained with conventional dosimetry methods. This biological dose mapping approach could find several applications both in optimising MRT or other radiotherapeutic treatments and in estimating localised doses following accidental radiation exposure using skin punch biopsies.

  6. Dose distribution in head and neck during dental x-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.W.; Goepp, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies, notably by Franklin (Angle Ortho., 43:53-64, 1973), have shown significant exposures during cephalometric dental procedures and ways in which these exposures can be reduced. Skin dose over thyroid tissue has been measured by Alcox (J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 88:568-579, 1974), and others. This study is an expansion of thyroid dose measurements by Block, Goepp, and Mason (Angle Ortho., 47:17-24, 1977). The internal dose distribution in the head and neck area due to cephalometric and panoramic dental x-ray procedures is shown along with the dependence of orbit and thyroid dose on patient positioning. Higher doses can be delivered to deep tissue by panoramic machines since tissue at the axis of rotation is exposed during the entire procedure. (author)

  7. Life span and tumorigenesis in mice exposed to continuous low dose-rate gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Braga-Tanaka III, Ignacia; Takabatake, Takashi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Kimio; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Sato, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate late biological effects of chronic low dose-rate radiation. 1: Late effects of chronic low dose-rate gamma-ray irradiation on SPF mice, using life span and pathological changes as parameters. Continuous irradiation for approximately 400 days was performed using 137 Cs gamma-rays at dose-rates of 20 mGy/day, 1 mGy/day and 0.05 mGy/day with accumulated doses equivalent to 8000 mGy, 400 mGy and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept until their natural death. Statistical analyses show that the life spans of the both sexes irradiated at 20 mGy/day (p<0.0001) and of females irradiated at 1 mGy/day (p<0.05) were significantly shorter than those of the control group. There was no evidence of lengthened life span in mice continuously exposed to very low dose-rates of gama-rays. Pathodological examinations showed that the most frequently observed lethal neoplasms in males were malignant lymphomas, liver, lung, and soft tissue neoplasms, whereas, in females, malignant lymphomas and soft tissue neoplasms were common. No significant difference in the causes of death and mortality rates between groups. Hematopoietic neoplasms (malignant lymphoma and myeloid leukemia), liver, lung and soft tissue neoplasms, showed a tendency to appear at a younger age in both sexes irradiated at 20 mGy/day. Experiment 2: effects on the progeny of chronic low dose-rate gamma-ray irradiated SPF mice: preliminary study. No significant difference was observed between non-irradiated group and irradiated group with regards to litter size, sex ratio and causes of death in F1 and F2 mice. (author)

  8. Monte Carlo method for dose calculation due to oral X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Eduardo Cesar de Miranda

    1998-06-01

    The increasing utilization of oral X-rays, especially in youngsters and children, calls for the assessment of equivalent doses in their organs and tissues. With this purpose, a Monte Carlo code was adapted to simulate an X-ray source irradiating phantoms of the MIRD-5 type with different ages (10, 15 and 40 years old) to calculate the conversion coefficients which transform the exposure at skin to equivalent doses at several organs and tissues of interest. In order to check the computer program, simulations were performed for adult patients using the original code (ADAM.FOR developed at the GSF-Germany) and the adapted program (MCDRO.PAS). Good agreement between results obtained with both codes was observed. Irradiations of the incisive, canine and molar teeth were simulated. The conversion factors were calculated for the following organs and tissues: thyroid, active bone narrow (head and whole body), bone (facial skeleton, cranium and whole body), skin (head and whole body) and crystalline. Based on the obtained results, it follows that the younger the patient and the larger the field area, the higher the dose in assessed organs and tissues. The variation of the source-skin distance does not change the conversion coefficients. On the other hand, the increase in the voltage applied to the X-ray tube causes an increase in the calculated conversion coefficients. (author)

  9. Statistical and low dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, M.R.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The low dose response and the lower limit of detection of the Hanford dosimeter depend upon may factors, including the energy of the radiation, whether the exposure is to be a single radiation or mixed fields, annealing cycles, environmental factors, and how well various batches of TLD materials are matched in the system. A careful statistical study and sensitivity analysis were performed to determine how these factors influence the response of the dosimeter system. Estimates have been included in this study of the standard deviation of calculated dose for various mixed field exposures from 0 to 1000 mrem

  10. Serum metabonomics of rats irradiated by low-dose γ-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying HE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of low-dose γ-rays on the metabolites in rat serum. Methods Sixteen healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and irradiated group (n=8. The rats in irradiated group were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays with a dose rate of 72mGy/h for 7 days (1 hour per day. At the 7th day after irradiation, blood samples were taken from abdominal aorta to obtain the serum. The metabolic fingerprints of serum were obtained from the two groups of rats, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares (OSC-PLS method were used for pattern recognition, and the difference in metabolite profile between two groups was identified by SIMCA-P software. Results The rat serum 1H NMR spectra revealed a significant difference between control group and irradiated group, the OSC-PLS plots of the serum samples presented marked clustering between two groups. Compared with the control group, the content of lipid, glucose, creatine, glycine/glucose, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein and unsaturated fatty acid increased, while the content of lactic acid, threonine/lipid, alanine, N-acetyl glycoprotein 1, N-acetyl glycoprotein 2, saturated fatty acid and phosphatidyl choline decreased in irradiated group. Conclusion Irradiation with low-dose γ-ray could induce changes in metabolites in rat serum, concerning mainly immune function, energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.07.02

  11. Low doses of X-rays induce prolonged and ATM-independent persistence of γH2AX foci in human gingival mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Andreyan N; Pustovalova, Margarita; Grekhova, Anna; Eremin, Petr; Vorobyova, Natalia; Pulin, Andrey; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Klokov, Dmitry Y; Eremin, Ilya

    2015-09-29

    Diagnostic imaging delivering low doses of radiation often accompany human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapies. However, effects of low dose radiation on MSCs are poorly characterized. Here we examine patterns of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and phospho-S1981 ATM (pATM) foci formation in human gingiva-derived MSCs exposed to X-rays in time-course and dose-response experiments. Both γH2AX and pATM foci accumulated linearly with dose early after irradiation (5-60 min), with a maximum induction observed at 30-60 min (37 ± 3 and 32 ± 3 foci/cell/Gy for γH2AX and pATM, respectively). The number of γH2AX foci produced by intermediate doses (160 and 250 mGy) significantly decreased (40-60%) between 60 and 240 min post-irradiation, indicating rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks. In contrast, γH2AX foci produced by low doses (20-80 mGy) did not change after 60 min. The number of pATM foci between 60 and 240 min decreased down to control values in a dose-independent manner. Similar kinetics was observed for pATM foci co-localized with γH2AX foci. Collectively, our results suggest differential DNA double-strand break signaling and processing in response to low vs. intermediate doses of X-rays in human MSCs. Furthermore, mechanisms governing the prolonged persistence of γH2AX foci in these cells appear to be ATM-independent.

  12. Valdose program: methodologies for dose assessment in internal contamination, 1997 census; Programma valdose: metodologie di valutazione della dose da contaminazione interna, censimento 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    Dose assessment in internal dosimetry needs computational and interpretative tools that allow carrying out, as a first step, an evaluation of intake on the base of bioassay measurements or WBC measurements, and as a second step, dose evaluation on the base of estimated intake. In the frame of the MIDIA Co-ordination (WBC operating in Italy), in the first months of 1997 a census on methodologies for dose evaluation in internal contamination has been proposed. A technical form has been sent to all the WBC Centres allowing an accurate description of modalities used in each centre. 9 out of 17 centres sent the answers to the technical form in time. In this paper all the forms filled in are reported. A careful comparative evaluation of the answers has been made both for routine monitoring and for special monitoring. The various radionuclides present in the Italian reality, calculation methodologies both for intake and dose, hypotheses adopted for date, path and modalities of contaminations are also presented. Proposals for conforming to the methodology in Italy after the introduction of the models following ICRP 60 publication that are the base of the Euratom 96/29 Directive are also discussed. [Italiano] La valutazione di dose in contaminazione interna necessita di strumenti interpretativi che permettano di effettuare in una prima la valutazione dell`intake sulla base delle misure dei campioni biologici o del corpo intero (WBC), ed in una seconda fase la valutazione della dose sulla base dell`intake. All`interno del coordinamento MIDIA dei WBC operanti in Italia e` stato proposto, nel primo trimestre del 1997, un censimento sulle metodologie di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna. Ai diversi centri e` stato inviato una scheda tecnica che, mediante un particolareggiato schema di domande, aiutava i diversi centri nella esposizione delle modalita` di valutazione di dose che ogni centro segue. 9 au 17 centri WBC operanti al momemnto in Italia hanno inviato la

  13. Establishment of radiation doses for pediatric X-ray examinations in a large pediatric hospital in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olgar, T.; Sahmaran, T.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric patients are more sensitive to ionizing radiation when compared with adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation doses for some common pediatric x-ray examinations performed with various digital radiography systems. Quality control tests of the digital radiography systems were carried out according to international published protocols before the pediatric dose measurements. Radiation dose measurement was performed by using the x-ray tube outputs and thermoluminescent dosimeter dose measurement methods. In the present study, radiation doses were assessed for 247 chest, 230 pelvis, 194 skull and 73 abdomen x-ray examinations and in total 744 pediatric patients doses were measured. Pediatric patients were classified into four age groups 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 years as given by European Commission guidance. Effective doses were determined for each examination using a PCXMC 2.0 Monte Carlo program. The mean measured entrance skin doses for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection by using tube output measurement methods were 149 μGy for chest, 304 μGy for pelvis, 387 μGy for skull and 199 μGy for abdomen examinations. The radiation dose results obtained in this study were in the range of the published results in the literature. (authors)

  14. Space-Time Dependent Transport, Activation, and Dose Rates for Radioactivated Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, Sergio

    Two methods are developed to calculate the space - and time-dependent mass transport of radionuclides, their production and decay, and the associated dose rates generated from the radioactivated fluids flowing through pipes. The work couples space- and time-dependent phenomena, treated as only space- or time-dependent in the open literature. The transport and activation methodology (TAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent transport and activation of radionuclides in fluids flowing through pipes exposed to radiation fields, and volumetric radioactive sources created by radionuclide motions. The computer program Radionuclide Activation and Transport in Pipe (RNATPA1) performs the numerical calculations required in TAM. The gamma ray dose methodology (GAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose equivalent rates from the volumetric radioactive sources determined by TAM. The computer program Gamma Ray Dose Equivalent Rate (GRDOSER) performs the numerical calculations required in GAM. The scope of conditions considered by TAM and GAM herein include (a) laminar flow in straight pipe, (b)recirculating flow schemes, (c) time-independent fluid velocity distributions, (d) space-dependent monoenergetic neutron flux distribution, (e) space- and time-dependent activation process of a single parent nuclide and transport and decay of a single daughter radionuclide, and (f) assessment of space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose rates, outside the pipe, generated by the space- and time-dependent source term distributions inside of it. The methodologies, however, can be easily extended to include all the situations of interest for solving the phenomena addressed in this dissertation. A comparison is made from results obtained by the described calculational procedures with analytical expressions. The physics of the problems addressed by the new technique and the increased accuracy versus non -space and time-dependent methods

  15. Single toxin dose-response models revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidenko, Eugene, E-mail: eugened@dartmouth.edu [Department of Biomedical Data Science, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH03756 (United States); Glaholt, SP, E-mail: sglaholt@indiana.edu [Indiana University, School of Public & Environmental Affairs, Bloomington, IN47405 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH03755 (United States); Kyker-Snowman, E, E-mail: ek2002@wildcats.unh.edu [Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH03824 (United States); Shaw, JR, E-mail: joeshaw@indiana.edu [Indiana University, School of Public & Environmental Affairs, Bloomington, IN47405 (United States); Chen, CY, E-mail: Celia.Y.Chen@dartmouth.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH03755 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to offer a rigorous analysis of the sigmoid shape single toxin dose-response relationship. The toxin efficacy function is introduced and four special points, including maximum toxin efficacy and inflection points, on the dose-response curve are defined. The special points define three phases of the toxin effect on mortality: (1) toxin concentrations smaller than the first inflection point or (2) larger then the second inflection point imply low mortality rate, and (3) concentrations between the first and the second inflection points imply high mortality rate. Probabilistic interpretation and mathematical analysis for each of the four models, Hill, logit, probit, and Weibull is provided. Two general model extensions are introduced: (1) the multi-target hit model that accounts for the existence of several vital receptors affected by the toxin, and (2) model with a nonzero mortality at zero concentration to account for natural mortality. Special attention is given to statistical estimation in the framework of the generalized linear model with the binomial dependent variable as the mortality count in each experiment, contrary to the widespread nonlinear regression treating the mortality rate as continuous variable. The models are illustrated using standard EPA Daphnia acute (48 h) toxicity tests with mortality as a function of NiCl or CuSO{sub 4} toxin. - Highlights: • The paper offers a rigorous study of a sigmoid dose-response relationship. • The concentration with highest mortality rate is rigorously defined. • A table with four special points for five morality curves is presented. • Two new sigmoid dose-response models have been introduced. • The generalized linear model is advocated for estimation of sigmoid dose-response relationship.

  16. Biophysical Monitoring and dose response characteristics of irradiated hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, W.M; Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using LAXS and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were irradiated at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV- visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1 s t peak, recorded at 4.65 o , is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5 o , appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  17. Comparison of the dose-response relationship of radiation-induced apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and intestinal crypt of adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Yang, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, D.; Kim, J. C.; Shin, T.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, C.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the dose-response curves for the frequency of apoptosis in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and intestinal crypt using whole-body gamma irradiation. The incidence of gamma-ray-induced apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labelling (TUNEL) method. TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the DG and intestinal crypt were increased in a dose-dependent pattern (0-2 Gy). The dose-response curves were linear-quadratic, with a significant relationship between the appearance of apoptosis and irradiation dose. The slopes of the dose-response curves in the DG were much steeper (∼5-6-fold) than those in the intestinal crypt within the range of 0-1 Gy exposure. Hippocampal DG might be a more effective and sensitive evaluation structure than the intestinal crypt to estimate the degree of radiation exposure in damaged organs of adult mice exposed to low irradiation dose. copy; The Author 2011. Published by Oxford Univ. Press. All rights reserved. (authors)

  18. Effective dose calculation in CT using high sensitivity TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Z.; Johnston, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: To determine the effective dose for common paediatric CT examinations using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) mea surements. High sensitivity TLD chips (LiF:Mg,Cu,P, TLD-IOOH, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) were calibrated on a linac at an energy of 6 MY. A calibration was also performed on a superricial X-ray unit at a kilovoltage energy to validate the megavoltage cali bration for the purpose of measuring doses in the diagnostic energy range. The dose variation across large organs was assessed and a methodology for TLD placement in a 10 year old anthropomorphic phantom developed. Effective dose was calculated from the TLD measured absorbed doses for typical CT examinations after correcting for the TLD energy response and taking into account differences in the mass energy absorption coefficients for different tissues and organs. Results Using new tissue weighting factors recommended in ICRP Publication 103, the effective dose for a CT brain examination on a 10 year old was 1.6 millisieverts (mSv), 4.9 mSv for a CT chest exa ination and 4.7 mSv for a CT abdomen/pelvis examination. These values are lower for the CT brain examination, higher for the CT chest examination and approximately the same for the CT abdomen/ pelvis examination when compared with effective doses calculated using ICRP Publication 60 tissue weighting factors. Conclusions High sensitivity TLDs calibrated with a radiotherapy linac are useful for measuring dose in the diagnostic energy range and overcome limitations of output reproducibility and uniformity asso ciated with traditional TLD calibration on CT scanners or beam quality matched diagnostic X-ray units.

  19. A deep convolutional neural network using directional wavelets for low-dose X-ray CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunhee; Min, Junhong; Ye, Jong Chul

    2017-10-01

    Due to the potential risk of inducing cancer, radiation exposure by X-ray CT devices should be reduced for routine patient scanning. However, in low-dose X-ray CT, severe artifacts typically occur due to photon starvation, beam hardening, and other causes, all of which decrease the reliability of the diagnosis. Thus, a high-quality reconstruction method from low-dose X-ray CT data has become a major research topic in the CT community. Conventional model-based de-noising approaches are, however, computationally very expensive, and image-domain de-noising approaches cannot readily remove CT-specific noise patterns. To tackle these problems, we want to develop a new low-dose X-ray CT algorithm based on a deep-learning approach. We propose an algorithm which uses a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) which is applied to the wavelet transform coefficients of low-dose CT images. More specifically, using a directional wavelet transform to extract the directional component of artifacts and exploit the intra- and inter- band correlations, our deep network can effectively suppress CT-specific noise. In addition, our CNN is designed with a residual learning architecture for faster network training and better performance. Experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm effectively removes complex noise patterns from CT images derived from a reduced X-ray dose. In addition, we show that the wavelet-domain CNN is efficient when used to remove noise from low-dose CT compared to existing approaches. Our results were rigorously evaluated by several radiologists at the Mayo Clinic and won second place at the 2016 "Low-Dose CT Grand Challenge." To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first deep-learning architecture for low-dose CT reconstruction which has been rigorously evaluated and proven to be effective. In addition, the proposed algorithm, in contrast to existing model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) methods, has considerable potential to benefit from

  20. γ irradiation with different dose rates induces different DNA damage responses in Petunia x hybrida cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Mattia; Ventura, Lorenzo; Macovei, Anca; Confalonieri, Massimo; Savio, Monica; Giovannini, Annalisa; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2013-05-15

    In plants, there is evidence that different dose rate exposures to gamma (γ) rays can cause different biological effects. The dynamics of DNA damage accumulation and molecular mechanisms that regulate recovery from radiation injury as a function of dose rate are poorly explored. To highlight dose-rate dependent differences in DNA damage, single cell gel electrophoresis was carried out on regenerating Petunia x hybrida leaf discs exposed to LDR (total dose 50 Gy, delivered at 0.33 Gy min(-1)) and HDR (total doses 50 and 100 Gy, delivered at 5.15 Gy min(-1)) γ-ray in the 0-24h time period after treatments. Significant fluctuations of double strand breaks and different repair capacities were observed between treatments in the 0-4h time period following irradiation. Dose-rate-dependent changes in the expression of the PhMT2 and PhAPX genes encoding a type 2 metallothionein and the cytosolic isoform of ascorbate peroxidase, respectively, were detected by Quantitative RealTime-Polymerase Chain Reaction. The PhMT2 and PhAPX genes were significantly up-regulated (3.0- and 0.7-fold) in response to HDR. The results are discussed in light of the potential practical applications of LDR-based treatments in mutation breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of the OneDoseTM MOSFET for measuring kilovoltage imaging dose from image-guided radiotherapy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, George X; Coffey, Charles W

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a single-use dosimeter, OneDose MOSFET designed for in vivo patient dosimetry, for measuring the radiation dose from kilovoltage (kV) x rays resulting from image-guided procedures. The OneDose MOSFET dosimeters were precalibrated by the manufacturer using Co-60 beams. Their energy response and characteristics for kV x rays were investigated by using an ionization chamber, in which the air-kerma calibration factors were obtained from an Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (ADCL). The dosimetric properties have been tested for typical kV beams used in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The direct dose reading from the OneDose system needs to be multiplied by a correction factor ranging from 0.30 to 0.35 for kilovoltage x rays ranging from 50 to 125 kVp, respectively. In addition to energy response, the OneDose dosimeter has up to a 20% reduced sensitivity for beams (70-125 kVp) incident from the back of the OneDose detector. The uncertainty in measuring dose resulting from a kilovoltage beam used in IGRT is approximately 20%; this uncertainty is mainly due to the sensitivity dependence of the incident beam direction relative to the OneDose detector. The ease of use may allow the dosimeter to be suitable for estimating the dose resulting from image-guided procedures.

  2. Evaluation of doses and risks from different decontamination and decommissioning strategies using the PRESTO-II methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The PRESTO-II methodology may be applied to evaluate doses and health risks from a variety of decontamination and decommissioning activities. This methodology has been implemented in the form of a computer code that has been applied to several sites, and that has been extensively documented. Radionuclide inventories are specified as separate contamination sources either present on the ground surface, covered by non-radioactive soils but lying above the water table, suspended in the atmosphere, or dissolved in surface waters. Hydrologic transport mechanisms considered in the PRESTO-II methodology include chemical exchange, ponding and overflow, surface water transport, groundwater transport, and pumping contaminated groundwater from wells. Varied scenarios of water usage are treated. Atmospheric inputs are based on both resuspension factor and resuspension rate approaches, with inhalation and immersion doses based on a Gaussian plume transport calculation. Site activities that are considered include land clearing, farming, and residing on the site. Exposure and dose calculations are derived from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Reg. Guide 1.109 approach, while risk calculations use a life-table approach developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Internal dose conversion factors are taken from ICRP 26 and 30, while risk conversion factors are values suggested by EPA. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Enacting a Place-Responsive Research Methodology: Walking Interviews with Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jonathan; Mannion, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Place-based and place-responsive approaches to outdoor learning and education are developing in many countries but there is dearth of theoretically-supported methodologies to take a more explicit account of place in research in these areas. In response, this article outlines one theoretical framing for place-responsive methodologies for…

  4. Effects of low-dose continuously fractionated X-ray irradiation on murine peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi; Zhang Hong; Dang Bingrong; Hao Jifang; Guo Hongyun; Wang Xiaohu

    2007-01-01

    For estimating biological risks from low doses continual irradiation, we investigated the effects of exposure to continuously fractionated X-rays on murine immune system. The BALB/c mice were irradiated with 0.07Gy at the first day and 0.08 Gy/d in the following 12 days at a dose rate of 0.2 Gy/min. The peripheral blood lymphocyte cycle and death were determined by flow cytometry at the cumulative doses of 0, 0.07, 0.23, 0.39, 0.55, 0.71, 0.87 and 1.03 Gy respectively. The results showed that the cycle of peripheral blood lymphocyte was arrested in G 0 /G 1 at cumulative doses of 0.07, 0.23, 0.71 and 0.87 Gy, and in G 2 /M at cumulative doses of 0.39 and 1.03 Gy; the percentage of death of peripheral blood lymphocyte was ascended with dose increasing, and reached the death peak at cumulative doses of 0.71 Gy. The results suggested that low doses continual X-rays total-body irradiated could result in changes of cellular cycle and death, and some damages to immunocytes, which accorded to linear square model. (authors)

  5. Low-Active Male Adolescents: A Dose Response to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig Robert Melrose; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Plank, Lindsay D; Merien, Fabrice; Schofield, Grant

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potential alternative to traditionally recommended steady state exercise for providing health benefits in adolescents, yet its dose-response relationship in this cohort remains unclear, as does its translatability to real-world, nonclinical settings. The present study adopts a novel dose-response design to investigate the effects of undertaking 8 wk of HIIT on the cardiometabolic health of low-active male adolescents. Twenty-six male adolescents (age 16 ± 1 yr), identified as low active by nonparticipation in structured sport and physical education classes, were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. Corresponding with their group numbers (1-5), participants completed a number of HIIT "sets," which consisted of 4 repeated bouts of 20-s near-maximal exertion interspersed with 10-s passive recovery. Participants performed two HIIT sessions and one resistance training session each week for 8 wk. Baseline and follow-up health measures consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) with an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion; body composition (including visceral fat mass, body fat, and lean tissue mass) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and interleukin-6 from blood analysis. All health outcomes were analyzed as percentage changes, and data were modeled using a quadratic function to explore dose-response relationships. Significant improvements were observed for V˙O2peak (∼6%), body fat percentage (∼4%), visceral fat mass (∼10%), and waist circumference-to-height ratio (∼3%), but there was no clear effect of dose across groups. Low-active adolescent males performing a single HIIT set twice weekly, in addition to one resistance training session, gained meaningful improvements in fitness and body composition. Performing additional HIIT sets provided no additional improvements to those of the lowest dose in this study.

  6. Effects of low dose rate γ-rays on cell proliferation and survival in exponentially growing and plateau phase cultures of normal rat kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays on cell clonogenicity and cell proliferation were examined in NRK cells in exponential and plateau growth phases during and after irradiation at various dose rates. The typical dese rate effect for the survival responses was observed between acute irradiation and continuous irradiation at dose rates of 9.6-44 rads/h. Similar dose rate effect for the perturbation of the proliferation was observed in exponentially growing cells during irradiation. Some differences were found in survival when the cells were exposed to γ-rays at 9.6 rads/h or at 13.7 rads/h. The survival curves of exponential phase cells irradiated at these dose rates showed a shape different from that observed in plateau phase cells. Namely, a steady state of survival appeared around an accumulated dose of 1000 rads (dose-rate of 9.6 rads/h) and an accumulated dose of 1500 rads (dose-rate of 13.7 rads/h) in the exponential phase cells, while such a steady state of survival was not detected in plateau phase cells after similar conditions of irradiation. Moreover, the extrapolation number of the survival curve was much larger at the lower dose rate in exponential phase cells, in contrast to a value of the unity oberved in plateau phase cells, The radiosensitivity of plateau phase cells was somewhat lower compared to exponential phase cells over the range of accumulated doses at the dose rates used. These differences in cellular responses to the radiation between the two phases could be explained by changes in cell proliferation, the redistribution of the cell cycle compartments and the repair capacity of cellular damage during irradiation. (author)

  7. Evaluation of build-up dose from 6 MV X-rays under pelvic and abdominal patient immobilisation devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, M.J.Martin J. E-mail: mbutson@usa.netmbutson@guessmail.com; Yu, P.K.N

    2002-06-01

    The use of pelvic and abdominal immobilisation devices in radiotherapy is required for accurate positioning and repositioning of patients during their fractionated treatment delivered normally over a period of 5-6 weeks. 6 MV X-rays produced by a medical linear accelerator have a skin sparing effect whereby the skin dose delivered is considerably less than that received by the tumour. The treatment through a vacuum compressed immobilisation device (Vacbag) however increases the dose delivered to the skin by interactions of the X-rays within the Vacbag material. For example, the basal layer doses increased from 16% for an open field to 52% of maximum with a bag thickness of 2.5 cm for a 10 cmx10 cm field at 6 MV X-ray energy. At the same field size the dermal skin layer (1 mm depth) doses increased from 44% (no bag) to 60% for a bag thickness of 2.5 cm at 6 MV X-rays. The Vacbag should be placed outside the treatment field whenever possible to keep skin dose to a minimum level.

  8. Evaluation of build-up dose from 6 MV X-rays under pelvic and abdominal patient immobilisation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, M.J.Martin J.; Yu, P.K.N.

    2002-01-01

    The use of pelvic and abdominal immobilisation devices in radiotherapy is required for accurate positioning and repositioning of patients during their fractionated treatment delivered normally over a period of 5-6 weeks. 6 MV X-rays produced by a medical linear accelerator have a skin sparing effect whereby the skin dose delivered is considerably less than that received by the tumour. The treatment through a vacuum compressed immobilisation device (Vacbag) however increases the dose delivered to the skin by interactions of the X-rays within the Vacbag material. For example, the basal layer doses increased from 16% for an open field to 52% of maximum with a bag thickness of 2.5 cm for a 10 cmx10 cm field at 6 MV X-ray energy. At the same field size the dermal skin layer (1 mm depth) doses increased from 44% (no bag) to 60% for a bag thickness of 2.5 cm at 6 MV X-rays. The Vacbag should be placed outside the treatment field whenever possible to keep skin dose to a minimum level

  9. SU-E-T-96: Energy Dependence of the New GafChromic- EBT3 Film's Dose Response-Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Tsao, S; Massillon-Jl, G; Domingo-Muñoz, I; Chan, M

    2012-06-01

    To study and compare the dose response curves of the new GafChromic EBT3 film for megavoltage and kilovoltage x-ray beams, with different spatial resolution. Two sets of EBT3 films (lot#A101711-02) were exposed to each x-ray beam (6MV, 15MV and 50kV) at 8 dose values (50-3200cGy). The megavoltage beams were calibrated per AAPM TG-51 protocol while the kilovoltage beam was calibrated following the TG-61 using an ionization chamber calibrated at NIST. Each film piece was scanned three consecutive times in the center of Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner in transmission mode, landscape orientation, 48-bit color at two separate spatial resolutions of 75 and 300 dpi. The data were analyzed using ImageJ and, for each scanned image, a region of interest (ROI) of 2×2cm 2 at the field center was selected to obtain the mean pixel value with its standard deviation in the ROI. For each energy, dose value and spatial resolution, the average netOD and its associated uncertainty were determined. The Student's t-test was performed to evaluate the statistical differences between the netOD/dose values of the three energy modalities, with different color channels and spatial resolutions. The dose response curves for the three energy modalities were compared in three color channels with 75 and 300dpi. Weak energy dependence was found. For doses above 100cGy, no statistical differences were observed between 6 and 15MV beams, regardless of spatial resolution. However, statistical differences were observed between 50kV and the megavoltage beams. The degree of energy dependence (from MV to 50kV) was found to be function of color channel, dose level and spatial resolution. The dose response curves for GafChromic EBT3 films were found to be weakly dependent on the energy of the photon beams from 6MV to 50kV. The degree of energy dependence varies with color channel, dose and spatial resolution. GafChromic EBT3 films were supplied by Ashland Corp. This work was partially supported by DGAPA

  10. Genetic effects of low x-ray doses. Progress report, October 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Meyer, H.U.

    1976-09-01

    Experiments on dose-kinetics of x-ray induced sexlinked lethal mutations in Drosophila oogonia were continued. A wide range of doses was tested, with special emphasis on the low-dose range (20 to 500R). This year more data were added for O R, 200, 500, 1500R and some high doses. Oogonia of adult females were irradiated, and only one daughter from each experimental parent-female was analyzed for a new lethal in her maternal X-chromosome. Thus no clusters of mutations of identical origin are encountered. The extensive accumulated data do not support the linearity principle, firmly established for recessive mutations induced in mature spermatozoa for high doses down to very low x-ray doses. A mathematical model describing the mutational yield is included that suggests that recessive mutations, like chromosome aberrations, result from both one-track and two-track events, with the latter playing an increasingly important role at higher doses

  11. The development of a methodology to assess population doses from multiple sources and exposure pathways of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, J.; Stansby, S.; Thorne, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Environment Agency (EA) has new duties in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards Directive under which it is required to ensure that doses to individuals received from exposure to anthropogenic sources of radioactivity are within defined limits. In order to assess compliance with these requirements, the EA needs to assess the doses to members of the most highly exposed population groups ('critical' groups) from all relevant potential sources of anthropogenic radioactivity and all relevant potential exposure pathways to such radioactivity. The EA has identified a need to develop a methodology for the retrospective assessment of effective doses from multiple sources of radioactive materials and exposure pathways associated with those sources. Under contract to the EA, AEA Technology has undertaken the development of a suitable methodology as part of EA R and D Project P3-070. The methodology developed under this research project has been designed to support the EA in meeting its obligations under the Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive and is consistent with UK and international approaches to radiation dosimetry and radiological protection. The development and trial application of the methodology is described in this report

  12. Dose evaluation in paediatric patients undergoing chest X-ray examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantini, F.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Bunick, A. P.; Legnani, A.; Ledesma, J. A.; Filipov, D.; Paschuk, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incident air kerma in chest X-ray examinations, for lateral (LAT) and anterior-posterior (AP) (together with posterior-anterior (PA)) projections, in one of the largest paediatric hospitals in Brazil, and to compare these with the results obtained in a general hospital of the same city. The dosimetric results were analysed along with the patient characteristics and radiographer strategies. The examinations of 225 (119 male and 106 female) patients were studied and 389 X-ray scans (200 AP/PA projections and 189 LAT projections) of paediatric patients were acquired. For analysis of the results, the patients were divided into the following age groups: 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. Patient's thickness can be determined from age, height or weight with an uncertainty of 20-30%. In different hospitals, the difference in patient's thicknesses between the same age groups can reach 25-55%. A minimal correlation between the patient dose and thickness was observed, with a 4-fold difference in the dose for patients of the same thickness. By standardizing radiological protocols, it should be possible to keep the dose within intervals of 50-100 μGy for LAT projection and 40-80 μGy for AP/PA projection.

  13. Skin dose and response for the head and neck in patients irradiated with x-ray for tinea capitis: implications for environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Kolber, A.B.; Shore, R.E.; Albert, R.E.; Altman, S.M.; Pasternack, B.S.

    1983-01-01

    The dose delivered to the skin of the head and neck in patients treated with x-ray irradiation for childhood tinea capitis was reconstructed. This was possible by utilizing a phantom made from the skull of a seven year old child and irradiating it with the same technique and x-ray machine used in tinea capitis therapy two to four decades ago. Seventy-eight basal cell carcinomas (BCC) have appeared so far in 40 of 1727 irradiated white children and none in 500 irradiated black children. The dose distribution over the face and scalp is used to estimate the risk of BCC per person per rad. These results must be considered preliminary due to the relatively young age of the irradiated group (<50 years) at the present time. From the decreased risk per rad for the portion of the scalp that is hair covered, it appears that environmental ultraviolet radiation may play a key role in the expression of BCC. A cumulative hazard plot is utilized to tentatively extend the data to lifetime risk of 0.003 per rad with an upper limit of 0.006 per rad. Environmental radiation dose to the skin possibly account for 20% of observed BCC if this tentative risk estimate is valid

  14. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damkaer, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm -2 sub([DNA]) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm -2 sub([DNA]). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation. (orig.)

  15. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damkaer, D.M.; Dey, D.B.; Heron, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm/sup -2/sub((DNA)) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm/sup -2/sub((DNA)). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation.

  16. Implementation of a patient dose monitoring system in conventional digital X-ray imaging: initial experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmaier, Christina; Zuber, Niklaus; Weishaupt, Dominik [Stadtspital Triemli Zurich, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose was to report on the initial experience after implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging. A dose-monitoring system collected dose data relating to different radiographs (one projection) and studies (two or more projections). Images were acquired on digital X-ray systems equipped with flat-panel detectors. During period 1, examinations were performed in a routine fashion in 12,614 patients. After period 1, technical modifications were performed and radiographers underwent training in radiation protection. During period 2, examinations were performed in 14,514 patients, and the radiographers were advised to read dose data after each radiograph/study. Dose data were compared by means of kerma area product (KAP, gray x centimetre squared) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK, milligray). During period 1, 13,955 radiographs and 8,466 studies were performed, and in period 2 16,090 radiographs and 10,389 studies. In period 2, KAP values for radiographs were an average of 25 % lower and for studies 7 % lower, and ESAK values for radiographs were 24 % lower and for studies 5 % lower. The reduction in KAP was significant in 8/13 radiographs and in 6/14 studies, and the reduction in ESAK was significant in 6/13 radiographs and 5/14 studies. Implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging allows easy data collection, supports dose reduction efforts, and may increase radiographers' dose awareness. (orig.)

  17. Entrance skin dose on patients undergoing X-ray examinations at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survey was conducted on the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) in patients undergoing X-ray examinations [Skull Postero-Anterior (PA), Skull Lateral (LAT), Chest Postero-Anterior (PA), Chest Lateral (LAT), Abdomen Antero-Posterior (AP) and Pelvis Antero-Posterior (AP)] in five hospitals/Xray centres in Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria ...

  18. Effect of gamma-ray and electron irradiation on the response of solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kyue

    1980-01-01

    Specimens of muscovite mica were first exposed to fission fragments and then to various gamma-ray fields from a 60 Co source ranging from 1.9 x 10 3 to 1.6 x 10 4 Mrad dose. The results show that the average etched width of fission-fragment tracks decreases with increasing gamma-ray dose. Shallow pits were observed in etched specimens when the gamma-ray dose exceeded 5 x 10 3 Mrad. Numerous shallow etch pits caused by the gamma-ray irradiation interfered with the observation of fission tracks in the specimens. No shallow etch pits were observed in the specimen annealed for 100 min at 600 0 C before the gamma-ray irradiation. Pre-annealing extends the ''safety limits'' of gamma background below which muscovite mica can be used to observe fission tracks without any gamma-ray interference. Gamma-ray and electron irradiation caused significant increase of the resistance to thermal decomposition of muscovite mica. The resistance increased markedly in the dose range from 5 x 10 3 to 8 x 10 3 Mrad. These phenomena suggest the use of mica to assess radiation doses of gamma rays and electrons up to several thousand megarads. (author)

  19. Simple method to estimate mean heart dose from Hodgkin lymphoma radiation therapy according to simulation X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nimwegen, Frederika A; Cutter, David J; Schaapveld, Michael; Rutten, Annemarieke; Kooijman, Karen; Krol, Augustinus D G; Janus, Cécile P M; Darby, Sarah C; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Aleman, Berthe M P

    2015-05-01

    To describe a new method to estimate the mean heart dose for Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated several decades ago, using delineation of the heart on radiation therapy simulation X-rays. Mean heart dose is an important predictor for late cardiovascular complications after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. For patients treated before the era of computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy planning, retrospective estimation of radiation dose to the heart can be labor intensive. Patients for whom cardiac radiation doses had previously been estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative CT data sets were selected at random from a case-control study of 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n=289). For 42 patients, cardiac contours were outlined on each patient's simulation X-ray by 4 different raters, and the mean heart dose was estimated as the percentage of the cardiac contour within the radiation field multiplied by the prescribed mediastinal dose and divided by a correction factor obtained by comparison with individual CT-based dosimetry. According to the simulation X-ray method, the medians of the mean heart doses obtained from the cardiac contours outlined by the 4 raters were 30 Gy, 30 Gy, 31 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively, following prescribed mediastinal doses of 25-42 Gy. The absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97), indicating excellent agreement. Mean heart dose was 30.4 Gy with the simulation X-ray method, versus 30.2 Gy with the representative CT-based dosimetry, and the between-method absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.95), indicating good agreement between the two methods. Estimating mean heart dose from radiation therapy simulation X-rays is reproducible and fast, takes individual anatomy into account, and yields results comparable to the labor-intensive representative CT-based method. This simpler method may produce a

  20. Simple Method to Estimate Mean Heart Dose From Hodgkin Lymphoma Radiation Therapy According to Simulation X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimwegen, Frederika A. van [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cutter, David J. [Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom); Schaapveld, Michael [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutten, Annemarieke [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kooijman, Karen [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Krol, Augustinus D.G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Janus, Cécile P.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Darby, Sarah C. [Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aleman, Berthe M.P., E-mail: b.aleman@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To describe a new method to estimate the mean heart dose for Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated several decades ago, using delineation of the heart on radiation therapy simulation X-rays. Mean heart dose is an important predictor for late cardiovascular complications after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. For patients treated before the era of computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy planning, retrospective estimation of radiation dose to the heart can be labor intensive. Methods and Materials: Patients for whom cardiac radiation doses had previously been estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative CT data sets were selected at random from a case–control study of 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n=289). For 42 patients, cardiac contours were outlined on each patient's simulation X-ray by 4 different raters, and the mean heart dose was estimated as the percentage of the cardiac contour within the radiation field multiplied by the prescribed mediastinal dose and divided by a correction factor obtained by comparison with individual CT-based dosimetry. Results: According to the simulation X-ray method, the medians of the mean heart doses obtained from the cardiac contours outlined by the 4 raters were 30 Gy, 30 Gy, 31 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively, following prescribed mediastinal doses of 25-42 Gy. The absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97), indicating excellent agreement. Mean heart dose was 30.4 Gy with the simulation X-ray method, versus 30.2 Gy with the representative CT-based dosimetry, and the between-method absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.95), indicating good agreement between the two methods. Conclusion: Estimating mean heart dose from radiation therapy simulation X-rays is reproducible and fast, takes individual anatomy into account, and yields results comparable to the labor